Science.gov

Sample records for active gas distribution

  1. 78 FR 10261 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the revision of the gas distribution annual report... Report PHMSA intends to revise the gas distribution annual report (PHMSA F 7100.1-1, gas...

  2. 78 FR 34703 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...) published a notice in the Federal Register of its intent to revise the gas distribution annual report (PHMSA... information collection is titled: ``Annual Report for Gas Distribution Pipeline Operators.'' Summary of...

  3. Overview of gas distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Long, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a concise overview of the nature of a natural gas distribution utility. To this end, gas distribution'' is defined, then the functions performed while distributing natural gas are discussed. Topics presented include: franchise; planning (layouts, load estimation, sizing, system supply points, and storage considerations); design (codes/standards, materials, corrosion mitigation considerations, valves and fittings, vaults and stations, and main routing); construction (work force, sequencing, testing, purge and tie-in, and setting meters); operations (gas dispatching, customer service,and maintenance); continuity of supply; and sales and marketing. The paper concludes with discussion of converting an existing manufactured gas system over to natural gas. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  5. Automated Gas Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Allen; Clark, Henry

    2012-10-01

    The cyclotron of Texas A&M University is one of the few and prized cyclotrons in the country. Behind the scenes of the cyclotron is a confusing, and dangerous setup of the ion sources that supplies the cyclotron with particles for acceleration. To use this machine there is a time consuming, and even wasteful step by step process of switching gases, purging, and other important features that must be done manually to keep the system functioning properly, while also trying to maintain the safety of the working environment. Developing a new gas distribution system to the ion source prevents many of the problems generated by the older manually setup process. This developed system can be controlled manually in an easier fashion than before, but like most of the technology and machines in the cyclotron now, is mainly operated based on software programming developed through graphical coding environment Labview. The automated gas distribution system provides multi-ports for a selection of different gases to decrease the amount of gas wasted through switching gases, and a port for the vacuum to decrease the amount of time spent purging the manifold. The Labview software makes the operation of the cyclotron and ion sources easier, and safer for anyone to use.

  6. Activity, distribution, and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in the near surface soils of onshore oil and gas fields.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kewei; Tang, Yuping; Ren, Chun; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Wanmeng; Sun, Yongge

    2013-09-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have long been used as an important biological indicator for oil and gas prospecting, but the ecological characteristics of MOB in hydrocarbon microseep systems are still poorly understood. In this study, the activity, distribution, and abundance of aerobic methanotrophic communities in the surface soils underlying an oil and gas field were investigated using biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques. Measurements of potential methane oxidation rates and pmoA gene copy numbers showed that soils inside an oil and gas field are hot spots of methane oxidation and MOB abundance. Correspondingly, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses in combination with cloning and sequencing of pmoA genes also revealed considerable differences in the methanotrophic community composition between oil and gas fields and the surrounding soils. Principal component analysis ordination furthermore indicated a coincidence between elevated CH4 oxidation activity and the methanotrophic community structure with type I methanotrophic Methylococcus and Methylobacter, in particular, as indicator species of oil and gas fields. Collectively, our results show that trace methane migrated from oil and gas reservoirs can considerably influence not only the quantity but also the structure of the methanotrophic community.

  7. Gas distribution safety development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, E.M.; Richardson, D.L.; Long, M.H.

    1981-12-01

    To identify the safety research needs of the gas distribution industry, ADL analysts reviewed recently completed and ongoing research projects related to gas distribution system safety, both in the US and abroad, compiled a list of existing projects that should be continued and 11 new projects that the Gas Research Institute should begin, and developed a method for ranking the importance of the projects elected for funding. GRI's current program satisfies most of the identified safety research needs.

  8. Origin and distribution of thiophenes and furans in gas discharges from active volcanoes and geothermal systems.

    PubMed

    Tassi, Franco; Montegrossi, Giordano; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Vaselli, Orlando

    2010-03-31

    The composition of non-methane organic volatile compounds (VOCs) determined in 139 thermal gas discharges from 18 different geothermal and volcanic systems in Italy and Latin America, consists of C(2)-C(20) species pertaining to the alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and O-, S- and N-bearing classes of compounds. Thiophenes and mono-aromatics, especially the methylated species, are strongly enriched in fluids emissions related to hydrothermal systems. Addition of hydrogen sulphide to dienes and electrophilic methylation involving halogenated radicals may be invoked for the formation of these species. On the contrary, the formation of furans, with the only exception of C(4)H(8)O, seems to be favoured at oxidizing conditions and relatively high temperatures, although mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the production of thiophenes can be suggested. Such thermodynamic features are typical of fluid reservoirs feeding high-temperature thermal discharges of volcanoes characterised by strong degassing activity, which are likely affected by conspicuous contribution from a magmatic source. The composition of heteroaromatics in fluids naturally discharged from active volcanoes and geothermal areas can then be considered largely dependent on the interplay between hydrothermal vs. magmatic contributions. This implies that they can be used as useful geochemical tools to be successfully applied in both volcanic monitoring and geothermal prospection.

  9. Origin and Distribution of Thiophenes and Furans in Gas Discharges from Active Volcanoes and Geothermal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tassi, Franco; Montegrossi, Giordano; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Vaselli, Orlando

    2010-01-01

    The composition of non-methane organic volatile compounds (VOCs) determined in 139 thermal gas discharges from 18 different geothermal and volcanic systems in Italy and Latin America, consists of C2–C20 species pertaining to the alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and O-, S- and N-bearing classes of compounds. Thiophenes and mono-aromatics, especially the methylated species, are strongly enriched in fluids emissions related to hydrothermal systems. Addition of hydrogen sulphide to dienes and electrophilic methylation involving halogenated radicals may be invoked for the formation of these species. On the contrary, the formation of furans, with the only exception of C4H8O, seems to be favoured at oxidizing conditions and relatively high temperatures, although mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the production of thiophenes can be suggested. Such thermodynamic features are typical of fluid reservoirs feeding high-temperature thermal discharges of volcanoes characterised by strong degassing activity, which are likely affected by conspicuous contribution from a magmatic source. The composition of heteroaromatics in fluids naturally discharged from active volcanoes and geothermal areas can then be considered largely dependent on the interplay between hydrothermal vs. magmatic contributions. This implies that they can be used as useful geochemical tools to be successfully applied in both volcanic monitoring and geothermal prospection. PMID:20480029

  10. Bowhead whales in the Beaufort Sea: a summary of their seasonal distribution and activities, and potential disturbance by offshore oil and gas exploration and development

    SciTech Connect

    Fraker, M.A.; Richardson, W.J.

    1980-10-01

    A literature review was conducted to determine the status of information (as of 1980) on bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) behavior, potential sources of industrial disturbance during offshore oil and gas exploration and development, responses of bowheads to such disturbances and to identify data gaps. Approximately 102 references were reviewed in order to meet the goals of the literature summary. The spring and fall migration is described in terms of timing and distribution in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Individual sources of potential disturbance to bowheads due to offshore oil industry activities are described. A general discussion of the response of cetaceans to marine traffic, stationary marine industrial activities and effluents/discharges is presented.

  11. Pyrolysis kinetic and product analysis of different microalgal biomass by distributed activation energy model and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuewei; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Juan; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay Jiayang; Sun, Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To assess the energy potential of different microalgae, Chlorella sorokiniana and Monoraphidium were selected for studying the pyrolytic behavior at different heating rates with the analytical method of thermogravimetric analysis (TG), distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Results presented that Monoraphidium 3s35 showed superiority for pyrolysis at low heating rate. Calculated by DAEM, during the conversion rate range from 0.1 to 0.7, the activation energies of C. sorokiniana 21 were much lower than that of Monoraphidium 3s35. Both C. sorokiniana 21 and Monoraphidium 3s35 can produce certain amount (up to 20.50%) of alkane compounds, with 9-Octadecyne (C18H34) as the primary compound. Short-chain alkanes (C7-C13) with unsaturated carbon can be released in the pyrolysis at 500°C for both microalgal biomass. It was also observed that the pyrolysis of C. sorokiniana 21 released more alcohol compounds, while Monoraphidium 3s35 produced more saccharides.

  12. Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodden, Lee; Pease, Phil; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Rosen, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center (GSFC V0 DAAC) is being developed to enhance and improve scientific research and productivity by consolidating access to remote sensor earth science data in the pre-EOS time frame. In cooperation with scientists from the science labs at GSFC, other NASA facilities, universities, and other government agencies, the DAAC will support data acquisition, validation, archive and distribution. The DAAC is being developed in response to EOSDIS Project Functional Requirements as well as from requirements originating from individual science projects such as SeaWiFS, Meteor3/TOMS2, AVHRR Pathfinder, TOVS Pathfinder, and UARS. The GSFC V0 DAAC has begun operational support for the AVHRR Pathfinder (as of April, 1993), TOVS Pathfinder (as of July, 1993) and the UARS (September, 1993) Projects, and is preparing to provide operational support for SeaWiFS (August, 1994) data. The GSFC V0 DAAC has also incorporated the existing data, services, and functionality of the DAAC/Climate, DAAC/Land, and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) Systems.

  13. Gas distribution and starbursts in shell galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, Melinda L.; Hernquist, Lars

    1993-01-01

    Detailed maps of most elliptical galaxies reveal that, whereas the greatest part of their luminous mass originates from a smooth distribution with a surface brightness approximated by a de Vaucouleurs law, a small percentage of their light is contributed by low surface brightness distortions termed 'fine structures'. The sharp-edged features called 'shells' are successfully reproduced by merger and infall models involving accretion from less massive companions. In this context, dwarf spheroidal and compact disk galaxies are likely progenitors of these stellar phenomena. However, it is probable that the sources of shell-forming material also contain significant amounts of gas. This component may play an important role in constraining the formation and evolution of shell galaxies. To investigate the effects of the gaseous component, numerical simulations were performed to study the tidal disruption of dwarf galaxies containing both gas and stars by more massive primaries, and the evolution of the ensuing debris. The calculations were performed with a hybrid N-body/hydrodynamics code. Collisionless matter is evolved using a conventional N-body technique and gas is treated using smoothed particle hydrodynamics in which self-gravitating fluid elements are represented as particles evolving according to Lagrangian hydrodynamic equations. An isothermal equation of state is employed so the gas remains at a temperature 104 K. Owing to the large mass ratio between the primary and companion, the primary is modeled as a rigid potential and the self-gravity of both galaxies is neglected.

  14. Making Activated Carbon for Storing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Serio, Michael A.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    Solid disks of microporous activated carbon, produced by a method that enables optimization of pore structure, have been investigated as means of storing gas (especially hydrogen for use as a fuel) at relatively low pressure through adsorption on pore surfaces. For hydrogen and other gases of practical interest, a narrow distribution of pore sizes <2 nm is preferable. The present method is a variant of a previously patented method of cyclic chemisorption and desorption in which a piece of carbon is alternately (1) heated to the lower of two elevated temperatures in air or other oxidizing gas, causing the formation of stable carbon/oxygen surface complexes; then (2) heated to the higher of the two elevated temperatures in flowing helium or other inert gas, causing the desorption of the surface complexes in the form of carbon monoxide. In the present method, pore structure is optimized partly by heating to a temperature of 1,100 C during carbonization. Another aspect of the method exploits the finding that for each gas-storage pressure, gas-storage capacity can be maximized by burning off a specific proportion (typically between 10 and 20 weight percent) of the carbon during the cyclic chemisorption/desorption process.

  15. Powder Size and Distribution in Ultrasonic Gas Atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, G.; Lavernia, E.; Grant, N. J.

    1985-08-01

    Ultrasonic gas atomization (USGA) produces powder sizes dependent on the ratio of the nozzle jet diameter to the distance of spread dt/R, Powder size distribution is attributed to the spread of atomizing gas jets during travel from the nozzle exit to the metal stream. The spread diminishes at higher gas atomization pressures. In this paper, calculated powder sizes and distribution are compared with experimentally determined values.

  16. VESTA - gas distribution system for tomorrow and today

    SciTech Connect

    Huebler, J.; Rush, B.

    1983-01-01

    By combining hardware that has been developed for electronic games and home computers with straightforward modifications to currently used gas distribution equipment, it is possible to design a practical, cost-effective ''gas industry dream system'' with capabilities that include automatic meter reading and shut-off, simple buried pipe location, automatic leak location and repair without excavation, and remote pressure monitoring. The Institute of Gas Technology calls the System ''VESTA'', an acronym for Versatile Energy System Total Approach, whose two essential features are the total approach to problem solving and its distributed intelligence electronics. The authors describe current designs and costs of the VESTA system. 2 figures.

  17. Modeling Gas Distribution in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Martin; Lewis, Josiah; Brittain, Sean

    2010-07-01

    Protoplanetary accretion disks are disks of dust and gas which surround and feed material onto a forming star in the earliest stages of its evolution. One of the most useful methods for studying these disks is near infrared spectroscopy of rovibrational CO emission. This paper presents the methods in which synthetically generated spectra are modeled and fit to spectral data gathered from protoplanetary disks. This paper also discussed the methods in which this code can be improved by modifying the code to run a Monte Carlo analysis of best fit across the CONDOR cluster at Clemson University, thereby allowing for the creation of a catalog of protoplanetary disks with detailed information about them as gathered from the model.

  18. Distribution of the background gas in the MITICA accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, E.; Dal Bello, S.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2013-02-01

    MITICA is the ITER neutral beam test facility to be built in Padova for the generation of a 40A D- ion beam with a 16×5×16 array of 1280 beamlets accelerated to 1MV. The background gas pressure distribution and the particle flows inside MITICA accelerator are critical aspects for stripping losses, generation of secondary particles and beam non-uniformities. To keep the stripping losses in the extraction and acceleration stages reasonably low, the source pressure should be 0.3 Pa or less. The gas flow in MITICA accelerator is being studied using a 3D Finite Element code, named Avocado. The gas-wall interaction model is based on the cosine law, and the whole vacuum system geometry is represented by a view factor matrix based on surface discretization and gas property definitions. Pressure distribution and mutual fluxes are then solved linearly. In this paper the result of a numerical simulation is presented, showing the steady-state pressure distribution inside the accelerator when gas enters the system at room temperature. The accelerator model is limited to a horizontal slice 400 mm high (1/4 of the accelerator height). The pressure profile at solid walls and through the beamlet axis is obtained, allowing the evaluation and the discussion of the background gas distribution and nonuniformity. The particle flux at the inlet and outlet boundaries (namely the grounded grid apertures and the lateral conductances respectively) will be discussed.

  19. Spatially and temporally resolved gas distributions around heterogeneous catalysts using infrared planar laser-induced fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, Johan; Blomberg, Sara; Gustafson, Johan; Evertsson, Jonas; Zhou, Jianfeng; Adams, Emma C.; Carlsson, Per-Anders; Aldén, Marcus; Lundgren, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    Visualizing and measuring the gas distribution in close proximity to a working catalyst is crucial for understanding how the catalytic activity depends on the structure of the catalyst. However, existing methods are not able to fully determine the gas distribution during a catalytic process. Here we report on how the distribution of a gas during a catalytic reaction can be imaged in situ with high spatial (400 μm) and temporal (15 μs) resolution using infrared planar laser-induced fluorescence. The technique is demonstrated by monitoring, in real-time, the distribution of carbon dioxide during catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide above powder catalysts. Furthermore, we demonstrate the versatility and potential of the technique in catalysis research by providing a proof-of-principle demonstration of how the activity of several catalysts can be measured simultaneously, either in the same reactor chamber, or in parallel, in different reactor tubes. PMID:25953006

  20. 40 CFR Table W - 7 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas... for Natural Gas Distribution Natural gas distribution Emission factor (scf/hour/component)...

  1. Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Systems Follow Extreme Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Adam R.; Heath, Garvin A.; Cooley, Daniel

    2016-10-14

    Future energy systems may rely on natural gas as a low-cost fuel to support variable renewable power. However, leaking natural gas causes climate damage because methane (CH4) has a high global warming potential. In this study, we use extreme-value theory to explore the distribution of natural gas leak sizes. By analyzing ~15,000 measurements from 18 prior studies, we show that all available natural gas leakage datasets are statistically heavy-tailed, and that gas leaks are more extremely distributed than other natural and social phenomena. A unifying result is that the largest 5% of leaks typically contribute over 50% of the total leakage volume. While prior studies used lognormal model distributions, we show that lognormal functions poorly represent tail behavior. Our results suggest that published uncertainty ranges of CH4 emissions are too narrow, and that larger sample sizes are required in future studies to achieve targeted confidence intervals. Additionally, we find that cross-study aggregation of datasets to increase sample size is not recommended due to apparent deviation between sampled populations. Finally, understanding the nature of leak distributions can improve emission estimates, better illustrate their uncertainty, allow prioritization of source categories, and improve sampling design. Also, these data can be used for more effective design of leak detection technologies.

  2. Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Systems Follow Extreme Distributions

    DOE PAGES

    Brandt, Adam R.; Heath, Garvin A.; Cooley, Daniel

    2016-10-14

    Future energy systems may rely on natural gas as a low-cost fuel to support variable renewable power. However, leaking natural gas causes climate damage because methane (CH4) has a high global warming potential. In this study, we use extreme-value theory to explore the distribution of natural gas leak sizes. By analyzing ~15,000 measurements from 18 prior studies, we show that all available natural gas leakage datasets are statistically heavy-tailed, and that gas leaks are more extremely distributed than other natural and social phenomena. A unifying result is that the largest 5% of leaks typically contribute over 50% of the totalmore » leakage volume. While prior studies used lognormal model distributions, we show that lognormal functions poorly represent tail behavior. Our results suggest that published uncertainty ranges of CH4 emissions are too narrow, and that larger sample sizes are required in future studies to achieve targeted confidence intervals. Additionally, we find that cross-study aggregation of datasets to increase sample size is not recommended due to apparent deviation between sampled populations. Finally, understanding the nature of leak distributions can improve emission estimates, better illustrate their uncertainty, allow prioritization of source categories, and improve sampling design. Also, these data can be used for more effective design of leak detection technologies.« less

  3. Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Systems Follow Extreme Distributions.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R; Heath, Garvin A; Cooley, Daniel

    2016-11-15

    Future energy systems may rely on natural gas as a low-cost fuel to support variable renewable power. However, leaking natural gas causes climate damage because methane (CH4) has a high global warming potential. In this study, we use extreme-value theory to explore the distribution of natural gas leak sizes. By analyzing ∼15 000 measurements from 18 prior studies, we show that all available natural gas leakage data sets are statistically heavy-tailed, and that gas leaks are more extremely distributed than other natural and social phenomena. A unifying result is that the largest 5% of leaks typically contribute over 50% of the total leakage volume. While prior studies used log-normal model distributions, we show that log-normal functions poorly represent tail behavior. Our results suggest that published uncertainty ranges of CH4 emissions are too narrow, and that larger sample sizes are required in future studies to achieve targeted confidence intervals. Additionally, we find that cross-study aggregation of data sets to increase sample size is not recommended due to apparent deviation between sampled populations. Understanding the nature of leak distributions can improve emission estimates, better illustrate their uncertainty, allow prioritization of source categories, and improve sampling design. Also, these data can be used for more effective design of leak detection technologies.

  4. Numerical simulation of landfill gas pressure distribution in landfills.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yonghui; Xiong, Hao

    2013-11-01

    Landfill gas emissions are recognized as one of the three major concerns in municipal solid waste landfills. There are many factors that affect the generation of landfill gas when the landfill is capped. In this article, a model has been developed based on the theory of porous media flow. The model could predict the pressure distribution of landfill gas in landfill, coupling the effect of landfill settlement. According to the simulation analysis of landfill, it was found that: (a) the landfill gas pressure would reach a peak after 1.5 years, then begin to decline, and the rate of decay would slow down after 10 years; (b) the influence radius of the gas wells is limited; (c) the peak value of landfill gas pressure is larger, it appears later and the rate of decay is slower when the landfill settlement is considered in the model; (d) the calculation of excess gas pressure in landfill under different negative pressures of the extraction well is compared between this model and another model, and the results show that the relative pressure distribution form and range are almost the same.

  5. 75 FR 59705 - SourceGas Distribution LLC; Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Enterprise Texas Pipeline LLC; Dow Intrastate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Distribution LLC; Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Enterprise Texas Pipeline LLC; Dow Intrastate Gas Company; ONEOK Field Services Company, L.L.C.; Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filings September 21,...

  6. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  7. 78 FR 56685 - SourceGas Distribution LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission SourceGas Distribution LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 27, 2013, SourceGas Distribution LLC (SourceGas), 600 12th Street, Suite 300, Golden, Colorado 80401..., without further commission authorization, provide natural gas distribution service. SourceGas...

  8. The Gas Distribution in the Outer Regions of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present our analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We have exploited the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius, We stacked the density profiles to detect a signal beyond T200 and measured the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also computed the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compared our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict density profiles that are too steep, whereas runs including additional physics and/ or treating gas clumping agree better with the observed gas distribution. We report high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non cool-core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only small differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the ENZO simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside

  9. The Gas Distribution in Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Laue, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r200 and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or treating gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We report for the first time the high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside cluster

  10. Radon gas distribution in natural gas processing facilities and workplace air environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Shwiekani, R

    2008-04-01

    Evaluation was made of the distribution of radon gas and radiation exposure rates in the four main natural gas treatment facilities in Syria. The results showed that radiation exposure rates at contact of all equipment were within the natural levels (0.09-0.1 microSvh(-1)) except for the reflex pumps where a dose rate value of 3 microSvh(-1) was recorded. Radon concentrations in Syrian natural gas varied between 15.4 Bq m(-3) and 1141 Bq m(-3); natural gas associated with oil production was found to contain higher concentrations than the non-associated natural gas. In addition, radon concentrations were higher in the central processing facilities than the wellheads; these high levels are due to pressurizing and concentrating processes that enhance radon gas and its decay products. Moreover, the lowest 222Rn concentration was in the natural gas fraction used for producing sulfur; a value of 80 Bq m(-3) was observed. On the other hand, maximum radon gas and its decay product concentrations in workplace air environments were found to be relatively high in the gas analysis laboratories; a value of 458 Bq m(-3) was observed. However, all reported levels in the workplaces in the four main stations were below the action level set by IAEA for chronic exposure situations involving radon, which is 1000 Bq m(-3).

  11. A scaling law of radial gas distribution in disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhong

    1990-01-01

    Based on the idea that local conditions within a galactic disk largely determine the region's evolution time scale, researchers built a theoretical model to take into account molecular cloud and star formations in the disk evolution process. Despite some variations that may be caused by spiral arms and central bulge masses, they found that many late-type galaxies show consistency with the model in their radial atomic and molecular gas profiles. In particular, researchers propose that a scaling law be used to generalize the gas distribution characteristics. This scaling law may be useful in helping to understand the observed gas contents in many galaxies. Their model assumes an exponential mass distribution with disk radius. Most of the mass are in atomic gas state at the beginning of the evolution. Molecular clouds form through a modified Schmidt Law which takes into account gravitational instabilities in a possible three-phase structure of diffuse interstellar medium (McKee and Ostriker, 1977; Balbus and Cowie, 1985); whereas star formation proceeds presumably unaffected by the environmental conditions outside of molecular clouds (Young, 1987). In such a model both atomic and molecular gas profiles in a typical galactic disk (as a result of the evolution) can be fitted simultaneously by adjusting the efficiency constants. Galaxies of different sizes and masses, on the other hand, can be compared with the model by simply scaling their characteristic length scales and shifting their radial ranges to match the assumed disk total mass profile sigma tot(r).

  12. Tectonic Controls on Gas Hydrate Distribution off SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, C.; Chi, W. C.; Jegen, M. D.; Muff, S.; Hölz, S.; Lebas, E.; Sommer, M.; Lin, S.; Liu, C. S.; Lin, A. T.; Klaucke, I.; Klaeschen, D.; Chen, L.; Kunath, P.; McIntosh, K. D.; Feseker, T.

    2015-12-01

    The northern part of the South China Sea is characterized by wide-spread occurrence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSR), indicating the presence of marine gas hydrates. Because the area covers both the tectonically inactive passive margin and the northern termination of the Manila Trench subduction zone while sediment input is broadly similar, this area provides an excellent opportunity to study the influence of tectonic processes on the dynamics of gas hydrate systems. Long-offset multi-channel seismic data show that movement along thrust faults and blind thrust faults caused anticlinal ridges on the active margin, while faults are absent on the passive margin. This coincides with high-hydrate saturations derived from ocean bottom seismometer data and controlled source electromagnetic data, and conspicuous high-amplitude reflections in P-Cable 3D seismic data above the BSR in the anticlinal ridges of the active margin. On the contrary, all geophysical evidence for the passive margin points to normal- to low-hydrate saturations. Geochemical analysis of gas samples collected at seep sites on the active margin show methane with heavy δ13C isotope composition, while gas collected on the passive margin shows highly depleted (light) carbon isotope composition. Thus, we interpret the passive margin as a typical gas hydrate province fuelled by biogenic production of methane and the active margin gas hydrate system as a system that is fuelled not only by biogenic gas production but also by additional advection of thermogenic methane from the subduction system. The location of the highest gas hydrate saturations in the hanging wall next to the thrust faults suggests that the thrust faults represent pathways for the migration of methane. Our findings suggest that the most promising gas hydrate occurrences for exploitation of gas hydrate as an energy source may be found in the core of the active margin roll over anticlines immediately above the BSR and that high

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF ACCRETING GAS AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM ONTO CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigawa, Takayuki; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Machida, Masahiro N.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate gas accretion flow onto a circumplanetary disk from a protoplanetary disk in detail by using high-resolution three-dimensional nested-grid hydrodynamic simulations, in order to provide a basis of formation processes of satellites around giant planets. Based on detailed analyses of gas accretion flow, we find that most of gas accretion onto circumplanetary disks occurs nearly vertically toward the disk surface from high altitude, which generates a shock surface at several scale heights of the circumplanetary disk. The gas that has passed through the shock surface moves inward because its specific angular momentum is smaller than that of the local Keplerian rotation, while gas near the midplane in the protoplanetary disk cannot accrete to the circumplanetary disk. Gas near the midplane within the planet's Hill sphere spirals outward and escapes from the Hill sphere through the two Lagrangian points L{sub 1} and L{sub 2}. We also analyze fluxes of accreting mass and angular momentum in detail and find that the distributions of the fluxes onto the disk surface are well described by power-law functions and that a large fraction of gas accretion occurs at the outer region of the disk, i.e., at about 0.1 times the Hill radius. The nature of power-law functions indicates that, other than the outer edge, there is no specific radius where gas accretion is concentrated. These source functions of mass and angular momentum in the circumplanetary disk would provide us with useful constraints on the structure and evolution of the circumplanetary disk, which is important for satellite formation.

  14. Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) over Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) are reviewed and their relationship to ACF structure and texture are discussed. These advantages make ACF very attractive for gas storage applications. Both adsorbed natural gas (ANG) and hydrogen gas adsorption performance are discussed. The predicted and actual structure and performance of lignin-derived ACF is reviewed. The manufacture and performance of ACF derived monolith for potential automotive natural gas (NG) storage applications is reported Future trends for ACF for gas storage are considered to be positive. The recent improvements in NG extraction coupled with the widespread availability of NG wells means a relatively inexpensive and abundant NG supply in the foreseeable future. This has rekindled interest in NG powered vehicles. The advantages and benefit of ANG compared to compressed NG offer the promise of accelerated use of ANG as a commuter vehicle fuel. It is to be hoped the current cost hurdle of ACF can be overcome opening ANG applications that take advantage of the favorable properties of ACF versus GAC. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the direction of future work.

  15. Gas-leak localization using distributed ultrasonic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huseynov, Javid; Baliga, Shankar; Dillencourt, Michael; Bic, Lubomir; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    2009-03-01

    We propose an ultrasonic gas leak localization system based on a distributed network of sensors. The system deploys highly sensitive miniature Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) microphones and uses a suite of energy-decay (ED) and time-delay of arrival (TDOA) algorithms for localizing a source of a gas leak. Statistical tools such as the maximum likelihood (ML) and the least squares (LS) estimators are used for approximating the source location when closed-form solutions fail in the presence of ambient background nuisance and inherent electronic noise. The proposed localization algorithms were implemented and tested using a Java-based simulation platform connected to four or more distributed MEMS microphones observing a broadband nitrogen leak from an orifice. The performance of centralized and decentralized algorithms under ED and TDOA schemes is analyzed and compared in terms of communication overhead and accuracy in presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).

  16. Distribution robotics in the gas industry: Issues and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sweetwood, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The new engineering field of ''Distribution Robotics'' is emerging in the gas industry. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the gas utility managers and engineers to take notice to this new technology and start factoring it into their planning strategies. The defined goal of distribution robotics is to improve the quality of service, lower operating costs, reduce work hazards, and perform in situ tasks. Applications of the distribution robotic system range from internal leak detection and repair to pipe condition assessment and cleaning; as stated, these applications are performed in a live system. To achieve the desired application missions, the robotic system requires robots of different designs along with appropriate tools, peripherals, and external support systems. The robot consists of several subsystems that allow motion, sensory perception, action and reaction, communication, and entering or existing the system. Each subsystem has several choices for robot configurations with advantages and trade-offs for the purpose, mode, range, and speed required by each mission. External support systems are required for a complete distribution robotic system. An external computer and human operator are needed as well as the physical hardware necessary to support a robot operation. Finally, issues raised by a distribution robotic system need consideration for proper planning. The major issues raised are robot miniaturization, obstacles, safety, coverage, and control.

  17. Gas distribution equipment in hydrogen service - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasionowski, W. J.; Huang, H. D.

    1980-01-01

    The hydrogen permeability of three different types of commercially available natural gas polyethylene pipes was determined. Ring tensile tests were conducted on permeability-exposed and as-received samples. Hydrogen-methane leakage experiments were also performed. The results show no selective leakage of hydrogen via Poiseuille, turbulent, or orifice flow (through leaks) on the distribution of blends of hydrogen and methane. The data collected show that the polyethylene pipe is 4 to 6 times more permeable to hydrogen than to methane.

  18. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

  19. 3D modeling of gas/water distribution in water-bearing carbonate gas reservoirs: the Longwangmiao gas field, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Chenghua; Li, ChaoChun; Ma, Zhonggao

    2016-10-01

    A water-bearing carbonate gas reservoir is an important natural gas resource being developed worldwide. Due to the long-term water/rock/gas interaction during geological evolution, complex gas/water distribution has formed under the superposed effect of sedimentary facies, reservoir space facies and gravity difference of fluid facies. In view of these challenges, on the basis of the conventional three-stage modeling method, this paper presents a modelling method controlled by four-stage facies to develop 3D model of a water-bearing carbonate gas reservoir. Key to this method is the reservoir property modelling controlled by two-stage facies, and the fluid property modelling controlled by another two-stage facies. The prerequisite of this method is a reliable database obtained from solid geological investigation. On the basis of illustrating the principles of the modelling method controlled by four-stage facies, this paper further implements systematically modeling of the heterogeneous gas/water distribution of the Longwangmiao carbonate formation in the Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan basin, China.

  20. Distributed Fiber Optic Gas Sensing for Harsh Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Juntao Wu

    2008-03-14

    This report summarizes work to develop a novel distributed fiber-optic micro-sensor that is capable of detecting common fossil fuel gases in harsh environments. During the 32-month research and development (R&D) program, GE Global Research successfully synthesized sensing materials using two techniques: sol-gel based fiber surface coating and magnetron sputtering based fiber micro-sensor integration. Palladium nanocrystalline embedded silica matrix material (nc-Pd/Silica), nanocrystalline palladium oxides (nc-PdO{sub x}) and palladium alloy (nc-PdAuN{sub 1}), and nanocrystalline tungsten (nc-WO{sub x}) sensing materials were identified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen; while the palladium doped and un-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide (nc-PdSnO{sub 2} and nc-SnO{sub 2}) materials were verified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to carbon monoxide. The fiber micro-sensor comprises an apodized long-period grating in a single-mode fiber, and the fiber grating cladding surface was functionalized by above sensing materials with a typical thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers. GE found that the morphologies of such sensing nanomaterials are either nanoparticle film or nanoporous film with a typical size distribution from 5-10 nanometers. nc-PdO{sub x} and alloy sensing materials were found to be highly sensitive to hydrogen gas within the temperature range from ambient to 150 C, while nc-Pd/Silica and nc-WO{sub x} sensing materials were found to be suitable to be operated from 150 C to 500 C for hydrogen gas detection. The palladium doped and un-doped nc-SnO{sub 2} materials also demonstrated sensitivity to carbon monoxide gas at approximately 500 C. The prototyped fiber gas sensing system developed in this R&D program is based on wavelength-division-multiplexing technology in which each fiber sensor is identified according to its transmission spectra features within the guiding mode and cladding modes. The

  1. Sour gas distribution in the Amudaria Basin, Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, D.; Ivlev, A.; Shkutnik, E.

    1995-08-01

    The Amudaria Basin is the main sour-gas bearing region in Central Asia. In this region, sour gases occur in Upper Jurassic carbonate-reservoir rocks as well as in terrigenous rocks of Cretareous age, but the Upper Jurassic sulfate-carbonate complex is the main sour-gas bearing and producing complex. The chemical and isotopic composition of fluids in Upper Jurassic rocks show that sulfate reduction is the main process responsible for sour gas formation in the central part of the basin, where Kimmeridgian-Tithonian evaporites occur. The H{sub 2}S content of gases varies widely (0 to 10 percent by volume), even within similar carbonate traps located close to one another in the same temperature zone. Analyses of sour-gas distribution and composition in fluids in these areas indicate the main factors which control the variation of H{sub 2}S content in Upper Jurassic hydrocarbon pools in the same temperature zones. These factors include (1) the carbonate sediment facies type (shelf, barrier reef, deep water facies), and (2) within the same facies, the characteristics of traps and pools (tight, gentle, structural, phase-type, etc). The most favorable conditions for H{sub 2}S accumulation occur in hydrocarbon pools confined to the barrier reef flat and the parts of the shelf closest to it. The least favorable conditions are in pools confined to local reefs or carbonate build-ups located within the deep-water facies zone. These results are important for the prediction of H{sub 2}S in hydrocarbon pools. In most cases, H{sub 2}S in the Cretaceous complex is epigenetic. With the exception of Central Karakum zone H{sub 2}S distribution in this complex depends on the distribution and composition of Upper Jurassic evaporites.

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF FAINT ATOMIC GAS IN HICKSON COMPACT GROUPS

    SciTech Connect

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zhu, Guangtun; Yun, Min Su; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Braatz, James A.

    2015-10-10

    We present 21 cm H i observations of four Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) with evidence for a substantial intragroup medium using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). By mapping H i emission in a region of 25′ × 25′ (140–650 kpc) surrounding each HCG, these observations provide better estimates of H i masses. In particular, we detected 65% more H i than that detected in the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) imaging of HCG 92. We also identify whether the diffuse gas has the same spatial distribution as the high surface brightness (HSB) H i features detected in the VLA maps of these groups by comparing the H i strengths between the observed and modeled masses based on VLA maps. We found that the H i observed with the GBT has a similar spatial distribution to the HSB structures in HCG 31 and HCG 68. Conversely, the observed H i distributions in HCG 44 and HCG 92 were extended and showed significant offsets from the modeled masses. Most of the faint gas in HCG 44 lies to the northeast–southwest region and in HCG 92 lies in the northwest region of their respective groups. The spatial and dynamical similarities between the total (faint+HSB) and the HSB H i indicate that the faint gas is of tidal origin. We found that the gas will survive ionization by the cosmic UV background and the escaping ionizing photons from the star-forming regions and stay primarily neutral for at least 500 Myr.

  3. Truncated shifted pareto distribution in assessing size distribution of oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    The truncated shifted Pareto (TSP) distribution, a variant of the two-parameter Pareto distribution, in which one parameter is added to shift the distribution right and left and the right-hand side is truncated, is used to model size distributions of oil and gas fields for resource assessment. Assumptions about limits to the left-hand and right-hand side reduce the number of parameters to two. The TSP distribution has advantages over the more customary lognormal distribution because it has a simple analytic expression, allowing exact computation of several statistics of interest, has a J-shape, and has more flexibility in the thickness of the right-hand tail. Oil field sizes from the Minnelusa play in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, are used as a case study. Probability plotting procedures allow easy visualization of the fit and help the assessment.

  4. Use of the truncated shifted Pareto distribution in assessing size distribution of oil and gas fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houghton, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The truncated shifted Pareto (TSP) distribution, a variant of the two-parameter Pareto distribution, in which one parameter is added to shift the distribution right and left and the right-hand side is truncated, is used to model size distributions of oil and gas fields for resource assessment. Assumptions about limits to the left-hand and right-hand side reduce the number of parameters to two. The TSP distribution has advantages over the more customary lognormal distribution because it has a simple analytic expression, allowing exact computation of several statistics of interest, has a "J-shape," and has more flexibility in the thickness of the right-hand tail. Oil field sizes from the Minnelusa play in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, are used as a case study. Probability plotting procedures allow easy visualization of the fit and help the assessment. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  5. The distribution of ionized gas in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buson, L. M.; Sadler, E. M.; Zeilinger, W. W.; Bertin, G.; Bertola, F.; Danzinger, J.; Dejonghe, H.; Saglia, R. P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    1993-12-01

    We present and discuss H-alpha+(N II) imaging observations of fifteen nearby elliptical and SO galaxies with extended optical emission lines. The morphology of the emitting regions suggests that the ionized gas usually lies in a disk which is often geometrically decoupled from the stellar body, as expected in a triaxial galaxy. The presence of a gaseous disk makes these galaxies suitable for testing their gravitational field in a straightforward way. The presence of dust in many of the disks, together with the observed morphological properties, suggests that the ionized gas in most of these galaxies is more closely associated with the cold Interstellar Medium (ISM) than with the hot X-ray component. The mass of ionized gas in the galaxies studied here is typically 10-100 times that in a 'normal' early-type galaxy of similar optical luminosity. These appear to be galaxies where an unusually high fraction of the cold gas has been ionized, rather than unusually gas-rich systems in an overall sense. The extra ionizing source may be related to an active nucleus, since the continuum radio emission from these galaxies is typically 10-15 times more powerful than in 'normal' ellipticals of the smae optical luminosity.

  6. Metals distributions in activated sludge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.W.; Kodukula, P.S.

    1984-05-01

    Despite extensive laboratory and field studies over the past 25 years, little advance has been made in prediction of metals distribution and removal in activated sludge treatment systems. This paper reports the results of carefully controlled pilot studies, from which empirical metals distribution models were developed. The models accurately predict the distribution of process stream metals at each point in the activated sludge process between the soluble and solids phases. The distribution models together with data on primary and secondary clarifier suspended solids removal efficiencies, are easily applied to predict the removals of influent metals in activated sludge systems. 36 references, 2 figures.

  7. Integral gas seal for fuel cell gas distribution assemblies and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Dettling, Charles J.; Terry, Peter L.

    1985-03-19

    A porous gas distribution plate assembly for a fuel cell, such as a bipolar assembly, includes an inner impervious region wherein the bipolar assembly has good surface porosity but no through-plane porosity and wherein electrical conductivity through the impervious region is maintained. A hot-pressing process for forming the bipolar assembly includes placing a layer of thermoplastic sealant material between a pair of porous, electrically conductive plates, applying pressure to the assembly at elevated temperature, and allowing the assembly to cool before removing the pressure whereby the layer of sealant material is melted and diffused into the porous plates to form an impervious bond along a common interface between the plates holding the porous plates together. The distribution of sealant within the pores along the surface of the plates provides an effective barrier at their common interface against through-plane transmission of gas.

  8. Method of fabricating an integral gas seal for fuel cell gas distribution assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Dettling, Charles J.; Terry, Peter L.

    1988-03-22

    A porous gas distribution plate assembly for a fuel cell, such as a bipolar assembly, includes an inner impervious region wherein the bipolar assembly has good surface porosity but no through-plane porosity and wherein electrical conductivity through the impervious region is maintained. A hot-pressing process for forming the bipolar assembly includes placing a layer of thermoplastic sealant material between a pair of porous, electrically conductive plates, applying pressure to the assembly at elevated temperature, and allowing the assembly to cool before removing the pressure whereby the layer of sealant material is melted and diffused into the porous plates to form an impervious bond along a common interface between the plates holding the porous plates together. The distribution of sealant within the pores along the surface of the plates provides an effective barrier at their common interface against through-plane transmission of gas.

  9. Flare Size Distributions and Active Region Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Taeil

    2007-05-01

    Size distributions of solar flares measured by various size indicators follow a power law with a negative index of about 1.8. On the basis of general appearance of power-law distributions, Lu and his collegues proposed an avalenche model. According to this model, the power-law index should be independent of active region size, but the cutoff size above which the size distribution steepens rapidly is expected to depend on the active region size. I have analyzed the size distribution of flares, using GOES soft X-ray observations for 2004 and 2005. For flares observed by GOES during these years, their locations are almost completely identified even for C-class flares. This enable us to study the dependence of size distribution on active region type. Comparing the power-law portion of size distributions below the high-end cutoff, I have found that the size distribution index depends on active region type. Flares from prolific active regions exhibit a flatter distribution, while flares from non-prolific active regions exhibit a steeper distribution. I plan to discuss a plausible mechanism for such behavior.

  10. Direct Energy Exchange Enhancement in Distributed Injection Light Gas Launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, T W; Finucane, R G; Hall, J P; Penetrante, B M; Uphaus, T M

    2000-04-06

    It is not widely acknowledged or appreciated that conventional, two-stage light-gas launchers do not efficiently apply their high breech pressures to the design intent: accelerating the projectile. Our objective in this project was to carry out the analysis, design, construction, and testing of a new class of launchers that will address this limitation. Our particular application is to expand the pressure range of the conventional, two-stage gas launcher to overlap and validate the pressure regimes previously attainable only with shock waves generated by nuclear explosions, lasers, or multistage conventional explosions. That is, these launchers would have the capability to conduct--in a laboratory setting--high-velocity-impact, equation-of-state (EOS) measurements at up to 2-TPa (20 Mbar) pressure levels in high-Z materials. Our design entailed a new class of distributed-injection, gas-dynamic launchers that are designed to use a boat-tail projectile to overcome the fundamental gas-expansion phenomena known as escape velocity (the Riemann limit). Our program included analytical, numerical, and experimental studies of the fast gas release flow technique that is central to the success of our approach. The analyses led us to believe that, in a typical configuration, the pressure will be effectively applied to the projectile in a time short relative to its few-microsecond traverse time; the experimental program we conducted during FY1999 supported these estimates. In addition, our program revealed dramatic increased efficiency in this process that was previously unknown to the launcher community. The most fundamental practical restrictions on the performance of any gas launcher are the ability of the launcher to (1) contain pressure in a reservoir, and (2) effectively apply that pressure to the base of a moving projectile. Our gas-release test-fixture experiments showed that our design was capable of applying nearly twice the pressure to the projectile that is

  11. Some design aspects of plastics gas distribution pipeline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, M.

    1988-01-01

    Plastics gas distribution systems are in use in the Netherlands for more than 25 years. Three different plastics pipe materials have been used, i.e. polyethylene (PE), rigid PVC and impact modified PVC (PVC/CPE). The gas authority must consider the many and varied factors which will influence the choice of a particular material. Each material has its characteristic properties which will determine its field of application and the design concepts of the system. Since this will be a compromise between material properties and design, the advantages and disadvantages of the system must be examined for each specific area of application. Factors which will influence the choice are a.o.: external loading conditions (soil and traffic loads, third party damage, etc.); internal loading (max. allowable internal pressure, gas composition); the material properties like long-term strength, ductility, stiffness, resistance to rapid crack propagation; jointing methods; materials costs and laying costs. These above mentioned factors are discussed for the plastics pipe materials in operation in the Netherlands.

  12. Study of the Effectivity of Several Tree Canopy Types on Roadside Green Belt in Influencing The Distribution Vertically and Horizontally of CO gas Emitted from Transportation Activities to Vicinity of The Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistyantara, Bambang; Nasrullah, Nizar; Sitti Fatimah, Indung; Indah Pratiwi, Prita

    2016-01-01

    High volume of vehicle leads to the increase of emission of pollutants level in major cities of Indonesia. Carbon monoxide (CO) is categorized as the main gas pollutants from transportation that are harmful to human health. Plants could be used as roadside green belt to reduce the level of pollutants emitted from the transportation. The purpose of this research is to determine tree canopy type that effectively reduce CO gas concentration, to determine the relation between tree canopy types and pollutant distribution vertically and horizontally. The research was conducted on roadside green belt of Jagorawi Highway, especially on the plot of glodogan (Polyanthea fragrans), plot of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and a control plot (open filed). Air sampling was conducted to measure the concentration of CO at three elevation 1.5 m, 5 m, and 10 m at each distance 0 m, 10 m, and 30 m. Concentration of CO was analysed using Iodometri method. Vertical distribution of CO gas shows that the concentration increases with the increasing of sampling elevation on the plot of Polyalthia fragrans and Swietenia mahogany, but the control plot shows the opposite. Horizontal distribution shows that the concentration decreases at the distance 10 m on the plot of Polyalthia fragrans and Swietenia mahogany, but the concentration increases again at the distance 30 m. At the distance 10 m and an elevation 1.5 m, the highest decline percentage of CO occurs on the plot of Swietenia mahogany (45.1%), on the plot of Polyalthia fragrans is just 22.2%, while in control plot, it increases by 2.2%. At the distance 30 m and elevation 1.5 m, the concentration increased again on all of the plots. Thus roadside green belt with a thickness 10 m is not effective in reducing the concentration of CO at the distance 30 m or in residential areas.

  13. Distribution of Zeros and the Equation of State. III ---Cluster Series, the Ideal Fermi-Dirac Gas and Other Problems---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, K.

    1982-08-01

    The radius of convergence of the cluster series (expressing the equation of state) is discussed in connection with the distribution of zeros of the grand partition function on the complex z(=activity) plane, by giving various examples of circular distribution. Anomalous phase transitions and phase transitions of third order are considered by showing some examples of circular distribution of zeros. For the ideal Fermi-Dirac gas, the distribution function of zeros, lying on the part of the negative real axis from -λ-3 to -∞ [where λ=h(2 π mkT)-1/ 2], is calculated , and the function-theoretical structure of the equation of state is investigated. The distribution of zeros for this gas is compared with that for Tonks' gas (having purely repulsive interparticle forces). The two-dimensional and one-dimensional Fermi-Dirac gases are dealt with from the point of view of the distribution of zeros.

  14. Market hub technology in the domestic natural gas distribution system. [Natural gas market center or hub

    SciTech Connect

    Glicken, J.

    1992-09-01

    This document describes a panel discussion held on March 18, 1992 as part of a conference entitled Market Hub Technology'' . The purpose of the conference was to stimulate dialogue among various segments of the natural gas industry on the technology limits of an economic policy issue that has the potential to significantly alter the structure and functioning of the natural gas industry. Attendees included key US gas industry representatives, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) commissioners, and others. The conference explored the concept of market centers, or hubs, and related technologies. It covered the technology currently available for the establishment of an integrated system of physical market hubs, and explored technology requirements for the further development of useful and efficient hubs. The discussion identified two primary barriers to the acceptance and implementation of a market center distribution system for natural gas. The first barrier is the potential change in the configuration of the market such a system would introduce and the resistance various industry segments would mount to such change. The second is the lack of industry standardization in the physical and business infrastructures.

  15. 78 FR 6318 - SourceGas Distribution LLC; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SourceGas Distribution LLC; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on January 15, 2013, SourceGas Distribution LLC (SourceGas) filed a rate election pursuant...

  16. 78 FR 41398 - SourceGas Distribution LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SourceGas Distribution LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 27, 2013, SourceGas Distribution LLC (SourceGas) filed a Rate Election and revised Statement of...

  17. 77 FR 28374 - SourceGas Distribution LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SourceGas Distribution LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing Take notice that on April 30, 2012, SourceGas Distribution LLC (SourceGas) filed a revised Statement of Operating...

  18. Distribution and origin of groundwater methane in the Wattenberg oil and gas field of northern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Li, Huishu; Carlson, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Public concerns over potential environmental contamination associated with oil and gas well drilling and fracturing in the Wattenberg field in northeast Colorado are increasing. One of the issues of concern is the migration of oil, gas, or produced water to a groundwater aquifer resulting in contamination of drinking water. Since methane is the major component of natural gas and it can be dissolved and transported with groundwater, stray gas in aquifers has elicited attention. The initial step toward understanding the environmental impacts of oil and gas activities, such as well drilling and fracturing, is to determine the occurrence, where it is and where it came from. In this study, groundwater methane data that has been collected in response to a relatively new regulation in Colorado is analyzed. Dissolved methane was detected in 78% of groundwater wells with an average concentration of 4.0 mg/L and a range of 0-37.1 mg/L. Greater than 95% of the methane found in groundwater wells was classified as having a microbial origin, and there was minimal overlap between the C and H isotopic characterization of the produced gas and dissolved methane measured in the aquifer. Neither density of oil/gas wells nor distance to oil/gas wells had a significant impact on methane concentration suggesting other important factors were influencing methane generation and distribution. Thermogenic methane was detected in two aquifer wells indicating a potential contamination pathway from the producing formation, but microbial-origin gas was by far the predominant source of dissolved methane in the Wattenberg field.

  19. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  20. CAIS standard manual. System number 24. Natural gas distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Natural Gas Distribution System.

  1. Cross-sensitivity of metal oxide gas sensor to ambient temperature and humidity: Effects on gas distribution mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, K.; Bennetts, V. H.; Mamduh, S. M.; Visvanathan, R.; Yeon, A. S. A.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Zakaria, A.; Abdullah, A. H.; Kamarudin, L. M.

    2017-03-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used in robotics application to perform remote and mobile gas sensing. However, previous researches have indicated that this type of sensor technology is cross-sensitive to environmental temperature and humidity. This paper therefore investigates the effects of these two factors towards gas distribution mapping and gas source localization domains. A mobile robot equipped with TGS2600 gas sensor was deployed to build gas distribution maps of indoor environment, where the temperature and humidity varies. The results from the trials in environment with and without gas source indicated that there is a strong relation between the fluctuation of the mean and variance map with respect to the variations in the temperature and humidity maps.

  2. Distribution of Zeros and the Equation of State. IV ---Ideal Bose-Einstein Gas---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, K.

    1982-09-01

    The ideal Bose-Einstein gas is investigated on the basis of the fundamental concept of the distribution of zeros of the grand partition function on the complex z(= activity) plane. For this gas there are no zeros; but poles play essentially the same role as zeros from an analytical point of view, and are distributed on the part of the positive real axis from λ-3(>0) to +∞, where λ=h(2π mkT)-1/2. The distribution function of poles is calculated, and the function-theoretical structure of the equation of state is discussed. The Bose-Einstein condensation (especially the continuity of the slope of the p-v isotherm at the condensation point and the continuity of the specific heat at the transition temperature) is examined from the point of view of the distribution of poles. From the same point of view the two-dimensional and one-dimensional ideal Bose-Einstein gases are treated. Finally, the n-dimensional (n≥ 4) ideal Bose-Einstein gas is discussed, and it is shown that for n≥ 5 the specific heat is discontinuous at the transition temperature.

  3. The effect of gas double-dynamic on mass distribution in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Li, Hong-Qiang

    2014-05-10

    The mass distribution regularity in substrate of solid-state fermentation (SSF) has rarely been reported due to the heterogeneity of solid medium and the lack of suitable instrument and method, which limited the comprehensive analysis and enhancement of the SSF performance. In this work, the distributions of water, biomass, and fermentation product in different medium depths of SSF were determined using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the developed models. Based on the mass distribution regularity, the effects of gas double-dynamic on heat transfer, microbial growth and metabolism, and product distribution gradient were systematically investigated. Results indicated that the maximum temperature of substrate and the maximum carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) were 39.5°C and 2.48mg/(hg) under static aeration solid-state fermentation (SASSF) and 33.9°C and 5.38mg/(hg) under gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation (GDSSF), respectively, with the environmental temperature for fermentation of 30±1°C. The fermentation production (cellulase activity) ratios of the upper, middle, and lower levels were 1:0.90:0.78 at seventh day under SASSF and 1:0.95:0.89 at fifth day under GDSSF. Therefore, combined with NIRS analysis, gas double-dynamic could effectively strengthen the solid-state fermentation performance due to the enhancement of heat transfer, the stimulation of microbial metabolism and the increase of the homogeneity of fermentation products.

  4. Investigation of shallow gas hydrate occurrence and gas seep activity on the Sakhalin continental slope, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Young Keun; Baranov, Boris; Obzhirov, Anatoly; Salomatin, Alexander; Derkachev, Alexander; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Minami, Hrotsugu; Kuk Hong, Jong

    2016-04-01

    The Sakhalin continental slope has been a well-known gas hydrate area since the first finding of gas hydrate in 1980's. This area belongs to the southernmost glacial sea in the northern hemisphere where most of the area sea is covered by sea ice the winter season. Very high organic carbon content in the sediment, cold sea environment, and active tectonic regime in the Sakhalin slope provide a very favorable condition for occurring shallow gas hydrate accumulation and gas emission phenomena. Research expeditions under the framework of a Korean-Russian-Japanese long-term international collaboration projects (CHAOS, SSGH-I, SSGH-II projects) have been conducted to investigate gas hydrate occurrence and gas seepage activities on the Sakhalin continental slope, Russia from 2003 to 2015. During the expeditions, near-surface gas hydrate samples at more than 30 sites have been retrieved and hundreds of active gas seepage structures on the seafloor were newly registered by multidisciplinary surveys. The gas hydrates occurrence at the various water depths from about 300 m to 1000 m in the study area were accompanied by active gas seepage-related phenomena in the sub-bottom, on the seafloor, and in the water column: well-defined upward gas migration structures (gas chimney) imaged by high-resolution seismic, hydroacoustic anomalies of gas emissions (gas flares) detected by echosounders, seafloor high backscatter intensities (seepage structures) imaged by side-scan sonar and bathymetric structures (pockmarks and mounds) mapped by single/multi-beam surveys, and very shallow SMTZ (sulphate-methane transition zone) depths, strong microbial activities and high methane concentrations measured in sediment/seawater samples. The highlights of the expeditions are shallow gas hydrate occurrences around 300 m in the water depth which is nearly closed to the upper boundary of gas hydrate stability zone in the area and a 2,000 m-high gas flare emitted from the deep seafloor.

  5. Activity size distribution of some natural radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Mohery, M; Abdallah, A M; Al-Amoudi, Z M; Baz, S S

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the results concerning the activity size distribution of the long-lived ((210)Pb) radon decay product aerosols and the thoron decay product aerosols ((212)Pb) and ((7)Be) of the outdoor atmosphere are presented. Also, the mass size distribution of the aerosol particles is determined. The low-pressure Berner cascade impactor Model 20/0.015 was used as a sampling device. The activity size distribution of these radionuclides was determined by one log-normal distribution (accumulation mode) whereas the mass size distribution was by two log-normal distributions (accumulation and coarse mode). The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of (212)Pb was found to be 305 nm with a geometric standard deviation (σg) of 2.41. The specific air activity concentration of (212)Pb was found to be 0.14 ± 0.012 Bq m(-3). An AMAD of (210)Pb of 610 nm with σg of 1.8 was determined, whereas that of 550 nm with σg of 1.97 was determined for (7)Be. The specific air activity concentration of (210)Pb and (7)Be was found to be 0.0016±2.5×10(-4) and 0.00348 ± 4×10(-4) Bq m(-3), respectively. Using a dosimetric model, the total deposition fraction as well as the total equivalent dose has been evaluated considering the observed parameters of the activity size distribution of (212)Pb. At a total deposition fraction of ∼21 %, the total equivalent dose was found to be 0.41 µSv.

  6. Development of colorless distributed combustion for gas turbine application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arghode, Vaibhav Kumar

    Colorless Distributed Combustion (CDC) is investigated for gas turbine engine application due to its benefit for ultra-low pollutant emission, improved pattern factor, low noise emission, stable combustion and low pressure drop, alleviation of combustion instabilities and increased life of turbine blades with less air cooling requirements. The CDC is characterized by discrete and direct injection of fuel and air at high velocity and the reaction zone is stabilized due to controlled aerodynamics inside the combustor and wider (radially) shear layer mixing. Mixing between the injected air and product gases to form hot and diluted oxidant is required followed by rapid mixing with the fuel. This results in distributed reaction zone instead of a concentrated flame front as observed in conventional diffusion flames and hence, to avoid hot spot regions and provide reduced NOx and CO emissions. The focus of this dissertation is to develop and demonstrate CDC for application to stationary gas turbine combustors which generally operate at thermal intensity of 15MW/m3-atm. However, higher thermal intensity is desirable to reduce hardware costs due to smaller weight and volume of the combustors. Design of high thermal intensity CDC combustor requires careful control of critical parameters, such as, gas recirculation, fuel/oxidizer mixing and residence time characteristics via careful selection of different air and fuel injection configurations to achieve desirable combustion characteristics. This dissertation examines sequential development of low emission colorless distributed combustor operating from thermal intensity of 5MW/m3-atm up to 198MW/m3-atm. Initially, various fuel and air injection configurations were investigated at a low thermal intensity of 5MW/m 3-atm. Further investigations were performed for a simpler combustor having single air and fuel injection ports for medium thermal intensity range of 28-57MW/m3-atm. Among the flow configurations investigated, reverse

  7. 75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... implement integrity management programs. In addition to a minor correction in terminology, this document...: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  8. Blimp Robot for Three-Dimensional Gas Distribution Mapping in Indoor Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    Mobile robots equipped with gas sensors can be used for automated measurement tasks including odor trail following, gas source localization, and gas distribution mapping. This article reports on the development of a blimp robot for mapping three-dimensional gas distribution in indoor environments. The blimp robot is programmed to fly randomly so that its trajectory covers everywhere in the given indoor environment. The blimp is equipped with gas sensors to measure gas concentrations and an ultrasonic sonar to measure the height from the floor. The measured data are transmitted to an external PC via a wireless communication module. At the same time, a camera placed on the floor takes a picture of the blimp, and its location is recorded with the gas sensor responses. The experimental results indicate that the blimp robot is effective in mapping three-dimensional gas concentration distribution in indoor environments.

  9. Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, Mark W; Riemer, Bernie; Abdou, Ashraf A

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into

  10. Distributed and decentralized state estimation in gas networks as distributed parameter systems.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian Behrooz, Hesam; Boozarjomehry, R Bozorgmehry

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a framework for distributed and decentralized state estimation in high-pressure and long-distance gas transmission networks (GTNs) is proposed. The non-isothermal model of the plant including mass, momentum and energy balance equations are used to simulate the dynamic behavior. Due to several disadvantages of implementing a centralized Kalman filter for large-scale systems, the continuous/discrete form of extended Kalman filter for distributed and decentralized estimation (DDE) has been extended for these systems. Accordingly, the global model is decomposed into several subsystems, called local models. Some heuristic rules are suggested for system decomposition in gas pipeline networks. In the construction of local models, due to the existence of common states and interconnections among the subsystems, the assimilation and prediction steps of the Kalman filter are modified to take the overlapping and external states into account. However, dynamic Riccati equation for each subsystem is constructed based on the local model, which introduces a maximum error of 5% in the estimated standard deviation of the states in the benchmarks studied in this paper. The performance of the proposed methodology has been shown based on the comparison of its accuracy and computational demands against their counterparts in centralized Kalman filter for two viable benchmarks. In a real life network, it is shown that while the accuracy is not significantly decreased, the real-time factor of the state estimation is increased by a factor of 10.

  11. Modeling neural activity with cumulative damage distributions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Víctor; Tejo, Mauricio; Guiraud, Pierre; Schmachtenberg, Oliver; Orio, Patricio; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    Neurons transmit information as action potentials or spikes. Due to the inherent randomness of the inter-spike intervals (ISIs), probabilistic models are often used for their description. Cumulative damage (CD) distributions are a family of probabilistic models that has been widely considered for describing time-related cumulative processes. This family allows us to consider certain deterministic principles for modeling ISIs from a probabilistic viewpoint and to link its parameters to values with biological interpretation. The CD family includes the Birnbaum-Saunders and inverse Gaussian distributions, which possess distinctive properties and theoretical arguments useful for ISI description. We expand the use of CD distributions to the modeling of neural spiking behavior, mainly by testing the suitability of the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution, which has not been studied in the setting of neural activity. We validate this expansion with original experimental and simulated electrophysiological data.

  12. The Hydrologic Cycle Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Danny M.; Goodman, H. Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Huntsville, Alabama supports the acquisition, production, archival and dissemination of data relevant to the study of the global hydrologic cycle. This paper describes the Hydrologic Cycle DAAC, surveys its principle data holdings, addresses future growth, and gives information for accessing the data sets.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  14. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  15. 78 FR 13661 - National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on February 12, 2013, National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation filed...

  16. 77 FR 10490 - SourceGas Distribution LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SourceGas Distribution LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 14, 2012, SourceGas Distribution LLC submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of...

  17. 75 FR 51032 - National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing August 12, 2010. Take notice that on August 10, 2010, National fuel Gas Distribution Corporation submitted...

  18. 40 CFR Table W - 7 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-7 Table W-7 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution Natural gas distribution Emission factor...

  19. 40 CFR Table W - 7 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-7 Table W-7 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution Natural gas distribution Emission factor...

  20. 78 FR 59650 - Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, (Synthetic Natural Gas), Kapolei, Hawaii On May 22, 2013, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ)...

  1. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David B.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1985-01-01

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  2. The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Richard J.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Hester, J. Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals.

  3. Estimation of current density distribution of PAFC by analysis of cell exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, S.; Seya, A.; Asano, A.

    1996-12-31

    To estimate distributions of Current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we leave developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to Study Current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these measured data with calculated data, the current density distribution in a cell plane calculated by the simulation, was certified.

  4. Velocity distribution in active particles systems

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo; Gnan, Nicoletta; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Maggi, Claudio; Di Leonardo, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the distribution of velocities of multiple interacting active particles which we test by numerical simulations. In clear contrast with equilibrium we find that the velocities are coupled to positions. Our model shows that, even for two particles only, the individual velocities display a variance depending on the interparticle separation and the emergence of correlations between the velocities of the particles. When considering systems composed of many particles we find an analytic expression connecting the overall velocity variance to density, at the mean-field level, and to the pair distribution function valid in the limit of small noise correlation times. Finally we discuss the intriguing analogies and main differences between our effective free energy functional and the theoretical scenario proposed so far for phase-separating active particles. PMID:27001289

  5. Small turbines in distributed utility application: Natural gas pressure supply requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.L.

    1996-05-01

    Implementing distributed utility can strengthen the local distribution system and help avoid or delay the expense of upgrading transformers and feeders. The gas turbine-generator set is an attractive option based on its low front-end capital cost, reliable performance at unmanned stations, and environmental performance characteristics. This report assesses gas turbine utilization issues from a perspective of fuel supply pressure requirements and discusses both cost and operational factors. A primary operational consideration for siting gas turbines on the electric distribution system is whether the local gas distribution company can supply gas at the required pressure. Currently available gas turbine engines require gas supply pressures of at least 150 pounds per square inch gauge, more typically, 250 to 350 psig. Few LDCs maintain line pressure in excess of 125 psig. One option for meeting the gas pressure requirements is to upgrade or extend an existing pipeline and connect that pipeline to a high-pressure supply source, such as an interstate transmission line. However, constructing new pipeline is expensive, and the small volume of gas required by the turbine for the application offers little incentive for the LDC to provide this service. Another way to meet gas pressure requirements is to boost the compression of the fuel gas at the gas turbine site. Fuel gas booster compressors are readily available as stand-alone units and can satisfactorily increase the supply pressure to meet the turbine engine requirement. However, the life-cycle costs of this equipment are not inconsequential, and maintenance and reliability issues for boosters in this application are questionable and require further study. These factors may make the gas turbine option a less attractive solution in DU applications than first indicated by just the $/kW capital cost. On the other hand, for some applications other DU technologies, such as photovoltaics, may be the more attractive option.

  6. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  7. A SIMPLE PHYSICAL MODEL FOR THE GAS DISTRIBUTION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Patej, Anna; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The dominant baryonic component of galaxy clusters is hot gas whose distribution is commonly probed through X-ray emission arising from thermal bremsstrahlung. The density profile thus obtained has been traditionally modeled with a β-profile, a simple function with only three parameters. However, this model is known to be insufficient for characterizing the range of cluster gas distributions and attempts to rectify this shortcoming typically introduce additional parameters to increase the fitting flexibility. We use cosmological and physical considerations to obtain a family of profiles for the gas with fewer parameters than the β-model but which better accounts for observed gas profiles over wide radial intervals.

  8. Active Damping Using Distributed Anisotropic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Quinones, Juan D.; Wier, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    A helicopter structure experiences substantial high-frequency mechanical excitation from powertrain components such as gearboxes and drive shafts. The resulting structure-borne vibration excites the windows which then radiate sound into the passenger cabin. In many cases the radiated sound power can be reduced by adding damping. This can be accomplished using passive or active approaches. Passive treatments such as constrained layer damping tend to reduce window transparency. Therefore this paper focuses on an active approach utilizing compact decentralized control units distributed around the perimeter of the window. Each control unit consists of a triangularly shaped piezoelectric actuator, a miniature accelerometer, and analog electronics. Earlier work has shown that this type of system can increase damping up to approximately 1 kHz. However at higher frequencies the mismatch between the distributed actuator and the point sensor caused control spillover. This paper describes new anisotropic actuators that can be used to improve the bandwidth of the control system. The anisotropic actuators are composed of piezoelectric material sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes, which enables the application of the electric field in a preferred in-plane direction. When shaped correctly the anisotropic actuators outperform traditional isotropic actuators by reducing the mismatch between the distributed actuator and point sensor at high frequencies. Testing performed on a Plexiglas panel, representative of a helicopter window, shows that the control units can increase damping at low frequencies. However high frequency performance was still limited due to the flexible boundary conditions present on the test structure.

  9. Mitigation of methane emissions in a pilot-scale biocover system at the AV Miljø Landfill, Denmark: 1. System design and gas distribution.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Filippo; Scheutz, Charlotte; Skov, Bent H; Mou, Zishen; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-01-21

    Greenhouse gas mitigation at landfills by methane oxidation in engineered biocover systems is believed to be a cost effective technology, but so far a full quantitative evaluation of the efficiency of the technology in full scale has only been carried out in a few cases. A third generation semi-passive biocover system was constructed at the AV Miljø Landfill, Denmark. The biocover system was fed by landfill gas pumped out of three leachate collection wells. An innovative gas distribution system was used to overcome the commonly observed surface emission hot spot areas resulting from an uneven gas distribution to the active methane oxidation layer, leading to areas with methane overloading. Performed screening of methane and carbon dioxide surface concentrations, as well as flux measurement using a flux chamber at the surface of the biocover, showed homogenous distributions indicating an even gas distribution. This was supported by results from a tracer gas test where the compound HFC-134a was added to the gas inlet over an adequately long time period to obtain tracer gas stationarity in the whole biocover system. Studies of the tracer gas movement within the biocover system showed a very even gas distribution in gas probes installed in the gas distribution layer. Also the flux of tracer gas out of the biocover surface, as measured by flux chamber technique, showed a spatially even distribution. Installed probes logging the temperature and moisture content of the methane oxidation layer at different depths showed elevated temperatures in the layer with temperature differences to the ambient temperature in the range of 25-50°C at the deepest measuring point due to the microbial processes occurring in the layer. The moisture measurements showed that infiltrating precipitation was efficiently drained away from the methane oxidation layer.

  10. The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, R.J.; Kulkarni, S.R.; Hester, J.J. Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Pasadena, CA )

    1990-03-01

    Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals. 19 refs.

  11. Evaluating gas transfer velocity parameterizations using upper ocean radon distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Michael L.; Kinter, Saul; Cassar, Nicolas; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2011-02-01

    Sea-air fluxes of gases are commonly calculated from the product of the gas transfer velocity (k) and the departure of the seawater concentration from atmospheric equilibrium. Gas transfer velocities, generally parameterized in terms of wind speed, continue to have considerable uncertainties, partly because of limited field data. Here we evaluate commonly used gas transfer parameterizations using a historical data set of 222Rn measurements at 105 stations occupied on Eltanin cruises and the Geosecs program. We make this evaluation with wind speed estimates from meteorological reanalysis products (from National Centers for Environmental Prediction and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting) that were not available when the 22Rn data were originally published. We calculate gas transfer velocities from the parameterizations by taking into account winds in the period prior to the date that 222Rn profiles were sampled. Invoking prior wind speed histories leads to much better agreement than simply calculating parameterized gas transfer velocities from wind speeds on the day of sample collection. For individual samples from the Atlantic Ocean, where reanalyzed winds agree best with observations, three similar recent parameterizations give k values for individual stations with an rms difference of ˜40% from values calculated using 222Rn data. Agreement of basin averages is much better. For the global data set, the average difference between k constrained by 222Rn and calculated from the various parameterizations ranges from -0.2 to +0.9 m/d (average, 2.9 m/d). Averaging over large domains, and working with gas data collected in recent years when reanalyzed winds are more accurate, will further decrease the uncertainties in sea-air fluxes.

  12. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: a consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-11-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions.

  14. Just fracking: a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, Emily; Bell, Derek

    2016-02-01

    This letter presents a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in the area of Pennsylvania lying over the Marcellus Shale, the largest shale gas formation in play in the United States. The extraction of shale gas using unconventional wells, which are hydraulically fractured (fracking), has increased dramatically since 2005. As the number of wells has grown, so have concerns about the potential public health effects on nearby communities. These concerns make shale gas development an environmental justice issue. This letter examines whether the hazards associated with proximity to wells and the economic benefits of shale gas production are fairly distributed. We distinguish two types of distributive environmental justice: traditional and benefit sharing. We ask the traditional question: are there a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells in Pennsylvania? However, we extend this analysis in two ways: we examine income distribution and level of education; and we compare before and after shale gas development. This contributes to discussions of benefit sharing by showing how the income distribution of the population has changed. We use a binary dasymetric technique to remap the data from the 2000 US Census and the 2009-2013 American Communities Survey and combine that data with a buffer containment analysis of unconventional wells to compare the characteristics of the population living nearer to unconventional wells with those further away before and after shale gas development. Our analysis indicates that there is no evidence of traditional distributive environmental injustice: there is not a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells. However, our analysis is consistent with the claim that there is benefit sharing distributive environmental injustice: the income distribution of the population nearer to shale gas wells

  15. Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom

    2010-01-01

    The purpose is to develop controls for inverter-based renewable and non-renewable distributed energy systems to provide local voltage, power and power quality support for loads and the power grid. The objectives are to (1) develop adaptive controls for inverter-based distributed energy (DE) systems when there are multiple inverters on the same feeder and (2) determine the impact of high penetration high seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) air conditioning (A/C) units on power systems during sub-transmission faults which can result in an A/C compressor motor stall and assess how inverter-based DE can help to mitigate the stall event. The Distributed Energy Communications & Controls Laboratory (DECC) is a unique facility for studying dynamic voltage, active power (P), non-active power (Q) and power factor control from inverter-based renewable distributed energy (DE) resources. Conventionally, inverter-based DE systems have been designed to provide constant, close to unity power factor and thus not provide any voltage support. The DECC Lab interfaces with the ORNL campus distribution system to provide actual power system testing of the controls approach. Using mathematical software tools and the DECC Lab environment, we are developing and testing local, autonomous and adaptive controls for local voltage control and P & Q control for inverter-based DE. We successfully tested our active and non-active power (P,Q) controls at the DECC laboratory along with voltage regulation controls. The new PQ control along with current limiter controls has been tested on our existing inverter test system. We have tested both non-adaptive and adaptive control modes for the PQ control. We have completed several technical papers on the approaches and results. Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is

  16. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Çakır, M Cihan; Çalışkan, Deniz; Bütün, Bayram; Özbay, Ekmel

    2016-09-29

    Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption-dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  17. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, M. Cihan; Çalışkan, Deniz; Bütün, Bayram; Özbay, Ekmel

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption–dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively. PMID:27690048

  18. Comparison of temperature distributions inside a PEM fuel cell with parallel and interdigitated gas distributors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. J.; Liu, S. J.

    A comparison of the temperature distributions in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell between the parallel-flow gas distributors and the interdigitated gas distributor has been discussed in detail. An electrochemical-thermal coupled numerical model in a five-layer membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) is developed. The temperatures for the reactant fuels as well as the carbon fibers in the porous electrode are predicted by using a CFD technique. The overpotential across the MEA is varied to examine its effect on the temperature distributions of the PEM fuel cell. It is found that both the fuel temperature and the carbon fiber temperature are increased with increasing the total overpotential. In addition, the fuel and carbon-fiber temperature distributions are significantly affected by the flow pattern that cast on the gas distributor. Replacing the parallel-flow gas distributor by the interdigitated gas distributor will increase the local maximum temperature inside the PEM fuel cell.

  19. Painting a Picture of Gas Hydrate Distribution with Thermal Images

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, Jill L.; Brown, Kevin M.; Long, Philip E.

    2005-02-25

    Large uncertainties about the energy resource potential and role in global climate change of gas hydrates result from uncertainty about how much hydrate is contained in marine sediments. During Leg 204 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) to the accretionary complex of the Cascadia subduction zone, the entire gas hydrate stability zone was sampled in contrasting geological settings defined by a 3D seismic survey. By integrating results from different methods, including several new techniques developed for Leg 204, we overcome the problem of spatial under-sampling inherent in robust methods traditionally used for estimating the hydrate content of cores and obtain a high-resolution, quantitative estimate of the total amount and spatial variability of gas hydrate in this structural system. We conclude that high gas hydrate content (30-40% of pore space of 20-26% of total volume) is restricted to the upper tens of meters below the seafloor near the summit of the structure, where vigorous fluid venting occurs.

  20. Non-Intrusive, Distributed Gas Sensing Technology for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Jesus; Phillips, Straun; Rubtsov, Vladimir; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Chemical sensors for monitoring gas composition, including oxygen, humidity, carbon dioxide, and trace contaminants, are needed to characterize and validate spacesuit design and operating parameters. This paper reports on the first prototypes of a non-intrusive gas sensing technology based on flexible sensitive patches positioned inside spacesuit prototypes and interrogated via optical fibers routed outside the suit, taking advantage of the transparent materials of the suit prototypes. The sensitive patches are based on luminescent materials whose emission parameters vary with the partial pressure of a specific gas. Patches sensitive to carbon dioxide, humidity, and temperature have been developed, and their preliminary laboratory characterization in Mark III-like helmet parts is described. The first prototype system consists of a four-channel fiber optic luminescent detector that can be used to monitor any of the selected target gases at four locations. To switch from one gas to another we replace the (disposable) sensor patches and adjust the system settings. Repeatability among sensitive patches and of sensor performance from location to location has been confirmed, assuring that suit engineers will have flexibility in selecting multiple sensing points, fitting the sensor elements into the spacesuit, and easily repositioning the sensor elements as desired. The evaluation of the first prototype for monitoring carbon dioxide during washout studies in a spacesuit prototype is presented.

  1. Non-Intrusive, Distributed Gas Sensing Technology for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Jesus; Phillips, Straun; Rubtsov, Vladimir; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Chemical sensors for monitoring gas composition, including oxygen, humidity, carbon dioxide, and trace contaminants are needed to characterize and validate spacesuit design and operating parameters. This paper reports on the first prototypes of a non-intrusive gas sensing technology based on flexible sensitive patches positioned inside spacesuit prototypes and interrogated by optical fibers routed outside the suit, taking advantage of the transparent materials of the suit prototypes. The sensitive patches are based on luminescent materials whose emission parameters vary with the partial pressure of a specific gas. Patches sensitive to carbon dioxide, humidity, oxygen, and ammonia have been developed, and their preliminary characterization in the laboratory using Mark III-like helmet parts is described. The first prototype system consists of a four-channel fiber optic luminescent detector that can be used to monitor any of the selected target gases at four locations. To switch from one gas to another we replace the (disposable) sensor patches and adjust the system settings. Repeatability among sensitive patches and of sensor performance from location to location has been confirmed, assuring that suit engineers will have flexibility in selecting multiple sensing points, fitting the sensor elements into the spacesuit, and easily repositioning the sensor elements as desired. The evaluation of the first prototype for monitoring carbon dioxide during washout studies in a space suit prototype is presented.

  2. Leaf gas films, underwater photosynthesis and plant species distributions in a flood gradient.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Anders; Visser, Eric J W; Colmer, Timothy D; Brodersen, Klaus P; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Pedersen, Ole

    2016-07-01

    Traits for survival during flooding of terrestrial plants include stimulation or inhibition of shoot elongation, aerenchyma formation and efficient gas exchange. Leaf gas films form on superhydrophobic cuticles during submergence and enhance underwater gas exchange. The main hypothesis tested was that the presence of leaf gas films influences the distribution of plant species along a natural flood gradient. We conducted laboratory experiments and field observations on species distributed along a natural flood gradient. We measured presence or absence of leaf gas films and specific leaf area of 95 species. We also measured, gas film retention time during submergence and underwater net photosynthesis and dark respiration of 25 target species. The presence of a leaf gas film was inversely correlated to flood frequency and duration and reached a maximum value of 80% of the species in the rarely flooded locations. This relationship was primarily driven by grasses that all, independently of their field location along the flood gradient, possess gas films when submerged. Although the present study and earlier experiments have shown that leaf gas films enhance gas exchange of submerged plants, the ability of species to form leaf gas films did not show the hypothesized relationship with species composition along the flood gradient.

  3. Active Volcanism on Io: Global Distribution and Variations in Activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes-Gautier, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Smythe, W.B.; Geissler, P.E.; Kamp, L.; Davies, A.G.; Spencer, J.R.; Keszthelyi, L.; Carlson, R.; Leader, F.E.; Mehlman, R.; Soderblom, L.

    1999-01-01

    Io's volcanic activity has been monitored by instruments aboard the Galileo spacecraft since June 28, 1996. We present results from observations by the near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) for the first 10 orbits of Galileo, correlate them with results from the Solid State Imaging System (SSI) and from groundbased observations, and compare them to what was known about Io's volcanic activity from observations made during the two Voyager flybys in 1979. A total of 61 active volcanic centers have been identified from Voyager, groundbased, and Galileo observations. Of these, 41 are hot spots detected by NIMS and/or SSI. Another 25 locations were identified as possible active volcanic centers, mostly on the basis of observed surface changes. Hot spots are correlated with surface colors, particularly dark and red deposits, and generally anti-correlated with white, SO2-rich areas. Surface features corresponding to the hot spots, mostly calderas or flows, were identified from Galileo and Voyager images. Hot spot temperatures obtained from both NIMS and SSI are consistent with silicate volcanism, which appears to be widespread on Io. Two types of hot spot activity are present: persistent-type activity, lasting from months to years, and sporadic events, which may represent either short-lived activity or low-level activity that occasionally flares up. Sporadic events are not often detected, but may make an important contribution to Io's heat flow and resurfacing. The distribution of active volcanic centers on the surface does not show any clear correlation with latitude, longitude, Voyager-derived global topography, or heat flow patterns predicted by the asthenosphere and deep mantle tidal dissipation models. However, persistent hot spots and active plumes are concentrated toward lower latitudes, and this distribution favors the asthenosphere rather than the deep mantle tidal dissipation model. ?? 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Continuous distributions of specific ventilation recovered from inert gas washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. M.; Evans, J. W.; Jalowayski, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    A new technique is described for recovering continuous distributions of ventilation as a function of tidal ventilation/volume ratio from the nitrogen washout. The analysis yields a continuous distribution of ventilation as a function of tidal ventilation/volume ratio represented as fractional ventilations of 50 compartments plus dead space. The procedure was verified by recovering known distributions from data to which noise had been added. Using an apparatus to control the subject's tidal volume and FRC, mixed expired N2 data gave the following results: (a) the distributions of young, normal subjects were narrow and unimodal; (b) those of subjects over age 40 were broader with more poorly ventilated units; (c) patients with pulmonary disease of all descriptions showed enlarged dead space; (d) patients with cystic fibrosis showed multimodal distributions with the bulk of the ventilation going to overventilated units; and (e) patients with obstructive lung disease fell into several classes, three of which are illustrated.

  5. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  6. Comparing two micrometeorological techniques for estimating trace gas emissions from distributed sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring trace gas emission from distributed sources such as treatment lagoons, treatment wetlands, land spread of manure, and feedlots requires micrometeorological methods. In this study, we tested the accuracy of two relatively new micrometeorological techniques, vertical radial plume mapping (VR...

  7. 77 FR 34123 - Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines AGENCY: Office of Pipeline Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice; public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pipeline and Hazardous...

  8. Measurements of gas hydrate formation probability distributions on a quasi-free water droplet.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Nobuo

    2014-06-01

    A High Pressure Automated Lag Time Apparatus (HP-ALTA) can measure gas hydrate formation probability distributions from water in a glass sample cell. In an HP-ALTA gas hydrate formation originates near the edges of the sample cell and gas hydrate films subsequently grow across the water-guest gas interface. It would ideally be desirable to be able to measure gas hydrate formation probability distributions of a single water droplet or mist that is freely levitating in a guest gas, but this is technically challenging. The next best option is to let a water droplet sit on top of a denser, immiscible, inert, and wall-wetting hydrophobic liquid to avoid contact of a water droplet with the solid walls. Here we report the development of a second generation HP-ALTA which can measure gas hydrate formation probability distributions of a water droplet which sits on a perfluorocarbon oil in a container that is coated with 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane. It was found that the gas hydrate formation probability distributions of such a quasi-free water droplet were significantly lower than those of water in a glass sample cell.

  9. Fugitive methane emissions from leak-prone natural gas distribution infrastructure in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Margaret F; Ackley, Robert; Sanaie-Movahed, Bahare; Tang, Xiaojing; Phillips, Nathan G

    2016-06-01

    Fugitive emissions from natural gas systems are the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. and contribute to the risk of explosions in urban environments. Here, we report on a survey of CH4 emissions from 100 natural gas leaks in cast iron distribution mains in Metro Boston, MA. Direct measures of CH4 flux from individual leaks ranged from 4.0 - 2.3 × 10(4) g CH4•day(-1). The distribution of leak size is positively skewed, with 7% of leaks contributing 50% of total CH4 emissions measured. We identify parallels in the skewed distribution of leak size found in downstream systems with midstream and upstream stages of the gas process chain. Fixing 'superemitter' leaks will disproportionately stem greenhouse gas emissions. Fifteen percent of leaks surveyed qualified as potentially explosive (Grade 1), and we found no difference in CH4 flux between Grade 1 leaks and all remaining leaks surveyed (p = 0.24). All leaks must be addressed, as even small leaks cannot be disregarded as 'safely leaking.' Key methodological impediments to quantifying and addressing the impacts of leaking natural gas distribution infrastructure involve inconsistencies in the manner in which gas leaks are defined, detected, and classified. To address this need, we propose a two-part leak classification system that reflects both the safety and climatic impacts of natural gas leaks.

  10. Impact of Higher Natural Gas Prices on Local Distribution Companies and Residential Customers

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This report examines some of the problems faced by natural gas consumers as a result of increasing heating bills in recent years and problems associated with larger amounts of uncollectible revenue and lower throughput for the local distribution companies (LDCs) supplying the natural gas.

  11. Edge seal for a porous gas distribution plate of a fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Feigenbaum, Haim; Pudick, Sheldon; Singh, Rajindar

    1984-01-01

    In an improved seal for a gas distribution plate of a fuel cell, a groove is provided extending along an edge of the plate. A member of resinous material is arranged within the groove and a paste comprising an immobilized acid is arranged surrounding the member and substantially filling the groove. The seal, which is impervious to the gas being distributed, is resistant to deterioration by the electrolyte of the cell.

  12. Development of an improved active gas target design for ANASEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, Sabina; Blackmon, J. C.; Deibel, C. M.; Macon, K. T.; Rasco, B. C.; Wiedenhoever, I.

    2014-09-01

    The Array for Nuclear Astrophysics and Structure with Exotic Nuclei (ANASEN) is a charged particle detector array with an active gas target-detector capability for sensitive measurements using radioactive ion beams. One of the main goals is to improve our understanding of nuclear reactions important in stellar explosions. Following initial experimental campaigns with ANASEN, we have been developing an improved active gas target design for ANASEN that incorporates an innovative cylindrical gas ionization detector for heavy ions surrounding the beam axis inside of the other ANASEN charged particle detectors. The detection of heavy ions in coincidence with lighter ions in a redesigned proportional counter will provide greater discriminating power. The new active gas target design will be presented, and its simulated performance will be compared with test data. The Array for Nuclear Astrophysics and Structure with Exotic Nuclei (ANASEN) is a charged particle detector array with an active gas target-detector capability for sensitive measurements using radioactive ion beams. One of the main goals is to improve our understanding of nuclear reactions important in stellar explosions. Following initial experimental campaigns with ANASEN, we have been developing an improved active gas target design for ANASEN that incorporates an innovative cylindrical gas ionization detector for heavy ions surrounding the beam axis inside of the other ANASEN charged particle detectors. The detection of heavy ions in coincidence with lighter ions in a redesigned proportional counter will provide greater discriminating power. The new active gas target design will be presented, and its simulated performance will be compared with test data. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Dept of Energy's Office of Science.

  13. Importance of Pore Size Distribution of Fine-grained Sediments on Gas Hydrate Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, T. H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, G. C.; Park, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Gas hydrates have been considered as a new source of natural gases. For the gas hydrate production, the gas hydrate reservoir should be depressurized below the equilibrium pressure of gas hydrates. Therefore, it is important to predict the equilibrium of gas hydrates in the reservoir conditions because it can be affected by the pore size of the host sediments due to the capillary effect. In this study, gas hydrates were synthesized in fine-grained sediment samples including a pure silt sample and a natural clayey silt sample cored from a hydrate occurrence region in Ulleung Basin, East Sea, offshore Korea. Pore size distributions of the samples were obtained by the nitrogen adsorption and desorption test and the mercury intrusion porosimetry. The equilibrium curve of gas hydrates in the fine-grained sediments were found to be significantly influenced by the clay fraction and the corresponding small pores (>50 nm in diameter). For the clayey silt sample, the equilibrium pressure was higher by ~1.4 MPa than the bulk equilibrium pressure. In most cases of oceanic gas hydrate reservoirs, sandy layers are found interbedded with fine-grained sediment layers while gas hydrates are intensively accumulated in the sandy layers. Our experiment results reveal the inhibition effect of fine-grained sediments against gas hydrate formation, in which greater driving forces (e.g., higher pressure or lower temperature) are required during natural gas migration. Therefore, gas hydrate distribution in interbedded layers of sandy and fine-grained sediments can be explained by such capillary effect induced by the pore size distribution of host sediments.

  14. The gas distribution in the high-redshift cluster MS 1054-0321

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirakhor, M. S.; Birkinshaw, M.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the gas mass distribution in the high-redshift cluster MS 1054-0321 using Chandra X-ray and One Centimetre Receiver array Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect data. We use a superposition of offset β-type models to describe the composite structure of MS 1054-0321. We find gas mass fractions f_{gas}^{X {-}ray} = 0.087_{-0.001}^{+0.005} and f_{gas}^SZ=0.094_{-0.001}^{+0.003} for the (main) eastern component of MS 1054-0321 using X-ray or SZ data, but f_{gas}^{X {-}ray}=0.030_{-0.014}^{+0.010} for the western component. The gas mass fraction for the eastern component is in agreement with some results reported in the literature, but inconsistent with the cosmic baryon fraction. The low-gas mass fraction for the western component is likely to be a consequence of gas stripping during the ongoing merger. The gas mass fraction of the integrated system is 0.060_{-0.009}^{+0.004}: we suggest that the missing baryons from the western component are present as hot diffuse gas which is poorly represented in existing X-ray images. The missing gas could appear in sensitive SZ maps.

  15. Direct measurements show decreasing methane emissions from natural gas local distribution systems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Brian K; Edburg, Steven L; Ferrara, Thomas W; Howard, Touché; Harrison, Matthew R; Kolb, Charles E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Dyck, Wesley; Possolo, Antonio; Whetstone, James R

    2015-04-21

    Fugitive losses from natural gas distribution systems are a significant source of anthropogenic methane. Here, we report on a national sampling program to measure methane emissions from 13 urban distribution systems across the U.S. Emission factors were derived from direct measurements at 230 underground pipeline leaks and 229 metering and regulating facilities using stratified random sampling. When these new emission factors are combined with estimates for customer meters, maintenance, and upsets, and current pipeline miles and numbers of facilities, the total estimate is 393 Gg/yr with a 95% upper confidence limit of 854 Gg/yr (0.10% to 0.22% of the methane delivered nationwide). This fraction includes emissions from city gates to the customer meter, but does not include other urban sources or those downstream of customer meters. The upper confidence limit accounts for the skewed distribution of measurements, where a few large emitters accounted for most of the emissions. This emission estimate is 36% to 70% less than the 2011 EPA inventory, (based largely on 1990s emission data), and reflects significant upgrades at metering and regulating stations, improvements in leak detection and maintenance activities, as well as potential effects from differences in methodologies between the two studies.

  16. Airflow, gas deposition, and lesion distribution in the nasal passages.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, K T; Monticello, T M

    1990-01-01

    The nasal passages of laboratory animals and man are complex, and lesions induced in the delicate nasal lining by inhaled air pollutants vary considerably in location and nature. The distribution of nasal lesions is generally a consequence of regional deposition of the inhaled material, local tissue susceptibility, or a combination of these factors. Nasal uptake and regional deposition are are influenced by numerous factors including the physical and chemical properties of the inhaled material, such as water solubility and reactivity; airborne concentration and length of exposure; the presence of other air contaminants such as particulate matter; nasal metabolism, and blood and mucus flow. For certain highly water-soluble or reactive gases, nasal airflow patterns play a major role in determining lesion distribution. Studies of nasal airflow in rats and monkeys, using casting and molding techniques combined with a water-dye model, indicate that nasal airflow patterns are responsible for characteristic differences in the distribution of nasal lesions induced by formaldehyde in these species. Local tissue susceptibility is also a complex issue that may be a consequence of many factors, including physiologic and metabolic characteristics of the diverse cell populations that comprise each of the major epithelial types lining the airways. Identification of the principal factors that influence the distribution and nature of nasal lesions is important when attempting the difficult process of determining potential human risks using data derived from laboratory animals. Toxicologic pathologists can contribute to this process by carefully identifying the site and nature of nasal lesions induced by inhaled materials. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. PMID:2200663

  17. Spatial distribution of venous gas emboli in the lungs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souders, J. E.; Doshier, J. B.; Polissar, N. L.; Hlastala, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of gaseous pulmonary emboli is presumed to be determined by their buoyancy. We hypothesized that regional pulmonary blood flow may also influence their distribution. Therefore, pulmonary blood flow was measured in supine, anesthetized dogs with use of 15-microm fluorescent microspheres at baseline and during N(2) embolism. The animals were killed, and the lungs were excised, air-dried, and diced into approximately 2-cm(3) pieces with weights and spatial coordinates recorded. Embolism was defined as a >10% flow decrease relative to baseline. Vertically, the incidence of embolism increased substantially by 6 +/- 1% per additional centimeter in height compared with baseline (P = 0.0003). Embolism also increased radially by 3 +/- 1%/cm from the hilum (P = 0.002). There was a weaker but statistically significant increase in embolism to pieces with greater baseline flow, 9 +/- 2% for every 1. 0 increase in relative baseline flow (P = 0.008). We conclude that the distribution of gaseous emboli is influenced by buoyancy and flow dynamics within the pulmonary vasculature.

  18. The relations between natural gas hydrate distribution and structure on Muli basin Qinghai province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; Li, Y.; Lu, Z.; Luo, S.; Qu, C.; Tan, S.; Zhang, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Muli area is located in a depression area which between middle Qilian and south Qilian tectonic elements. The natural gas hydrate stratum belongs the Jurassic series coal formation stratum, the main lithological character clamps the purple mudstone, the siltstone, the fine grain sandstone and the black charcoal mudstone for the green gray. The plutonic metamorphism is primarily deterioration function of the Muli area coal, is advantageous in forming the coal-bed gas. Cretaceous system, the Paleogene System and Neogene System mainly include the fine grain red clastic rock and clay stone. The distribution of Quaternary is widespread. The ice water - proluvial and glacier deposit are primarily depositional mode. The Qilian Montanan Muli permafrost area has the good gas source condition (Youhai Zhu 2006) and rich water resources. It is advantage to forming the natural gas hydrate. The natural gas hydrate is one kind of new latent energy, widely distributes in the mainland marginal sea bottom settlings and land permanent tundra. Through researching the area the structure ,the deposition carries on the analysis and responds the characteristic analysis simulation in the rock physics analysis and the seismic in the foundation, and then the reflected seismic data carried by tectonic analysis processing and the AVO characteristic analysis processing reveal that the research area existence natural gas hydrate (already by drilling confirmation) and the natural gas hydrate distribution and the structure relations is extremely close. In the structure development area, the fault and the crevasse crack growing, the natural gas hydrate distribution characteristic is obvious (this is also confirmed the storing space of natural gas hydrate in this area is mainly crevasse crack). This conclusion also agree with the actual drilling result. The research prove that the distribution of natural gas hydrate in this area is mainly controlled by structure control. The possibility of fault

  19. Gas and Chemical Activation of Charcoal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-06-29

    supplemented ’ by runs in the laboratory has shown that zinc chloride is by far the most suitable activating agent. 1. In the dehydration mixing of...istics with time of dehydration . 3. The physical appearance of the mixture during the impregnation pperation provides sufficient significant information...to enable the operator to predict .mechanical characteristics of the briquet. CONFIDENTIAL " • ’< i£: • CONFIDENTIAL -4- 4* In the dehydration

  20. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  1. Qualitative gas temperature distribution in positive DC glow corona using spectral image processing in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takao; Inada, Yoichi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Izawa, Yasuji; Nishijima, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method of determining a qualitative two-dimensional image of the gas temperature in stationary atmospheric nonthermal plasma by spectral image processing was presented. In the experiment, a steady-state glow corona discharge was generated by applying a positive DC voltage to a rod-plane electrode in synthetic air. The changes in the gas temperature distribution due to the amplitude of applied voltage and the ambient gas pressure were investigated. Spectral images of a positive DC glow corona were taken using a gated ICCD camera with ultranarrow band-pass filters, corresponding to the head and tail of a N2 second positive system band (0-2). The qualitative gas temperature was obtained from the emission intensity ratio between the head and tail of the N2 second positive system band (0-2). From the results, we confirmed that the gas temperature and its distribution of a positive DC glow corona increased with increasing applied voltage. In particular, just before the sparkover voltage, a distinctly high temperature region was formed in the positive DC glow at the tip of the rod electrode. In addition, the gas temperature decreased and its distribution spread diffusely with decreasing ambient gas pressure.

  2. CO-dark gas and molecular filaments in Milky Way-type galaxies - II. The temperature distribution of the gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Simon C. O.; Smith, Rowan J.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the temperature distribution of CO-dark molecular hydrogen (H2) in a series of disc galaxies simulated using the AREPO moving-mesh code. In conditions similar to those in the Milky Way, we find that H2 has a flat temperature distribution ranging from 10 to 100 K. At T < 30 K, the gas is almost fully molecular and has a high CO content, whereas at T > 30 K, the H2 fraction spans a broader range and the CO content is small, allowing us to classify gas in these two regimes as CO-bright and CO-dark, respectively. The mean sound speed in the CO-dark H2 is cs, dark = 0.64 km s-1, significantly lower than the value in the cold atomic gas (cs, CNM = 1.15 km s-1), implying that the CO-dark molecular phase is more susceptible to turbulent compression and gravitational collapse than its atomic counterpart. We further show that the temperature of the CO-dark H2 is highly sensitive to the strength of the interstellar radiation field, but that conditions in the CO-bright H2 remain largely unchanged. Finally, we examine the usefulness of the [C II] and [O I] fine-structure lines as tracers of the CO-dark gas. We show that in Milky Way-like conditions, diffuse [C II] emission from this gas should be detectable. However, it is a problematic tracer of this gas, as there is only a weak correlation between the brightness of the emission and the H2 surface density. The situation is even worse for the [O I] line, which shows no correlation with the H2 surface density.

  3. 77 FR 58616 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Annual Report, Gas Transmission...

  4. Occurrence and distribution of gas vesicle genes among cyanobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Damerval, T; Castets, A M; Guglielmi, G; Houmard, J; Tandeau de Marsac, N

    1989-01-01

    Gas vesicles (GV) are specialized cell inclusions providing many aquatic procaryotes with buoyancy. In the cyanobacterium Calothrix sp. strain PCC 7601, at least four genes are involved in GV formation. One of those, gvpA1, encodes the major structural GV protein (70 amino acids) and belongs to a multigene family (gvpA1, gvpA2, gvpD). The fourth gene, gvpC, encodes a 162-amino-acid protein, the function of which is still unclear. We used the Calothrix gvpA1 and gvpC genes as probes to perform Southern hybridization experiments with DNA extracted from various cyanobacterial strains. The gvpA gene was found in all the strains that synthesize GV, indicating that its product is an obligatory component of GV. Furthermore, it was found to occur as multiple copies in most of the strains tested. The gvpC gene was only detected in some strains able to synthesize a large amount of GV within a short period. This suggests that the gvpC gene product is a dispensable protein for GV formation and is involved in the efficiency of the assembly process. Based on the occurrence of the gvp genes and on DNA-DNA hybridization patterns, genus assignments are discussed. Images PMID:2493445

  5. A Lagrangian View of Stratospheric Trace Gas Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Sparling, L.; Dessler, A.; Jackman, C. H.; Fleming, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of photochemistry, some relationship between the stratospheric age-of-air and the amount of tracer contained within an air sample is expected. The existence of such a relationship allows inferences about transport history to be made from observations of chemical tracers. This paper lays down the conceptual foundations for the relationship between age and tracer amount, developed within a Lagrangian framework. In general, the photochemical loss depends not only on the age of the parcel but also on its path. We show that under the "average path approximation" that the path variations are less important than parcel age. The average path approximation then allows us to develop a formal relationship between the age spectrum and the tracer spectrum. Using the relation between the tracer and age spectra, tracer-tracer correlations can be interpreted as resulting from mixing which connects parts of the single path photochemistry curve, which is formed purely from the action of photochemistry on an irreducible parcel. This geometric interpretation of mixing gives rise to constraints on trace gas correlations, and explains why some observations are do not fall on rapid mixing curves. This effect is seen in the ATMOS observations.

  6. Aerodynamic Control using Distributed Active Bleed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, John; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    The global aerodynamic loads on a stationary and pitching airfoil at angles of attack beyond the static and dynamic stall margins, respectively are controlled in wind tunnel experiments using regulated distributed bleed driven by surface pressure differences. High-speed PIV and proper orthogonal decomposition of the vorticity flux on the static airfoil show that the bleed engenders trains of discrete vortices that advect along the surface and are associated with a local instability that is manifested by a time-averaged bifurcation of the vorticity layer near the bleed outlets and alters the vorticity flux over the airfoil and thereby the aerodynamic loads. Active bleed is used on a dynamically pitching airfoil (at reduced frequencies up to k = 0.42) to modulate the evolution of vorticity concentrations during dynamic stall. Time-periodic bleed improved the pitch stability by reducing adverse pitching moment (``negative damping'') that can precipitate structural instabilities. At the same time, the maintains the cycle-average loads to within 5% of the base flow levels by segmenting the vorticity layer during upstroke and promoting early flow attachment during downstroke segments of the pitch cycle. Supported by Georgia Tech VLRCOE.

  7. Investigation of Colorless Distributed Combustion (CDC) with Swirl for Gas Turbine Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil Hasan, Ahmed Essam ElDin

    Colorless Distributed Combustion (CDC) with swirl is investigated for gas turbine engine applications due to its benefits for ultra-low pollutants emission, improved pattern factor and thermal field uniformity, low noise emission, and stable combustion with the alleviation of combustion instabilities. Adequate and fast mixing between the injected air and internally recirculated hot reactive gases to form hot and diluted oxidant is critical for CDC, followed by rapid mixing with the fuel. This results in distributed reaction zone instead of a concentrated thin flame front as observed in conventional diffusion flames, leading to avoidance of hot spot regions and providing reduced NOx and CO emissions. The focus of this dissertation is to develop and demonstrate CDC in a cylindrical combustor for application to stationary gas turbine combustors. The dissertation examines the sequential development of ultra-low emission colorless distributed combustor operating at a nominal thermal intensity of 36MW/m3-atm. Initially, the role of swirl is evaluated through comparing the performance of swirling and non-swirling configurations with focus on pollutants emission, stability, and isothermal flowfield through particle image velocimetry. Different fuel injection locations have also been examined, and based on performance a swirling configuration have been down selected for further investigations demonstrating emissions as low as 1 PPM of NO with a 40% reduction compared to non-swirling configuration. Further investigations were performed to outline the impact of inlet air temperature and combustor pressure on reaction distribution and combustor performance. Next, Fuel flexibility has been examined with view to develop CDC combustors that can handle different gaseous and liquid fuels, both traditional and renewable. These fuels included diluted methane, hydrogen enriched methane, propane, ethanol, kerosene, JP-8, Hydrogenated Renewable Jet fuel, and novel biofuel. Swirling CDC

  8. The Carina Nebula and Gum 31 molecular complex - I. Molecular gas distribution, column densities, and dust temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo, David; Burton, Michael; Green, Anne; Braiding, Catherine; Molinari, Sergio; Wong, Graeme; Blackwell, Rebecca; Elia, Davide; Schisano, Eugenio

    2016-03-01

    We report high-resolution observations of the 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) molecular lines in the Carina Nebula and the Gum 31 region obtained with the 22-m Mopra telescope as part of The Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey. We cover 8 deg2 from l = 285° to 290°, and from b = -1.5° to +0.5°. The molecular gas column density distributions from both tracers have a similar range of values. By fitting a grey-body function to the observed infrared spectral energy distribution from Herschel maps, we derive gas column densities and dust temperatures. The gas column density has values in the range from 6.3 × 1020 to 1.4 × 1023 cm-2, while the dust temperature has values in the range from 17 to 43 K. The gas column density derived from the dust emission is approximately described by a lognormal function for a limited range of column densities. A high-column-density tail is clearly evident for the gas column density distribution, which appears to be a common feature in regions with active star formation. There are regional variations in the fraction of the mass recovered by the CO emission lines with respect to the total mass traced by the dust emission. These variations may be related to changes in the radiation field strength, variation of the atomic to molecular gas fraction across the observed region, differences in the CO molecule abundance with respect to H2, and evolutionary stage differences of the molecular clouds that compose the Carina Nebula-Gum 31 complex.

  9. Evolution of bubble size distribution from gas blowout in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C.; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Loney, Norman; Geng, Xiaolong

    2016-03-01

    Gas is often emanated from the sea bed during a subsea oil and gas blowout. The size of a gas bubble changes due to gas dissolution in the ambient water and expansion as a result of a decrease in water pressure during the rise. It is important to understand the fate and transport of gas bubbles for the purpose of environmental and safety concerns. In this paper, we used the numerical model, VDROP-J to simulate gas formation in jet/plume upon release, and dissolution and expansion while bubble rising during a relatively shallow subsea gas blowout. The model predictions were an excellent match to the experimental data. Then a gas dissolution and expansion module was included in the VDROP-J model to predict the fate and transport of methane bubbles rising due to a blowout through a 0.10 m vertical orifice. The numerical results indicated that gas bubbles would increase the mixing energy in released jets, especially at small distances and large distances from the orifice. This means that models that predict the bubble size distribution (BSD) should account for this additional mixing energy. It was also found that only bubbles of certain sizes would reach the water surfaces; small bubbles dissolve fast in the water column, while the size of the large bubbles decreases. This resulted in a BSD that was bimodal near the orifice, and then became unimodal.

  10. Decompression vs. Decomposition: Distribution, Amount, and Gas Composition of Bubbles in Stranded Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    de Quirós, Yara Bernaldo; González-Diaz, Oscar; Arbelo, Manuel; Sierra, Eva; Sacchini, Simona; Fernández, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Gas embolic lesions linked to military sonar have been described in stranded cetaceans including beaked whales. These descriptions suggest that gas bubbles in marine mammal tissues may be more common than previously thought. In this study we have analyzed gas amount (by gas score) and gas composition within different decomposition codes using a standardized methodology. This broad study has allowed us to explore species-specific variability in bubble prevalence, amount, distribution, and composition, as well as masking of bubble content by putrefaction gases. Bubbles detected within the cardiovascular system and other tissues related to both pre- and port-mortem processes are a common finding on necropsy of stranded cetaceans. To minimize masking by putrefaction gases, necropsy, and gas sampling must be performed as soon as possible. Before 24 h post mortem is recommended but preferably within 12 h post mortem. At necropsy, amount of bubbles (gas score) in decomposition code 2 in stranded cetaceans was found to be more important than merely presence vs. absence of bubbles from a pathological point of view. Deep divers presented higher abundance of gas bubbles, mainly composed of 70% nitrogen and 30% CO2, suggesting a higher predisposition of these species to suffer from decompression-related gas embolism. PMID:22675306

  11. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  12. Garrotxa simulations: Hot gas distribution around Milky Way size galaxies at z=0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Fàbrega, S.; Colin, P.,; Valenzuela, O.; Figueras, F.; Krongol, Y.

    2017-03-01

    We present a new set of cosmological Milky Way size galaxy simulations using ART. In our simulations the main system has been evolved inside a 28 Mpc cosmological box with a spatial resolution of 109 pc. At z=0 our systems have an M_{vir}=6-8 × 10^{11} M_⊙. In several of our models we have observed how a well defined disk is formed inside the dark matter halo and the overall amount of gas and stars is comparable with MW observations. Several non-axisymmetric structures arise out of the disk: spirals, bars and also a warp. We have also observed that a huge reservoir of hot gas is present at large distances from the disk, embedded in the dark matter halo region, accounting for only a fraction of the ”missing baryons”. Gas column density, emission (EM) and dispersion (DM) measure have been computed from inside the simulated disk at a position of 8 kpc from the center and in several directions. Our preliminary results reveal that the distribution of hot gas is non- isotropic according with observations. Also its metallic content presents a clear bimodality what is a consequence of a recent accretion of a satellite galaxy among others. After a careful analysis we confirm that due to the anisotropy in the gas distribution a new observational parameter needs to be defined to recover the real distribution of hot gas in the galactic halo.

  13. Distribution of gas in the inner comae of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, Michael

    1990-01-01

    In order to understand the physical and chemical processes which produce the observed spatial morphology of the cometary coma, it is necessary to analyze observational data with physically meaningful models. Thus, a coupled program of theoretical modeling and complementary observational data analysis was undertaken regarding the spatial distributions of neutral gases in the coma. More, specifically, the particular topics of interest are: (1) the theoretical modeling of the nonequilibrium dynamics of the inner coma with emphasis on the region of the coma from the transition from collisional fluid flow out to the free-flow region and on observable conditions in the coma (i.e., density, outflow speed, and temperature); and (2) the model analysis of an important set of long-slit CCD spectra of comets. The side-by-side development of models along with the observation and analysis of data is an important and integral part of this project. The scientific community has in hand valuable observational and in situ data regarding one comet, Halley. It is important to use Halley as the benchmark by which other remotely observed comet data can be understood. Therefore, the self-consistant analysis of data with appropriate models is of the utmost importance. The data analysis work includes the analysis of the spatial profiles of (OI), NH2, CN, and C2.

  14. Process for forming integral edge seals in porous gas distribution plates utilizing a vibratory means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Haim (Inventor); Pudick, Sheldon (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A process for forming an integral edge seal in a gas distribution plate for use in a fuel cell. A seal layer is formed along an edge of a porous gas distribution plate by impregnating the pores in the layer with a material adapted to provide a seal which is operative dry or when wetted by an electrolyte of a fuel cell. Vibratory energy is supplied to the sealing material during the step of impregnating the pores to provide a more uniform seal throughout the cross section of the plate.

  15. Stage 1: Expression of interest and consultation document for natural gas distribution in New Brunswick

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The New Brunswick government intends to award a franchise to establish natural gas distribution in the province. To this end, the province wishes to invite bids from qualified entities to establish gas distribution facilities. The province will select the preferred bidder(s) through a two-stage competitive bidding process. This document details the province`s policy objectives, questions and issues to be addressed in stage 1 of the process, and the schedule for the process. Appendices include copies of relevant provincial statutes and regulations.

  16. Diffusion of dilute gas in arrays of randomly distributed, vertically aligned, high-aspect-ratio cylinders.

    PubMed

    Szmyt, Wojciech; Guerra, Carlos; Utke, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    In this work we modelled the diffusive transport of a dilute gas along arrays of randomly distributed, vertically aligned nanocylinders (nanotubes or nanowires) as opposed to gas diffusion in long pores, which is described by the well-known Knudsen theory. Analytical expressions for (i) the gas diffusion coefficient inside such arrays, (ii) the time between collisions of molecules with the nanocylinder walls (mean time of flight), (iii) the surface impingement rate, and (iv) the Knudsen number of such a system were rigidly derived based on a random-walk model of a molecule that undergoes memoryless, diffusive reflections from nanocylinder walls assuming the molecular regime of gas transport. It can be specifically shown that the gas diffusion coefficient inside such arrays is inversely proportional to the areal density of cylinders and their mean diameter. An example calculation of a diffusion coefficient is delivered for a system of titanium isopropoxide molecules diffusing between vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Our findings are important for the correct modelling and optimisation of gas-based deposition techniques, such as atomic layer deposition or chemical vapour deposition, frequently used for surface functionalisation of high-aspect-ratio nanocylinder arrays in solar cells and energy storage applications. Furthermore, gas sensing devices with high-aspect-ratio nanocylinder arrays and the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes need the fundamental understanding and precise modelling of gas transport to optimise such processes.

  17. Diffusion of dilute gas in arrays of randomly distributed, vertically aligned, high-aspect-ratio cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In this work we modelled the diffusive transport of a dilute gas along arrays of randomly distributed, vertically aligned nanocylinders (nanotubes or nanowires) as opposed to gas diffusion in long pores, which is described by the well-known Knudsen theory. Analytical expressions for (i) the gas diffusion coefficient inside such arrays, (ii) the time between collisions of molecules with the nanocylinder walls (mean time of flight), (iii) the surface impingement rate, and (iv) the Knudsen number of such a system were rigidly derived based on a random-walk model of a molecule that undergoes memoryless, diffusive reflections from nanocylinder walls assuming the molecular regime of gas transport. It can be specifically shown that the gas diffusion coefficient inside such arrays is inversely proportional to the areal density of cylinders and their mean diameter. An example calculation of a diffusion coefficient is delivered for a system of titanium isopropoxide molecules diffusing between vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Our findings are important for the correct modelling and optimisation of gas-based deposition techniques, such as atomic layer deposition or chemical vapour deposition, frequently used for surface functionalisation of high-aspect-ratio nanocylinder arrays in solar cells and energy storage applications. Furthermore, gas sensing devices with high-aspect-ratio nanocylinder arrays and the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes need the fundamental understanding and precise modelling of gas transport to optimise such processes. PMID:28144565

  18. Angular Momentum Distribution of Hot Gas and Implications for Disk Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. N.; Jing, Y. P.; Yoshikaw, Kohji

    2003-11-01

    We study the angular momentum profiles both for dark matter and for gas within virialized halos using a statistical sample of halos drawn from cosmological hydrodynamics simulations. Three simulations have been analyzed: one is the nonradiative simulation and the other two have radiative cooling. We find that the gas component, on average, has a larger spin and contains a smaller fraction of mass with negative angular momentum than its dark matter counterpart in the nonradiative model. As to the cooling models, the gas component shares approximately the same spin parameter as its dark matter counterpart, but the hot gas has a higher spin and is more aligned in angular momentum than dark matter, while the opposite holds for the cold gas. After the mass of negative angular momentum is excluded, the angular momentum profile of the hot gas component approximately follows the universal function originally proposed by Bullock et al. for dark matter, though the shape parameter μ is much larger for hot gas and is comfortably in the range required by observations of disk galaxies. Since disk formation is related to the distribution of hot gas that will cool, our study may explain the fact that the disk component of observed galaxies contains a smaller fraction of low angular momentum material than dark matter in halos.

  19. Quality of the log-geometric distribution extrapolation for smaller undiscovered oil and gas pool size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chenglin, L.; Charpentier, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey procedure for the estimation of the general form of the parent distribution requires that the parameters of the log-geometric distribution be calculated and analyzed for the sensitivity of these parameters to different conditions. In this study, we derive the shape factor of a log-geometric distribution from the ratio of frequencies between adjacent bins. The shape factor has a log straight-line relationship with the ratio of frequencies. Additionally, the calculation equations of a ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary are deduced. For a specific log-geometric distribution, we find that the ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary is the same. We apply our analysis to simulations based on oil and gas pool distributions from four petroleum systems of Alberta, Canada and four generated distributions. Each petroleum system in Alberta has a different shape factor. Generally, the shape factors in the four petroleum systems stabilize with the increase of discovered pool numbers. For a log-geometric distribution, the shape factor becomes stable when discovered pool numbers exceed 50 and the shape factor is influenced by the exploration efficiency when the exploration efficiency is less than 1. The simulation results show that calculated shape factors increase with those of the parent distributions, and undiscovered oil and gas resources estimated through the log-geometric distribution extrapolation are smaller than the actual values. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  20. STAR FORMATION AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF GAS AND DUST IN THE CIRCINUS CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoikura, Tomomi; Dobashi, Kazuhito

    2011-04-10

    We present results of a study on the Circinus cloud based on {sup 13}CO (J = 1 - 0) data as well as visual to near-infrared (JHK{sub S}) extinction maps, to investigate the distributions of gas and dust around the cloud. The global {sup 13}CO distribution of the Circinus cloud is revealed for the first time, and the total molecular mass of the cloud is estimated to be 2.5 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun} for the assumed distance 700 pc. Two massive clumps in the cloud, called Circinus-W and Circinus-E, have a mass of {approx}5 x 10{sup 3} M{sub sun}. These clumps are associated with a number of young stellar objects (YSOs) searched for in the literature, indicating that they are the most active star-forming sites in Circinus. All of the extinction maps show good agreement with the {sup 13}CO distribution. We derived the average N({sup 13}CO)/A{sub V} ratio in the Circinus cloud to be 1.25 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} mag{sup -1} by comparing the extinction maps with the {sup 13}CO data. The extinction maps also allowed us to probe into the reddening law over the Circinus cloud. We found that there is a clear change in dust properties in the densest regions of Circinus-W and Circinus-E, possibly due to grain growth in the dense cloud interior. Among the YSOs found in the literature, we attempted to infer the ages and masses of the H{alpha} emission-line stars forming in the two clumps, and found that they are likely to be younger than 1 Myr, having a relatively small mass of {approx}<2 M{sub sun} at the zero-age main sequence.

  1. Fractal analysis of the dark matter and gas distributions in the Mare-Nostrum universe

    SciTech Connect

    Gaite, José

    2010-03-01

    We develop a method of multifractal analysis of N-body cosmological simulations that improves on the customary counts-in-cells method by taking special care of the effects of discreteness and large scale homogeneity. The analysis of the Mare-Nostrum simulation with our method provides strong evidence of self-similar multifractal distributions of dark matter and gas, with a halo mass function that is of Press-Schechter type but has a power-law exponent -2, as corresponds to a multifractal. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the dark matter and gas distributions are indistinguishable as multifractals. To determine if there is any gas biasing, we calculate the cross-correlation coefficient, with negative but inconclusive results. Hence, we develop an effective Bayesian analysis connected with information theory, which clearly demonstrates that the gas is biased in a long range of scales, up to the scale of homogeneity. However, entropic measures related to the Bayesian analysis show that this gas bias is small (in a precise sense) and is such that the fractal singularities of both distributions coincide and are identical. We conclude that this common multifractal cosmic web structure is determined by the dynamics and is independent of the initial conditions.

  2. Wigner Distribution Functions as a Tool for Studying Gas Phase Alkali Metal Plus Noble Gas Collisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    time, energy must be provided to the laser system from an external source. The process of exciting constituents of the active medium into a higher...This process is repeated as long as the photons aren’t lost to the laser system. This implies that the third property that a laser must have is an...optical feedback system in order to maintain the stimulated emission process . Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) has an active

  3. Gas Chromatographic Verification of a Mathematical Model: Product Distribution Following Methanolysis Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, R. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated application of binomial statistics to equilibrium distribution of ester systems by employing gas chromatography to verify the mathematical model used. Discusses model development and experimental techniques, indicating the model enables a straightforward extension to symmetrical polyfunctional esters and presents a mathematical basis…

  4. Ecosystem Warming Affects Vertical Distribution of Leaf Gas Exchange Properties and Water Relations of Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vertical distribution of gas exchange and water relations responses to full-season in situ infrared (IR) warming were evaluated for hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) grown in an open field in a semiarid desert region of the Southwest USA. A Temperature Free-Air Contro...

  5. Phase behavior and splitting analysis: An operational tool in gas transmission and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez A., F.F.; Infantini S., M.

    1998-12-31

    Most of the natural gas produced by Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) is associated gas that flows from the gathering systems to the processing plants, before it arrives at the transmission systems. Even if the gas transmission occurs after the necessary processing of the gas has been completed, condensation still happens in the transmission, regulating stations and/or distribution systems. The quantity of condensate will not only depend on composition, pressure and temperature, but also on the unequal splitting phenomenon that takes place at tee junctions in a network system. The splitting phenomenon determines the liquid distribution at the junction. This situation is more drastic when the processing plant is partially or totally shut down in a maintenance program. This work shows how the gas transmission and distribution engineer has to use the phase behavior and splitting analysis as an operational tool, in order to predict and prevent the presence of liquid in the system. Using process simulators, the phase behavior analysis is conducted to determine the bubble and dew point curve and to perform flash calculations at any pressure and temperature. Then, the operational pressure-temperature profile is over-plotted on the phase envelope diagram in order to evaluate the condensation possibility into the gas pipeline. Afterwards, the pressure and temperature drops in regulating stations are incorporated in the phase envelope diagram and the two-phase gas condensate study is completed. Finally, considering the concepts of the splitting phenomenon and the knowledge that it can really happen, the presence of liquid in particular customers can be explained and solved. Operational experiences are included to evaluate the methodology and to present the effectiveness of the results.

  6. Diffused waveguiding capillary tube with distributed feedback for a gas laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    For use in a waveguide gas laser, a capillary tube of glass or ceramic has an inner surface defining a longitudinal capillary opening through which the laser gas flows. At least a portion of the inner surface is corrugated with corrugations or channels with a periodicity Lambda where Lambda = 1/2 Lambda, Lambda being the laser gas wavelength. The tube includes a diffused region extending outwardly from the opening. The diffused region of a depth d on the order of 1 Lambda to 3 Lambda acts as a waveguide for the waves, with the corrugations producing distributed feedback. The evanescent component of the waves traveling in the diffused region interact with the laser gas in the opening, gaining energy, and thereby amplifying the waves travelling in the diffused region, which exit the diffused region, surrounding the opening, as a beam of wavelength Lambda.

  7. Probing Milky Way's hot gas halo density distribution using the dispersion measure of pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhezher, Ya. V.; Nugaev, E. Ya.; Rubtsov, G. I.

    2016-03-01

    A number of recent studies indicates a significant amount of ionized gas in a form of the hot gas halo around the Milky Way. The halo extends over the region of 100 kpc and may be acountable for the missing baryon mass. In this paper we calculate the contribution of the proposed halo to the dispersion measure (DM) of the pulsars. The Navarro, Frenk, and White (NFW), Maller and Bullock (MB), and Feldmann, Hooper, and Gnedin (FHG) density distibutions are considered for the gas halo. The data set includes pulsars with the distance known independently from the DM, e.g., pulsars in globular clusters, LMC, SMC and pulsars with known parallax. The results exclude the NFW distribution for the hot gas, while the more realisticMB and FHG models are compatible with the observed dispersion measure.

  8. Grain-based activated carbons for natural gas storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tengyan; Walawender, Walter P; Fan, L T

    2010-03-01

    Natural gas has emerged as a potential alternative to gasoline due to the increase in global energy demand and environmental concerns. An investigation was undertaken to explore the technical feasibility of implementing the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles with activated carbons from biomass, e.g., sorghum and wheat. The grain-based activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation; the experimental parameters were varied to identify the optimum conditions. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was evaluated through nitrogen adsorption; and the storage capacity, through methane adsorption. A comparative study was also carried out with commercial activated carbons from charcoal. The highest storage factor attained was 89 for compacted grain-based activated carbons from grain sorghum with a bulk density of 0.65 g/cm(3), and the highest storage factor attained is 106 for compacted commercial activated carbons (Calgon) with a bulk density of 0.70 g/cm(3). The storage factor was found to increase approximately linearly with increasing bulk density and to be independent of the extent of compaction. This implies that the grain-based activated carbons are the ideal candidates for the ANG storage.

  9. Multi-risk assessment of L'Aquila gas distribution network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Iervolino, I.; Silvestri, F.; d'Onofrio, A.; Santo, A.; Franchin, P.; Cavalieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    This study focuses on the assessment of seismic risk for gas distribution networks. The basic function of a gas system is to deliver gas from sources to costumers and it is essentially composed of pipelines, reduction stations, and demand nodes, which are connected to end users to which the lifeline delivers gas. Because most of the components are spatially distributed and buried, seismic hazard has to account for both spatial correlation of ground motion intensity measures and effects induced by permanent ground deformation such as liquefaction and landslide, which determine localized ground failure. Different performance measures are considered in the study for the network, in terms of connectivity and flow reduction. Part of the gas distribution network operating in L'Aquila (central Italy), operated by ENEL Rete Gas spa has been chosen as case study. The whole network is distributed via a 621 km pipeline network: 234 km of pipes operating at medium pressure and the remaining 387 km with gas flowing at low pressure; it also consists of Metering/Pressure reduction stations, Reduction Groups and demand nodes. The framework presented makes use of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, both in terms of ground motion and permanent ground deformation, empirical relations to estimate pipeline response, fragility curves for the evaluation of reduction cabins vulnerability, performance indicators to characterize the functionality of the gas network. The analysis were performed through a computer code specific for risk assessment of distributed systems developed by the authors. Probabilistic hazard scenarios have been simulated for the region covering the case study considering the Paganica fault on which L'Aquila 2009 earthquake was originated as source. The strong motion has been evaluated using an European ground motion prediction equation and an associated spatial correlation model. Regarding geotechnical hazards the landslide potential of L'Aquila region, according

  10. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  11. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann, Flavio R; Cappelli, Mark A; Rieker, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  12. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively. PMID:21267082

  13. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  14. Three-dimensional distribution of gas hydrate beneath southern Hydrate Ridge: Constraints from ODP Leg 204

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trehu, A.M.; Long, P.E.; Torres, M.E.; Bohrmann, G.; Rack, F.R.; Collett, T.S.; Goldberg, D.S.; Milkov, A.V.; Riedel, M.; Schultheiss, P.; Bangs, N.L.; Barr, S.R.; Borowski, W.S.; Claypool, G.E.; Delwiche, M.E.; Dickens, G.R.; Gracia, E.; Guerin, G.; Holland, M.; Johnson, J.E.; Lee, Y.-J.; Liu, C.-S.; Su, X.; Teichert, B.; Tomaru, H.; Vanneste, M.; Watanabe, M. E.; Weinberger, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Large uncertainties about the energy resource potential and role in global climate change of gas hydrates result from uncertainty about how much hydrate is contained in marine sediments. During Leg 204 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) to the accretionary complex of the Cascadia subduction zone, we sampled the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) from the seafloor to its base in contrasting geological settings defined by a 3D seismic survey. By integrating results from different methods, including several new techniques developed for Leg 204, we overcome the problem of spatial under-sampling inherent in robust methods traditionally used for estimating the hydrate content of cores and obtain a high-resolution, quantitative estimate of the total amount and spatial variability of gas hydrate in this structural system. We conclude that high gas hydrate content (30-40% of pore space or 20-26% of total volume) is restricted to the upper tens of meters below the seafloor near the summit of the structure, where vigorous fluid venting occurs. Elsewhere, the average gas hydrate content of the sediments in the gas hydrate stability zone is generally <2% of the pore space, although this estimate may increase by a factor of 2 when patchy zones of locally higher gas hydrate content are included in the calculation. These patchy zones are structurally and stratigraphically controlled, contain up to 20% hydrate in the pore space when averaged over zones ???10 m thick, and may occur in up to ???20% of the region imaged by 3D seismic data. This heterogeneous gas hydrate distribution is an important constraint on models of gas hydrate formation in marine sediments and the response of the sediments to tectonic and environmental change. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Distribution and controls on gas hydrate in the ocean-floor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    Methane hydrate, a crystalline solid that is formed of water and gas molecules, is widespread in oceanic sediments. It occurs at water depths that exceed 300 to 500 m and in a zone that commonly extends from the sea floor, down several hundred meters - the base of the zone is limited by increased temperature. To determine factors that control gas hydrate concentration, we have mapped its distribution off the U.S. Atlantic coast using acoustic remote-sensing methods. Most natural gas hydrate is formed from biogenic methane, and therefore it is concentrated where there is a rapid accumulation of organic detritus and also where there is a rapid accumulation of sediments (which protect detritus from oxidation). When hydrate fills the pore space of sediment, it can reduce permeability and create a gas trap. Such trapping of gas beneath hydrate may cause the formation of the most concentrated hydrate deposits, perhaps because the gas that is held in the trap can slowly diffuse upwards or migrate through faults. Hydrate-sealed traps are formed by hills on the sea floor, by dipping strata, or by salt(?) domes. Off the southeastern United States, a small area (only 3000 km{sup 2}) beneath a ridge formed by rapidly-deposited sediments appears to contain a volume of methane in hydrate that is equivalent to {approximately}30 times the U.S. annual consumption of gas. The breakdown of hydrate can cause submarine landslides by converting the hydrate to gas plus water and generating a rise of pore pressure. Conversely, sea-floor landslides can cause breakdown of hydrate by reducing the pressure in sediments. These interacting processes may cause cascading slides, which would result in breakdown of hydrate and release of methane to the atmosphere. This addition of methane to the global greenhouse would significantly influence climate. Gas hydrate in sea-floor sediments is potentially significant to climate, energy resources, and sea-floor stability.

  16. Three-dimensional distribution of gas hydrate beneath southern Hydrate Ridge: constraints from ODP Leg 204

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tréhu, A. M.; Long, P. E.; Torres, M. E.; Bohrmann, G.; Rack, F. R.; Collett, T. S.; Goldberg, D. S.; Milkov, A. V.; Riedel, M.; Schultheiss, P.; Bangs, N. L.; Barr, S. R.; Borowski, W. S.; Claypool, G. E.; Delwiche, M. E.; Dickens, G. R.; Gracia, E.; Guerin, G.; Holland, M.; Johnson, J. E.; Lee, Y.-J.; Liu, C.-S.; Su, X.; Teichert, B.; Tomaru, H.; Vanneste, M.; Watanabe, M.; Weinberger, J. L.

    2004-06-01

    Large uncertainties about the energy resource potential and role in global climate change of gas hydrates result from uncertainty about how much hydrate is contained in marine sediments. During Leg 204 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) to the accretionary complex of the Cascadia subduction zone, we sampled the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) from the seafloor to its base in contrasting geological settings defined by a 3D seismic survey. By integrating results from different methods, including several new techniques developed for Leg 204, we overcome the problem of spatial under-sampling inherent in robust methods traditionally used for estimating the hydrate content of cores and obtain a high-resolution, quantitative estimate of the total amount and spatial variability of gas hydrate in this structural system. We conclude that high gas hydrate content (30-40% of pore space or 20-26% of total volume) is restricted to the upper tens of meters below the seafloor near the summit of the structure, where vigorous fluid venting occurs. Elsewhere, the average gas hydrate content of the sediments in the gas hydrate stability zone is generally <2% of the pore space, although this estimate may increase by a factor of 2 when patchy zones of locally higher gas hydrate content are included in the calculation. These patchy zones are structurally and stratigraphically controlled, contain up to 20% hydrate in the pore space when averaged over zones ˜10 m thick, and may occur in up to ˜20% of the region imaged by 3D seismic data. This heterogeneous gas hydrate distribution is an important constraint on models of gas hydrate formation in marine sediments and the response of the sediments to tectonic and environmental change.

  17. Numerical Study of the Gas Distribution in an Oxygen Blast Furnace. Part 2: Effects of the Design and Operating Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Meng, Jiale; Guo, Lei; Guo, Zhancheng

    2015-09-01

    Gas distribution plays a significant role in an oxygen blast furnace. The uneven distribution of recycling gas from the shaft tuyere has been shown to affect the heat distribution and energy utilization in an oxygen blast furnace. Therefore, the optimal design and operating parameters beneficial to the gas distribution in an oxygen blast furnace should be determined. In total, three parameters and 22 different conditions in an oxygen blast furnace multifluid model were considered. The gas and heat distributions in an oxygen blast furnace under different conditions were simulated and compared. The study revealed that when the height of shaft tuyere decreased from 7.8 m to 3.8 m, the difference in top gas CO concentration between the center and edge decreased by 11.6%. When the recycling gas temperature increased from 1123 K to 1473 K, the difference in the top gas CO concentration between the center and edge decreased by 3.9%. As the allocation ratio increased from 0.90 to 1.94, the difference in the top gas CO concentration between the center and edge decreased by 3.0%. Considering both gas and heat distributions, a shaft tuyere height of 3.8 m to 4.8 m, a recycling gas temperature of 1473 K and an allocation ratio of 1.94 are recommended in practice under the conditions of this study.

  18. Hydrogen Gas Emissions from Active Faults and Identification of Flow Pathway in a Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimaru, T.; Niwa, M.; Kurosawa, H.; Shimada, K.

    2010-12-01

    surface along fractures associated with groundwater flow. Therefore, it will be possible to estimate the groundwater flow pathways from deep underground in fracture zones around a fault by measurement of the hydrogen gas. From this standpoint, we have obtained multipoint hydrogen gas measurements across an exposed fault zone in the Atera Fault System, an active, major strike-slip fault in Central Japan and provide a continuous cross-section from fault core to damage zone. The distribution of hydrogen gas emissions, corresponding to the microscopic structure of fracture zones, have shown that large volumes of hydrogen gas emission occur where open micro-fractures are dominant and emissions were not observed in the central part of faults with abundant clay minerals. Using these simple methods, we have obtained information on the qualitative permeability of fracture zones. A rapid evaluation of the spatial heterogeneity of hydrogen gas emissions along the faults probably increase knowledge of hydrogeological structure around faults. Reference Sugisaki et al., 1983, Jour. Geol. 91, 239-258. Kita et al., 1982, JGR 87, 10789-10795. Shimada et al., 2008, Resource Geol. 58, 196-202.

  19. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI.

  20. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  1. 76 FR 77223 - SourceGas Distribution LLC; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval and Revised Statement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SourceGas Distribution LLC; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval and Revised Statement of Operating Conditions Take notice that on December 1, 2011, SourceGas Distribution LLC...

  2. Influence of Permian salt dissolution on distribution of shallow Niobrara gas fields, eastern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, D.W.; Smosna, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    Subsurface analysis of Permian salt and related strata in the shallow Niobrara gas area on the eastern flank of the Denver basin reveals that the location of faulted anticlines which produce gas from porous chalk is related to the occurrence of six Nippewalla Group (Leonardian) salt zones. Salt distribution is controlled by the configuration of evaporate basins during the Leonardian, truncation at a sub-Jurassic unconformity (which has completely removed Guadalupian salts), and post-Jurassic subsurface dissolution. Significant dissolution took place in response to Laramide orogeny and subsequent eastward regional groundwater flow within the Lyons (Cedar Hills) Sandstone aquifer. Initially, dissolution occurred along a regional facies change from sandstone to salt. Solution collapse allowed for cross-formational flow and removal of younger salts. Shallow Niobrara gas fields are situated above salt outliers or along regionally updip salt edges. No significant Niobrara production exists in areas where salt is absent. Structural relief across fields is related to Leonardian thickness variations, rather than subsalt offset. Seismic data reveal abrupt Leonardian thinning at the regionally updip limit of Eckley field, which has produced over 33 BCFG. Thickness of residual salt may be important in controlling the amount of gas trapped within the Niobrara. Where thick salts are preserved, structural relief is greater, the gas-water transition zone is thicker, and gas saturation is higher at the crests of faulted anticlines.

  3. Central Appalachian basin natural gas database: distribution, composition, and origin of natural gases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled a database consisting of three worksheets of central Appalachian basin natural gas analyses and isotopic compositions from published and unpublished sources of 1,282 gas samples from Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The database includes field and reservoir names, well and State identification number, selected geologic reservoir properties, and the composition of natural gases (methane; ethane; propane; butane, iso-butane [i-butane]; normal butane [n-butane]; iso-pentane [i-pentane]; normal pentane [n-pentane]; cyclohexane, and hexanes). In the first worksheet, location and American Petroleum Institute (API) numbers from public or published sources are provided for 1,231 of the 1,282 gas samples. A second worksheet of 186 gas samples was compiled from published sources and augmented with public location information and contains carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopic measurements of natural gas. The third worksheet is a key for all abbreviations in the database. The database can be used to better constrain the stratigraphic distribution, composition, and origin of natural gas in the central Appalachian basin.

  4. Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Synopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom

    2010-01-01

    Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is occurring in part because modern air-conditioner and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip than older motors. These motors can stall in less than three cycles (0.05 s) when a fault, for example, on the sub-transmission system, causes voltage on the distribution system to sag to 70% or less of nominal. We completed a new test system for A/C compressor motor stall testing at the DECC Lab. The A/C Stall test system is being used to characterize when and how compressor motors stall under low voltage and high compressor pressure conditions. However, instead of using air conditioners, we are using high efficiency heat pumps. We have gathered A/C stall characterization data for both sustained and momentary voltage sags of the test heat pump. At low enough voltage, the heat pump stalls (compressor motor stops and draws 5-6 times normal current in trying to restart) due to low inertia and low torque of the motor. For the momentary sag, we are using a fast acting contactor/switch to quickly switch from nominal to the sagged voltage in cycles.

  5. Application of the octanol-air partition coefficient for describing particle/gas distribution of chlorinated aromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, T.; Bidleman, T.; Falconer, R.; Mackay, D.

    1995-12-31

    Partitioning of chlorinated aromatics between the gas and aerosol particulate phases can be explained by adsorption onto active sites on the surface of the aerosol and/or by absorption into a liquid film. In both cases the particle/gas distribution coefficient, K{sub P}, is well correlated with the vapor pressure of the compound. The correlation improves for the adsorption model by including a shape parameter which takes into account the planarity of the molecule. This investigation will consider using the octanol-air partition coefficient, K{sub OA}, as a surrogate for K{sub p}. A method for measuring K{sub OA} is described and results are presented for several PCBs over the temperature range {minus}10 C to + 30 C. The temperature dependence of K{sub P} for PCBs, measured in controlled laboratory experiments, is more closely described by the temperature slope of K{sub OA} than vapor pressure. This supports the hypothesis that absorption into an organic, liquid film is a plausible mechanism for sorption of chlorinated aromatics to urban aerosols. K{sub OA} is also believed to be a valuable descriptor of partitioning of persistent organochlorine chemicals between the atmosphere and lipid-containing phases such as soil and vegetation. Results of particle/gas distributions for PCBs and PCNs (polychlorinated naphthalenes) from field samples collected in Toronto and Chicago are presented and discussed with relation to OA, vapor pressure and planarity.

  6. Application of the octanol-air partition coefficient for describing particle/gas distribution of persistent aromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, T.; Bidleman, T.; Falconer, R.; Mackay, D.

    1995-12-31

    Partitioning of chemicals between the gas and aerosol particulate phases can be explained by adsorption onto active sites on the surface of the aerosol, and/or by absorption into a liquid film. In both cases the particle/gas distribution coefficient, K{sub P}, is well correlated with vapor pressure for compounds in the same class. This investigation will consider using the octanol-air partition coefficient, K{sub OA}, as an alternate fitting parameter for K{sub P}. A method for measuring K{sub OA} is described and results are presented for several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) over the temperature range {minus}10 C to + 40 C. Results of particle/gas distributions for PCBs, PAHs, and PCN, from field samples collected in Chicago are presented and discussed with relation to K{sub OA}, vapor pressure and the planarity of the compound. Correlation of K{sub P} with K{sub OA} reduces differences between compound classes and is able to explain the enhanced partitioning onto particles for coplanar PCBs which vapor pressure alone is unable to resolve.

  7. Activity-Centric Approach to Distributed Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Renato; Satapathy, Goutam; Lang, Jun

    2004-01-01

    The first phase of an effort to develop a NASA version of the Cybele software system has been completed. To give meaning to even a highly abbreviated summary of the modifications to be embodied in the NASA version, it is necessary to present the following background information on Cybele: Cybele is a proprietary software infrastructure for use by programmers in developing agent-based application programs [complex application programs that contain autonomous, interacting components (agents)]. Cybele provides support for event handling from multiple sources, multithreading, concurrency control, migration, and load balancing. A Cybele agent follows a programming paradigm, called activity-centric programming, that enables an abstraction over system-level thread mechanisms. Activity centric programming relieves application programmers of the complex tasks of thread management, concurrency control, and event management. In order to provide such functionality, activity-centric programming demands support of other layers of software. This concludes the background information. In the first phase of the present development, a new architecture for Cybele was defined. In this architecture, Cybele follows a modular service-based approach to coupling of the programming and service layers of software architecture. In a service-based approach, the functionalities supported by activity-centric programming are apportioned, according to their characteristics, among several groups called services. A well-defined interface among all such services serves as a path that facilitates the maintenance and enhancement of such services without adverse effect on the whole software framework. The activity-centric application-program interface (API) is part of a kernel. The kernel API calls the services by use of their published interface. This approach makes it possible for any application code written exclusively under the API to be portable for any configuration of Cybele.

  8. Partition and size distribution of heavy metals in the flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Wu, Chun-Hsin; Liu, Ming-Han

    2005-03-01

    This study investigates the partition of heavy metals in both solid and gas phases in the flue gas from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. Six MSW incinerators in Taiwan were examined and heavy metals in the flue gas at the inlets and outlets of air pollution control devices (APCDs) were analyzed. Heavy metals including Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Cr were sampled by USEPA Method 29 and further analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Experimental results revealed that the removal efficiencies of the APCDs for the heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Cr greatly exceeded 90%, but that of Hg did not. Two groups of heavy metals upstream of APCDs were observed. Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Cr were present mainly in the solid phase with a solid to gas ratio (S/G) of over 12.3. However, in most cases, mercury appeared mainly in the gas phase with an S/G ratio from 0.15 to 1.04, because it has a low boiling point. Additionally, treatment with the APCDs increased the S/G ratio of mercury because gaseous mercury could be removed by injecting powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas. Moreover, the distribution of particle sizes in the solid phase was bimodal. Finer particles (d(p)2.5 microm) contained more Cr and Hg.

  9. Linking basin-scale and pore-scale gas hydrate distribution patterns in diffusion-dominated marine hydrate systems

    DOE PAGES

    Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann E.; ...

    2017-02-07

    The goal of this study is to computationally determine the potential distribution patterns of diffusion-driven methane hydrate accumulations in coarse-grained marine sediments. Diffusion of dissolved methane in marine gas hydrate systems has been proposed as a potential transport mechanism through which large concentrations of hydrate can preferentially accumulate in coarse-grained sediments over geologic time. Using one-dimensional compositional reservoir simulations, we examine hydrate distribution patterns at the scale of individual sand layers (1 to 20 m thick) that are deposited between microbially active fine-grained material buried through the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). We then extrapolate to two- dimensional and basin-scalemore » three-dimensional simulations, where we model dipping sands and multilayered systems. We find that properties of a sand layer including pore size distribution, layer thickness, dip, and proximity to other layers in multilayered systems all exert control on diffusive methane fluxes toward and within a sand, which in turn impact the distribution of hydrate throughout a sand unit. In all of these simulations, we incorporate data on physical properties and sand layer geometries from the Terrebonne Basin gas hydrate system in the Gulf of Mexico. We demonstrate that diffusion can generate high hydrate saturations (upward of 90%) at the edges of thin sands at shallow depths within the GHSZ, but that it is ineffective at producing high hydrate saturations throughout thick (greater than 10 m) sands buried deep within the GHSZ. As a result, we find that hydrate in fine-grained material can preserve high hydrate saturations in nearby thin sands with burial.« less

  10. Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

  11. Gas hydrate and P-Wave Velocity Distribution in the Yaquina Basin at the Peruvian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebscher, C.; Gajewski, D.; Grobys, J.; Kukowski, N.; Netzeband, G.; Wagner, M.; Bialas, J.

    2003-04-01

    The lower boundary of the methane hydrate stability zone in continental margin sediments is often marked by a strong, phase reversed reflection subparallel to the seafloor, called the bottom simulating reflector (BSR). High resolution multichannel seismic (MCS) data from the Yaquina Basin offshore Peru at 8 deg S show a BSR that is varying laterally in amplitude as well as in continuity. The amplitudes of the reflections above the BSR also vary with the appearance of the BSR. Where the BSR is strong, the reflections above it are weaker compared to areas where the BSR is weak. And although the strong part of the BSR is underlain immediately by strong reflections, reflections several hundred meters beneath the BSR appear weaker than those where the BSR is weak. This variation indicates significant heterogeneity in the distribution of gas and gas hydrate in this area. Chemoherms observed at the Yaquina Basin sea floor indicate the presence of free gas in the sediments up to the seafloor. The presence of gas and gas hydrate within the sediment sequence significantly influences the P-wave velocity in the affected layers. Therefore a detailed analysis of velocity variations enables to understand the apparently different conditions for the formation of gas hydrate along the BSR and the migration paths of the free gas. Ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data from profiles coincident with the MCS data can provide such detailed velocity depth information. Velocity analysis from OBS data included 2D-ray tracing and 1D-interval-velocity analysis by means of DIX-inversion. In order to find a trade-off between vertical resolution and minimization of errors caused by the sensitivity of the DIX' formula to velocity variations in thin layers, the data have undergone a Kirchhoff wave-equation datuming and adjacent coherence filtering was applied to the data to eliminate the one sided travel path through the water column of the OBS-observations. The derived velocity structure confirms

  12. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  13. Genetic algorithm for the pair distribution function of the electron gas.

    PubMed

    Vericat, Fernando; Stoico, César O; Carlevaro, C Manuel; Renzi, Danilo G

    2011-12-01

    The pair distribution function of the electron gas is calculated using a parameterized generalization of hypernetted chain approximation with the parameters being obtained by optimizing the system energy with a genetic algorithm. The functions so obtained are compared with Monte Carlo simulations performed by other authors in its variational and di_usion versions showing a very good agreement especially with the di_usion Monte Carlo results.

  14. Symptoms of hand-arm vibration syndrome in gas distribution operatives

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K.; Crane, G.; Inskip, H.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To survey the prevalence and severity of hand-arm vibration syndrome symptoms (HAVS), and to estimate past and current exposure to hand held vibrating tools in a sample of gas distribution operatives breaking and re-instating road surfaces. METHODS: 153 gas distribution operatives (participation rate 81%) from three company districts were assessed by an administered questionnaire, a clinical examination, and a simple cold challenge test to the hands. Exposure histories were taken aided by a picture album of past and current tools. Information was obtained from several sources on the likely vibratory characteristics of those tools. Estimates were thus obtained of the frequency of blanching and neurological complaints in operatives, and of their lifetime hours of exposure and lifetime dose of vibration. RESULTS: On average, the sample had spent 16 years in employment involving use of vibratory tools. 24% had symptoms or signs of blanching after use of tools in the industry; 46% had troublesome persistent complaints of paraesthesiae or numbness, and these symptoms extended into the hands or arms in 18% of workers. In 5.9% the distribution of symptoms was suggestive of carpal tunnel syndrome; and of ulnar nerve entrapment in a further 3.9%. The risks of blanching and neurological complaints rose significantly with lifetime hours of use of vibrating tools and lifetime dose of vibration. Symptoms were generally mild and apparent only after a prolonged interval, but there were exceptions, and cases had occurred after lower recent exposures. CONCLUSIONS: It has been suggested that aspects of the gas distribution operative's work mitigate against the risk normally anticipated from use of pneumatic road breaking tools. By contrast our data suggest that symptoms of HAVS do occur, given sufficient exposure, a finding relevant not only to gas supply workers, but also to workers from other industries who break and repair road surfaces.   PMID:9930095

  15. Fabrication of gas impervious edge seal for a bipolar gas distribution assembly for use in a fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Werth, John

    1986-01-01

    A bipolar gas reactant distribution assembly for use in a fuel cell is disclosed, the assembly having a solid edge seal to prevent leakage of gaseous reactants wherein a pair of porous plates are provided with peripheral slits generally parallel to, and spaced apart from two edges of the plate, the slit being filled with a solid, fusible, gas impervious edge sealing compound. The plates are assembled with opposite faces adjacent one another with a layer of a fusible sealant material therebetween the slits in the individual plates being approximately perpendicular to one another. The plates are bonded to each other by the simultaneous application of heat and pressure to cause a redistribution of the sealant into the pores of the adjacent plate surfaces and to cause the edge sealing compound to flow and impregnate the region of the plates adjacent the slits and comingle with the sealant layer material to form a continuous layer of sealant along the edges of the assembled plates.

  16. Altitude Investigation of Gas Temperature Distribution at Turbine of Three Similar Axial-Flow Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, W.R.; Schulze, F.W.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of inlet pressure, corrected engine speed, and turbine temperature level on turbine-inlet gas temperature distributions was conducted on a J40-WE-6, interim J40-WE-6, and prototype J40-WE-8 turbojet engine in the altitude wind tunnel at the NAC.4 Lewis laboratory. The engines were investigated over a range of simulated pressure altitudes from 15,000 to 55,000 feet, flight Mach numbers from 0.12 to 0.64, and corrected engine speeds from 7198 to 8026 rpm, The gas temperature distribution at the turbine of the three engines over the range of operating conditions investigated was considered satisfactory from the standpoint of desired temperature distribution with one exception - the distribution for the J40-WE-6 engine indicated a trend with decreasing engine-inlet pressure for the temperature to exceed the desired in the region of the blade hub. Installation of a compressor-outlet mixer vane assembly remedied this undesirable temperature distribution, The experimental data have shown that turbine-inlet temperature distributions are influenced in the expected manner by changes in compressor-outlet pressure or mass-flow distribution and by changes in combustor hole-area distribution. The similarity between turbine-inlet and turbine-outlet temperature distribution indicated only a small shift in temperature distribution imposed by the turbine rotors. The attainable jet thrusts of the three engines were influenced in different degrees and directions by changes in temperature distributions with change in engine-inlet pressure. Inability to match the desired temperature distribution resulted, for the J40-WE-6 engine, in an 11-percent thrust loss based on an average turbine-inlet temperature of 1500 F at an engine-inlet pressure of 500 pounds per square foot absolute. Departure from the desired temperature distribution in the Slade tip region results, for the prototype J40-WE-8 engine, in an attainable thrust increase of 3 to 4 percent as

  17. Pressure drop and gas distribution in compost based biofilters: medium mixing and composition effects.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Revah, S; Noyola, A

    2003-07-01

    The pressure drop and gas distribution in four different filter media for compost biofilters were studied as a function of three superficial loading rates of moist air and by carrying out the filter medium homogenization by mixing. The filter media used were compost, compost with cane bagasse, lava rock and aerobic sludge previously dried to 60% of water content. The pressure drop increased when lava rock and cane bagasse were used as bulking agents. The same trend was observed when water was added to the filter medium. Pressure drop tended to decrease with time as flow channels were formed inthe filter media. Tracer studies were carried out to quantify the gas distribution and the effect of channel formation. For the biofilters submitted to an airflow of 10, 40 and 70 l min(-1), an average normalized time of 0.96, 0.89 and 0.82, respectively were obtained. The results showed that channel formation was increased as the superficial loading rate was also increased. An operational practice that this work proposes and evaluates to improve gas distribution and medium moisture control is to carry out intermittent medium mixing. The medium moisture and void volume achieved under mixing condition were around 50% and 0.40, respectively with an average constant pressure drop of 11, 45 and 78 cm of water m(-1) for air velocities of 75, 300 and 525 m h(-1).

  18. Heat Transfer and Pressure Distributions on a Gas Turbine Blade Tip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azad, Gm S.; Han, Je-Chin; Teng, Shuye; Boyle, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and static pressure distributions are experimentally investigated on a gas turbine blade tip in a five-bladed stationary linear cascade. The blade is a 2-dimensional model of a first stage gas turbine rotor blade with a blade tip profile of a GE-E(sup 3) aircraft gas turbine engine rotor blade. The flow condition in the test cascade corresponds to an overall pressure ratio of 1.32 and exit Reynolds number based on axial chord of 1.1 x 10(exp 6). The middle 3-blade has a variable tip gap clearance. All measurements are made at three different tip gap clearances of about 1%, 1.5%, and 2.5% of the blade span. Heat transfer measurements are also made at two different turbulence intensity levels of 6.1 % and 9.7% at the cascade inlet. Static pressure measurements are made in the mid-span and the near-tip regions as well as on the shroud surface, opposite the blade tip surface. Detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions on the plane tip surface are measured using a transient liquid crystal technique. Results show various regions of high and low heat transfer coefficient on the tip surface. Tip clearance has a significant influence on local tip beat transfer coefficient distribution. Heat transfer coefficient also increases about 15-20% along the leakage flow path at higher turbulence intensity level of 9.7% over 6.1 %.

  19. Exterior Distribution of Utility Steam, High Temperature Water (HTW), Chilled Water (CHW), Fuel Gas, and Compressed Air.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    A~r-AIIO 408 NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND ALEXANDRIA VA FIG 13/11 EXTERIOR DISTRIBUTION OF UTILITY STEAM. HIGH TEMPERATURE WATER -ETC(U...PUBUC RELEASE JOF EXTERIOR DISTRIBUTION OF O UTILITY STEAM, HIGH 0 TEMPERATURE WATER (HTW), , CHILLED WATER (CHW), FUEL GAS, AND COMPRESSED AIR DESIGN...distribution piping system for supplying utility steam, high temperature water (HTW), chilled water (CRW), cooling or condensing water, fuel gas, and

  20. DETERMINING ALL GAS PROPERTIES IN GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE DARK MATTER DISTRIBUTION ALONE

    SciTech Connect

    Frederiksen, Teddy F.; Hansen, Steen H.; Host, Ole; Roncadelli, Marco

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate that all properties of the hot X-ray emitting gas in galaxy clusters are completely determined by the underlying dark matter (DM) structure. Apart from the standard conditions of spherical symmetry and hydrostatic equilibrium for the gas, our proof is based on the Jeans equation for the DM and two simple relations which have recently emerged from numerical simulations: the equality of the gas and DM temperatures, and the almost linear relation between the DM velocity anisotropy profile and its density slope. For DM distributions described by the Navarro-Frenk-White or the Sersic profiles, the resulting gas density profile, the gas-to-total-mass ratio profile, and the entropy profile are all in good agreement with X-ray observations. All these profiles are derived using zero free parameters. Our result allows us to predict the X-ray luminosity profile of a cluster in terms of its DM content alone. As a consequence, a new strategy becomes available to constrain the DM morphology in galaxy clusters from X-ray observations. Our results can also be used as a practical tool for creating initial conditions for realistic cosmological structures to be used in numerical simulations.

  1. Mobile Methane Measurements of Natural Gas Distribution and End-use Emissions in Indianapolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, B. K.; Roscioli, J. R.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Ferrara, T.

    2015-12-01

    Indianapolis is the site of the INFLUX program to investigate greenhouse gas emissions from a large metropolitan area. A key question in INFLUX is the relative contributions of methane emissions from the local gas distribution system in comparison to biogenic sources, such as the wastewater treatment system and landfills, and of end use emissions from furnaces and other combustion devices downstream of customer gas meters. During February and March, 2015, the Aerodyne van was used to measure methane, ethane, CO2 and other trace gases during mobile sampling traverses through a number of urban and suburban Indianapolis neighborhoods. Signatures of distinct natural gas emissions, biogenic emissions, and combustion emissions were observed in small plumes. In a number of cases, these sources were identified as manhole covers in city streets, where nearby leaks can seep into the local wastewater system. Quantification of ethane and methane from 45 manholes reveal that some had emissions that were clearly biogenic while others had a distinct natural gas signature. This paper describes the results from the analysis of these mobile data in the context of the current Indianapolis methane emission inventory.

  2. Distributed Leadership through the Lens of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Jeanne Ho Pau; Victor Chen, Der-Thanq; Ng, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Using Activity Theory as an interpretive lens to examine the distribution of leadership, this paper shares a case study on how leadership for an ICT project was distributed in a Singapore school. Method: The case study involved observations of 49 meetings and 34 interviews of leaders and the teachers who were involved in the ICT project.…

  3. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (<0.044 mm). The increase in Vm/Vs is due to the increase in bulk density of the carbons. Volumetric methane adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  5. Free gas in the regional hydrate stability zone: Implications for hydrate distribution and fracturing behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, H.; Dugan, B.

    2010-12-01

    We show that hydrate distribution and fracture genesis in the hydrate stability zone are largely governed by the phase of methane supply. In systems where methane is supplied primarily as free gas, hydrate saturation increases upwards in the hydrate stability zone, and fractures nucleate in the middle of the stability zone where hydrate saturation is highest. In systems where methane is supplied primarily as a dissolved phase in the pore water, hydrate saturation decreases upwards in the stability zone, and fractures nucleate at the base of the stability zone. These interpretations are based on our one-dimensional model that incorporates multiphase flow and free gas within the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ). The RHSZ is defined as the interval in which methane hydrate may occur at seawater salinity (3.35% by mass). As hydrate forms and excludes salt from the crystal structure, the porewater salinity increases. Free gas enters the RHSZ when the porewater salinity increases to the value required for three-phase (dissolved methane + gas hydrate + free gas) equilibrium. Our model also incorporates changes to capillary pressure as hydrate forms and occludes the pore system. We model the system until the excess pore pressure exceeds the vertical effective stress in the domain due to capillary effects and pore occlusion, at which point we assume fractures nucleate. We test our model at Hydrate Ridge, where methane supply is dominantly in the gas phase, and show that hydrate saturation increases upwards and fractures nucleate high within the stability zone, eventually allowing gas to vent to the seafloor. We also model Blake Ridge, where methane supply is dominantly in the dissolved phase, and show that hydrate saturation is greatest at the base of the stability zone; fractures nucleate here and in some cases could propagate through the regional hydrate stability zone, allowing methane-charged water to vent to the seafloor. These two systems represent endmembers of

  6. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A.; Noh, Joong S.; Agarwal, Rajiv K.

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  7. San Diego Gas and Electric Company Imperial Valley geothermal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichs, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric and its wholly owned subsidiary New Albion Resources Co. have been affiliated with Magma Power Company, Magma Energy Inc. and Chevron Oil Company for the last 2-1/2 years in carrying out geothermal research and development in the private lands of the Imperial Valley. The steps undertaken in the program are reviewed and the sequence that must be considered by companies considering geothermal research and development is emphasized. Activities at the south end of the Salton Sea and in the Heber area of Imperial Valley are leading toward development of demonstration facilities within the near future. The current status of the project is reported.

  8. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Numerical solutions of ideal quantum gas dynamical flows governed by semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical distribution

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chih-Yuan; Diaz, Manuel; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Hanxin

    2014-01-01

    The ideal quantum gas dynamics as manifested by the semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) equilibrium distribution derived in Wu et al. (Wu et al. 2012 Proc. R. Soc. A 468, 1799–1823 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0673)) is numerically studied for particles of three statistics. This anisotropic ES equilibrium distribution was derived using the maximum entropy principle and conserves the mass, momentum and energy, but differs from the standard Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein distribution. The present numerical method combines the discrete velocity (or momentum) ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock-capturing method in physical space. A decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. Computations of two-dimensional Riemann problems are presented, and various contours of the quantities unique to this ES model are illustrated. The main flow features, such as shock waves, expansion waves and slip lines and their complex nonlinear interactions, are depicted and found to be consistent with existing calculations for a classical gas. PMID:24399919

  10. Investigation of the causes for the measurement differences between the natural gas measurement systems of a gas distribution company and of a consumer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, Kazuto; Silva Telles, Rubens

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the methodology used, the checked items and the results obtained in an investigation carried out to identify the causes that generated substantial differences between the natural gas volumes measured by two measuring systems, one from a gas distribution company and another from its industrial consumer, both installed in series in a gas pipeline. The investigation showed that the measurement of the volume of gas performed by the gas distributor metering system was influenced by an erroneous measurement of the gas temperature since it was affected by a complex thermodynamic process involving cooling by the Joule-Thomson effect caused by a pressure reducing valve and heating by heat exchange through the pipe walls.

  11. Quenched Dynamics of the Momentum Distribution of the Unitary Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancilotto, Francesco; Rossi, Maurizio; Salasnich, Luca; Toigo, Flavio

    2015-12-01

    We study the quenched dynamics of the momentum distribution of a unitary Bose gas under isotropic harmonic confinement within a time-dependent density functional approach based on our recently calculated Monte Carlo bulk equation of state. In our calculations the inter-atomic s-wave scattering length of the trapped bosons is suddenly increased to a very large value and the real-time evolution of the system is studied. Prompted by the very recent experimental data of 85Rb atoms at unitarity (Makotyn et al. in Nat Phys 10:116, 2014) we focus on the momentum distribution as a function of time. Our results suggest that at low momenta, a quasi-stationary momentum distribution is reached after a long transient, contrary to what found experimentally for large momenta which equilibrate on a time scale shorter than the one for three body losses.

  12. Motion of Euglena gracilis: Active fluctuations and velocity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanczuk, P.; Romensky, M.; Scholz, D.; Lobaskin, V.; Schimansky-Geier, L.

    2015-07-01

    We study the velocity distribution of unicellular swimming algae Euglena gracilis using optical microscopy and active Brownian particle theory. To characterize a peculiar feature of the experimentally observed distribution at small velocities we use the concept of active fluctuations, which was recently proposed for the description of stochastically self-propelled particles [Romanczuk, P. and Schimansky-Geier, L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230601 (2011)]. In this concept, the fluctuating forces arise due to internal random performance of the propulsive motor. The fluctuating forces are directed in parallel to the heading direction, in which the propulsion acts. In the theory, we introduce the active motion via the depot model [Schweitzer, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(23), 5044 (1998)]. We demonstrate that the theoretical predictions based on the depot model with active fluctuations are consistent with the experimentally observed velocity distributions. In addition to the model with additive active noise, we obtain theoretical results for a constant propulsion with multiplicative noise.

  13. Distribution of sulfur deposition near a wellbore in a sour gas reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinghong; Yang, Xuefeng; He, ShunLi; Zhao, Jinzhou

    2013-02-01

    Elemental sulfur precipitates from sour gas when reservoir pressure and temperature decrease. Sulfur deposition in a formation may significantly reduce the inflow performance of sour gas wells. This paper develops a micro-mechanical migration model and experiments which describe the law of sulfur precipitation, plugging and distribution near a wellbore. Based on the analysis of the sulfur deposition law and micro-mechanical migration theory, elemental sulfur mechanical models in pores are presented. The critical velocity of sulfur is calculated and the rule of precipitated sulfur distribution near a wellbore is deduced. Reservoir cores and supersaturated sour gas are utilized to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in sulfur damage experiments, and the main influential factor is analysed. According to the models and experimental results, precipitated sulfur can decrease reservoir permeability. The liquid bridge force is the most important factor to affect reservoir permeability due to sulfur deposition. Precipitated sulfur cannot be carried away from pores if the liquid bridge force is considered; the critical velocity increases as the diameter of the sulfur particles increases, which may cause serious formation damage. Moreover, it can be seen from the results that the biggest volume of sulfur deposition does not occur at the bottom but near the bottom of a borehole. These results can be used to describe the profile of dynamic sulfur deposition and help a reservoir engineer to develop a plan for removing the sulfur near a wellbore.

  14. Gas composition influence on ion energy distribution functions in an industrial ICP reactor with biased cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Shannon, Steven; Coumou, David; White, Scott

    2016-09-01

    An industrial ICP reactor consisting of a top planar coil and RF biased lower electrode has been characterized using a hairpin resonator probe and gridded ion energy analyzer to measure electron density in the bulk plasma and ion energy distribution function (IEDF) at the surface of the biased cathode. Argon and oxygen were run at constant total flow with 20mTorr downstream pressure control with varying flow ratios between the two gases ranging from 0% to 100% oxygen content. ICP and bias power were adjusted to maintain constant electron density and sheath bias over this mixing matrix at four different setpoints reflecting high density / high bias, high density / low bias, low density / high bias, and low density / low bias. Although the fundamental parameters governing RF sheath behavior were held constant, several trends in ion energy distribution are observed with respect to gas composition (aside from the obvious influence of ion mass) that show considerable variation in measured IEDF particularly that can be attributed to ion collisions in the sheath as well as gas heating variation due to gas composition.

  15. Integrated resource planning for local gas distribution companies: A critical review of regulatory policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Islam, M.

    1994-08-01

    According to the report, public utility commissions (PUCs) are increasingly adopting, or considering the adoption of integrated resource planning (IRP) for local gas distribution companies (LDCs). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires PUCs to consider IRP for gas LDCs. This study has two major objectives: (1) to help PUCs develop appropriate regulatory approaches with regard to IRP for gas LDCs; and (2) to help PUCs respond to the EPAct directive. The study finds that it is appropriate for PUCs to pursue energy efficiency within the traditional regulatory framework of minimizing private costs of energy production and delivery; and PUCs should play a limited role in addressing environmental externalities. The study also finds that in promoting energy efficiency, PUCs should pursue policies that are incentive-based, procompetitive, and sensitive to rate impacts. The study evaluates a number of traditional and nontraditional ratemaking mechanisms on the basis of cost minimization, energy efficiency, competitiveness, and other criteria. The mechanisms evaluated include direct recovery of DSM expenses, lost revenue adjustments for DSM options, revenue decoupling mechanisms, sharing of DSM cost savings, performance-based rate of return for DSM, provision of DSM as a separate service, deregulation of DSM service, price caps, and deregulation of the noncore gas market. The study concludes with general recommendations for regulatory approaches and ratemaking mechanisms that PUCs may wish to consider in advancing IRP objectives.

  16. Market hub technology in the domestic natural gas distribution system. A panel discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Glicken, J.

    1992-09-01

    This document describes a panel discussion held on March 18, 1992 as part of a conference entitled ``Market Hub Technology`` . The purpose of the conference was to stimulate dialogue among various segments of the natural gas industry on the technology limits of an economic policy issue that has the potential to significantly alter the structure and functioning of the natural gas industry. Attendees included key US gas industry representatives, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) commissioners, and others. The conference explored the concept of market centers, or hubs, and related technologies. It covered the technology currently available for the establishment of an integrated system of physical market hubs, and explored technology requirements for the further development of useful and efficient hubs. The discussion identified two primary barriers to the acceptance and implementation of a market center distribution system for natural gas. The first barrier is the potential change in the configuration of the market such a system would introduce and the resistance various industry segments would mount to such change. The second is the lack of industry standardization in the physical and business infrastructures.

  17. Linking basin-scale and pore-scale gas hydrate distribution patterns in diffusion-dominated marine hydrate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann E.; Hillman, Jess I. T.; Malinverno, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study is to computationally determine the potential distribution patterns of diffusion-driven methane hydrate accumulations in coarse-grained marine sediments. Diffusion of dissolved methane in marine gas hydrate systems has been proposed as a potential transport mechanism through which large concentrations of hydrate can preferentially accumulate in coarse-grained sediments over geologic time. Using one-dimensional compositional reservoir simulations, we examine hydrate distribution patterns at the scale of individual sand layers (1-20 m thick) that are deposited between microbially active fine-grained material buried through the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). We then extrapolate to two-dimensional and basin-scale three-dimensional simulations, where we model dipping sands and multilayered systems. We find that properties of a sand layer including pore size distribution, layer thickness, dip, and proximity to other layers in multilayered systems all exert control on diffusive methane fluxes toward and within a sand, which in turn impact the distribution of hydrate throughout a sand unit. In all of these simulations, we incorporate data on physical properties and sand layer geometries from the Terrebonne Basin gas hydrate system in the Gulf of Mexico. We demonstrate that diffusion can generate high hydrate saturations (upward of 90%) at the edges of thin sands at shallow depths within the GHSZ, but that it is ineffective at producing high hydrate saturations throughout thick (greater than 10 m) sands buried deep within the GHSZ. Furthermore, we find that hydrate in fine-grained material can preserve high hydrate saturations in nearby thin sands with burial.Plain Language SummaryThis study combines one-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations to explore one potential process by which methane dissolved in water beneath the seafloor can be converted into solid methane hydrate. This work specifically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H34C..08F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H34C..08F"><span>Assessing Radium <span class="hlt">Activity</span> in Shale <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Produced Brine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The high volumes and salinity associated with shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra <span class="hlt">activity</span> with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/206943','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/206943"><span>Model documentation Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission and <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-02-26</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission and <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BAAA...57..206V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BAAA...57..206V"><span>Star forming regions towards Gum 31: <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the molecular <span class="hlt">gas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vazzano, M. M.; Cappa, C. E.; Vasquez, J.; Rubio, M.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We analyze the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the molecular <span class="hlt">gas</span> associated with IRAS and 2MASS sources, young stellar objects linked to the Hii region Gum31. We based our studies on observations obtained with the APEX telescope, located in the north of Chile. We used observations of different CO isotopologues, CS(7-6) and HCO(4-3) lines. The sources are located on the edge of the Gum31 Hii region, whose shock front substantially affects the morphology of their molecular environs. The observations revealed that in the surroundings of the sources there is molecular <span class="hlt">gas</span> associated with the nebula, which is shown by the CO(3-2) emission, with small high density clumps detected in CO(3-2).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94f3651P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94f3651P"><span>Large-momentum <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of a polarized Fermi <span class="hlt">gas</span> and p -wave contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Shi-Guo; Liu, Xia-Ji; Hu, Hui</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We present a derivation of the adiabatic energy relations as well as the large momentum <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of a polarized Fermi <span class="hlt">gas</span> near p -wave Feshbach resonances. The leading asymptotic behavior k-2 and subleading behavior k-4 of the large momentum <span class="hlt">distribution</span> have recently been predicted by Z. Yu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 135304 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.135304] and by M. Y. He et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 045301 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.045301] using two different approaches. Here, we show that the subleading asymptotic behavior (˜k-4 ) cannot fully be captured by the contact defined from the adiabatic energy relation related to the p -wave effective range, and there should be an extra term resulting from the center-of-mass motion of the pairs. The omission of this extra term is perhaps a reasonable approximation at zero temperature. However, it should be taken into account at finite temperature and should have significant importance to understand the recently measured momentum <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in a resonant p -wave Fermi <span class="hlt">gas</span> of ultracold 40K atoms [C. Luciuk et al., Nat. Phys. 12, 599 (2016), 10.1038/nphys3670].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22215391','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22215391"><span>THE SMOOTH Mg II <span class="hlt">GAS</span> <span class="hlt">DISTRIBUTION</span> THROUGH THE INTERSTELLAR/EXTRA-PLANAR/HALO INTERFACE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Cooke, Jeff; Ryan-Weber, Emma V.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>We report the first measurements of Mg II absorption systems associated with spectroscopically confirmed z ∼ 0.1 star-forming galaxies at projected distances of D < 6 kpc. We demonstrate that the data are consistent with the well-known anti-correlation between rest-frame Mg II equivalent width, W{sub r} (2796), and impact parameter, D, represented by a single log-linear relation derived by Nielsen et al. (MAGIICAT) that converges to ∼2 Å at D = 0 kpc. Incorporating MAGIICAT, we find that the halo <span class="hlt">gas</span> covering fraction is unity below D ∼ 25 kpc. We also report that our D < 6 kpc absorbers are consistent with the W{sub r} (2796) <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of the Milky Way interstellar medium (ISM) and ISM+halo. In addition, quasar sight lines of intermediate redshift galaxies with 6 < D < 25 kpc have an equivalent width <span class="hlt">distribution</span> similar to that of the Milky Way halo, implying that beyond ∼6 kpc, quasar sight lines are likely probing halo <span class="hlt">gas</span> and not the ISM. As inferred by the Milky Way and our new data, the <span class="hlt">gas</span> profiles of galaxies can be fit by a single log-linear W{sub r} (2796)-D relation out to large scales across a variety of <span class="hlt">gas</span>-phase conditions and is maintained through the halo/extra-planar/ISM interfaces, which is remarkable considering their kinematic complexity. These low-redshift, small impact parameter absorption systems are the first steps to bridge the gap between quasar absorption-line studies and H I observations of the circumgalactic medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6060240','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6060240"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and kinematics of H I in the <span class="hlt">active</span> elliptical galaxy NGC 1052</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>van Gorkom, J.H.; Knapp, G.R.; Raimond, E.; Faber, S.M.; Gallagher, J.S.</p> <p>1986-04-01</p> <p>The H I <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in the <span class="hlt">active</span> elliptical galaxy NGC 1052 has been mapped at a resolution of 1 arcmin with the VLA. The H I structure is about three times the size of the optical galaxy and is roughly perpendicular to its major axis. The H I has a circular velocity of approx.200 km/s, roughly constant with radius; the mass of the galaxy is 1.5 x 10/sup 11/ M/sub sun/ at a radius of 16 kpc (D = 13.4 Mpc), and the mass to blue luminosity ratio at this radius is M/L/sub B/ approx.15 M/sub sun//L/sub sun/. H I absorption is seen against the central radio continuum source, at both the systemic velocity and at redshifted velocities. The <span class="hlt">gas</span> in NGC 1052, as in other ellipticals, has a rotation axis that is not aligned with the stellar rotation axis (the difference is 63/sup 0/) and a mean specific angular momentum that is considerably larger than that of the stars. The H I <span class="hlt">distribution</span> is unusually irregular. In the southwest region of the galaxy, the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> shows what appears to be a tidal tail, suggesting that the H I may have been acquired about 10/sup 9/ years ago. The presence of dust associated with the H I and the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and kinematics of the H I are consistent with capture of <span class="hlt">gas</span> from a <span class="hlt">gas</span>-rich dwarf or spiral. In the inner regions of the galaxy (r<5 kpc) the H I velocity field shows evidence of noncircular orbits and therefore possibly of a triaxial mass <span class="hlt">distribution</span> for the galaxy. Alternatively the <span class="hlt">gas</span> could be falling in toward the center.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017929','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017929"><span>Optical Breath <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Sensor for Extravehicular <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S> <author type="secondary"/>; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The function of the infrared <span class="hlt">gas</span> transducer used during extravehicular <span class="hlt">activity</span> (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation Portable Life Support System (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen (O2) channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the initial instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments leveraging the lessons learned were desired. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and <span class="hlt">gas</span> sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-<span class="hlt">gas</span> sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21387936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21387936"><span>An analysis of flaring and venting <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the Alberta upstream oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, Matthew R; Coderre, Adam R</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Alberta, Canada, is an important global producer of petroleum resources. In association with this production, large amounts of <span class="hlt">gas</span> (1.14 billion m3 in 2008) are flared or vented. Although the amount of flaring and venting has been measurably reduced since 2002, data from 2005 reveal sharp increases in venting, which have important implications in terms of resource conservation and greenhouse <span class="hlt">gas</span> emissions (which exceeded 8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2008). With use of extensive monthly production data for 18,203 <span class="hlt">active</span> batteries spanning the years 2002-2008 obtained in close cooperation with the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, a detailed analysis has been completed to examine <span class="hlt">activity</span> patterns of flaring and venting and reasons behind these trends in the Alberta upstream oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. In any given year, approximately 6000 batteries reported flaring and/or venting, but the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of volumes flared and vented at individual sites was highly skewed, such that small numbers of sites handled large fractions of the total <span class="hlt">gas</span> flaring and venting in the Province. Examination of month-to-month volume variability at individual sites, cast in terms of a nominal turndown ratio that would be required for a compressor to capture that <span class="hlt">gas</span> and direct it into a pipeline, further revealed that volumes at a majority of sites were reasonably stable and there was no evidence that larger or more stable sites had been preferentially reduced, leaving potential barriers to future mitigation. Through linking of geospatial data with production data coupled with additional statistical analysis, the 31.2% increase in venting volumes since 2005 was revealed to be predominantly associated with increased production of heavier oils and bitumen in the Lloydminster region of the Province. Overall, the data suggest that quite significant reductions in flaring and venting could be realized by seeking mitigation solutions for only the largest batteries in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol3-sec192-197.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol3-sec192-197.pdf"><span>49 CFR 192.197 - Control of the pressure of <span class="hlt">gas</span> delivered from high-pressure <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of the pressure of <span class="hlt">gas</span> delivered from high... STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.197 Control of the pressure of <span class="hlt">gas</span> delivered from high... external static or control lines. (b) If the maximum actual operating pressure of the <span class="hlt">distribution</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CoTPh..51..259C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CoTPh..51..259C"><span>Spatial Density <span class="hlt">Distributions</span> and Correlations in a Quasi-one-Dimensional Polydisperse Granular <span class="hlt">Gas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Duan-Ming</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>By Monte Carlo simulations, the effect of the dispersion of particle size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> on the spatial density <span class="hlt">distributions</span> and correlations of a quasi one-dimensional polydisperse granular <span class="hlt">gas</span> with fractal size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> is investigated in the same inelasticity. The dispersive degree of the particle size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> can be measured by a fractal dimension df, and the smooth particles are constrained to move along a circle of length L, colliding inelastically with each other and thermalized by a viscosity heat bath. When the typical relaxation time τ of the driving Brownian process is longer than the mean collision time τc, the system can reach a nonequilibrium steady state. The average energy of the system decays exponentially with time towards a stable asymptotic value, and the energy relaxation time τB to the steady state becomes shorter with increasing values of df. In the steady state, the spatial density <span class="hlt">distribution</span> becomes more clusterized as df increases, which can be quantitatively characterized by statistical entropy of the system. Furthermore, the spatial correlation functions of density and velocities are found to be a power-law form for small separation distance of particles, and both of the correlations become stronger with the increase of df. Also, the density clusterization is explained from the correlations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-13/pdf/2012-8960.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-13/pdf/2012-8960.pdf"><span>77 FR 22387 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activities</span>, Revision to <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission and Gathering...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-13</p> <p>... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activities</span>, Revision to <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Annual Report, <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Incident Report, and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems Accident Report AGENCY:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5922172','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5922172"><span>Cost leveling continues; planned <span class="hlt">activity</span> drops sharply in US <span class="hlt">gas</span> pipeline cnstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morgan, J.M.</p> <p>1986-02-01</p> <p>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> pipeline construction costs, as measured by the OGJ-Morgan Pipeline cost index for US <span class="hlt">gas</span>-pipeline construction, barely crept up in the second quarter 1985. Construction <span class="hlt">activity</span> for lines and compressor stations was down.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920150','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920150"><span>On the work <span class="hlt">distribution</span> for the adiabatic compression of a diluteclassical <span class="hlt">gas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Crooks, Gavin E.; Jarzynski, Christopher</p> <p>2006-02-23</p> <p>We consider the adiabatic and quasi-static compression of adilute classical <span class="hlt">gas</span>, confined in a piston and initially equilibratedwith a heat bath. We find that the work performed during this process isdescribed statistically by a gamma <span class="hlt">distribution</span>. We use this result toshow that the model satisfies the non-equilibrium work and fluctuationtheorems, but not the fluctation-dissipation relation. We discuss therare but dominant realizations that contribute most to the exponentialaverage of the work, and relate our results to potentially universal workdistributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21J..04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21J..04K"><span>Fugitive greenhouse <span class="hlt">gas</span> emissions from shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> - a case study of Dish, TX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khan, A.; Roscoe, B.; Lary, D.; Schaefer, D.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Brian, A.; DiGangi, J.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We evaluate new findings on aerial (horizontal and vertical) mapping of methane emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer region to help study fugitive methane emissions from extraction, transmission, and storage of natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> and oil in Dish, Texas. Dish is located in the Barnett Shale which has seen explosive development of hydraulic fracking <span class="hlt">activities</span> in recent years. The aerial measurements were performed with a new laser-based methane sensor developed specifically for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) methane sensor, with a mass of 2.5 kg and a precision of < 20 ppbv methane at 1 Hz, was flown on the UT-Dallas ARC Payload Master electronic aircraft at two sites in Texas: one representative of urban emissions of the Dallas-Fort Worth area in Richardson, Texas and another in Dish, Texas, closer to <span class="hlt">gas</span> and oil <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Methane mixing ratios at Dish were ubiquitously in the 3.5 - 4 ppmv range which was 1.5 - 2 ppmv higher than methane levels immediately downwind of Dallas. During the flight measurements at Dish, narrow methane plumes exceeding 20 ppmv were frequently observed at altitudes from the surface to 130 m above the ground. Based on the wind speed at the sampling location, the horizontal widths of large methane plumes were of the order of 100 m. The locations of the large methane plumes were variable in space and time over a ~ 1 km2 area sampled from the UAV. Spatial mapping over larger scales (10 km) by ground-based measurements showed similar methane levels as the UAV measurements. To corroborate our measurements, alkane and other hydrocarbon mixing ratios from an on-site TCEQ environmental monitoring station were analyzed and correlated with methane measurements to fingerprint the methane source. We show that fugitive methane emissions at Dish are a significant cause of the large and ubiquitous methane levels on the 1-10 km scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JQSRT.102..304C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JQSRT.102..304C"><span>Remote sensing of high temperature H2O CO2 CO mixture with a correlated k-<span class="hlt">distribution</span> fictitious <span class="hlt">gas</span> method and the single-mixture <span class="hlt">gas</span> assumption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caliot, C.; Le Maoult, Y.; El Hafi, M.; Flamant, G.</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Infrared spectra of high temperature H2O CO2 CO mixtures are calculated using narrow band models in order to simulate hot jet signature at long distance. The correlated k-<span class="hlt">distribution</span> with fictitious <span class="hlt">gas</span> (CKFG) approach generally gives accurate data in such situations (especially for long atmospheric paths) but results in long computation time in cases involving mixtures of gases. This time may be reduced if the mixture is treated as a single <span class="hlt">gas</span> (single-mixture <span class="hlt">gas</span> assumption, SMG). Thus the lines of the single-mixture <span class="hlt">gas</span> are assigned to the fictitious gases. In this study, the accuracy of two narrow band models is evaluated. The first narrow band model considers one single-mixture <span class="hlt">gas</span> and no fictitious <span class="hlt">gas</span> (CK-SMG) whereas the second model accounts for one single-mixture <span class="hlt">gas</span> and three fictitious gases (CKFG-SMG). Both narrow band models are compared with reference spectra calculated with a line-by-line (LBL) approach. As expected, the narrow band accuracy is improved by the fictitious <span class="hlt">gas</span> (FG) assumption particularly when long atmospheric paths are involved. Concerning the SMG assumption, it may lead to an underestimation of about 10% depending on the variation of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> mixture composition ratio. Nevertheless, in most of realistic situations the SMG assumption results in negligible errors and may be used for remote sensing of plume signature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6419P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6419P"><span>Global <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates in marine sediments: application of a general transfer function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piñero, Elena; Marquardt, Mathias; Hensen, Christian; Haeckel, Matthias</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Many of the recently published estimates of the global inventory of marine methane hydrate are based on simplified diagenetic models, which were run for each grid point of a homogeneous grid of the seafloor. Since this is a very complex and time-consuming method, which may also be limited by data availability, we invented a simple transfer function, which calculates the amount of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates based on easily accessible data. The transfer function was derived from a large set of systematic runs of a numerical diagenetic model covering the wide range of environmental conditions that are typically met along the continental margins. An exhaustive parameter analysis established that the formation of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates from biogenic methane production can be sufficiently described by the total organic carbon accumulation rate and the thickness of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate stability zone (Marquardt et al., submitted). The resulting transfer function was applied to available global datasets of 1x1-degree resolution in order to derive global estimates of the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and total inventory of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates. The global grids include the seafloor bathymetry, TOC input (Seiter et al., 2004), bottom water temperature, and geothermal gradient estimated from heat flow (Hamza et al., 2008). The global amount of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate is predicted to be about 2400 Gt of C and is in good agreement with previously published results (e.g. Archer et al., 2009). So far, our calculations do not consider any thermogenic methane, but only microbially produced and hence, represent only a minimum estimate of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate budget. References: Archer et al., 2009. Ocean methane hydrates as a slow tipping point in the global carbon cycle. PNAS 106 (49), 20596-20601. Hamza et al., 2008. Spherical harmonic analysis of the Earth's conductive heat flow. Intern. J. Earth Sci., 97, 205-226 Marquardt et al. Submitted. Estimation of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate inventories in marine sediments: derivation and testing of a transfer function</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol3-sec1-263A-13.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol3-sec1-263A-13.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>. (a) In general. This... 263A(g)) of oil or <span class="hlt">gas</span> property. For this purpose, oil or <span class="hlt">gas</span> property consists of each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title26-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title26-vol3-sec1-263A-13.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title26-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title26-vol3-sec1-263A-13.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or <span class="hlt">gas</span> property. For this purpose, oil or <span class="hlt">gas</span> property consists of each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol3-sec1-263A-13.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol3-sec1-263A-13.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or <span class="hlt">gas</span> property. For this purpose, oil or <span class="hlt">gas</span> property consists of each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title26-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title26-vol3-sec1-263A-13.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title26-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title26-vol3-sec1-263A-13.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or <span class="hlt">gas</span> property. For this purpose, oil or <span class="hlt">gas</span> property consists of each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARW33005R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARW33005R"><span>Reversible Storage of Hydrogen and Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> in Nanospace-Engineered <span class="hlt">Activated</span> Carbons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romanos, Jimmy; Beckner, Matt; Rash, Tyler; Yu, Ping; Suppes, Galen; Pfeifer, Peter</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>An overview is given of the development of advanced nanoporous carbons as storage materials for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> (methane) and molecular hydrogen in on-board fuel tanks for next-generation clean automobiles. High specific surface areas, porosities, and sub-nm/supra-nm pore volumes are quantitatively selected by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the <span class="hlt">activation</span> process. Tunable bimodal pore-size <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of sub-nm and supra-nm pores are established by subcritical nitrogen adsorption. Optimal pore structures for gravimetric and volumetric <span class="hlt">gas</span> storage, respectively, are presented. Methane and hydrogen adsorption isotherms up to 250 bar on monolithic and powdered <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbons are reported and validated, using several gravimetric and volumetric instruments. Current best gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are: 256 g CH4/kg carbon and 132 g CH4/liter carbon at 293 K and 35 bar; 26, 44, and 107 g H2/kg carbon at 303, 194, and 77 K respectively and 100 bar. Adsorbed film density, specific surface area, and binding energy are analyzed separately using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Langmuir model, and lattice <span class="hlt">gas</span> models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013145','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013145"><span>Apparatus and method for <span class="hlt">gas</span> turbine <span class="hlt">active</span> combustion control system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">Active</span> Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a <span class="hlt">gas</span> turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5017353','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5017353"><span>A Robust <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> Multipoint Fiber Optic <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Sensor System Based on AGC Amplifier Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Rende; Tao, Xuechen; Wang, Guangwei; Wang, Pengpeng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A harsh environment-oriented <span class="hlt">distributed</span> multipoint fiber optic <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensor system realized by automatic gain control (AGC) technology is proposed. To improve the photoelectric signal reliability, the electronic variable gain can be modified in real time by an AGC closed-loop feedback structure to compensate for optical transmission loss which is caused by the fiber bend loss or other reasons. The deviation of the system based on AGC structure is below 4.02% when photoelectric signal decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is 20 times lower than the ordinary differential system. In addition, the AGC circuit with the same electric parameters can keep the baseline intensity of signals in different channels of the <span class="hlt">distributed</span> multipoint sensor system at the same level. This avoids repetitive calibrations and streamlines the installation process. PMID:27483267</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091937','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091937"><span>Effects of temperature <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and elastic properties of materials on <span class="hlt">gas</span>-turbine-disk stresses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holms, Arthur G; Faldetta, Richard D</p> <p>1947-01-01</p> <p>Calculations were made to determine the influence of changes in temperature <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and in elastic material properties on calculated elastic stresses for a typical <span class="hlt">gas</span>-turbine disk. Severe temperature gradients caused thermal stresses of sufficient magnitude to reduce the operating safety of the disk. Small temperature gradients were found to be desirable because they produced thermal stresses that subtracted from the centrifugal stresses in the region of the rim. The thermal gradients produced a tendency for a severe stress condition to exist near the rim but this stress condition could be shifted away from the region of blade attachment by altering the temperature <span class="hlt">distribution</span>. The investigation of elastic material properties showed that centrifugal stresses are slightly affected by changes in modulus of elasticity, but that thermal stresses are approximately proportional to modulus of elasticity and to coefficient of thermal expansion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16907070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16907070"><span>Generic features of the wealth <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in ideal-<span class="hlt">gas</span>-like markets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohanty, P K</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>We provide an exact solution to the ideal-<span class="hlt">gas</span>-like models studied in econophysics to understand the microscopic origin of Pareto law. In these classes of models the key ingredient necessary for having a self-organized scale-free steady-state <span class="hlt">distribution</span> is the trading or collision rule where agents or particles save a definite fraction of their wealth or energy and invest the rest for trading. Using a Gibbs ensemble approach we could obtain the exact <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of wealth in this model. Moreover we show that in this model (a) good savers are always rich and (b) every agent poor or rich invests the same amount for trading. Nonlinear trading rules could alter the generic scenario observed here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174967','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174967"><span>Characterization of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate <span class="hlt">distribution</span> using conventional 3D seismic data in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiujuan; Qiang, Jin; Collett, Timothy S.; Shi, Hesheng; Yang, Shengxiong; Yan, Chengzhi; Li, Yuanping; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Duanxin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A new 3D seismic reflection data volume acquired in 2012 has allowed for the detailed mapping and characterization of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in the Pearl River Mouth Basin in the South China Sea. Previous studies of core and logging data showed that <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate occurrence at high concentrations is controlled by the presence of relatively coarse-grained sediment and the upward migration of thermogenic <span class="hlt">gas</span> from the deeper sediment section into the overlying <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate stability zone (BGHSZ); however, the spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate remains poorly defined. We used a constrained sparse spike inversion technique to generate acoustic-impedance images of the hydrate-bearing sedimentary section from the newly acquired 3D seismic data volume. High-amplitude reflections just above the bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) were interpreted to be associated with the accumulation of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate with elevated saturations. Enhanced seismic reflections below the BSRs were interpreted to indicate the presence of free <span class="hlt">gas</span>. The base of the BGHSZ was established using the occurrence of BSRs. In areas absent of well-developed BSRs, the BGHSZ was calculated from a model using the inverted P-wave velocity and subsurface temperature data. Seismic attributes were also extracted along the BGHSZ that indicate variations reservoir properties and inferred hydrocarbon accumulations at each site. <span class="hlt">Gas</span> hydrate saturations estimated from the inversion of acoustic impedance of conventional 3D seismic data, along with well-log-derived rock-physics models were also used to estimate <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate saturations. Our analysis determined that the <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate petroleum system varies significantly across the Pearl River Mouth Basin and that variability in sedimentary properties as a product of depositional processes and the upward migration of <span class="hlt">gas</span> from deeper thermogenic sources control the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates in this basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhPl...24b3508F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhPl...24b3508F"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of electric field on low-pressure <span class="hlt">gas</span> breakdown</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fu, Yangyang; Yang, Shuo; Zou, Xiaobing; Luo, Haiyun; Wang, Xinxin</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>A low-pressure <span class="hlt">gas</span> breakdown in a gap of the non-uniform electric field between two plane-parallel electrodes was studied. The experiments were specially designed to neatly separate the effect of a centered dielectric tube in between the electrodes on the breakdown from the effect of the electric field <span class="hlt">distribution</span> determined by the electrode geometry on the breakdown. For a given electrode radius and an interelectrode distance, when the diameter of the centered dielectric tube in between the electrodes is smaller, the breakdown voltage is lower, which is most possibly as a result of the flashover more easily happening along the surface of the smaller tube on which the more charged particles are accumulated. When the dielectric tube in between the electrodes is removed, the breakdown voltage depends not only on the product of <span class="hlt">gas</span> pressure and gap length but also on the aspect ratio of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> gap, i.e., Ub = f(pd, d/r). Furthermore, Ub = f(pd, d/r) was proved to automatically fulfill two necessary conditions for the similar discharges in the non-uniform electric field, which implies that Ub = f(pd, d/r) is an expression of the similarity theorem in the breakdown of a gap between two plane-parallel electrodes and confirms Townsend's prediction that the general similarity theorem can be applied equally to the breakdowns in non-uniform fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10104335','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10104335"><span>Review of performance-based ratemaking plans for US <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> companies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Comnes, G.A.</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>Performance-Based Ratemaking (PBR) is receiving increasing attention by energy utilities and their regulators. PBR is the industry term for forms of regulation that increase financial incentive for performance relative to traditional cost-of-service/rate-of-return (COS/ROR) regulation. In this report, PBR plans filed by US <span class="hlt">gas</span> local <span class="hlt">distribution</span> companies (LDCs) are described and reviewed. The rationale behind energy utility PBR is presented and discussed. Using nine plans that have been proposed by eight LDCs as a basis, a framework (typology) to facilitate understanding of <span class="hlt">gas</span> utility PBR is presented. Plans are categorized according to the range of services covered by the PBR mechanism and the scope of the mechanism`s cost coverage within a service category. Pivotal design issues are identified and, based on the sample of plans, observations are made. Design issues covered include the length of time that the PBR is in effect (term); the relationship between PBR plans and status quo ratemaking; methods for formulating cost or rate indices, earnings sharing mechanisms, and service quality indices; and compatibility with <span class="hlt">gas</span> utility DSM programs. The report summarizes observations that may be considered supportive of the rationale behind PBR. PBR is, however, not clearly superior to traditional regulation and few PBRs that are broad in scope have been adopted long enough to allow for a empirical analysis. Thus, the report concludes by identifying and describing commonly-cited pitfalls of PBR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018545','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018545"><span>The nature, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, and origin of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate in the Chile Triple Junction region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brown, K.M.; Bangs, N.L.; Froelich, P.N.; Kvenvolden, K.A.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A bottom simulating reflector (BSR) is regionally <span class="hlt">distributed</span> throughout much of the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ) region. Downhole temperature and logging data collected during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 141 suggest that the seismic BSR is generated by low seismic velocities associated with the presence of a few percent free <span class="hlt">gas</span> in a ??? 10 m thick zone just beneath the hydrate-bearing zone. The data also indicate that the temperature and pressure at the BSR best corresponds to the seawater/methane hydrate stability field. The origin of the large amounts of methane required to generate the hydrates is, however, problematic. Low total organic carbon contents and low alkalinities argue against significant in situ biogenic methanogenesis, but additional input from thermogenic sources also appears to be precluded. Increasing thermal gradients, associated with the approach of the spreading ridge system, may have caused the base of the hydrate stability field to migrate 300 m upwards in the sediments. We propose that the upward migration of the base of the stability field has concentrated originally widely dispersed hydrate patches into the more continuous hydrate body we see today. The methane can be concentrated if the <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates can form from dissolved methane, transported into the hydrate zone via diffusion or fluid advection. A strong gradient may exist in dissolved methane concentration across the BSR leading to the steady reabsorbtion of the free <span class="hlt">gas</span> zone during the upward migration of the BSR even in the absence of fluid advection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/325737','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/325737"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, February 1999</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/303960','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/303960"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, November 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/314098','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/314098"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, January 1999</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/303972','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/303972"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, December 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22742407Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22742407Z"><span>Toward Measuring Galactic Dense Molecular <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Properties and 3D <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> with Hi-GAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zetterlund, Erika; Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Phil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Herschel Space Observatory's submillimeter dust continuum survey Hi-GAL provides a powerful new dataset for characterizing the structure of the dense interstellar medium of the Milky Way. Hi-GAL observed a 2° wide strip covering the entire 360° of the Galactic plane in broad bands centered at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm, with angular resolution ranging from 10 to 40 arcseconds. We are adapting a molecular cloud clump-finding algorithm and a distance probability density function distance-determination method developed for the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) to the Hi-GAL data. Using these methods we expect to generate a database of 105 cloud clumps, derive distance information for roughly half the clumps, and derive precise distances for approximately 20% of them. With five-color photometry and distances, we will measure the cloud clump properties, such as luminosities, physical sizes, and masses, and construct a three-dimensional map of the Milky Way's dense molecular <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span>.The cloud clump properties and the dense <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> will provide critical ground truths for comparison to theoretical models of molecular cloud structure formation and galaxy evolution models that seek to emulate spiral galaxies. For example, such models cannot resolve star formation and use prescriptive recipes, such as converting a fixed fraction of interstellar <span class="hlt">gas</span> to stars at a specified interstellar medium density threshold. The models should be compared to observed dense molecular <span class="hlt">gas</span> properties and galactic <span class="hlt">distributions</span>.As a pilot survey to refine the clump-finding and distance measurement algorithms developed for BGPS, we have identified molecular cloud clumps in six 2° × 2° patches of the Galactic plane, including one in the inner Galaxy along the line of sight through the Molecular Ring and the termination of the Galactic bar and one toward the outer Galaxy. Distances have been derived for the inner Galaxy clumps and compared to Bolocam Galactic Plane</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6353912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6353912"><span>An historical prospective study of mortality within a cohort of <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liveright, T; Stanbury, M</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>An historical prospective study of mortality within a cohort of 1,410 <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> workers was conducted. This cohort was followed for ten years (1971-1980) and data on 118 deaths were obtained. Five-year (1973-1977) averages of both St. Louis and United States age-specific mortality figures were used to create "expected" mortality rates for comparison with the observed deaths in the cohort. Analyses of the cohort were done according to: 1) person-years contributed during the study period (the "age-attained" method) and 2) the number of years from commencement of work in the company until the end of the study period (1980) or death (the "latency" methods of analysis, Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated for all causes of death, all malignant neoplasms, and for cardiovascular disease and malignant neoplasms of the respiratory and digestive systems. In no case was the SMR found to be beyond the range of what would be expected in the "standard" populations. While the present study does not contradict the negative findings of the one previous investigation of mortality of <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> workers, the limitations of small cohort size, reliance on death certificates and non-industrial comparison populations make any conclusions at best provisional.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107078','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107078"><span>Methodology to model the energy and greenhouse <span class="hlt">gas</span> emissions of electronic software <span class="hlt">distributions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Daniel R; Tang, Yinshan</p> <p>2012-01-17</p> <p>A new electronic software <span class="hlt">distribution</span> (ESD) life cycle analysis (LCA) methodology and model structure were constructed to calculate energy consumption and greenhouse <span class="hlt">gas</span> (GHG) emissions. In order to counteract the use of high level, top-down modeling efforts, and to increase result accuracy, a focus upon device details and data routes was taken. In order to compare ESD to a relevant physical <span class="hlt">distribution</span> alternative, physical model boundaries and variables were described. The methodology was compiled from the analysis and operational data of a major online store which provides ESD and physical <span class="hlt">distribution</span> options. The ESD method included the calculation of power consumption of data center server and networking devices. An in-depth method to calculate server efficiency and utilization was also included to account for virtualization and server efficiency features. Internet transfer power consumption was analyzed taking into account the number of data hops and networking devices used. The power consumed by online browsing and downloading was also factored into the model. The embedded CO(2)e of server and networking devices was proportioned to each ESD process. Three U.K.-based ESD scenarios were analyzed using the model which revealed potential CO(2)e savings of 83% when ESD was used over physical <span class="hlt">distribution</span>. Results also highlighted the importance of server efficiency and utilization methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050148291&hterms=Rutherford&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DRutherford','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050148291&hterms=Rutherford&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DRutherford"><span><span class="hlt">Distributions</span> of microbial <span class="hlt">activities</span> in deep subseafloor sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>D'Hondt, Steven; Jorgensen, Bo Barker; Miller, D. Jay; Batzke, Anja; Blake, Ruth; Cragg, Barry A.; Cypionka, Heribert; Dickens, Gerald R.; Ferdelman, Timothy; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Holm, Nils G.; Mitterer, Richard; Spivack, Arthur; Wang, Guizhi; Bekins, Barbara; Engelen, Bert; Ford, Kathryn; Gettemy, Glen; Rutherford, Scott D.; Sass, Henrik; Skilbeck, C. Gregory; Aiello, Ivano W.; Guerin, Gilles; House, Christopher H.; Inagaki, Fumio</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Diverse microbial communities and numerous energy-yielding <span class="hlt">activities</span> occur in deeply buried sediments of the eastern Pacific Ocean. <span class="hlt">Distributions</span> of metabolic <span class="hlt">activities</span> often deviate from the standard model. Rates of <span class="hlt">activities</span>, cell concentrations, and populations of cultured bacteria vary consistently from one subseafloor environment to another. Net rates of major <span class="hlt">activities</span> principally rely on electron acceptors and electron donors from the photosynthetic surface world. At open-ocean sites, nitrate and oxygen are supplied to the deepest sedimentary communities through the underlying basaltic aquifer. In turn, these sedimentary communities may supply dissolved electron donors and nutrients to the underlying crustal biosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/140914','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/140914"><span>Model documentation: Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission and <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Model of the National Energy Modeling System; Volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-02-24</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission and <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Model (NGTDM) is a component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to represent the domestic natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> transmission and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> system. NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. This report documents the archived version of NGTDM that was used to produce the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(94). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. It is intended to fulfill the legal obligation of the EIA to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). This report represents Volume 1 of a two-volume set. (Volume 2 will report on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.) Subsequent chapters of this report provide: (1) an overview of the NGTDM (Chapter 2); (2) a description of the interface between the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the NGTDM (Chapter 3); (3) an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM (Chapter 4); (4) the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module (Chapter 5); (5) the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module (Chapter 6); (6) the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module (Chapter 7); (7) the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module (Chapter 8); and (8) a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs (Chapter 9).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23879082','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23879082"><span>Possible health effects of liquefied petroleum <span class="hlt">gas</span> on workers at filling and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> stations of Gaza governorates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sirdah, M M; Al Laham, N A; El Madhoun, R A</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Liquefied petroleum <span class="hlt">gas</span> (LPG) is widely used in the Gaza Strip for domestic purposes, in agriculture and industry and, illegally, in cars. This study aimed to identify possible health effects on workers exposed to LPG in Gaza governorates. Data were collected by a questionnaire interview, and haematological and biochemical analyses of venous blood samples were made from 30 workers at filling and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> stations and 30 apparently healthy controls. Statistically significant differences were found in all self-reported health-related complaints among LPG workers versus controls. LPG workers had significantly higher values of red blood cell counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit mean corpuscular haemoglobin and platelet counts. They also had significantly higher values of kidney function tests (urea, creatinine and uric acid) and liver function enzyme <span class="hlt">activities</span> (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). LPG workers at Gaza Strip petroleum stations are at higher risk for health-related symptoms and clinical abnormalities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21172694','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21172694"><span>Impact of Intrafractional Bowel <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Movement on Carbon Ion Beam Dose <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> in Pancreatic Radiotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kumagai, Motoki; Hara, Ryusuke; Mori, Shinichiro Yanagi, Takeshi; Asakura, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Riwa; Kato, Hirotoshi; Yamada, Shigeru; Kandatsu, Susumu; Kamada, Tadashi</p> <p>2009-03-15</p> <p>Purpose: To assess carbon ion beam dose variation due to bowel <span class="hlt">gas</span> movement in pancreatic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten pancreatic cancer inpatients were subject to diagnostic contrast-enhanced dynamic helical CT examination under breath-holding conditions, which included multiple-phase dynamic CT with arterial, venous, and delayed phases. The arterial-venous phase and arterial-delayed phase intervals were 35 and 145 s, respectively. A compensating bolus was designed to cover the target obtained at the arterial phase. Carbon ion dose <span class="hlt">distribution</span> was calculated by applying the bolus to the CT data sets at the other two phases. Results: Dose conformation to the clinical target volume was degraded by beam overshoot/undershoot due to bowel <span class="hlt">gas</span> movement. The D95 for clinical target volume was degraded from 98.2% (range, 98.0-99.1%) of the prescribed dose to 94.7% (range, 88.0-99.0%) at 145 s. Excessive dosing to normal tissues varied among tissues and was, for example, 12.2 GyE/13.1 GyE (0 s/145 s) for the cord and 38.8 GyE/39.8 GyE (0 s/145 s) for the duodenum. The magnitude of beam overshoot/undershoot was particularly exacerbated from the anterior and left directions. Conclusions: Bowel <span class="hlt">gas</span> movement causes dosimetric variation to the target during treatment for radiotherapy. The effect of bowel <span class="hlt">gas</span> movement varies with beam angle, with greatest influence on the anterior-posterior and left-right beams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17092643','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17092643"><span><span class="hlt">Activated</span> carbon from vetiver roots: <span class="hlt">gas</span> and liquid adsorption studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gaspard, S; Altenor, S; Dawson, E A; Barnes, P A; Ouensanga, A</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Large quantities of lignocellulosic residues result from the industrial production of essential oil from vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) roots. These residues could be used for the production of <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon. The yield of char obtained after vetiver roots pyrolysis follows an equation recently developed [A. Ouensanga, L. Largitte, M.A. Arsene, The dependence of char yield on the amounts of components in precursors for pyrolysed tropical fruit stones and seeds, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 59 (2003) 85-91]. The N(2) adsorption isotherm follows either the Freundlich law K(F)P(alpha) which is the small alpha equation limit of a Weibull shaped isotherm or the classical BET isotherm. The surface area of the <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbons are determined using the BET method. The K(F) value is proportional to the BET surface area. The alpha value increases slightly when the burn-off increases and also when there is a clear increase in the micropore <span class="hlt">distribution</span> width.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2016/3070/fs20163070.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2016/3070/fs20163070.pdf"><span>The Land Processes <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> <span class="hlt">Active</span> Archive Center (LP DAAC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Golon, Danielle K.</p> <p>2016-10-03</p> <p>The Land Processes <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> <span class="hlt">Active</span> Archive Center (LP DAAC) operates as a partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey and is 1 of 12 DAACs within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The LP DAAC ingests, archives, processes, and <span class="hlt">distributes</span> NASA Earth science remote sensing data. These data are provided to the public at no charge. Data <span class="hlt">distributed</span> by the LP DAAC provide information about Earth’s surface from daily to yearly intervals and at 15 to 5,600 meter spatial resolution. Data provided by the LP DAAC can be used to study changes in agriculture, vegetation, ecosystems, elevation, and much more. The LP DAAC provides several ways to access, process, and interact with these data. In addition, the LP DAAC is <span class="hlt">actively</span> archiving new datasets to provide users with a variety of data to study the Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title17-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title17-vol3-sec242-101.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title17-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title17-vol3-sec242-101.pdf"><span>17 CFR 242.101 - <span class="hlt">Activities</span> by <span class="hlt">distribution</span> participants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Activities</span> by <span class="hlt">distribution</span> participants. 242.101 Section 242.101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140013350','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140013350"><span>Local ISM 3D <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and Soft X-ray Background Inferences for Nearby Hot <span class="hlt">Gas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Puspitarini, L.; Lallement, R.; Snowden, Steven L.; Vergely, J.-L.; Snowden, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (3D) interstellar medium (ISM) maps can be used to locate not only interstellar (IS) clouds, but also IS bubbles between the clouds that are blown by stellar winds and supernovae, and are filled by hot <span class="hlt">gas</span>. To demonstrate this, and to derive a clearer picture of the local ISM, we compare our recent 3D IS dust <span class="hlt">distribution</span> maps to the ROSAT diffuse Xray background maps after removal of heliospheric emission. In the Galactic plane, there is a good correspondence between the locations and extents of the mapped nearby cavities and the soft (0.25 keV) background emission <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, showing that most of these nearby cavities contribute to this soft X-ray emission. Assuming a constant dust to <span class="hlt">gas</span> ratio and homogeneous 106 K hot <span class="hlt">gas</span> filling the cavities, we modeled in a simple way the 0.25 keV surface brightness along the Galactic plane as seen from the Sun, taking into account the absorption by the mapped clouds. The data-model comparison favors the existence of hot <span class="hlt">gas</span> in the solar neighborhood, the so-called Local Bubble (LB). The inferred mean pressure in the local cavities is found to be approx.9,400/cu cm K, in agreement with previous studies, providing a validation test for the method. On the other hand, the model overestimates the emission from the huge cavities located in the third quadrant. Using CaII absorption data, we show that the dust to CaII ratio is very small in those regions, implying the presence of a large quantity of lower temperature (non-X-ray emitting) ionized <span class="hlt">gas</span> and as a consequence a reduction of the volume filled by hot <span class="hlt">gas</span>, explaining at least part of the discrepancy. In the meridian plane, the two main brightness enhancements coincide well with the LB's most elongated parts and chimneys connecting the LB to the halo, but no particular nearby cavity is found towards the enhancement in the direction of the bright North Polar Spur (NPS) at high latitude. We searched in the 3D maps for the source regions of the higher energy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhDT........44N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhDT........44N"><span>Characterizing the accumulation and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate in marine sediments using numerical models and seismic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nimblett, Jillian Nicole</p> <p></p> <p>Despite the increasing availability of geophysical, geochemical, geotechnical, and biological data that characterize in situ properties of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate reservoirs, the fundamental physical processes associated with <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate formation, accumulation, <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and dissociation in porous marine sediments remain poorly understood. This study focuses on the spatial and temporal accumulation of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate in marine sediments through (1) a numerical model that explores the impact of hydraulic parameters on permeability evolution during hydrate formation; and (2) tomographic analysis of multichannel seismic data that constrain the local concentration of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate. The results constrain the hydraulic parameters pertinent to the hydrodynamics of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate reservoirs and provide insight about the physical and elastic properties of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate bearing sediments relevant for estimating hydrate concentration in porous assemblages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-13/pdf/2013-27074.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-13/pdf/2013-27074.pdf"><span>78 FR 68079 - Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activities</span>: Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Well-Completion Operations; Submitted for Office...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-13</p> <p>...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activities</span>: Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Well-Completion... requirements in the regulations under Subpart E, Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Well Completion Operations. This notice also... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart E, Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Well-Completion Operations. OMB Control Number:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-28/pdf/2013-04662.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-28/pdf/2013-04662.pdf"><span>78 FR 13657 - Southwest <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Storage Company; Prior Notice of <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Under Blanket Certificate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-28</p> <p>.... Southwest seeks authorization to construct, modify and abandon certain natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> storage facilities at the... Energy Regulatory Commission Southwest <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Storage Company; Prior Notice of <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Under Blanket Certificate On February 8, 2013, Southwest <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Storage Company (Southwest) filed a prior notice...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840526','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840526"><span><span class="hlt">Gas</span> and particle size <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of polychlorinated naphthalenes in the atmosphere of Beijing, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Qingqing; Zhang, Xian; Dong, Shujun; Gao, Lirong; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were listed as persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention in 2015. Despite numerous studies on PCNs, little is known about their occurrence in atmospheric particulate matter of different sizes. In this study, 49 PCN congeners were investigated for their concentrations and size-specific <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in an urban atmosphere, and preliminary exposure assessments were conducted. Ambient air samples were collected using a high-volume cascade impactor for division into a <span class="hlt">gas</span> fraction and four particle size fractions. Samples were collected from October 2013 to June 2014 at an urban site in Beijing, China. The concentration range for PCNs in the atmosphere (<span class="hlt">gas</span> + particle fractions) was 6.77-25.90 pg/m(3) (average 16.28 pg/m(3)). The particle-bound concentration range was 0.17-2.78 pg/m(3) (average 1.73 pg/m(3)). Therefore, PCNs were mainly found in the <span class="hlt">gas</span> phase. The concentrations of PCNs in a fraction increased as the particle size decreased (dae > 10 μm, 10 μm ≥ dae > 2.5 μm, 2.5 μm ≥ dae > 1.0 μm and dae ≤ 1.0 μm). Consequently, PCNs were ubiquitous in inhalable fine particles, and the ΣPCNs associated with PM1.0 and PM2.5 reached 68.4% and 84.3%, respectively. Tetra-CNs and penta-CNs (the lower chlorinated homologues) predominated in the atmosphere. The homologue profiles in different size particles were almost similar, but the particulate profiles were different from those in the <span class="hlt">gas</span> phase. Among the individual PCNs identified, CN38/40, CN52/60 and CN75 were the dominant compounds in the atmosphere. CN66/67 and CN73 collectively accounted for most of the total dioxin-like TEQ concentrations of the PCNs. Exposure to toxic compounds, such as PCNs present in PM1.0 or PM2.5, may affect human health. This work presents the first data on size-specific <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of PCNs in the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010A%26A...518A..31V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010A%26A...518A..31V"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of interstellar dust in the Sun's vicinity. Comparison with neutral sodium-bearing <span class="hlt">gas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vergely, J.-L.; Valette, B.; Lallement, R.; Raimond, S.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Aims: 3D tomography of the interstellar dust and <span class="hlt">gas</span> may be useful in many respects, from the physical and chemical evolution of the interstellar medium itself to foreground decontamination of the cosmic microwave background, or various studies of the environments of specific objects. However, while spectral data cubes of the galactic emission become increasingly precise, the information on the distance to the emitting regions has not progressed as well and relies essentially on the galactic rotation curve. Our goal here is to bring more precise information on the distance to nearby interstellar dust and <span class="hlt">gas</span> clouds within 250 pc. Methods: We apply the best available calibration methods to a carefully screened set of stellar Strömgren photometry data for targets possessing a Hipparcos parallax and spectral type classification. We combine the derived interstellar extinctions and the parallax distances for about 6000 stars to build a 3D tomography of the local dust. We use an inversion method based on a regularized Bayesian approach and a least squares criterion, optimized for this specific data set. We apply the same inversion technique to a totally independent set of neutral sodium absorption data available for about 1700 target stars. Results: We obtain 3D maps of the opacity and the distance to the main dust-bearing clouds within 250 pc and identify in those maps well-known dark clouds and high galactic more diffuse entities. We calculate the integrated extinction between the Sun and the cube boundary and compare this with the total galactic extinction derived from infrared 2D maps. The two quantities reach similar values at high latitudes, as expected if the local dust content is satisfyingly reproduced and the dust is closer than 250 pc. Those maps show a larger high latitude dust opacity in the North compared to the South, reinforcing earlier evidences. Interestingly the <span class="hlt">gas</span> maps do not show the same asymmetry, suggesting a polar asymmetry of the dust to <span class="hlt">gas</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..193R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..193R"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of enzyme <span class="hlt">activities</span> in the rhizosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Razavi, Bahar S.; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The rhizosphere, the tiny zone of soil surrounding roots, certainly represents one of the most dynamic habitat and interfaces on Earth. <span class="hlt">Activities</span> of enzymes produced by both plant roots and microbes are the primary biological drivers of organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. That is why there is an urgent need in spatially explicit methods for the determination of the rhizosphere extension and enzyme <span class="hlt">distribution</span>. Recently, zymography as a new technique based on diffusion of enzymes through the 1 mm gel plate for analysis has been introduced (Spohn & Kuzyakov, 2013). We developed the zymography technique to visualize the enzyme <span class="hlt">activities</span> with a higher spatial resolution. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme <span class="hlt">activities</span> as a function of distance from the root tip and the root surface in the soil. We visualized the two dimensional <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the <span class="hlt">activity</span> of three enzymes: β-glucosidase, phosphatase and leucine amino peptidase in the rhizosphere of maize using fluorogenically labelled substrates. Spatial-resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application of a substrate saturated membrane to the soil-root system. The newly-developed direct zymography visualized heterogeneity of enzyme <span class="hlt">activities</span> along the roots. The <span class="hlt">activity</span> of all enzymes was the highest at the apical parts of individual roots. Across the roots, the enzyme <span class="hlt">activities</span> were higher at immediate vicinity of the roots (1.5 mm) and gradually decreased towards the bulk soil. Spatial patterns of enzyme <span class="hlt">activities</span> as a function of distance from the root surface were enzyme specific, with highest extension for phosphatase. We conclude that improved zymography is promising in situ technique to analyze, visualize and quantify spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of enzyme <span class="hlt">activities</span> in the rhizosphere hotspots. References Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y., 2013. Phosphorus mineralization can be driven by microbial need for carbon. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 61: 69-75</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780061632&hterms=gas+laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dgas%2Blaws','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780061632&hterms=gas+laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dgas%2Blaws"><span>The velocity <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of interstellar <span class="hlt">gas</span> observed in strong UV absorption lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cowie, L. L.; York, D. G.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Observations of three strong interstellar UV absorption lines of N I (1199 A), N II (1083 A), and Si III (1206 A) in 47 stars of widely varying distance and a variety of spectral types are analyzed to obtain a velocity <span class="hlt">distribution</span> function for the interstellar <span class="hlt">gas</span>. A technique based on the maximum and minimum velocities observed along a line of sight is adopted because of heavy line blending, and results are discussed for both power-law and exponential <span class="hlt">distribution</span> functions. The expected <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of radiative-phase supernova remnants (SNRs) in the interstellar medium is calculated as a function of SNR birthrate and of the interstellar density in which they evolve. The results are combined with observed distance estimates, and it is shown that an interstellar density in excess of 0.1 per cu cm would be required to keep the SNRs sufficiently confined so that their cross sections are consistent with the observed number of components. The alternative possibility is considered that SNRs do not enter the radiative phase before escaping from the Galaxy or colliding with neighboring remnants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..APRE15001P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..APRE15001P"><span><span class="hlt">Distributions</span> of <span class="hlt">Gas</span> and Galaxies from Galaxy Clusters to Larger Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patej, Anna</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We address the <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span> and galaxies on three scales: the outskirts of galaxy clusters, the clustering of galaxies on large scales, and the extremes of the galaxy <span class="hlt">distribution</span>. In the outskirts of galaxy clusters, long-standing analytical models of structure formation and recent simulations predict the existence of density jumps in the <span class="hlt">gas</span> and dark matter profiles. We use these features to derive models for the <span class="hlt">gas</span> density profile, obtaining a simple fiducial model that is in agreement with both observations of cluster interiors and simulations of the outskirts. We next consider the galaxy density profiles of clusters; under the assumption that the galaxies in cluster outskirts follow similar collisionless dynamics as the dark matter, their <span class="hlt">distribution</span> should show a steep jump as well. We examine the profiles of a low-redshift sample of clusters and groups, finding evidence for the jump in some of these clusters. Moving to larger scales where massive galaxies of different types are expected to trace the same large-scale structure, we present a test of this prediction by measuring the clustering of red and blue galaxies at z 0.6, finding low stochasticity between the two populations. These results address a key source of systematic uncertainty - understanding how target populations of galaxies trace large-scale structure - in galaxy redshift surveys. Such surveys use baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) as a cosmological probe, but are limited by the expense of obtaining sufficiently dense spectroscopy. With the intention of leveraging upcoming deep imaging data, we develop a new method of detecting the BAO in sparse spectroscopic samples via cross-correlation with a dense photometric catalog. This method will permit the extension of BAO measurements to higher redshifts than possible with the existing spectroscopy alone. Lastly, we connect galaxies near and far: the Local Group dwarfs and the high redshift galaxies observed by Hubble and Spitzer. We</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...593A..37V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...593A..37V"><span>Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of hydrogen fluoride <span class="hlt">gas</span> toward NGC 6334 I and I(N)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Naylor, D. A.; Makiwa, G.; Satta, M.; Abergel, A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Context. The HF molecule has been proposed as a sensitive tracer of diffuse interstellar <span class="hlt">gas</span>, while at higher densities its abundance could be influenced heavily by freeze-out onto dust grains. Aims: We investigate the spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of a collection of absorbing <span class="hlt">gas</span> clouds, some associated with the dense, massive star-forming core NGC 6334 I, and others with diffuse foreground clouds elsewhere along the line of sight. For the former category, we aim to study the dynamical properties of the clouds in order to assess their potential to feed the accreting protostellar cores. Methods: We use far-infrared spectral imaging from the Herschel SPIRE iFTS to construct a map of HF absorption at 243 μm in a 6'× 3.´5 region surrounding NGC 6334 I and I(N). Results: The combination of new mapping that is fully sampled spatially, but is spectrally unresolved with a previous, single-pointing, spectrally resolved HF signature yields a three-dimensional picture of absorbing <span class="hlt">gas</span> clouds in the direction of NGC 6334. Toward core I, the HF equivalent width matches that of the spectrally resolved observation. At angular separations ≳20'' from core I, the HF absorption becomes weaker, which is consistent with three of the seven components being associated with this dense star-forming envelope. Of the remaining four components, two disappear beyond ~1' distance from the NGC 6334 filament, suggesting that these clouds are spatially associated with the star-forming complex. Our data also implies a lack of <span class="hlt">gas</span>-phase HF in the envelope of core I(N). Using a simple description of adsorption onto and desorption from dust grain surfaces, we show that the overall lower temperature of the envelope of source I(N) is consistent with freeze-out of HF, while it remains in the <span class="hlt">gas</span> phase in source I. Conclusions: We use the HF molecule as a tracer of column density in diffuse <span class="hlt">gas</span> (nH ≈ 102-103cm-3), and find that it may uniquely trace a relatively low-density portion of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> reservoir</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5316L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5316L"><span>Global <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and <span class="hlt">Gas</span>-particle Partitioning of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - a Modelling Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lammel, G.; Sehili, A. M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are emitted in all combustion processes. Some undergo re-volatilisation (multi-hopping). Little is known about degradation pathways and the processes determining <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partitioning (Lohmann & Lammel, 2004). <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and fate have no been studied on the global scale so far (except for emissions in Europe and Russia; Sehili & Lammel, 2007). Anthracene (ANT), fluoranthene (FLT) and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP) have been studied under present-day climate and each 3 scenarios of atmospheric degradation and <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partitioning using an atmospheric general circulation model with embedded dynamic aerosol submodel, ECHAM-HAM (Stier et al., 2005) and re-volatilization from ground compartments (Semeena et al., 2006). 10 years were simulated with a time-step of 30 min and 2.8°x2.8° and 19 levels. Emissions were compiled based on emission factors in 27 major types of combustion technologies, scaled to 141 combustion technologies and their global <span class="hlt">distribution</span> as of 1996 (1°x1°) according to fuel type and the PM1 emission factor (Bond et al., 2004). The emissions were entried uniformly throughout the entire simulation time. Scenarios tested: AD = adsorption (according to the Junge empirical relationship; Pankow, 1987), OB = absorption in organic matter and adsorption to soot (Lohmann & Lammel, 2004) without and DP = with degradation in the atmospheric particulate phase. <span class="hlt">Gas</span>-particle partitioning in air influences drastically the atmospheric cycling, total environmental fate (e.g. compartmental <span class="hlt">distributions</span>) and the long-range transport potential (LRTP) of the substances studied. The LRTP is mostly regional. Comparison with observed levels indicate that degradation in the particulate phase must be slower than in the <span class="hlt">gas</span>-phase. Furthermore, the levels of semivolatile PAHs (ANT and FLT) at high latitudes and a European mid latitude site cannot be explained by partitioning due to adsorption alone, but point to both absorption into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006NIMPA.568..752S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006NIMPA.568..752S"><span>Absolute <span class="hlt">activity</span> measurement of radon <span class="hlt">gas</span> at IRA-METAS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spring, Philippe; Nedjadi, Youcef; Bailat, Claude; Triscone, Gilles; Bochud, François</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>This paper describes the system of the Swiss national metrological institute (IRA-METAS) for the absolute standardisation of radon <span class="hlt">gas</span>. This method relies on condensing radon under vacuum conditions within a specified cold area using a cryogenerator, and detecting its alpha particles with an ion-implanted silicon detector, through a very accurately defined solid angle. The accuracy of this defined solid angle standardisation technique was corroborated by another primary measurement method involving 4 πγ NaI(Tl) integral counting and Monte Carlo efficiency calculations. The 222Rn standard submitted by IRA-METAS to the Système International de Référence (SIR) at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has also been found to be consistent with an analogous standard submitted by the German national metrological institute (PTB). IRA-METAS is able to deliver radon standards, with <span class="hlt">activities</span> ranging from a few kBq to 350 kBq, in NIST-Type ampoules, and glass or steel containers usable for calibrating radon-measuring instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28018125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28018125"><span>CFD analysis on <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> for different scrubber redirection configurations in sump cut.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Y; Organiscak, J A; Zhou, L; Beck, T W; Rider, J P</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Office of Mine Safety and Health Research recently developed a series of models using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study the <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> around a continuous mining machine with various fan-powered flooded bed scrubber discharge configurations. CFD models using Species Transport Model without reactions in FLUENT were constructed to evaluate the redirection of scrubber discharge toward the mining face rather than behind the return curtain. The following scenarios are considered in this study: 100 percent of the discharge redirected back toward the face on the off-curtain side of the continuous miner; 100 percent of the discharge redirected back toward the face, but divided equally to both sides of the machine; and 15 percent of the discharge redirected toward the face on the off-curtain side of the machine, with 85 percent directed into the return. These models were compared against a model with a conventional scrubber discharge, where air is directed away from the face into the return. The CFD models were calibrated and validated based on experimental data and accurately predicted sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) <span class="hlt">gas</span> levels at four <span class="hlt">gas</span> monitoring locations. One additional prediction model was simulated to consider a different scrubber discharge angle for the 100 percent redirected, equally divided case. These models identified relatively high gassy areas around the continuous miner, which may not warrant their use in coal mines with medium to high methane liberation rates. This paper describes the methodology used to develop the CFD models, and the validation of the models based on experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5178874','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5178874"><span>CFD analysis on <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> for different scrubber redirection configurations in sump cut</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zheng, Y.; Organiscak, J.A.; Zhou, L.; Beck, T.W.; Rider, J.P.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s Office of Mine Safety and Health Research recently developed a series of models using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study the <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> around a continuous mining machine with various fan-powered flooded bed scrubber discharge configurations. CFD models using Species Transport Model without reactions in FLUENT were constructed to evaluate the redirection of scrubber discharge toward the mining face rather than behind the return curtain. The following scenarios are considered in this study: 100 percent of the discharge redirected back toward the face on the off-curtain side of the continuous miner; 100 percent of the discharge redirected back toward the face, but divided equally to both sides of the machine; and 15 percent of the discharge redirected toward the face on the off-curtain side of the machine, with 85 percent directed into the return. These models were compared against a model with a conventional scrubber discharge, where air is directed away from the face into the return. The CFD models were calibrated and validated based on experimental data and accurately predicted sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) <span class="hlt">gas</span> levels at four <span class="hlt">gas</span> monitoring locations. One additional prediction model was simulated to consider a different scrubber discharge angle for the 100 percent redirected, equally divided case. These models identified relatively high gassy areas around the continuous miner, which may not warrant their use in coal mines with medium to high methane liberation rates. This paper describes the methodology used to develop the CFD models, and the validation of the models based on experimental data. PMID:28018125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960000868','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960000868"><span>The frequency and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of high-velocity <span class="hlt">gas</span> in the Galaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nichols, Joy S.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of high-velocity <span class="hlt">gas</span> in the Galaxy using UV absorption line measurements from archival high-dispersion IUE spectra and to identify particularly interesting regions for future study. Approximately 500 spectra have been examined. The study began with the creation of a database of all 0 and B stars with b less than or = to 30 deg observed with IUE at high dispersion over its 18-year lifetime. The original database of 2500 unique objects was reduced to 1200 objects which had optimal exposures available. The next task was to determine the distances of these stars so the high-velocity structures could be mapped in the Galaxy. Spectroscopic distances were calculated for each star for which photometry was available. The photometry was acquired for each star using the SIMBAD database. Preference was given to the ubvy system where available; otherwise the UBV system was used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/269968','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/269968"><span>CAIS standard manual. System number 26. Industrial <span class="hlt">gas</span> storage and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-04-28</p> <p>At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Industrial <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Storage and <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25734825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25734825"><span>Data inconsistencies from states with unconventional oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malone, Samantha; Kelso, Matthew; Auch, Ted; Edelstein, Karen; Ferrar, Kyle; Jalbert, Kirk</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The quality and availability of unconventional oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> (O&G) data in the United States have never been compared methodically state-to-state. By conducting such an assessment, this study seeks to better understand private and publicly sourced data variability and to identify data availability gaps. We developed an exploratory data-grading tool - Data Accessibility and Usability Index (DAUI) - to guide the review of O&G data quality. Between July and October 2013, we requested, collected, and assessed 5 categories of unconventional O&G data (wells drilled, violations, production, waste, and Class II disposal wells) from 10 states with <span class="hlt">active</span> drilling <span class="hlt">activity</span>. We based our assessment on eight data quality parameters (accessibility, usability, point location, completeness, metadata, agency responsiveness, accuracy, and cost). Using the DAUI, two authors graded the 10 states and then averaged their scores. The average score received across all states, data categories, and parameters was 67.1 out of 100, largely insufficient for proper data transparency. By state, Pennsylvania received the highest average ( = 93.5) and ranked first in all but one data category. The lowest scoring state was Texas ( = 44) largely due to its policy of charging for certain data. This article discusses the various reasons for scores received, as well as methodological limitations of the assessment metrics. We argue that the significant variability of unconventional O&G data-and its availability to the public-is a barrier to regulatory and industry transparency. The lack of transparency also impacts public education and broader participation in industry governance. This study supports the need to develop a set of data best management practices (BMPs) for state regulatory agencies and the O&G industry, and suggests potential BMPs for this purpose.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6729633','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6729633"><span>Sedimentary style and oil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> field <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in Western Bohai Bay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hansheng Qiao )</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Western Bohai Bay is located near Tianjing City and the Yanshan Mountains. Tectonically, it is part of the Bohai Bay rift, including the Qiku, Nanpu, and Cangdong depressions. The Paleogene strata consist of three cycles in the rift. Usually, the sublacustrine fans or basalts formed at the initial stage of every cycle. The dark shales and turbidites developed at the high level of lacustrine transgression. However, the deltas or evaporates appeared at the regressive stage. The sublacustrine fans or deltas generally <span class="hlt">distribute</span> in the marginal part of a depression, with humic type kerogen. The dark shales of deep lacustrine facies in the inner part of it contain sapropel type kerogen. The transitional zone between them is interbedded shales and sandstones, with mixed type kerogen. The oil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> fields mainly occur in the transitional zone around the oil-generating center. The great oil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> fields are formed in areas where the big drape anticline coincided with the sublacustrine fan-front or delta-front sandstones and were sealed by shales or evaporates. A great number of small overpressured oil reservoirs are in the mature source rocks in the depression center.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1208717','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1208717"><span>The Case for Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems for <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chick, Lawrence A.; Weimar, Mark R.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Natural-<span class="hlt">gas</span>-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (NGSOFC) power systems yield electrical conversion efficiencies exceeding 60% and may become a viable alternative for <span class="hlt">distributed</span> generation (DG) if stack life and manufacturing economies of scale can be realized. Currently, stacks last approximately 2 years and few systems are produced each year because of the relatively high cost of electricity from the systems. If mass manufacturing (10,000 units per year) and a stack life of 15 years can be reached, the cost of electricity from an NGSOFC system is estimated to be about 7.7 ¢/kWh, well within the price of commercial and residential retail prices at the national level (9.9-10¢/kWh and 11-12 ¢/kWh, respectively). With an additional 5 ¢/kWh in estimated additional benefits from DG, NGSOFC could be well positioned to replace the forecasted 59-77 gigawatts of capacity loss resulting from coal plant closures due to stricter emissions regulations and low natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> prices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...833..283L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...833..283L"><span>The Cosmic Evolution of the Metallicity <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of Ionized <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Traced by Lyman Limit Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehner, Nicolas; O'Meara, John M.; Howk, J. Christopher; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Fumagalli, Michele</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We present the first results from our KODIAQ Z survey aimed at determining the metallicity <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and physical properties of the z≳ 2 partial and full Lyman limit systems (pLLSs and LLSs; 16.2≤slant {log}{N}{{H}{{I}}}\\lt 19), which are probed of the interface regions between the intergalactic medium (IGM) and galaxies. We study 31 H i-selected pLLSs and LLSs at 2.3\\lt z\\lt 3.3 observed with Keck/HIRES in absorption against background QSOs. We compare the column densities of metal ions to H i and use photoionization models to assess the metallicity. The metallicity <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the pLLSs/LLSs at 2.3\\lt z\\lt 3.3 is consistent with a unimodal <span class="hlt">distribution</span> peaking at [{{X}}/{{H}}]≃ -2. The metallicity <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of these absorbers therefore evolves markedly with z since at z≲ 1 it is bimodal with peaks at [{{X}}/{{H}}]≃ -1.8 and -0.3. There is a substantial fraction (25%-41%) of pLLSs/LLSs with metallicities well below those of damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs) at any studied z from z≲ 1 to z˜ 2-4, implying reservoirs of metal-poor, cool, dense <span class="hlt">gas</span> in the IGM/galaxy interface at all z. However, the <span class="hlt">gas</span> probed by pLLSs and LLSs is rarely pristine, with a fraction of 3%-18% for pLLSs/LLSs with [{{X}}/{{H}}]≤slant -3. We find C/α enhancement in several pLLSs and LLSs in the metallicity range -2≲ [{{X}}/{{H}}]≲ -0.5, where C/α is 2-5 times larger than observed in Galactic metal-poor stars or high-redshift DLAs at similar metallicities. This is likely caused by preferential ejection of carbon from metal-poor galaxies into their surroundings.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ITEIS.132..526F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ITEIS.132..526F"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">Activation</span> Energy to Transient Response of Semiconductor <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujimoto, Akira; Ohtani, Tatsuki</p> <p></p> <p>The smell classifiable <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensor will be desired for many applications such as <span class="hlt">gas</span> detection alarms, process controls for food production and so on. We have tried to realize the sensor using transient responses of semiconductor <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensor consisting of tin dioxide and pointed out that the sensor gave us different transient responses for kinds of <span class="hlt">gas</span>. Results of model calculation showed the <span class="hlt">activation</span> energy of chemical reaction on the sensor surface strongly depended on the transient response. We tried to estimate the <span class="hlt">activation</span> energies by molecular orbital calculation with SnO2 Cluster. The results show that there is a liner relationship between the gradient of the transient responses and <span class="hlt">activation</span> energies for carboxylic and alcoholic gases. Transient response will be predicted from <span class="hlt">activation</span> energy in the same kind of <span class="hlt">gas</span> and the smell discrimination by single semiconductor <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensor will be realized by this relationship.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24347160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24347160"><span>Influence of forced internal air circulation on airflow <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and heat transfer in a <span class="hlt">gas</span> double-dynamic solid-state fermentation bioreactor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Hongzhang; Qin, Lanzhi; Li, Hongqiang</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Internal air circulation affects the temperature field <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in a <span class="hlt">gas</span> double-dynamic solid-state fermentation bioreactor (GDSFB). To enhance heat transfer through strengthening internal air circulation in a GDSFB, we put an air <span class="hlt">distribution</span> plate (ADP) into the bioreactor and studied the effects of forced internal air circulation on airflow, heat transfer, and cellulase <span class="hlt">activity</span> of Trichoderma viride L3. Results showed that ADP could help form a steady and uniform airflow <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, and with <span class="hlt">gas</span>-guide tubes, air reversal was formed inside the bioreactor, thus resulting in a smaller temperature difference between medium and air by enhancing convective heat transfer inside the bioreactor. Using an ADP of 5.35 % aperture ratio caused a 1 °C decrease in the average temperature difference during the solid-state fermentation process of T. viride L3. Meanwhile, the cellulase <span class="hlt">activity</span> of T. viride L3 increased by 13.5 %. The best heat-transfer effect was attained when using an ADP of 5.35 % aperture ratio and setting the fan power to 125 V (4.81 W) in the <span class="hlt">gas</span> double-dynamic solid-state fermentation (GDSF) process. An option of suitable aperture ratio and fan power may be conducive to ADPs' industrial amplification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B23G..07A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B23G..07A"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and <span class="hlt">activity</span> of hydrogenase enzymes in subsurface sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adhikari, R.; Nickel, J.; Glombitza, C.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S. L.; Kallmeyer, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Metabolically <span class="hlt">active</span> microbial communities are present in a wide range of subsurface environments. Techniques like enumeration of microbial cells, <span class="hlt">activity</span> measurements with radiotracer assays and the analysis of porewater constituents are currently being used to explore the subsurface biosphere, alongside with molecular biological analyses. However, many of these techniques reach their detection limits due to low microbial <span class="hlt">activity</span> and abundance. Direct measurements of microbial turnover not just face issues of insufficient sensitivity, they only provide information about a single specific process rather than an overall microbial <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Since hydrogenase enzymes are intracellular and ubiquitous in subsurface microbial communities, the enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> represents a measure of total <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the entire microbial community. A hydrogenase <span class="hlt">activity</span> assay could quantify total metabolic <span class="hlt">activity</span> without having to identify specific processes. This would be a major advantage in subsurface biosphere studies, where several metabolic processes can occur simultaneously. We quantified hydrogenase enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in sediment samples from different aquatic subsurface environments (Lake Van, Barents Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Gulf of Mexico) using a tritium-based assay. We found enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> at all sites and depths. Volumetric hydrogenase <span class="hlt">activity</span> did not show much variability between sites and sampling depths, whereas cell-specific <span class="hlt">activity</span> ranged from 10-5 to 1 nmol H2 cell-1 d-1. <span class="hlt">Activity</span> was lowest in sediment layers where nitrate was detected. Higher <span class="hlt">activity</span> was associated with samples in which sulfate was the predominant electron acceptor. We found highest <span class="hlt">activity</span> in samples from environments with >10 ppm methane in the pore water. The results show that cell-specific hydrogenase enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> increases with decreasing energy yield of the electron acceptor used. It is not possible to convert volumetric or cell-specific hydrogenase <span class="hlt">activity</span> into a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JCHyd..16..359I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JCHyd..16..359I"><span>Effect of liquid <span class="hlt">distribution</span> on <span class="hlt">gas</span>-water phase mass transfer in an unsaturated sand during infiltration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Imhoff, Paul T.; Jaffé, Peter R.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Gas</span>-water phase mass transfer was examined in a homogeneous sand with both the <span class="hlt">gas</span> and water phase mobile: water was infiltrated from the top of the sand column while benzene-laden air flowed upward from the bottom. Mass-transfer limitations for this situation may be important for applications of bioventing, where water and nutrients are added at the ground surface simultaneously with induced air movement to carry oxygen and volatile organics to microbial populations. <span class="hlt">Gas</span>- and water-phase samples indicate that <span class="hlt">gas</span>-water phase mass transfer was sufficiently fast that equilibrium between <span class="hlt">gas</span> and water phases was achieved at all sampling locations within the porous medium. Lower-bound estimates for the <span class="hlt">gas</span>-water mass-transfer rate coefficient show that mass transfer was at least 10-40 times larger than predictions made from an empirical model developed for <span class="hlt">gas</span>-water phase mass transfer in an identical porous medium. A water-phase tracer test demonstrates that water flow was much more uniform in this study than in those earlier experiments, which is a likely explanation for the differing rates of <span class="hlt">gas</span>-water phase mass transfer. It is hypothesized that the liquid <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in previous laboratory experiments was less uniform because of preferential flow paths due to wetting front instabilities. <span class="hlt">Gas</span>-water phase mass-transfer rate coefficients reported in this investigation are for an ideal situation of uniform water infiltration: mass-transfer rates in field soils are expected to be significantly smaller.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......104M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......104M"><span>Thermodynamic Modeling and Dispatch of <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> Energy Technologies including Fuel Cell -- <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Turbine Hybrids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McLarty, Dustin Fogle</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Distributed</span> energy systems are a promising means by which to reduce both emissions and costs. Continuous generators must be responsive and highly efficiency to support building dynamics and intermittent on-site renewable power. Fuel cell -- <span class="hlt">gas</span> turbine hybrids (FC/GT) are fuel-flexible generators capable of ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emissions, and rapid power response. This work undertakes a detailed study of the electrochemistry, chemistry and mechanical dynamics governing the complex interaction between the individual systems in such a highly coupled hybrid arrangement. The mechanisms leading to the compressor stall/surge phenomena are studied for the increased risk posed to particular hybrid configurations. A novel fuel cell modeling method introduced captures various spatial resolutions, flow geometries, stack configurations and novel heat transfer pathways. Several promising hybrid configurations are analyzed throughout the work and a sensitivity analysis of seven design parameters is conducted. A simple estimating method is introduced for the combined system efficiency of a fuel cell and a turbine using component performance specifications. Existing solid oxide fuel cell technology is capable of hybrid efficiencies greater than 75% (LHV) operating on natural <span class="hlt">gas</span>, and existing molten carbonate systems greater than 70% (LHV). A dynamic model is calibrated to accurately capture the physical coupling of a FC/GT demonstrator tested at UC Irvine. The 2900 hour experiment highlighted the sensitivity to small perturbations and a need for additional control development. Further sensitivity studies outlined the responsiveness and limits of different control approaches. The capability for substantial turn-down and load following through speed control and flow bypass with minimal impact on internal fuel cell thermal <span class="hlt">distribution</span> is particularly promising to meet local demands or provide dispatchable support for renewable power. Advanced control and dispatch</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14745159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14745159"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductase <span class="hlt">activity</span> among microorganisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takeda, Kouji; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Yoda, Koji; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Nimura-Matsune, Kaori; Mura, Kiyoshi; Tokue, Chiyoko; Katoh, Tetzuya; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Peroxiredoxin (Prx) constitutes a large family of enzymes found in microorganisms, animals, and plants, but the detection of the <span class="hlt">activities</span> of Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductases (peroxiredoxin reductases) in cell extracts, and the purification based on peroxide reductase <span class="hlt">activity</span>, have only been done in bacteria and Trypanosomatidae. A peroxiredoxin reductase (NADH oxidase) from a bacterium, Amphibacillus, displayed only poor <span class="hlt">activities</span> in the presence of purified Prx from Saccharomyces or Synechocystis, while it is highly <span class="hlt">active</span> in the presence of bacterial Prx. These results suggested that an enzyme system different from that in bacteria might exist for the reduction of Prx in yeast and cyanobacteria. Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductase <span class="hlt">activities</span> were detected in cell extracts of Saccharomyces, Synechocystis, and Chlorella, and the enzyme <span class="hlt">activities</span> of Saccharomyces and Chlorella were induced under vigorously aerated culture conditions and intensive light exposure conditions, respectively. Partial purification of Prx-linked peroxidase from the induced yeast cells indicated that the Prx-linked peroxidase system consists of two protein components, namely, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. This finding is consistent with the previous report on its purification based on its protein protection <span class="hlt">activity</span> against oxidation [Chae et al., J. Biol. Chem., 269, 27670-27678 (1994)]. In this study we have confirmed that Prx-linked peroxidase <span class="hlt">activity</span> are widely <span class="hlt">distributed</span>, not only in bacteria species and Trypanosomatidae, but also in yeast and photosynthetic microorganisms, and showed reconstitution of the <span class="hlt">activity</span> from partially purified interspecies components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........62R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........62R"><span>The Detection and Measurement of the <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Size <span class="hlt">Distributions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramamurthi, Mukund</p> <p></p> <p>The infiltration of radon into the indoor environment may cause the exposure of the public to excessive amounts of radioactivity and has spurred renewed research interest over the past several years into the occurrence and properties of radon and its decay products in indoor air. The public health risks posed by the inhalation and subsequent lung deposition of the decay products of Rn-222 have particularly warranted the study of their diffusivity and attachment to molecular cluster aerosols in the ultrafine particle size range (0.5-5 nm) and to accumulation mode aerosols. In this research, a system for the detection and measurement of the <span class="hlt">activity</span> size <span class="hlt">distributions</span> and concentration levels of radon decay products in indoor environments has been developed. The system is microcomputer-controlled and involves a combination of multiple wire screen sampler -detector units operated in parallel. The detection of the radioactivity attached to the aerosol sampled in these units permits the determination of the radon daughter <span class="hlt">activity</span> -weighted size <span class="hlt">distributions</span> and concentration levels in indoor air on a semi-continuous basis. The development of the system involved the design of the detection and measurement system, its experimental characterization and testing in a radon-aerosol chamber, and numerical studies for the optimization of the design and operating parameters of the system. Several concepts of utility to aerosol size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> measurement methods sampling the ultrafine cluster size range evolved from this study, and are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The optimized multiple wire screen (Graded Screen Array) system described in this dissertation is based on these concepts. The principal facet of the system is its ability to make unattended measurements of <span class="hlt">activity</span> size <span class="hlt">distributions</span> and concentration levels of radon decay products on a semi-continuous basis. Thus, the capability of monitoring changes in the <span class="hlt">activity</span> concentrations and size</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JPhD...34.2135D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JPhD...34.2135D"><span>Modelling the laser fusion cutting process: II. <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of supersonic <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow field inside the cut kerf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duan, J.; Man, H. C.; Yue, T. M.</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>A mathematical model is developed to calculate the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow field at the entrance, inside and exit of a laser cut kerf for inlet stagnation pressures ≥5 bar for an inert assist <span class="hlt">gas</span> jet exiting from a supersonic nozzle. A two-dimensional analytical method is adopted to locate approximately the position and shape of the detached shock above the cutting front surface according to the geometrical shape of the cutting front. A method of two-dimensional characteristics is applied to calculate the <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow field <span class="hlt">distribution</span> along the cutting front. The calculated results of the flow field <span class="hlt">distribution</span> are simulated by the computer and can be used to estimate and analyse the cut-edge quality under different cutting conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370340','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370340"><span>A census of <span class="hlt">gas</span> outflows in type 2 <span class="hlt">active</span> galactic nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bae, Hyun-Jin; Woo, Jong-Hak E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We perform a census of ionized <span class="hlt">gas</span> outflows using a sample of ∼23,000 type 2 <span class="hlt">active</span> galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z ∼ 0.1. By measuring the velocity offset of narrow emission lines, i.e., [O III] λ5007 and Hα, with respect to the systemic velocity measured from the stellar absorption lines, we find that 47% of AGNs display an [O III] line-of-sight velocity offset ≥ 20 km s{sup –1}. The fraction of the [O III] velocity offset in type 2 AGNs is comparable to that in type 1 AGNs after considering the projection effect. AGNs with a large [O III] velocity offset preferentially have a high Eddington ratio, implying that the detected velocity offsets are related to black hole <span class="hlt">activity</span>. The <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the host galaxy inclination is clearly different between the AGNs with blueshifted [O III] and the AGNs with redshifted [O III], supporting the combined model of the biconical outflow and dust obscuration. In addition, for ∼3% of AGNs, [O III] and Hα show comparable large velocity offsets, indicating a more complex <span class="hlt">gas</span> kinematics than decelerating outflows in a stratified narrow-line region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5335949','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5335949"><span>Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program. <span class="hlt">Activity</span> 1: mussel <span class="hlt">distribution</span> surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ahlstedt, S.A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of Cumberlandian mollusks in the Tennessee Valley is one of nine research <span class="hlt">activities</span> developed as part of TVA's Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program (CMCP). The name Cumberlandian refers to an endemic faunal assemblage that encompasses portions of 7 states bordering the southern Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau Region. This geographic region is known as one of the major centers for mussel speciation and is considered the most prolific areas of the world for this particular group of organisms. Nine Tennessee Valley streams were selected for intensive qualitative and quantitative mussel surveys under <span class="hlt">Activity</span> I of the CMCP. The surveys were designed to gather information on the present <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of Cumberlandian mollusks. The streams chosen for surveys were based on the documented presence of diverse mussel fauna, endangered mussels, and/or sufficient information (diverse fish fauna, good water quality, etc.) to suggest potential for occurrence of diverse mussel fauna or endangered species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24564900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24564900"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">gas</span> periodic stimulation on key enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> in <span class="hlt">gas</span> double-dynamic solid state fermentation (GDD-SSF).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Hongzhang; Shao, Meixue; Li, Hongqiang</p> <p>2014-03-05</p> <p>The heat and mass transfer have been proved to be the important factors in air pressure pulsation for cellulase production. However, as process of enzyme secretion, the cellulase formation has not been studied in the view of microorganism metabolism and metabolic key enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> under air pressure pulsation condition. Two fermentation methods in ATPase <span class="hlt">activity</span>, cellulase productivity, weight lose rate and membrane permeability were systematically compared. Results indicated that <span class="hlt">gas</span> double-dynamic solid state fermentation had no obviously effect on cell membrane permeability. However, the relation between ATPase <span class="hlt">activity</span> and weight loss rate was linearly dependent with r=0.9784. Meanwhile, the results also implied that <span class="hlt">gas</span> periodic stimulation had apparently strengthened microbial metabolism through increasing ATPase <span class="hlt">activity</span> during <span class="hlt">gas</span> double-dynamic solid state fermentation, resulting in motivating the production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei YG3. Therefore, the increase of ATPase <span class="hlt">activity</span> would be another crucial factor to strengthen fermentation process for cellulase production under <span class="hlt">gas</span> double-dynamic solid state fermentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19149659','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19149659"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and biological <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the flavonoid luteolin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>López-Lázaro, Miguel</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Epidemiological evidence suggests that flavonoids may play an important role in the decreased risk of chronic diseases associated with a diet rich in plant-derived foods. Flavonoids are also common constituents of plants used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of diseases. The purpose of this article is to summarize the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and biological <span class="hlt">activities</span> of one of the most common flavonoids: luteolin. This flavonoid and its glycosides are widely <span class="hlt">distributed</span> in the plant kingdom; they are present in many plant families and have been identified in Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta. Dietary sources of luteolin include, for instance, carrots, peppers, celery, olive oil, peppermint, thyme, rosemary and oregano. Preclinical studies have shown that this flavone possesses a variety of pharmacological <span class="hlt">activities</span>, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer <span class="hlt">activities</span>. The ability of luteolin to inhibit angiogenesis, to induce apoptosis, to prevent carcinogenesis in animal models, to reduce tumor growth in vivo and to sensitize tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of some anticancer drugs suggests that this flavonoid has cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. Modulation of ROS levels, inhibition of topoisomerases I and II, reduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1 <span class="hlt">activity</span>, stabilization of p53, and inhibition of PI3K, STAT3, IGF1R and HER2 are possible mechanisms involved in the biological <span class="hlt">activities</span> of luteolin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB...47..948C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB...47..948C"><span>The Effects of Bottom Blowing <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Flow Rate <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> During the Steelmaking Converter Process on Mixing Efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chu, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Hao; Lai, Po-Han; Wu, Hsuan-Chung; Liu, Yung-Chang; Lin, Chi-Cheng; Lu, Muh-Jung</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Featuring the advantages of top-blown and bottom-blown oxygen converters, top and bottom combined blown converters are mainstream devices used in steelmaking converter. This study adopted the FLUENT software to develop a numerical model that simulates 3D multiphase flows of <span class="hlt">gas</span> (air and argon), liquid steel, and slag. Ten numerical experiments were conducted to analyze the effects that the bottom blowing <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow rate <span class="hlt">distribution</span> patterns (uniform, linear fixed total flow rate, linear fixed maximal flow rate, and V-type) and bottom blowing <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow <span class="hlt">distribution</span> gradients of combined blown converters exert on slag surface stirring heights, flow field patterns, simulation system dynamic pressures, mixing time, and liquid steel-slag interface velocity. The simulation results indicated that the mixing efficiency was highest for the linear fixed total flow rate, followed by the linear fixed maximal flow rate, V-type, and uniform patterns. The bottom blowing <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow rate <span class="hlt">distribution</span> exhibited linear patterns and large gradients, and high bottom blowing total flow rates increased the mixing efficiency substantially. In addition, the results suggested that even when bottom blowing total flow rate was reduced, adopting effective bottom blowing <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow rate <span class="hlt">distribution</span> patterns and gradients could improve the mixing efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=202146','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=202146"><span>Microelectrode Measurements of the <span class="hlt">Activity</span> <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> in Nitrifying Bacterial Aggregates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de Beer, D.; van den Heuvel, J. C.; Ottengraf, S. P. P.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Microelectrodes for ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were used to study nitrifying aggregates grown in a fluidized-bed reactor. Local reactant fluxes and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of microbial <span class="hlt">activity</span> could be determined from the microprofiles. The interfacial fluxes of the reactants closely reflected the stoichiometry of bacterial nitrification. Both ammonium consumption and nitrate production were localized in the outer shells, with a thickness of approximately 100 to 120 μm, of the aggregates. Under conditions in which ammonium and oxygen penetrated the whole aggregate, nitrification was restricted to this zone; oxygen was consumed in the central parts of the aggregates as well, probably because of oxidation of dead biomass. A sudden increase of the oxygen concentration to saturation (pure oxygen) was inhibitory to nitrification. The pH profiles showed acidification in the aggregates, but not to an inhibitory level. The <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">activity</span> was determined by the penetration depth of oxygen during aggregate development in the reactor. Mass transfer was significantly limited by the boundary layer surrounding the aggregates. Microelectrode measurements showed that the thickness of this layer was correlated with the diffusion coefficient of the species. Determination of the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of nitrifying <span class="hlt">activity</span> required the use of ammonium or nitrate microelectrodes, whereas the use of oxygen microelectrodes alone would lead to erroneous results. Images PMID:16348875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPS...194..328K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPS...194..328K"><span>Uneven <span class="hlt">gas</span> diffusion layer intrusion in <span class="hlt">gas</span> channel arrays of proton exchange membrane fuel cell and its effects on flow <span class="hlt">distribution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kandlikar, S. G.; Lu, Z.; Lin, T. Y.; Cooke, D.; Daino, M.</p> <p></p> <p>Intrusion of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> diffusion layer (GDL) into <span class="hlt">gas</span> channels due to fuel cell compression has a major impact on the <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, fuel cell performance and durability. In this work, the effect of compression resulting in GDL intrusion in individual parallel PEMFC channels is investigated. The intrusion is determined using two methods: an optical measurement in both the in-plane and through-plane directions of GDL, as well as an analytical fluid flow model based on individual channel flow rate measurements. The intrusion measurements and estimates obtained from these methods agree well with each other. An uneven <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of GDL intrusion into individual parallel channels is observed. A non-uniform compression force <span class="hlt">distribution</span> derived from the clamping bolts causes a higher intrusion in the end channels. The heterogeneous GDL structure and physical properties may also contribute to the uneven GDL intrusion. As a result of uneven intrusion <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, severe flow maldistribution and increased pressure drop have been observed. The intrusion data can be further used to determine the mechanical properties of GDL materials. Using the finite element analysis software program ANSYS, the Young's modulus of the GDL from these measurements is estimated to be 30.9 MPa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013559','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013559"><span><span class="hlt">GAS</span> HYDRATES AT TWO SITES OF AN <span class="hlt">ACTIVE</span> CONTINENTAL MARGIN.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kvenvolden, K.A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Sediment containing <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart on the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates were encountered at 404 m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995A%26A...295..487L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995A%26A...295..487L"><span>The Thumbprint nebula: The <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of molecular <span class="hlt">gas</span> and dust in a regular BOK globule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehtinen, K.; Mattila, K.; Schnur, G. F. O.; Prusti, T.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>We have studied a regular bright-rimmed globule called Thumbprint Nebula, TPN, (size approximately 0.18 pc, distance approximately 200 pc) in millimeter molecular lines (CO isotopic lines), at optical wavelengths (scanned Schmidt plates) and at infrared wavelengths (IRAS maps and scans). The molecular line observations have been made with the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST) in (12)CO (J = 1-0) and (J = 2-1), (13)CO (J = 1-0) and (J = 2-1), C(18)O (J = 1-0), C(17)O (J = 1-0), CS (J = 2-1) and HNC (J = 1-0) transitions. These observations reveal a centrally condensed cloud with an excitation temperature of Tex approximately equal to 6.6 K, and a mass of 6 solar mass. There is indication of a cloud rotation with a rotation rate of approximately 0.6 km/s/pc, as measured using (13)CO lines. Optical surface brightness <span class="hlt">distribution</span> as measured from blue and red European Southern Observatory (ESO/SRC) Schmidt plates has been used to determine the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the dust particles in comparison with the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> component. The position of the surface brightness minimum, which corresponds to the dust density maximum, is found to be about 40 sec to 50 sec north of the (13)CO and C(18)O column density maximum. We have made infrared surface brightness maps using the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) survey plates at 12, 25, 60 and 100 micrometers and extracted individual IRAS scans crossing the TPN. The globule is seen at 100 and 60 micrometers but the dust is apparently too cold to be visible at shorter wavelengths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9b4017H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9b4017H"><span>A perspective on cost-effectiveness of greenhouse <span class="hlt">gas</span> reduction solutions in water <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hendrickson, Thomas P.; Horvath, Arpad</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems (WDSs) face great challenges as aging infrastructures require significant investments in rehabilitation, replacement, and expansion. Reducing environmental impacts as WDSs develop is essential for utility managers and policy makers. This study quantifies the existing greenhouse <span class="hlt">gas</span> (GHG) footprint of common WDS elements using life-cycle assessment (LCA) while identifying the greatest opportunities for emission reduction. This study addresses oversights of the related literature, which fails to capture several WDS elements and to provide detailed life-cycle inventories. The life-cycle inventory results for a US case study utility reveal that 81% of GHGs are from pumping energy, where a large portion of these emissions are a result of <span class="hlt">distribution</span> leaks, which account for 270 billion l of water losses daily in the United States. Pipe replacement scheduling is analyzed from an environmental perspective where, through incorporating leak impacts, a tool reveals that optimal replacement is no more than 20 years, which is in contrast to the US average of 200 years. Carbon abatement costs (CACs) are calculated for different leak reduction scenarios for the case utility that range from -130 to 35 t-1 CO2(eq). Including life-cycle modeling in evaluating pipe materials identified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cement-lined ductile iron (DICL) as the Pareto efficient options, however; utilizing PVC presents human health risks. The model developed for the case utility is applied to California and Texas to determine the CACs of reducing leaks to 5% of <span class="hlt">distributed</span> water. For California, annual GHG savings from reducing leaks alone (3.4 million tons of CO2(eq)) are found to exceed California Air Resources Board’s estimate for energy efficiency improvements in the state’s water infrastructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5568562','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5568562"><span>Managing oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> in coastal environments: refuge manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Longley, W.L.; Jackson, R.; Snyder, B.</p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>A study was undertaken to determine the impacts of all aspects of oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> development upon coastal ecological systems and to assess the safeguards used in protecting refuge lands. Wildlife refuges along the coasts of Texas and Louisiana were selected for intensive study. These refuges were characterized by (1) a diversity of ecosystems, (2) oil exploration, extraction, and transport, and (3) oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> development periods of varying durations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348881','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348881"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, May 1999</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/661408','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/661408"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, July 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10170027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10170027"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, July 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-07-20</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10173224','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10173224"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, June 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-06-22</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10106439','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10106439"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, November 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-11-29</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10112120','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10112120"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly: December 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/61083','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/61083"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, April 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-04-27</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/109647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/109647"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, September 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-09-27</p> <p>The (NGM) Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176223','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176223"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, July 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-07-27</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly NGM highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10145186','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10145186"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, April 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-04-26</p> <p>The National <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178184','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178184"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, August 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-08-24</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/354837','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/354837"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, June 1999</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.205..665Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.205..665Y"><span>The characteristics of gravity and magnetic fields and the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of tight sandstone <span class="hlt">gas</span> in the eastern Ordos Basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Bingqiang; Zhang, Huaan; Zhang, Chunguan; Xu, Haihong; Yan, Yunkui</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In order to perform <span class="hlt">gas</span> exploration and determine the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> pattern of <span class="hlt">gas</span> in the Yanchang Oil Field in the eastern part of the North Shaanxi Slope, Ordos Basin, China, gravity and magnetic survey data were systemically collated, processed and interpreted in combination with the drilling data and recent seismic data. The genesis of gravity and magnetic anomalies and the relationship between the characteristics of the gravity and magnetic fields and known <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> were explored in order to predict the favourable exploration targets for <span class="hlt">gas</span>. Gravity anomalies resulted both from the lateral variation in density of the basement rock and lateral lithologic transformation in the sedimentary cover. The regional magnetic anomalies were mainly caused by the basement metamorphic rocks and the residual magnetic anomalies may reflect the amount and general location of the volcanic materials in the overlying strata. The residual gravity and magnetic anomalies generated by high-density sandstone and high content of volcanics in the <span class="hlt">gas</span> reservoir of the upper Paleozoic distorted and deformed the anomaly curves when they were stacked onto the primary background anomaly. The <span class="hlt">gas</span> wells were generally found to be located in the anomaly gradient zones, or the distorted part of contour lines, and the flanks of high and low anomalies, or the transitional zones between anomaly highs and lows. The characteristics of gravity and magnetic fields provide significant information that can be used for guidance when exploring the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span>. Based on these characteristics, five favourable areas for <span class="hlt">gas</span> exploration were identified; these are quasi-equally spaced like a strip extending from the southeast to the northwest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhSen...6..214W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhSen...6..214W"><span>Study of a <span class="hlt">distributed</span> feedback diode laser based hygrometer combined Herriot-<span class="hlt">gas</span> cell and waterless optical components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Yubin; Chang, Jun; Lian, Jie; Wang, Qiang; Wei, Wei</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">distributed</span> feedback diode laser (DFB-DL) based hygrometer combined with a long-path-length Herriot <span class="hlt">gas</span> cell and waterless optical components was proposed and investigated. The main function of this sensor was to simultaneously improve the measurement reliability and resolution. A comparison test between a 10-cm normal transmission-type <span class="hlt">gas</span> cell and a 3-m Herriot <span class="hlt">gas</span> cell was carried out to demonstrate the improvement. Reliability improvement was achieved by influence suppression of water vapor inside optical components (WVOC) through combined action of the Herriot <span class="hlt">gas</span> cell and waterless optical components. The influence of WVOC was suppressed from 726 ppmv to 25 ppmv using the Herriot <span class="hlt">gas</span> cell. Moreover, combined with waterless optical components, the influence of WVOC was further suppressed to no more than 4 ppmv. Resolution improvement from 11.7 ppmv to 0.32 ppmv was achieved mainly due to the application of the long-path-length Herriot <span class="hlt">gas</span> cell. The results show that the proposed sensor has a good performance and considerable potential application in <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensing, especially when probed <span class="hlt">gas</span> possibly permeates into optical components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......528S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......528S"><span>Energy management and control of <span class="hlt">active</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shariatzadeh, Farshid</p> <p></p> <p>Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation <span class="hlt">active</span> power <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of <span class="hlt">active</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated <span class="hlt">distribution</span> system with remotely operated controllers and <span class="hlt">distributed</span> energy resources (DERs). DER as <span class="hlt">active</span> part of the next generation future <span class="hlt">distribution</span> system includes: <span class="hlt">distributed</span> generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A43F0353S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A43F0353S"><span>Impact of routine episodic emissions on the expected frequency <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of emissions from oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> production sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, N.; Blewitt, D.; Hebert, L. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In coordination with oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> operators, we developed a high resolution (< 1 min) simulation of temporal variability in well-pad oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> emissions over a year. We include routine emissions from condensate tanks, dehydrators, pneumatic devices, fugitive leaks and liquids unloading. We explore the variability in natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> emissions from these individual well-pad sources, and find that routine short-term episodic emissions such as tank flashing and liquids unloading result in the appearance of a skewed, or 'fat-tail' <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of emissions, from an individual well-pad over time. Additionally, we explore the expected variability in emissions from multiple wells with different raw <span class="hlt">gas</span> composition, <span class="hlt">gas</span>/liquids production volumes and control equipment. Differences in well-level composition, production volume and control equipment translate into differences in well-level emissions leading to a fat-tail <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of emissions in the absence of operational upsets. Our results have several implications for recent studies focusing on emissions from oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> sources. Time scale of emission estimates are important and have important policy implications. Fat tail <span class="hlt">distributions</span> may not be entirely driven by avoidable mechanical failures, and are expected to occur under routine operational conditions from short-duration emissions (e.g., tank flashing, liquid unloading). An understanding of the expected <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of emissions for a particular population of wells is necessary to evaluate whether the observed <span class="hlt">distribution</span> is more skewed than expected. Temporal variability in well-pad emissions make comparisons to annual average emissions inventories difficult and may complicate the interpretation of long-term ambient fenceline monitoring data. Sophisticated change detection algorithms will be necessary to identify when true operational upsets occur versus routine short-term emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/212925','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/212925"><span><span class="hlt">Gas</span> swelling and deuterium <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in beryllium implanted with deuterium ions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chernikov, V.N.; Alimov, V.Kh.; Zakharov, A.P.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>An extensive TEM study of the microstructure of Be TIP-30 irradiated with 3 and 10 keV D ions up to fluences, {Phi}, in the range from 3 x 10{sup 20} to 8 x 10{sup 21} D/m{sup 2} at temperatures T{sub irr} = 300 K, 500 K and 700 K has been carried out. Depth <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of deuterium in the form of separate D atoms and D{sub 2} molecules have been investigated by means of SIMS and RGA methods, correspondingly. D ion irradiation is accompanied by blistering and gives rise to different kind of destructions depending mainly on the irradiation temperature. Irradiation with D ions at 300 K leads to the formation of tiny highly pressurized D{sub 2} bubbles reminiscent of He bubbles in Be. Under 3 keV D ion irradiation D{sub 2} bubbles ({bar r}{sub b} {approx} 0.7 nm) appear at a fluence as low as 3x10{sup 20} D/m{sup 2}. Irradiation at 500 K results in the development, along with relatively small facetted bubbles, of larger oblate <span class="hlt">gas</span>-filled cavities accumulating most of injected D atoms and providing for much higher <span class="hlt">gas</span> swelling values as compared to irradiation at 300 K. The increase of D and/or T{sub irr}, to 700 K causes the further coarsening of large cavities which are transformed into sub-surface labyrinth structures. D and He ion implantation leads to the enhanced growth of porous microcrystalline layers of c.p.h.-BeO oxide with a microstructure which differs considerably from that of oxide layers on electropolished surfaces of Be. Based on the analysis of experimental data questions of deuterium reemission, thermal desorption and trapping in Be have been discussed in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=115623&keyword=global+AND+strategy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78770501&CFTOKEN=10759522','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=115623&keyword=global+AND+strategy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78770501&CFTOKEN=10759522"><span>METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL <span class="hlt">GAS</span> INDUSTRY VOLUME 10: METERING AND PRESSURE REGULATING STATIONS IN NATURAL <span class="hlt">GAS</span> TRANSMISSIONS AND <span class="hlt">DISTRIBUTION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22351490','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22351490"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> region emission measure <span class="hlt">distributions</span> and implications for nanoflare heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cargill, P. J.</p> <p>2014-03-20</p> <p>The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of <span class="hlt">active</span> regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly <span class="hlt">distributed</span>, or a power law. Power law <span class="hlt">distributions</span> where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...784...49C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...784...49C"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> Region Emission Measure <span class="hlt">Distributions</span> and Implications for Nanoflare Heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cargill, P. J.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of <span class="hlt">active</span> regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ~ Ta below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (TN ) and the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of nanoflare energies. If TN is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly <span class="hlt">distributed</span>, or a power law. Power law <span class="hlt">distributions</span> where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, TN must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992STIN...9412851W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992STIN...9412851W"><span>Low pressure storage of natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> on <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.</p> <p></p> <p>The introduction of natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15648387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15648387"><span>Measurement of ultrafine particle size <span class="hlt">distributions</span> from coal-, oil-, and <span class="hlt">gas</span>-fired stationary combustion sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, M C Oliver; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Hopke, Philip K; Yi, Seung-Muk; England, Glenn C</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Currently, we have limited knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of emitted primary combustion aerosols and the changes in those properties caused by nucleation, condensation growth of volatile species, and particle coagulations under dilution and cooling in the ambient air. A dilution chamber was deployed to sample exhaust from a pilot-scale furnace burning various fuels at a nominal heat input rate of 160 kW/h(-1) and 3% excess oxygen. The formation mechanisms of particles smaller than 420 nm in electrical mobility diameter were experimentally investigated by measurement with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) as a function of aging times, dilution air ratios, combustion exhaust temperatures, and fuel types. Particle formation in the dilution process is a complex mixture of nucleation, coagulation, and condensational growth, depending on the concentrations of available condensable species and solid or liquid particles (such as soot, ash) in combustion exhausts. The measured particle size <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in number concentrations measured show peaks of particle number concentrations for medium sulfur bituminous coal, No. 6 fuel oil, and natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> at 40-50 nm, 70-100 nm, and 15-25 nm, respectively. For No. 6 fuel oil and coal, the particle number concentration is constant in the range of a dilution air ratio of 50, but the number decreases as the dilution air ratio decreases to 10. However, for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span>, the particle number concentration is higher at a dilution air ratio of 10 and decreases at dilution air ratios of 20-50. At a dilution air ratio of 10, severe particle coagulation occurs in a relatively short time. Samples taken at different combustion exhaust temperatures for these fuel types show higher particle number concentrations at 645 K than at 450 K. As the aging time of particles increases, the particles increase in size and the number concentrations decrease. The largest gradient of particle number <span class="hlt">distribution</span> occurs within the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.326.1475M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.326.1475M"><span>Damped Lyman alpha systems and galaxy formation models - I. The radial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of cold <span class="hlt">gas</span> at high z</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maller, Ariyeh H.; Prochaska, Jason X.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Primack, Joel R.</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>We investigate the properties of damped Lyman α systems (DLAS) in semi-analytic models, focusing on whether the models can reproduce the kinematic properties of low-ionization metal lines described by Prochaska & Wolfe. We explore a variety of approaches for modelling the radial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the cold neutral <span class="hlt">gas</span> associated with the galaxies in our models, and find that our results are very sensitive to this ingredient. If we use an approach based on work by Fall & Efstathiou, in which the sizes of the discs are determined by conservation of angular momentum, we find that the majority of the DLAS correspond to a single galactic disc. These models generically fail to reproduce the observed <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of velocity widths. In alternative models in which the <span class="hlt">gas</span> discs are considerably more extended, a significant fraction of DLAS arise from lines of sight intersecting multiple <span class="hlt">gas</span> discs in a common halo. These models produce kinematics that fit the observational data, and also seem to agree well with the results of recent hydrodynamical simulations. Thus we conclude that cold dark matter based models of galaxy formation can be reconciled with the kinematic data, but only at the expense of the standard assumption that DLAS are produced by rotationally supported <span class="hlt">gas</span> discs whose sizes are determined by conservation of angular momentum. We suggest that the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of cold <span class="hlt">gas</span> at high redshift may be dominated by another process, such as tidal streaming caused by mergers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3650749','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3650749"><span>Facility optimization to improve <span class="hlt">activation</span> rate <span class="hlt">distributions</span> during IVNAA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ebrahimi Khankook, Atiyeh; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Currently, determination of body composition is the most useful method for distinguishing between certain diseases. The prompt-gamma in vivo neutron <span class="hlt">activation</span> analysis (IVNAA) facility for non-destructive elemental analysis of the human body is the gold standard method for this type of analysis. In order to obtain accurate measurements using the IVNAA system, the <span class="hlt">activation</span> probability in the body must be uniform. This can be difficult to achieve, as body shape and body composition affect the rate of <span class="hlt">activation</span>. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum pre-moderator, in terms of material for attaining uniform <span class="hlt">activation</span> probability with a CV value of about 10% and changing the collimator role to increase <span class="hlt">activation</span> rate within the body. Such uniformity was obtained with a high thickness of paraffin pre-moderator, however, because of increasing secondary photon flux received by the detectors it was not an appropriate choice. Our final calculations indicated that using two paraffin slabs with a thickness of 3 cm as a pre-moderator, in the presence of 2 cm Bi on the collimator, achieves a satisfactory <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">activation</span> rate in the body. PMID:23386375</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23386375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23386375"><span>Facility optimization to improve <span class="hlt">activation</span> rate <span class="hlt">distributions</span> during IVNAA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebrahimi Khankook, Atiyeh; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Currently, determination of body composition is the most useful method for distinguishing between certain diseases. The prompt-gamma in vivo neutron <span class="hlt">activation</span> analysis (IVNAA) facility for non-destructive elemental analysis of the human body is the gold standard method for this type of analysis. In order to obtain accurate measurements using the IVNAA system, the <span class="hlt">activation</span> probability in the body must be uniform. This can be difficult to achieve, as body shape and body composition affect the rate of <span class="hlt">activation</span>. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum pre-moderator, in terms of material for attaining uniform <span class="hlt">activation</span> probability with a CV value of about 10% and changing the collimator role to increase <span class="hlt">activation</span> rate within the body. Such uniformity was obtained with a high thickness of paraffin pre-moderator, however, because of increasing secondary photon flux received by the detectors it was not an appropriate choice. Our final calculations indicated that using two paraffin slabs with a thickness of 3 cm as a pre-moderator, in the presence of 2 cm Bi on the collimator, achieves a satisfactory <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">activation</span> rate in the body.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.1531D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.1531D"><span>Pesticides in the atmosphere: a comparison of <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partitioning and particle size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of legacy and current-use pesticides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Degrendele, C.; Okonski, K.; Melymuk, L.; Landlová, L.; Kukučka, P.; Audy, O.; Kohoutek, J.; Čupr, P.; Klánová, J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This study presents a comparison of seasonal variation, <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partitioning, and particle-phase size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in air. Two years (2012/2013) of weekly air samples were collected at a background site in the Czech Republic using a high-volume air sampler. To study the particle-phase size <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, air samples were also collected at an urban and rural site in the area of Brno, Czech Republic, using a cascade impactor separating atmospheric particulates according to six size fractions. Major differences were found in the atmospheric <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of OCPs and CUPs. The atmospheric concentrations of CUPs were driven by agricultural <span class="hlt">activities</span> while secondary sources such as volatilization from surfaces governed the atmospheric concentrations of OCPs. Moreover, clear differences were observed in <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partitioning; CUP partitioning was influenced by adsorption onto mineral surfaces while OCPs were mainly partitioning to aerosols through absorption. A predictive method for estimating the <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partitioning has been derived and is proposed for polar and non-polar pesticides. Finally, while OCPs and the majority of CUPs were largely found on fine particles, four CUPs (carbendazim, isoproturon, prochloraz, and terbuthylazine) had higher concentrations on coarse particles ( > 3.0 µm), which may be related to the pesticide application technique. This finding is particularly important and should be further investigated given that large particles result in lower risks from inhalation (regardless the toxicity of the pesticide) and lower potential for long-range atmospheric transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...323...37U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...323...37U"><span>Performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte fuel cells by combining liquid removal mechanisms of a <span class="hlt">gas</span> diffusion layer with wettability <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and a <span class="hlt">gas</span> channel with microgrooves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Utaka, Yoshio; Koresawa, Ryo</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Although polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are commercially available, there are still many problems that need to be addressed to improve their performance and increase their usage. At a high current density, generated water accumulates in the <span class="hlt">gas</span> diffusion layer and in the <span class="hlt">gas</span> channels of the cathode. This excess water obstructs oxygen transport, and as a result, cell performance is greatly reduced. To improve the cell performance, the effective removal of the generated water and the promotion of oxygen diffusion in the <span class="hlt">gas</span> diffusion layer (GDL) are necessary. In this study, two functions proposed in previous reports were combined and applied to a PEFC: a hybrid GDL to form an oxygen diffusion path using a wettability <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and a <span class="hlt">gas</span> separator with microgrooves to enhance liquid removal. For a PEFC with a hybrid GDL and a <span class="hlt">gas</span> separator with microgrooves, the concentration overvoltage of the PEFC was reduced, and the current density limit and maximum power density were increased compared with a conventional PEFC. Moreover, the stability of the cell voltage was markedly improved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15020701','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15020701"><span>Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing <span class="hlt">Activities</span> on <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.</p> <p>2005-08-02</p> <p>Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing <span class="hlt">activities</span> have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable <span class="hlt">gas</span> and to affect future <span class="hlt">gas</span> generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable <span class="hlt">gas</span> release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these <span class="hlt">activities</span>. The background of the flammable <span class="hlt">gas</span> safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of <span class="hlt">gas</span> generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for <span class="hlt">gas</span> monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=308821','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=308821"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and chemical fate of 36Cl-chlorine dioxide <span class="hlt">gas</span> during the fumigation of tomatoes and cantaloupe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and chemical fate of 36Cl-ClO2 <span class="hlt">gas</span> subsequent to fumigation of tomatoes or cantaloupe was investigated as was major factors that affect the formation of chloroxyanion byproducts. Approximately 22% of the generated 36Cl-ClO2 was present on fumigated tomatoes after a 2-hour exposure t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4449716','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4449716"><span>Influence of Flue <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Desulfurization Gypsum Amendments on Heavy Metal <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> in Reclaimed Sodic Soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Qun; Wang, Shujuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Although flue <span class="hlt">gas</span> desulfurization (FGD) gypsum has become an effective soil amendment for sodic soil reclamation, it carries extra heavy metal contamination into the soil environment. The fate of heavy metals introduced by FGD gypsum in sodic or saline–alkali soils is still unclear. This work aims to investigate the effects of FGD gypsum addition on the heavy metal <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in a sodic soil. Original soil samples were collected from typical sodic land in north China. Soil column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the influence of FGD gypsum addition on the soil properties, especially on <span class="hlt">distribution</span> profiles of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in the soil layers. Results showed that pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable sodium percentage in amended soils were significantly reduced from 10.2 to 8.46, 1.8 to 0.2 dS/m, and 18.14% to 1.28%, respectively. As and Hg concentrations in the soils were found to be positively correlated with FGD gypsum added. The amount of Hg in the leachate was positively correlated with FGD gypsum application ratio, whereas a negative correlation was observed between the Pb concentration in the leachate and the FGD gypsum ratio. Results revealed that heavy metal concentrations in soils complied well with Environmental Quality Standard for Soils in China (GB15618-1995). This work helps to understand the fate of FGD gypsum-introduced heavy metals in sodic soils and provides a baseline for further environmental risk assessment associated with applying FGD gypsum for sodic soil remediation. PMID:26064038</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017452','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017452"><span>AVIRIS and TIMS data processing and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> at the land processes <span class="hlt">distributed</span> <span class="hlt">active</span> archive center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mah, G. R.; Myers, J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Government has initiated the Global Change Research program, a systematic study of the Earth as a complete system. NASA's contribution of the Global Change Research Program is the Earth Observing System (EOS), a series of orbital sensor platforms and an associated data processing and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the archiving, production, and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> system for data collected by the EOS space segment and uses a multilayer architecture for processing, archiving, and <span class="hlt">distributing</span> EOS data. The first layer consists of the spacecraft ground stations and processing facilities that receive the raw data from the orbiting platforms and then separate the data by individual sensors. The second layer consists of <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> <span class="hlt">Active</span> Archive Centers (DAAC) that process, <span class="hlt">distribute</span>, and archive the sensor data. The third layer consists of a user science processing network. The EOSDIS is being developed in a phased implementation. The initial phase, Version 0, is a prototype of the operational system. Version 0 <span class="hlt">activities</span> are based upon existing systems and are designed to provide an EOSDIS-like capability for information management and <span class="hlt">distribution</span>. An important science support task is the creation of simulated data sets for EOS instruments from precursor aircraft or satellite data. The Land Processes DAAC, at the EROS Data Center (EDC), is responsible for archiving and processing EOS precursor data from airborne instruments such as the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS), and Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS, TIMS, and TMS are flown by the NASA-Ames Research Center ARC) on an ER-2. The ER-2 flies at 65000 feet and can carry up to three sensors simultaneously. Most jointly collected data sets are somewhat boresighted and roughly registered. The instrument data are being used to construct data sets that simulate the spectral and spatial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017061','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017061"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and effects of shallow <span class="hlt">gas</span> on bulk estuarine sediment properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hill, J.M.; Halka, J.P.; Conkwright, R.; Koczot, K.; Coleman, S.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Gas</span> bubble are present in sediments covering approximately 30% of the main stem of Chesapeake Bay, with bubbles occurring at the sediment-water interface in 18% of the main stem sediments. This biogenic <span class="hlt">gas</span> is found either in the sediments in the lower salinity reaches of the Bay, or confined to sediments which overline infilled palaeodrainage channels formed during the Wisconsinan low sea level stand (approximately 18 ka). <span class="hlt">Gas</span> associated with the old drainage network does not correlate with present bathymetry or sedimentological patterns. Some differences between the <span class="hlt">gas</span>-charged and <span class="hlt">gas</span>-free sediments are: (1) <span class="hlt">gas</span>-charged sediments have water contents 10-20% higher than comparable <span class="hlt">gas</span>-free cores; (2) organic matter is better presented with depth in the <span class="hlt">gas</span>-charged sediments (upwards of 60% more at one depth); (3 monosulphides are dominant sulphide mineral phase within the <span class="hlt">gas</span>-charged sediments, comprising over 40% of the total sulphur. Within the <span class="hlt">gas</span>-free sediments monosulphides are significant only near the sediment-water interface and rapidly become negligible with depth, and; (4) cores of <span class="hlt">gas</span>-charged sediments are highly colour-banded due to preservation of sulphide mineral variations, while <span class="hlt">gas</span>-free cores are diagenetically altered to pyrite. ?? 1992.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780007101','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780007101"><span>Temperature <span class="hlt">distributions</span> and thermal stresses in a graded zirconia/metal <span class="hlt">gas</span> path seal system for aircraft <span class="hlt">gas</span> turbine engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, C. M.; Bill, R. C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A ceramic/metallic aircraft <span class="hlt">gas</span> turbine outer <span class="hlt">gas</span> path seal designed for improved engine performance was studied. Transient temperature and stress profiles in a test seal geometry were determined by numerical analysis. During a simulated engine deceleration cycle from sea-level takeoff to idle conditions, the maximum seal temperature occurred below the seal surface, therefore the top layer of the seal was probably subjected to tensile stresses exceeding the modulus of rupture. In the stress analysis both two- and three-dimensional finite element computer programs were used. Predicted trends of the simpler and more easily usable two-dimensional element programs were borne out by the three-dimensional finite element program results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...824...94R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...824...94R"><span>GARROTXA Cosmological Simulations of Milky Way-sized Galaxies: General Properties, Hot-<span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">Distribution</span>, and Missing Baryons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Valenzuela, Octavio; Colín, Pedro; Figueras, Francesca; Krongold, Yair; Velázquez, Héctor; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Ibarra-Medel, Hector</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We introduce a new set of simulations of Milky Way (MW)-sized galaxies using the AMR code ART + hydrodynamics in a Λ cold dark matter cosmogony. The simulation series is called GARROTXA and it follows the formation of a halo/galaxy from z = 60 to z = 0. The final virial mass of the system is ˜7.4 × 1011 M ⊙. Our results are as follows. (a) Contrary to many previous studies, the circular velocity curve shows no central peak and overall agrees with recent MW observations. (b) Other quantities, such as M\\_\\ast (6 × 1010 M ⊙) and R d (2.56 kpc), fall well inside the observational MW range. (c) We measure the disk-to-total ratio kinematically and find that D/T = 0.42. (d) The cold-<span class="hlt">gas</span> fraction and star formation rate at z = 0, on the other hand, fall short of the values estimated for the MW. As a first scientific exploitation of the simulation series, we study the spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of hot X-ray luminous <span class="hlt">gas</span>. We have found that most of this X-ray emitting <span class="hlt">gas</span> is in a halo-like <span class="hlt">distribution</span> accounting for an important fraction but not all of the missing baryons. An important amount of hot <span class="hlt">gas</span> is also present in filaments. In all our models there is not a massive disk-like hot-<span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> dominating the column density. Our analysis of hot-<span class="hlt">gas</span> mock observations reveals that the homogeneity assumption leads to an overestimation of the total mass by factors of 3-5 or to an underestimation by factors of 0.7-0.1, depending on the used observational method. Finally, we confirm a clear correlation between the total hot-<span class="hlt">gas</span> mass and the dark matter halo mass of galactic systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008285','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008285"><span>Emission Measure <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and Heating of Two <span class="hlt">Active</span> Region Cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two <span class="hlt">active</span> regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure <span class="hlt">distributions</span> having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ConSc..23..155R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ConSc..23..155R"><span>Local or <span class="hlt">distributed</span> <span class="hlt">activation</span>? The view from biology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reimers, Mark</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>There is considerable disagreement among connectionist modellers over whether to represent distinct properties by distinct nodes of a network or whether properties should be represented by patterns of <span class="hlt">activity</span> across all nodes. This paper draws on the literature of neuroscience to say that a more subtle way of describing how different brain regions contribute to a behaviour, in terms of individual learning and in terms of degrees of importance, may render the current debate moot: both sides of the 'localist' versus '<span class="hlt">distributed</span>' debate emphasise different aspects of biology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732154','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732154"><span>Realtime <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Emission Monitoring at Hazardous Sites Using a <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> Point-Source Sensing Infrastructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Manes, Gianfranco; Collodi, Giovanni; Gelpi, Leonardo; Fusco, Rosanna; Ricci, Giuseppe; Manes, Antonio; Passafiume, Marco</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes a <span class="hlt">distributed</span> point-source monitoring platform for <span class="hlt">gas</span> level and leakage detection in hazardous environments. The platform, based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) architecture, is organised into sub-networks to be positioned in the plant’s critical areas; each sub-net includes a gateway unit wirelessly connected to the WSN nodes, hence providing an easily deployable, stand-alone infrastructure featuring a high degree of scalability and reconfigurability. Furthermore, the system provides automated calibration routines which can be accomplished by non-specialized maintenance operators without system reliability reduction issues. Internet connectivity is provided via TCP/IP over GPRS (Internet standard protocols over mobile networks) gateways at a one-minute sampling rate. Environmental and process data are forwarded to a remote server and made available to authenticated users through a user interface that provides data rendering in various formats and multi-sensor data fusion. The platform is able to provide real-time plant management with an effective; accurate tool for immediate warning in case of critical events. PMID:26805832</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21337868','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21337868"><span>Spatially <span class="hlt">distributed</span> flame transfer functions for predicting combustion dynamics in lean premixed <span class="hlt">gas</span> turbine combustors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A.</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>The present paper describes a methodology to improve the accuracy of prediction of the eigenfrequencies and growth rates of self-induced instabilities and demonstrates its application to a laboratory-scale, swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed, <span class="hlt">gas</span> turbine combustor. The influence of the spatial heat release <span class="hlt">distribution</span> is accounted for using local flame transfer function (FTF) measurements. The two-microphone technique and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence intensity measurements are used to determine the input (inlet velocity perturbation) and the output functions (heat release oscillation), respectively, for the local flame transfer functions. The experimentally determined local flame transfer functions are superposed using the flame transfer function superposition principle, and the result is incorporated into an analytic thermoacoustic model, in order to predict the linear stability characteristics of a given system. Results show that when the flame length is not acoustically compact the model prediction calculated using the local flame transfer functions is better than the prediction made using the global flame transfer function. In the case of a flame in the compact flame regime, accurate predictions of eigenfrequencies and growth rates can be obtained using the global flame transfer function. It was also found that the general response characteristics of the local FTF (gain and phase) are qualitatively the same as those of the global FTF. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805832','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805832"><span>Realtime <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Emission Monitoring at Hazardous Sites Using a <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> Point-Source Sensing Infrastructure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manes, Gianfranco; Collodi, Giovanni; Gelpi, Leonardo; Fusco, Rosanna; Ricci, Giuseppe; Manes, Antonio; Passafiume, Marco</p> <p>2016-01-20</p> <p>This paper describes a <span class="hlt">distributed</span> point-source monitoring platform for <span class="hlt">gas</span> level and leakage detection in hazardous environments. The platform, based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) architecture, is organised into sub-networks to be positioned in the plant's critical areas; each sub-net includes a gateway unit wirelessly connected to the WSN nodes, hence providing an easily deployable, stand-alone infrastructure featuring a high degree of scalability and reconfigurability. Furthermore, the system provides automated calibration routines which can be accomplished by non-specialized maintenance operators without system reliability reduction issues. Internet connectivity is provided via TCP/IP over GPRS (Internet standard protocols over mobile networks) gateways at a one-minute sampling rate. Environmental and process data are forwarded to a remote server and made available to authenticated users through a user interface that provides data rendering in various formats and multi-sensor data fusion. The platform is able to provide real-time plant management with an effective; accurate tool for immediate warning in case of critical events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Th%26Ae..15..381L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Th%26Ae..15..381L"><span><span class="hlt">Gas</span> motion through porous objects with nonuniform local <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of heat-release sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levin, V. A.; Lutsenko, N. A.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">gas</span> motion through porous objects in the gravity force field with a non-uniform <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of heat sources, which may arise as a result of natural or man-caused catastrophes (as the damaged power unit of the Chernobyl NPP), is investigated. The influence of different parameters of the heat-releasing zone on the process of cooling of such objects is analyzed with the aid of computational experiment. It is shown that the porous element heating is affected not only by the height of the heat-releasing zone and the heat-release intensity therein but also by the distance of the heat-releasing zone from the element inlet as well as by the width of the heat-releasing zone. The phenomenon of a reduction of the porous element heating with increasing distance of the heat-releasing zone from the porous element inlet is revealed. An ambiguous dependence of the porous object heating on the width of the heat-release zone is identified: at a growth of the heat-releasing zone width, the heating of the element may both increase and decrease depending on the distance of the heat-release zone from the element inlet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050051745','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050051745"><span><span class="hlt">Gas</span>-liquid Phase <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and Void Fraction Measurements Using the MRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Daidzic, N. E.; Schmidt, E.; Hasan, M. M.; Altobelli, S.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We used a permanent-magnet MRI system to estimate the integral and spatially- and/or temporally-resolved void-fraction <span class="hlt">distributions</span> and flow patterns in <span class="hlt">gas</span>-liquid two-phase flows. Air was introduced at the bottom of the stagnant liquid column using an accurate and programmable syringe pump. Air flow rates were varied between 1 and 200 ml/min. The cylindrical non-conducting test tube in which two-phase flow was measured was placed in a 2.67 kGauss MRI with MRT spectrometer/imager. Roughly linear relationship has been obtained for the integral void-fraction, obtained by volume-averaging of the spatially-resolved signals, and the air flow rate in upward direction. The time-averaged spatially-resolved void fraction has also been obtained for the quasi-steady flow of air in a stagnant liquid column. No great accuracy is claimed as this was an exploratory proof-of-concept type of experiment. Preliminary results show that MRI a non-invasive and non-intrusive experimental technique can indeed provide a wealth of different qualitative and quantitative data and is especially well suited for averaged transport processes in adiabatic and diabatic multi-phase and/or multi-component flows.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24456468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24456468"><span><span class="hlt">Gas</span> cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal <span class="hlt">gas</span> by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon desulfurizer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping</p> <p>2014-02-18</p> <p>This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and <span class="hlt">gas</span> cleaning of the COREX coal <span class="hlt">gas</span> in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal <span class="hlt">gas</span>, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal <span class="hlt">gas</span> cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other <span class="hlt">gas</span> cleaning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JCrGr.360...12T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JCrGr.360...12T"><span>Numerical investigation of oxygen impurity <span class="hlt">distribution</span> during multicrystalline silicon crystal growth using a <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow guidance device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Teng, Ying-Yang; Chen, Jyh-Chen; Lu, Chung-Wei; Chen, Chi-Yung</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Oxygen is one of the most important types of impurities that can cause thermal donor or light-induced degradation in mc-Si solar cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect that installing a <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow guidance device in a mc-Si crystal-growth furnace would have on the oxygen impurity <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in the melt during the growth process. The installation of such a <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow guidance device can enhance the <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow near the free surface, which would allow the argon to carry a greater amount of evaporated SiO <span class="hlt">gas</span> outside the furnace. Furthermore, the enhanced motion of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow also improves heat transfer near the free surface, which would make the melt vortex separate more easily. The separated melt vortex, which is located near the central region of the melt-crystal interface, directs any oxygen impurity towards the central region of the melt-crystal interface. This is why the oxygen concentration can be reduced by installing the <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow guidance device. The effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow guidance device depends on the vertical distance between it and the free surface (h) as well as the gap between the crucible sidewall and the tip of the device (d). The effect on the oxygen concentration in the melt is significant when smaller values for h and d are adopted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20813183','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20813183"><span>Key factor in rice husk ash/CaO sorbent for high flue <span class="hlt">gas</span> desulfurization <span class="hlt">activity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Irvan Dahlan; Keat Teong Lee; Azlina Harun Kamaruddin; Abdul Rahman Mohamed</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>Siliceous materials such as rice husk ash (RHA) have potential to be utilized as high performance sorbents for the flue <span class="hlt">gas</span> desulfurization process in small-scale industrial boilers. This study presents findings on identifying the key factor for high desulfurization <span class="hlt">activity</span> in sorbents prepared from RHA. Initially, a systematic approach using central composite rotatable design was used to develop a mathematical model that correlates the sorbent preparation variables to the desulfurization <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the sorbent. The sorbent preparation variables studied are hydration period, x{sub 1} (6-16 h), amount of RHA, x{sub 2} (5-15 g), amount of CaO, x{sub 3} (2-6 g), amount of water, x{sub 4} (90-110 mL), and hydration temperature, x{sub 5} (150-250{sup o}C). The mathematical model developed was subjected to statistical tests and the model is adequate for predicting the SO{sub 2} desulfurization <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the sorbent within the range of the sorbent preparation variables studied. Based on the model, the amount of RHA, amount of CaO, and hydration period used in the preparation step significantly influenced the desulfurization <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the sorbent. The ratio of RHA and CaO used in the preparation mixture was also a significant factor that influenced the desulfurization <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the sorbent. A RHA to CaO ratio of 2.5 leads to the formation of specific reactive species in the sorbent that are believed to be the key factor responsible for high desulfurization <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the sorbent. Other physical properties of the sorbent such as pore size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and surface morphology were found to have insignificant influence on the desulfurization <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the sorbent. 31 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25713701','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25713701"><span>Moving in extreme environments: inert <span class="hlt">gas</span> narcosis and underwater <span class="hlt">activities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clark, James E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Exposure to the underwater environment for pleasure or work poses many challenges on the human body including thermal stress, barotraumas, decompression sickness as well as the acute effects of breathing gases under pressure. With the popularity of recreational self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving on the increase and deep inland dive sites becoming more accessible, it is important that we understand the effects of breathing pressurised <span class="hlt">gas</span> at depth can have on the body. One of the common consequences of hyperbaric <span class="hlt">gas</span> is the narcotic effect of inert <span class="hlt">gas</span>. Nitrogen (a major component of air) under pressure can impede mental function and physical performance at depths of as little as 10 m underwater. With increased depth, symptoms can worsen to include confusion, disturbed coordination, lack of concentration, hallucinations and unconsciousness. Narcosis has been shown to contribute directly to up to 6% of deaths in divers and is likely to be indirectly associated with other diving incidents at depth. This article explores inert <span class="hlt">gas</span> narcosis, the effect on divers' movement and function underwater and the proposed physiological mechanisms. Also discussed are some of the factors that affect the susceptibility of divers to the condition. In conclusion, understanding the cause of this potentially debilitating problem is important to ensure that safe diving practices continue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11380516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11380516"><span>Multiple inert <span class="hlt">gas</span> elimination technique for determining ventilation/perfusion <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in rat during normoxia, hypoxia and hyperoxia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alfaro, V; Roca-Acín, J; Palacios, L; Guitart, R</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>1. The use of the multiple inert <span class="hlt">gas</span> elimination technique (MIGET) in quantifying ventilation/perfusion <span class="hlt">distributions</span> (V*A/Q*) in small animals, such as the rat, may cause results to be biased due to haemodilution produced by the large volume of liquid infused intravenously. 2. We tested two methods of administering inert gases in rats using the MIGET: (i) standard continuous intravenous administration of inert gases (method A); and (ii) a new method based on the physicochemical properties of each inert <span class="hlt">gas</span> (method B). This method included acute simultaneous inert <span class="hlt">gas</span> administration using three pathways: inhalation, intravenous infusion and rectal infusion. Both MIGET methods were applied to obtain data while breathing three different inspiratory fractions of oxygen (FIO2): normoxia, hypoxia and hyperoxia. 3. Inert <span class="hlt">gas</span> levels obtained from blood or expired air samples were sufficient for chromatographic measurement, at least during a 2 h period. The V*A/Q* <span class="hlt">distributions</span> reported using both methods were acceptable for all the physiological conditions studied; therefore, the alternative method used here may be useful in further MIGET studies in rats because haemodilution resulting from continuous intravenous infusion of less-soluble gases can be avoided. 4. Normoxic rats showed lower mean values of the V*A/Q* ratio of ventilation <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and higher mean values of the V*A/Q* ratio of perfusion <span class="hlt">distribution</span> with the usual method of inert <span class="hlt">gas</span> administration (method A). These non-significant differences were observed under almost all physiological conditions studied and they could be caused by haemodilution. Nevertheless, the effect of interindividual differences cannot be discarded. An additional effect of the low haematocrit on cardiovascular changes due to low FIO2, such as pulmonary vasoconstriction or increased cardiac output, may explain the lower dispersion of perfusion <span class="hlt">distributions</span> found in group A during hypoxia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030064149','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030064149"><span>Cooling of <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.</p> <p>1947-01-01</p> <p>A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature <span class="hlt">distribution</span> along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the hot <span class="hlt">gas</span>-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930062532&hterms=blunt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dblunt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930062532&hterms=blunt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dblunt"><span>Convective heat-transfer rate <span class="hlt">distributions</span> over a 140 deg blunt cone at hypersonic speeds in different <span class="hlt">gas</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stewart, David A.; Chen, Y. K.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Experiments were conducted in air, CO2, and CO2-argon <span class="hlt">gas</span> mixtures to obtain heating <span class="hlt">distribution</span> data over a 140 deg blunt cone with various corner radii. The effect of corner radius on the heating <span class="hlt">distribution</span> over the forebody of the cone was included in the investigation. These experiments provide data for validation of two-dimensional axisymmetric and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solutions. Heating <span class="hlt">distribution</span> data and measured bow shock wave stand-off distances for 0 deg angle of attack were compared with predicted values using a two-dimensional axisymmetric Navier-Stokes code.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017329','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017329"><span>Coordinating complex decision support <span class="hlt">activities</span> across <span class="hlt">distributed</span> applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adler, Richard M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for <span class="hlt">distributed</span> communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous <span class="hlt">distributed</span> applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between <span class="hlt">distributed</span> applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22683949','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22683949"><span>Characterization of industrial waste from a natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> company and management strategies: a case study of the East Azerbaijan <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Company (Iran).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taghipour, Hassan; Aslhashemi, Ahmad; Assadi, Mohammad; Khodaei, Firoz; Mardangahi, Baharak; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Roshani, Babak</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Although a fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation of any waste management plan is the availability of sufficient and accurate data, there are few available studies regarding the characterization and management of <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> company waste (GDCW). This study aimed to characterize the industrial waste generated by the East Azerbaijan <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Company (EAGDC) and to present environmental management strategies. The EAGDC serves 57 cities and 821 villages with a total population of more than 2.5 million as well as numerous industrial units. The methodology of this study was based on a checklist of data collected from each zone of the company, site visits (observation), and quantity and quality analysis according to the formal data available from different zones. The results indicate that more than 35 different kinds of industrial solid waste are generated in different industrial installations. The most important types of generated waste include empty barrels (including mercaptans, diesel fuel, deionized waters and oil), faulty <span class="hlt">gas</span> meters and regulators, a variety of industrial oils, sleeves, filter elements and faulty pipes, valves and fittings. The results indicated that, currently, GDCW is generally handled and disposed of with domestic waste, deposited in companies' installation yards and stores or, sometimes, recycled through non-scientific approaches that can create health risks to the public and the environment, even though most of the GDCW was determined to be recyclable or reusable materials. This study concludes that <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> companies must pay more attention to source reduction, recycling and reusing of waste to preserve natural resources, landfill space and the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTePh..60..376M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTePh..60..376M"><span>Simulation of the electric field <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in the electrode system of a device forming a high-voltage <span class="hlt">gas</span> discharge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Markushin, M. A.; Kolpakov, V. A.; Krichevskii, S. V.; Kolpakov, A. I.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We propose a model of the electric field <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in the electrode system of a <span class="hlt">gas</span>-discharge device. The possibility of application the method of conformal mapping of a function of a complex variable for describing analytically the form of the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of equipotential lines of the field in the region of the circular orifice in the anode of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> discharge device is demonstrated. The method for obtaining a system of parametric equations for determining the equipotential lines and field lines is described. We obtain the theoretical maps of the electric field <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, which make it possible to determine their relation with the electrophysical parameters of the electrode system of the device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10763233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10763233"><span><span class="hlt">Gas</span> chromatographic simulated distillation-mass spectrometry for the determination of the boiling point <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of crude oils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roussis; Fitzgerald</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>The coupling of <span class="hlt">gas</span> chromatographic simulated distillation with mass spectrometry for the determination of the distillation profiles of crude oils is reported. The method provides the boiling point <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of both weight and volume percent amounts. The weight percent <span class="hlt">distribution</span> is obtained from the measured total ion current signal. The total ion current signal is converted to weight percent amount by calibration with a reference crude oil of a known distillation profile. Knowledge of the chemical composition of the crude oil across the boiling range permits the determination of the volume percent <span class="hlt">distribution</span>. The long-term repeatability is equivalent to or better than the short-term repeatability of the currently available American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) <span class="hlt">gas</span> chromatographic method for simulated distillation. Results obtained by the mass spectrometric method are in very good agreement with results obtained by conventional methods of physical distillation. The compositional information supplied by the method can be used to extensively characterize crude oils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12071654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12071654"><span>Prediction of acute toxicity of chemicals in mixtures: worms Tubifex tubifex and <span class="hlt">gas</span>/liquid <span class="hlt">distribution</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tichý, M; Borek-Dohalský, V; Matousová, D; Rucki, M; Feltl, L; Roth, Z</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this contribution is to support our proposal of the procedure for predicting acute toxicity of binary mixtures by QSAR analysis techniques. The changes of a mixture composition are described by molar ratio R and visualized in the R-plot (QCAR--quantitative composition-<span class="hlt">activity</span> relationships). The approach was inspired by Rault and Dalton's laws, their positive and negative deviations in the behavior of a mixture of real gases, by Loewe and Muischnek isoboles and by the Finney test of additivity. Acute toxicity was determined by the laboratory test with woms Tubifex tubifex. The additivity of the acute toxicity in the binary mixture benzene + nitrobenzene was confirmed and a new interaction is described: "mixed interaction" with the binary mixture aniline + ethanol. The "mixed interaction" means that depending on mixture composition, both potentiation and inhibition can occur. As the first physicochemical descriptor of the changes caused by the changing composition of binary mixtures, the <span class="hlt">gas</span>/liquid equilibrium was studied and a composition of the gaseous phase was determined by a <span class="hlt">gas</span> chromatographic method. The method for determination of concentrations in the gaseous phase was described. The gaseous phase composition of benzene + nitrobenzene. benzene + ethanol, benzene + aniline and ethanol + aniline mixtures was analyzed. It was found that if the concentrations of the mixture's components in the gaseous phase behave nonideally (they are not additive), the acute toxicity of the same mixture is not additive as well. Another descriptor to distinguish between potentiation and inhibition will be, however, necessary. The properties, both gaseous phase composition and the acute toxicity, of the benzene + nitrobenzene mixture are additive. In mixtures with the mixed interaction, the R-plot of the composition of the gaseous phase is complex with a large variation of results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/344961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/344961"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, April 1999</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-06</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182338','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182338"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, August 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-08-25</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Division, Office of Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span>, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-16/pdf/2010-28783.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-16/pdf/2010-28783.pdf"><span>75 FR 70021 - Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Activities</span> on the Alaska Outer...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-11-16</p> <p>... of Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Activities</span> on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... (FONSI) prepared for two oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> proposed on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gas+AND+laws&id=EJ1074396','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gas+AND+laws&id=EJ1074396"><span>Implementing an Inexpensive and Accurate Introductory <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Density <span class="hlt">Activity</span> with High School Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cunningham, W. Patrick; Joseph, Christopher; Morey, Samantha; Santos Romo, Ana; Shope, Cullen; Strang, Jonathan; Yang, Kevin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A simplified <span class="hlt">activity</span> examined <span class="hlt">gas</span> density while employing cost-efficient syringes in place of traditional glass bulbs. The exercise measured the density of methane, with very good accuracy and precision, in both first-year high school and AP chemistry settings. The participating students were tasked with finding the density of a <span class="hlt">gas</span>. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-19/pdf/2013-30184.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-19/pdf/2013-30184.pdf"><span>78 FR 76827 - Midwestern <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission Company; Prior Notice of <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Under Blanket Certificate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-19</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Midwestern <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission Company; Prior Notice of <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Under Blanket Certificate On December 4, 2013, Midwestern <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission Company (Midwestern) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62069&keyword=groups+AND+interaction&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90697713&CFTOKEN=21619619','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62069&keyword=groups+AND+interaction&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90697713&CFTOKEN=21619619"><span><span class="hlt">GAS</span> PHASE SELECTIVE PHOTOXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS USING LIGHT-<span class="hlt">ACTIVATED</span> TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND MOLECULAR OXYGEN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Gas</span> Phase Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Light-<span class="hlt">Activated</span> Titanium Dioxide and Molecular Oxygen <br><br><span class="hlt">Gas</span> phase selective oxidations of various primary and secondary alcohols are studied in an indigenously built stainless steel up-flow photochemical reactor using ultravi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4830609','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4830609"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of the Metabolically <span class="hlt">Active</span> Microbiota within Italian PDO Ewes' Milk Cheeses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Italian PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) Fiore Sardo (FS), Pecorino Siciliano (PS) and Pecorino Toscano (PT) ewes’ milk cheeses were chosen as hard cheese model systems to investigate the spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the metabolically <span class="hlt">active</span> microbiota and the related effects on proteolysis and synthesis of volatile components (VOC). Cheese slices were divided in nine sub-blocks, each one separately subjected to analysis and compared to whole cheese slice (control). Gradients for moisture, and concentrations of salt, fat and protein distinguished sub-blocks, while the cell density of the main microbial groups did not differ. Secondary proteolysis differed between sub-blocks of each cheese, especially when the number and area of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptide peaks were assessed. The concentration of free amino acids (FAA) agreed with these data. As determined through Purge and Trap (PT) coupled with <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (PT-GC/MS), and regardless of the cheese variety, the profile with the lowest level of VOC was restricted to the region identified by the letter E defined as core. As shown through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA targeting RNA, the spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the metabolically <span class="hlt">active</span> microbiota agreed with the VOC <span class="hlt">distribution</span>. Differences were highlighted between core and the rest of the cheese. Top and bottom under rind sub-blocks of all three cheeses harbored the widest biodiversity. The cheese sub-block analysis revealed the presence of a microbiota statistically correlated with secondary proteolysis events and/or synthesis of VOC. PMID:27073835</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092410','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092410"><span>THE COLD SHOULDER: EMISSION MEASURE <span class="hlt">DISTRIBUTIONS</span> OF <span class="hlt">ACTIVE</span> REGION CORES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.</p> <p>2012-09-10</p> <p>The coronal heating mechanism for <span class="hlt">active</span> region core loops is difficult to determine because these loops are often not resolved and cannot be studied individually. Rather, we concentrate on the 'inter-moss' areas between loop footpoints. We use observations from the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer and the X-Ray Telescope to calculate the emission measure <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of eight inter-moss areas in five different <span class="hlt">active</span> regions. The combined data sets provide both high- and low-temperature constraints and ensure complete coverage in the temperature range appropriate for <span class="hlt">active</span> regions. For AR 11113, the emission can be modeled with heating events that occur on timescales less than the cooling time. The loops in the core regions appear to be close to equilibrium and are consistent with steady heating. The other regions studied, however, appear to be dominated by nanoflare heating. Our results are consistent with the idea that <span class="hlt">active</span> region age is an important parameter in determining whether steady or nanoflare heating is primarily responsible for the core emission, that is, older regions are more likely to be dominated by steady heating, while younger regions show more evidence of nanoflares.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS52B..07P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS52B..07P"><span>Role of in situ organic matter degradation and fluid flow in the global <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate <span class="hlt">distribution</span>: application of general functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pinero, E.; Hensen, C.; Marquardt, M.; Haeckel, M.; Wallmann, K. J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>During the last decades several estimates of the global <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate budget have been published. The published results range by several orders of magnitude and thus, the total <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate inventory is still poorly known. In order to elucidate the global <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate amount we applied a recently published transfer function that calculates the amount of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate produced by in situ generated methane through organic matter degradation (Marquardt et al., accepted). The transfer function was derived from a large set of systematic runs of a numerical diagenetic model (Wallmann et al., 2006) covering a wide range of environmental conditions that are typical for the continental margins. The transfer function only includes two variables: the accumulation rate of particulate organic carbon and the thickness of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate stability zone. We tested various approaches to calculate both parameters on the global scale. The global grids used include seafloor bathymetry, TOC input, organic rain rate, bottom water temperature, geothermal gradient estimated from heat flow, sediment thickness, and age of the oceanic crust. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that only minor amounts of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates (<10 Gt of C) are formed by in situ methane production. An extended function considering fluid flow was developed applying the same transport-reaction model. The resulting global <span class="hlt">distribution</span> map gives a total inventory of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate ranging from 400 to 2500 Gt of C. So far, some of our calculations are slightly lower than previously published results (e.g. Archer et al., 2009) and suggest that only <2 % of the global <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate budget forms from an autochthonous source of methane. The results presented here suggest that where <span class="hlt">gas</span> does not migrate into the <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate stability zone only minor negligible concentrations of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate accumulate. References: Wallmann, K., Aloisi, G. Haeckel, M., Obzhirov, A., Pavlova, G., Tishchenko, P.: Kinetics of organic matter degradation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS21B1140C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS21B1140C"><span>Alteration of rare earth element <span class="hlt">distribution</span> as a result of microbial <span class="hlt">activity</span> and empirical methane injection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castillo, D. J.; Davies, N. W.; Thurber, A. R.; Haley, B. A.; Colwell, F. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>As a result of warming, methane is being released into the marine environment in areas that have not historically experienced methane input. While methane is a potent greenhouse <span class="hlt">gas</span>, microbial oxidation of methane within the sediment greatly limits the role of marine methane sources on atmospheric forcing. However, in these areas of new methane release, consumption of methane prior to its release into the atmosphere is a result of the response of the microbial community to this new input of methane. Further, rare earth elements (REEs) are not currently thought to be involved with microbial <span class="hlt">activity</span>, but this assumption has not been rigorously tested. Here we test that: (1) microbial communities will rapidly respond to the onset of methane emission, and (2) the microbial response to this methane input will impact the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of REEs within the sediment. Undisturbed cores sampled from a tidal flat at Yaquina Bay, OR, were brought back to a lab and injected with anoxic seawater (as a control) or anoxic sea water saturated with methane <span class="hlt">gas</span> for a total of 2 weeks. Aerobic methanotrophs proliferated over this short time period, becoming an abundant member of the microbial community as identified using fatty acid biomarkers. Excitingly, the experimental injection of methane also shifted the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of REEs within the sediment, a trend that appeared to follow the microbial response and that was different from the control cores. Further, the lightest REEs appeared to be used more than the heavier ones, supporting that the REEs are being <span class="hlt">actively</span> used by the microbes. While we focused on identifying the response of those microbes responsible in methane-cycling, we also identified how the entire microbial community shifts as a result of methane input, and correlating with shifts in REE <span class="hlt">distribution</span>. Here we have empirically demonstrated the rapid response of methanotrophs to the onset of methane emission and that REE <span class="hlt">distribution</span> within the sediment is likely</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22923249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22923249"><span>The level and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of ²²⁰Rn concentration in soil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> in Guangdong Province, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, N; Peng, A; Xiao, L; Chu, X; Yin, Y; Qin, C; Zheng, L</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>In order to understand the level and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of (220)Rn concentrations in soil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> in the high-radiation-background area, an (220)Rn survey was carried out for the first time using a RAD7 portable radon monitor at 67 locations covering a total area of 1800 km(2) in the South of China. (220)Rn concentrations were significantly different from that in the surface areas covered by the weathered granite of Yanshan Period or Quaternary sediments. The (220)Rn concentrations varied between 6.65 and 461 kBq m(-3) and the averages were 294.42 ± 81.36 and 23.30 ± 25.84 kBq m(-3) for weathered granite products and sediments, respectively. A high positive correlation between (220)Rn concentrations and (232)Th <span class="hlt">activity</span> concentrations was found. (220)Rn concentrations had no statistically significant variations from depths of 20-140 cm with an interval of 20 cm. It is worth paying attention to the problem of such a high soil (220)Rn concentration in Zhuhai City and Zhongshan City.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27783242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27783242"><span>Particle size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls in the atmosphere in Beijing, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Qingqing; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Xian; Dong, Shujun; Gao, Lirong; Liang, Yong</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Size-fractionated samples of urban particulate matter (PM; ≤1.0, 1.0-2.5, 2.5-10, and >10 μm) and gaseous samples were simultaneously obtained to study the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the atmosphere in Beijing, China. Most recent investigations focused on the analysis of gaseous PCBs, and much less attention has been paid to the occurrence of PCBs among different PM fractions. In the present study, the <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partitioning and size-specific <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of PCBs in atmosphere were investigated. The total concentrations (<span class="hlt">gas</span> + particle phase fractions) of Σ12 dioxin-like PCBs, Σ7 indicator PCBs, and ΣPCBs were 1.68, 42.1, and 345 pg/m(3), respectively. PCBs were predominantly in the <span class="hlt">gas</span> phase (86.8-99.0 % of the total concentrations). The <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partition coefficients (K p ) of PCBs were found to be a significant linear correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressures (P L(0)) (R (2) = 0.83, P < 0.01). The slope (m r ) implied that the <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partitioning of PCBs was affected both by the mechanisms of adsorption and absorption. In addition, the concentrations of PCBs increased as the particle size decreased (>10, 2.5-10, 1.0-2.5, and ≤1.0 μm), with most of the PCBs contained in the fraction of ≤1.0 μm (53.4 % of the total particulate concentrations). Tetra-CBs were the main homolog in the air samples in the <span class="hlt">gas</span> phase and PM fractions, followed by tri-CBs. This work will contribute to the knowledge of PCBs among different PM fractions and fill the gap of the size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of particle-bound dioxin-like PCBs in the air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15591111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15591111"><span>Linking economic <span class="hlt">activities</span> to the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of exotic plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, Brad W; Irwin, Rebecca E</p> <p>2004-12-21</p> <p>The human enterprise is flooding Earth's ecosystems with exotic species. Human population size is often correlated with species introductions, whereas more proximate mechanisms, such as economic <span class="hlt">activities</span>, are frequently overlooked. Here we present a hypothesis that links ecology and economics to provide a causal framework for the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of exotic plants in the United States. We test two competing hypotheses (the population-only and population-economic models) using a national data set of exotic plants, employing a statistical framework to simultaneously model direct and indirect effects of human population and ecological and economic variables. The population-only model included direct effects of human population and ecological factors as predictors of exotics. In contrast, the population-economic model included the direct effects of economic and ecological factors and the indirect effects of human population as predictors of exotics. The explicit addition of economic <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the population-economic model provided a better explanation for the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of exotics than did the population-only model. The population-economic model explained 75% of the variation in the number of exotic plants in the 50 states and provided a good description of the observed number of exotic plants in the Canadian provinces and in other nations in 85% of the cases. A specific economic <span class="hlt">activity</span>, real estate gross state product, had the strongest positive effect on the number of exotics. The strong influence of economics on exotics demonstrates that economics matter for resolving the exotic-species problem because the underlying causes, and some of the solutions, may lie in human-economic behaviors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS23F..01J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS23F..01J"><span>Joint Interpretation of Electromagnetic and Seismic Data to Determine <span class="hlt">Gas</span> and Methane Hydrate <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> within the Nyegga CNE03 Seep.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jegen, M. D.; Hölz, S.; Cukur, D.; Sommer, M.; Attias, E.; Weitemeyer, K.; Berndt, C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The presence of the Nyegga pockmark field within the <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate stability field on the Norwegian continental slope points to possible methane release through cold seeps. It is, however, not clear how the methane may migrate through the still existing hydrate stability zone as the <span class="hlt">gas</span> should form new hydrate further up in the section. In an effort to better understand the physical processes and quantify the hydrate/<span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in the area, GEOMAR and the University of Southampton collected different types of electromagnetic data sets with different depth ranges and resolution in a region, which has been extensively covered by seismic investigation. The presence of hydrate within seafloor sediments causes an increase in both the bulk modulus, and hence the seismic velocity, and in the electrical resistivity. The presence of <span class="hlt">gas</span> decreases seismic velocity but increases electrical resistivity. Both seismic and controlled source electromagnetic methods can and have been used to estimate hydrate and <span class="hlt">gas</span> content. Since seismic velocity and the electrical resistivity are sensitive also to a range of other parameters such as lithology, porosity and pore fluid salinity, single rock property parameter investigations are hampered by many uncertainties. However, since the sensitivities are different for the two properties, determination of both velocity and resistivity for the same volume of sea bed provides a powerful tool for distinguishing the contribution of hydrate or <span class="hlt">gas</span> from that of other parameters. In this work we report on a new type of 3D electromagnetic high resolution tomography experiment which was focused on the CNE03 chimney in the centre of the region. The data indicates the presence of a highly resistive zone, where seismic travel time tomography has shown the presence of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates within the chimney. The <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of methane hydrate concentrations are derived based on a joint interpretation of seismic velocity and electrical resistivities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......145D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......145D"><span>Widely tunable Sampled Grating <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> Bragg Reflector Quantum Cascade laser for <span class="hlt">gas</span> spectroscopy applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diba, Abdou Salam</p> <p></p> <p>Since the advent of semiconductor lasers, the development of tunable laser sources has been subject of many efforts in industry and academia arenas. This interest towards broadly tunable lasers is mainly due to the great promise they have in many applications ranging from telecommunication, to environmental science and homeland security, just to name a few. After the first demonstration of quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the early nineties, QCL has experienced a rapid development, so much so that QCLs are now the most reliable and efficient laser source in the Mid-IR range covering between 3 microm to 30 microm region of the electromagnetic spectrum. QCLs have almost all the desirable characteristics of a laser for spectroscopy applications such as narrow spectral linewidth ideal for high selectivity measurement, high power enabling high sensitivity sensing and more importantly they emit in the finger-print region of most of the trace gases and large molecules. The need for widely tunable QCLs is now more pressing than ever before. A single mode quantum cascade laser (QCL) such as a <span class="hlt">distributed</span> feedback (DFB) QCL, is an ideal light source for <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensing in the MIR wavelength range. Despite their performance and reliability, DFB QCLs are limited by their relatively narrow wavelength tuning range determined by the thermal rollover of the laser. An external cavity (EC) QCL, on the other hand, is a widely tunable laser source, and so far is the choice mid-infrared single frequency light sources for detecting multiple species/large molecules. However, EC QCLs can be complex, bulky and expensive. In the quest for finding alternative broadly wavelength tunable sources in the mid-infrared, many monolithic tunable QCLs are recently proposed and fabricated, including SG-DBR, DFB-Arrays, Slot-hole etc. and they are all of potentially of interest as a candidate for multi-<span class="hlt">gas</span> sensing and monitoring applications, due to their large tuning range (>50 cm-1), and potentially low</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25482356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25482356"><span>A single-nanoparticle NO2 <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensor constructed using <span class="hlt">active</span> molecular plasmonics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Lichan; Wu, Bo; Guo, Longhua; Tey, Ruiwen; Huang, Youju; Kim, Dong-Hwan</p> <p>2015-01-25</p> <p>A single-nanoparticle plasmonic sensor for the sensitive detection of <span class="hlt">gas</span> molecules (NO2) has been constructed. Taking advantage of <span class="hlt">active</span> molecular plasmonics, the analyte selectively triggers a measurable spectral shift of ferrocene-modified single gold nanorods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6678803','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6678803"><span>Evaluation of cased and uncased <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and transmission piping under railroads and highways, Phase 2. Annual report, November 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Rourke, T.D.; Stewart, H.E.; Ingraffea, A.R.; Nyman, K.J.; Crossley, C.W.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>A comprehensive methodology is being developed for evaluating stresses in natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> pipelines at railroad and highway crossings. The methodology accounts for soil-structure interaction and the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of pipeline stresses. The methodology involves delineating field loads and geometries through detailed site observations and discussions with industry personnel, and using computer graphics to analyze pipeline stresses under the complex three-dimensional conditions which prevail in the field. Field experiments will be performed to substantiate the predicted pipeline stresses at railroad crossings. Guidelines will be developed for pipeline crossings acceptable to representatives of <span class="hlt">gas</span>, railroad, and highway industries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5341070','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5341070"><span>Small molecule inhibitors block <span class="hlt">Gas</span>6-inducible TAM <span class="hlt">activation</span> and tumorigenicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kimani, Stanley G.; Kumar, Sushil; Bansal, Nitu; Singh, Kamalendra; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Comollo, Thomas; Peng, Youyi; Kotenko, Sergei V.; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Bertino, Joseph R.; Welsh, William J.; Birge, Raymond B.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>TAM receptors (Tyro-3, Axl, and Mertk) are a family of three homologous type I receptor tyrosine kinases that are implicated in several human malignancies. Overexpression of TAMs and their major ligand Growth arrest-specific factor 6 (<span class="hlt">Gas</span>6) is associated with more aggressive staging of cancers, poorer predicted patient survival, acquired drug resistance and metastasis. Here we describe small molecule inhibitors (RU-301 and RU-302) that target the extracellular domain of Axl at the interface of the Ig-1 ectodomain of Axl and the Lg-1 of <span class="hlt">Gas</span>6. These inhibitors effectively block <span class="hlt">Gas</span>6-inducible Axl receptor <span class="hlt">activation</span> with low micromolar IC50s in cell-based reporter assays, inhibit <span class="hlt">Gas</span>6-inducible motility in Axl-expressing cell lines, and suppress H1299 lung cancer tumor growth in a mouse xenograft NOD-SCIDγ model. Furthermore, using homology models and biochemical verifications, we show that RU301 and 302 also inhibit <span class="hlt">Gas</span>6 inducible <span class="hlt">activation</span> of Mertk and Tyro3 suggesting they can act as pan-TAM inhibitors that block the interface between the TAM Ig1 ectodomain and the <span class="hlt">Gas</span>6 Lg domain. Together, these observations establish that small molecules that bind to the interface between TAM Ig1 domain and <span class="hlt">Gas</span>6 Lg1 domain can inhibit TAM <span class="hlt">activation</span>, and support the further development of small molecule <span class="hlt">Gas</span>6-TAM interaction inhibitors as a novel class of cancer therapeutics. PMID:28272423</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol3-sec192-1005.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol3-sec192-1005.pdf"><span>49 CFR 192.1005 - What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to implement this subpart? 192.1005 Section 192.1005...) § 192.1005 What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol3-sec192-1005.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol3-sec192-1005.pdf"><span>49 CFR 192.1005 - What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to implement this subpart? 192.1005 Section 192.1005...) § 192.1005 What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol3-sec192-1005.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol3-sec192-1005.pdf"><span>49 CFR 192.1005 - What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to implement this subpart? 192.1005 Section 192.1005...) § 192.1005 What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol3-sec192-1005.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol3-sec192-1005.pdf"><span>49 CFR 192.1005 - What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to implement this subpart? 192.1005 Section 192.1005...) § 192.1005 What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol3-sec192-1005.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol3-sec192-1005.pdf"><span>49 CFR 192.1005 - What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to implement this subpart? 192.1005 Section 192.1005...) § 192.1005 What must a <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.1211W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.1211W"><span>Multiobjective optimization of water <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems accounting for economic cost, hydraulic reliability, and greenhouse <span class="hlt">gas</span> emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Wenyan; Maier, Holger R.; Simpson, Angus R.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>In this paper, three objectives are considered for the optimization of water <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems (WDSs): the traditional objectives of minimizing economic cost and maximizing hydraulic reliability and the recently proposed objective of minimizing greenhouse <span class="hlt">gas</span> (GHG) emissions. It is particularly important to include the GHG minimization objective for WDSs involving pumping into storages or water transmission systems (WTSs), as these systems are the main contributors of GHG emissions in the water industry. In order to better understand the nature of tradeoffs among these three objectives, the shape of the solution space and the location of the Pareto-optimal front in the solution space are investigated for WTSs and WDSs that include pumping into storages, and the implications of the interaction between the three objectives are explored from a practical design perspective. Through three case studies, it is found that the solution space is a U-shaped curve rather than a surface, as the tradeoffs among the three objectives are dominated by the hydraulic reliability objective. The Pareto-optimal front of real-world systems is often located at the "elbow" section and lower "arm" of the solution space (i.e., the U-shaped curve), indicating that it is more economic to increase the hydraulic reliability of these systems by increasing pipe capacity (i.e., pipe diameter) compared to increasing pumping power. Solutions having the same GHG emission level but different cost-reliability tradeoffs often exist. Therefore, the final decision needs to be made in conjunction with expert knowledge and the specific budget and reliability requirements of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26321290','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26321290"><span>Self-<span class="hlt">Activated</span> Transparent All-Graphene <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Sensor with Endurance to Humidity and Mechanical Bending.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Yeon Hoo; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Yong-Jin; Shim, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Soo Young; Hong, Byung Hee; Jang, Ho Won</p> <p>2015-10-27</p> <p>Graphene is considered as one of leading candidates for <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensor applications in the Internet of Things owing to its unique properties such as high sensitivity to <span class="hlt">gas</span> adsorption, transparency, and flexibility. We present self-<span class="hlt">activated</span> operation of all graphene <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensors with high transparency and flexibility. The all-graphene <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensors which consist of graphene for both sensor electrodes and <span class="hlt">active</span> sensing area exhibit highly sensitive, selective, and reversible responses to NO2 without external heating. The sensors show reliable operation under high humidity conditions and bending strain. In addition to these remarkable device performances, the significantly facile fabrication process enlarges the potential of the all-graphene <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensors for use in the Internet of Things and wearable electronics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017808','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017808"><span>Applications for <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbons from waste tires: Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> storage and air pollution control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> storage for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from <span class="hlt">gas</span> streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-<span class="hlt">gas</span>. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-<span class="hlt">gas</span> clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/876616','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/876616"><span>Wireless Self-powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Mains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Susan Burkett; Hagen Schempf</p> <p>2006-01-31</p> <p>Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design of the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live <span class="hlt">gas</span> main NDE and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe <span class="hlt">distribution</span> mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules and their arrangement, still allow the robot to configure itself to perform any-angle (up to 90 deg) turns in any orientation (incl. vertical), and enable the live launching and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008A%26A...487..951K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008A%26A...487..951K"><span>Global properties of the H I <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in the outer Milky Way. Planar and extra-planar <span class="hlt">gas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kalberla, P. M. W.; Dedes, L.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Context: The determination of the global structure of the planar and extra-planar Milky Way H I disk depends critically on a reliable database but also on reasonable assumptions about the shape of the Milky Way rotation curve. Aims: We derive the 3D H I volume density <span class="hlt">distribution</span> for the Galactic disk out to R ˜ 60 kpc. Methods: Our analysis is based on parameters for the warp and rotation curve derived previously. The data are taken from the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn all sky 21 cm line survey. Results: The Milky Way H I disk is significantly warped but shows a coherent structure out to R ˜ 35 kpc. The radial surface density <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, the densities in the middle of the warped plane, and the H I scale heights all follow exponential relations. The radial scale length for the surface density <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the H I disk is 3.75 kpc. <span class="hlt">Gas</span> at the outskirts for 40 ⪉ R ⪉ 60 kpc is described best by a <span class="hlt">distribution</span> with an exponential radial scale length of 7.5 kpc and a velocity dispersion of 74 km s-1. Such a highly turbulent medium fits also well with the average shape of the high velocity profile wings observed at high latitudes. The turbulent pressure gradient of such extra-planar <span class="hlt">gas</span> is on average in balance with the gravitational forces. About 10% of the Milky Way H I <span class="hlt">gas</span> is in this state. The large scale H I <span class="hlt">distribution</span> is lopsided; for R ⪆ 15 kpc there is more <span class="hlt">gas</span> in the south. The H I flaring indicates that this asymmetry is caused by a dark matter wake, located at R ˜ 25 kpc in direction of the Magellanic System. Conclusions: The H I disk is made up of two major components. Most prominent is the normal H I disk which can be traced to R ˜ 35 kpc. This is surrounded by a patchy <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of highly turbulent <span class="hlt">gas</span> reaching large scale heights but also large radial distances. At the position of the Sun the exponential scale height in the z direction is 3.9 kpc. This component resembles the anomalous <span class="hlt">gas</span> discovered previously in some galaxies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8006N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8006N"><span>Soil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> radon concentration monitoring in an <span class="hlt">active</span> granite quarry from Central Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neves, Luís.; Barbosa, Susana; Pereira, Alcides; Aumento, Fabrizio</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>This study was carried out in an <span class="hlt">active</span> quarry located nearby the town of Nelas (Central Portugal), with the primary objective of assessing the effect of regular explosions on soil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> radon concentrations. Here, a late-orogenic Hercynian porphyritic biotite granite occurs and is exploited for the production of high quality aggregates for different building purposes. This granite is part of the Beiras batholiths, being a geochemically moderately evolved rock, slightly peraluminous, and widely known by the frequent occurrence of associated uranium mineralizations. In fact, more than 4000t of U3O8 was produced from 60 mines of the Beiras region in the last century, over a wide area of more than 10.000 km2, and thousands of anomalies related with the local accumulation of uranium in fault filling materials, metasedimentary enclaves and doleritic veins were recognized during prospecting works. The heterogeneity of uranium <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in this rock is reflected at the test site; indeed, a gamma ray survey shows that some of the faults that occur in the quarry are slightly mineralized. A total of 7 radon monitoring stations were implemented in the quarry, at a typical depth comprised between 1 and 2 meters, in holes drilled for the purpose. Aware RM-70 pancake GM detectors were used, sensitive to alpha, beta and gamma/X-rays above 10 keV, connected to palmtop computers for data registration (1 minute interval) and power supplied by batteries. Monitoring was carried out during 6 months, in Spring/Summer conditions and the exact time of each explosion was registered manually. Several problems of data loss and power supply affected the stations during the experiment, leading to discontinuities in the records. Still the available data showed important differences in the soil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> radon concentrations between stations, which can be explained by the heterogeneity of uranium <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in the rock and increased local permeability. Furthermore, all stations showed a clear daily</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6496759','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6496759"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, August 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1990-11-05</p> <p>This report highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6570010','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6570010"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, July 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1990-10-03</p> <p>This report highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/431166','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/431166"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, December 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>This document highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26686297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26686297"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of osteoblast <span class="hlt">activating</span> peptide in the rat stomach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noreldin, Ahmed E; Sogabe, Maina; Yamano, Yoshiaki; Uehara, Masato; Mahdy, Mohamed A A; Elnasharty, Mohamed A; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed; Warita, Katsuhiko; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Osteoblast <span class="hlt">activating</span> peptide (OBAP) was previously reported to be expressed in the rat stomach and to have a vital role in osteogenesis, but its <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in rat stomach has not been determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify the cell types expressing OBAP in the rat stomach. The stomachs of twelve 10-to-11-week-old male Jc1:SD rats were used. Samples were collected for immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and dot blot assay. Immunohistochemical investigation revealed that OBAP was <span class="hlt">distributed</span> mainly in parietal cells without any expression in chief cells, X/A-like cells or enterochromaffin-like cells. Moreover, OBAP-immunopositive cells were observed mainly in the upper and lower parts of the gastric gland. Significantly high optical density of immunopositive cells was observed in the upper and lower gastric gland regions. The dot blot assay confirmed that OBAP is secreted by parietal cells and that it is present in the gastric gland lumen. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that OBAP was confined to the mitochondrial inner membrane within parietal cells and that the number of mitochondria in the upper and lower parts of the gastric epithelium was significantly larger than the number in the middle part of the gastric epithelium. Based on the results, it was concluded that OBAP is mainly produced by mitochondria of parietal cells in the upper and lower parts of the gastric epithelium. Moreover, the presence of OBAP in the gastric gland lumen suggests an exocrine mechanism of release.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DFDD25004K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DFDD25004K"><span>Aerodynamic Control of a Pitching Airfoil using <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> <span class="hlt">Active</span> Bleed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kearney, John; Glezer, Ari</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Aero-effected flight control using <span class="hlt">distributed</span> <span class="hlt">active</span> bleed driven by pressure differences across lifting surface and regulated by integrated louver actuators is investigated in wind tunnel experiments. The interaction between unsteady bleed and the cross flows alters the apparent aerodynamic shape of the lifting surface by regulating the accumulation and shedding of vorticity concentrations, and consequently the <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of forces and moments. The present experiments are conducted using a 2-D dynamically-pitching VR-7 airfoil model from pre- to post-stall angles of attack. The effects of leading edge bleed at high angles of attack on the formation and evolution of the dynamic stall vorticity concentrations are investigated at high reduced frequencies (k > 0.1) using PIV phase-locked to the airfoil's motion. The time-dependent bleed enables broad-range variation in lift and pitching moment with significant extension of the stall margin. In particular, bleed actuation reduces the extent of ``negative damping'' or pitching moment instability with minimal lift penalty. Supported by NTRC-VLRCOE, monitored by Dr. Mike Rutkowski.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1139/pdf/ofr2014-1139.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1139/pdf/ofr2014-1139.pdf"><span>Land processes <span class="hlt">distributed</span> <span class="hlt">active</span> archive center product lifecycle plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Daucsavage, John C.; Bennett, Stacie D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Data System Program worked together to establish, develop, and operate the Land Processes (LP) <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> <span class="hlt">Active</span> Archive Center (DAAC) to provide stewardship for NASA’s land processes science data. These data are critical science assets that serve the land processes science community with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. A fundamental LP DAAC objective is to enable permanent preservation of these data and information products. The LP DAAC accomplishes this by bridging data producers and permanent archival resources while providing intermediate archive services for data and information products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050165088','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050165088"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> Tailoring of Lift <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> to Enhance Cruise Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Flamm, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Pfeiffer, Neal J.; Christians, Joel G.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>During Phase I of this project, Raytheon Aircraft Company (RAC) has analytically and experimentally evaluated key components of a system that could be implemented for <span class="hlt">active</span> tailoring of wing lift <span class="hlt">distribution</span> using low-drag, trailing-edge modifications. Simple systems such as those studied by RAC could be used to enhance the cruise performance of a business jet configuration over a range of typical flight conditions. The trailing-edge modifications focus on simple, deployable mechanisms comprised of extendable small flap panels over portions of the span that could be used to subtly but positively optimize the lift and drag characteristics. The report includes results from low speed wind tunnel testing of the trailing-edge devices, descriptions of potential mechanisms for automation, and an assessment of the technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20674659','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20674659"><span>Peculiarities of <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span>-dynamic manifestations in mines of the Kuznetsk coal basin by days of the weekly cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Oparin, V.N.; Ludzish, V.S.; Kulakov, G.I.; Rudakov, V.A.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>The peculiarities of the origin of <span class="hlt">gas</span>-dynamic events (rock, coal, and <span class="hlt">gas</span> outbursts, methane ignition) in the Kuznetsk Basin mines in 1988 - 2004 are analyzed. A review is presented for information on recent accident and injury rate caused by disastrous <span class="hlt">gas</span>-dynamic manifestations. The effect of bimodal frequency <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span>-dynamic events generated by explosion and burning of methane is revealed within a generalized weekly cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810015066','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810015066"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">distributed</span> <span class="hlt">gas</span> cooling of pressurized PAFC for utility power generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farooque, M.; Hooper, M.; Maru, H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A proof-of-concept test for a <span class="hlt">gas</span>-cooled pressurized phosphoric acid fuel cell is described. After initial feasibility studies in short stacks, two 10 kW stacks are tested. Progress includes: (1) completion of design of the test stations with a recirculating <span class="hlt">gas</span> cooling loop; (2) atmospheric testing of the baseline stack.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000395','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000395"><span>Steady temperature and density <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in a <span class="hlt">gas</span> containing heat sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davison, H. W.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Computer program, STADDIG, is based on steady state, one dimensional heat transfer calculation using cylindrical coordinates. Program allows for conduction across <span class="hlt">gas</span> and container walls. Heat is dissipated from walls by forced convection cooling with incompressible coolant. Heat sources are included in coolant, <span class="hlt">gas</span>, and walls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/211664','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/211664"><span>Gamma densitometry tomography of <span class="hlt">gas</span> holdup spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in industrial scale bubble columns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shollenberger, K.A.; Torczynski, J.R.; Adkins, D.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Jackson, N.B.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) experiments have been performed to measure <span class="hlt">gas</span> holdup spatial variations in two bubble columns: a 0.19 m inside diameter Lucite column and a 0.48 m inside diameter stainless steel vessel. Air and water were used for the measurements. Horizontal scans at one vertical position in each column were made for several air flow rates. An axi-symmetric tomographic reconstruction algorithm based on the Abel transform has been used to calculate the time averaged <span class="hlt">gas</span> holdup radial variation. Integration of these profiles over the column cross section has yielded area-averaged <span class="hlt">gas</span> holdup results, which have been compared with volume-averaged <span class="hlt">gas</span> holdups determined from differential pressure measurements and from the rise in the air/water interface during <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow. The results agree reasonably well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1343742-linking-basin-scale-pore-scale-gas-hydrate-distribution-patterns-diffusion-dominated-marine-hydrate-systems-diffusion-driven-hydrate-growth-sands','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1343742-linking-basin-scale-pore-scale-gas-hydrate-distribution-patterns-diffusion-dominated-marine-hydrate-systems-diffusion-driven-hydrate-growth-sands"><span>Linking basin-scale and pore-scale <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate <span class="hlt">distribution</span> patterns in diffusion-dominated marine hydrate systems: DIFFUSION-DRIVEN HYDRATE GROWTH IN SANDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann E.; ...</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The goal of this study is to computationally determine the potential <span class="hlt">distribution</span> patterns of diffusion-driven methane hydrate accumulations in coarse-grained marine sediments. Diffusion of dissolved methane in marine <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate systems has been proposed as a potential transport mechanism through which large concentrations of hydrate can preferentially accumulate in coarse-grained sediments over geologic time. Using one-dimensional compositional reservoir simulations, we examine hydrate <span class="hlt">distribution</span> patterns at the scale of individual sand layers (1 to 20 m thick) that are deposited between microbially <span class="hlt">active</span> fine-grained material buried through the <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). We then extrapolate to two- dimensional and basin-scalemore » three-dimensional simulations, where we model dipping sands and multilayered systems. We find that properties of a sand layer including pore size <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, layer thickness, dip, and proximity to other layers in multilayered systems all exert control on diffusive methane fluxes toward and within a sand, which in turn impact the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of hydrate throughout a sand unit. In all of these simulations, we incorporate data on physical properties and sand layer geometries from the Terrebonne Basin <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate system in the Gulf of Mexico. We demonstrate that diffusion can generate high hydrate saturations (upward of 90%) at the edges of thin sands at shallow depths within the GHSZ, but that it is ineffective at producing high hydrate saturations throughout thick (greater than 10 m) sands buried deep within the GHSZ. As a result, we find that hydrate in fine-grained material can preserve high hydrate saturations in nearby thin sands with burial.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1267.1095L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1267.1095L"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Sensors Using SERS-<span class="hlt">Activated</span> Waveguides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lascola, Robert; McWhorter, Scott; Murph, Simona Hunyadi</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>This contribution describes progress towards the development and testing of a functionalized capillary that will provide detection of low-concentration <span class="hlt">gas</span>-phase analytes through SERS. Measurement inside a waveguide allows interrogation of a large surface area, potentially overcoming the short distance dependence of the SERS effect. The possible use of Raman spectroscopy for <span class="hlt">gas</span> detection is attractive for IR-inactive molecules or scenarios where infrared technology is inconvenient. However, the weakness of Raman scattering limits the use of the technique to situations where low detection limits are not required or large <span class="hlt">gas</span> pressures are present. With surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), signal enhancements of 106 are often claimed, and higher values are seen in specific instances. However, most of the examples of SERS analysis are on liquid-phase samples, where the molecular density is high, usually combined with some sort of sample concentration at the surface. Neither of these factors is present in <span class="hlt">gas</span>-phase samples. Because the laser is focused to a small point in the typical experimental setup, and the spatial extent of the effect above the surface is small (microns), the excitation volume is miniscule. Thus, exceptionally large enhancements are required to generate a signal comparable to that obtained by conventional Raman measurements. A reflective waveguide offers a way to increase the interaction volume of the laser with a SERS-modified surface. The use of a waveguide to enhance classical Raman measurements was recently demonstrated by S.M. Angel and coworkers, who obtained 12- to 30-fold sensitivity improvements for nonabsorbing gases (CO2, CH4) with a silvered capillary (no SERS enhancement). Shi et al.. demonstrated 10-to 100-fold enhancement of aqueous Rhodamine 6G in a capillary coated with silver nanoparticles. They observed enhancements of 10- to 100-fold compared to direct sampling, but this relied on a "double substrate", which required</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS21A1608H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS21A1608H"><span>Pore scale <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates in sediments by micro X-ray Computed Tomography (X-CT)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, G.; Li, C.; Ye, Y.; Liu, C.; Best, A. I.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A dedicated apparatus was developed to observe in-situ pore scale <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate directly during hydrate formation in artificial cores. The high-resolution X-ray Computed Tomography (type: GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies GmbH Phoenix x-ray V/tomex/s) was used and the effective resolution for observing <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate bearing sediments can up to about 18μm. Methane <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate was formed in 0.425-0.85mm sands under a pressure of 6MPa and a temperature of 3°C. During the process, CT scanning was conducted if there's a pressure drop (the scanning time is 66 minutes each time), so that the hydrate morphology could be detected. As a result, five scanning CT images of the same section during <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate formation (i.e. hydrate saturation at 3.9%, 24.6%, 35.0%, 51.4% and 97.0%) were obtained. The result shows that at each hydrate saturation level, hydrate morphology models are complicated. The occurrence of 'floating model' (i.e. hydrate floats in pore fluid), 'contact model' (i.e. hydrate contact with the sediment particle), and the 'cementing model' (i.e. hydrates cement the sediment particles) can be found at the same time (Fig. 1). However, it shows that at different hydrate formation stages, the dominant hydrate morphology are not the same. For instance, at the first stage of hydrate formation, although there are some hydrates floating in the pore fluid, most hydrates connect the sediment particles. Consequently, the hydrate morphology at this moment can be described as a cementing model. With this method, it can be obtained that at the higher level of saturation (e.g., hydrate saturation at 24.6% and 35.0%), hydrates are mainly grow as a floating model. As hydrate saturation is much higher (e.g. after hydrate saturation is more than 51.4%), however, the floating hydrates coalesce with each other and the hydrates cement the sediment particle again. The direct observed hydrate morphology presented here may have significant impact on investigating</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19380995','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19380995"><span>Shock loading in biofilters: impact on biodegradation <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and resilience capacity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cabrol, L; Malhautier, L; Poly, F; Lepeuple, A S; Fanlo, J L</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A synthetic contaminated <span class="hlt">gas</span> was generated, representative of gaseous emissions from sludge composting. It was composed of six volatile organic compounds (aldehyde, ketones, esters, sulphur compound) in an ammoniacal matrix. The gaseous stream was purified by biofiltration, in pilot scale biofilters filled with pine bark woodchips as organic carrier for biomass colonization. After reaching a constant high efficiency, with complete removal, the system was disturbed by transient loading shocks. The impact of perturbations was assessed by both performance evaluation (i.e. contaminant removal) and microbial behaviour. The microbial community was analysed in terms of density. The resilience of functional component following a perturbation was evaluated. This work highlighted the longitudinal <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of both biodegradation <span class="hlt">activities</span> and biomass density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12858980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12858980"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> noise control using a <span class="hlt">distributed</span> mode flat panel loudspeaker.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, H; Rajamani, R; Dudney, J; Stelson, K A</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>A flat panel <span class="hlt">distributed</span> mode loudspeaker (DML) has many advantages over traditional cone speakers in terms of its weight, size, and durability. However, its frequency response is uneven and complex, thus bringing its suitability for <span class="hlt">active</span> noise control (ANC) under question. This paper presents experimental results demonstrating the effective use of panel DML speakers in an ANC application. Both feedback and feedforward control techniques are considered. Effective feedback control with a flat panel speaker could open up a whole range of new noise control applications and has many advantages over feedforward control. The paper develops a new control algorithm to attenuate tonal noise of a known frequency by feedback control. However, due to the uneven response of the speakers, feedback control is found to be only moderately effective even for this narrow-band application. Feedforward control proves to be most capable for the flat panel speaker. Using feedforward control, the sound pressure level can be significantly reduced in close proximity to an error microphone. The paper demonstrates an interesting application of the flat panel in which the panel is placed in the path of sound and effectively used to block sound transmission using feedforward control. This is a new approach to <span class="hlt">active</span> noise control enabled by the use of flat panels and can be used to prevent sound from entering into an enclosure in the first place rather than the traditional approach of attempting to cancel sound after it enters the enclosure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3957605','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3957605"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span>, Diversity, and <span class="hlt">Activities</span> of Sulfur Dioxygenases in Heterotrophic Bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Honglei; Xin, Yufeng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Sulfur oxidation by chemolithotrophic bacteria is well known; however, sulfur oxidation by heterotrophic bacteria is often ignored. Sulfur dioxygenases (SDOs) (EC 1.13.11.18) were originally found in the cell extracts of some chemolithotrophic bacteria as glutathione (GSH)-dependent sulfur dioxygenases. GSH spontaneously reacts with elemental sulfur to generate glutathione persulfide (GSSH), and SDOs oxidize GSSH to sulfite and GSH. However, SDOs have not been characterized for bacteria, including chemolithotrophs. The gene coding for human SDO (human ETHE1 [hETHE1]) in mitochondria was discovered because its mutations lead to a hereditary human disease, ethylmalonic encephalopathy. Using sequence analysis and <span class="hlt">activity</span> assays, we discovered three subgroups of bacterial SDOs in the proteobacteria and cyanobacteria. Ten selected SDO genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified. The SDOs used Fe2+ for catalysis and displayed considerable variations in specific <span class="hlt">activities</span>. The wide <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of SDO genes reveals the likely source of the hETHE1 gene and highlights the potential of sulfur oxidation by heterotrophic bacteria. PMID:24389926</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..467S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..467S"><span>Application of the Junge- and Pankow-equation for estimating indoor <span class="hlt">gas</span>/particle <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and exposure to SVOCs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In the indoor environment, <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and dynamics of an organic compound between <span class="hlt">gas</span> phase, particle phase and settled dust must be known for estimating human exposure. This, however, requires a detailed understanding of the environmentally important compound parameters, their interrelation and of the algorithms for calculating partitioning coefficients. The parameters of major concern are: (I) saturation vapor pressure (PS) (of the subcooled liquid); (II) Henry's law constant (H); (III) octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW); (IV) octanol/air partition coefficient (KOA); (V) air/water partition coefficient (KAW) and (VI) settled dust properties like density and organic content. For most of the relevant compounds reliable experimental data are not available and calculated <span class="hlt">gas</span>/particle <span class="hlt">distributions</span> can widely differ due to the uncertainty in predicted Ps and KOA values. This is not a big problem if the target compound is of low (<10-6 Pa) or high (>10-2 Pa) volatility, but in the intermediate region even small changes in Ps or KOA will have a strong impact on the result. Moreover, the related physical processes might bear large uncertainties. The KOA value can only be used for particle absorption from the <span class="hlt">gas</span> phase if the organic portion of the particle or dust is high. The Junge- and Pankow-equation for calculating the <span class="hlt">gas</span>/particle <span class="hlt">distribution</span> coefficient KP do not consider the physical and chemical properties of the particle surface area. It is demonstrated by error propagation theory and Monte-Carlo simulations that parameter uncertainties from estimation methods for molecular properties and variations of indoor conditions might strongly influence the calculated <span class="hlt">distribution</span> behavior of compounds in the indoor environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...40a2003Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...40a2003Z"><span>A Wolf Pack Algorithm for <span class="hlt">Active</span> and Reactive Power Coordinated Optimization in <span class="hlt">Active</span> <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhuang, H. M.; Jiang, X. J.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents an <span class="hlt">active</span> and reactive power dynamic optimization model for <span class="hlt">active</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> network (ADN), whose control variables include the output of <span class="hlt">distributed</span> generations (DGs), charge or discharge power of energy storage system (ESS) and reactive power from capacitor banks. To solve the high-dimension nonlinear optimization model, a new heuristic swarm intelligent method, namely wolf pack algorithm (WPA) with better global convergence and computational robustness, is adapted so that the network loss minimization can be achieved. In this paper, the IEEE33-bus system is used to show the effectiveness of WPA technique compared with other techniques. Numerical tests on the modified IEEE 33-bus system show that WPA for <span class="hlt">active</span> and reactive multi-period optimization of ADN is exact and effective.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS23F..02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS23F..02M"><span>High-Resolution Seismic Definition of the <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">Gas</span> in the West Svalbard Margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Minshull, T. A.; Westbrook, G. K.; Marin-Moreno, H.; Marsset, B.; Ker, S.; Sarkar, S.; Vardy, M. E.; Henstock, T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The widespread presence of <span class="hlt">gas</span> beneath the seabed west of Svalbard is shown by negative-polarity high-amplitude reflectors (nephars), imaged in high-resolution near-surface and deep-towed seismic reflection data. The principal controls on the presence of <span class="hlt">gas</span> are the <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), from which free <span class="hlt">gas</span> is generally excluded, and stratigraphic control of permeable layers. A widespread bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) beneath the lower-mid continental slope indicates <span class="hlt">gas</span> at the base of the GHSZ. The depth of the base of the GHSZ predicted by a numerical model that takes in to account variation in ocean temperature over the past two thousand years, is consistent with the depth of the BSR, even at its shallowest depth, where a steady-state model places base of the GHSZ shallower than the BSR. Similarly, farther up slope, where the BSR loses it coherency, the depths of the shallowest nephars are compatible with the predicted depth of the base of the GHSZ from the time-dependent model, but are about three times deeper than the predicted steady-state depth of the BSR. This approach to defining the limits of the GHSZ is not precise, as it depends upon the presence of <span class="hlt">gas</span>. In the shallow sediment sequence, which has a high proportion of glacigenic sediments, <span class="hlt">gas</span> is restricted to a smaller number of permeable units than in the contourite-dominated sequence farther down the continental slope. Where the seabed is shallower than the GHSZ, numerous plumes of methane <span class="hlt">gas</span> ascend from the seabed, and <span class="hlt">gas</span>, which has migrated up slope through dipping permeable layers, locally ponds beneath a thin veneer of unconformable glacial and post-glacial sediments on the continental shelf.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019918','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019918"><span>Adsorbed natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> storage with <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Activated</span> carbons for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical <span class="hlt">activation</span> with steam or CO2 and by chemical <span class="hlt">activation</span> with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam <span class="hlt">activation</span>, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptEn..55g6107Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptEn..55g6107Z"><span>Reconstruction of combustion temperature and <span class="hlt">gas</span> concentration <span class="hlt">distributions</span> using line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Pengshuai; Pang, Tao; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhe; Han, Luo; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Spatial temperature and <span class="hlt">gas</span> concentration <span class="hlt">distributions</span> are crucial for combustion studies to characterize the combustion position and to evaluate the combustion regime and the released heat quantity. Optical computer tomography (CT) enables the reconstruction of temperature and <span class="hlt">gas</span> concentration fields in a flame on the basis of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS). A pair of H2O absorption lines at wavelengths 1395.51 and 1395.69 nm is selected. Temperature and H2O concentration <span class="hlt">distributions</span> for a flat flame furnace are calculated by superimposing two absorption peaks with a discrete algebraic iterative algorithm and a mathematical fitting algorithm. By comparison, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements agree well with the thermocouple measurements and yield a good correlation. The CT reconstruction data of different air-to-fuel ratio combustion conditions (incomplete combustion and full combustion) and three different types of burners (one, two, and three flat flame furnaces) demonstrate that TDLAS has the potential of short response time and enables real-time temperature and <span class="hlt">gas</span> concentration <span class="hlt">distribution</span> measurements for combustion diagnosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPB.263..140T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPB.263..140T"><span>Homogeneous near surface <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> by double energy <span class="hlt">activation</span> for TLA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Thin layer <span class="hlt">activation</span> (TLA) is a versatile tool for <span class="hlt">activating</span> thin surface layers in order to study real-time the surface loss by wear, corrosion or erosion processes of the <span class="hlt">activated</span> parts, without disassembling or stopping running mechanical structures or equipment. The research problem is the determination of the irradiation parameters to produce point-like or large area optimal <span class="hlt">activity</span>-depth <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in the sample. Different <span class="hlt">activity</span>-depth profiles can be produced depending on the type of the investigated material and the nuclear reaction used. To produce <span class="hlt">activity</span> that is independent of the depth up to a certain depth is desirable when the material removed from the surface by wear, corrosion or erosion can be collected completely. By applying dual energy irradiation the thickness of this quasi-constant <span class="hlt">activity</span> layer can be increased or the deviation of the <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> from a constant value can be minimized. In the main, parts made of metals and alloys are suitable for direct <span class="hlt">activation</span>, but by using secondary particle implantation the wear of other materials can also be studied in a surface range a few micrometers thick. In most practical cases <span class="hlt">activation</span> of a point-like spot (several mm2) is enough to monitor the wear, corrosion or erosion, but for special problems relatively large surfaces areas of complicated spatial geometry need to be <span class="hlt">activated</span> uniformly. Two ways are available for fulfilling this task, (1) production of large area beam spot or scanning the beam over the surface in question from the accelerator side, or (2) a programmed 3D movement of the sample from the target side. Taking into account the large variability of tasks occurring in practice, the latter method was chosen as the routine solution in our cyclotron laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/epa-and-dominion-cove-point-settle-violations-natural-gas-distribution-facility','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/epa-and-dominion-cove-point-settle-violations-natural-gas-distribution-facility"><span>EPA and Dominion Cove Point Settle Violations at Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Facility in Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>PHILADELPHIA (March 16, 2015) - Dominion Cove Point, LNG will pay a $365,000 civil penalty to settle alleged violations of federal environmental regulations involving unreported releases of ammonia into the air from its liquefied natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> distrib</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023225','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023225"><span>High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon - I. Effects of <span class="hlt">gas</span> composition and metal addition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cal, M.P.; Strickler, B.W.; Lizzio, A.A.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Various types of <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon sorbents were evaluated for their ability to remove H2S from a simulated coal <span class="hlt">gas</span> stream at a temperature of 550 ??C. The ability of <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon to remove H2S at elevated temperature was examined as a function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal addition), and <span class="hlt">gas</span> composition. A sorbent prepared by steam <span class="hlt">activation</span>, HNO3 oxidation and impregnated with Zn, and tested in a <span class="hlt">gas</span> stream containing 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% N2, had the greatest H2S adsorption capacity. Addition of H2, CO, and H2O to the inlet <span class="hlt">gas</span> stream reduced H2S breakthrough time and H2S adsorption capacity. A Zn impregnated <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon, when tested using a simulated coal <span class="hlt">gas</span> containing 0.5% H2S, 49.5% N2, 13% H2, 8.5% H2O, 21% CO, and 7.5% CO2, had a breakthrough time of 75 min, which was less than 25 percent of the length of breakthrough for screening experiments performed with a simplified <span class="hlt">gas</span> mixture of 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, and 49.5% N2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1331746','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1331746"><span>Development of an Absolute <span class="hlt">Gas</span>-Counting Capability for Low to Medium <span class="hlt">Activities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ely, James H.; Day, Anthony R.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; Merriman, Jason H.; Overman, Cory T.; Seifert, Allen</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a capability to measure the absolute <span class="hlt">activity</span> concentration of various gaseous radionuclides using length-compensated proportional-counting methods. This capability will enable the validation and use of low-level, gaseous radionuclide calibration standards for use in PNNL’s shallow underground laboratory. Two sets of unequal length proportional counters have been fabricated. These detector assemblies operate on a static <span class="hlt">gas</span>-fill principle, in contrast to continuous, flow-through configurations. One set of three counters has been fabricated using ultra-low background (ULB) electroformed copper and low-background fabrication methods. Once fully operational, these ULB counters will be used in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory for analysis of gases with low <span class="hlt">activity</span> concentrations < 1 Bq/cc. A second set of four unequal length counters has been fabricated from Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity Copper (OFHC) using similar low-background cleaning and assembly methods. These OFHC counters will be operated above ground in the analysis of gases with <span class="hlt">activity</span> concentrations in the range of 1-10 Bq/cc. A <span class="hlt">gas</span> delivery system is being developed to <span class="hlt">actively</span> mix the analyte <span class="hlt">gas</span> with an appropriate amount of count-<span class="hlt">gas</span> and uniformly deliver it to the counters with high accuracy and repeatability. A description of both detector assemblies and <span class="hlt">gas</span> delivery system will be given along with a preliminary uncertainty analysis of a simulated 0.05 Bq/cm3 <span class="hlt">gas</span> measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...579A..91W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...579A..91W"><span>ATLASGAL - Kinematic distances and the dense <span class="hlt">gas</span> mass <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the inner Galaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wienen, M.; Wyrowski, F.; Menten, K. M.; Urquhart, J. S.; Csengeri, T.; Walmsley, C. M.; Bontemps, S.; Russeil, D.; Bronfman, L.; Koribalski, B. S.; Schuller, F.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Context. The formation of high mass stars and clusters occurs in giant molecular clouds. Objects in evolved stages of massive star formation such as protostars, hot molecular cores, and ultracompact HII regions have been studied in more detail than earlier, colder objects. Further progress thus requires the analysis of the time before massive protostellar objects can be probed by their infrared emission. With this in mind, the APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the whole inner Galactic plane at 870 μm (ATLASGAL) has been carried out to provide a global view of cold dust and star formation at submillimetre wavelengths. Aims: We derive kinematic distances to a large sample of massive cold dust clumps from their measured line velocities. We estimate masses and sizes of ATLASGAL sources, for which the kinematic distance ambiguity is resolved. Methods: The ATLASGAL sample is divided into groups of sources, which are located close together, mostly within a radius of 2 pc, and have velocities in a similar range with a median velocity dispersion of ~1 km s-1. We use NH3, N2H+, and CS velocities to calculate near and far kinematic distances to those groups. Results: We obtain 296 groups of ATLASGAL sources in the first quadrant and 393 groups in the fourth quadrant, which are coherent in space and velocity. We analyse HI self-absorption and HI absorption to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity to 689 complexes of submm clumps. They are associated with 12CO emission probing large-scale structure and 13CO (1-0) line as well as the 870 μm dust continuum on a smaller scale. We obtain a scale height of ~28 ± 2 pc and displacement below the Galactic midplane of ~-7 ± 1 pc. Within distances from 2 to 18 kpc ATLASGAL clumps have a broad range of <span class="hlt">gas</span> masses with a median of 1050 M⊙ as well as a wide <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of radii with a median of 0.4 pc. Their <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in galactocentric radii is correlated with spiral arms. Conclusions: Using a statistically significant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.453..721V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.453..721V"><span>The alignment and shape of dark matter, stellar, and hot <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in the EAGLE and cosmo-OWLS simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Velliscig, Marco; Cacciato, Marcello; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Bower, Richard G.; van Daalen, Marcel P.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Frenk, Carlos S.; Furlong, Michelle; McCarthy, I. G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We report the alignment and shape of dark matter, stellar, and hot <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in the EAGLE (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments) and cosmo-OWLS (OverWhelmingly Large Simulations) simulations. The combination of these state-of-the-art hydrodynamical cosmological simulations enables us to span four orders of magnitude in halo mass (11 ≤ log10(M200/[ h-1 M⊙]) ≤ 15), a wide radial range (-2.3 ≤ log10(r/[ h-1 Mpc]) ≤ 1.3) and redshifts 0 ≤ z ≤ 1. The shape parameters of the dark matter, stellar and hot <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distributions</span> follow qualitatively similar trends: they become more aspherical (and triaxial) with increasing halo mass, radius, and redshift. We measure the misalignment of the baryonic components (hot <span class="hlt">gas</span> and stars) of galaxies with their host halo as a function of halo mass, radius, redshift, and galaxy type (centrals versus satellites and early- versus late-type). Overall, galaxies align well with the local <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the total (mostly dark) matter. However, the stellar <span class="hlt">distributions</span> on galactic scales exhibit a median misalignment of about 45-50 deg with respect to their host haloes. This misalignment is reduced to 25-30 deg in the most massive haloes (13 ≤ log10(M200/[ h-1 M⊙]) ≤ 15). Half of the disc galaxies in the EAGLE simulations have a misalignment angle with respect to their host haloes larger than 40 deg. We present fitting functions and tabulated values for the probability <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of galaxy-halo misalignment to enable a straightforward inclusion of our results into models of galaxy formations based on purely collisionless N-body simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6104609','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6104609"><span>South American oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> fields: Reasons for their presence and <span class="hlt">distribution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pratsch, J.C. )</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>South American oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> fields occur in geographic clusters. Their concentration in relatively small producing areas depends on the present location of the hydrocarbon generating depocenter and results from the basinal oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> migration history. By defining both, existing field locations can be explained and new field occurrences can be predicted, including those in overthrust plays. One-and two-stage hydrocarbon migration processes exist: In one-stage migration oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> migrate directly from the generating source beds into reservoirs, like in Maturin Basin or Maranon Basin fields. In two-stage migration oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> first migrate into a primary reservoir level, from there during a second migration phase into a (commonly younger) secondary reservoir level. Here, the original source beds may be over-mature or even metamorphosed today; examples here are the Maturin, Llanos and Oriente Basins, possibly offshore Trinidad. Definition of generating depocenters is the task of regional exploration. Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> migration analysis is one result of semi-detailed structural mapping using gravity, magnetic, seismic reflection and geochemical data. Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> exploration in two-stage migration basins are especially challenging, like in the Austral Basin of southern Argentina and Chile or possibly in the Parana Basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270929','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270929"><span>TOWARD A DETERMINISTIC MODEL OF PLANETARY FORMATION. VII. ECCENTRICITY <span class="hlt">DISTRIBUTION</span> OF <span class="hlt">GAS</span> GIANTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ida, S.; Lin, D. N. C.</p> <p>2013-09-20</p> <p>The ubiquity of planets and diversity of planetary systems reveal that planet formation encompasses many complex and competing processes. In this series of papers, we develop and upgrade a population synthesis model as a tool to identify the dominant physical effects and to calibrate the range of physical conditions. Recent planet searches have led to the discovery of many multiple-planet systems. Any theoretical models of their origins must take into account dynamical interactions between emerging protoplanets. Here, we introduce a prescription to approximate the close encounters between multiple planets. We apply this method to simulate the growth, migration, and dynamical interaction of planetary systems. Our models show that in relatively massive disks, several <span class="hlt">gas</span> giants and rocky/icy planets emerge, migrate, and undergo dynamical instability. Secular perturbation between planets leads to orbital crossings, eccentricity excitation, and planetary ejection. In disks with modest masses, two or less <span class="hlt">gas</span> giants form with multiple super-Earths. Orbital stability in these systems is generally maintained and they retain the kinematic structure after <span class="hlt">gas</span> in their natal disks is depleted. These results reproduce the observed planetary mass-eccentricity and semimajor axis-eccentricity correlations. They also suggest that emerging <span class="hlt">gas</span> giants can scatter residual cores to the outer disk regions. Subsequent in situ <span class="hlt">gas</span> accretion onto these cores can lead to the formation of distant (∼> 30 AU) <span class="hlt">gas</span> giants with nearly circular orbits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144674"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of Organophosphate Esters between the <span class="hlt">Gas</span> and Particle Phase-Model Predictions vs Measured Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sühring, Roxana; Wolschke, Hendrik; Diamond, Miriam L; Jantunen, Liisa M; Scheringer, Martin</p> <p>2016-07-05</p> <p><span class="hlt">Gas</span>-particle partitioning is one of the key factors that affect the environmental fate of semivolatile organic chemicals. Many organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been reported to primarily partition to particles in the atmosphere. However, because of the wide range of their physicochemical properties, it is unlikely that OPEs are mainly in the particle phase "as a class". We compared <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partitioning predictions for 32 OPEs made by the commonly used OECD POV and LRTP Screening Tool ("the Tool") with the partitioning models of Junge-Pankow (J-P) and Harner-Bidleman (H-B), as well as recently measured data on OPE <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partitioning. The results indicate that half of the tested OPEs partition into the <span class="hlt">gas</span> phase. Partitioning into the <span class="hlt">gas</span> phase seems to be determined by an octanol-air partition coefficient (log KOA) < 10 and a subcooled liquid vapor pressure (log PL) > -5 (PL in Pa), as well as the total suspended particle concentration (TSP) in the sampling area. The uncertainty of the physicochemical property data of the OPEs did not change this estimate. Furthermore, the predictions by the Tool, J-P- and H-B-models agreed with recently measured OPE <span class="hlt">gas</span>-particle partitioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/125027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/125027"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, October 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-10-23</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/71665','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/71665"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, May 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-05-24</p> <p>The NGM highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10131729','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10131729"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, February 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-02-25</p> <p>The NGM highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011A%26A...531A...8J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011A%26A...531A...8J"><span>Chromospheric <span class="hlt">activities</span> and kinematics for solar type dwarfs and subgiants: analysis of the <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and the AVR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jenkins, J. S.; Murgas, F.; Rojo, P.; Jones, H. R. A.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Jones, M. I.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Pinfield, D. J.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Aims: In this work we present chromospheric <span class="hlt">activity</span> indices, kinematics, radial-velocities, and rotational velocities for more than 850 FGK-type dwarfs and subgiant stars in the southern hemisphere and test how best to calibrate and measure S-indices from echelle spectra. Methods: We measured our parameters using the high-resolution and high-S/N FEROS echelle spectra acquired for this purpose. Results: We confirm the bimodal <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of chromospheric <span class="hlt">activities</span> for such stars and highlight the role that the more <span class="hlt">active</span> K-dwarfs play in biasing the number of <span class="hlt">active</span> stars. We show that the age-<span class="hlt">activity</span> relationship does appear to continue to ages older than the Sun if we simply compare main sequence stars and subgiant stars with an offset of around 2.5 Gyr between the peaks of both <span class="hlt">distributions</span>. Also we show evidence of an increased spin-down timescale for cool K dwarfs compared with earlier F and G type stars. We highlight that <span class="hlt">activities</span> drawn from low-resolution spectra (R < 2500) significantly increase the rms scatter when calibrating onto common systems of measurements like the Mt. Wilson system. Also we show that older and widely used catalogues of <span class="hlt">activities</span> in the south appear to be offset compared to more recent works at the 0.1 dex level in log R'HK through calibrator drift. In addition, we show how kinematics can be used to preselect inactive stars for future planet search projects. We see the well known trend between projected rotational velocity and <span class="hlt">activity</span>, however we also find a correlation between kinematic space velocity and chromospheric <span class="hlt">activity</span>. It appears that after the Vaughan-Preston gap there is a quick step function in the kinematic space motion towards a significantly broader spread in velocities. We speculate on reasons for this correlation and provide some model scenarios to describe the bimodal <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> through magnetic saturation, residual low level <span class="hlt">gas</span> accretion, or accretion by the star of planets or planetesimals</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22518971','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22518971"><span>COEVOLUTION BETWEEN SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND BULGES IS NOT VIA INTERNAL FEEDBACK REGULATION BUT BY RATIONED <span class="hlt">GAS</span> SUPPLY DUE TO ANGULAR MOMENTUM <span class="hlt">DISTRIBUTION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cen, Renyue</p> <p>2015-05-20</p> <p>We reason that without physical fine-tuning, neither the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) nor the stellar bulges can self-regulate or inter-regulate by driving away already fallen cold <span class="hlt">gas</span> to produce the observed correlation between them. We suggest an alternative scenario where the observed mass ratios of the SMBHs to bulges reflect the angular momentum <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of infallen <span class="hlt">gas</span> such that the mass reaching the stable accretion disk is a small fraction of that reaching the bulge region, averaged over the cosmological timescales. We test this scenario using high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, without <span class="hlt">active</span> galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, assuming the angular momentum <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span> landing in the bulge region yields a Mestel disk that is supported by independent simulations resolving the Bondi radii of SMBHs. A mass ratio of 0.1%–0.3% between the very low angular momentum <span class="hlt">gas</span> that free falls to the subparsec region to accrete to the SMBH and the overall star formation rate is found. This ratio is found to increase with increasing redshift to within a factor of ∼2, suggesting that the SMBH-to-bulge ratio is nearly redshift independent, with a modest increase with redshift, which is a testable prediction. Furthermore, the duty cycle of AGNs with high Eddington ratios is expected to increase significantly with redshift. Finally, while SMBHs and bulges are found to coevolve on ∼30–150 Myr timescales or longer, there is indication that on still smaller timescales, the SMBH accretion and star formation may be less correlated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...7.7734S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...7.7734S"><span><span class="hlt">Gas</span> phase condensation of superparamagnetic iron oxide-silica nanoparticles - control of the intraparticle phase <span class="hlt">distribution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stötzel, C.; Kurland, H.-D.; Grabow, J.; Müller, F. A.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p> consisting of a γ-Fe2O3 and a SiO2 hemisphere to γ-Fe2O3 NPs each carrying one small SiO2 lens on its surface, (ii) the multiple γ-Fe2O3 inclusions accumulate at the NPs' inner surfaces, and (iii) all composite NPs are covered by a thin layer of amorphous SiO2. These morphological characteristics are attributed to (i) the phase segregation of iron oxide and silica within the condensed Fe2O3-SiO2 droplets, (ii) the temperature gradient within these droplets which arises during rapid cooling in the CoLAVA process, and (iii) the significantly lower surface energy of silica when compared to iron oxide. The proposed growth mechanism of these Fe2O3-SiO2 composite NPs during <span class="hlt">gas</span> phase condensation can be transferred to other systems comprising a glass-network former and another component that is insoluble in the regarding glass. Thus, our model will facilitate the development of novel functional composite NPs for applications in biomedicine, optics, electronics, or catalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Infrared absorption of the raw powders hematite and quartz (section S1), TEM investigation of the spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the γ-Fe2O3 inclusions (section S2), particle size <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of the Fe2O3@SiO2 nanopowder samples (section S3), ζ-potentials of aqueous dispersions of all γ-Fe2O3@SiO2 nanopowder samples (section S4), silanization of Fe2O3@SiO2 composite nanopowders with [3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-propyl]trimethoxysilane (section S5), and animation composed of TEM micrographs of Fe2O3@SiO2 NPs recorded at incrementally altered tilt angles (``Rotating Fe2O3@SiO2 NP.avi''). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00845j</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...10023027K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...10023027K"><span>Aerosol size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and aerosol water content measurements during Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment/Marine Aerosol and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Y.; Sievering, H.; Boatman, J.; Wellman, D.; Pszenny, A.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>Aerosol size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> data measured during the June 1992 Marine Aerosol and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Exchange experiment are analyzed to investigate the characteristics of fine marine aerosol particles measured over the North Atlantic near the Azores Islands. Measured aerosol size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> data were corrected using the corrected size calibration data based on the optical properties of particles being measured. The corrected size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> data were then approximated with either one or two lognormal size <span class="hlt">distributions</span>, depending on air mass conditions. Under clean air mass conditions <3 μm diameter aerosol size <span class="hlt">distributions</span> typically exhibited two modes, consisting of an accumulation mode and the small end of the sea-salt particle mode. However, under the influence of continental polluted air masses, the aerosol size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> was dominated by <1 μm diameter particles in a single mode with an increased aerosol concentration. Aerosol water content of accumulation mode marine aerosols was estimated from differences between several series of ambient and dried aerosol size <span class="hlt">distributions</span>. The average aerosol water fraction was 0.31, which is in good agreement with an empirical aerosol growth model estimate. The average rate of SO4= production in the accumulation mode aerosol water by H2O2 oxidation was estimated to be <7×10-10 mol L-1 s-1, which is an insignificant contributor to the observed non-sea-salt SO4= in the accumulation mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930060186&hterms=muscle+shortening&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dmuscle%2Bshortening','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930060186&hterms=muscle+shortening&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dmuscle%2Bshortening"><span><span class="hlt">Activity</span>-induced regulation of myosin isoform <span class="hlt">distribution</span> - Comparison of two contractile <span class="hlt">activity</span> programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Diffee, Gary M.; Caiozzo, Vince J.; Mccue, Samuel A.; Herrick, Robert E.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the role of specific types of contractile <span class="hlt">activity</span> in regulating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression in rodent soleus. A combination of hindlimb suspension (SN) and two programmed contractile training <span class="hlt">activity</span> paradigms, either isometric contractile <span class="hlt">activity</span> (ST-IM) or high-load slowly shortening isovelocity <span class="hlt">activity</span>, were utilized. Both training paradigms increased muscle mass compared with SN alone. However, only ST-IM resulted in a partial prevention of the suspension-induced decrease in type I MHC. With the use of a fluorescently labeled antibody to type IIa MHC, the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of MHCs among fibers was examined immunohistochemically. In SN, the percentage of cells staining positive for type IIa MHC was increased but the staining intensity of the positively staining cells was unchanged compared with control cells. In the ST-IM soleus, the percentage of positively staining fibers was unchanged but the intensity of the positively staining cells was decreased compared with SN values. These results suggest that 1) isometric contractile <span class="hlt">activity</span> is more effective than isovelocity <span class="hlt">activity</span> in preventing suspension-induced shifts in soleus MHC <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and 2) changes associated with both suspension and training occur in only a small number of fibers, with the majority of fibers apparently unresponsive to these interventions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.133...60J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.133...60J"><span>Size <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and concentration of soot generated in oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span>-fired residential boilers under different combustion conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiménez, Santiago; Barroso, Jorge; Pina, Antonio; Ballester, Javier</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In spite of the relevance of residential heating burners in the global emission of soot particles to the atmosphere, relatively little information on their properties (concentration, size <span class="hlt">distribution</span>) is available in the literature, and even less regarding the dependence of those properties on the operating conditions. Instead, the usual procedure to characterize those emissions is to measure the smoke opacity by several methods, among which the blackening of a paper after filtering a fixed amount of <span class="hlt">gas</span> (Bacharach test) is predominant. In this work, the size <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of the particles generated in the combustion of a variety of gaseous and liquid fuels in a laboratory facility equipped with commercial burners have been measured with a size classifier coupled to a particle counter in a broad range of operating conditions (air excesses), with simultaneous determination of the Bacharach index. The shape and evolution of the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> with progressively smaller oxygen concentrations depends essentially on the state of the fuel: whereas the combustion of the gases results in monomodal <span class="hlt">distributions</span> that 'shift' towards larger diameters, in the case of the <span class="hlt">gas</span>-oils an ultrafine mode is always observed, and a secondary mode of coarse particle grows in relevance. In both cases, there is a strong, exponential correlation between the total mass concentration and the Bacharach opacity index, quite similar for both groups of fuels. The empirical expressions proposed may allow other researchers to at least estimate the emissions of numerous combustion facilities routinely characterized by their smoke opacities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9298E..0NL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9298E..0NL"><span>A measurement plan of <span class="hlt">gas</span> concentration and temperature <span class="hlt">distribution</span> reconstruction based on the tunable diode laser absorption tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhao-ran; Jin, Xing; Wang, Guang-yu; Song, Jun-ling</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Based on the tunable diode laser absorption tomography, <span class="hlt">gas</span> concentration and temperature two-dimensional <span class="hlt">distribution</span> reconstruction is realized using algebraic iterative reconstruction technique (ART). A measurement plan is proposed based on the beam splitting lens, and the corresponding beam arrangement is put forward. The beam splitting lenses are used in the plan to making one laser beam cross the measurement area repeatedly. Thus can raise the utilization ratio of laser beam and simplify the structure of measurement platform. A model for H2O vapor concentration and temperature <span class="hlt">distribution</span> is assumed, and numerical simulation is utilized using two absorption transitions. The feasibility of the measurement plan is proved by the simulation experiment. The influences of initial beam angle, the number of beams and grids on the reconstructed results are analyzed numerically. A concept of phantom description method using in simulation experiments is proposed in order to getting closer to the real experiments. The phantom description method is used in the numerical simulation to evaluating concentration and temperature field reconstruction. Through this method, expected data is sampled from initial data, and reconstructed result is obtained by interpolation. The influence of random errors in projections on <span class="hlt">distribution</span> reconstruction is also analyzed. The measurement plan can reconstruct the <span class="hlt">gas</span> concentration and temperature <span class="hlt">distribution</span> with a simplified measurement platform using beam splitting lenses. The feasibility of the phantom description method is also proved by the simulation experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002110','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002110"><span>GHRC: NASAs Hazardous Weather <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> <span class="hlt">Active</span> Archive Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ramachandran, Rahul; Bugbee, Kaylin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC; ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov) is one of NASA's twelve <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> <span class="hlt">Active</span> Archive Centers responsible for providing access to NASA's Earth science data to users worldwide. Each of NASA's twelve DAACs focuses on a specific science discipline within Earth science, provides data stewardship services and supports its research community's needs. Established in 1991 as the Marshall Space Flight Center DAAC and renamed GHRC in 1997, the data center's original mission focused on the global hydrologic cycle. However, over the years, data holdings, tools and expertise of GHRC have gradually shifted. In 2014, a User Working Group (UWG) was established to review GHRC capabilities and provide recommendations to make GHRC more responsive to the research community's evolving needs. The UWG recommended an update to the GHRC mission, as well as a strategic plan to move in the new direction. After a careful and detailed analysis of GHRC's capabilities, research community needs and the existing data landscape, a new mission statement for GHRC has been crafted: to provide a comprehensive <span class="hlt">active</span> archive of both data and knowledge augmentation services with a focus on hazardous weather, its governing dynamical and physical processes, and associated applications. Within this broad mandate, GHRC will focus on lightning, tropical cyclones and storm-induced hazards through integrated collections of satellite, airborne, and in-situ data sets. The new mission was adopted at the recent 2015 UWG meeting. GHRC will retain its current name until such time as it has built substantial data holdings aligned with the new mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4845043','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4845043"><span>Diversity, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, and antagonistic <span class="hlt">activities</span> of rhizobacteria of Panax notoginseng</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fan, Ze-Yan; Miao, Cui-Ping; Qiao, Xin-Guo; Zheng, You-Kun; Chen, Hua-Hong; Chen, You-Wei; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhao, Li-Xing; Guan, Hui-Lin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Rhizobacteria play an important role in plant defense and could be promising sources of biocontrol agents. This study aimed to screen antagonistic bacteria and develop a biocontrol system for root rot complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods Pure-culture methods were used to isolate bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of notoginseng plants. The identification of isolates was based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. Results A total of 279 bacteria were obtained from rhizosphere soils of healthy and root-rot notoginseng plants, and uncultivated soil. Among all the isolates, 88 showed antagonistic <span class="hlt">activity</span> to at least one of three phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Phoma herbarum mainly causing root rot disease of P. notoginseng. Based on the 16S rRNA sequencing, the antagonistic bacteria were characterized into four clusters, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetesi. The genus Bacillus was the most frequently isolated, and Bacillus siamensis (Hs02), Bacillus atrophaeus (Hs09) showed strong antagonistic <span class="hlt">activity</span> to the three pathogens. The <span class="hlt">distribution</span> pattern differed in soil types, genera Achromobacter, Acidovorax, Brevibacterium, Brevundimonas, Flavimonas, and Streptomyces were only found in rhizosphere of healthy plants, while Delftia, Leclercia, Brevibacillus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Rhizobium, and Stenotrophomonas only exist in soil of diseased plant, and Acinetobacter only exist in uncultivated soil. Conclusion The results suggest that diverse bacteria exist in the P. notoginseng rhizosphere soil, with differences in community in the same field, and antagonistic isolates may be good potential biological control agent for the notoginseng root-rot diseases caused by F. oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Panax herbarum. PMID:27158229</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/563997','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/563997"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, December 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/486066','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/486066"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, May 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural <span class="hlt">gas</span>.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/248704','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/248704"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, June 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-06-24</p> <p>The natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. The feature article for this month is Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/554768','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/554768"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, October 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-10-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10167922','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10167922"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, June 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/93776','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/93776"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, June 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-06-21</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. This month feature is on the value of underground storage in today`s natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/481476','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/481476"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, April 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10157520','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10157520"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, May 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-05-25</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/105895','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/105895"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, August 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-08-24</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Imports and Exports 1994.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194783','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194783"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly, October 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-11-10</p> <p>The (NGM) Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/625/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/625/"><span>Geodatabase of Wyoming statewide oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> drilling <span class="hlt">activity</span> to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Biewick, Laura R.H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a geographic information system (GIS) of Wyoming statewide historical oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> drilling <span class="hlt">activity</span> for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). The WLCI is representative of the partnerships being formed by the USGS with other Department of the Interior bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners that are committed to maintaining healthy landscapes, sustaining wildlife, and preserving recreational and grazing uses as energy resources development progresses in southwestern Wyoming. This product complements the 2009 USGS publication on oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> development in southwestern Wyoming http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/437/) by approximating, based on database attributes, the time frame of drilling <span class="hlt">activity</span> for each well (start and stop dates). This GIS product also adds current oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> drilling <span class="hlt">activity</span> not only in the area encompassing the WLCI, but also statewide. Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> data, documentation, and spatial data processing capabilities are available and can be downloaded from the USGS website. These data originated from the Wyoming Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Conservation Commission (WOGCC), represent decades of oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> drilling (1900 to 2010), and will facilitate a landscape-level approach to integrated science-based assessments, resource management and land-use decision making.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT........85J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT........85J"><span>Regulatory reform for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> pipelines: The effect on pipeline and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> company share prices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>The natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of <span class="hlt">gas</span>. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006TellB..58..390K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006TellB..58..390K"><span>Carbon isotope evidence for the latitudinal <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and wind speed dependence of the air-sea <span class="hlt">gas</span> transfer velocity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krakauer, Nir Y.; Randerson, James T.; Primeau, François W.; Gruber, Nicolas; Menemenlis, Dimitris</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>The air-sea <span class="hlt">gas</span> transfer velocity is an important determinant of the exchange of gases, including CO2, between the atmosphere and ocean, but the magnitude of the transfer velocity and what factors control it remains poorly known. Here, we use oceanic and atmospheric observations of 14C and 13C to constrain the global mean <span class="hlt">gas</span> transfer velocity as well as the exponent of its wind speed dependence, utilizing the distinct signatures left by the air-sea exchange of 14CO2 and 13CO2. While the atmosphere and ocean inventories of 14CO2 and 13CO2 constrain the mean <span class="hlt">gas</span> transfer velocity, the latitudinal pattern in the atmospheric and oceanic 14C and 13C <span class="hlt">distributions</span> contain information about the wind speed dependence. We computed the uptake of bomb 14C by the ocean for different transfer velocity patterns using pulse response functions from an ocean general circulation model, and evaluated the match between the predicted bomb 14C concentrations and observationally based estimates for the 1970s-1990s. Using a wind speed climatology based on satellite measurements, we solved either for the best-fit global relationship between <span class="hlt">gas</span> exchange and mean wind speed or for the mean <span class="hlt">gas</span> transfer velocity over each of 11 ocean regions. We also compared the predicted consequences of different <span class="hlt">gas</span> exchange relationships on the rate of change and interhemisphere gradient of 14C in atmospheric CO2 with tree-ring and atmospheric measurements. Our results suggest that globally, the dependence of the air-sea <span class="hlt">gas</span> transfer velocity on wind speed is close to linear, with an exponent of 0.5 +/- 0.4, and that the global mean <span class="hlt">gas</span> transfer velocity at a Schmidt number of 660 is 20 +/- 3 cm/hr, similar to the results of previous analyses. We find that the air-sea flux of 13C estimated from atmosphere and ocean observations also suggests a lower than quadratic dependence of <span class="hlt">gas</span> exchange on wind speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/948010','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/948010"><span>Explorer-II: Wireless Self-Powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Mains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carnegie Mellon University</p> <p>2008-09-30</p> <p>Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design, field-trial and Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) sensor evaluation program for the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live <span class="hlt">gas</span> main Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe <span class="hlt">distribution</span> mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The resulting robot-train system with CAD renderings of the individual modules. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23179511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23179511"><span><span class="hlt">Activated</span> carbon treatment of municipal solid waste incineration flue <span class="hlt">gas</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Shengyong; Ji, Ya; Buekens, Alfons; Ma, Zengyi; Jin, Yuqi; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Activated</span> carbon injection is widely used to control dioxins and mercury emissions. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to its modelling. This paper proposes an expansion of the classical Everaerts-Baeyens model, introducing the expression of fraction of free adsorption sites, f (s), and asserting the significant contribution of fly ash to dioxins removal. Moreover, the model monitors dioxins partitioning between vapour and particulate phase, as well as removal efficiency for each congener separately. The effects of the principal parameters affecting adsorption are analysed according to a semi-analytical, semi-empirical model. These parameters include temperature, contact time during entrained-flow, characteristics (grain-size, pore structure, specific surface area) and dosage of <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon, lignite cokes or mineral adsorbent, fly ash characteristics and concentration, and type of incinerator plant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/74047','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/74047"><span>Atlas of Northern Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">Gas</span> and Oil Reservoirs: Procedures and examples of resource <span class="hlt">distribution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seni, S.J.; Finley, R.J.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The objective of the program is to produce a reservoir atlas series of the Gulf of Mexico that (1) classifies and groups offshore oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> reservoirs into a series of geologically defined reservoir plays, (2) compiles comprehensive reservoir play information that includes descriptive and quantitative summaries of play characteristics, cumulative production, reserves, original oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> in place, and various other engineering and geologic data, (3) provides detailed summaries of representative type reservoirs for each play, and (4) organizes computerized tables of reservoir engineering data into a geographic information system (GIS). The primary product of the program will be an oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> atlas series of the offshore Northern Gulf of Mexico and a computerized geographical information system of geologic and engineering data linked to reservoir location.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326467','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326467"><span>Fast Spatially Resolved Exhaust <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Recirculation (EGR) <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine Using Absorption Spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>One effective method of reducing NO<sub>x </sub>emissions while improving efficiency is exhaust <span class="hlt">gas</span> recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines. But, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust <span class="hlt">gas</span> can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder nonuniform charge <span class="hlt">gas</span> mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. Furthermore, a sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO<sub>2</sub> concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. Our study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO<sub>2</sub> near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26253286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26253286"><span>Fast spatially resolved exhaust <span class="hlt">gas</span> recirculation (EGR) <span class="hlt">distribution</span> measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Exhaust <span class="hlt">gas</span> recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust <span class="hlt">gas</span> can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge <span class="hlt">gas</span> mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1326467-fast-spatially-resolved-exhaust-gas-recirculation-egr-distribution-measurements-internal-combustion-engine-using-absorption-spectroscopy','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1326467-fast-spatially-resolved-exhaust-gas-recirculation-egr-distribution-measurements-internal-combustion-engine-using-absorption-spectroscopy"><span>Fast Spatially Resolved Exhaust <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Recirculation (EGR) <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine Using Absorption Spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; ...</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>One effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency is exhaust <span class="hlt">gas</span> recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines. But, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust <span class="hlt">gas</span> can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder nonuniform charge <span class="hlt">gas</span> mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. Furthermore, a sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in themore » intake manifold. Our study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LaPhL..13g5703P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LaPhL..13g5703P"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the optogalvanic signal in a microplasma detector for lab-on-a-chip <span class="hlt">gas</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Persson, A.; Berglund, M.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Gas</span> sensors are characterized by their sensitivity and selectivity. This is preferably combined with versatility, where the selectivity can be altered, without complex modifications and whiteout losing sensitivity. If aimed at lab-on-a-chip applications, the sensor also must be able to analyze small samples. Today, sensors combining selectivity and versatility for chip-level <span class="hlt">gas</span> analysis are scarce; however, this paper investigates how miniaturized optogalvanic spectroscopy can fill this gap. By studying the spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the optogalvanic signal inside a microplasma, it is shown that the signal is generated in the minuscule <span class="hlt">gas</span> volume of the sheath surrounding the plasma probe that collects it. Nevertheless, a strong and stable spectroscopic signal can be extracted from the sheath, and the sample concentrations can be calculated using straightforward plasma theory. The minimum detectable absorption and the noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of the system are estimated to be less than 1.4  ×  10-9 Hz-0.5 and 2.8  ×  10-9 cm-1 Hz-0.5, respectively, without cavity enhancement. Combined with inherited versatility from absorption spectroscopy and the capability of handling sub-nanogram samples, this makes optogalvanic spectrometry an excellent candidate for future lab-on-a-chip <span class="hlt">gas</span> analyzers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.3527F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.3527F"><span>Influence of oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> field operations on spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons and their effect on ozone formation in winter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Field, R. A.; Soltis, J.; McCarthy, M. C.; Murphy, S.; Montague, D. C.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Emissions from oil and natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> development during winter in the Upper Green River basin of Wyoming are known to drive episodic ozone (O3) production. Contrasting O3 <span class="hlt">distributions</span> were observed in the winters of 2011 and 2012, with numerous episodes (hourly O3 ≥ 85 ppbv) in 2011 compared to none in 2012. The lack of O3 episodes in 2012 coincided with a reduction in measured ambient levels of total non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Measurements of speciated NMHC, and other air quality parameters, were performed to better understand emission sources and to determine which compounds are most <span class="hlt">active</span> in promoting O3 formation. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analyses of the data were carried out to help achieve these goals. PMF analyses revealed three contributing factors that were identified with different emission source types: factor 1, combustion/traffic; factor 2, fugitive natural <span class="hlt">gas</span>; and factor 3, fugitive condensate. Compositional signatures of the three contributing factors were identified through comparison with independently derived emission source profiles. Fugitive emissions of natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> and of condensate were the two principal emission source types for NMHC. A water treatment and recycling facility was found to be a significant source of NMHC that are abundant in condensate, in particular toluene and m+p-xylene. Emissions from water treatment have an influence upon peak O3 mixing ratios at downwind measurement sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1424943F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1424943F"><span>Influence of oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> field operations on spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons and their effect on ozone formation in winter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Field, R. A.; Soltis, J.; McCarthy, M. C.; Murphy, S.; Montague, D. C.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Emissions from oil and natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> development during winter in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming are known to drive episodic ozone (O3) production. Contrasting O3 <span class="hlt">distributions</span> were observed in the winters of 2011 and 2012, with numerous episodes in 2011 compared to none in 2012. During 2011 wintertime O3 episodes at two sites near Boulder Wyoming, situated ∼5 km apart, were observed to sometimes differ. In 2012 the lack of O3 episodes coincided with a reduction in ambient levels of total non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Measurements of speciated NMHC, and other air quality parameters, were performed to better understand emission sources and to determine which compounds are most <span class="hlt">active</span> in promoting O3 formation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analyses of the data were carried out to help achieve these goals. PMF analyses revealed three contributing factors that were identified with different emission source types: factor 1, combustion/traffic; factor 2, fugitive natural <span class="hlt">gas</span>; and factor 3, fugitive condensate. Compositional signatures of three contributing factors were identified through comparison with independently derived emission source profiles. Fugitive emissions of natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> and of condensate were the two principal emission source types for NMHC. A water treatment and recycling facility was found to be a significant source of condensate range NMHC, in particular toluene and m+p-xylene. Emissions from water treatment have an influence upon peak O3 mixing ratios at downwind measurement sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-03/pdf/2013-13091.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-03/pdf/2013-13091.pdf"><span>78 FR 33051 - Notification of Proposed Production <span class="hlt">Activity</span>, The <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Company, LLC dba Hawai'i <span class="hlt">Gas</span>, Subzone 9F...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-06-03</p> <p>... currently has authority to produce synthetic natural <span class="hlt">gas</span>, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">gas</span> mixtures... natural <span class="hlt">gas</span>, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">gas</span> mixtures and zinc sulfide (duty rate ranges from... abroad include: mixtures of light petroleum derivative hydrocarbons, including medium to light...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/45171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/45171"><span>Soil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> and indoor radon <span class="hlt">distribution</span> related to geology in Frederick County, Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Szarzi, S.L.; Reimer, G.M.; Been, J.M.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>Soil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> radon concentrations vary in response to geologic controls in Frederick County, Maryland, and the variation leads to different radon availabilities for potential indoor accumulations. Quartzites, which form from the core of ridges and mountains of the southern and western part of the county, have a mean soil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> radon concentration of 26 kBq m{sup -3} (700 pCi L{sup -1}). Phyllites, found in the Piedmont province in the eastern part of the county, have a mean soil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> radon concentration of 59 kBq m{sup -3} (1600 pCi L{sup -1}). Many indoor radon measurements for homes in the southeast portion of the county, made by means of charcoal canisters, exceeded 1850 Bq m{sup -3} (50 pCi L{sup -1}). Homes built in areas where the soil-<span class="hlt">gas</span> radon concentrations were greater than 75 kBq m{sup -3} (2000 pCi L{sup -1}) may have indoor radon concentrations that exceed 150 Bq m{sup -3} (4 pCi L{sup -1}), the current action level recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Data obtained in studies like ours throughout the United States are essential to identify {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} which may produce elevated indoor radon levels of significant risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020886','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020886"><span>Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate beneath southern Hydrate Ridge: constraints from ODP Leg 204</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trehu, Ann M.; Long, Philip E.; Torres, M E.; Bohrmann, G; Rack, F R.; Collett, T S.; Goldberg, D S.; Milkov, A V.; Riedel, M; Schultheiss, P; Bangs, N L.; Barr, S R.; Borowski, W S.; Claypool, G E.; Delwiche, Mark E.; Dickens, G R.; Gracia, E; Guerin, G; Holland, M; Johnson, Jerry E.; Lee, Y J.; Liu, C S.; Su, X; Teichert, B; Tomaru, H; Vanneste, M; Watanabe, M; Weinberger, Jill L.</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>Large uncertainties about the energy resource potential and role in global climate change of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates result from uncertainty about how much hydrate is contained in marine sediments. During Leg 204 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) to the accretionary complex of the Cascadia subduction zone, the entire <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate stability zone was sampled in contrasting geological settings defined by a 3D seismic survey. By integrating results from different methods, including several new techniques developed for Leg 204, we overcome the problem of spatial under-sampling inherent in robust methods traditionally used for estimating the hydrate content of cores and obtain a high-resolution, quantitative estimate of the total amount and spatial variability of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate in this structural system. We conclude that high <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate content (30-40% of pore space of 20-26% of total volume) is restricted to the upper tens of meters below the seafloor near the summit of the structure, where vigorous fluid venting occurs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6973E..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6973E..03S"><span>Addressing security issues related to virtual institute <span class="hlt">distributed</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>One issue confounding the development and experimentation of <span class="hlt">distributed</span> modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its <span class="hlt">activities</span> are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51B0398L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51B0398L"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, abundance and <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lloyd, K. G.; Biddle, J.; Teske, A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Many marine sedimentary microbes have only been identified by 16S rRNA sequences. Consequently, little is known about the types of metabolism, <span class="hlt">activity</span> levels, or relative abundance of these groups in marine sediments. We found that one of these uncultured groups, called the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG), dominated clone libraries made from reverse transcribed 16S rRNA, and 454 pyrosequenced 16S rRNA genes, in the White Oak River estuary. Primers suitable for quantitative PCR were developed for MCG and used to show that 16S rRNA DNA copy numbers from MCG account for nearly all the archaeal 16S rRNA genes present. RT-qPCR shows much less MCG rRNA than total archaeal rRNA, but comparisons of different primers for each group suggest bias in the RNA-based work relative to the DNA-based work. There is no evidence of a population shift with depth below the sulfate-methane transition zone, suggesting that the metabolism of MCG may not be tied to sulfur or methane cycles. We classified 2,771 new sequences within the SSU Silva 106 database that, along with the classified sequences in the Silva database was used to make an MCG database of 4,646 sequences that allowed us to increase the named subgroups of MCG from 7 to 19. Percent terrestrial sequences in each subgroup is positively correlated with percent of the marine sequences that are nearshore, suggesting that membership in the different subgroups is not random, but dictated by environmental selective pressures. Given their high phylogenetic diversity, ubiquitous <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in anoxic environments, and high DNA copy number relative to total archaea, members of MCG are most likely anaerobic heterotrophs who are integral to the post-depositional marine carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019991','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019991"><span>Production of <span class="hlt">activated</span> char from Illinois coal for flue <span class="hlt">gas</span> cleanup</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Kruse, C.W.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Activated</span> chars were produced from Illinois coal and tested in several flue <span class="hlt">gas</span> cleanup applications. High-<span class="hlt">activity</span> chars that showed excellent potential for both SO2 and NOx removal were prepared from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal. The SO2 (120 ??C) and NOx (25 ??C) removal performance of one char compared favorably with that of a commercial <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon (Calgon Centaur). The NOx removal performance of the same char at 120 ??C exceeded that of the Centaur carbon by more than 1 order of magnitude. Novel char preparation methods were developed including oxidation/thermal desorption and hydrogen treatments, which increased and preserved, respectively, the <span class="hlt">active</span> sites for SO2 and NOx adsorption. The results of combined SO2/NOx removal tests, however, suggest that SO2 and NOx compete for similar adsorption sites and SO2 seems to be more strongly adsorbed than NO. A low-<span class="hlt">activity</span>, low-cost char was also developed for cleanup of incinerator flue <span class="hlt">gas</span>. A three-step method involving coal preoxidation, pyrolysis, and CO2 <span class="hlt">activation</span> was used to produce the char from Illinois coal. Five hundred pounds of the char was tested on a slipstream of flue <span class="hlt">gas</span> from a commercial incinerator in Germany. The char was effective in removing >97% of the dioxins and furans present in the flue <span class="hlt">gas</span>; mercury levels were below detectable limits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JTST...21..263C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JTST...21..263C"><span>Numerical Simulation of the Twin-Wire Arc Spraying Process: Modeling the High Velocity <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Flow Field <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and Droplets Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yongxiong; Liang, Xiubing; Wei, Shicheng; Chen, Xi; Xu, Binshi</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>During the twin-wire arc spraying, a high velocity <span class="hlt">gas</span> stream is used to accelerate the arc-melting materials and propel the droplets toward the substrate surface. This study is aimed at investigating the <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow formation and droplets transport processes using numerical simulation method. Results from the 3-D <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow field model show that the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow velocity on the twin-wire intersection plane is quite different from that on the twin-wire vertical plane. Based on the 3-D model, the convergence amplitude of the high velocity zone in the jet center is improved by modifying the gun head design. It is also observed that a flat substrate existed downstream from the <span class="hlt">gas</span> nozzle exit results in decreasing close to zero in velocity of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> jet near the substrate. In addition, the predicted droplet trajectories and velocity <span class="hlt">distributions</span> exhibited good agreement with experimentally observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17512820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17512820"><span>On-line purge and trap <span class="hlt">gas</span> chromatography for monitoring of trihalomethanes in drinking water <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Michael A; Miller, Sarah; Emmert, Gary L</p> <p>2007-06-05</p> <p>A method using an automated on-line purge and trap <span class="hlt">gas</span> chromatograph with a dry electrolytic conductivity detector (DELCD) has been developed for monitoring four regulated trihalomethanes in drinking water <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems. This analyzer samples trihalomethanes from drinking water by pervaporation through a silicone capillary membrane contained within a <span class="hlt">gas</span> extraction cell (GEC) followed by preconcentration using an adsorbent trap. Trihalomethanes are subsequently desorbed from the trap onto a capillary column, separated and detected. The analyzer operates in real-time, samples directly from the drinking water <span class="hlt">distribution</span> system and is fully automated. The optimization, operation, and evaluation of the analyzer and method are discussed. Method detection limits (MDL) are less than 1.0 microg L(-1) with acceptable estimates for accuracy, and precision. The results from two on-line monitoring studies in chlorinated and chloraminated <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems are presented. The performance of the method is compared directly to United Stated Environmental Protection Agency Method 502.2 and shows a very slight, but acceptable bias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GML....34...89M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GML....34...89M"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and geological control of mud volcanoes and other fluid/free <span class="hlt">gas</span> seepage features in the Mediterranean Sea and nearby Gulf of Cadiz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mascle, Jean; Mary, Flore; Praeg, Daniel; Brosolo, Laetitia; Camera, Laurent; Ceramicola, Silvia; Dupré, Stéphanie</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Existing knowledge on the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of mud volcanoes (MVs) and other significant fluid/free <span class="hlt">gas</span>-venting features (mud cones, mud pies, mud-brine pools, mud carbonate cones, <span class="hlt">gas</span> chimneys and, in some cases, pockmark fields) discovered on the seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea and in the nearby Gulf of Cadiz has been compiled using regional geophysical information (including multibeam coverage of most deepwater areas). The resulting dataset comprises both features proven from geological sampling, or in situ observations, and many previously unrecognized MVs inferred from geophysical evidence. The synthesis reveals that MVs clearly have non-random <span class="hlt">distributions</span> that correspond to two main geodynamic settings: (1) the vast majority occur along the various tectono-sedimentary accretionary wedges of the Africa-Eurasia subduction zone, particularly in the central and eastern Mediterranean basins (external Calabrian Arc, Mediterranean Ridge, Florence Rise) but also along its westernmost boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz; (2) other MVs characterize thick depocentres along parts of the Mesozoic passive continental margins that border Africa from eastern Tunisia to the Levantine coasts, particularly off Egypt and, locally, within some areas of the western Mediterranean back-arc basins. Meaningfully accounting for MV <span class="hlt">distribution</span> necessitates evidence of overpressured fluids and mud-rich layers. In addition, cross-correlations between MVs and other GIS-based data, such as maps of the Messinian evaporite basins and/or <span class="hlt">active</span> (or recently <span class="hlt">active</span>) tectonic trends, stress the importance of assessing geological control in terms of the presence, or not, of thick seals and potential conduits. It is contended that new MV discoveries may be expected in the study region, particularly along the southern Ionian Sea continental margins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4934184','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4934184"><span>Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and <span class="hlt">Active</span> Switches for <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by <span class="hlt">gas</span> and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of <span class="hlt">gas</span>. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by <span class="hlt">gas</span> using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to <span class="hlt">activate</span> useful functionalities, such as alarming. PMID:27231914</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PSST...25d4003P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PSST...25d4003P"><span>Pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy: fast <span class="hlt">gas</span> heating and <span class="hlt">active</span> particle production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Popov, N. A.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The results of a numerical study on kinetic processes initiated by a pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy, when the dissociation degree of oxygen molecules is high, are presented. The calculations of the temporal dynamics of the electron concentration, density of atomic oxygen, vibrational <span class="hlt">distribution</span> function of nitrogen molecules, and <span class="hlt">gas</span> temperature agree with the experimental data. It is shown that quenching of electronically excited states of nitrogen N2(B3Πg), N2(C3Πu), N2(a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) by oxygen molecules leads to the dissociation of O2. This conclusion is based on the comparison of calculated dynamics of atomic oxygen in air, excited by a pulsed nanosecond discharge, with experimental data. In air plasma at a high dissociation degree of oxygen molecules ([O]/[O2] > 10%), relaxation of the electronic energy of atoms and molecules in reactions with O atoms becomes extremely important. <span class="hlt">Active</span> production of NO molecules and fast <span class="hlt">gas</span> heating in the discharge plasma due to the quenching of electronically excited N2(B3Πg, C3Πu, a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) molecules by oxygen atoms is notable. Owing to the high O atom density, electrons are effectively detached from negative ions in the discharge afterglow. As a result, the decay of plasma in the afterglow is determined by electron-ion recombination, and the electron density remains relatively high between the pulses. An increase in the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules at the periphery of the plasma channel at time delay t = 1-30 μs after the discharge is obtained. This is due to intense <span class="hlt">gas</span> heating and, as a result, <span class="hlt">gas</span>-dynamic expansion of a hot <span class="hlt">gas</span> channel. Vibrationally excited N2(v) molecules produced near the discharge axis move from the axial region to the periphery. Consequently, at the periphery the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules is increased.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26232756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26232756"><span>Statistical evaluation of the impact of shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> on ozone pollution in North Texas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahmadi, Mahdi; John, Kuruvilla</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Over the past decade, substantial growth in shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> exploration and production across the US has changed the country's energy outlook. Beyond its economic benefits, the negative impacts of shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> development on air and water are less well known. In this study the relationship between shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> and ground-level ozone pollution was statistically evaluated. The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area in north-central Texas was selected as the study region. The Barnett Shale, which is one the most productive and fastest growing shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> fields in the US, is located in the western half of DFW. Hourly meteorological and ozone data were acquired for fourteen years from monitoring stations established and operated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The area was divided into two regions, the shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> region (SGR) and the non-shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> (NSGR) region, according to the number of <span class="hlt">gas</span> wells in close proximity to each monitoring site. The study period was also divided into 2000-2006 and 2007-2013 because the western half of DFW has experienced significant growth in shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> since 2007. An evaluation of the raw ozone data showed that, while the overall trend in the ozone concentration was down over the entire region, the monitoring sites in the NSGR showed an additional reduction of 4% in the annual number of ozone exceedance days than those in the SGR. Directional analysis of ozone showed that the winds blowing from areas with high shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> contributed to higher ozone downwind. KZ-filtering method and linear regression techniques were used to remove the effects of meteorological variations on ozone and to construct long-term and short-term meteorologically adjusted (M.A.) ozone time series. The mean value of all M.A. ozone components was 8% higher in the sites located within the SGR than in the NSGR. These findings may be useful for understanding the overall impact of shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> on the local and regional ozone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920011435','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920011435"><span>Simulation of real-<span class="hlt">gas</span> effects on pressure <span class="hlt">distributions</span> for aeroassist flight experiment vehicle and comparison with prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Micol, John R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Pressure <span class="hlt">distributions</span> measured on a 60 degree half-angle elliptic cone, raked off at an angle of 73 degrees from the cone centerline and having an ellipsoid nose (ellipticity equal to 2.0 in the symmetry plane) are presented for angles of attack from -10 degrees to 10 degrees. The high normal shock density ratio aspect of a real <span class="hlt">gas</span> was simulated by testing in Mach 6 air and CF sub 4 (density ratio equal to 5.25 and 12.0, respectively). The effects of Reynolds number, angle of attack, and normal shock density ratio on these measurements are examined, and comparisons with a three dimensional Euler code known as HALIS are made. A significant effect of density ratio on pressure <span class="hlt">distributions</span> on the cone section of the configuration was observed; the magnitude of this effect decreased with increasing angle of attack. The effect of Reynolds number on pressure <span class="hlt">distributions</span> was negligible for forebody pressure <span class="hlt">distributions</span>, but a measurable effect was noted on base pressures. In general, the HALIS code accurately predicted the measured pressure <span class="hlt">distributions</span> in air and CF sub 4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPS...271...16K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPS...271...16K"><span>Improvement of oxygen diffusion characteristic in <span class="hlt">gas</span> diffusion layer with planar-<span class="hlt">distributed</span> wettability for polymer electrolyte fuel cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koresawa, Ryo; Utaka, Yoshio</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Mass transfer characteristics of <span class="hlt">gas</span> diffusion layer (GDL) are closely related to performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the characteristics of water <span class="hlt">distribution</span> relating to the microscopic conformation and oxygen diffusivity of GDL. A hybrid type carbon paper GDL with planar-<span class="hlt">distributed</span> wettability is investigated for control of liquid water movement and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> due to hydrophobic to hydrophilic areas that provide wettability differences in GDL and to achieve enhancement of both oxygen diffusion and moisture retention. Hybrid GDLs with different PTFE content were fabricated in an attempt to improve the oxygen diffusion characteristics. The effects of different PTFE contents on the oxygen diffusivity and water <span class="hlt">distribution</span> were simultaneously measured and observed using galvanic cell oxygen absorber and X-ray radiography. The PTFE <span class="hlt">distribution</span> was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The formation of oxygen diffusion paths was confirmed by X-ray radiography, where voids in the hybrid GDL were first formed in the hydrophobic regions and then spread to the untreated wetting region. Thus, the formation of oxygen diffusion paths enhanced the oxygen diffusion. In addition, the effects of local PTFE content in the hydrophobic region and the optimal amount of PTFE for hybrid GDL were elucidated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFD.H8009G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFD.H8009G"><span>Evaluation of Drag Reduction via Superhydrophobic Surfaces and <span class="hlt">Active</span> <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Replenishment in a Fully-developed Turbulent Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gose, James W.; Golovin, Kevin; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc; Tuteja, Anish</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The development of superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) for skin-friction drag reduction in the laminar regime has shown great promise. A team led by the University of Michigan is examining the potential of similar SHS in high-speed naval applications. Specifically, we have developed a recirculating facility to investigate the reduction of drag along robustly engineered SHS in a fully-developed turbulent boundary layer flow. The facility can accommodate both small and large SHS samples in a test section 7 mm (depth) × 100 mm (span) × 1200 mm (length). Coupled with an 11.2 kilowatt pump and a 30:1 contraction, the facility is capable of producing an average flow velocity of 20 m/s, yielding a height based (7 mm) Reynolds number of 140,000. The SHS tested were designed for large-scale application. The present investigation shows skin-friction drag reduction for various sprayable and chemically developed SHS that were applied over a 100 mm (span) × 1100 mm (length) area. The drag measurement methods include pressure drop across the test specimen and PIV measured boundary layers. Additional SHS investigations include the implementation of <span class="hlt">active</span> <span class="hlt">gas</span> replenishment, providing an opportunity to replace <span class="hlt">gas</span>-pockets that would otherwise be disrupted in traditional passive SHS due to high shear stress and turbulent pressure fluctuations. <span class="hlt">Gas</span> is evenly <span class="hlt">distributed</span> through a 90 mm (span) × 600 mm (length) sintered porous media with pore sizes of 10 to 100 microns. The impact of the <span class="hlt">active</span> <span class="hlt">gas</span> replenishment is being evaluated with and without SHS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...103..439M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...103..439M"><span>SPEAR 3 flight analysis: Grounding by neutral <span class="hlt">gas</span> release, and magnetic field effects on current <span class="hlt">distribution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mandell, M. J.; Jongeward, G. A.; Cooke, D. L.; Raitt, W. J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The Space Power Experiment Aboard Rockets (SPEAR) 3 experiment was launched on March 15, 1993, to test grounding devices for negative payloads. In this paper we review two aspects of the high-altitude flight data and compare them with preflight predictions. The SPEAR 3 neutral <span class="hlt">gas</span> release experiment studied a grounding mechanism observed on previous flights during attitude control system (ACS) firings. Preflight calculations using Paschen law physics generalized to three dimensions predicted that the high rate <span class="hlt">gas</span> release (about one order of magnitude below normal ACS) would reduce the rocket potential to within 200-300 V of plasma ground. The flight data is well fit by a value of -225V. Orientation relative to Earth's magnetic field had no effect on the floating potential or grounding operations but had a large effect on the portion of the current collected by the boom. We compare these flight measurements with preflight calculations made with the DynaPAC computer code.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2258544A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2258544A"><span>Witnessing <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Mixing in the Metal <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> during a Galaxy Merger.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amram, Philippe</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>I will present direct evidence that in a merger of disk galaxies, the pre-existing central metallicities will mix as a result of <span class="hlt">gas</span> being transported in the merger interface region along the line that joins the two coalescing nuclei. In focusing on the emission line <span class="hlt">gas</span>, this is shown using detailed two-dimensional kinematics as well as metallicity measurements for the nearby ongoing merger in the center of the compact group HCG 31. The two coalescing cores display similar oxygen abundances, while in between the two nuclei, the metallicity changes smoothly from one nucleus to the other indicating a mix of metals in this region. This nearby system involves the merging of two fairly low-mass and clumpy galaxies (LMC-like galaxies), making it an important system for comparison with high-redshift galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA555294','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA555294"><span>Running on Fumes: A Critical Look at Mexico’s Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transportation and <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> Infrastructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-27</p> <p>behind existing laws and policies that are hampering growth and development in Mexico’s petrochemical industry. 3 Petroleos Mexicanos ( PEMEX ...is the state-owned company created in 1938 to run the national oil and natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monopoly. In the decades that followed, PEMEX often utilized...privatization of PEMEX and its subsidiaries. The PRD has proposed an alternate plan, developed by founding PRD member 4 and adviser to the National</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB...48...17C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB...48...17C"><span>Mixing and Residence Time <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> in an Inert <span class="hlt">Gas</span>-Shrouded Tundish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatterjee, Saikat; Asad, Amjad; Kratzsch, Christoph; Schwarze, Rüdiger; Chattopadhyay, Kinnor</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Tracer dispersion experiments were carried out in a multi-strand tundish by injecting 1 (N) NaCl solution into water. The variation of dimensionless concentration-time curves known as C-curves and mixing times with different <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow rates were studied. The proportions of dead, mixed, and dispersed plug volumes were calculated using the `modified mixed model.' The observations were explained by analyzing the behavior of the bubble plume, incoming jet velocity, and turbulent kinetic energy within the tundish.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-05/pdf/2010-4695.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-05/pdf/2010-4695.pdf"><span>75 FR 10301 - MMS Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activity</span>: 1010-0006, Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> in the Outer...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-05</p> <p>...-0013] MMS Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activity</span>: 1010-0006, Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> in the Outer Continental Shelf and Outer Continental Shelf Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Leasing, Extension of a Collection; Submitted for... 30 CFR 256, ``Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> in the Outer Continental Shelf,'' and 30 CFR...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-22/pdf/2010-6109.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-22/pdf/2010-6109.pdf"><span>75 FR 13570 - MMS Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activity</span>: 1010-0043, Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Well-Workover Operations, Renewal of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-22</p> <p>... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activity</span>: 1010-0043, Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Well- Workover... (ICR) concerns the paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR 250, Subpart F, ``Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span>... return address. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart F, Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-13/pdf/2013-27073.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-13/pdf/2013-27073.pdf"><span>78 FR 68082 - Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activities</span>: Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Well-Workover Operations; Submitted for Office of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-13</p> <p>...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activities</span>: Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Well-Workover... requirements in the regulations under Subpart F, Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Well- Workover Operations. This notice also... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 250, Subpart F, Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Well-Workover Operations. OMB Control Number:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-19/pdf/2010-3098.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-19/pdf/2010-3098.pdf"><span>75 FR 7474 - CenterPoint Energy <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission Company; Prior Notice of <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Under Blanket Certificate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-19</p> <p>... Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission Company; Prior Notice of <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Under Blanket Certificate February 3, 2010. On January 26, 2010 CenterPoint Energy <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Transmission Company... Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) regulations under the Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Act, and CEGT's...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013hsa7.conf...13M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013hsa7.conf...13M"><span>Analysis of the spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of stars, <span class="hlt">gas</span> and dust in nearby galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>I summarize the main result of my thesis, which was awarded the Spanish Astronomical Society Award for the best thesis in Astronomy defended in 2010. This thesis was supervised by Armando Gil de Paz and Jaime Zamorano at Universidad Complutense de Madrid. In this work we quantified how the physical properties of stars, <span class="hlt">gas</span> and dust vary with radius in nearby galactic disks, and used that information to infer the past assembly and evolution of galaxies. To do so we made use of spatially-resolved multi-wavelength images of nearby galaxies, all the way from the far-UV to the far-IR and radio. By comparing extinction- corrected profiles in the UV, optical and IR with models of disk evolution, we concluded that the current stellar population gradients are consistent with an inside-out growth of disks of ˜ 25% since z ˜ 1. We also found that the dust-to-<span class="hlt">gas</span> ratio decreases with radius, and is tightly correlated with the local <span class="hlt">gas</span> metallicity, which is again consistent with an inside-out assembly of disks. We measured the fraction of the dust mass which is in the form of PAHs at different radii. The resulting trend agrees with certain models of dust evolution, in which the abundance of PAHs is primarily determined by a delayed injection of carbon into the ISM by AGB stars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6016532','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6016532"><span>Survey of oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> on federal wildlife refuges and waterfowl production areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ethridge, M.; Guerrieri, U.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>An analysis of survey data provides empirical evidence of the effects of oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> on federal wildlife refuges. The paper reports the results of a systematic survey of units of the National Wildlife Refuge System by the American Petroleum Institute in the form of questionnaires sent to refuge managers. The data suggest that oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> operations have had little or no adverse effect on wildlife on most refuges and Waterfowl Protection Areas, that oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> have detracted little from and have often enhanced other economic and recreational uses which occur on the refuges, and that appropriate regulations, stipulations, and restrictions are a key government management tool for protecting wildlife and other refuge resources. 3 figures, 44 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AJ....114..946M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AJ....114..946M"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of far-infrared emission in spiral galaxies. II. Heating sources and <span class="hlt">gas</span>-to-dust ratio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mayya, Y. D.; Rengarajan, T. N.</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>We study the radial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the temperature of the warm dust and <span class="hlt">gas</span>-to-dust mass ratios in a sample of 22 spiral galaxies. The heating capabilities of the diffuse interstellar radiation field (ISRF), based on Desert et al. model, are investigated in 13 of the sample galaxies. In general, the temperature of the warm dust decreases away from the center, reaches a minimum value at the mid-disk and increases again in the outer parts of galaxies. Heating a mixture of small and big grains by the ISRF is able to explain the observed behavior qualitatively. However, ultraviolet photons from recent star formation events are necessary for a detailed matching of the warm dust temperature profiles. Very small grains contribute typically more than 50% to the observed flux at 60 microns beyond half the disk radius in galaxies. Optical depth ( tausixty) profiles, derived from the observed 60 microns and warm dust temperature profiles, peak at or close to the galactic center. In 13 of the galaxies, where dust temperature profiles are modeled, we obtain optical depth and dust mass profiles after correction for the contaminating effects of very small grains. These profiles are combined with the <span class="hlt">gas</span> density profiles in the literature, to generate profiles of the <span class="hlt">gas</span>-to-dust mass ratio. The resulting <span class="hlt">gas</span>-to-dust mass ratio decreases by a factor of 8 from the center to the optical isophotal radius, where the value approaches the local galactic value. With the understanding that the dust mass is proportional to metallicity, and that the metallicity increases towards the center of galaxies, one expects the <span class="hlt">gas</span>-to-dust ratio to decrease towards the center, contrary to what is observed. We demonstrate that the observed steep gradient is a result of the over-estimation of the molecular mass, and can be flattened out to within a factor of 2, if the molecular hydrogen mass is recomputed assuming a metallicity dependent conversion factor from CO intensity to {h two} column density</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11810614S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11810614S"><span>Volatile organic compound <span class="hlt">distributions</span> during the NACHTT campaign at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory: Influence of urban and natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swarthout, Robert F.; Russo, Rachel S.; Zhou, Yong; Hart, Andrew H.; Sive, Barkley C.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>comprehensive suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was measured at the semirural Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in northeast Colorado during the Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower (NACHTT) campaign during the winter of 2011. A signature of elevated nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) mixing ratios was observed throughout the campaign. The C2-C5 alkane mixing ratios were an order of magnitude greater than the regional background. Light alkane mixing ratios were similar to those at urban sites impacted by petrochemical industry emissions with ethane and propane reaching maximums of over 100 ppbv. The mean (± standard deviation) calculated total OH reactivity (7.0 ± 5.0 s-1) was also similar to urban sites. Analysis of VOC wind direction dependence, emission ratios with tracer compounds, and vertical profiles up to 250 m implicated regional natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production <span class="hlt">activities</span> as the source of the elevated VOCs to the northeast of BAO and urban combustion emissions as the major VOC source to the south of BAO. Elevated acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfide mixing ratios were also associated with natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> emissions. Fluxes of natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> associated NMHCs were determined to estimate regional emission rates which ranged from 40 ± 14 Gg yr-1 for propane to 0.03 ± 0.01 Gg yr-1 for n-nonane. These emissions have the potential to impact downwind air quality as natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> associated NMHCs comprised ≈24% of the calculated OH reactivity. The measurements described here provide a baseline for determining the efficacy of future policies designed to control emissions from natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production <span class="hlt">activities</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26621804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26621804"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and <span class="hlt">activity</span> of anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria in natural freshwater wetland soils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Li-dong; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Cheng, Hai-xiang; Li, Ji; Liu, Xu; Ren, Qian-qi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process plays a significant role in the marine nitrogen cycle. However, the quantitative importance of this process in nitrogen removal in wetland systems, particularly in natural freshwater wetlands, is still not determined. In the present study, we provided the evidence of the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and <span class="hlt">activity</span> of anammox bacteria in a natural freshwater wetland, located in southeastern China, by using (15)N stable isotope measurements, quantitative PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The potential anammox rates measured in this wetland system ranged between 2.5 and 25.5 nmol N2 g(-1) soil day(-1), and up to 20% soil dinitrogen <span class="hlt">gas</span> production could be attributed to the anammox process. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that anammox bacteria related to Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Anammoxoglobus and two novel anammox clusters coexisted in the collected soil cores, with Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Kuenenia being the dominant anammox genera. Quantitative PCR of hydrazine synthase genes showed that the abundance of anammox bacteria varied from 2.3 × 10(5) to 2.2 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil in the examined soil cores. Correlation analyses suggested that the soil ammonium concentration had significant influence on the <span class="hlt">activity</span> of anammox bacteria. On the basis of (15)N tracing technology, it is estimated that a total loss of 31.1 g N m(-2) per year could be linked the anammox process in the examined wetland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ASPC..460..144R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ASPC..460..144R"><span>High-ionization <span class="hlt">Gas</span> in <span class="hlt">Active</span> Galactic Nuclei: Line Profiles and Physical Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodíguez-Ardila, A.; Riffel, R.; Mazzalay, X.; Portilla, J. G.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>SOAR/Goodman spectroscopy is employed to detect the coronal lines [Fe <small>VII</small>] 3759, 5159, and 6087 Å, [Ne <small>V</small>] 3423 Å and [Fe <small>X</small>] 6083 Å, the former three suitable to determine the temperature and density of the high-ionization <span class="hlt">gas</span>. The spectra allow us to fully characterize the profiles of the most conspicuous lines (asymmetries, shifts from the centroid position and line width). The combined results allow us to detect signatures of outflows in the coronal <span class="hlt">gas</span> and thus set up constrains on the origin of the CLs in AGNs. In addition, AO GEMINI/NIFS IFU spectroscopy is used to study the coronal <span class="hlt">gas</span> morphology at spatial scales of a few parsecs in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. We found that the <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> is rather inhomogeneous and asymmetric. From the comparison of the CL [Mg <small>VIII</small>] with the VLA 6 cm radio emission we found evidence that the CL <span class="hlt">gas</span> kinematics and morphology is strongly related to the radio jet morphology. All above results allow us to confirm the role that coronal lines have to trace outflows at the inner tens of parsecs of AGNs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DMP.J9007B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DMP.J9007B"><span>Measurements of the ion velocity <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in an ultracold neutral plasma derived from a cold, dense Rydberg <span class="hlt">gas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergeson, Scott; Lyon, Mary</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We report measurements of the ion velocity <span class="hlt">distribution</span> in an ultracold neutral plasma derived from a dense, cold Rydberg <span class="hlt">gas</span> in a MOT. The Rydberg atoms are excited using a resonant two-step excitation pathway with lasers of 4 ns duration. The plasma forms spontaneously and rapidly. The rms width of the ion velocity <span class="hlt">distribution</span> is determined by measuring laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of the ions. The measured excitation efficiency is compared with a Monte-Carlo wavefunction calculation, and significant differences are observed. We discuss the conditions for blockaded Rydberg excitation and the subsequent spatial ordering of Rydberg atom domains. While the blockade interaction is greater than the Rabi frequency in portions of the atomic sample, no evidence for spatial ordering is observed. This research is supported in part by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant No. FA9950-12- 0308) and by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. PHY-1404488).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Algae&id=EJ1033502','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Algae&id=EJ1033502"><span>The Development of a New Practical <span class="hlt">Activity</span>: Using Microorganisms to Model <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Cycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>For many in the school science classroom, the term "microbiology" has become synonymous with "bacteriology". By overlooking other microbes, teachers may miss out on powerful practical tools. This article describes the development of an <span class="hlt">activity</span> that uses algae and yeast to demonstrate <span class="hlt">gas</span> cycling, and presents full instructions…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63650&keyword=phosphoric+AND+acid&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89660140&CFTOKEN=40582896','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63650&keyword=phosphoric+AND+acid&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89660140&CFTOKEN=40582896"><span>GREENHOUSE <span class="hlt">GAS</span> (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: <span class="hlt">ACTIVITIES</span> OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The paper discusses greenhouse <span class="hlt">gas</span> (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=acetylene&pg=2&id=ED169357','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=acetylene&pg=2&id=ED169357"><span>T & I--<span class="hlt">Gas</span> Welding. Kit No. 68. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lanford, Frank</p> <p></p> <p>An instructor's manual and student <span class="hlt">activity</span> guide on <span class="hlt">gas</span> welding are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the occupational cluster of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol3-sec1-263A-13.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol3-sec1-263A-13.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... is a well drilled solely to determine the location and delineation of offshore hydrocarbon deposits..., drilling ship, or an offshore drilling platform). (ii) Improvement unit. To the extent section 614 costs... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>. 1.263A-13 Section...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6406259','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6406259"><span>Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>This report describes outer continental shelf oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23015769','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23015769"><span>Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, biological <span class="hlt">activities</span> and biological roles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological <span class="hlt">activities</span>, taxonomic <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..22..335S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..22..335S"><span>Optimum Operation Condition on <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> Power Supply System with Micro <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Turbine/Solid Oxide Fuel Cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamada, Miki; Usui, Hiromoto; Komoda, Yoshiyuki</p> <p></p> <p>In order to find the optimum operation condition of a <span class="hlt">distributed</span> power supply system of 30kW class micro <span class="hlt">gas</span> turbine (MGT) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybrid system with the combination of line electric power and supplied <span class="hlt">gas</span>, a system analysis has been performed. In this study, an absorption chiller and a boiler were mounted to utilize the exhausted heat from the MGT/SOFC system. The time variation of energy consumption in 24 hours for house and market models was taken into consideration for the calculation of the energy saving ratio of the present system. The operation ratio defined with the ratio of power supply of MGT/SOFC system to the power required at the peak load was changed as a parameter. From the comparison with the system using line power and <span class="hlt">gas</span>, it is found that the present system shows high energy saving ratio around 0.4 of the operation ratio, but the energy saving ratio severely decreases in the range of high operation ratio. In this study, it is revealed that the thermal storage system effectively improves the energy saving ratio especially for the house model in winter season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993AAS...18311601L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993AAS...18311601L"><span>Shadowing of the Soft X-ray Background and the <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of Hot <span class="hlt">Gas</span> in the Local Interstellar Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Labov, Simon E.; Craig, William W.; Kahn, Steven M.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>The underlying mechanism responsible for variations in the observed 1/4 keV X-ray background is not well understood. Measurements of soft X-ray shadows cast by clumps of neutral material provide a direct method of determining the spatial <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of the hot <span class="hlt">gas</span> responsible for the soft X-ray background. The observed contrast of an X-ray shadow depends on the density and size of the cool absorbing cloud, and on the amount of foreground and background soft X-ray emitting <span class="hlt">gas</span>. We present here a dramatic example of this shadowing effect as observed by the ROSAT X-ray telescope and position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC). The shadow discussed here is particularly dark with high contrast indicating that the vast majority of the X-ray emitting <span class="hlt">gas</span> in this direction extends beyond the cloud. This work was supported by the NASA ROSAT Guest Observer Program under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H53B1415A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H53B1415A"><span>Assessment and Design of Water Quality Monitoring Networks with respect to Shale <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Activities</span> in Pennsylvania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arjmand, S.; Abad, J. D.; Brantley, S. L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Over the past few years, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques have been extensively used to extract shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> from the Marcellus Shale. Likewise, several environmental violations that have been repeatedly reported in drilling sites have created greater awareness on potentially adverse environmental impacts of shale <span class="hlt">gas</span>. Long-term monitoring in the Marcellus Shale is the key to maintain and improve the quality of water supplies in future. Currently, the absence of an efficient water quality monitoring network prevents the detection and source identification of contaminants associated with shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Evaluation and re-design of monitoring networks from time to time is a major step towards efficient water resources planning and management. In this study, we assessed the performance of the current water quality monitoring network with respect to the shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> development in Pennsylvania. For better evaluation, the Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Compliance Report by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection between January 2005 and May 2013 was compiled. Using statistical and GIS methods each violation item was examined against the number and location of sensors in the current monitoring network. The results helped identify the adequacy of the number of sensors to detect the potential contamination. Moreover, to improve the performance and to lower the long-term monitoring costs, we re-designed the network using optimization methods. This optimal system maximizes the understanding of the aquifer condition and investigates the shale <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry impacts on shallow aquifers, and it is applicable to other watersheds with shale oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> drilling <span class="hlt">activities</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS33A1995S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS33A1995S"><span>Tracking Dissolved Methane Concentrations near <span class="hlt">Active</span> Seeps and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Hydrates: Sea of Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Snyder, G. T.; Aoki, S.; Matsumoto, R.; Tomaru, H.; Owari, S.; Nakajima, R.; Doolittle, D. F.; Brant, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A number of regions in the Sea of Japan are known for <span class="hlt">active</span> <span class="hlt">gas</span> venting and for <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate exposures on the sea floor. In this investigation we employed several <span class="hlt">gas</span> sensors mounted on a ROV in order to determine the concentrations of dissolved methane in the water near these sites. Methane concentrations were determined during two-second intervals throughout each ROV deployment during the cruise. The methane sensor deployments were coupled with seawater sampling using Niskin bottles. Dissolved <span class="hlt">gas</span> concentrations were later measured using <span class="hlt">gas</span> chromatography in order to compare with the sensor results taken at the same time. The observed maximum dissolved methane concentrations were much lower than saturation values, even when the ROV manipulators were in contact with <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate. Nonetheless, dissolved concentrations did reach several thousands of nmol/L near <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate exposures and <span class="hlt">gas</span> bubbles, more than two orders of magnitude over the instrumental detection limits. Most of the sensors tested were able to detect dissolved methane concentrations as low as 10 nmol/L which permitted detection when the ROV approached methane plume sites, even from several tens of meters above the sea floor. Despite the low detection limits, the methane sensors showed variable response times when returning to low-background seawater (~5nM). For some of the sensors, the response time necessary to return to background values occurred in a matter of minutes, while for others it took several hours. Response time, as well as detection limit, should be an important consideration when selecting methane sensors for ROV or AUV investigations. This research was made possible, in part, through funding provided by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=320725','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=320725"><span>Spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of chikungunya <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the Americas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>To better understand chikungunya <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the America we mapped recent chikungunya <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the Americas. This <span class="hlt">activity</span> is needed to better understand that the relationships between climatic factors and disease outbreak patters are critical to the design and constructing of predictive models....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100036217','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100036217"><span>Transition in <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Turbine Control System Architecture: Modular, <span class="hlt">Distributed</span>, and Embedded</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Culley, Dennis</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Controls systems are an increasingly important component of turbine-engine system technology. However, as engines become more capable, the control system itself becomes ever more constrained by the inherent environmental conditions of the engine; a relationship forced by the continued reliance on commercial electronics technology. A revolutionary change in the architecture of turbine-engine control systems will change this paradigm and result in fully <span class="hlt">distributed</span> engine control systems. Initially, the revolution will begin with the physical decoupling of the control law processor from the hostile engine environment using a digital communications network and engine-mounted high temperature electronics requiring little or no thermal control. The vision for the evolution of <span class="hlt">distributed</span> control capability from this initial implementation to fully <span class="hlt">distributed</span> and embedded control is described in a roadmap and implementation plan. The development of this plan is the result of discussions with government and industry stakeholders</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.1405D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.1405D"><span><span class="hlt">Gas</span> hydrate <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and hydrocarbon maturation north of the Knipovich Ridge, western Svalbard margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dumke, Ines; Burwicz, Ewa B.; Berndt, Christian; Klaeschen, Dirk; Feseker, Tomas; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Sarkar, Sudipta</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) occurs west of Svalbard in water depths exceeding 600 m, indicating that <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrate occurrence in marine sediments is more widespread in this region than anywhere else on the eastern North Atlantic margin. Regional BSR mapping shows the presence of hydrate and free <span class="hlt">gas</span> in several areas, with the largest area located north of the Knipovich Ridge, a slow spreading ridge segment of the Mid Atlantic Ridge system. Here heat flow is high (up to 330 mW m-2), increasing toward the ridge axis. The coinciding maxima in across-margin BSR width and heat flow suggest that the Knipovich Ridge influenced methane generation in this area. This is supported by recent finds of thermogenic methane at cold seeps north of the ridge termination. To evaluate the source rock potential on the western Svalbard margin, we applied 1-D petroleum system modeling at three sites. The modeling shows that temperature and burial conditions near the ridge were sufficient to produce hydrocarbons. The bulk petroleum mass produced since the Eocene is at least 5 kt and could be as high as ~0.2 Mt. Most likely, source rocks are Miocene organic-rich sediments and a potential Eocene source rock that may exist in the area if early rifting created sufficiently deep depocenters. Thermogenic methane production could thus explain the more widespread presence of <span class="hlt">gas</span> hydrates north of the Knipovich Ridge. The presence of microbial methane on the upper continental slope and shelf indicates that the origin of methane on the Svalbard margin varies spatially.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15082059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15082059"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of radium in oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry wastes from Malaysia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Omar, M; Ali, H M; Abu, M P; Kontol, K M; Ahmad, Z; Ahmad, S H S S; Sulaiman, I; Hamzah, R</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and <span class="hlt">gas</span> industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MeScT..24g4003Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MeScT..24g4003Z"><span>A novel ECT-EST combined method for <span class="hlt">gas</span>-solids flow pattern and charge <span class="hlt">distribution</span> visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, B.; Zhang, J. Y.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>A non-invasive measurement method of visualizing the flow pattern and charge <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span>-solids two-phase flow has been studied and verified using gravity-dropping and pneumatic conveyance rigs with pulverized coal as solids. It has been proven that the permittivity <span class="hlt">distribution</span> acquired from an electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system can be used to improve the accuracy in establishing charge sensitivity field of an electrostatic tomography (EST) system, and to reduce the uncertainty of charge <span class="hlt">distribution</span> reconstruction. The experimental results show that, under the given experimental conditions for the gravity-dropping system, charge density increases with particles' concentration, whilst in the pneumatic conveyance system, charge density decreases in the area where the particles' concentration is higher, and the total charge intensity decreases with the increase of the concentration of pulverized coal in the pipe. The method proposed in this paper is potentially important in pneumatic processes for charge <span class="hlt">distribution</span> measurement and safe operations. It is envisaged that with further development, this technique can provide information for investigation into the mechanism of inter-particle force on electrostatic attraction and repulsion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20846853','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20846853"><span>Logistic <span class="hlt">distributed</span> <span class="hlt">activation</span> energy model--Part 1: Derivation and numerical parametric study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Junmeng; Jin, Chuan; Yang, Songyuan; Chen, Yong</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">distributed</span> <span class="hlt">activation</span> energy model is presented using the logistic <span class="hlt">distribution</span> to mathematically represent the pyrolysis kinetics of complex solid fuels. A numerical parametric study of the logistic <span class="hlt">distributed</span> <span class="hlt">activation</span> energy model is conducted to evaluate the influences of the model parameters on the numerical results of the model. The parameters studied include the heating rate, reaction order, frequency factor, mean of the logistic <span class="hlt">activation</span> energy <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, standard deviation of the logistic <span class="hlt">activation</span> energy <span class="hlt">distribution</span>. The parametric study addresses the dependence on the forms of the calculated α-T and dα/dT-T curves (α: reaction conversion, T: temperature). The study results would be very helpful to the application of the logistic <span class="hlt">distributed</span> <span class="hlt">activation</span> energy model, which is the main subject of the next part of this series.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28160212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28160212"><span>Phthalides: <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> in Nature, Chemical Reactivity, Synthesis, and Biological <span class="hlt">Activity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>León, Alejandra; Del-Ángel, Mayela; Ávila, José Luis; Delgado, Guillermo</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p> oxidation, reduction, addition, elimination, and cycloaddition reactions, and treatments with Lewis acids of (Z)-ligustilide have afforded linear dimers. Some intramolecular condensations and differentiated cyclizations of the dimeric phthalides have been carried out, providing evidences for the particular chemical reactivity of these compounds.Several structural modifications of phthalides have been carried out subjecting them to microbial transformations by different species of bacteria, fungi and algae, and these included resolutions of racemic mixtures and oxidations, among others.The [π4s + π2s] and [π2s + π2s] cycloadditions of (Z)-ligustilide for the synthesis of dimeric phthalides have been reported, and different approaches involving cyclizations, Alder-Rickert reactions, Sharpless asymmetric hydroxylations, or Grignard additions have been used for the synthesis of monomeric phthalides. The use of phthalides as building blocks for divergent oriented synthesis has been proven.Many of the naturally occurring phthalides display different biological <span class="hlt">activities</span> including antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory effects, among many others, with a considerable recent research on the topic. In the case of compounds isolated from the Apiaceae, the bioactivities correlate with the traditional medicinal uses of the natural sources. Some monomeric phthalides have shown their ability to attenuate certain neurological diseases, including stroke, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.The present contribution covers the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of phthalides in nature and the findings in the structural diversity, chemical reactivity, biotransformations, syntheses, and bioactivity of natural and semisynthetic phthalides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPS...160.1041Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPS...160.1041Z"><span>Effects of porosity <span class="hlt">distribution</span> variation on the liquid water flux through <span class="hlt">gas</span> diffusion layers of PEM fuel cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhan, Zhigang; Xiao, Jinsheng; Li, Dayong; Pan, Mu; Yuan, Runzhang</p> <p></p> <p>Flooding of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and dehydrating of the polymer electrolyte membrane have been the key problems to be solved for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). So far, almost no papers published have focused on studies of the liquid water flux through differently structured <span class="hlt">gas</span> diffusion layers (GDLs). For <span class="hlt">gas</span> diffusion layers including structures of uniform porosity, changes in porosity (GDL with microporous layer (MPL)) and gradient change porosity, using a one-dimensional model, the liquid saturation <span class="hlt">distribution</span> is analyzed based on the assumption of a fixed liquid water flux through the GDL. And then the liquid water flux through the GDL is calculated based on the assumption of a fixed liquid saturation difference between the interfaces of the catalyst layer/GDL and the GDL/<span class="hlt">gas</span> channel. Our results show that under steady-state conditions, the liquid water flux through the GDL increases as contact angle and porosity increase and as the GDL thickness decreases. When a MPL is placed between the catalyst layer and the GDL, the liquid saturation is redistributed across the MPL and GDL. This improves the liquid water draining performance. The liquid water flux through the GDL increases as the MPL porosity increases and the MPL thickness decreases. When the total thickness of the GDL and MPL is kept constant and when the MPL is thinned to 3 μm, the liquid water flux increases considerably, i.e. flooding of MEA is difficult. A GDL with a gradient of porosity is more favorable for liquid water discharge from catalyst layer into the <span class="hlt">gas</span> channel; for the GDLs with the same equivalent porosity, the larger the gradient is, the more easily the liquid water is discharged. Of the computed cases, a GDL with a linear porosity 0.4 x + 0.4 is the best.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364714','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364714"><span>WITNESSING <span class="hlt">GAS</span> MIXING IN THE METAL <span class="hlt">DISTRIBUTION</span> OF THE HICKSON COMPACT GROUP HCG 31</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Torres-Flores, S.; Alfaro-Cuello, M.; De Oliveira, C. Mendes; Amram, P.; Carrasco, E. R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present for the first time direct evidence that in a merger of disk galaxies, the pre-existing central metallicities will mix as a result of <span class="hlt">gas</span> being transported in the merger interface region along the line that joins the two coalescing nuclei. This is shown using detailed two-dimensional kinematics as well as metallicity measurements for the nearby ongoing merger in the center of the compact group HCG 31. We focus on the emission line <span class="hlt">gas</span>, which is extensive in the system. The two coalescing cores display similar oxygen abundances. While in between the two nuclei, the metallicity changes smoothly from one nucleus to the other indicating a mix of metals in this region, which is confirmed by the high-resolution Hα kinematics (R = 45,900). This nearby system is especially important because it involves the merging of two fairly low-mass and clumpy galaxies (LMC-like galaxies), making it an important system for comparison with high-redshift galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5903730','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5903730"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span>-oil-bitumen shows in the Yakutian diamond province</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kravtsov, A.I.; Ivanov, V.A.; Bobrov, V.A.; Kropotova, O.I.</p> <p>1981-10-01</p> <p>The combination of carbon-bearing compounds in the kimberlite pipes may be divided into distinct geochemical groups, genetically associated with exogenic or endogenic geological processes. In analyzing the isotope composition of diamonds from eclogite and kimberlite, graphite in concentrated form from eclogite and ultrabasic inclusions in kimberlite, and postmagmaic carbonic acid from the matrix of kimberlite, it was established that these compounds have a distinctive endogenic nature. The isotope composition of the limestones of marine origin has been determined by the isotope-exchange reation /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ (<span class="hlt">gas</span>) + /sup 12/CO/sub 3/ (solution) reverse arrow..-->.. /sup 12/CO/sub 2/ (<span class="hlt">gas</span>) + /sup 13/CO/sub 3/ (solution), which is rigidly associated with temperature of sedimentation and has controlled the ''heavy'' isotope composition of these rocks. The isotope composition of the bitumens has not yet enabled us to resolve the problem of the origin of the bitumen shows (biogenic or abiogenic). However, the similarity of the isotope composition of bitumens examined from various bitumen shows indicates identical thermodynamic conditions of formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=319230','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=319230"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> and chemical fate of chlorine dioxide <span class="hlt">gas</span> during sanitation of tomatoes and cantaloupe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A series of studies was conducted to establish the 1) <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and chemical fate of 36-ClO2 on tomatoes and cantaloupe; and 2) the magnitude of residues in kilogram quantities of tomatoes and cantaloupe sanitized with a slow-release chlorine dioxide formulation. Tomatoes and cantaloupe were resp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26783061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26783061"><span>Resonance Energy Transfer Relates the <span class="hlt">Gas</span>-Phase Structure and Pharmacological <span class="hlt">Activity</span> of Opioid Peptides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kopysov, Vladimir; Boyarkin, Oleg V</p> <p>2016-01-11</p> <p>Enkephalins are efficient pain-relief drugs that bind to transmembrane opioid receptors. One key structural parameter that governs the pharmacological <span class="hlt">activity</span> of these opioid peptides and is typically determined from condensed-phase structures is the distance between the aromatic rings of their Tyr and Phe residues. We use resonance energy transfer, detected by a combination of cold ion spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, to estimate the Tyr-Phe spacing for enkephalins in the <span class="hlt">gas</span> phase. In contrast to the condensed-phase structures, these distances appear to differ substantially in enkephalins with different pharmacological efficiencies, suggesting that <span class="hlt">gas</span>-phase structures might be a better pharmacophoric metric for ligand peptides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EP%26S...66...57K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EP%26S...66...57K"><span>Increased radon-222 in soil <span class="hlt">gas</span> because of cumulative seismicity at <span class="hlt">active</span> faults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koike, Katsuaki; Yoshinaga, Tohru; Ueyama, Takayoshi; Asaue, Hisafumi</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This study demonstrates how the radon-222 (222Rn) concentration of soil <span class="hlt">gas</span> at an <span class="hlt">active</span> fault is sensitive to cumulative recent seismicity by examining seven <span class="hlt">active</span> faults in western Japan. The 222Rn concentration was found to correlate well with the total earthquake energy within a 100-km radius of each fault. This phenomenon can probably be ascribed to the increase of pore pressure around the source depth of 222Rn in shallow soil caused by frequently induced strain. This increase in pore pressure can enhance the ascent velocity of 222Rn carrier <span class="hlt">gas</span> as governed by Darcy's law. Anomalous 222Rn concentrations are likely to originate from high <span class="hlt">gas</span> velocities, rather than increased accumulations of parent nuclides. The high velocities also can yield unusual young <span class="hlt">gas</span> under the radioactive nonequilibrium condition of short elapsed time since 222Rn generation. The results suggest that ongoing seismicity in the vicinity of an <span class="hlt">active</span> fault can cause accumulation of strain in shallow fault soils. Therefore, the 222Rn concentration is a possible gauge for the degree of strain accumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063208"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of endocrine cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the <span class="hlt">active</span> and hibernating period.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Huan; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhou, Naizhen; Wang, Chaolin; Wu, Xiaobing</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The digestive tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body; the <span class="hlt">distribution</span> pattern of endocrine cells varies with different pathological and physiological states. The aim of the present study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">distributed</span> density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), gastrin (<span class="hlt">GAS</span>), somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the <span class="hlt">active</span> and hibernating period by immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The results indicated that 5-HT-IR cells were <span class="hlt">distributed</span> throughout the entire digestive tract, which were most predominant in duodenum and jejunum. The density increased significantly in stomach and duodenum during hibernation. <span class="hlt">GAS</span>-IR cells were limited in small stomach and small intestine. The density decreased significantly in small stomach during hibernation, while increased in duodenum. What's more, most of the endocrine cells in duodenum were generally spindle shaped with long cytoplasmic processes ending in the lumen during hibernation. SS-IR cells were limited in stomach and small stomach. The density increased in stomach while decreased in small stomach during hibernation, meanwhile, fewer IR cells occurred in small intestine. VIP-IR cells occurred in stomach and small stomach. The density decreased in small stomach, while increased in stomach during hibernation. These results indicated that the endocrine cells in different parts of digestive tract varied differently during hibernation, their changes were adaptive response to the hibernation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22113475','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22113475"><span>Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets: Effect of <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow, <span class="hlt">active</span> species, and snake-like bullet propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Huang, Q.; Tan, X.; Lu, X.; Ostrikov, K.</p> <p>2013-02-15</p> <p>Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jets have recently attracted enormous interest owing to numerous applications in plasma biology, health care, medicine, and nanotechnology. A dedicated study of the interaction between the upstream and downstream plasma plumes revealed that the <span class="hlt">active</span> species (electrons, ions, excited OH, metastable Ar, and nitrogen-related species) generated by the upstream plasma plume enhance the propagation of the downstream plasma plume. At <span class="hlt">gas</span> flows exceeding 2 l/min, the downstream plasma plume is longer than the upstream plasma plume. Detailed plasma diagnostics and discharge species analysis suggest that this effect is due to the electrons and ions that are generated by the upstream plasma and flow into the downstream plume. This in turn leads to the relatively higher electron density in the downstream plasma. Moreover, high-speed photography reveals a highly unusual behavior of the plasma bullets, which propagate in snake-like motions, very differently from the previous reports. This behavior is related to the hydrodynamic instability of the <span class="hlt">gas</span> flow, which results in non-uniform <span class="hlt">distributions</span> of long-lifetime <span class="hlt">active</span> species in the discharge tube and of surface charges on the inner surface of the tube.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2948989','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2948989"><span>13C-Tracer and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analyses Reveal Metabolic Flux <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> in the Oleaginous Microalga Chlorella protothecoides1[C][W][OA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xiong, Wei; Liu, Lixia; Wu, Chao; Yang, Chen; Wu, Qingyu</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The green alga Chlorella protothecoides has received considerable attention because it accumulates neutral triacylglycerols, commonly regarded as an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production. In order to gain a better understanding of its metabolism, tracer experiments with [U-13C]/[1-13C]glucose were performed with heterotrophic growth of C. protothecoides for identifying the metabolic network topology and estimating intracellular fluxes. <span class="hlt">Gas</span> chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis tracked the labeling patterns of protein-bound amino acids, revealing a metabolic network consisting of the glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle with inactive glyoxylate shunt. Evidence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and malic enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> was also obtained. It was demonstrated that the relative <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the pentose phosphate pathway to glycolysis under nitrogen-limited environment increased, reflecting excess NADPH requirements for lipid biosynthesis. Although the growth rate and cellular oil content were significantly altered in response to nitrogen limitation, global flux <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of C. protothecoides remained stable, exhibiting the rigidity of central carbon metabolism. In conclusion, quantitative knowledge on the metabolic flux <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of oleaginous alga obtained in this study may be of value in designing strategies for metabolic engineering of desirable bioproducts. PMID:20720172</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhST..114..240R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhST..114..240R"><span>Improved <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Response at Room Temperature of <span class="hlt">Activated</span> Nanocrystalline WO3 Films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reyes, L. F.; Saukko, S.; Hoel, A.; Lantto, V.; Granqvist, C. G.; Lappalainen, J.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Advanced reactive <span class="hlt">gas</span> deposition was used to produce pure and Auactivated nanocrystalline WO3 films for <span class="hlt">gas</span>-sensing studies. Many different methods such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize structural properties of the films. The WO3 particles in the films had the high-temperature tetragonal crystal structure after deposition, and the average crystallite size was about 10nm. The effect of sintering on structural, electrical, and gassensing properties of both pure and Au-<span class="hlt">activated</span> WO3 films was also studied. <span class="hlt">Gas</span> response experiments with films on alumina substrate were done at different operation temperatures, from room temperature up to about 450°C, at exposure to different concentrations of H2S and H2 in dry synthetic air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810020989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810020989"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">distributed</span> <span class="hlt">gas</span> cooling of pressurized PAFC for utility power generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farooque, M.; Maru, H.; Skok, A.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Two short stacks were pressure tested at 446 kPa (4.4 atm.) and the pressure gains were more than the theoretically predicted gains. Temperature profiles were observed to be independent of operating pressure. The pressure drop was found to be inversely proportional to operating pressure as expected. Continuous pressurized operation of a stack for 1000 hours verified the compatability of the fuel cell component design. A simple pressurization procedure was also developed. Six separate designs, covering two <span class="hlt">gas</span> cooling schemes (DIGAS and separated) and two cooling channel geometries (straight through and treed), were analysed on the net voltage output basis. Separated cooling with 5 cells per cooler was recognized to be the best among the designs considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860019349','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860019349"><span>Element <span class="hlt">distribution</span> and noble <span class="hlt">gas</span> isotopic abundances in lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kraehenbuehl, U.; Eugster, O.; Niedermann, S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Antarctic meteorite ALLAN HILLS A81005, an anorthositic breccia, is recognized to be of lunar origin. The noble gases in this meteorite were analyzed and found to be solar-wind implanted gases, whose absolute and relative concentrations are quite similar to those in lunar regolith samples. A sample of this meteorite was obtained for the analysis of the noble <span class="hlt">gas</span> isotopes, including Kr(81), and for the determination of the elemental abundances. In order to better determine the volume derived from the surface correlated gases, grain size fractions were prepared. The results of the instrumental measurements of the gamma radiation are listed. From the amounts of cosmic ray produced noble gases and respective production rates, the lunar surface residence times were calculated. It was concluded that the lunar surface time is about half a billion years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5955178','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5955178"><span><span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of <span class="hlt">gas</span> and galaxies around the distant quasar PKS 1614 + 051</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hu, E.M.; Cowie, L.L.</p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>The results of narrow-band and broad-band filter observations of the region surrounding the z = 3.21 quasars, PKS 1614 + 051, made under subarcsec seeing conditions with the 3.6 m CFHT telescope at Mauna Kea are reported. The nuclear region of the Lyman-alpha companion to the quasar is resolved with a FWHM of about 0.9 arcsec A magnitude fainter. Limits on detectable continuum flux from this object suggest that it is a <span class="hlt">gas</span> cloud interacting with the quasar, and its emission is consistent with simple photoionization by the quasar. However, the presence of several galaxies around the periphery of the quasar is noted. A search of 11 additional quasars at z greater than 3 has failed to show any other such systems. It is argued that this is consistent with the statistics of extended emission line systems in low-z quasars. 11 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10162133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10162133"><span>Risk analysis of highly combustible <span class="hlt">gas</span> storage, supply, and <span class="hlt">distribution</span> systems in PWR plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Simion, G.P.; VanHorn, R.L.; Smith, C.L.; Bickel, J.H.; Sattison, M.B.; Bulmahn, K.D.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>This report presents the evaluation of the potential safety concerns for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) identified in Generic Safety Issue 106, Piping and the Use of Highly Combustible Gases in Vital Areas. A Westinghouse four-loop PWR plant was analyzed for the risk due to the use of combustible gases (predominantly hydrogen) within the plant. The analysis evaluated an actual hydrogen <span class="hlt">distribution</span> configuration and conducted several sensitivity studies to determine the potential variability among PWRs. The sensitivity studies were based on hydrogen and safety-related equipment configurations observed at other PWRs within the United States. Several options for improving the hydrogen <span class="hlt">distribution</span> system design were identified and evaluated for their effect on risk and core damage frequency. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to determine whether alternatives considered were justifiable based on the safety improvement and economics of each possible improvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...798L..24T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...798L..24T"><span>Witnessing <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Mixing in the Metal <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of the Hickson Compact Group HCG 31</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Torres-Flores, S.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Amram, P.; Alfaro-Cuello, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; de Mello, D. F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present for the first time direct evidence that in a merger of disk galaxies, the pre-existing central metallicities will mix as a result of <span class="hlt">gas</span> being transported in the merger interface region along the line that joins the two coalescing nuclei. This is shown using detailed two-dimensional kinematics as well as metallicity measurements for the nearby ongoing merger in the center of the compact group HCG 31. We focus on the emission line <span class="hlt">gas</span>, which is extensive in the system. The two coalescing cores display similar oxygen abundances. While in between the two nuclei, the metallicity changes smoothly from one nucleus to the other indicating a mix of metals in this region, which is confirmed by the high-resolution Hα kinematics (R = 45,900). This nearby system is especially important because it involves the merging of two fairly low-mass and clumpy galaxies (LMC-like galaxies), making it an important system for comparison with high-redshift galaxies. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina) - Observing run: GS-2012B-Q-60.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10121837','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10121837"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, January 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>The Natural <span class="hlt">Gas</span> Monthly (NGM) highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998CMaPh.190..491B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998CMaPh.190..491B"><span>On the <span class="hlt">Distribution</span> of Free Path Lengthsfor the Periodic Lorentz <span class="hlt">Gas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bourgain, Jean; Golse, François; Wennberg, Bernt</p> <p></p> <p>Consider the domain<FORMULA FORM="DISPLAY" DISC="MATH"> and let the free path length be defined as<FORMULA FORM="DISPLAY" DISC="MATH"> The <span class="hlt">distribution</span> of values of is studied in the limit as for all . It is shown that the value is critical for this problem: in other words, the limiting behavior of depends only on whether γ is larger or smaller than .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/538819','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/538819"><span>Vector magnetometry sensor for internal inspection of <span class="hlt">gas</span> <span class="hlt">distribution</span> mains. Final report, February 1995-August 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Farra, R.; Fowler, T.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>There is a recognized need for an advanced <span class="hlt">distribution</span> pipe inspection system which can operate in 4` and 6` diameter pipes. This program developed a prototype sensor car based on vector magnetometry. The prototype sensor system was tested in the laboratory. Test data is presented showing defect detection capability for defects as small as 25% of the pipe wall. Field tests were also conducted with mixed results. Varying corrosion levels were observed. However, specific defects were difficult to identify.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23003940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23003940"><span>Instability in the dense supernova neutrino <span class="hlt">gas</span> with flavor-dependent angular <span class="hlt">distributions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mirizzi, Alessandro; Serpico, Pasquale Dario</p> <p>2012-06-08</p> <p>The usual description of self-induced flavor conversions for neutrinos (ν's) in supernovae is based on the simplified assumption that all the ν's of the different species are emitted "half-isotropically" by a common neutrinosphere, in analogy to a blackbody emission. However, realistic supernova simulations show that ν angular <span class="hlt">distributions</span> at decoupling are far from being half-isotropic and, above all, are flavor dependent. We show that flavor-dependent angular <span class="hlt">distributions</span> may lead to crossing points in the angular spectra of different ν species (where F(ν(e))=F(ν(x)) and F(ν(e))=F(ν(x))) around which a new multiangle instability can develop. To characterize this effect, we carry out a linearized flavor stability analysis for different supernova neutrino angular <span class="hlt">distributions</span>. We find that this instability can shift the onset of the flavor conversions toward low radii and produce a smearing of the splitting features found with trivial ν emission models. As a result the spectral differences among ν's of different flavors could be strongly reduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5657303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5657303"><span>Diatomaceous earth and <span class="hlt">activated</span> bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue <span class="hlt">gas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Diatomaceous earth and <span class="hlt">activated</span> bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue <span class="hlt">gas</span> of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue <span class="hlt">gas</span> of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial <span class="hlt">gas</span> velocity, <span class="hlt">gas</span> hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue <span class="hlt">gas</span> on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and <span class="hlt">activated</span> bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue <span class="hlt">gas</span>. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue <span class="hlt">gas</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6367362','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6367362"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1990-12-28</p> <p>This report highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6422503','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6422503"><span>Natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1990-11-30</p> <p>This report highlights <span class="hlt">activities</span>, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural <span class="hlt">gas</span> production, <span class="hlt">distribution</span>, consumption, and interstate pipeline <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Producer-related <span class="hlt">activities</span> and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-10/pdf/2013-08365.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-10/pdf/2013-08365.pdf"><span>78 FR 21347 - Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Effects of Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Activities</span> in the...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-10</p> <p>... Statement for Effects of Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Activities</span> in the Arctic Ocean AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... of Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Activities</span> in the Arctic Ocean.'' Based on a written request received by NMFS, the... available for review online at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/permits/eis/arctic.htm . You may submit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-18/pdf/2012-823.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-18/pdf/2012-823.pdf"><span>77 FR 2513 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Effects of Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Activities</span> in the Arctic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-18</p> <p>... Effects of Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Activities</span> in the Arctic Ocean AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Effects of Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Activities</span> in the Arctic Ocean.'' Based on several written requests.../pr/permits/eis/arctic.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Candace Nachman, Jolie Harrison,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-03/pdf/2011-4757.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-03/pdf/2011-4757.pdf"><span>76 FR 11811 - Environmental Document Prepared in Support of Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Activities</span> on the Alaska Outer...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-03</p> <p>... of Oil and <span class="hlt">Gas</span> <span class="hlt">Activities</span> on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... <span class="hlt">activities</span> proposed on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18952414','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18952414"><span>Optimization of microporous palm shell <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon production for flue <span class="hlt">gas</span> desulphurization: experimental and statistical studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sumathi, S; Bhatia, S; Lee, K T; Mohamed, A R</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Optimizing the production of microporous <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon from waste palm shell was done by applying experimental design methodology. The product, palm shell <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon was tested for removal of SO2 <span class="hlt">gas</span> from flue <span class="hlt">gas</span>. The <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon production was mathematically described as a function of parameters such as flow rate, <span class="hlt">activation</span> time and <span class="hlt">activation</span> temperature of carbonization. These parameters were modeled using response surface methodology. The experiments were carried out as a central composite design consisting of 32 experiments. Quadratic models were developed for surface area, total pore volume, and microporosity in term of micropore fraction. The models were used to obtain the optimum process condition for the production of microporous palm shell <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon useful for SO2 removal. The optimized palm shell <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon with surface area of 973 m(2)/g, total pore volume of 0.78 cc/g and micropore fraction of 70.5% showed an excellent agreement with the amount predicted by the statistical analysis. Palm shell <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon with higher surface area and microporosity fraction showed good adsorption affinity for SO2 removal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080013281&hterms=money&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmoney','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080013281&hterms=money&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmoney"><span><span class="hlt">Distributed</span> Operations for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission with the Science <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Planner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wick, Justin V.; Callas, John L.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Vona, Marsette A., III</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Due to the length of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission, most scientists were unable to stay at the central operations facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This created a need for <span class="hlt">distributed</span> operations software, in the form of the <span class="hlt">Distributed</span> Science <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Planner. The <span class="hlt">distributed</span> architecture saved a considerable amount of money and increased the number of individuals who could be <span class="hlt">actively</span> involved in the mission, contributing to its success.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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