Science.gov

Sample records for active gas handling

  1. Control rod system useable for fuel handling in a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.

    1976-11-30

    A control rod and its associated drive are used to elevate a complete stack of fuel blocks to a position above the core of a gas-cooled nuclear reactor. A fuel-handling machine grasps the control rod and the drive is unlatched from the rod. The stack and rod are transferred out of the reactor, or to a new location in the reactor, by the fuel-handling machine.

  2. Identifying sensitive sources and key control handles for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-10-01

    This research investigates the effects of adjusting control handle values on greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment, and reveals critical control handles and sensitive emission sources for control through the combined use of local and global sensitivity analysis methods. The direction of change in emissions, effluent quality and operational cost resulting from variation of control handles individually is determined using one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis, and corresponding trade-offs are identified. The contribution of each control handle to variance in model outputs, taking into account the effects of interactions, is then explored using a variance-based sensitivity analysis method, i.e., Sobol's method, and significant second order interactions are discovered. This knowledge will assist future control strategy development and aid an efficient design and optimisation process, as it provides a better understanding of the effects of control handles on key performance indicators and identifies those for which dynamic control has the greatest potential benefits. Sources with the greatest variance in emissions, and therefore the greatest need to monitor, are also identified. It is found that variance in total emissions is predominantly due to changes in direct N2O emissions and selection of suitable values for wastage flow rate and aeration intensity in the final activated sludge reactor is of key importance. To improve effluent quality, costs and/or emissions, it is necessary to consider the effects of adjusting multiple control handles simultaneously and determine the optimum trade-off.

  3. Polarization dictates iron handling by inflammatory and alternatively activated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Corna, Gianfranca; Campana, Lara; Pignatti, Emanuele; Castiglioni, Alessandra; Tagliafico, Enrico; Bosurgi, Lidia; Campanella, Alessandro; Brunelli, Silvia; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Apostoli, Pietro; Silvestri, Laura; Camaschella, Clara; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Background Macrophages play a key role in iron homeostasis. In peripheral tissues, they are known to polarize into classically activated (or M1) macrophages and alternatively activated (or M2) macrophages. Little is known on whether the polarization program influences the ability of macrophages to store or recycle iron and the molecular machinery involved in the processes. Design and Methods Inflammatory/M1 and alternatively activated/M2 macrophages were propagated in vitro from mouse bone-marrow precursors and polarized in the presence of recombinant interferon-γ or interleukin-4. We characterized and compared their ability to handle radioactive iron, the characteristics of the intracellular iron pools and the expression of molecules involved in internalization, storage and export of the metal. Moreover we verified the influence of iron on the relative ability of polarized macrophages to activate antigen-specific T cells. Results M1 macrophages have low iron regulatory protein 1 and 2 binding activity, express high levels of ferritin H, low levels of transferrin receptor 1 and internalize – albeit with low efficiency -iron only when its extracellular concentration is high. In contrast, M2 macrophages have high iron regulatory protein binding activity, express low levels of ferritin H and high levels of transferrin receptor 1. M2 macrophages have a larger intracellular labile iron pool, effectively take up and spontaneously release iron at low concentrations and have limited storage ability. Iron export correlates with the expression of ferroportin, which is higher in M2 macrophages. M1 and M2 cells activate antigen-specific, MHC class II-restricted T cells. In the absence of the metal, only M1 macrophages are effective. Conclusions Cytokines that drive macrophage polarization ultimately control iron handling, leading to the differentiation of macrophages into a subset which has a relatively sealed intracellular iron content (M1) or into a subset endowed with

  4. Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Activation and Handling Through Wax Enclosure Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klettlinger, Jennifer L. S.; Yen, Chia H.; Nakley, Leah M.; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis is considered a gas to liquid process which converts syn-gas, a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, into liquids of various hydrocarbon chain length and product distributions. Cobalt based catalysts are used in F-T synthesis and are the focus of this paper. One key concern with handling cobalt based catalysts is that the active form of catalyst is in a reduced state, metallic cobalt, which oxidizes readily in air. In laboratory experiments, the precursor cobalt oxide catalyst is activated in a fixed bed at 350 ?C then transferred into a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with inert gas. NASA has developed a process which involves the enclosure of active cobalt catalyst in a wax mold to prevent oxidation during storage and handling. This improved method allows for precise catalyst loading and delivery into a CSTR. Preliminary results indicate similar activity levels in the F-T reaction in comparison to the direct injection method. The work in this paper was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  5. Theoretical and experimental analysis of a multiphase screw pump, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Raebiger, K.; Maksoud, T.M.A.; Ward, J.; Hausmann, G.

    2008-09-15

    In the investigation of the pumping behaviour of multiphase screw pumps, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions, theoretical and experimental analyses were performed. A new theoretical screw pump model was developed, which calculates the time-dependent conditions inside the several chambers of a screw pump as well as the exchange of mass and energy between these chambers. By means of the performed experimental analysis, the screw pump model was verified, especially at very high gas volume fractions from 90% to 99%. The experiments, which were conducted with the reference fluids water and air, can be divided mainly into the determination of the steady state pumping behaviour on the one hand and into the analysis of selected transient operating conditions on the other hand, whereas the visualisation of the leakage flows through the circumferential gaps was rounded off the experimental analysis. (author)

  6. An Alternative to Performing Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Container Headspace Gas Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, L. R.; Djordjevic, S. M.; Kehrman, R. F.; Most, W. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is operating under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) for contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) waste. The HWFP contains limitations on allowable emissions from waste disposed in the underground. This environmental performance standard imposed on the WIPP consists of limiting volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from emplaced waste to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The standard is currently met by tracking individual waste container headspace gas concentrations, which are determined by headspace gas sampling and analysis of CH TRU waste containers. The WIPP is seeking a HWFP modification to allow the disposal of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. Because RH TRU waste is limited to approximately 5% of the waste volume and is emplaced in the disposal room walls, it is possible to bound the potential RH TRU waste contribution to VOC emissions using conservative upper bounds. These conservative upper bounds were developed as an alternative to RH TRU waste canister headspace gas sampling and analysis. The methodology used to perform the calculations used to evaluate VOC emissions from emplaced RH TRU waste canisters applied the same equations as those used to evaluate VOC emissions in the original HWFP application.

  7. Computer control of fuel handling activities at FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Romrell, D.M.

    1985-03-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility near Richland, Washington, utilizes computer control for reactor refueling and other related core component handling and processing tasks. The computer controlled tasks described in this paper include core component transfers within the reactor vessel, core component transfers into and out of the reactor vessel, remote duct measurements of irradiated core components, remote duct cutting, and finally, transferring irradiated components out of the reactor containment building for off-site shipments or to long term storage. 3 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Differences in Muscle Activity During Cable Resistance Training Are Influenced by Variations in Handle Types.

    PubMed

    Rendos, Nicole K; Heredia Vargas, Héctor M; Alipio, Taislaine C; Regis, Rebeca C; Romero, Matthew A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-07-01

    Rendos, NK, Heredia Vargas, HM, Alipio, TC, Regis, RC, Romero, MA, and Signorile, JF. Differences in muscle activity during cable resistance training are influenced by variations in handle types. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2001-2009, 2016-There has been a recent resurgence in the use of cable machines for resistance training allowing movements that more effectively simulate daily activities and sports-specific movements. By necessity, these devices require a machine/human interface through some type of handle. Considerable data from material handling, industrial engineering, and exercise training studies indicate that handle qualities, especially size and shape, can significantly influence force production and muscular activity, particularly of the forearm muscles, which affect the critical link in activities that require object manipulation. The purpose for this study was to examine the influence of three different handle conditions: standard handle (StandH), ball handle with the cable between the index and middle fingers (BallIM), and ball handle with the cable between the middle and ring fingers (BallMR), on activity levels (rmsEMG) of the triceps brachii lateral and long heads (TriHLat, TriHLong), brachioradialis (BR), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum (ED) during eight repetitions of standing triceps pushdown performed from 90° to 0° elbow flexion at 1.5 s per contractile stage. Handle order was randomized. No significant differences were seen for triceps or BR rmsEMG across handle conditions; however, relative patterns of activation did vary for the forearm muscles by handle condition, with more coordinated activation levels for the FCR and ED during the ball handle conditions. In addition, the rmsEMG for the ED was significantly higher during the BallIM than any other condition and during the BallMR than the StandH. These results indicate that the use of ball handles with the cable passing between different fingers

  9. An experimental investigation of 235 sub UF sub 6 fission produced plasmas. [gas handling system for use with nuclear pumped laser experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    A gas handling system capable of use with uranium fluoride was designed and constructed for use with nuclear pumped laser experiments using the TRIGA research reactor. By employing careful design and temperature controls, the UF6 can be first transported into the irradiation chamber, and then, at the conclusion of the experiment, returned to gas cylinders. The design of the system is described. Operating procedures for the UF6 and gas handling systems are included.

  10. Individual Information-Centered Approach for Handling Physical Activity Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Minsoo; Rowe, David A.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Robinson, Terrance S.; Mahar, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate individual information (II)-centered methods for handling missing data, using data samples of 118 middle-aged adults and 91 older adults equipped with Yamax SW-200 pedometers and Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. We used a semisimulation approach to create six data sets: three physical activity outcome…

  11. Test plan for headspace gas sampling of remote-handled transuranic waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Field, L.R.; Villarreal, R.

    1998-02-24

    Seventeen remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste canisters currently are stored in vertical, underground shafts at Technical Area (TA)-54, Area G, at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These 17 RH TRU waste canisters are destined to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for permanent disposal in the geologic repository. As the RH TRU canister is likely to be the final payload container prior to placement into the 72-B cask and shipment to the WIPP, these waste canisters provide a unique opportunity to ascertain representative flammable gas concentrations in packaged RH-TRU waste. Hydrogen, which is produced by the radiolytic decomposition of hydrogenous constituents in the waste matrix, is the primary flammable gas of concern with RH TRU waste. The primary objectives of the experiment that is described by this test plan are to sample and analyze the waste canister headspace gases to determine the concentration of hydrogen in the headspace gas and to calculate the hydrogen gas generation rate for comparison to the applicable maximum allowable hydrogen generation rate (mole/sec) limits. It is a goal of this experiment to determine the headspace gas concentrations of other gases (e.g., oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with molecular weights less than 60 g/mole) that are produced by radiolysis or present when the waste was packaged. Additionally, the temperature, pressure, and flow rate of the headspace gas will be measured.

  12. Early handling reduces vulnerability of rats to activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Carrera, O; Gutiérrez, E; Boakes, R A

    2006-11-01

    Resistance to restricted feeding with and without wheel access was tested in rats handled (H) for 20 days since birth. Weight loss produced by 1.5-hr restricted food access was less in H than in non-handled (NH) males when tested aged 41 days. At this age combining food restriction with access to a running wheel (a procedure commonly known as activity-based anorexia, ABA) produced very rapid weight loss and no effect of handling was detected. When 75-day females were tested in the same way, under the ABA procedure H rats took longer than NH controls to reach the removal criterion. Simply restricting food access in these females produced variable weight loss, without detection of any handling effect. No differences in food intake or running were detected between H and NH rats in either males or females. In conclusion, handling seems to have a direct effect on rats' later response to either food deprivation alone or to an ABA procedure.

  13. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved vehicle handling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Kasać, Josip; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2016-11-01

    Active suspension is commonly considered under the framework of vertical vehicle dynamics control aimed at improvements in ride comfort. This paper uses a collocation-type control variable optimisation tool to investigate to which extent the fully active suspension (FAS) application can be broaden to the task of vehicle handling/cornering control. The optimisation approach is firstly applied to solely FAS actuator configurations and three types of double lane-change manoeuvres. The obtained optimisation results are used to gain insights into different control mechanisms that are used by FAS to improve the handling performance in terms of path following error reduction. For the same manoeuvres the FAS performance is compared with the performance of different active steering and active differential actuators. The optimisation study is finally extended to combined FAS and active front- and/or rear-steering configurations to investigate if they can use their complementary control authorities (over the vertical and lateral vehicle dynamics, respectively) to further improve the handling performance.

  14. Neonatal handling affects learning, reversal learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in a sex-specific manner in rats.

    PubMed

    Noschang, Cristie; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Huffell, Ana Paula; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-06-01

    Early life experiences have profound influences on behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult life. The aim of this study is to verify neonatal handling-induced sex specific differences on learning and reversal learning as well as oxidative stress parameters in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of adult rats. Litters of rats were non-handled or handled (10 min/day, days 1-10 after birth). In adulthood, learning and reversal learning were evaluated using a Y maze associated with palatable food in male and female rats. Morris water maze reversal learning was verified in males. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in both genders. Male neonatal handled animals had a worse performance in the Y maze reversal learning compared to non-handled ones and no difference was observed in the water maze reversal learning task. Regarding females, neonatal handled rats had a better performance during the Y maze learning phase compared to non-handled ones. In addition, neonatal handled female animals showed a decreased SOD/CAT ratio in the PFC compared to non-handled females. We conclude that neonatal handling effects on learning and memory in adult rats are sex and task specific. The sex specific differences are also observed in the evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities with neonatal handling affecting only females.

  15. Handling and safety enhancement of race cars using active aerodynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diba, Fereydoon; Barari, Ahmad; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-09-01

    A methodology is presented in this work that employs the active inverted wings to enhance the road holding by increasing the downward force on the tyres. In the proposed active system, the angles of attack of the vehicle's wings are adjusted by using a real-time controller to increase the road holding and hence improve the vehicle handling. The handling of the race car and safety of the driver are two important concerns in the design of race cars. The handling of a vehicle depends on the dynamic capabilities of the vehicle and also the pneumatic tyres' limitations. The vehicle side-slip angle, as a measure of the vehicle dynamic safety, should be narrowed into an acceptable range. This paper demonstrates that active inverted wings can provide noteworthy dynamic capabilities and enhance the safety features of race cars. Detailed analytical study and formulations of the race car nonlinear model with the airfoils are presented. Computer simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed active aerodynamic system.

  16. The Impact of Handling and Storage of Human Fecal Material on Bacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Karatza, Eleni; Vertzoni, Maria; Muenster, Uwe; Reppas, Christos

    2016-11-01

    Fecal material prepared from human stools is frequently used for the assessment of bacterial degradation of active pharmaceutical ingredients as relevant data are useful for evaluating the potential for colonic drug delivery. The impact of handling and storage of human fecal material on bacterial activity was assessed by evaluating the degradation characteristics of metronidazole and olsalazine. Multiple freeze (-70°C)-thaw cycles should be avoided. Incubation of frozen material for about 2 h in the anaerobic workstation ensures regeneration of the highest possible bacterial activity. Material could be stored at -70°C for at least 12 months.

  17. A Multi-Fidelity Surrogate Model for Handling Real Gas Equations of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellet, Frederick; Park, Chanyoung; Rollin, Bertrand; Balachandar, S."bala"

    2016-11-01

    The explosive dispersal of particles is an example of a complex multiphase and multi-species fluid flow problem. This problem has many engineering applications including particle-laden explosives. In these flows, the detonation products of the explosive cannot be treated as a perfect gas so a real gas equation of state is used to close the governing equations (unlike air, which uses the ideal gas equation for closure). As the products expand outward from the detonation point, they mix with ambient air and create a mixing region where both of the state equations must be satisfied. One of the more accurate, yet computationally expensive, methods to deal with this is a scheme that iterates between the two equations of state until pressure and thermal equilibrium are achieved inside of each computational cell. This work strives to create a multi-fidelity surrogate model of this process. We then study the performance of the model with respect to the iterative method by performing both gas-only and particle laden flow simulations using an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach with a finite volume code. Specifically, the model's (i) computational speed, (ii) memory requirements and (iii) computational accuracy are analyzed to show the benefits of this novel modeling approach. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA00023.

  18. Changes in muscular activity and lumbosacral kinematics in response to handling objects of unknown mass magnitude.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Walaa; Farrag, Ahmed; El-Sayyad, Mohsen; Marras, William

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the main and interaction effects of mass knowledge and mass magnitude on trunk muscular activity and lumbosacral kinematics. Eighteen participants performed symmetric box lifts of three different mass magnitudes (1.1 kg, 5 kg, 15 kg) under known and unknown mass knowledge conditions. Outcome measures were normalized peak electromyography of four trunk muscles in addition to three dimensional lumbosacral angles and acceleration. The results indicated that three out of four muscles exhibited significantly greater activity when handling unknown masses (p<.05). Meanwhile, only sagittal angular acceleration was significantly higher when handling unknown masses (115.6 ± 42.7°/s(2)) compared to known masses (109.3 ± 31.5°/s(2)). Similarly, the mass magnitude and mass knowledge interaction significantly impacted the same muscles along with the sagittal lumbosacral angle and angular acceleration (p<.05) with the greatest difference between knowledge conditions being consistently occurring under the 1.1 kg mass magnitude condition. Thus, under these conditions, it was concluded that mass magnitude has more impact than mass knowledge. However, handling objects of unknown mass magnitude could be hazardous, particularly when lifting light masses, in that they can increase mechanical burden on the lumbosacral spine due to increased muscular exertion and acceleration.

  19. In Flight Evaluation of Active Inceptor Force-Feel Characteristics and Handling Qualities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Concepts Airborne Laboratory ( RASCAL ) JUH- 60A in-flight simulator with an active center stick, and in Germany DLR is utilizing their Active Control...susceptible to bio-feedback interference with the slalom task. It should be noted that when flying the slalom task in the AFDD JUH- 60A RASCAL the...handling qualities has been conducted with a center stick cyclic on the RASCAL JUH- 60A , and initiated with a side stick on the ACT/FHS EC-135. In

  20. Plasma Sprayed Pour Tubes and Other Melt Handling Components for Use in Gas Atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, David; Rieken, Joel; Heidloff, Andy; Besser, Matthew; Anderson, Iver

    2011-04-01

    Ames Laboratory has successfully used plasma sprayed ceramic components made from yttria stabilized zirconia as melt pouring tubes for gas atomization for many years. These tubes have proven to be strong, thermal shock resistant and versatile. Various configurations are possible both internally and externally. Accurate dimensions are achieved internally with a machined fugitive graphite mandrel and externally by diamond grinding. The previous study of the effect of spray parameters on density was extended to determine the effect of the resulting density on the thermal shock characteristics on down-quenching and up-quenching. Encouraging results also prompted investigation of the use of plasma spraying as a method to construct a melt pour exit stopper that is mechanically robust, thermal shock resistant, and not susceptible to attack by reactive melt additions. The Ames Laboratory operates two close-coupled high pressure gas atomizers. These two atomizers are designed to produce fine and coarse spherical metal powders (5{mu} to 500{mu} diameter) of many different metals and alloys. The systems vary in size, but generally the smaller atomizer can produce up to 5 kg of powder whereas the larger can produce up to 25 kg depending on the charge form and density. In order to make powders of such varying compositions, it is necessary to have melt systems capable of heating and containing the liquid charge to the desired superheat temperature prior to pouring through the atomization nozzle. For some metals and alloys this is not a problem; however for some more reactive and/or high melting materials this can pose unique challenges. Figure 1 is a schematic that illustrates the atomization system and its components.

  1. Ionizing radiation regulates cardiac Ca handling via increased ROS and activated CaMKII.

    PubMed

    Sag, Can M; Wolff, Hendrik A; Neumann, Kay; Opiela, Marie-Kristin; Zhang, Juqian; Steuer, Felicia; Sowa, Thomas; Gupta, Shamindra; Schirmer, Markus; Hünlich, Mark; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens F; Anderson, Mark E; Shah, Ajay M; Christiansen, Hans; Maier, Lars S

    2013-11-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is an integral part of modern multimodal anti-cancer therapies. IR involves the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in targeted tissues. This is associated with subsequent cardiac dysfunction when applied during chest radiotherapy. We hypothesized that IR (i.e., ROS)-dependently impaired cardiac myocytes' Ca handling might contribute to IR-dependent cardiocellular dysfunction. Isolated ventricular mouse myocytes and the mediastinal area of anaesthetized mice (that included the heart) were exposed to graded doses of irradiation (sham 4 and 20 Gy) and investigated acutely (after ~1 h) as well as chronically (after ~1 week). IR induced a dose-dependent effect on myocytes' systolic function with acutely increased, but chronically decreased Ca transient amplitudes, which was associated with an acutely unaltered but chronically decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load. Likewise, in vivo echocardiography of anaesthetized mice revealed acutely enhanced left ventricular contractility (strain analysis) that declined after 1 week. Irradiated myocytes showed persistently increased diastolic SR Ca leakage, which was acutely compensated by an increase in SR Ca reuptake. This was reversed in the chronic setting in the face of slowed relaxation kinetics. As underlying cause, acutely increased ROS levels were identified to activate Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Accordingly, CaMKII-, but not PKA-dependent phosphorylation sites of the SR Ca release channels (RyR2, at Ser-2814) and phospholamban (at Thr-17) were found to be hyperphosphorylated following IR. Conversely, ROS-scavenging as well as CaMKII-inhibition significantly attenuated CaMKII-activation, disturbed Ca handling, and subsequent cellular dysfunction upon irradiation. Targeted cardiac irradiation induces a biphasic effect on cardiac myocytes Ca handling that is associated with chronic cardiocellular dysfunction. This appears to be mediated by increased oxidative

  2. Facilitation handlings induce increase in electromyographic activity of muscles involved in head control of cerebral palsy children.

    PubMed

    Simon, Anelise de Saldanha; do Pinho, Alexandre Severo; Grazziotin Dos Santos, Camila; Pagnussat, Aline de Souza

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic (EMG) activation of the main cervical muscles involved in the head control during two postures widely used for the facilitation of head control in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). A crossover trial involving 31 children with clinical diagnosis of CP and spastic quadriplegia was conducted. Electromyography was used to measure muscular activity in randomized postures. Three positions were at rest: (a) lateral decubitus, (b) ventral decubitus on the floor and (c) ventral decubitus on the wedge. Handlings for facilitating the head control were performed using the hip joint as key point of control in two postures: (a) lateral decubitus and (b) ventral decubitus on wedge. All children underwent standardized handlings, performed by the same researcher with experience in the neurodevelopmental treatment. EMG signal was recorded from muscles involved in the head control (paraspinal and sternocleidomastoid muscles) in sagittal, frontal and transverse planes, at the fourth cervical vertebra (C4), tenth thoracic vertebra (T10) and sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) levels. The results showed a significant increase in muscle activation when handling was performed in the lateral decubitus at C4 (P<0.001), T10 (P<0.001) and SCM (P=0.02) levels. A significant higher muscle activation was observed when handling was performed in lateral decubitus when compared to ventral decubitus at C4 level (P<0.001). Handling in ventral decubitus also induced an increase in EMG activation at T10 (P=0.018) and SCM (P=0.004) levels but not at C4 level (P=0.38). In conclusion, handlings performed in both positions may induce the facilitation of head control, as evaluated by the activity of cervical and upper trunk muscles. Handling performed in lateral decubitus may induce a slightly better facilitation of head control. These findings contribute to evidence-based physiotherapy practice for the rehabilitation of severely spastic quadriplegic CP

  3. Analysis of Handling Qualities Design Criteria for Active Inceptor Force-Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malpica, Carlos A.; Lusardi, Jeff A.

    2013-01-01

    The force-feel system characteristics of the cyclic inceptors of most helicopters are set based on the characteristics of the mechanical components in the control system (mass, springs, friction dampers, etc.). For these helicopters, the force-feel characteristics typically remain constant over the entire flight envelope, with perhaps a trim release to minimize control forces while maneuvering. With the advent of fly-by-wire control systems and active inceptors in helicopters, the force-feel characteristics are now determined by the closed-loop response of the active inceptor itself as defined by the inertia, force/displacement gradient, damping, breakout force and detent shape configuration parameters in the inceptor control laws. These systems give the flexibility to dynamically prescribe different feel characteristics for different control modes or flight conditions, and the ability to provide tactile cueing to the pilot through the actively controlled side-stick or center-stick cyclic inceptor. For rotorcraft, a few studies have been conducted to assess the effects of cyclic force-feel characteristics on handling qualities in flight. An early study provided valuable insight into the static force-deflection characteristics (force gradient) and the number of axes controlled by the side-stick controller for the U.S. Army's Advanced Digital/Optical Control System (ADOCS) demonstrator aircraft [1]. The first of a series of studies providing insight on the inceptor dynamic force-feel characteristics was conducted on the NASA/Army CH-47B variable-stability helicopter [2]. This work led to a proposed requirement that set boundaries based on the cyclic natural frequency and inertia, with the stipulation of a lower damping ratio limit of 0.3 [3]. A second study was conducted by the Canadian Institute for Aerospace Research using their variable-stability Bell 205A helicopter [4]. This research suggested boundaries for stick dynamics based on natural frequency and damping

  4. Response of Pacific walruses to disturbances from capture and handling activities at a haul-out in Bristol Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, C.V.; Olson, Tamara L.; Garner, G.W.; Ballachey, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Observations were made on hems of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) to study their response during the capturing and handling of adult males in summer 1995 at a haul-out at Cape Peirce in southwestern Alaska. Three behaviors (alertness, displacement, and dispersal) were quantified from 16 capture sessions. Herd sizes ranged from 622 to 5,289 walruses. Handling of an immobilized walrus consisted of attempts to attach telemetry devices to the tusks and collect various biological samples. Handling activities resulted in an average of about 10-fold or greater levels of behavior in alertness, displacement, and dispersal than during precapture and darting periods. High levels of behavior usually occurred within the first 45 min of handling. In 8 of 10 capture sessions, walruses returned to predisturbance levels of behavior within 40 min of cessation of the handling disturbance. Alertness and displacement were moderately and negatively correlated with herd size during the handling period, which may reflect an effect of a threshold distance from the point of disturbance to responding individuals. Observations of walruses tagged with VHF radio transmitters indicated that the activities from a given capture session did not preclude tagged walruses from using the haul-out over a subsequent 11-wk monitoring period. Moreover, non-tagged walruses continued to extensively use the haul-out during and after the period in which capture sessions were conducted.

  5. Laboratory Activity on Sample Handling and Maintaining a Laboratory Notebook through Simple pH Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, Mitzy A.; March, Joe L.

    2016-01-01

    Sample handling and laboratory notebook maintenance are necessary skills but can seem abstract if not presented to students in context. An introductory exercise focusing on proper sample handling, data collection and laboratory notebook keeping for the general chemistry laboratory was developed to emphasize the importance of keeping an accurate…

  6. Of "what" and "where" in a natural search task: Active object handling supports object location memory beyond the object's identity.

    PubMed

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2016-08-01

    Looking for as well as actively manipulating objects that are relevant to ongoing behavioral goals are intricate parts of natural behavior. It is, however, not clear to what degree these two forms of interaction with our visual environment differ with regard to their memory representations. In a real-world paradigm, we investigated if physically engaging with objects as part of a search task influences identity and position memory differently for task-relevant versus irrelevant objects. Participants equipped with a mobile eye tracker either searched for cued objects without object interaction (Find condition) or actively collected the objects they found (Handle condition). In the following free-recall task, identity memory was assessed, demonstrating superior memory for relevant compared to irrelevant objects, but no difference between the Handle and Find conditions. Subsequently, location memory was inferred via times to first fixation in a final object search task. Active object manipulation and task-relevance interacted in that location memory for relevant objects was superior to irrelevant ones only in the Handle condition. Including previous object recall performance as a covariate in the linear mixed-model analysis of times to first fixation allowed us to explore the interaction between remembered/forgotten object identities and the execution of location memory. Identity memory performance predicted location memory in the Find but not the Handle condition, suggesting that active object handling leads to strong spatial representations independent of object identity memory. We argue that object handling facilitates the prioritization of relevant location information, but this might come at the cost of deprioritizing irrelevant information.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and coated on one side of the film. T...

  8. Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) over Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) are reviewed and their relationship to ACF structure and texture are discussed. These advantages make ACF very attractive for gas storage applications. Both adsorbed natural gas (ANG) and hydrogen gas adsorption performance are discussed. The predicted and actual structure and performance of lignin-derived ACF is reviewed. The manufacture and performance of ACF derived monolith for potential automotive natural gas (NG) storage applications is reported Future trends for ACF for gas storage are considered to be positive. The recent improvements in NG extraction coupled with the widespread availability of NG wells means a relatively inexpensive and abundant NG supply in the foreseeable future. This has rekindled interest in NG powered vehicles. The advantages and benefit of ANG compared to compressed NG offer the promise of accelerated use of ANG as a commuter vehicle fuel. It is to be hoped the current cost hurdle of ACF can be overcome opening ANG applications that take advantage of the favorable properties of ACF versus GAC. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the direction of future work.

  9. Remediation of the site of a former active handling building at UKAEA- Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, Jack; Brown, Nick; Cornell, Rowland; Jessop, Gareth

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Since July 2000, NUKEM Limited has been carrying out the decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building, A59 at Winfrith, Dorset, United Kingdom (UK) under contract from the nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, (UKAEA). The building contained two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements and other supporting facilities which have all been decontaminated ready to permit building demolition. The demolition of the building structure and the removal of one cave line was completed during 2006 and the second cave line was demolished by March 2007. The remaining operations to be completed concern removal of the building slab and remediation of underlying soils to the final end point, free for unrestricted use without planning or nuclear regulatory control. Within the building base slab there are a range of contaminated items including secondary drain pipes, filter pits, storage hole liners and ventilation ducts which all have to be recovered for disposal along with around 4,000 m{sup 3} of surrounding concrete. In order to characterise the slab before its removal, supporting information has been obtained from site investigation work including a collimated low resolution, high sensitivity gamma survey using the GroundhogTM system of the foundation slab and the recovery and analysis of 27 cores obtained by drilling through the slab into the underlying soil. During removal of the slab it will be necessary to employ a variety of monitoring techniques to locate and remove the contaminated sections and then expose and monitor the underlying soil for evidence of any residual radioactivity. (authors)

  10. Completion of the decommissioning of a former active handling building at UKAEA Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2007-07-01

    Since July 2000, NUKEM Limited has been carrying out the full decommissioning of a former Active Handling Building A59 at Winfrith in Dorset under contract from the nuclear site licence holder, UKAEA. Work has generally centred upon clearance and decontamination of the two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements although a number of other supporting facilities are also involved. This work has proceeded successfully to completion following extensive decontamination of the caves and associated facilities and has been followed by the recent demolition of the main containment building structure. This has permitted a start to be made on the demolition of the two heavily shielded suites of caves which is to be followed by removal of the building slab and restoration of the site. This paper reviews some of the significant tasks undertaken during the past year in preparation for the building and cave line demolition operations. It also reviews the building structure removal and recent progress made with the demolition of the two heavily reinforced concrete cave lines. The procedure used for monitoring the concrete debris from the cave lines has had to be revised during these operations and the reasons for this and a temporary delay in the cave line demolition will be discussed in the context of the remaining sections of the programme. This decommissioning programme has been achieved throughout by the employment of a non-adversarial team working approach between client and contractor. This has been instrumental in developing cost-effective and safe solutions to a range of problems during the programme, demonstrating the worth of adopting this co-operative approach for mutual benefit. (authors)

  11. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

  12. Dexamethasone-induced cardiac deterioration is associated with both calcium handling abnormalities and calcineurin signaling pathway activation.

    PubMed

    de Salvi Guimarães, Fabiana; de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Bozi, Luis Henrique Marchesi; Souza, Pâmela R; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Dexamethasone is a potent and widely used anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug. However, recent evidences suggest that dexamethasone cause pathologic cardiac remodeling, which later impairs cardiac function. The mechanism behind the cardiotoxic effect of dexamethasone is elusive. The present study aimed to verify if dexamethasone-induced cardiotoxicity would be associated with changes in the cardiac net balance of calcium handling protein and calcineurin signaling pathway activation. Wistar rats (~400 g) were treated with dexamethasone (35 µg/g) in drinking water for 15 days. After dexamethasone treatment, we analyzed cardiac function, cardiomyocyte diameter, cardiac fibrosis, and the expression of proteins involved in calcium handling and calcineurin signaling pathway. Dexamethasone-treated rats showed several cardiovascular abnormalities, including elevated blood pressure, diastolic dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Regarding the expression of proteins involved in calcium handling, dexamethasone increased phosphorylation of phospholamban at threonine 17, reduced protein levels of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and had no effect on protein expression of Serca2a. Protein levels of NFAT and GATA-4 were increased in both cytoplasmic and nuclear faction. In addition, dexamethasone increased nuclear protein levels of calcineurin. Altogether our findings suggest that dexamethasone causes pathologic cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction, which is associated with impaired calcium handling and calcineurin signaling pathway activation.

  13. Lumbar-load analysis of manual patient-handling activities for biomechanical overload prevention among healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Matthias; Jordan, Claus; Theilmeier, Andreas; Wortmann, Norbert; Kuhn, Stefan; Nienhaus, Albert; Luttmann, Alwin

    2013-05-01

    Manual patient handling commonly induces high mechanical load on the lower back of healthcare workers. A long-term research project, the 'Third Dortmund Lumbar Load Study' (DOLLY 3), was conducted to investigate the lumbar load of caregivers during handling activities that are considered 'definitely endangering' in the context of worker's compensation procedures. Nine types of handling activities in or at a bed or chair were analysed. Measurement of action forces via specifically developed devices and posture recording by means of optoelectronic marker capturing and video recordings in order to quantify several lumbar-load indicators was previously described in detail. This paper provides the results of laboratory examinations and subsequent biomechanical model calculations focused on lumbar load and the potentials of load reduction by applying biomechanically 'optimized' transfer modes instead of a 'conventional' technique and, for a subgroup of tasks, the supplementary usage of small aids such as a sliding mat or a glide board. Lumbosacral-disc compressive force may vary considerably with respect to the performed task, the mode of execution, and individual performance. For any activity type, highest values were found for conventional performance, lower ones for the improved transfer mode, and the lowest compressive-force values were gathered when small aids were applied. Statistical significance was verified for 13 of these 17 comparisons. Analysing indicators for asymmetric loading shows that lateral-bending and torsional moments of force at the lumbosacral disc may reach high values, which can be reduced considerably by implementing an improved handling mode. When evaluating biomechanical loads with respect to age- and gender-specific work-design limits, none of the analysed tasks, despite execution mode, resulted in an acceptable load range. Therefore, applying a biomechanically adequate handling mode combined with small aids to lower the friction between

  14. Making Activated Carbon for Storing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Serio, Michael A.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    Solid disks of microporous activated carbon, produced by a method that enables optimization of pore structure, have been investigated as means of storing gas (especially hydrogen for use as a fuel) at relatively low pressure through adsorption on pore surfaces. For hydrogen and other gases of practical interest, a narrow distribution of pore sizes <2 nm is preferable. The present method is a variant of a previously patented method of cyclic chemisorption and desorption in which a piece of carbon is alternately (1) heated to the lower of two elevated temperatures in air or other oxidizing gas, causing the formation of stable carbon/oxygen surface complexes; then (2) heated to the higher of the two elevated temperatures in flowing helium or other inert gas, causing the desorption of the surface complexes in the form of carbon monoxide. In the present method, pore structure is optimized partly by heating to a temperature of 1,100 C during carbonization. Another aspect of the method exploits the finding that for each gas-storage pressure, gas-storage capacity can be maximized by burning off a specific proportion (typically between 10 and 20 weight percent) of the carbon during the cyclic chemisorption/desorption process.

  15. In Flight Evaluation of Active Inceptor Force-Feel Characteristics and Handling Qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lusardi, Jeff A.; Blanken, Chris L.; Ott, Carl Raymond; Malpica, Carlos A.; von Gruenhagen, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inceptor feel-system characteristics on piloted handling qualities has been a research topic of interest for many years. Most of the research efforts have focused on advanced fly-by-wire fixed-wing aircraft with only a few studies investigating the effects on rotorcraft. Consequently, only limited guidance is available on how cyclic force-feel characteristics should be set to obtain optimal handling qualities for rotorcraft. To study this effect, the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate working with the DLR Institute of Flight Systems in Germany under Task X of the U.S. German Memorandum of Understanding have been conducting flight test evaluations. In the U.S., five experimental test pilots have completed evaluations of two Mission Task Elements (MTEs) from ADS-33E-PRF and two command/response types for a matrix of center-stick cyclic force-feel characteristics at Moffett Field. In Germany, three experimental test Pilots have conducted initial evaluations of the two MTEs with two command/response types for a parallel matrix of side-stick cyclic force-feel characteristics at WTD-61 in Manching. The resulting data set is used to correlate the effect of changes in natural frequency and damping ratio of the cyclic inceptor on the piloted handling qualities. Existing criteria in ADS-33E and a proposed Handling Qualities Sensitivity Function that includes the effects of the cyclic force-feel characteristics are also evaluated against the data set and discussed.

  16. Analysis of Handling Qualities Design Criteria for Active Inceptor Force-Feel Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    a classical regulatory compensatory task. Sub-components for the structural pilot include neuromuscular dynamics ( ), proprioceptive and vestibular...feedback ( and ̇ respectively), and the visual error compensation ( ). Proprioceptive feedback fundamentally accounts for the ability of...inside of the proprioceptive feedback loop. This allows for the modeling approach to be of use in predicting the handling qualities impact of the

  17. Coal Handling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    of the consumer have increased, and one might say, almost in proporticr to the increase in the size of boilers . At a small power plant, it may be...of either portable or fixed type radiant heater using either electric or gas. (NOTE: Radiant heaters are used to avoid explosions and fires ). Another...be divided into two categories according to purpose. Live or active storage supplies the firing equipme r n directly, while dead or inactive gtorage is

  18. Review of the Strength and Capacity Data for Manual Material Handling Activities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    sacroiliac joint theory, psychoneurosis theory, disc theory, muscle spasm theory, and facet joint theory. There have been conflicting studies on lower back...that a sagittal plane would pass through the center of the suspended handle and his shoulder joint . In addition, another task, procedurally identical...apply Newtonian mechanics to the human frame to provide data on reactive forces and torques on the various joints , links and other critical parts of

  19. Effects of restrictive clothing on lumbar range of motion and trunk muscle activity in young adult worker manual material handling.

    PubMed

    Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Buttagat, Vitsarut; Areeudomwong, Pattanasin; Pramodhyakul, Noppol; Swangnetr, Manida; Kaber, David; Puntumetakul, Rungthip

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of wearing restrictive trousers on lumbar spine movement, trunk muscle activity and low back discomfort (LBD) in simulations of manual material handling (MMH) tasks. Twenty-eight young adults participated in the study performing box lifting, liquid container handling while squatting, and forward reaching while sitting on a task chair when wearing tight pants (sizes too small for the wearer) vs. fit pants (correct size according to anthropometry). Each task was repeated three times and video recordings were used as a basis for measuring lumbar range of motion (LRoM). The response was normalized in terms on baseline hip mobility. Trunk muscle activity of rectus abdominis (RA) and erector spinae (ES) muscles were also measured in each trial and normalized. At the close of each trial, participants rated LBD using a visual analog scale. Results revealed significant effects of both pants and task types on the normalized LRoM, trunk muscle activity and subjective ratings of LBD. The LRoM was higher and trunk muscle (ES) activity was lower for participants when wearing tight pants, as compared to fit pants. Discomfort ratings were significantly higher for tight pants than fit. These results provide guidance for recommendations on work clothing fit in specific types of MMH activities in order to reduce the potential of low-back pain among younger workers in industrial companies.

  20. Droplet Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Toru

    When quantitative analysis or quantitative chemical synthesis is performed using a micrototal analysis system (microTAS), the technologies for precise metering, transporting, and mixing of droplets are required. In this chapter, several technologies for the handling of droplets are described. For metering, dispensing and transporting of droplets, pneumatic and electrokinetic forces are used. Separation of cells and particles is also performed by electrical operation. Other handling technique, such as ultrasonic or centrifugal force applications, are also reviewed. Robotic synthesis devices or high throughput screening devices are promising applications for these technologies.

  1. Droplet handling.

    PubMed

    Torii, Toru

    2010-01-01

    When quantitative analysis or quantitative chemical synthesis is performed using a micrototal analysis system (microTAS), the technologies for precise metering, transporting, and mixing of droplets are required. In this chapter, several technologies for the handling of droplets are described. For metering, dispensing and transporting of droplets, pneumatic and electrokinetic forces are used. Separation of cells and particles is also performed by electrical operation. Other handling technique, such as ultrasonic or centrifugal force applications, are also reviewed. Robotic synthesis devices or high throughput screening devices are promising applications for these technologies.

  2. Investigation of shallow gas hydrate occurrence and gas seep activity on the Sakhalin continental slope, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Young Keun; Baranov, Boris; Obzhirov, Anatoly; Salomatin, Alexander; Derkachev, Alexander; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Minami, Hrotsugu; Kuk Hong, Jong

    2016-04-01

    The Sakhalin continental slope has been a well-known gas hydrate area since the first finding of gas hydrate in 1980's. This area belongs to the southernmost glacial sea in the northern hemisphere where most of the area sea is covered by sea ice the winter season. Very high organic carbon content in the sediment, cold sea environment, and active tectonic regime in the Sakhalin slope provide a very favorable condition for occurring shallow gas hydrate accumulation and gas emission phenomena. Research expeditions under the framework of a Korean-Russian-Japanese long-term international collaboration projects (CHAOS, SSGH-I, SSGH-II projects) have been conducted to investigate gas hydrate occurrence and gas seepage activities on the Sakhalin continental slope, Russia from 2003 to 2015. During the expeditions, near-surface gas hydrate samples at more than 30 sites have been retrieved and hundreds of active gas seepage structures on the seafloor were newly registered by multidisciplinary surveys. The gas hydrates occurrence at the various water depths from about 300 m to 1000 m in the study area were accompanied by active gas seepage-related phenomena in the sub-bottom, on the seafloor, and in the water column: well-defined upward gas migration structures (gas chimney) imaged by high-resolution seismic, hydroacoustic anomalies of gas emissions (gas flares) detected by echosounders, seafloor high backscatter intensities (seepage structures) imaged by side-scan sonar and bathymetric structures (pockmarks and mounds) mapped by single/multi-beam surveys, and very shallow SMTZ (sulphate-methane transition zone) depths, strong microbial activities and high methane concentrations measured in sediment/seawater samples. The highlights of the expeditions are shallow gas hydrate occurrences around 300 m in the water depth which is nearly closed to the upper boundary of gas hydrate stability zone in the area and a 2,000 m-high gas flare emitted from the deep seafloor.

  3. Preliminary study of gill NA+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon following electroshock or handling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    We compared gill Na+,K+-ATPase in subyearling and yearling spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 3 h, 24 h, and 7 d after exposure to either a short pulsed DC electroshock (300 V, 50 Hz, 8-ms pulse duration) or an acute handling stress. Mean gill Na+,K+-ATPase values ranged from 7.5 to 11.8 ??mol inorganic phosphate (Pi) ?? (mg protein)-1 ?? h-1. No significant differences were detected, with the exception of electroshocked subyearlings 7 d after treatment. Increased activity was attributed to the presence of two influential values. No significant differences were detected after removal of these observations, so the increase was not considered biologically significant. Inclusion of the outliers did not alter our interpretation of the results given that the observed increase was slight compared with the magnitude of changes reported under experimental conditions and in migrating juvenile salmonids. The treatment groups underwent a typical stress response and had significantly elevated cortisol and glucose levels 3 h after treatment. Recovery to control levels occurred within 24 h for cortisol and from 24 h to 7 d for glucose. Our results lead to the conclusion that neither acute electroshock nor acute handling stress alters Na+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon.

  4. Activity inference for Ambient Intelligence through handling artifacts in a healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Francisco E; González-Fraga, Jose Ángel; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C; Rodríguez, Marcela D

    2012-01-01

    Human activity inference is not a simple process due to distinct ways of performing it. Our proposal presents the SCAN framework for activity inference. SCAN is divided into three modules: (1) artifact recognition, (2) activity inference, and (3) activity representation, integrating three important elements of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) (artifact-behavior modeling, event interpretation and context extraction). The framework extends the roaming beat (RB) concept by obtaining the representation using three kinds of technologies for activity inference. The RB is based on both analysis and recognition from artifact behavior for activity inference. A practical case is shown in a nursing home where a system affording 91.35% effectiveness was implemented in situ. Three examples are shown using RB representation for activity representation. Framework description, RB description and CALog system overcome distinct problems such as the feasibility to implement AmI systems, and to show the feasibility for accomplishing the challenges related to activity recognition based on artifact recognition. We discuss how the use of RBs might positively impact the problems faced by designers and developers for recovering information in an easier manner and thus they can develop tools focused on the user.

  5. Activity Inference for Ambient Intelligence Through Handling Artifacts in a Healthcare Environment

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pérez, Francisco E.; González-Fraga, Jose Ángel; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C.; Rodríguez, Marcela D.

    2012-01-01

    Human activity inference is not a simple process due to distinct ways of performing it. Our proposal presents the SCAN framework for activity inference. SCAN is divided into three modules: (1) artifact recognition, (2) activity inference, and (3) activity representation, integrating three important elements of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) (artifact-behavior modeling, event interpretation and context extraction). The framework extends the roaming beat (RB) concept by obtaining the representation using three kinds of technologies for activity inference. The RB is based on both analysis and recognition from artifact behavior for activity inference. A practical case is shown in a nursing home where a system affording 91.35% effectiveness was implemented in situ. Three examples are shown using RB representation for activity representation. Framework description, RB description and CALog system overcome distinct problems such as the feasibility to implement AmI systems, and to show the feasibility for accomplishing the challenges related to activity recognition based on artifact recognition. We discuss how the use of RBs might positively impact the problems faced by designers and developers for recovering information in an easier manner and thus they can develop tools focused on the user. PMID:22368512

  6. Integrated treatment and handling of highly activated components from nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.A.; Kiolbassa, A.; Rose, K.A.; Raymont, J.M. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    A complete Underwater Treatment System (UTS) is described for activated/contaminated components of various origins in the nuclear industry. The system comprises different kinds of cutting/compacting equipment: the USC (Underwater Shear/compactor), the SCS (Stellite Corner Shear), the VLS (Velocity Limiter Shear) and the LCS (Light Crusher Shear). Transfer and loading equipment, the STB (Shielded Transfer Bell) provides safe and economic loading of containers with cut components. Operating experience and performance data are presented.

  7. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits & Approval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement or record of decision shall result in shutdown of an operational

  8. 78 FR 59650 - Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, (Synthetic Natural Gas), Kapolei, Hawaii On May 22, 2013, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ)...

  9. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David B.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1985-01-01

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  10. Analysis of core samples from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert gas hydrate stratigraphic test well: Insights into core disturbance and handling

    SciTech Connect

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Lu, Hailong; Winters, William; Boswell, Ray; Hunter, Robert; Collett, Timothy S.

    2009-09-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  11. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  12. Syringe test screening of microbial gas production activity: Cases denitrification and biogas formation.

    PubMed

    Østgaard, Kjetill; Kowarz, Viktoria; Shuai, Wang; Henry, Ingrid A; Sposob, Michal; Haugen, Hildegunn Hegna; Bakke, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Mass produced plastic syringes may be applied as vessels for cheap, simple and large scale batch culture testing. As illustrated for the cases of denitrification and of biogas formation, metabolic activity was monitored by direct reading of the piston movement due to the gas volume formed. Pressure buildup due to friction was shown to be moderate. A piston pull and slide back routine can be applied before recording gas volume to minimize experimental errors due to friction. Inoculum handling and activity may be conveniently standardized as illustrated by applying biofilm carriers. A robust set of positive as well as negative controls ("blanks") should be included to ensure quality of the actual testing. The denitrification test showed saturation response at increasing amounts of inoculum in the form of adapted moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers, with well correlated nitrate consumption vs. gas volume formed. As shown, the denitrification test efficiently screened different inocula at standardized substrates. Also, different substrates were successfully screened and compared at standardized inocula. The biogas potential test showed efficient screening of different substrates with effects of relative amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat. A second case with CO2 capture reclaimer waste as substrate demonstrated successful use of co-feeding to support waste treatment and how temperature effects on kinetics and stoichiometry can be observed. In total, syringe test screening of microbial gas production seems highly efficient at a low cost when properly applied.

  13. Development of an improved active gas target design for ANASEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, Sabina; Blackmon, J. C.; Deibel, C. M.; Macon, K. T.; Rasco, B. C.; Wiedenhoever, I.

    2014-09-01

    The Array for Nuclear Astrophysics and Structure with Exotic Nuclei (ANASEN) is a charged particle detector array with an active gas target-detector capability for sensitive measurements using radioactive ion beams. One of the main goals is to improve our understanding of nuclear reactions important in stellar explosions. Following initial experimental campaigns with ANASEN, we have been developing an improved active gas target design for ANASEN that incorporates an innovative cylindrical gas ionization detector for heavy ions surrounding the beam axis inside of the other ANASEN charged particle detectors. The detection of heavy ions in coincidence with lighter ions in a redesigned proportional counter will provide greater discriminating power. The new active gas target design will be presented, and its simulated performance will be compared with test data. The Array for Nuclear Astrophysics and Structure with Exotic Nuclei (ANASEN) is a charged particle detector array with an active gas target-detector capability for sensitive measurements using radioactive ion beams. One of the main goals is to improve our understanding of nuclear reactions important in stellar explosions. Following initial experimental campaigns with ANASEN, we have been developing an improved active gas target design for ANASEN that incorporates an innovative cylindrical gas ionization detector for heavy ions surrounding the beam axis inside of the other ANASEN charged particle detectors. The detection of heavy ions in coincidence with lighter ions in a redesigned proportional counter will provide greater discriminating power. The new active gas target design will be presented, and its simulated performance will be compared with test data. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Dept of Energy's Office of Science.

  14. Handling Hypothermia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saho, S. Bamba

    1996-01-01

    Presents a unit on the body's response to hypothermia. Includes activities in which students measure the amount of heat absorbed by a white piece of cloth and a black piece of the same material, use cooperative-learning techniques to design a graphic organizer that explains metabolic responses to cold stress, and study the effect of temperature on…

  15. An analysis of flaring and venting activity in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew R; Coderre, Adam R

    2011-02-01

    Alberta, Canada, is an important global producer of petroleum resources. In association with this production, large amounts of gas (1.14 billion m3 in 2008) are flared or vented. Although the amount of flaring and venting has been measurably reduced since 2002, data from 2005 reveal sharp increases in venting, which have important implications in terms of resource conservation and greenhouse gas emissions (which exceeded 8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2008). With use of extensive monthly production data for 18,203 active batteries spanning the years 2002-2008 obtained in close cooperation with the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, a detailed analysis has been completed to examine activity patterns of flaring and venting and reasons behind these trends in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry. In any given year, approximately 6000 batteries reported flaring and/or venting, but the distribution of volumes flared and vented at individual sites was highly skewed, such that small numbers of sites handled large fractions of the total gas flaring and venting in the Province. Examination of month-to-month volume variability at individual sites, cast in terms of a nominal turndown ratio that would be required for a compressor to capture that gas and direct it into a pipeline, further revealed that volumes at a majority of sites were reasonably stable and there was no evidence that larger or more stable sites had been preferentially reduced, leaving potential barriers to future mitigation. Through linking of geospatial data with production data coupled with additional statistical analysis, the 31.2% increase in venting volumes since 2005 was revealed to be predominantly associated with increased production of heavier oils and bitumen in the Lloydminster region of the Province. Overall, the data suggest that quite significant reductions in flaring and venting could be realized by seeking mitigation solutions for only the largest batteries in

  16. Gas and Chemical Activation of Charcoal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-06-29

    supplemented ’ by runs in the laboratory has shown that zinc chloride is by far the most suitable activating agent. 1. In the dehydration mixing of...istics with time of dehydration . 3. The physical appearance of the mixture during the impregnation pperation provides sufficient significant information...to enable the operator to predict .mechanical characteristics of the briquet. CONFIDENTIAL " • ’< i£: • CONFIDENTIAL -4- 4* In the dehydration

  17. Dazomet Fumigant Safe Handling Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dazomet is the active ingredient in Basamid G soil fumigant pesticide. Wear personal protective equipment such as respirators when handling Basamid granules or making an application, mitigate exposures, and recognize signs of vapor inhalation.

  18. 77 FR 58616 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Annual Report, Gas Transmission...

  19. Platelets: handle with care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S

    2016-10-01

    Platelets are delicate cells that require careful handling between collection, preparation and transfusion. This review addresses practical questions relating to platelet concentration, resting time after collection, total time and number of periods without agitation and temperature. The bags in which platelets are stored are made from gas-permeable plastic to allow sufficient oxygen for the platelets to maintain aerobic respiration. Manufacturers have assigned limits for platelet content and concentration, and these must not be exceeded. There is no strong evidence for or against the resting of platelets post-collection and pre-agitation, but platelets should not be over-wrapped during this period as this compromises gas exchange; a short rest period of up to 1 h may allow the separation of minor aggregates. It is necessary to transport platelet concentrates (e.g. from manufacturing site to hospital), but these periods without gas exchange must be limited to avoid excessive damage to the platelets. Current data support a total of 24 h of transportation per component but with no individual period lasting more than 8 h. Platelets need to be stored at 20-24 °C based on evidence that colder storage leads to irreversible changes on the platelet membrane, resulting in phagocytosis of the platelets following transfusion. Storage at warmer temperatures may lead to an increase in bacterial risk. On the basis of this review, the UK Guidelines for Blood Transfusion Services have been updated to ensure that platelets are handled in the most appropriate way to ensure that efficacious components are provided for patients.

  20. The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive alternatives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas comprises about a quarter of the United States’ energy use. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal due to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit, less costly per unit of energy and more readily available domestically in abundant supply. However, due to a number of barriers in the political, infrastructural, pricing and other arenas, the use of natural gas as a significant energy source in the United States has been limited. In our paper, we highlight the favorable qualities of natural gas and its benefits for the consumer, producer, and environment, having compared the costs of the various components of the natural gas business such as drilling and transport to that of coal and oil. Moreover, we touch upon the major issues that have prevented a more prevalent use of the gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure of natural gas is more costly since it is transported though pipelines whereas other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible systems that use trains, trucks and ships. In addition, the powerful lobbies of the coal and oil businesses, along with the inertia in the congress to pass a national climate change bill further dampens incentives for these industries to invest in natural gas, despite its various attractive qualities. We also include discussions of policy proposals to incentive greater use of natural gas in the future. PMID:22540989

  1. The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive alternatives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fang-Yu; Ryvak, Marta; Sayeed, Sara; Zhao, Nick

    2012-04-23

    Natural gas comprises about a quarter of the United States' energy use. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal due to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit, less costly per unit of energy and more readily available domestically in abundant supply. However, due to a number of barriers in the political, infrastructural, pricing and other arenas, the use of natural gas as a significant energy source in the United States has been limited. In our paper, we highlight the favorable qualities of natural gas and its benefits for the consumer, producer, and environment, having compared the costs of the various components of the natural gas business such as drilling and transport to that of coal and oil. Moreover, we touch upon the major issues that have prevented a more prevalent use of the gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure of natural gas is more costly since it is transported though pipelines whereas other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible systems that use trains, trucks and ships. In addition, the powerful lobbies of the coal and oil businesses, along with the inertia in the congress to pass a national climate change bill further dampens incentives for these industries to invest in natural gas, despite its various attractive qualities. We also include discussions of policy proposals to incentive greater use of natural gas in the future.

  2. Grain-based activated carbons for natural gas storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tengyan; Walawender, Walter P; Fan, L T

    2010-03-01

    Natural gas has emerged as a potential alternative to gasoline due to the increase in global energy demand and environmental concerns. An investigation was undertaken to explore the technical feasibility of implementing the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles with activated carbons from biomass, e.g., sorghum and wheat. The grain-based activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation; the experimental parameters were varied to identify the optimum conditions. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was evaluated through nitrogen adsorption; and the storage capacity, through methane adsorption. A comparative study was also carried out with commercial activated carbons from charcoal. The highest storage factor attained was 89 for compacted grain-based activated carbons from grain sorghum with a bulk density of 0.65 g/cm(3), and the highest storage factor attained is 106 for compacted commercial activated carbons (Calgon) with a bulk density of 0.70 g/cm(3). The storage factor was found to increase approximately linearly with increasing bulk density and to be independent of the extent of compaction. This implies that the grain-based activated carbons are the ideal candidates for the ANG storage.

  3. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project-longitudinal handling qualities study of a relaxed-stability airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of a piloted simulation of longitudinal handling qualities of an airplane with relaxed static stability are described. This task was performed under the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology Project within the NASA Energy Efficient Transport Program. A representative medium range transport airplane, the Boeing Model 757, was simulated. Evaluations were made of the unaugmented airplane and of the airplane with an Essential Pitch Augmented Stability (PAS) System and with a Primary PAS System at various center of gravity (cg) conditions. Level 2 pilot ratings were attained with cg locations aft to about 57% mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) or 6% aft of the neutral point for unaugmented landing approach. For Mach = 0.80, unaugmented cruise Level 2 ratings were attained to 47% MAC or 5% forward of the maneuver point. The augmented airplane model provided handling qualities close to or within the Level 1 boundary at all cg locations for both Essential and Primary PAS. Analyses of the test conditions when compared with existing handling qualities criteria based on classical unaugmented airplane characteristics agreed well with the pilot ratings. The unaugmented results are comparable to those reported by both the Douglas Aircraft Company and Lockheed California Company from simulation investigations of transport configurations with roughly similar dimensional and mass characteristics.

  4. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  5. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  6. The horse-human dyad: can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram?

    PubMed

    McGreevy, P D; Oddie, C; Burton, F L; McLean, A N

    2009-07-01

    This article examines the recently completed equid ethogram and shows how analogues of social interactions between horses may occur in various human-horse interactions. It discusses how some specific horse-horse interactions have a corresponding horse-human interaction - some of which may be directly beneficial for the horse while others may be unusual or even abnormal. It also shows how correspondent behaviours sometimes become inappropriate because of their duration, consistency or context. One analogue is unlikely to hold true for all horse-human contexts, so when applying any model from horse-horse interactions to human-horse interactions, the limitations of the model may eclipse the intended outcome of the intervention. These limitations are especially likely when the horse is being ridden. Such analyses may help to determine the validity of extrapolating intra-specific interactions to the inter-specific setting, as is advocated by some popular horse-training methods, and highlight the subsequent limitations where humans play the role of the 'alpha mare' or leader in horse handling and training. This examination provides a constructive framework for further informed debate and empirical investigation of the critical features of successful intra-specific interactions.

  7. Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

  8. Handling real-world context awareness, uncertainty and vagueness in real-time human activity tracking and recognition with a fuzzy ontology-based hybrid method.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Natalia; Cadahía, Olmo León; Cuéllar, Manuel Pegalajar; Lilius, Johan; Calvo-Flores, Miguel Delgado

    2014-09-29

    Human activity recognition is a key task in ambient intelligence applications to achieve proper ambient assisted living. There has been remarkable progress in this domain, but some challenges still remain to obtain robust methods. Our goal in this work is to provide a system that allows the modeling and recognition of a set of complex activities in real life scenarios involving interaction with the environment. The proposed framework is a hybrid model that comprises two main modules: a low level sub-activity recognizer, based on data-driven methods, and a high-level activity recognizer, implemented with a fuzzy ontology to include the semantic interpretation of actions performed by users. The fuzzy ontology is fed by the sub-activities recognized by the low level data-driven component and provides fuzzy ontological reasoning to recognize both the activities and their influence in the environment with semantics. An additional benefit of the approach is the ability to handle vagueness and uncertainty in the knowledge-based module, which substantially outperforms the treatment of incomplete and/or imprecise data with respect to classic crisp ontologies. We validate these advantages with the public CAD-120 dataset (Cornell Activity Dataset), achieving an accuracy of 90.1% and 91.07% for low-level and Sensors 2014, 14 18132 high-level activities, respectively. This entails an improvement over fully data-driven or ontology-based approaches.

  9. Handling Real-World Context Awareness, Uncertainty and Vagueness in Real-Time Human Activity Tracking and Recognition with a Fuzzy Ontology-Based Hybrid Method

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Natalia; Cadahía, Olmo León; Cuéllar, Manuel Pegalajar; Lilius, Johan; Calvo-Flores, Miguel Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Human activity recognition is a key task in ambient intelligence applications to achieve proper ambient assisted living. There has been remarkable progress in this domain, but some challenges still remain to obtain robust methods. Our goal in this work is to provide a system that allows the modeling and recognition of a set of complex activities in real life scenarios involving interaction with the environment. The proposed framework is a hybrid model that comprises two main modules: a low level sub-activity recognizer, based on data-driven methods, and a high-level activity recognizer, implemented with a fuzzy ontology to include the semantic interpretation of actions performed by users. The fuzzy ontology is fed by the sub-activities recognized by the low level data-driven component and provides fuzzy ontological reasoning to recognize both the activities and their influence in the environment with semantics. An additional benefit of the approach is the ability to handle vagueness and uncertainty in the knowledge-based module, which substantially outperforms the treatment of incomplete and/or imprecise data with respect to classic crisp ontologies. We validate these advantages with the public CAD-120 dataset (Cornell Activity Dataset), achieving an accuracy of 90.1% and 91.07% for low-level and high-level activities, respectively. This entails an improvement over fully data-driven or ontology-based approaches. PMID:25268914

  10. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (<0.044 mm). The increase in Vm/Vs is due to the increase in bulk density of the carbons. Volumetric methane adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  12. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A.; Noh, Joong S.; Agarwal, Rajiv K.

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  13. San Diego Gas and Electric Company Imperial Valley geothermal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichs, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric and its wholly owned subsidiary New Albion Resources Co. have been affiliated with Magma Power Company, Magma Energy Inc. and Chevron Oil Company for the last 2-1/2 years in carrying out geothermal research and development in the private lands of the Imperial Valley. The steps undertaken in the program are reviewed and the sequence that must be considered by companies considering geothermal research and development is emphasized. Activities at the south end of the Salton Sea and in the Heber area of Imperial Valley are leading toward development of demonstration facilities within the near future. The current status of the project is reported.

  14. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Multi-stage desulfurizing fluid-bed combustor for coal-fired hot gas generator systems: Topical report No. 3. Task 6. Modifications to Materials Handling Equipment. Task 7. Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, C.

    1981-04-01

    This report covers the modification of Materials Handling Equipment, Testing and Program Management of Tasks 6, 7 and 8 of Phase 2. The Cohogg system contains a pyrolyzer for partial gasification of the coal through sub-stoichiometric combustion, a char burner which burns the char (generated in the pyrolyzer) in excess air, and an afterburner where the pyrolyzer gases and the char burner gases mix to produce a high temperature (approx. 3000/sup 0/F) environmentally clean flame capable of replacing an oil or gas burner. The system has operated successfully and demonstrated the capability of producing an environmentally clean high temperature flame. Operation with 15% excess air overall demonstrated a 3200/sup 0/F capability while sulfur retention was in excess of 90%. After more than 100 hours of operation the system shows itself to have flexibility in coal type, sorbent type, and operating temperatures while maintaining a clean high temperature flame and meeting or exceeding current pollution restrictions.

  16. 78 FR 10261 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the revision of the gas distribution annual report... Report PHMSA intends to revise the gas distribution annual report (PHMSA F 7100.1-1, gas...

  17. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  18. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  19. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  20. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S> ; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation Portable Life Support System (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen (O2) channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the initial instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments leveraging the lessons learned were desired. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU. .

  1. 77 FR 22387 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Annual Report, Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Incident Report, and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems Accident Report AGENCY:...

  2. Cost leveling continues; planned activity drops sharply in US gas pipeline cnstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1986-02-01

    Natural gas pipeline construction costs, as measured by the OGJ-Morgan Pipeline cost index for US gas-pipeline construction, barely crept up in the second quarter 1985. Construction activity for lines and compressor stations was down.

  3. Fugitive greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas activities - a case study of Dish, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Roscoe, B.; Lary, D.; Schaefer, D.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Brian, A.; DiGangi, J.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluate new findings on aerial (horizontal and vertical) mapping of methane emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer region to help study fugitive methane emissions from extraction, transmission, and storage of natural gas and oil in Dish, Texas. Dish is located in the Barnett Shale which has seen explosive development of hydraulic fracking activities in recent years. The aerial measurements were performed with a new laser-based methane sensor developed specifically for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) methane sensor, with a mass of 2.5 kg and a precision of < 20 ppbv methane at 1 Hz, was flown on the UT-Dallas ARC Payload Master electronic aircraft at two sites in Texas: one representative of urban emissions of the Dallas-Fort Worth area in Richardson, Texas and another in Dish, Texas, closer to gas and oil activities. Methane mixing ratios at Dish were ubiquitously in the 3.5 - 4 ppmv range which was 1.5 - 2 ppmv higher than methane levels immediately downwind of Dallas. During the flight measurements at Dish, narrow methane plumes exceeding 20 ppmv were frequently observed at altitudes from the surface to 130 m above the ground. Based on the wind speed at the sampling location, the horizontal widths of large methane plumes were of the order of 100 m. The locations of the large methane plumes were variable in space and time over a ~ 1 km2 area sampled from the UAV. Spatial mapping over larger scales (10 km) by ground-based measurements showed similar methane levels as the UAV measurements. To corroborate our measurements, alkane and other hydrocarbon mixing ratios from an on-site TCEQ environmental monitoring station were analyzed and correlated with methane measurements to fingerprint the methane source. We show that fugitive methane emissions at Dish are a significant cause of the large and ubiquitous methane levels on the 1-10 km scale.

  4. Data Handling and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresidder, Gwen

    2006-01-01

    When marking GCSE data handling coursework, the author was repeatedly reminded just how poor the level of statistical understanding is among students. In response to a feeling that the teaching of handling data topics was limited, the author and her colleague designed a project with Y8 students to try to teach statistics for a deeper…

  5. Handling qualities of a wide-body transport airplane utilizing Pitch Active Control Systems (PACS) for relaxed static stability application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Brown, Philip W.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Hunt, George E.; Rising, J. J.; Davis, W. J.; Willey, C. S.; Weaver, W. A.; Cokeley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Piloted simulation studies have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two pitch active control systems (PACS) on the flying qualities of a wide-body transport airplane when operating at negative static margins. These two pitch active control systems consisted of a simple 'near-term' PACS and a more complex 'advanced' PACS. Eight different flight conditions, representing the entire flight envelope, were evaluated with emphasis on the cruise flight conditions. These studies were made utilizing the Langley Visual/Motion Simulator (VMS) which has six degrees of freedom. The simulation tests indicated that (1) the flying qualities of the baseline aircraft (PACS off) for the cruise and other high-speed flight conditions were unacceptable at center-of-gravity positions aft of the neutral static stability point; (2) within the linear static stability flight envelope, the near-term PACS provided acceptable flying qualities for static stabilty margins to -3 percent; and (3) with the advanced PACS operative, the flying qualities were demonstrated to be good (satisfactory to very acceptable) for static stabilty margins to -20 percent.

  6. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general. This... 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each...

  7. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each...

  8. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each...

  9. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each...

  10. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  11. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.4 Handle. Handle means to... imported peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or sale of cleaned-inshell or shelled peanuts or other activity causing peanuts to enter into...

  12. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  13. Future of remote handling

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The field of remote handling started in the late 1940's and early 1950's with the invention of mechanical master-slave and electromechanical manipulators. That field now consists of three major divisions: (1) conventional remote handling in fixed facilities with shielding windows and mechanical manipulators; (2) large area remote handling using portable equipment, electric master-slave manipulators, and television for viewing; and (3) the field of robotics which is beginning to be applied to repetitive operations on toxic and dangerous materials. All three divisions will continue to develop and evolve over the next decade.

  14. Upgrading and refurbishing coal-handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, S.D.

    1983-03-01

    Case histories presented at the Coal Technology '82 meetings are singled out in this article as examples of integrated attacks on coal-handling problems. At the Ohio Edison Co. Sammis Plant the conveyor passed over a public highway, and fugitive coal rained on passing vehicles. Four belt cleaners and a modified gas reducer were installed. Belt-cleaning systems were then installed throughout the plant. At the Con Edison Arthur Kill station coal-receiving facilities, coal conveyors, and ash-handling systems were upgraded. The rotary dumper was modified, the coal-thawing equipment modernized. In the breaker house a rotary breaker was replaced by a ring-type coal crusher. The outmoded pneumatic type ash-handling system was replaced by a drag-chain conveyor. Such concerted plantwide efforts are still the exception, where coal-handling equipment is cared for on a day-to-day patchwork basis.

  15. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

    2009-08-14

    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  16. 78 FR 34703 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...) published a notice in the Federal Register of its intent to revise the gas distribution annual report (PHMSA... information collection is titled: ``Annual Report for Gas Distribution Pipeline Operators.'' Summary of...

  17. 78 FR 68079 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations; Submitted for Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Completion... requirements in the regulations under Subpart E, Oil and Gas Well Completion Operations. This notice also... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart E, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations. OMB Control Number:...

  18. 78 FR 13657 - Southwest Gas Storage Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    .... Southwest seeks authorization to construct, modify and abandon certain natural gas storage facilities at the... Energy Regulatory Commission Southwest Gas Storage Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On February 8, 2013, Southwest Gas Storage Company (Southwest) filed a prior notice...

  19. Helicopter Handling Qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Helicopters are used by the military and civilian communities for a variety of tasks and must be capable of operating in poor weather conditions and at night. Accompanying extended helicopter operations is a significant increase in pilot workload and a need for better handling qualities. An overview of the status and problems in the development and specification of helicopter handling-qualities criteria is presented. Topics for future research efforts by government and industry are highlighted.

  20. Payload retention fittings for space shuttle payload ground handling mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassisi, V.

    1983-01-01

    New ground fittings for Space Shuttle payload handling were designed, built, and tested by Government and contractor personnel at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, from May 1981 through November 1982. Design evolution of the Space Shuttle Orbiter payload retention fittings, which contained a load-sensitive split bushing in a pillow-block housing, created an incompatibility between the interfacing ground and airborne equipment. New fittings were designed and successfully used beginning with the fifth Space Shuttle flight, STS-5. An active hydraulic spring system containing a gas accumulator in the hydraulic system provided the load relief required to protect the Orbiter bushing from damage.

  1. Absolute activity measurement of radon gas at IRA-METAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, Philippe; Nedjadi, Youcef; Bailat, Claude; Triscone, Gilles; Bochud, François

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the system of the Swiss national metrological institute (IRA-METAS) for the absolute standardisation of radon gas. This method relies on condensing radon under vacuum conditions within a specified cold area using a cryogenerator, and detecting its alpha particles with an ion-implanted silicon detector, through a very accurately defined solid angle. The accuracy of this defined solid angle standardisation technique was corroborated by another primary measurement method involving 4 πγ NaI(Tl) integral counting and Monte Carlo efficiency calculations. The 222Rn standard submitted by IRA-METAS to the Système International de Référence (SIR) at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has also been found to be consistent with an analogous standard submitted by the German national metrological institute (PTB). IRA-METAS is able to deliver radon standards, with activities ranging from a few kBq to 350 kBq, in NIST-Type ampoules, and glass or steel containers usable for calibrating radon-measuring instruments.

  2. Data inconsistencies from states with unconventional oil and gas activity.

    PubMed

    Malone, Samantha; Kelso, Matthew; Auch, Ted; Edelstein, Karen; Ferrar, Kyle; Jalbert, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The quality and availability of unconventional oil and gas (O&G) data in the United States have never been compared methodically state-to-state. By conducting such an assessment, this study seeks to better understand private and publicly sourced data variability and to identify data availability gaps. We developed an exploratory data-grading tool - Data Accessibility and Usability Index (DAUI) - to guide the review of O&G data quality. Between July and October 2013, we requested, collected, and assessed 5 categories of unconventional O&G data (wells drilled, violations, production, waste, and Class II disposal wells) from 10 states with active drilling activity. We based our assessment on eight data quality parameters (accessibility, usability, point location, completeness, metadata, agency responsiveness, accuracy, and cost). Using the DAUI, two authors graded the 10 states and then averaged their scores. The average score received across all states, data categories, and parameters was 67.1 out of 100, largely insufficient for proper data transparency. By state, Pennsylvania received the highest average ( = 93.5) and ranked first in all but one data category. The lowest scoring state was Texas ( = 44) largely due to its policy of charging for certain data. This article discusses the various reasons for scores received, as well as methodological limitations of the assessment metrics. We argue that the significant variability of unconventional O&G data-and its availability to the public-is a barrier to regulatory and industry transparency. The lack of transparency also impacts public education and broader participation in industry governance. This study supports the need to develop a set of data best management practices (BMPs) for state regulatory agencies and the O&G industry, and suggests potential BMPs for this purpose.

  3. Remote-handled transuranic waste study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated from the Nation`s defense activities. The WIPP disposal inventory will include up to 250,000 cubic feet of TRU wastes classified as remote handled (RH). The remaining inventory will include contact-handled (CH) TRU wastes, which characteristically have less specific activity (radioactivity per unit volume) than the RH-TRU wastes. The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA), Public Law 102-579, requires a study of the effect of RH-TRU waste on long-term performance. This RH-TRU Waste Study has been conducted to satisfy the requirements defined by the LWA and is considered by the DOE to be a prudent exercise in the compliance certification process of the WIPP repository. The objectives of this study include: conducting an evaluation of the impacts of RH-TRU wastes on the performance assessment (PA) of the repository to determine the effects of Rh-TRU waste as a part of the total WIPP disposal inventory; and conducting a comparison of CH-TRU and RH-TRU wastes to assess the differences and similarities for such issues as gas generation, flammability and explosiveness, solubility, and brine and geochemical interactions. This study was conducted using the data, models, computer codes, and information generated in support of long-term compliance programs, including the WIPP PA. The study is limited in scope to post-closure repository performance and includes an analysis of the issues associated with RH-TRU wastes subsequent to emplacement of these wastes at WIPP in consideration of the current baseline design. 41 refs.

  4. Effects of Activation Energy to Transient Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akira; Ohtani, Tatsuki

    The smell classifiable gas sensor will be desired for many applications such as gas detection alarms, process controls for food production and so on. We have tried to realize the sensor using transient responses of semiconductor gas sensor consisting of tin dioxide and pointed out that the sensor gave us different transient responses for kinds of gas. Results of model calculation showed the activation energy of chemical reaction on the sensor surface strongly depended on the transient response. We tried to estimate the activation energies by molecular orbital calculation with SnO2 Cluster. The results show that there is a liner relationship between the gradient of the transient responses and activation energies for carboxylic and alcoholic gases. Transient response will be predicted from activation energy in the same kind of gas and the smell discrimination by single semiconductor gas sensor will be realized by this relationship.

  5. Effects of gas periodic stimulation on key enzyme activity in gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation (GDD-SSF).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongzhang; Shao, Meixue; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-03-05

    The heat and mass transfer have been proved to be the important factors in air pressure pulsation for cellulase production. However, as process of enzyme secretion, the cellulase formation has not been studied in the view of microorganism metabolism and metabolic key enzyme activity under air pressure pulsation condition. Two fermentation methods in ATPase activity, cellulase productivity, weight lose rate and membrane permeability were systematically compared. Results indicated that gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation had no obviously effect on cell membrane permeability. However, the relation between ATPase activity and weight loss rate was linearly dependent with r=0.9784. Meanwhile, the results also implied that gas periodic stimulation had apparently strengthened microbial metabolism through increasing ATPase activity during gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation, resulting in motivating the production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei YG3. Therefore, the increase of ATPase activity would be another crucial factor to strengthen fermentation process for cellulase production under gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation.

  6. SPAR data handling utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Haftka, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    The SPAR computer software system is a collection of processors that perform particular steps in the finite-element structural analysis procedure. The data generated by each processor are stored on a data base complex residing on an auxiliary storage device, and these data are then used by subsequent processors. The SPAR data handling utilities use routines to transfer data between the processors and the data base complex. A detailed description of the data base complex organization is presented. A discussion of how these SPAR data handling utilities are used in an application program to perform desired user functions is given with the steps necessary to convert an existing program to a SPAR processor by incorporating these utilities. Finally, a sample SPAR processor is included to illustrate the use of the data handling utilities.

  7. Design and Preliminary Monte Carlo Calculations of an Active Compton Suppressed LaBr3(Ce) Detector System for TRU Assay in Remote-Handled Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    J. Kulisek; J. K. Hartwell; M. E. McIlwain; R. P. Gardner

    2006-09-01

    Recent studies indicate LaBr3(Ce) scintillation detectors have desirable attributes, such as room temperature operability, which may make them viable alternatives as primary detectors (PD) in a Compton suppression spectrometer (CSS) used for remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste assay. A CSS with a LaBr3(Ce) PD has been designed and its expected performance evaluated using Monte Carlo analysis. The unique design of this unit minimizes the amount of "dead" material between the PD and the secondary guard detector. The analysis results indicate that this detector will have a relatively high Compton-suppression capability, with greater suppression ability for large angle-scattered photons in the PD. J. K. Hartwell1, M. E. McIlwain1, R. P. Gardner2, J. Kulisek3 1) Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 USA 2) North Carolina State University, Dept of Nuclear Eng., PO Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695 USA 3) Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 The US Department of Energy’s transuranic (TRU) waste inventory includes about 4,500 m3 of remote-handled TRU (RH-TRU) wastes. The RH-TRU waste stream is composed of a variety of containerized waste forms having a contact surface dose rate that exceeds 2 mSv/hr (200 mrem/hr) containing waste materials with a total TRU concentration greater than 3700 Bq/g (100 nCi/g). As part of a research project to investigate the use of active Compton-suppressed room-temperature gamma-ray detectors for direct non-destructive quantification of the TRU content of these RH-TRU wastes, we have designed and purchased a unique detector system using a LaBr3(Ce) primary detector and a NaI(Tl) suppression mantle. The expected detector performance has been modeled using MCNP-X [1] and CEARCPG [2], and incorporates certain design features modeled as important to active Compton suppression systems in previously-published work [3]. The unique detector system is sketched in Fig. 1. The ~25 mm diameter by 75 mm long LaBr3(Ce

  8. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  9. Development of liquid handling techniques in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of experiments dealing with protein crystal growth and also with growth of crystals from solution require complicated fluid handling procedures including filling of empty containers with liquids, mixing of solutions, and stirring of liquids. Such procedures are accomplished in a straight forward manner when performed under terrestrial conditions in the laboratory. However, in the low gravity environment of space, such as on board the Space Shuttle or an Earth-orbiting space station, these procedures sometimes produced entirely undesirable results. Under terrestrial conditions, liquids usually completely separate from the gas due to the buoyancy effects of Earth's gravity. Consequently, any gas pockets that are entrained into the liquid during a fluid handling procedure will eventually migrate towards the top of the vessel where they can be removed. In a low gravity environment any folded gas bubble will remain within the liquid bulk indefinitely at a location that is not known a priori resulting in a mixture of liquid and vapor.

  10. GAS HYDRATES AT TWO SITES OF AN ACTIVE CONTINENTAL MARGIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sediment containing gas hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart on the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of gas hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and gas hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and gas hydrates were encountered at 404 m.

  11. Managing oil and gas activities in coastal environments: refuge manual

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, W.L.; Jackson, R.; Snyder, B.

    1981-09-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the impacts of all aspects of oil and gas development upon coastal ecological systems and to assess the safeguards used in protecting refuge lands. Wildlife refuges along the coasts of Texas and Louisiana were selected for intensive study. These refuges were characterized by (1) a diversity of ecosystems, (2) oil exploration, extraction, and transport, and (3) oil and gas development periods of varying durations.

  12. 36 CFR 9.45 - Handling of wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.45 Handling of wastes. Oilfield brine, and all other... to prevent escape as a result of percolation, rain, high water or other causes, and such wastes must... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Handling of wastes....

  13. 36 CFR 9.45 - Handling of wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.45 Handling of wastes. Oilfield brine, and all other... to prevent escape as a result of percolation, rain, high water or other causes, and such wastes must... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Handling of wastes....

  14. 36 CFR 9.45 - Handling of wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.45 Handling of wastes. Oilfield brine, and all other... to prevent escape as a result of percolation, rain, high water or other causes, and such wastes must... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Handling of wastes....

  15. 36 CFR 9.45 - Handling of wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.45 Handling of wastes. Oilfield brine, and all other... to prevent escape as a result of percolation, rain, high water or other causes, and such wastes must... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Handling of wastes....

  16. 36 CFR 9.45 - Handling of wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.45 Handling of wastes. Oilfield brine, and all other... to prevent escape as a result of percolation, rain, high water or other causes, and such wastes must... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Handling of wastes....

  17. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  18. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  19. Microforms in Information Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, B. J. S.

    In an attempt to identify some of the factors which influence the utility of microforms as a medium for information handling, this report first traces some of the landmarks in the evolution of microforms since their invention in 1893. It next provides a factual account of current microform media and formats. The last section of the report contains…

  20. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  1. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  2. Responding To Changes in the Decommissioning Plans for Demolition of a Former Active Handling Building at The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2006-07-01

    The full decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building A59 at Winfrith in Dorset is being carried out by RWE NUKEM Limited under contract from the site owners and nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Following recent government changes, the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has now set up contracts with UKAEA for delivery of the site clean-up programme. The building contains two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements together with other supporting facilities. The original intention was to demolish the caves ahead of the building but after detailed consideration it was concluded that demolition of the building in advance of the caves was more operationally effective. As a result, the original decommissioning plan had to be reworked to reflect these changes. The paper briefly explains how this situation arose and the means by which the problems experienced were overcome by a complete revision to the decommissioning programme. The updated plan has been adopted by UKAEA and work is now proceeding apace to clear the building of redundant items, to complete decontamination of all remaining areas and facilities and to carry out detailed radiological surveys to confirm that the building structure is clean and ready for demolition. Both cave lines have been completely decontaminated to low residual levels of activity and are essentially ready for controlled demolition. This paper describes some of the significant tasks undertaken during the past year with particular reference to the decommissioning techniques that gave the greatest success and the limitations of others originally considered. Some of these processes were aimed at minimising the volume of low level waste (LLW) generated by using standard off-the-shelf equipment to remove contamination from {approx}5 Ton concrete blocks recovered from both cave line structures. A

  3. Automated system for handling tritiated mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM-developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. Initially, this system will be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous-phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this development program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

  4. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  5. Moving in extreme environments: inert gas narcosis and underwater activities.

    PubMed

    Clark, James E

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to the underwater environment for pleasure or work poses many challenges on the human body including thermal stress, barotraumas, decompression sickness as well as the acute effects of breathing gases under pressure. With the popularity of recreational self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving on the increase and deep inland dive sites becoming more accessible, it is important that we understand the effects of breathing pressurised gas at depth can have on the body. One of the common consequences of hyperbaric gas is the narcotic effect of inert gas. Nitrogen (a major component of air) under pressure can impede mental function and physical performance at depths of as little as 10 m underwater. With increased depth, symptoms can worsen to include confusion, disturbed coordination, lack of concentration, hallucinations and unconsciousness. Narcosis has been shown to contribute directly to up to 6% of deaths in divers and is likely to be indirectly associated with other diving incidents at depth. This article explores inert gas narcosis, the effect on divers' movement and function underwater and the proposed physiological mechanisms. Also discussed are some of the factors that affect the susceptibility of divers to the condition. In conclusion, understanding the cause of this potentially debilitating problem is important to ensure that safe diving practices continue.

  6. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  7. Space shuttle handling qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The initial Orbiter handling qualities requirements, their effect on the vehicle design, and how it all turned out through the first six orbital missions are reviewed. Specific areas consisting of hand controller considerations and the wheelie problem are discussed. The requirements for the pitch axis subsonic flight control system are reviewed. Results of recent simulator evaluations to compare the existing system at landing with several other configurations are presented.

  8. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Bhadauria, Dharmendra

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body. PMID:23961477

  9. 75 FR 70021 - Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... (FONSI) prepared for two oil and gas activities proposed on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)...

  10. Implementing an Inexpensive and Accurate Introductory Gas Density Activity with High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, W. Patrick; Joseph, Christopher; Morey, Samantha; Santos Romo, Ana; Shope, Cullen; Strang, Jonathan; Yang, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    A simplified activity examined gas density while employing cost-efficient syringes in place of traditional glass bulbs. The exercise measured the density of methane, with very good accuracy and precision, in both first-year high school and AP chemistry settings. The participating students were tasked with finding the density of a gas. The…

  11. 78 FR 76827 - Midwestern Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Midwestern Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On December 4, 2013, Midwestern Gas Transmission Company (Midwestern) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  12. GAS PHASE SELECTIVE PHOTOXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND MOLECULAR OXYGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas Phase Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Light-Activated Titanium Dioxide and Molecular Oxygen

    Gas phase selective oxidations of various primary and secondary alcohols are studied in an indigenously built stainless steel up-flow photochemical reactor using ultravi...

  13. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Overview on Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Burger; Deepak Gupta; Patrick Jacobs; John Shillinglaw

    2003-06-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Worldwide, gas hydrate is estimated to hold about 1016 kg of organic carbon in the form of methane (Kvenvolden et al., 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In June 2002, Westport Technology Center was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a ''Best Practices Manual on Gas Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis'' under Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41327. The scope of the task was specifically targeted for coring sediments with hydrates in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and from the present Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship. The specific subjects under this scope were defined in 3 stages as follows: Stage 1: Collect information on coring sediments with hydrates, core handling, core preservation, sample transportation, analysis of the core, and long term preservation. Stage 2: Provide copies of the first draft to a list of experts and stakeholders designated by DOE. Stage 3: Produce a second draft of the manual with benefit of input from external review for delivery. The manual provides an overview of existing information available in the published literature and reports on coring, analysis, preservation and transport of gas hydrates for laboratory analysis as of June 2003. The manual was delivered as draft version 3 to the DOE Project Manager for distribution in July 2003. This Final Report is provided for records purposes.

  15. A single-nanoparticle NO2 gas sensor constructed using active molecular plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lichan; Wu, Bo; Guo, Longhua; Tey, Ruiwen; Huang, Youju; Kim, Dong-Hwan

    2015-01-25

    A single-nanoparticle plasmonic sensor for the sensitive detection of gas molecules (NO2) has been constructed. Taking advantage of active molecular plasmonics, the analyte selectively triggers a measurable spectral shift of ferrocene-modified single gold nanorods.

  16. Small molecule inhibitors block Gas6-inducible TAM activation and tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Stanley G.; Kumar, Sushil; Bansal, Nitu; Singh, Kamalendra; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Comollo, Thomas; Peng, Youyi; Kotenko, Sergei V.; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Bertino, Joseph R.; Welsh, William J.; Birge, Raymond B.

    2017-01-01

    TAM receptors (Tyro-3, Axl, and Mertk) are a family of three homologous type I receptor tyrosine kinases that are implicated in several human malignancies. Overexpression of TAMs and their major ligand Growth arrest-specific factor 6 (Gas6) is associated with more aggressive staging of cancers, poorer predicted patient survival, acquired drug resistance and metastasis. Here we describe small molecule inhibitors (RU-301 and RU-302) that target the extracellular domain of Axl at the interface of the Ig-1 ectodomain of Axl and the Lg-1 of Gas6. These inhibitors effectively block Gas6-inducible Axl receptor activation with low micromolar IC50s in cell-based reporter assays, inhibit Gas6-inducible motility in Axl-expressing cell lines, and suppress H1299 lung cancer tumor growth in a mouse xenograft NOD-SCIDγ model. Furthermore, using homology models and biochemical verifications, we show that RU301 and 302 also inhibit Gas6 inducible activation of Mertk and Tyro3 suggesting they can act as pan-TAM inhibitors that block the interface between the TAM Ig1 ectodomain and the Gas6 Lg domain. Together, these observations establish that small molecules that bind to the interface between TAM Ig1 domain and Gas6 Lg1 domain can inhibit TAM activation, and support the further development of small molecule Gas6-TAM interaction inhibitors as a novel class of cancer therapeutics. PMID:28272423

  17. Self-Activated Transparent All-Graphene Gas Sensor with Endurance to Humidity and Mechanical Bending.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Hoo; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Yong-Jin; Shim, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Soo Young; Hong, Byung Hee; Jang, Ho Won

    2015-10-27

    Graphene is considered as one of leading candidates for gas sensor applications in the Internet of Things owing to its unique properties such as high sensitivity to gas adsorption, transparency, and flexibility. We present self-activated operation of all graphene gas sensors with high transparency and flexibility. The all-graphene gas sensors which consist of graphene for both sensor electrodes and active sensing area exhibit highly sensitive, selective, and reversible responses to NO2 without external heating. The sensors show reliable operation under high humidity conditions and bending strain. In addition to these remarkable device performances, the significantly facile fabrication process enlarges the potential of the all-graphene gas sensors for use in the Internet of Things and wearable electronics.

  18. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Lessons learned in handling western coals

    SciTech Connect

    Wilks, D.M.

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes specific design features and improvements incorporated into the coal handling facility for Roy Tolk Station, a power plant utilizing western coal. Traditionally, western electric generation has been through the use of natural gas as a boiler fuel. Some utilities have selected western coal as an alternative due to high costs and the need to conserve natural gas. Special design considerations are necessary to cope with the friability and propensity for spontaneous combustion found in western coal. As a result of hands-on experience such as the Tolk Station, practices can be developed to reduce dusting, minimize routine clean-up, optimize system design and conserve washdown water.

  20. Solid handling valve

    DOEpatents

    Williams, William R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a solids handling valve for use in combination with lock hoppers utilized for conveying pulverized coal to a coal gasifier. The valve comprises a fluid-actuated flow control piston disposed within a housing and provided with a tapered primary seal having a recessed seat on the housing and a radially expandable fluid-actuated secondary seal. The valve seals are highly resistive to corrosion, erosion and abrasion by the solids, liquids, and gases associated with the gasification process so as to minimize valve failure.

  1. Students' Strategies for Exception Handling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses and presents various strategies employed by novice programmers concerning exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we provide an analysis tool to measure the level of assimilation of exception handling mechanism; we present and analyse strategies to handle exceptions; we present and analyse…

  2. Advanced Gas Sensors Using SERS-Activated Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascola, Robert; McWhorter, Scott; Murph, Simona Hunyadi

    2010-08-01

    This contribution describes progress towards the development and testing of a functionalized capillary that will provide detection of low-concentration gas-phase analytes through SERS. Measurement inside a waveguide allows interrogation of a large surface area, potentially overcoming the short distance dependence of the SERS effect. The possible use of Raman spectroscopy for gas detection is attractive for IR-inactive molecules or scenarios where infrared technology is inconvenient. However, the weakness of Raman scattering limits the use of the technique to situations where low detection limits are not required or large gas pressures are present. With surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), signal enhancements of 106 are often claimed, and higher values are seen in specific instances. However, most of the examples of SERS analysis are on liquid-phase samples, where the molecular density is high, usually combined with some sort of sample concentration at the surface. Neither of these factors is present in gas-phase samples. Because the laser is focused to a small point in the typical experimental setup, and the spatial extent of the effect above the surface is small (microns), the excitation volume is miniscule. Thus, exceptionally large enhancements are required to generate a signal comparable to that obtained by conventional Raman measurements. A reflective waveguide offers a way to increase the interaction volume of the laser with a SERS-modified surface. The use of a waveguide to enhance classical Raman measurements was recently demonstrated by S.M. Angel and coworkers, who obtained 12- to 30-fold sensitivity improvements for nonabsorbing gases (CO2, CH4) with a silvered capillary (no SERS enhancement). Shi et al.. demonstrated 10-to 100-fold enhancement of aqueous Rhodamine 6G in a capillary coated with silver nanoparticles. They observed enhancements of 10- to 100-fold compared to direct sampling, but this relied on a "double substrate", which required

  3. High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated carbon - I. Effects of gas composition and metal addition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cal, M.P.; Strickler, B.W.; Lizzio, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Various types of activated carbon sorbents were evaluated for their ability to remove H2S from a simulated coal gas stream at a temperature of 550 ??C. The ability of activated carbon to remove H2S at elevated temperature was examined as a function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal addition), and gas composition. A sorbent prepared by steam activation, HNO3 oxidation and impregnated with Zn, and tested in a gas stream containing 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% N2, had the greatest H2S adsorption capacity. Addition of H2, CO, and H2O to the inlet gas stream reduced H2S breakthrough time and H2S adsorption capacity. A Zn impregnated activated carbon, when tested using a simulated coal gas containing 0.5% H2S, 49.5% N2, 13% H2, 8.5% H2O, 21% CO, and 7.5% CO2, had a breakthrough time of 75 min, which was less than 25 percent of the length of breakthrough for screening experiments performed with a simplified gas mixture of 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, and 49.5% N2.

  4. Development of an Absolute Gas-Counting Capability for Low to Medium Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ely, James H.; Day, Anthony R.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; Merriman, Jason H.; Overman, Cory T.; Seifert, Allen

    2013-11-01

    ABSTRACT Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a capability to measure the absolute activity concentration of various gaseous radionuclides using length-compensated proportional-counting methods. This capability will enable the validation and use of low-level, gaseous radionuclide calibration standards for use in PNNL’s shallow underground laboratory. Two sets of unequal length proportional counters have been fabricated. These detector assemblies operate on a static gas-fill principle, in contrast to continuous, flow-through configurations. One set of three counters has been fabricated using ultra-low background (ULB) electroformed copper and low-background fabrication methods. Once fully operational, these ULB counters will be used in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory for analysis of gases with low activity concentrations < 1 Bq/cc. A second set of four unequal length counters has been fabricated from Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity Copper (OFHC) using similar low-background cleaning and assembly methods. These OFHC counters will be operated above ground in the analysis of gases with activity concentrations in the range of 1-10 Bq/cc. A gas delivery system is being developed to actively mix the analyte gas with an appropriate amount of count-gas and uniformly deliver it to the counters with high accuracy and repeatability. A description of both detector assemblies and gas delivery system will be given along with a preliminary uncertainty analysis of a simulated 0.05 Bq/cm3 gas measurement.

  5. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  6. Use of hydrogen as a carrier gas for the analysis of steroids with anabolic activity by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Guerra, J A; Prado, P; García-Tenorio, S Vargas

    2011-10-14

    Due to the impact in the media and the requirements of sensitivity and robustness, the detection of the misuse of forbidden substances in sports is a really challenging area for analytical chemistry, where any study focused on enhancing the performance of the analytical methods will be of great interest. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of using hydrogen instead of helium as a carrier gas for the analysis of anabolic steroids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron ionization. There are several drawbacks related with the use of helium as a carrier gas: it is expensive, is a non-renewable resource, and has limited availability in many parts of the world. In contrast, hydrogen is readily available using a hydrogen generator or high-pressure bottled gas, and allows a faster analysis without loss of efficiency; nevertheless it should not be forgotten that due to its explosiveness hydrogen must be handled with caution. Throughout the study the impact of the change of the carrier gas will be evaluated in terms of: performance of the chromatographic system, saving of time and money, impact on the high vacuum in the analyzer, changes in the fragmentation behaviour of the analytes, and finally consequences for the limits of detection achieved with the method.

  7. 33 CFR 127.1203 - Gas detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas detection. 127.1203 Section...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1203 Gas detection. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 127.1203 - Gas detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas detection. 127.1203 Section...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1203 Gas detection. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 127.1203 - Gas detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gas detection. 127.1203 Section...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1203 Gas detection. (a)...

  10. Geodatabase of Wyoming statewide oil and gas drilling activity to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a geographic information system (GIS) of Wyoming statewide historical oil and gas drilling activity for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). The WLCI is representative of the partnerships being formed by the USGS with other Department of the Interior bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners that are committed to maintaining healthy landscapes, sustaining wildlife, and preserving recreational and grazing uses as energy resources development progresses in southwestern Wyoming. This product complements the 2009 USGS publication on oil and gas development in southwestern Wyoming http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/437/) by approximating, based on database attributes, the time frame of drilling activity for each well (start and stop dates). This GIS product also adds current oil and gas drilling activity not only in the area encompassing the WLCI, but also statewide. Oil and gas data, documentation, and spatial data processing capabilities are available and can be downloaded from the USGS website. These data originated from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (WOGCC), represent decades of oil and gas drilling (1900 to 2010), and will facilitate a landscape-level approach to integrated science-based assessments, resource management and land-use decision making.

  11. Activated carbon from vetiver roots: gas and liquid adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Gaspard, S; Altenor, S; Dawson, E A; Barnes, P A; Ouensanga, A

    2007-06-01

    Large quantities of lignocellulosic residues result from the industrial production of essential oil from vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) roots. These residues could be used for the production of activated carbon. The yield of char obtained after vetiver roots pyrolysis follows an equation recently developed [A. Ouensanga, L. Largitte, M.A. Arsene, The dependence of char yield on the amounts of components in precursors for pyrolysed tropical fruit stones and seeds, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 59 (2003) 85-91]. The N(2) adsorption isotherm follows either the Freundlich law K(F)P(alpha) which is the small alpha equation limit of a Weibull shaped isotherm or the classical BET isotherm. The surface area of the activated carbons are determined using the BET method. The K(F) value is proportional to the BET surface area. The alpha value increases slightly when the burn-off increases and also when there is a clear increase in the micropore distribution width.

  12. Activated carbon treatment of municipal solid waste incineration flue gas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengyong; Ji, Ya; Buekens, Alfons; Ma, Zengyi; Jin, Yuqi; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-02-01

    Activated carbon injection is widely used to control dioxins and mercury emissions. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to its modelling. This paper proposes an expansion of the classical Everaerts-Baeyens model, introducing the expression of fraction of free adsorption sites, f (s), and asserting the significant contribution of fly ash to dioxins removal. Moreover, the model monitors dioxins partitioning between vapour and particulate phase, as well as removal efficiency for each congener separately. The effects of the principal parameters affecting adsorption are analysed according to a semi-analytical, semi-empirical model. These parameters include temperature, contact time during entrained-flow, characteristics (grain-size, pore structure, specific surface area) and dosage of activated carbon, lignite cokes or mineral adsorbent, fly ash characteristics and concentration, and type of incinerator plant.

  13. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, Teresa L.; McCormick, Robert L.; Christensen, Earl D.; Fioroni, Gina; Moriarty, Kristi; Yanowitz, Janet

    2016-11-08

    This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

  14. 78 FR 33051 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, Subzone 9F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... currently has authority to produce synthetic natural gas, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrocarbon gas mixtures... natural gas, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrocarbon gas mixtures and zinc sulfide (duty rate ranges from... abroad include: mixtures of light petroleum derivative hydrocarbons, including medium to light...

  15. Hydrogen Gas Emissions from Active Faults and Identification of Flow Pathway in a Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimaru, T.; Niwa, M.; Kurosawa, H.; Shimada, K.

    2010-12-01

    It has been observed that hydrogen gas emissions from the subsurface along active faults exceed atmospheric concentrations (e.g. Sugisaki et. al., 1983). Experimental studies have shown that hydrogen gas is generated in a radical reaction of water with fractured silicate minerals due to rock fracturing caused by fault movement (e.g. Kita et al., 1982). Based on such research, we are studying an investigation method for an assessment of fault activity using hydrogen gas emissions from fracture zones. To start, we have devised portable equipment for rapid and simple in situ measurement of hydrogen gas emissions (Shimada et al., 2008). The key component of this equipment is a commercially available and compact hydrogen gas sensor with an integral data logger operable at atmospheric pressure. In the field, we have drilled shallow boreholes into incohesive fault rocks to depths ranging from 15 to 45 cm using a hand-operated drill with a 9mm drill-bit. Then, we have measured the hydrogen gas concentrations in emissions from active faults such as: the western part of the Atotsugawa fault zone, the Atera fault zone and the Neodani fault in central Japan; the Yamasaki fault zone in southwest Japan; and the Yamagata fault zone in northeast Japan. In addition, we have investigated the hydrogen gas concentrations in emissions from other major geological features such as tectonic lines: the Butsuzo Tectonic Line in the eastern Kii Peninsula and the Atokura Nappe in the Northeastern Kanto Mountains. As a result of the investigations, hydrogen gas concentration in emissions from the active faults was measured to be in the approximate range from 6,000 ppm to 26,000 ppm in two to three hours after drilling. A tendency for high concentrations of hydrogen gas in active faults was recognized, in contrast with low concentrations in emissions from tectonic lines that were observed to be in the range from 730 ppm to 2,000 ppm. It is inferred that the hydrogen gas migrates to ground

  16. REMOTE HANDLING ARRANGEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Ginns, D.W.

    1958-04-01

    A means for handling remotely a sample pellet to be irradiated in a nuclear reactor is proposed. It is comprised essentially of an inlet tube extending through the outer shield of the reactor and being inclined so that its outer end is at a higher elevation than its inner end, an outlet tube extending through the outer shield being inclined so that its inner end is at a higher elevation than its outer end, the inner ends of these two tubes being interconnected, and a straight tube extending through the outer shield and into the reactor core between the inlet and outlet tubes and passing through the juncture of said inner ends. A rod-like member is rotatably and slidely operated within the central straight tube and has a receptacle on its inner end for receiving a sample pellet from the inlet tube. The rod member is operated to pick up a sample pellet from the inlet tube, carry the sample pellet into the irradiating position within the core, and return to the receiving position where it is rotated to dump the irradiated pellet into the outlet tube by which it is conveyed by gravity to the outside of the reactor. Stop members are provided in the inlet tube, and electrical operating devices are provided to control the sequence of the operation automatically.

  17. Production of activated char from Illinois coal for flue gas cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Kruse, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Activated chars were produced from Illinois coal and tested in several flue gas cleanup applications. High-activity chars that showed excellent potential for both SO2 and NOx removal were prepared from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal. The SO2 (120 ??C) and NOx (25 ??C) removal performance of one char compared favorably with that of a commercial activated carbon (Calgon Centaur). The NOx removal performance of the same char at 120 ??C exceeded that of the Centaur carbon by more than 1 order of magnitude. Novel char preparation methods were developed including oxidation/thermal desorption and hydrogen treatments, which increased and preserved, respectively, the active sites for SO2 and NOx adsorption. The results of combined SO2/NOx removal tests, however, suggest that SO2 and NOx compete for similar adsorption sites and SO2 seems to be more strongly adsorbed than NO. A low-activity, low-cost char was also developed for cleanup of incinerator flue gas. A three-step method involving coal preoxidation, pyrolysis, and CO2 activation was used to produce the char from Illinois coal. Five hundred pounds of the char was tested on a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial incinerator in Germany. The char was effective in removing >97% of the dioxins and furans present in the flue gas; mercury levels were below detectable limits.

  18. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection

    PubMed Central

    Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming. PMID:27231914

  19. Statistical evaluation of the impact of shale gas activities on ozone pollution in North Texas.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; John, Kuruvilla

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, substantial growth in shale gas exploration and production across the US has changed the country's energy outlook. Beyond its economic benefits, the negative impacts of shale gas development on air and water are less well known. In this study the relationship between shale gas activities and ground-level ozone pollution was statistically evaluated. The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area in north-central Texas was selected as the study region. The Barnett Shale, which is one the most productive and fastest growing shale gas fields in the US, is located in the western half of DFW. Hourly meteorological and ozone data were acquired for fourteen years from monitoring stations established and operated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The area was divided into two regions, the shale gas region (SGR) and the non-shale gas (NSGR) region, according to the number of gas wells in close proximity to each monitoring site. The study period was also divided into 2000-2006 and 2007-2013 because the western half of DFW has experienced significant growth in shale gas activities since 2007. An evaluation of the raw ozone data showed that, while the overall trend in the ozone concentration was down over the entire region, the monitoring sites in the NSGR showed an additional reduction of 4% in the annual number of ozone exceedance days than those in the SGR. Directional analysis of ozone showed that the winds blowing from areas with high shale gas activities contributed to higher ozone downwind. KZ-filtering method and linear regression techniques were used to remove the effects of meteorological variations on ozone and to construct long-term and short-term meteorologically adjusted (M.A.) ozone time series. The mean value of all M.A. ozone components was 8% higher in the sites located within the SGR than in the NSGR. These findings may be useful for understanding the overall impact of shale gas activities on the local and regional ozone

  20. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. The development and testing of collapsible intermodal containers for the handling and transport of coal combustion residues

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.L.; Thomasson, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    SEEC, Incorporated, is developing a collapsible intermodal container (CIC{trademark}) designed for containment and transport of fly ash and other dry-flowable bulk commodities. The CIC is specially configured to ride in open top rail cars, but as an intermodal container, it also rides in barges and on flat bed trailers. This allows SEEC to use unit coal train back haul capacity to transport fly ash to markets at and near coal mines. SEEC`s goals for this project were to design a CIC for handling and transporting dry fly ash, and then demonstrate the CIC technology. During this project, SEEC has performed extensive initial design work, leading to the manufacture of three prototype CICs for demonstration. Preliminary tests to examine safety issues included finite element analyses and an overload test in which the CIC was lifted while carrying weight in excess of its rated capacity. In both cases, the CIC met all safety requirements. With the above information satisfying possible safety concerns in hand, SEEC worked with SIU and other cooperators to plan and carry out field demonstration and testing of three CICs. This demonstration/testing including filling the CICs with fly ash, transporting them in a coal hopper car, handling with standard intermodal equipment, and emptying by inverting (two CICs) and by vacuuming (one CIC). Results were very positive. Filling with fly ash, transporting, and intermodal handling went very well, as did emptying by vacuum. Emptying by inverting was less successful, but most of the problems were predicted ahead of time, and were mostly due to lack of fly ash fluidizing equipment as much as anything. Throughout the testing, valuable information was gathered that will greatly accelerate refinement of both the CIC and the system of CIC handling.

  1. Fluid handling equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Devices and techniques used in fluid-handling and vacuum systems are described. Section 1 presents several articles on fluid lines and tubing. Section 2 describes a number of components such as valves, filters, and regulators. The last section contains descriptions of a number of innovative fluid-handling systems.

  2. 75 FR 10301 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0006, Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...-0013] MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0006, Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the Outer Continental Shelf and Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing, Extension of a Collection; Submitted for... 30 CFR 256, ``Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the Outer Continental Shelf,'' and 30 CFR...

  3. 75 FR 13570 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0043, Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations, Renewal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0043, Oil and Gas Well- Workover... (ICR) concerns the paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR 250, Subpart F, ``Oil and Gas... return address. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart F, Oil and Gas...

  4. 78 FR 68082 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations; Submitted for Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Workover... requirements in the regulations under Subpart F, Oil and Gas Well- Workover Operations. This notice also... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 250, Subpart F, Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations. OMB Control Number:...

  5. 75 FR 7474 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate February 3, 2010. On January 26, 2010 CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company... Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) regulations under the Natural Gas Act, and CEGT's...

  6. Survey of oil and gas activities on federal wildlife refuges and waterfowl production areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ethridge, M.; Guerrieri, U.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of survey data provides empirical evidence of the effects of oil and gas activities on federal wildlife refuges. The paper reports the results of a systematic survey of units of the National Wildlife Refuge System by the American Petroleum Institute in the form of questionnaires sent to refuge managers. The data suggest that oil and gas operations have had little or no adverse effect on wildlife on most refuges and Waterfowl Protection Areas, that oil and gas activities have detracted little from and have often enhanced other economic and recreational uses which occur on the refuges, and that appropriate regulations, stipulations, and restrictions are a key government management tool for protecting wildlife and other refuge resources. 3 figures, 44 tables.

  7. Apparatus for remotely handling components

    DOEpatents

    Szkrybalo, Gregory A.; Griffin, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    The inventive apparatus for remotely handling bar-like components which define a longitudinal direction includes a gripper mechanism for gripping the component including first and second gripper members longitudinally fixedly spaced from each other and oriented parallel to each other in planes transverse to the longitudinal direction. Each gripper member includes a jaw having at least one V-groove with opposing surfaces intersecting at a base and extending radially relative to the longitudinal direction for receiving the component in an open end between the opposing surfaces. The V-grooves on the jaw plate of the first and second gripper members are aligned in the longitudinal direction to support the component in the first and second gripper members. A jaw is rotatably mounted on and a part of each of the first and second gripper members for selectively assuming a retracted mode in which the open end of the V-groove is unobstructed and active mode in which the jaw spans the open end of the V-groove in the first and second gripper members. The jaw has a locking surface for contacting the component in the active mode to secure the component between the locking surface of the jaw and the opposing surfaces of the V-groove. The locking surface has a plurality of stepped portions, each defining a progressively decreasing radial distance between the base of the V-groove and the stepped portion opposing the base to accommodate varying sizes of components.

  8. The Development of a New Practical Activity: Using Microorganisms to Model Gas Cycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    For many in the school science classroom, the term "microbiology" has become synonymous with "bacteriology". By overlooking other microbes, teachers may miss out on powerful practical tools. This article describes the development of an activity that uses algae and yeast to demonstrate gas cycling, and presents full instructions…

  9. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  10. T & I--Gas Welding. Kit No. 68. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanford, Frank

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on gas welding are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the occupational cluster of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  11. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is a well drilled solely to determine the location and delineation of offshore hydrocarbon deposits..., drilling ship, or an offshore drilling platform). (ii) Improvement unit. To the extent section 614 costs... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section...

  12. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    SciTech Connect

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Assessment and Design of Water Quality Monitoring Networks with respect to Shale Gas Activities in Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, S.; Abad, J. D.; Brantley, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few years, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques have been extensively used to extract shale gas from the Marcellus Shale. Likewise, several environmental violations that have been repeatedly reported in drilling sites have created greater awareness on potentially adverse environmental impacts of shale gas. Long-term monitoring in the Marcellus Shale is the key to maintain and improve the quality of water supplies in future. Currently, the absence of an efficient water quality monitoring network prevents the detection and source identification of contaminants associated with shale gas activities. Evaluation and re-design of monitoring networks from time to time is a major step towards efficient water resources planning and management. In this study, we assessed the performance of the current water quality monitoring network with respect to the shale gas development in Pennsylvania. For better evaluation, the Oil and Gas Compliance Report by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection between January 2005 and May 2013 was compiled. Using statistical and GIS methods each violation item was examined against the number and location of sensors in the current monitoring network. The results helped identify the adequacy of the number of sensors to detect the potential contamination. Moreover, to improve the performance and to lower the long-term monitoring costs, we re-designed the network using optimization methods. This optimal system maximizes the understanding of the aquifer condition and investigates the shale gas industry impacts on shallow aquifers, and it is applicable to other watersheds with shale oil and gas drilling activities.

  14. Tracking Dissolved Methane Concentrations near Active Seeps and Gas Hydrates: Sea of Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. T.; Aoki, S.; Matsumoto, R.; Tomaru, H.; Owari, S.; Nakajima, R.; Doolittle, D. F.; Brant, B.

    2015-12-01

    A number of regions in the Sea of Japan are known for active gas venting and for gas hydrate exposures on the sea floor. In this investigation we employed several gas sensors mounted on a ROV in order to determine the concentrations of dissolved methane in the water near these sites. Methane concentrations were determined during two-second intervals throughout each ROV deployment during the cruise. The methane sensor deployments were coupled with seawater sampling using Niskin bottles. Dissolved gas concentrations were later measured using gas chromatography in order to compare with the sensor results taken at the same time. The observed maximum dissolved methane concentrations were much lower than saturation values, even when the ROV manipulators were in contact with gas hydrate. Nonetheless, dissolved concentrations did reach several thousands of nmol/L near gas hydrate exposures and gas bubbles, more than two orders of magnitude over the instrumental detection limits. Most of the sensors tested were able to detect dissolved methane concentrations as low as 10 nmol/L which permitted detection when the ROV approached methane plume sites, even from several tens of meters above the sea floor. Despite the low detection limits, the methane sensors showed variable response times when returning to low-background seawater (~5nM). For some of the sensors, the response time necessary to return to background values occurred in a matter of minutes, while for others it took several hours. Response time, as well as detection limit, should be an important consideration when selecting methane sensors for ROV or AUV investigations. This research was made possible, in part, through funding provided by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  15. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI.

  16. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    P.A. Kumar

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Handling Building (WHB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WHB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement areas ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination within the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WHB. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System is designed to perform its safety functions under accident conditions and other Design Basis Events (DBEs) (such as earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and loss of the primary electric power). Additional system design features (such as compartmentalization with independent subsystems) limit the potential for cross-contamination within the WHB. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits. The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is

  17. A glovebox with three levels of containment and clean room facilities for growing and handling biological material at physiologically correct gas compositions and with optimal quality assessment for tissue-engineering, ex vivo expansion, manipulation and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Villadsen, J A; Voeten, R G H M; Mosborg Peterson, P

    2002-07-01

    Traditional two levels of containment provide enclosure and underpressure in order to avoid hazardous material to flow towards e.g. a crewmember and thereby cause severe harm. The present-day demands for laboratory safety have revealed a paradox: In the laboratory overpressure is needed to prevent contamination of biological material and under pressure is needed to prevent the pollution of the environment. A new type of combined workbench/incubator has been constructed to meet future regulatory demands for handling and growing human biological cellular material at safe constant physiological conditions: A so-called three levels of containment glovebox/workbench. This new invention avoids the hazards of prior technology. It sets new standards for proper handling of biological materials and will meet the coming safety demands from the growing field of tissue engineering and ex vivo biotechnology. The invention is computer controlled, has a build in cleaning facility for assuring a particle free and aseptic working facility. We now have invented a solution to the above paradox concerning laboratory safety that seems to fulfil the need for safe biological experiments in microgravity. This concept has already been applied into ground-based research and is expected in a few years also to be applied similarly in the ISS environment. Furthermore, handling biological material mimicking in vivo conditions ex vivo requires precise and stabile monitoring and regulation of the isotherm and isobar conditions. Handling stem cells requires in addition low to very low oxygen tension to mimic the stem cells natural habitats. Besides that, the ex vivo gaseous atmosphere and temperature surrounding the cells has to be of same correct composition and temperature as found in the body in order to mimic in vivo situations in such way, that scientifically correct, reproducible and comparable results can be achieved. This fact is strengthened by forthcoming regulations as being prepared by

  18. Resonance Energy Transfer Relates the Gas-Phase Structure and Pharmacological Activity of Opioid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Kopysov, Vladimir; Boyarkin, Oleg V

    2016-01-11

    Enkephalins are efficient pain-relief drugs that bind to transmembrane opioid receptors. One key structural parameter that governs the pharmacological activity of these opioid peptides and is typically determined from condensed-phase structures is the distance between the aromatic rings of their Tyr and Phe residues. We use resonance energy transfer, detected by a combination of cold ion spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, to estimate the Tyr-Phe spacing for enkephalins in the gas phase. In contrast to the condensed-phase structures, these distances appear to differ substantially in enkephalins with different pharmacological efficiencies, suggesting that gas-phase structures might be a better pharmacophoric metric for ligand peptides.

  19. Information Handling is the Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concerns surrounding the automation of information handling. There are two types of decision support software that supports most Space Station Flight Controllers. one is very simple, and the other is very complex. A middle ground is sought. This is the reason for the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed (HCAAST) Project. The aim is to study flight controllers at work, and in the bigger picture, with particular attention to how they handle information and how coordination of multiple teams is performed. The focus of the project is on intelligent assistants to assist in handling information for the flight controllers.

  20. HAND TRUCK FOR HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    DOEpatents

    King, D.W.

    1959-02-24

    A truck is described for the handling of large and relatively heavy pieces of equipment and particularly for the handling of ion source units for use in calutrons. The truck includes a chassis and a frame pivoted to the chassis so as to be operable to swing in the manner of a boom. The frame has spaced members so arranged that the device to be handled can be suspended between or passed between these spaced members and also rotated with respect to the frame when the device is secured to the spaced members.

  1. Increased radon-222 in soil gas because of cumulative seismicity at active faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Katsuaki; Yoshinaga, Tohru; Ueyama, Takayoshi; Asaue, Hisafumi

    2014-12-01

    This study demonstrates how the radon-222 (222Rn) concentration of soil gas at an active fault is sensitive to cumulative recent seismicity by examining seven active faults in western Japan. The 222Rn concentration was found to correlate well with the total earthquake energy within a 100-km radius of each fault. This phenomenon can probably be ascribed to the increase of pore pressure around the source depth of 222Rn in shallow soil caused by frequently induced strain. This increase in pore pressure can enhance the ascent velocity of 222Rn carrier gas as governed by Darcy's law. Anomalous 222Rn concentrations are likely to originate from high gas velocities, rather than increased accumulations of parent nuclides. The high velocities also can yield unusual young gas under the radioactive nonequilibrium condition of short elapsed time since 222Rn generation. The results suggest that ongoing seismicity in the vicinity of an active fault can cause accumulation of strain in shallow fault soils. Therefore, the 222Rn concentration is a possible gauge for the degree of strain accumulation.

  2. Improved Gas Response at Room Temperature of Activated Nanocrystalline WO3 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, L. F.; Saukko, S.; Hoel, A.; Lantto, V.; Granqvist, C. G.; Lappalainen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced reactive gas deposition was used to produce pure and Auactivated nanocrystalline WO3 films for gas-sensing studies. Many different methods such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize structural properties of the films. The WO3 particles in the films had the high-temperature tetragonal crystal structure after deposition, and the average crystallite size was about 10nm. The effect of sintering on structural, electrical, and gassensing properties of both pure and Au-activated WO3 films was also studied. Gas response experiments with films on alumina substrate were done at different operation temperatures, from room temperature up to about 450°C, at exposure to different concentrations of H2S and H2 in dry synthetic air.

  3. Handling Depression | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    Everyone feels blue now and then. It's a part of life. But if your feelings last more than few days and interfere with your normal daily activities, you may be suffering from depression. On this page: Symptoms of depression Who gets depressed and why?

  4. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  5. 78 FR 21347 - Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Statement for Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean.'' Based on a written request received by NMFS, the... available for review online at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/permits/eis/arctic.htm . You may submit...

  6. 77 FR 2513 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean.'' Based on several written requests.../pr/permits/eis/arctic.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Candace Nachman, Jolie Harrison,...

  7. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  8. Ergonomic material-handling device

    DOEpatents

    Barsnick, Lance E.; Zalk, David M.; Perry, Catherine M.; Biggs, Terry; Tageson, Robert E.

    2004-08-24

    A hand-held ergonomic material-handling device capable of moving heavy objects, such as large waste containers and other large objects requiring mechanical assistance. The ergonomic material-handling device can be used with neutral postures of the back, shoulders, wrists and knees, thereby reducing potential injury to the user. The device involves two key features: 1) gives the user the ability to adjust the height of the handles of the device to ergonomically fit the needs of the user's back, wrists and shoulders; and 2) has a rounded handlebar shape, as well as the size and configuration of the handles which keep the user's wrists in a neutral posture during manipulation of the device.

  9. 76 FR 11811 - Environmental Document Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... activities proposed on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  10. Optimization of microporous palm shell activated carbon production for flue gas desulphurization: experimental and statistical studies.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, S; Bhatia, S; Lee, K T; Mohamed, A R

    2009-02-01

    Optimizing the production of microporous activated carbon from waste palm shell was done by applying experimental design methodology. The product, palm shell activated carbon was tested for removal of SO2 gas from flue gas. The activated carbon production was mathematically described as a function of parameters such as flow rate, activation time and activation temperature of carbonization. These parameters were modeled using response surface methodology. The experiments were carried out as a central composite design consisting of 32 experiments. Quadratic models were developed for surface area, total pore volume, and microporosity in term of micropore fraction. The models were used to obtain the optimum process condition for the production of microporous palm shell activated carbon useful for SO2 removal. The optimized palm shell activated carbon with surface area of 973 m(2)/g, total pore volume of 0.78 cc/g and micropore fraction of 70.5% showed an excellent agreement with the amount predicted by the statistical analysis. Palm shell activated carbon with higher surface area and microporosity fraction showed good adsorption affinity for SO2 removal.

  11. Air handling units for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, V; Gjestvang, R

    1989-10-01

    Air handling units should provide proper quality and conditioned air to various hospital areas. Unit capacity should be able to meet limited space functionality or load changes as well as any smoke control requirements. System components should be readily accessible and appropriate for spaces served. In summary, engineers should consider the following: Environmental design criteria for area being served Components desired Unit type required Economic issues affecting design. Using this approach, design engineers can design hospital air handling units methodically and logically.

  12. Material Handling in Dry Docks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    final report of work completed under Naval Sea Systems Command Work Request N0002470WR9666 to identify segments of drydock material handling which may... segment of drydock/shipboard material handling which may be improved to achieve reductions in manhours and overhaul costs for typical availabilities...IAN’ Earthquake criteria, regardless of geograp tical area, which can eliminate anywhere from 1/3 to 1/2 of the blocks required and meet an additional

  13. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Gases) Materials § 174.200 Special handling requirements. (a) Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored in a rail car equipped with any type of lighted heater or open-flame device, or in a rail car equipped with any apparatus...

  14. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures.

    PubMed

    Klasson, K Thomas; Lima, Isabel M; Boihem, Larry L; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2010-12-01

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. The purpose of the work was to obtain preliminary data to investigate if activated chars made from different poultry manures could adsorb mercury from simulated flue gas. In laboratory experiments, activated chars made from chicken cake and litter removed mercury from the gas as well as a commercial alternative. It was also found that acid-washing these chars after activation may improve pore structure but does not influence the mercury removal efficiency. Activated chars were also made from turkey cake and litter. These raw materials produced activated chars with similar pore structure as those made from chicken manure, but they did not adsorb mercury as well. Acid-washing the turkey manure-based chars improved their performance, but this step would add to the cost of production. Preliminary evaluations suggest that unwashed activated chars may cost as little as $0.95/kg to produce.

  15. Glovebags handle asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, K.

    1997-12-01

    Regulations from OSHA mean that industry can use glovebags to perform many asbestos maintenance operations in less time, at less cost, and with less chance of personnel being exposed. The regulations became effective July 10, 1995, with some clarifications issued since that date. The standards allow glovebags to be used in maintenance operations or removal of asbestos from straight runs of pipe without any size limitations. They can also be used on elbows and other connections if the glovebags are designed for a particular configuration. The paper discusses potential savings, construction activities, procedures that must be followed when using glovebags, and training.

  16. Changes in trunk muscle activation and lumbar-pelvic position associated with abdominal hollowing and reach during a simulated manual material handling task.

    PubMed

    Butler, Heather L; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Kozey, John W

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abdominal hollowing (AH) on trunk muscle activation and lumbar-pelvic motion during a controlled lift and replace task. Surface electromyograms were recorded from five abdominal and two back muscle sites. Sagittal lumbar-pelvic motion was recorded by video. Subjects lifted a 3.8 kg load in normal, maximum and extreme reaches, first while performing their preferred lifting style (PLS) and then maintaining an AH technique. The external oblique muscle site activities were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for the AH technique (ranging from 7-20% of maximal voluntary activation (MVIC)) than at any of the abdominal sites for the PLS (ranging from 2-10% MVIC). Differences were found among abdominal sites for the AH, but not for the PLS. The back muscle site activities (ranging from 9-30% MVIC) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than for any of the abdominal muscles for all conditions, except for the anterior external oblique for AH. The pelvic and lumbar angles changed significantly (p < 0.05) between normal and maximal reaches and between techniques. The AH technique altered abdominal muscle activation amplitudes, with minimal differences in trunk extensors compared to the PLS. The AH resulted in more posterior pelvic tilt.

  17. The line-emitting gas in active galaxies - A probe of the nuclear engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the basic questions regarding the structure of the engine powering active galactic nuclei (AGN), the nature of the interaction between the AGN and the host galaxy, and the origin and evolution of AGN. The study of the dynamics and physical characteristics of the line-emitting gas in these objects has proven fruitful in addressing many of these issues. Recent advances in optical and infrared detector technology combined with the development of superior ground-based instruments have produced efficient new tools for the study of the line-emitting gas on nuclear and Galactic scales. Programs which take advantage of two of these new techniques, Fabry-Perot imaging spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy, are described in this paper. The origin of nuclear activity in galaxies is also addressed in a third project which aims at determining the nature of luminous infrared galaxies.

  18. Water maser emission from X-ray-heated circumnuclear gas in active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Conger, Sarah

    1994-01-01

    We have modeled the physical and chemical conditions present within dense circumnuclear gas that is irradiated by X-rays from an active galactic nucleus. Over a wide range of X-ray fluxes and gas pressures, the effects of X-ray heating give rise to a molecular layer at temperatures of 400-1000 K within which the water abundance is large. The physical conditions within this molecular layer naturally give rise to collisionally pumped maser emission in the 6(sub 16) - 5(sub 23) 22 GHz transition of ortho-water, with predicted maser luminosities of 10(exp 2 +/- 0.5) solar luminosity per sq. pc of illuminated area. Given plausible assumptions about the geometry of the source and about the degree to which the maser emission is anisotropic, such surface luminosities are sufficient to explain the large apparent luminosities observed in water maser sources that are associated with active galactic nuclei.

  19. Active bypass flow control for a seal in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Ebert, Todd A.; Kimmel, Keith D.

    2017-03-14

    An active bypass flow control system for controlling bypass compressed air based upon leakage flow of compressed air flowing past an outer balance seal between a stator and rotor of a first stage of a gas turbine in a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The active bypass flow control system is an adjustable system in which one or more metering devices may be used to control the flow of bypass compressed air as the flow of compressed air past the outer balance seal changes over time as the outer balance seal between the rim cavity and the cooling cavity wears In at least one embodiment, the metering device may include an annular ring having at least one metering orifice extending therethrough, whereby alignment of the metering orifice with the outlet may be adjustable to change a cross-sectional area of an opening of aligned portions of the outlet and the metering orifice.

  20. Active bypass flow control for a seal in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Ebert, Todd A.; Kimmel, Keith D.

    2017-01-10

    An active bypass flow control system for controlling bypass compressed air based upon leakage flow of compressed air flowing past an outer balance seal between a stator and rotor of a first stage of a gas turbine in a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The active bypass flow control system is an adjustable system in which one or more metering devices may be used to control the flow of bypass compressed air as the flow of compressed air past the outer balance seal changes over time as the outer balance seal between the rim cavity and the cooling cavity wears. In at least one embodiment, the metering device may include a valve formed from one or more pins movable between open and closed positions in which the one pin at least partially bisects the bypass channel to regulate flow.

  1. Passive and active soil gas sampling at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area III, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, M.D.; Goering, T.J.; Peace, J.L.

    1996-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessing and remediating the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area III. The Mixed Waste Landfill is a 2.6 acre, inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. In 1993 and 1994, an extensive passive and active soil gas sampling program was undertaken to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds in the subsurface at the landfill. Passive soil gas surveys identified levels of PCE, TCE, 1,1, 1-TCA, toluene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, dichloroethyne, and acetone above background. Verification by active soil gas sampling confirmed concentrations of PCE, TCE, 1,1,1-TCA, and 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane at depths of 10 and 30 feet below ground surface. In addition, dichlorodifluoroethane and trichlorofluoromethane were detected during active soil gas sampling. All of the volatile organic compounds detected during the active soil gas survey were present in the low ppb range.

  2. The Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Activity on Ozone Formation in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Hills, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Schroeder, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Richter, D.; Walega, J.; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Campos, T. L.; Stell, M. H.; Heikes, B.; Treadaway, V.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D.; Cohen, R. C.; Flocke, F. M.; Pfister, G.; Knote, C. J.; Emmons, L. K.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) was a ground-based and airborne field study designed to characterize and understand air quality in the Colorado Front Range, where National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) ozone levels are frequently exceeded during summertime. A primary goal of the study was to determine the factors controlling surface ozone in the Front Range. As part of the project, measurements of many trace gases were observed on board the NSF/NCAR C-130 by a suite of instrumentation, including the NCAR Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA), which made measurements of a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs are crucial for characterizing emissions and photochemical processing in the Front Range, as well as the air transported into the region. During recent years, oil and natural gas (O&NG) activity in the Front Range has been growing rapidly. Ratios of observed aromatic hydrocarbons, butanes and pentanes demonstrate distinct fingerprinting that can be used to distinguish both between different types of O&NG activities and between O&NG extraction regions in the FRAPPE study region and beyond. Using the observed hydrocarbon data along with other trace gas observations, we will compare contributions of O&NG emissions to OH reactivities in different regions in the Front Range, and present box model results demonstrating the impact of O&NG activities on ozone formation.

  3. Activation of cGAS-dependent antiviral responses by DNA intercalating agents

    PubMed Central

    Pépin, Geneviève; Nejad, Charlotte; Thomas, Belinda J.; Ferrand, Jonathan; McArthur, Kate; Bardin, Philip G.; Williams, Bryan R.G.; Gantier, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Acridine dyes, including proflavine and acriflavine, were commonly used as antiseptics before the advent of penicillins in the mid-1940s. While their mode of action on pathogens was originally attributed to their DNA intercalating activity, work in the early 1970s suggested involvement of the host immune responses, characterized by induction of interferon (IFN)-like activities through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate here that sub-toxic concentrations of a mixture of acriflavine and proflavine instigate a cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS)-dependent type-I IFN antiviral response. This pertains to the capacity of these compounds to induce low level DNA damage and cytoplasmic DNA leakage, resulting in cGAS-dependent cGAMP-like activity. Critically, acriflavine:proflavine pre-treatment of human primary bronchial epithelial cells significantly reduced rhinovirus infection. Collectively, our findings constitute the first evidence that non-toxic DNA binding agents have the capacity to act as indirect agonists of cGAS, to exert potent antiviral effects in mammalian cells. PMID:27694309

  4. Adsorption of iodine from COIL waste gas on soaked coal-based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junbo; Hao, Shan; Gao, Liping

    2014-04-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has wide application prospects in military, industrial and medical treatment fields as a second generation gas chemical laser to follow the first HF/DF chemical laser. However, a COIL releases large amounts of gas, such as helium, oxygen, chlorine and iodine. Chlorides have a serious corrosive effect on the system, especially iodine vapor crystallization, which seriously endangers the normal use of vacuum systems, and radioactive methyl iodide, which is hazardous to operators and pollutes the environment. The use of soaked coal-based activated carbon as an adsorbent for removing methyl iodine is proposed, while it is proposed that coal-based activated carbon is an effective adsorbent for removing stable iodine. The research conducted in this work shows that iodine residues are less than 0.5 μg ml-1 after the adsorption treatment and the decontamination factor of the coal-based activated carbon for removing stable iodine is more than 1000. Using this method can achieve the purpose of removing harmful iodine, satisfy the requirements for engineering applications, and also be applied to other nuclear power plant flue gas treatments.

  5. Reduction of dioxin emission by a multi-layer reactor with bead-shaped activated carbon in simulated gas stream and real flue gas of a sinter plant.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pao Chen; Lo, Wei Chiao; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Shu Hao; Chang, Moo Been

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-scale multi-layer system was developed for the adsorption of PCDD/Fs from gas streams at various operating conditions, including gas flow rate, operating temperature and water vapor content. Excellent PCDD/F removal efficiency (>99.99%) was achieved with the multi-layer design with bead-shaped activated carbons (BACs). The PCDD/F removal efficiency achieved with the first layer adsorption bed decreased as the gas flow rate was increased due to the decrease of the gas retention time. The PCDD/F concentrations measured at the outlet of the third layer adsorption bed were all lower than 0.1 ng I-TEQ Nm⁻³. The PCDD/Fs desorbed from BAC were mainly lowly chlorinated congeners and the PCDD/F outlet concentrations increased as the operating temperature was increased. In addition, the results of pilot-scale experiment (real flue gases of an iron ore sintering plant) indicated that as the gas flow rate was controlled at 15 slpm, the removal efficiencies of PCDD/F congeners achieved with the multi-layer reactor with BAC were better than that in higher gas flow rate condition (20 slpm). Overall, the lab-scale and pilot-scale experiments indicated that PCDD/F removal achieved by multi-layer reactor with BAC strongly depended on the flow rate of the gas stream to be treated.

  6. Measurements of volcanic gas emissions during the first phase of 2010 eruptive activity of Eyjafallajokull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, M. R.; Salerno, G. G.; La Spina, A.; Stefansson, A.; Kaasalainen, H. S.

    2010-12-01

    The March-April 2010 alkali-basalt eruption of Eyjafallajokull immediately preceded the vigorous, ash-rich April-May 2010 trachyandesitic eruption. We performed open-path FTIR, mini-DOAS and UV camera measurements on the erupted gases emitted from the first phase of the eruption at Fimmvörduháls on 1st and 2nd April, followed by downwind SO2 flux measurements on the following days. The SO2 gas flux produced by the eruption was ~3000 tonnes per day. Approximately 70% of the SO2 flux was produced by the fissure which opened on 31st March, with ~30% emitted from the 21st March fissure. The flux of HF from the eruption was ~30 tonnes per day. Gas compositions emitted from the two eruption fissures were broadly similar, being very rich in H2O (>80% by mole), <15 % CO2 and <3% SO2. Strong variations between 5 and 25 in the SO2/HCl ratio were observed at the 31st March fissure on the two measurement days, with higher values observed on 1st April when the activity was apparently more intense than 2nd April. In this work we interpret the gas emission data in terms of the eruption dynamics and CO2 contribution to the atmosphere. We also examine the implications of the observed gas fluxes for the erupted magma volume.

  7. Removal of VOCs from humidified gas streams using activated carbon cloth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cal, M.P.; Rood, M.J.; Larson, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of relative humidity (RH) on the adsorption of soluble (acetone) and insoluble (benzene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with activated carbon cloths (ACC). A gravimetric balance was used in conjunction with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrophotometer to determine the individual amounts of water and VOC adsorbed on an ACC sample. RH values from 0 to 90% and organic concentrations from 350 to 1000 ppmv were examined. The presence of water vapor in the gas-stream along with acetone (350 and 500 ppmv) had little effect on the adsorption capacity of acetone even at 90% RH. Water vapor in the gas stream had little effect on the adsorption capacity of benzene (500 ppmv) until about 65% RH, when a rapid decrease resulted in the adsorption capacity of benzene with increasing RH. This RH was also about where capillary condensation of water vapor occurs within ACC pores. Water vapor condenses within the ACC pores, making them unavailable for benzene adsorption. Increasing benzene concentration can have a significant effect on the amount of water vapor adsorbed. At 86% RH and 500 ppmv, 284 mg/g water was adsorbed, while at 86% RH and 1000 ppmv, only 165 mg/g water was adsorbed. Water vapor was more inhibitory for benzene adsorption as benzene concentration in the gas stream decreased. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Active seafloor gas vents on the Shelf and upper Slope in Canadian Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S. R.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Blasco, S.; Taylor, A. E.; Melling, H.; Vagle, S.; Conway, K.; Riedel, M.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.

    2012-12-01

    seafloor topographic features on the continental slope suggests these are also active vent sites. Vigorous degassing of methane and pore water freshening in cores from features suggest the presence of near seafloor gas hydrate accumulations. If correct, a feature at 290m depth hosts the shallowest known marine gas hydrate occurrence. Here a layer of very cold ocean waters (-1.7°C) extends to ~200m depths, below which the temperature increases slowly with depth. A consequence of the exceptionally low upper water column temperatures is that the top of the methane hydrate stability zone is only slightly shallower that the 290m seafloor feature. Thus, gas hydrate harbored within seafloor sediments at 290m is vulnerable to decomposition with even subtle climatically-induced warming of the overlying water. Further geoscience studies are planned for 2012 and 2013 to study geological processes, geohazards and the sensitivity of the shelf / slope setting to climate change in the Arctic.

  9. Oil and Gas 101: An Overview of Oil and Gas Upstream Activities and Using EPA's Nonpoint Oil and Gas Emission Estimation Tool for the 2014 NEI (2015 EIC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    provide a general overview of the upstream oil and gas exploration and production processes and emissions covered by the tool; a discussion of EPA’s plans for the 2014 NEI pertaining to oil and gas; use of the tool to compile emissions estimates

  10. Simulation and Fabrication of SAW-Based Gas Sensor with Modified Surface State of Active Layer and Electrode Orientation for Enhanced H2 Gas Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Nazibul; Maity, Santanu; Sarkar, Argha; Bhunia, Chandan Tilak; Acharjee, Debabrata; Joseph, Aneesh M.

    2017-02-01

    The design, analysis, optimization, and fabrication of layered and nanostructure-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors are presented. A lithium niobate and zinc oxide (ZnO) nano multilayer structure is proposed to enhance the sensitivity of the SAW-based gas sensor. Different materials are considered for the intermediate layer in the design for optimization purposes. The sensitivity of the sensor could be improved due to increased active surface area obtained by varying the aspect ratio of the nanorods, the thickness of the intermediate layer, and the gap between the electrodes. The total displacement and frequency shift of the device were significantly improved. Overall, the mechanically engineered surface-based (nanorod) SAW gas sensor offered better sensing response than the layered SAW gas sensor in terms of sensitivity performance.

  11. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The...

  12. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The...

  13. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The...

  14. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The...

  15. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The marine... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable gas detectors....

  16. Unabated Adenovirus Replication following Activation of the cGAS/STING-Dependent Antiviral Response in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cGAS/STING DNA sensing complex has recently been established as a predominant pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) for DNA-directed type I interferon (IFN) innate immune activation. Using replication-defective adenovirus vectors and replication-competent wild-type adenovirus, we have modeled the influence of the cGAS/STING cascade in permissive human cell lines (A549, HeLa, ARPE19, and THP1). Wild-type adenovirus induced efficient early activation of the cGAS/STING cascade in a cell-specific manner. In all responsive cell lines, cGAS/STING short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown resulted in a loss of TBK1 and interferon response factor 3 (IRF3) activation, a lack of beta interferon transcript induction, loss of interferon-dependent STAT1 activation, and diminished induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Adenoviruses that infect through the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) (Ad2 and Ad5) and the CD46 (Ad35) and desmoglein-2 (Ad7) viral receptors all induce the cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade. The magnitude of the IRF3/IFN/ISG antiviral response was strongly influenced by serotype, with Ad35>Ad7>Ad2. For each serotype, no enhancement of viral DNA replication or virus production occurred in cGAS or STING shRNA-targeted cell line pools. We found no replication advantage in permissive cell lines that do not trigger the cGAS/STING cascade following infection. The cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade was not a direct target of viral antihost strategies, and we found no evidence that Ad stimulation of the cGAS/STING DNA response had an impact on viral replication efficiency. IMPORTANCE This study shows for the first time that the cGAS DNA sensor directs a dominant IRF3/IFN/ISG antiviral response to adenovirus in human cell lines. Activation of cGAS occurs with viruses that infect through different high-affinity receptors (CAR, CD46, and desmoglein-2), and the magnitude of the cGAS/STING DNA response cascade is influenced by serotype-specific functions

  17. 76 FR 78188 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... natural gas (LNG) or liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) marine traffic. It also proposes a separate process for... the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas...

  18. 77 FR 70886 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final... Captain of the Port regarding the suitability of a waterway for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied... Commission FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOI Letter of Intent...

  19. Gas-phase activation of methane by ligated transition-metal cations

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Detlef; Schwarz, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the search for ways of a more efficient usage of the large, unexploited resources of methane, recent progress in the gas-phase activation of methane by ligated transition-metal ions is discussed. Mass spectrometric experiments demonstrate that the ligands can crucially influence both reactivity and selectivity of transition-metal cations in bond-activation processes, and the most reactive species derive from combinations of transition metals with the electronegative elements fluorine, oxygen, and chlorine. Furthermore, the collected knowledge about intramolecular kinetic isotope effects associated with the activation of C–H(D) bonds of methane can be used to distinguish the nature of the bond activation as a mere hydrogen-abstraction, a metal-assisted mechanism or more complex reactions such as formation of insertion intermediates or σ-bond metathesis. PMID:18955709

  20. Relationship between fumarole gas composition and eruptive activity at Galeras Volcano, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, T.P.; Williams, S.N.; Arehart, G.B.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1996-06-01

    Forecasting volcanic eruptions is critical to the mitigation of hazards for the millions of people living dangerously close to active volcanoes. Volcanic gases collected over five years from Galeras Volcano, Colombia, and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition show the effects of long-term degassing of the magma body and a gradual decline in sulfur content of the gases. In contrast, short-term (weeks), sharp variations are the precursors to explosive eruptions. Selective absorption of magmatic SO{sub 2} and HCl due to interaction with low-temperature geothermal waters allows the gas emissions to become dominated by CO{sub 2}. Absorption appears to precede an eruption because magmatic volatiles are slowed or retained by a sealing carapace, reducing the total flux of volatiles and allowing the hydrothermal volatiles to dominate gas emissions. Temporal changes in gas compositions were correlated with eruptive activity and provide new evidence bearing on the mechanism of this type of `pneumatic` explosive eruptions. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Reversible Storage of Hydrogen and Natural Gas in Nanospace-Engineered Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Beckner, Matt; Rash, Tyler; Yu, Ping; Suppes, Galen; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    An overview is given of the development of advanced nanoporous carbons as storage materials for natural gas (methane) and molecular hydrogen in on-board fuel tanks for next-generation clean automobiles. High specific surface areas, porosities, and sub-nm/supra-nm pore volumes are quantitatively selected by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process. Tunable bimodal pore-size distributions of sub-nm and supra-nm pores are established by subcritical nitrogen adsorption. Optimal pore structures for gravimetric and volumetric gas storage, respectively, are presented. Methane and hydrogen adsorption isotherms up to 250 bar on monolithic and powdered activated carbons are reported and validated, using several gravimetric and volumetric instruments. Current best gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are: 256 g CH4/kg carbon and 132 g CH4/liter carbon at 293 K and 35 bar; 26, 44, and 107 g H2/kg carbon at 303, 194, and 77 K respectively and 100 bar. Adsorbed film density, specific surface area, and binding energy are analyzed separately using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Langmuir model, and lattice gas models.

  2. Striatal dopamine release and biphasic pattern of locomotor and motor activity under gas narcosis.

    PubMed

    Balon, Norbert; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Blanc, François; Rostain, Jean-Claude; Weiss, Michel

    2003-05-02

    Inert gas narcosis is a neurological syndrome appearing when humans or animals are exposed to hyperbaric inert gases (nitrogen, argon) composed by motor and cognitive impairments. Inert gas narcosis induces a decrease of the dopamine release at the striatum level, structure involved in the regulation of the extrapyramidal motricity. We have investigated, in freely moving rats exposed to different narcotic conditions, the relationship between the locomotor and motor activity and the striatal dopamine release, using respectively a computerized device that enables a quantitative analysis of this behavioural disturbance and voltammetry. The use of 3 MPa of nitrogen, 2 MPa of argon and 0.1 MPa of nitrous oxide, revealed after a transient phase of hyperactivity, a lower level of the locomotor and motor activity, in relation with the decrease of the striatal dopamine release. It is concluded that the striatal dopamine decrease could be related to the decrease of the locomotor and motor hyperactivity, but that other(s) neurotransmitter(s) could be primarily involved in the behavioural motor disturbances induced by narcotics. This biphasic effect could be of major importance for future pharmacological investigations, and motor categorization, on the basic mechanisms of inert gas at pressure.

  3. Correlation between active layer thickness and ambient gas stability in IGZO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xu; Lin, Meng-Fang; Mao, Bao-Hua; Shimizu, Maki; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Ou-Yang, Wei; Nabatame, Toshihide; Liu, Zhi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing the active layer thickness has been recently reported as an alternative way to achieve fully depleted oxide thin-film transistors for the realization of low-voltage operations. However, the correlation between the active layer thickness and device resistivity to environmental changes is still unclear, which is important for the optimized design of oxide thin-film transistors. In this work, the ambient gas stability of IGZO thin-film transistors is found to be strongly correlated to the IGZO thickness. The TFT with the thinnest IGZO layer shows the highest intrinsic electron mobility in a vacuum, which is greatly reduced after exposure to O2/air. The device with a thick IGZO layer shows similar electron mobility in O2/air, whereas the mobility variation measured in the vacuum is absent. The thickness dependent ambient gas stability is attributed to a high-mobility region in the IGZO surface vicinity with less sputtering-induced damage, which will become electron depleted in O2/air due to the electron transfer to adsorbed gas molecules. The O2 adsorption and deduced IGZO surface band bending is demonstrated by the ambient-pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results.

  4. Airborne Measurements of Emissions from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Activities in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Roiger, A.; Raut, J.; Rose, M.; Weinzierl, B.; Reiter, A.; Thomas, J. L.; Marelle, L.; Law, K.; Schlager, H.

    2013-12-01

    A rapid decline of Arctic sea ice is expected to promote hydrocarbon extraction in the Arctic, which in turn will increase emissions of atmospheric pollutants. To investigate impacts of different pollution sources on the Arctic atmosphere, an aircraft campaign based in northern Norway was conducted in July 2012, as a part of the EU ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change Economy and Society) project. One of the flights focused on measuring emissions from various oil/gas exploration and production facilities ~110 km south of the Arctic Circle in the Norwegian Sea. Fresh and aged (from 5 minutes to 2.5 hours old) exhaust plumes from oil/gas production platforms, drilling rigs and tankers were probed with extensive aerosol and trace gas instrumentations. It was found that different types of facilities emit plumes with distinct chemical compositions. For example, tanker plumes were characterized by high SO2 concentration and high fraction of non-volatile particles while plumes from oil/gas production platforms showed significant increase in the nucleation mode particle concentration. Drilling rigs were found to be high black carbon emitters. In addition to the fresh plumes, relatively aged plumes (1.5 - 2.5 hours old) from a facility under development were measured. Even in these aged plumes, total particle concentrations were more than 6 times higher than the background concentration. Therefore, emissions from oil and gas activities are expected to have a significant impact on local air quality and atmospheric composition. With the aid of FLEXPART-WRF (a Lagrangian dispersion model) simulations, the results of this study will be used to validate and improve current emission inventories. In the future, these improved emission inventories can be used in regional and global chemical transport models to more accurately predict future Arctic air pollution.

  5. 75 FR 18545 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0067, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations, Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0067, Oil and Gas Well- Completion... request (ICR) concerns the paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR 250, Subpart E, ``Oil..., subpart E, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations. OMB Control Number: 1010-0067. Abstract: The...

  6. Gas chromatographic analysis of polyhydroxybutyrate in activated sludge: a round-robin test.

    PubMed

    Baetens, D; Aurola, A M; Foglia, A; Dionisi, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2002-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in particular have become compounds which is routinely investigated in wastewater research. The PHB analysis method has only recently been applied to activated sludge samples where PHA contents might be relatively low. This urges the need to investigate the reproducibility of the gas chromatographic method for PHB analysis. This was evaluated in a round-robin test in 5 European laboratories with samples from lab-scale and full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. It was shown that the standard deviation of measurements in each lab and the reproducibility between the labs was very good. Experimental results obtained by different laboratories using this analysis method can be compared. Sludge samples with PHB contents varying between 0.3 and 22.5 mg PHB/mg sludge were analysed. The gas chromatographic method allows for PHV, PH2MB and PH2MV analysis as well.

  7. An Electric Propulsion "Shepherd" for Active Debris Removal that Utilizes Ambient Gas as Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus among the space debris technical community that limiting the long ]term growth of debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) requires that space users limit the accumulation of mass in orbit. This is partially accomplished by mitigation measures for current and future LEO systems, but there is now interest in removing mass that has already accumulated in LEO from more than 50 years of space activity (termed "Active Debris Removal", or ADR). Many ADR proposals face complex technical issues of how to grapple with uncooperative targets. Some researchers have suggested the use of conventional ion thrusters to gently "blow" on objects to gradually change their orbits, without ever having to come into physical contact with the target. The chief drawback with these methods is the cost per object removed. Typically, a space "tug" or an ion-drive "shepherd" can only remove a few objects per mission due to limited propellant. Unless a costeffective way that removes tens of objects per mission can be found, it is not clear that any of the ideas so far proposed will be economically viable. In this paper, a modified version of the ion-drive "shepherd" is proposed that uses ambient atmospheric gases in LEO as propellant for the ion drives. This method has the potential to greatly extend the operational lifetime of an ADR mission, as the only mission limit is the lifetime of the components of the satellite itself, not on its fuel supply. An ambient-gas ion-drive "shepherd" would the local atmospheric drag on an object by ionizing and accelerating the ambient gas the target would have encountered anyway, thereby hastening its decay. Also, the "shepherd" satellite itself has a great deal of flexibility to maneuver back to high altitude and rendezvous with its next target using the ion drive not limited by fuel supply. However, the amount of available ambient gas is closely tied to the altitude of the spacecraft. It may be possible to use a "hybrid" approach that

  8. Seismic Source Mechanism of Gas-Piston Activity at Kilauea Inferred from Inversion of Broadband Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouet, B. A.; Dawson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Among the broad range of magmatic processes observed in the Overlook pit crater in Kilauea Caldera are recurring episodes of gas-piston activity. This activity is accompanied by repetitive seismic signals recorded by a broadband network deployed in the summit caldera. We use the seismic data to model the source mechanism of representative gas-piston events in a sequence that occurred on 20-25 August 2011 during a gentle inflation of the Kilauea summit. We apply a new waveform inversion method that accounts for the contributions from both translation and tilt in horizontal seismograms through the use of Green's functions representing the seismometer response to translation and tilt ground motions. This method enables a robust description of the source mechanism over the period range of 1 - 10,000 s. Most of the seismic wave field produced by gas-pistoning originates in a source region ~1 km below the eastern perimeter of Halema'uma'u pit crater. The observed waveforms are well explained by a simple volumetric source with geometry composed of two intersecting cracks featuring an east-striking crack (dike) dipping 80° to the north, intersecting a north-striking crack (inclined sheet) dipping 65° to the east. Each gas-piston event is characterized by a rapid inflation lasting a few minutes trailed by a slower deflation ramp extending up to 15 minutes, attributed to the efficient coupling at the source centroid location of the pressure and momentum changes accompanying the growth and collapse of a layer of foam at the top of the magma column. Assuming a simple lumped parameter representation of the shallow magmatic system, the observed pressure and volume variations can be modeled with the following attributes: foam thickness (10 - 50 m), foam cell diameter (0.04 - 0.10 m), and gas-injection velocity (0.01 - 0.06 m s-1). Based on the change in the period of very-long-period oscillations accompanying the onset of the gas-piston signal and tilt evidence, the height of

  9. An Electric Propulsion "Shepherd" for Active Debris Removal that Utilizes Ambient Gas as Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus among the space debris technical community that limiting the long-term growth of debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) requires that space users limit the accumulation of mass in orbit. This is partially accomplished by mitigation measures for current and future LEO systems, but there is now interest in removing mass that has already accumulated in LEO from more than 50 years of space activity (termed "Active Debris Removal", or ADR). Many ADR proposals face complex technical issues of how to grapple with uncooperative targets. Some researchers have suggested the use of conventional ion thrusters to gently "blow" on objects to gradually change their orbits, without ever having to come into physical contact with the target. The chief drawback with these methods is the cost per object removed. Typically, a space "tug" or an ion-drive "shepherd" can only remove a few objects per mission due to limited propellant. Unless a cost-effective way that removes tens of objects per mission can be found, it is not clear that any of the ideas so far proposed will be economically viable. In this paper, a modified version of the ion-drive "shepherd" is proposed that uses ambient atmospheric gases in LEO as propellant for the ion drives. This method has the potential to greatly extend the operational lifetime of an ADR mission, as the only mission limit is the lifetime of the components of the satellite itself, not on its fuel supply. An ambient-gas ion-drive "shepherd" would enhance the local atmospheric drag on an object by ionizing and accelerating the ambient gas the target would have encountered anyway, thereby hastening its decay. Also, the "shepherd" satellite itself has a great deal of flexibility to maneuver back to high altitude and rendezvous with its next target using the ion drive not limited by fuel supply. However, the amount of available ambient gas is closely tied to the altitude of the spacecraft. It may be possible to use a "hybrid

  10. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse by physical activation with CO2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachrun, Sutrisno; AyuRizka, Noni; Annisa, SolichaHidayat; Arif, Hidayat

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to study the effects of different carbonization temperatures (400, 600, and 800oC) on characteristics of porosity in activated carbon derived from carbonized sugarcane bagassechar at activation temperature of 800oC. The results showed that the activated carbon derived from high carbonized temperature of sugarcane bagassechars had higher BET surface area, total volume, micropore volume and yield as compared to the activated carbon derived from low carbonized temperature. The BET surface area, total volume and micropore volume of activated carbon prepared from sugarcane bagassechars obtained at 800oC of carbonized temperature and activation time of 120 min were 661.46m2/g, 0.2455cm3/g and 0.1989cm3/g, respectively. The high carbonization temperature (800oC) generated a highly microporous carbonwith a Type-I nitrogen adsorption isotherm, while the low carbonization temperature (400 and 600oC) generated a mesoporous one with an intermediate between types I and IInitrogen adsorption isotherm.

  11. Bacteriophage-nanocomposites: an easy and reproducible method for the construction, handling, storage and transport of conjugates for deployment of bacteriophages active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ian R; Illsley, Matthew; Korobeinyk, Alina V; Whitby, Raymond L D

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work was proof of concept to develop a novel, cost effective protocol for the binding of bacteriophages to a surface without loss of function, after storage in various media. The technology platform involved covalently bonding bacteriophage 13 (a Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage) to two magnetised multiwalled carbon nanotube scaffolds using a series of buffers; bacteriophage-nanotube (B-N) conjugates were efficacious after storage at 20 °C for six weeks. B-N conjugates were added to human cell culture in vitro for 9 days without causing necrosis and apoptosis. B-N conjugates were frozen (-20 °C) in cell culture media for several weeks, after which recovery from the human cell culture medium was possible using a simple magnetic separation technique. The retention of viral infective potential was demonstrated by subsequent spread plating onto lawns of susceptible P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the human cell culture medium revealed the production of interleukins by the human fibroblasts upon exposure to the bacteriophage. One day after exposure, IL-8 levels transitorily increased between 60 and 100 pg/mL, but this level was not found on any subsequent days, suggesting an initial but not long lasting response. This paper outlines the development of a method to deliver antimicrobial activity to a surface that is small enough to be combined with other materials. To our knowledge at time of publication, this is the first report of magnetically coupled bacteriophages specific to human pathogens which can be recovered from test systems, and could represent a novel means to conditionally deploy antibacterial agents into living eukaryotic systems without the risks of some antibiotic therapies.

  12. Studies and research concerning BNFP: cask handling equipment standardization

    SciTech Connect

    McCreery, Paul N.

    1980-10-01

    This report covers the activities of one of the sub-tasks within the Spent LWR Fuel Transportation Receiving, Handling, and Storage program. The sub-task is identified as Cask Handling Equipment Standardization. The objective of the sub-task specifies: investigate and identify opportunities for standardization of cask interface equipment. This study will examine the potential benefits of standardized yokes, decontamination barriers and special tools, and, to the extent feasible, standardized methods and software for handling the variety of casks presently available in the US fleet. The result of the investigations is a compilation of reports that are related by their common goal of reducing cask turnaround time.

  13. 7 CFR 906.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 906.7 Section 906.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.7 Handle. Handle or ship means...

  14. 7 CFR 959.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 959.7 Section 959.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.7 Handle. Handle or ship means to package, load, sell, transport, or in any...

  15. 7 CFR 946.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 946.7 Section 946.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.7 Handle. Handle is synonymous with ship and means to transport,...

  16. 7 CFR 958.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 958.7 Section 958.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.7 Handle. Handle...

  17. 75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval... Safety Administration (PHMSA) issues federal safety standards for siting liquefied natural gas (LNG...) NFPA 59A: Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas. That...

  18. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

  19. Gas Cylinder Safety, Course 9518

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, George

    2016-10-27

    This course, Gas Cylinder Safety (#9518), presents an overview of the hazards and controls associated with handling, storing, using, and transporting gas cylinders. Standard components and markings of gas cylinders are also presented, as well as the process for the procurement, delivery, and return of gas cylinders at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  20. Violent Gas Venting on the Heng-Chun Mud Volcano, South China Sea Active Continental Margin offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; Cheng, W. Y.; Tseng, Y. T.; Chen, N. C.; Hsieh, I. C.; Yang, T. F.

    2014-12-01

    Accumulation of methane as gas hydrate under the sea floor has been considered a major trap for both thermal and biogenic gas in marine environment. Aided by rapid AOM process near the sea floor, fraction of methane escaping the sea floor has been considered at minuscule. However, most studies focused mainly on deepwater gas hydrate systems where gas hydrate remain relatively stable. We have studied methane seeps on the active margin offshore Taiwan, where rapid tectonic activities occur. Our intention is to evaluate the scale and condition of gas seeps in the tectonic active region. Towcam, coring, heat probe, chirp, multibeam bathymetric mapping and echo sounding were conducted at the study areas. Our results showed that gas is violently venting at the active margin, not only through sediments, but also through overlying sea water, directly into the atmosphere. Similar ventings, but, not in this scale, have also been identified previously in the nearby region. High concentrations of methane as well as traces of propane were found in sediments and in waters with flares. In conjunction, abundant chemosynthetic community, life mussel, clams, tube worms, bacterial mats together with high concentrations of dissolve sulfide, large authigenic carbonate buildups were also found. Our results indicate that methane could be another major green house gas in the shallow water active margin region.

  1. SENP7 Potentiates cGAS Activation by Relieving SUMO-Mediated Inhibition of Cytosolic DNA Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ye; Yu, Huansha; Zheng, Xin; Peng, Rui; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Rui; Wang, Jiehua; Qu, Bo; Shen, Nan; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Xing; Wang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS, a.k.a. MB21D1), a cytosolic DNA sensor, catalyzes formation of the second messenger 2’3’-cGAMP that activates the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling. How the cGAS activity is modulated remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 7 (SENP7) interacted with and potentiated cGAS activation. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) was conjugated onto the lysine residues 335, 372 and 382 of cGAS, which suppressed its DNA-binding, oligomerization and nucleotidyl-transferase activities. SENP7 reversed this inhibition via catalyzing the cGAS de-SUMOylation. Consistently, silencing of SENP7 markedly impaired the IRF3-responsive gene expression induced by cGAS-STING axis. SENP7-knockdown mice were more susceptible to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. SENP7 was significantly up-regulated in patients with SLE. Our study highlights the temporal modulation of the cGAS activity via dynamic SUMOylation, uncovering a novel mechanism for fine-tuning the STING signaling in innate immunity. PMID:28095500

  2. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in three Chinese Moutai liquors by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yunwei; Chen, Xiaomei; Xiao, Zuobing; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Jiancai

    2017-04-01

    The aroma-active compounds in three Chinese Moutai liquors, aged 1 year, 15 years and 30 years were investigated in this study. The aroma compounds were analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 79 aroma compounds were identified. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was further employed to identify the aroma-active compounds. A total of 35 aroma-active compounds with flavour dilution (FD) values ≧ 64 simultaneously in three Chinese Moutai liquors were quantitated. Among them, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate and acetic acid appeared with the highest concentrations. They were all >1000 mg/L. Then, the relationships between the aroma-active compounds and seven sensory attributes were studied.

  3. Activation of Methane by the Pyridine Radical Cation and its Substituted Forms in the Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guohua; Stewart, Hamish; Liu, Zeyu; Wang, Yongcheng; Stace, Anthony J.

    2015-08-01

    We present an experimental study of methane activation by pyridine cation and its substituents in the gas phase. Mass spectrometric experiments in an ion trap demonstrate that pyridine cation and some of its substituent cations are able to react with methane. The deuterated methane experiment has confirmed that the hydrogen atom in the ionic product of reaction does come from methane. The collected information about kinetic isotope effects has been used to distinguish the nature of the bond activation as a hydrogen abstraction. Furthermore, experimental results demonstrated that the substituent groups on the pyridine ring can crucially influence their reactivity in methane bond activation processes. Density functional calculation (DFT) was employed to study the electronic structures of the complex and reaction mechanism of CH4+C5H5N+. The calculations confirmed the hypothesis from the experimental observation, namely, the reaction is rapid with no energy barrier.

  4. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  5. Gas6/Axl pathway is activated in chronic liver disease and its targeting reduces fibrosis via hepatic stellate cell inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Cristina; Stefanovic, Milica; Tutusaus, Anna; Joannas, Leonel; Menéndez, Anghara; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Marí, Montserrat; Caballeria, Joan; Rothlin, Carla V.; Fernández-Checa, José C.; de Frutos, Pablo García; Morales, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver fibrosis, an important health concern associated to chronic liver injury that provides a permissive environment for cancer development, is characterized by accumulation of extracellular matrix components mainly derived from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, and its ligand Gas6 are involved in cell differentiation, immune response and carcinogenesis. Methods HSCs were obtained from wild type and Axl−/− mice, treated with recombinant Gas6 protein (rGas6), Axl siRNAs or the Axl inhibitor BGB324, and analyzed by western blot and real-time PCR. Experimental fibrosis was studied in CCl4-treated wild type and Axl−/− mice, and in combination with Axl inhibitor. Gas6 and Axl serum levels were measured in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Results In primary mouse HSCs, Gas6 and Axl levels paralleled HSC activation. rGas6 phosphorylated Axl and AKT prior to HSC phenotypic changes, while Axl siRNA silencing reduced HSC activation. Moreover, BGB324 blocked Axl/AKT phosphorylation and diminished HSC activation. In addition, Axl KO mice displayed decreased HSC activation in vitro and liver fibrogenesis after chronic damage by CCl4 administration. Similarly, BGB324 reduced collagen deposition and CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Importantly, Gas6 and Axl serum levels increased in ALD and HCV patients, inversely correlating with liver functionality. Conclusions: The Gas6/Axl axis is required for full HSC activation. Gas6 and Axl serum levels increase in parallel to chronic liver disease progression. Axl targeting may be a therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis management. PMID:25908269

  6. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding

    PubMed Central

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558 MPa) and wire feed rate, 19 m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7 mm, welding speed, 200 mm/min, welding voltage, 30 V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10 L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10–20 L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%. PMID:26491719

  7. The influence of variations in biophysical conditions on hemolysis near ultrasonically activated gas-filled micropores

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.; Thomas, R.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Hemolysis induced by 1.9-MHz ultrasound in 0.5% suspensions of canine erythrocytes with 3.7-{mu}m-diam micropore-trapped gas bodies was investigated for a variety of biophysical conditions. For isotonic media, hemolysis increased with exposure duration but did not greatly change with exposure temperature, or prior heat treatment. The temperature results were especially interesting because increased temperatures might have been expected to increase the sensitivity of the cells to the ultrasonically activated gas bodies. Variations in osmolarity had little influence on the results. Increasing the viscosity of the medium decreased the effect, and this did not seem to depend on the molecular weight of the dextran additive. A medium with elevated mass density seemed to increase the effectiveness of the exposures. This condition eliminated the density difference between the cells and the medium, and might have been expected to reduce the effectiveness of the exposures, because the radiation force, which theoretically gathers cells to the gas bodies, is minimized for such conditions. This information should aid in developing refinements to the theoretical understanding of low-intensity ultrasonic bioeffects.

  8. Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

    2007-12-01

    An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

  9. Vagal nerve activity contributes to improve the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange in hypoxic humans.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shoji; Sasano, Hiroshi; Sasano, Nobuko; Hayano, Junichiro; Fisher, Joseph A; Katsuya, Hirotada

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that both phasic cardiac vagal activity and tonic pulmonary vagal activity, estimated as respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and anatomical dead space volume, respectively, contribute to improve the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange in humans. We examined the effect of blocking vagal nerve activity with atropine on pulmonary gas exchange. Ten healthy volunteers inhaled hypoxic gas with constant tidal volume and respiratory frequency through a respiratory circuit with a respiratory analyser. Arterial partial pressure of O(2) (P(aO(2))) and arterial oxygen saturation (S(pO(2))) were measured, and alveolar-to-arterial P(O(2)) difference (D(A-aO(2))) was calculated. Anatomical dead space (V(D,an)), alveolar dead space (V(D,alv)) and the ratio of physiological dead space to tidal volume (V(D,phys)/V(T)) were measured. Electrocardiogram was recorded, and the amplitude of R-R interval variability in the high-frequency component (RRIHF) was utilized as an index of RSA magnitude. These parameters of pulmonary function were measured before and after administration of atropine (0.02 mg kg(-1)). Decreased RRIHF (P < 0.01) was accompanied by decreases in P(aO(2)) and S(pO(2)) (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) and an increase in D(A-aO(2)) (P < 0.05). Anatomical dead space, V(D,alv) and V(D,phys)/V(T) increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) after atropine administration. The blockade of the vagal nerve with atropine resulted in an increase in V(D,an) and V(D,alv) and a deterioration of pulmonary oxygenation, accompanied by attenuation of RSA. Our findings suggest that both phasic cardiac and tonic pulmonary vagal nerve activity contribute to improve the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange in hypoxic conscious humans.

  10. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P.

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  11. A SiO 2-1 SURVEY TOWARD GAS-RICH ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Jiangshui; Shi, Yong; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2013-12-01

    In order to study the feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we performed a survey of SiO J = 2-1 (v = 0) transition toward ten gas-rich active galaxies with the IRAM 30 m telescope. As the first survey of SiO in such galaxies, we detected SiO J = 2-1 (v = 0) emission in six galaxies above the 3σ level and one galaxy (NGC 3690) at the 2.7σ level. The detection rate is not related to the AGN type or to star formation activity. In comparison with M82, which is a pure star-forming galaxy without nuclear activity, our SiO detections could not be completely ascribed to being due to star formation activity. This suggests that the AGN feedback may be efficient in producing SiO molecules in such galaxies. Further surveys with large single-dish millimeter telescopes and interferometers are necessary for understanding the origin of SiO in galaxies with nuclear activity.

  12. Tumor-selective mitochondrial network collapse induced by atmospheric gas plasma-activated medium.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kosuke; Asai, Tomohiko; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Sahara, Junki; Koguchi, Haruhisa; Fukuda, Noboru; Suzuki-Karasaki, Miki; Soma, Masayoshi; Suzuki-Karasaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-04-12

    Non-thermal atmospheric gas plasma (AGP) exhibits cytotoxicity against malignant cells with minimal cytotoxicity toward normal cells. However, the mechanisms of its tumor-selective cytotoxicity remain unclear. Here we report that AGP-activated medium increases caspase-independent cell death and mitochondrial network collapse in a panel of human cancer cells, but not in non-transformed cells. AGP irradiation stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in AGP-activated medium, and in turn the resulting stable ROS, most likely hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), activated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial ROS (mROS) accumulation. Culture in AGP-activated medium resulted in cell death and excessive mitochondrial fragmentation and clustering, and these responses were inhibited by ROS scavengers. AGP-activated medium also increased dynamin-related protein 1-dependent mitochondrial fission in a tumor-specific manner, and H2O2 administration showed similar effects. Moreover, the vulnerability of tumor cells to mitochondrial network collapse appeared to result from their higher sensitivity to mROS accumulation induced by AGP-activated medium or H2O2. The present findings expand our previous observations on death receptor-mediated tumor-selective cell killing and reinforce the importance of mitochondrial network remodeling as a powerful target for tumor-selective cancer treatment.

  13. Influence of altered precipitation pattern on greenhouse gas emissions and soil enzyme activities in Pannonian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Stefan Johannes; Michel, Kerstin; Berthold, Helene; Baumgarten, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kitzler, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation patterns are likely to be altered due to climate change. Recent models predict a reduction of mean precipitation during summer accompanied by a change in short-term precipitation variability for central Europe. Correspondingly, the risk for summer drought is likely to increase. This may especially be valid for regions which already have the potential for rare, but strong precipitation events like eastern Austria. Given that these projections hold true, soils in this area will receive water irregularly in few, heavy rainfall events and be subjected to long-lasting dry periods in between. This pattern of drying/rewetting can alter soil greenhouse gas fluxes, creating a potential feedback mechanism for climate change. Microorganisms are the key players in most soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformation processes including greenhouse gas exchange. A conceptual model proposed by Schimel and colleagues (2007) links microbial stress-response physiology to ecosystem-scale biogeochemical processes: In order to cope with decreasing soil water potential, microbes modify resource allocation patterns from growth to survival. However, it remains unclear how microbial resource acquisition via extracellular enzymes and microbial-controlled greenhouse gas fluxes respond to water stress induced by soil drying/rewetting. We designed a laboratory experiment to test for effects of multiple drying/rewetting cycles on soil greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O, NO), microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity. Three soils representing the main soil types of eastern Austria were collected in June 2012 at the Lysimeter Research Station of the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) in Vienna. Soils were sieved to 2mm, filled in steel cylinders and equilibrated for one week at 50% water holding capacity (WHC) for each soil. Then soils were separated into two groups: One group received water several times per week (C=control), the other group received

  14. The CDF data handling system

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitry O. Litvintsev

    2003-11-05

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) records proton-antiproton collisions at center of mass energy of 2.0 TeV at the Tevatron collider. A new collider run, Run II, of the Tevatron started in April 2001. Increased luminosity will result in about 1 PB of data recorded on tapes in the next two years. Currently the CDF experiment has about 260 TB of data stored on tapes. This amount includes raw and reconstructed data and their derivatives. The data storage and retrieval are managed by the CDF Data Handling (DH) system. This system has been designed to accommodate the increased demands of the Run II environment and has proven robust and reliable in providing reliable flow of data from the detector to the end user. This paper gives an overview of the CDF Run II Data Handling system which has evolved significantly over the course of this year. An outline of the future direction of the system is given.

  15. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-04-07

    This design calculation revises and updates the previous criticality evaluation for the canister handling, transfer and staging operations to be performed in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) documented in BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004 [DIRS 167614]. The purpose of the calculation is to demonstrate that the handling operations of canisters performed in the CHF meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section 4.9.2.2), the nuclear facility safety requirement in ''Project Requirements Document'' (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275], p. 4-206), the functional/operational nuclear safety requirement in the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' document (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557], p. 75), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirements described in the ''Canister Handling Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], Sections 3.1.1.3.4.13 and 3.2.3). Specific scope of work contained in this activity consists of updating the Category 1 and 2 event sequence evaluations as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7). The CHF is limited in throughput capacity to handling sealed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) canisters, defense high-level radioactive waste (DHLW), naval canisters, multicanister overpacks (MCOs), vertical dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), and multipurpose canisters (MPCs) (if and when they become available) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], p. 1-1). It should be noted that the design and safety analyses of the naval canisters are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. In addition, this calculation is valid for the current design of the CHF and may not reflect the ongoing design evolution of the facility

  16. Satellite observation of pollutant emissions from gas flaring activities near the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Hsu, N. Christina; Sayer, Andrew M.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Fu, Joshua S.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Lee, Jaehwa; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2016-05-01

    Gas flaring is a common practice in the oil industry that can have significant environmental impacts, but has until recently been largely overlooked in terms of relevance to climate change. We utilize data from various satellite sensors to examine pollutant emissions from oil exploitation activities in four areas near the Arctic. Despite the remoteness of these sparsely populated areas, tropospheric NO2 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is substantial at ˜1 × 1015 molecules cm-2, suggesting sizeable emissions from these industrial activities. Statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level, corresponding uncertainties in parentheses) increasing trends of 0.017 (±0.01) × 1015 and 0.015 (±0.006) × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1 over 2004-2015 were found for Bakken (USA) and Athabasca (Canada), two areas having recently experienced fast expansion in the oil industry. This rapid change has implications for emission inventories, which are updated less frequently. No significant trend was found for the North Sea (Europe), where oil production has been declining since the 1990s. For northern Russia, the trend was just under the 95% significance threshold at 0.0057 (±0.006) × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1. This raises an interesting inconsistency as prior studies have suggested that, in contrast to the continued, albeit slow, expansion of Russian oil/gas production, gas flaring in Russia has decreased in recent years. However, only a fraction of oil fields in Russia were covered in our analysis. Satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data revealed similar tendencies, albeit at a weaker level of statistical significance, due to the longer lifetime of aerosols and contributions from other sources. This study demonstrates that synergetic use of data from multiple satellite sensors can provide valuable information on pollutant emission sources that is otherwise difficult to acquire.

  17. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, G.H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

  18. Simulation of mercury capture by activated carbon injection in incinerator flue gas. 2. Fabric filter removal.

    PubMed

    Scala, F

    2001-11-01

    Following a companion paper focused on the in-duct mercury capture in incinerator flue gas by powdered activated carbon injection, this paper is concerned with the additional mercury capture on the fabric filter cake, relevant to baghouse equipped facilities. A detailed model is presented for this process, based on material balances on mercury in both gaseous and adsorbed phases along the growing filter cake and inside the activated carbon particles,taking into account mass transfer resistances and adsorption kinetics. Several sorbents of practical interest have been considered, whose parameters have been evaluated from available literature data. The values and range of the operating variables have been chosen in order to simulate typical incinerators operating conditions. Results of simulations indicate that, contrary to the in-duct removal process, high mercury removal efficiencies can be obtained with moderate sorbent consumption, as a consequence of the effective gas/sorbent contacting on the filter. Satisfactory utilization of the sorbents is predicted, especially at long filtration times. The sorbent feed rate can be minimized by using a reactive sorbent and by lowering the filter temperature as much as possible. Minor benefits can be obtained also by decreasing the sorbent particle size and by increasing the cleaning cycle time of the baghouse compartments. Reverse-flow baghouses were more efficient than pulse-jet baghouses, while smoother operation can be obtained by increasing the number of baghouse compartments. Model results are compared with available relevant full scale data.

  19. A census of gas outflows in type 2 active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Woo, Jong-Hak E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-11-01

    We perform a census of ionized gas outflows using a sample of ∼23,000 type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z ∼ 0.1. By measuring the velocity offset of narrow emission lines, i.e., [O III] λ5007 and Hα, with respect to the systemic velocity measured from the stellar absorption lines, we find that 47% of AGNs display an [O III] line-of-sight velocity offset ≥ 20 km s{sup –1}. The fraction of the [O III] velocity offset in type 2 AGNs is comparable to that in type 1 AGNs after considering the projection effect. AGNs with a large [O III] velocity offset preferentially have a high Eddington ratio, implying that the detected velocity offsets are related to black hole activity. The distribution of the host galaxy inclination is clearly different between the AGNs with blueshifted [O III] and the AGNs with redshifted [O III], supporting the combined model of the biconical outflow and dust obscuration. In addition, for ∼3% of AGNs, [O III] and Hα show comparable large velocity offsets, indicating a more complex gas kinematics than decelerating outflows in a stratified narrow-line region.

  20. ENERGY EFFICIENT THERMAL MANAGEMENT FOR NATURAL GAS ENGINE AFTERTREATMENT VIA ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen

    2004-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  1. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  2. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2005-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  3. Risk assessment of oil and gas well drilling activities in Iran - a case study: human factors.

    PubMed

    Amir-Heidari, Payam; Farahani, Hadi; Ebrahemzadih, Mehrzad

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling activities are associated with numerous hazards which have the potential to cause injury or harm for people, property and the environment. These hazards are also a threat for the reputation of drilling companies. To prevent accidents and undesired events in drilling operations it is essential to identify, evaluate, assess and control the attendant risks. In this work, a structured methodology is proposed for risk assessment of drilling activities. A case study is performed to identify, analyze and assess the risks arising from human factors in one of the on shore drilling sites in southern Iran. A total of 17 major hazards were identified and analyzed using the proposed methodology. The results showed that the residual risks of 100% of these hazards were in the acceptable or transitional zone, and their levels were expected to be lowered further by proper controls. This structured methodology may also be used in other drilling sites and companies for assessing the risks.

  4. Toluene vapor capture by activated carbon particles in a dual gas-solid cyclone system.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun Hui; Ngo, Khanh Quoc; Park, Young Koo; Jo, Young Min

    2012-08-01

    Capturing of odorous compounds such as toluene vapor by a particulate-activated carbon adsorbent was investigated in a gas-solid cyclone, which is one type of mobile beds. The test cyclone was early modified with the post cyclone (PoC) and a spiral flow guide to the vortex finder. The proposed process may contribute to the reduction of gases and dust from industrial exhausts, especially when dealing with a low concentration of odorous elements and a large volume ofdust flow. In this device, the toluene capturing efficiency at a 400 ppm concentration rose up to 77.4% when using activated carbon (AC) particles with a median size of 27.03 microm. A maximum 96% of AC particles could be collected for reuse depending on the size and flow rate. The AC regenerated via thermal treatment showed an adsorption potential up to 66.7% throughout repeated tests.

  5. Active control of combustion instabilities in low NO{sub x} gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Neumeier, Y.

    1995-10-01

    This 3-year research program was initiated in September, 1995, to investigate active control of detrimental combustion instabilities in low NO{sub x} gas turbines (LNGT), which burn natural gas in a lean premixed mode to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. The program will investigate the mechanisms that drive these instabilities. Furthermore, it will study active control systems (ACS) that can effectively prevent the onset of such instabilities and/or reduce their amplitudes to acceptable levels. An understanding of the driving mechanisms will not only guide the development of effective ACS for LNGT but may also lead to combustor design changes (i.e., passive control) that will fully or partially resolve the problem. Initial attempts to stabilize combustors (i.e., chemical rockets) by ACS were reported more than 40 years ago, but were unsuccessful due to lack of adequate sensors, electronics, and actuators for performing the needed control actions. Progress made in recent years in sensor and actuator technology, electronics, and control theory has rekindled interest in developing ACS for unstable combustors. While initial efforts in this area, which focused on active control of instabilities in air breathing combustors, have demonstrated the considerable potential of active control, they have also indicated that more effective observers, controllers, and actuators are needed for practical applications. Considerable progress has been made in the observer and actuator areas by the principal investigators of this program during the past 2 years under an AFOSR program. The developed observer is based upon wavelets theory, and can identify the amplitudes, frequencies, and phases of the five most dominant combustor modes in (virtually) real time. The developed actuator is a fuel injector that uses a novel magneto-strictive material to modulate the fuel flow rate into the combustor.

  6. Predicting mixed-gas adsorption equilibria on activated carbon for precombustion CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    García, S; Pis, J J; Rubiera, F; Pevida, C

    2013-05-21

    We present experimentally measured adsorption isotherms of CO2, H2, and N2 on a phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbon, which had been previously synthesized for the separation of CO2 in a precombustion capture process. The single component adsorption isotherms were measured in a magnetic suspension balance at three different temperatures (298, 318, and 338 K) and over a large range of pressures (from 0 to 3000-4000 kPa). These values cover the temperature and pressure conditions likely to be found in a precombustion capture scenario, where CO2 needs to be separated from a CO2/H2/N2 gas stream at high pressure (~1000-1500 kPa) and with a high CO2 concentration (~20-40 vol %). Data on the pure component isotherms were correlated using the Langmuir, Sips, and dual-site Langmuir (DSL) models, i.e., a two-, three-, and four-parameter model, respectively. By using the pure component isotherm fitting parameters, adsorption equilibrium was then predicted for multicomponent gas mixtures by the extended models. The DSL model was formulated considering the energetic site-matching concept, recently addressed in the literature. Experimental gas-mixture adsorption equilibrium data were calculated from breakthrough experiments conducted in a lab-scale fixed-bed reactor and compared with the predictions from the models. Breakthrough experiments were carried out at a temperature of 318 K and five different pressures (300, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 kPa) where two different CO2/H2/N2 gas mixtures were used as the feed gas in the adsorption step. The DSL model was found to be the one that most accurately predicted the CO2 adsorption equilibrium in the multicomponent mixture. The results presented in this work highlight the importance of performing experimental measurements of mixture adsorption equilibria, as they are of utmost importance to discriminate between models and to correctly select the one that most closely reflects the actual process.

  7. Modeling hot gas flow in the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus of NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2014-02-20

    Based on the dynamical black hole (BH) mass estimates, NGC 3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1 Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC 3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this paper we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy from the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction as the small-scale feedback mechanism, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. Fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed data, we find the best-fitting solutions with χ{sup 2}/dof = 1.00 for dof = 236 both with and without conduction. The radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r {sub st} ≲ 1'', so that most of the gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius r{sub B} = 2''-4'', outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We find a shallow density profile n∝r {sup –β} with β ≈ 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.''5-10'' as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r ≲ 1'', and (4) the outflow at r ≳ 1''. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature T{sub v} at any radius.

  8. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  9. 78 FR 12772 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Requirements; Submitted for Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... the information to: Evaluate requests to burn liquid hydrocarbons and vent and flare gas to ensure... replacement of gas meters to measure the amount of gas flared or vented. This is a non-hour cost burden. 1163... per month. 1163(b); Report to ONRR hydrocarbons produced, including measured gas flared/vented...

  10. Preliminary results of systematic sampling of gas manifestations in geodynamically active areas of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; D'Alessandro, Walter; Calabrese, Sergio; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Greece is located on a convergent plate boundary comprising the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian, while the Arabian plate approaches the Eurasian in a northwestward motion. It is considered to be one of the most tectonically active regions of Earth with a complex geodynamic setting, deriving from a long and complicated geological history. Due to this specific geological background, conditions for the formation of many thermal springs are favoured. In the past years, almost all the already known sites of degassing (fumaroles, soil gases, mofettes, gas bubbling in cold and thermal waters) located in the Hellenic area were sampled at least one time. Collected samples were analysed for their chemical (He, Ne, Ar, O2, N2, H2, H2S, CO, CH4 and CO2) and isotopic composition (He, C and N). Some of these sites have been selected for systematic sampling. Four of them have records longer than 10 years with tens of samplings also considering some literature data. Two of the sites are located in active volcanic areas (Santorini and Nisyros) while the other two are close to actively spreading graben structures with intense seismic activity (Gulf of Korinth and Sperchios basin). Results allowed to define long term background values and also some interesting variation related to seismic or volcanic activity.

  11. In vitro thrombolytic efficacy of echogenic liposomes loaded with tissue plasminogen activator and octafluoropropane gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, Himanshu; Bader, Kenneth B.; Huang, Shenwen; Peng, Tao; Huang, Shaoling; McPherson, David D.; Holland, Christy K.

    2017-01-01

    Echogenic liposomes loaded with the thrombolytic recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are under development for the treatment of ischemic stroke. These agents are designed to co-encapsulate cavitation nuclei to promote bubble activity in response to ultrasound exposure, and to enable localized delivery of thrombolytic. Stable cavitation improves the efficacy of the thrombolytic through enhanced fluid mixing. Echogenic liposomes that encapsulate air-filled microbubbles nucleate scant stable cavitation activity in response to 120 kHz intermittent ultrasound exposure, and have demonstrated thrombolytic efficacy equivalent to rt-PA alone. It was hypothesized that encapsulating octafluoropropane (OFP) gas within rt-PA-loaded liposomes instead of air will enhance ultrasound-mediated stable cavitation activity and increase thrombolytic efficacy compared to previous studies. The thrombolytic efficacy and cavitation activity nucleated from liposomes that encapsulate OFP microbubbles and rt-PA (OFP t-ELIP) was evaluated in vitro. Human whole blood clots were exposed to human fresh-frozen plasma alone, rt-PA (0, 0.32, 1.58, and 3.15 µg ml-1), or OFP t-ELIP at equivalent enzymatic activity, with and without exposure to intermittent ultrasound. Further, numerical simulations were performed to gain insight into the mechanisms of cavitation nucleation. Sustained ultraharmonic activity was nucleated from OFP t-ELIP when exposed to ultrasound. Furthermore, the thrombolytic efficacy was enhanced compared to rt-PA alone at concentrations of 1.58 µg ml-1 and 3.15 µg ml-1 (p  <  0.05). These results indicate that OFP t-ELIP can nucleate sustained stable cavitation activity and enhance the efficacy of thrombolysis.

  12. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  13. Adsorption of low concentration phosphine in yellow phosphorus off-gas by impregnated activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Ning, Ping; Shi, Yan; Jiang, Ming

    2009-11-15

    In order to utilize high concentration CO comprehensively, impregnated activated carbon sorbent and the catalytic oxidation reaction for PH(3) were investigated in this study. Carbon was impregnated with HCl, KNO(3), or hexanediol. The activated carbon modified by 7% (mass fraction) HCl could enhance the adsorption purification ability significantly. Raising the reaction temperature or increasing the oxygen content of the gas can improve the purification efficiency. The structure of the materials after modification was determined using nitrogen adsorption. The modification decreased the volume of pores smaller than 2 nm in diameter with the most noticeable change occurring in the micropores ranging from 0.3 nm to 1.5 nm in diameter. Decreases in micropore volume accounted for 87% of the total pore volume change. After the adsorption, the surface areas decreased 28%, 29% of which was due to decreased micropore surface. HCl significantly increased the performance of carbon as a PH(3) adsorbent when HCl impregnation was applied whereas the effects of other materials used in this study were much less pronounced. HCl present in the small pores probably acted as a catalyst for oxygen activation that caused PH(3) oxidation. As a result of this process, H(3)PO(4) and P(4)O(10) were formed, strongly adsorbed, and present in the small pores ranging from 0.3 nm to 1.5 nm. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that CO from industrial off-gas can be purified and used as the raw material for a broader range of products.

  14. Key factor in rice husk ash/CaO sorbent for high flue gas desulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Irvan Dahlan; Keat Teong Lee; Azlina Harun Kamaruddin; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2006-10-01

    Siliceous materials such as rice husk ash (RHA) have potential to be utilized as high performance sorbents for the flue gas desulfurization process in small-scale industrial boilers. This study presents findings on identifying the key factor for high desulfurization activity in sorbents prepared from RHA. Initially, a systematic approach using central composite rotatable design was used to develop a mathematical model that correlates the sorbent preparation variables to the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. The sorbent preparation variables studied are hydration period, x{sub 1} (6-16 h), amount of RHA, x{sub 2} (5-15 g), amount of CaO, x{sub 3} (2-6 g), amount of water, x{sub 4} (90-110 mL), and hydration temperature, x{sub 5} (150-250{sup o}C). The mathematical model developed was subjected to statistical tests and the model is adequate for predicting the SO{sub 2} desulfurization activity of the sorbent within the range of the sorbent preparation variables studied. Based on the model, the amount of RHA, amount of CaO, and hydration period used in the preparation step significantly influenced the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. The ratio of RHA and CaO used in the preparation mixture was also a significant factor that influenced the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. A RHA to CaO ratio of 2.5 leads to the formation of specific reactive species in the sorbent that are believed to be the key factor responsible for high desulfurization activity in the sorbent. Other physical properties of the sorbent such as pore size distribution and surface morphology were found to have insignificant influence on the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. 31 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Study on removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas over activated coke treated by acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinfeng; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Song, Jingke; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Xunan; Xie, Yine

    2015-02-01

    This work addressed the investigation of activated coke (AC) treated by acids. Effects of AC samples, modified by ether different acids (H2SO4, HNO3 and HClO4) or HClO4 of varied concentrations, on Hg0 removal were studied under simulated flue gas conditions. In addition, effects of reaction temperature and individual flue gas components including O2, NO, SO2 and H2O were discussed. In the experiments, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied to explore the surface properties of sorbents and possible mechanism of Hg0 oxidation. Results showed that AC sample treated by HClO4 of 4.5 mol/L exhibited maximum promotion of efficiency on Hg0 removal at 160 °C. NO was proved to be positive in the removal of Hg0. And SO2 displayed varied impact in capturing Hg0 due to the integrated reactions between SO2 and modified AC. The addition of O2 could improve the advancement further to some extent. Besides, the Hg0 removal capacity had a slight declination when H2O was added in gas flow. Based on the analysis of XPS and FTIR, the selected sample absorbed Hg0 mostly in chemical way. The reaction mechanism, deduced from results of characterization and performance of AC samples, indicated that Hg0 could firstly be absorbed on sorbent and then react with oxygen-containing (Csbnd O) or chlorine-containing groups (Csbnd Cl) on the surface of sorbent. And the products were mainly in forms of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and mercuric oxide (HgO).

  16. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) sensor based on infrared absorption spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Version 1.0 prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The prototypes were upgraded with more sophisticated communications and faster response times to version 2.0 and delivered to JSC in July 2012. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with an field-programmable gate array microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the iterative instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments were performed leveraging the lessons learned where feasible. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware for the advanced PLSS 2.5 prototypes for testing at JSC. The prototypes provide significantly enhanced accuracy for water vapor measurement and eliminate wavelength drift affecting the earlier versions. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are currently being advanced including the companion development of engineering development units that will ultimately be capable of radiation tolerance. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength

  17. Managing oil and gas activities in coastal environments. Volume I: comprehensive report. Report for 1977-81

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, W.L.; Jackson, R.; Snyder, B.

    1982-03-01

    This report documents the management of oil and gas development on national wildlife refuges on the Louisiana and Texas coasts. It explains the nature of ownership, leasing rights, and legal considerations related to oil and gas extraction on refuges. The report describes five federal refuges selected for analysis and the different marsh and estuarine ecosystems found on the refuges and in the coastal zone. It explains oil and gas extraction and transport methods used in coastal systems, and examines how each habitat is affected by these activities. Existing regulations and guidelines are analyzed and new ones proposed. The report is a planning tool for refuge personnel to aid them in assessing impacts, issuing permits, and generally managing oil and gas activities.

  18. 7 CFR 1205.312 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.312 Handle. Handle means to harvest, gin,...

  19. Low-Temperature Photochemically Activated Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide for Highly Stable Room-Temperature Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Jaisutti, Rawat; Kim, Jaeyoung; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2016-08-10

    We report on highly stable amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) gas sensors for ultraviolet (UV)-activated room-temperature detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The IGZO sensors fabricated by a low-temperature photochemical activation process and exhibiting two orders higher photocurrent compared to conventional zinc oxide sensors, allowed high gas sensitivity against various VOCs even at room temperature. From a systematic analysis, it was found that by increasing the UV intensity, the gas sensitivity, response time, and recovery behavior of an IGZO sensor were strongly enhanced. In particular, under an UV intensity of 30 mW cm(-2), the IGZO sensor exhibited gas sensitivity, response time and recovery time of 37%, 37 and 53 s, respectively, against 750 ppm concentration of acetone gas. Moreover, the IGZO gas sensor had an excellent long-term stability showing around 6% variation in gas sensitivity over 70 days. These results strongly support a conclusion that a low-temperature solution-processed amorphous IGZO film can serve as a good candidate for room-temperature VOCs sensors for emerging wearable electronics.

  20. Managing oil and gas activities in coastal environments. Volume II: comprehensive report. Report for 1977-81

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, W.L.; Jackson, R.; Snyder, B.

    1982-03-01

    This report documents the management of oil and gas development on national wildlife refuges on the Louisiana and Texas coasts. It explains the nature of ownership, leasing rights, and legal considerations related to oil and gas extraction on refuges. The report describes five federal refuges selected for analysis and the different marsh and estuarine ecosystems found on the refuges and in the coastal zone. It explains oil and gas extraction and transport methods used in coastal systems, and examines how each habitat is affected by these activities.

  1. 17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal securities laws and the Energy Policy... COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Rules... activities pursuant to the Federal securities laws and the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975....

  2. Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Arthur C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the North Slope Borough, and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation conducted a four-year study designed to identify, define, and delineate a shallow coalbed natural gas (CBNG) resource with the potential to provide locally produced, affordable power to the community of Wainwright, Alaska. From 2007 through 2010, drilling and testing activities conducted at three sites in or near Wainwright, identified and evaluated an approximately 7.5-ft-thick, laterally continuous coalbed that contained significant quantities of CBNG. This coalbed, subsequently named the Wainwright coalbed, was penetrated at depths ranging from 1,167 ft to 1,300 ft below land surface. Core samples were collected from the Wainwright coalbed at all three drill locations and desorbed-gas measurements were taken from seventeen 1-ft-thick sections of the core. These measurements indicate that the Wainwright coalbed contains enough CBNG to serve as a long-term energy supply for the community. Although attempts to produce viable quantities of CBNG from the Wainwright coalbed proved unsuccessful, it seems likely that with proper well-field design and by utilizing currently available drilling and reservoir stimulation techniques, this CBNG resource could be developed as a long-term economically viable energy source for Wainwright.

  3. Optimal placement of piezoelectric plates for active vibration control of gas turbine blades: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, F.; Marx, N.; Gentili, S.; Schwingshackl, C. W.; Di Mare, L.; Cerri, G.; Dini, D.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that the gas turbine blade vibrations can give rise to catastrophic failures and a reduction of the blades life because of fatigue related phenomena[1]-[3] . In last two decades, the adoption of piezoelectric elements, has received considerable attention by many researcher for its potential applicability to different areas of mechanical, aerospace, aeronautical and civil engineering. Recently, a number of studies of blades vibration control via piezoelectric plates and patches have been reported[4]-[6] . It was reported that the use of piezoelectric elements can be very effective in actively controlling vibrations. In one of their previous contributions[7] , the authors of the present manuscript studied a model to control the blade vibrations by piezoelectric elements and validated their results using a multi-physics finite elements package (COMSOL) and results from the literature. An optimal placement method of piezoelectric plate has been developed and applied to different loading scenarios for realistic configurations encountered in gas turbine blades. It has been demonstrated that the optimal placement depends on the spectrum of the load, so that segmented piezoelectric patches have been considered and, for different loads, an optimal combination of sequential and/or parallel actuation and control of the segments has been studied. In this paper, an experimental investigation carried out by the authors using a simplified beam configuration is reported and discussed. The test results obtained by the investigators are then compared with the numerical predictions [7] .

  4. Degradation of dyes by active species injected from a gas phase surface discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Tiecheng; Lu, Na; Zhang, Dandan; Wu, Yan; Wang, Tianwei; Sato, Masayuki

    2011-06-01

    A reactor, based on the traditional gas phase surface discharge (GPSD), is designed for degradation of dye wastewater in this study. The reactor is characterized by using the dye wastewater as a ground electrode. A spiral discharge electrode of stainless steel wire attached on the inside wall of a cylindrical insulating medium and the wastewater surrounding the insulating medium for simultaneous cooling of the discharge electrode constitute the reactor. The active chemical radicals generated by the discharge of the spiral electrode are injected into the water with the carrier gas. The removal of three organic dyes (including methyl red (MR), reactive brilliant blue (RBB) and cationic red (CR)) in aqueous solution is investigated. The effects of electrode configuration, discharge voltage and solution pH value on the decoloration efficiency of MR are discussed. The experimental results show that over 95% of decoloration efficiencies for all the dyes are obtained after several minutes of plasma treatment. 40% of chemical oxygen demand removal of MR is obtained after 8 min of discharge treatment. Furthermore, it is found that ozone mainly affects the removal of dyes and several aliphatic compounds are identified as the oxidation products of MR. The possible degradation pathways of MR by GPSD are proposed.

  5. Characterization of airborne particles generated from metal active gas welding process.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, C; Gomes, J F; Carvalho, P; Santos, T J G; Miranda, R M; Albuquerque, P

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the characterization of particles emitted in the metal active gas welding of carbon steel using mixture of Ar + CO2, and intends to analyze which are the main process parameters that influence the emission itself. It was found that the amount of emitted particles (measured by particle number and alveolar deposited surface area) are clearly dependent on the distance to the welding front and also on the main welding parameters, namely the current intensity and heat input in the welding process. The emission of airborne fine particles seems to increase with the current intensity as fume-formation rate does. When comparing the tested gas mixtures, higher emissions are observed for more oxidant mixtures, that is, mixtures with higher CO2 content, which result in higher arc stability. These mixtures originate higher concentrations of fine particles (as measured by number of particles by cm(3) of air) and higher values of alveolar deposited surface area of particles, thus resulting in a more severe worker's exposure.

  6. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another)...

  7. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another)...

  8. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another)...

  9. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another)...

  10. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another)...

  11. 7 CFR 946.336 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... includes, but is not restricted to, potatoes for dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Handling Regulations § 946.336 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of...

  12. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which involves the... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  13. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which involves the... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  14. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... is not restricted to, potatoes for dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It includes... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  15. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... is not restricted to, potatoes for dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It includes... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  16. 7 CFR 946.336 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... includes, but is not restricted to, potatoes for dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Handling Regulations § 946.336 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of...

  17. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which involves the... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  18. 7 CFR 946.336 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... includes, but is not restricted to, potatoes for dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Handling Regulations § 946.336 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of...

  19. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  20. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  1. 7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey handling. 58.443 Section 58.443 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.443 Whey handling. (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of whey. If outside, necessary precautions shall be taken to minimize flies, insects and development...

  2. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  3. 7 CFR 947.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 947.7 Section 947.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.7 Handle. Handle is synonymous with ship and means to sell, transport, or in any other...

  4. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  5. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  6. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  7. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  8. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  9. Light-activated NO2 gas sensing of the networked CuO-decorated ZnS nanowire gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sunghoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Kheel, Hyejoon; Ko, Taegyung; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Lee, Chongmu

    2016-05-01

    CuO-decorated ZnS nanowires were synthesized by the thermal evaporation of ZnS powders followed by a solvothermal process for CuO decoration. The NO2 gas sensing properties of multiple-networked pristine and CuO-decorated ZnS nanowire sensors were then examined. The diameters of the CuO nanoparticles ranged from 20 to 60 nm. The multiple-networked pristine and CuO-decorated ZnS nanowire sensors showed the responses of 394 and 1055 %, respectively, to 5 ppm of NO2 at room temperature under UV illumination at 2.2 mW/cm2. The response and recovery times of the ZnS nanowire sensor to 5 ppm of NO2 were also reduced by decoration with the CuO nanoparticles. The responses of the sensors to NO2 at room temperature increased significantly with increasing UV illumination intensity. The underlying mechanisms for the enhanced response of the ZnS nanowire sensor to NO2 gas by CuO decoration and UV irradiation are discussed.

  10. WIPP Remote Handled Waste Facility: Performance Dry Run Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Burrington, T. P.; Britain, R. M.; Cassingham, S. T.

    2003-02-24

    The Remote Handled (RH) TRU Waste Handling Facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was recently upgraded and modified in preparation for handling and disposal of RH Transuranic (TRU) waste. This modification will allow processing of RH-TRU waste arriving at the WIPP site in two different types of shielded road casks, the RH-TRU 72B and the CNS 10-160B. Washington TRU Solutions (WTS), the WIPP Management and Operation Contractor (MOC), conducted a performance dry run (PDR), beginning August 19, 2002 and successfully completed it on August 24, 2002. The PDR demonstrated that the RHTRU waste handling system works as designed and demonstrated the handling process for each cask, including underground disposal. The purpose of the PDR was to develop and implement a plan that would define in general terms how the WIPP RH-TRU waste handling process would be conducted and evaluated. The PDR demonstrated WIPP operations and support activities required to dispose of RH-TRU waste in the WIPP underground.

  11. Gas sensing properties of Al-doped ZnO for UV-activated CO detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhahri, R.; Hjiri, M.; El Mir, L.; Bonavita, A.; Iannazzo, D.; Latino, M.; Donato, N.; Leonardi, S. G.; Neri, G.

    2016-04-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) samples were prepared using a modified sol-gel route and charaterized by means of trasmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence analysis. Resistive planar devices based on thick films of AZO deposited on interdigitated alumina substrates were fabricated and investigated as UV light activated CO sensors. CO sensing tests were performed in both dark and illumination condition by exposing the samples to UV radiation (λ  =  400 nm).Under UV light, Al-doped ZnO gas sensors operated at lower temperature than in dark. Furthermore, by photoactivation we also promoted CO sensitivity and made signal recovery of AZO sensors faster. Results demonstrate that Al-doped ZnO might be a promising sensing material for the detection of CO under UV illumination.

  12. Novel sensors to enable closed-loop active clearance control in gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisheimer, Jonathan; Holst, Tom

    2014-06-01

    Active clearance control within the turbine section of gas turbine engines presents and opportunity within aerospace and industrial applications to improve operating efficiencies and the life of downstream components. Open loop clearance control is currently employed during the development of all new large core aerospace engines; however, the ability to measure the gap between the blades and the case and close down the clearance further presents as opportunity to gain even greater efficiencies. The turbine area is one of the harshest environments for long term placement of a sensor in addition to the extreme accuracy requirements required to enable closed loop clearance control. This paper gives an overview of the challenges of clearance measurements within the turbine as well as discusses the latest developments of a microwave sensor designed for this application.

  13. Rapid quantification of dimethyl methylphosphonate from activated carbon particles by static headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Billingsley, Brit G; Logue, Brian A

    2013-06-07

    Activated carbon (AC) particles are utilized as an adsorbent for binding hazardous vapors in protective equipment. The binding affinity and utilization of these AC particles should be known to ensure effective and efficient use. Therefore, a simple and effective method was developed for the quantification of the chemical warfare agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), from AC particles. Static headspace gas chromatography mass-spectrometry with internal standard, DMMP-d6, was used to perform the analysis. The method produced a linear dynamic range of 2.48-620g DMMP/kg carbon and a detection limit of 1.24g DMMP/kg carbon. Furthermore, the method produced a coefficient of variation of less than 16% for all intra- and inter-assay analyses. The method provided a simple and effective procedure for quantifying DMMP from AC particles and was applied to the analysis of a DMMP-exposed AC protective respirator filter.

  14. Outflowing Diffuse Gas in the Active Galactic Nucleus of NGC 1068

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geballe, T. R.; Mason, R. E.; Oka, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spectra of the archetypal Type II Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 in a narrow wavelength interval near 3.7 μm have revealed a weak absorption feature due to two lines of the molecular ion {{{H}}}3+. The observed wavelength of the feature corresponds to a velocity of -70 km s-1 relative to the systemic velocity of the galaxy, implying an outward flow from the nucleus along the line of sight. The absorption by H{}3+ along with the previously known broad hydrocarbon absorption at 3.4μm are probably formed in diffuse gas that is in close proximity to the continuum source, i.e., within a few tens of parsecs of the central engine. Based on that conclusion and the measured H{}3+ absorption velocity and with the assumption of a spherically symmetric wind we estimate a rate of mass outflow from the active galactic nucleus of ˜1 M⊙ yr-1.

  15. The Dense Molecular Gas and Nuclear Activity in the ULIRG IRAS 13120–5453

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privon, G. C.; Aalto, S.; Falstad, N.; Muller, S.; González-Alfonso, E.; Sliwa, K.; Treister, E.; Costagliola, F.; Armus, L.; Evans, A. S.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Izumi, T.; Sakamoto, K.; van der Werf, P.; Chu, J. K.

    2017-02-01

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Band 7 (∼340 GHz) observations of the dense gas tracers HCN, HCO+, and CS in the local, single-nucleus, ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 13120–5453. We find centrally enhanced HCN (4–3) emission, relative to HCO+ (4–3), but do not find evidence for radiative pumping of HCN. Considering the size of the starburst (0.5 kpc) and the estimated supernovae rate of ∼1.2 yr‑1, the high HCN/HCO+ ratio can be explained by an enhanced HCN abundance as a result of mechanical heating by the supernovae, though the active galactic nucleus and winds may also contribute additional mechanical heating. The starburst size implies a high ΣIR of 4.7 × 1012 L⊙ kpc‑2, slightly below predictions of radiation-pressure limited starbursts. The HCN line profile has low-level wings, which we tentatively interpret as evidence for outflowing dense molecular gas. However, the dense molecular outflow seen in the HCN line wings is unlikely to escape the Galaxy and is destined to return to the nucleus and fuel future star formation. We also present modeling of Herschel observations of the H2O lines and find a nuclear dust temperature of ∼40 K. IRAS 13120–5453 has a lower dust temperature and ΣIR than is inferred for the systems termed “compact obscured nuclei (CONs)” (such as Arp 220 and Mrk 231). If IRAS 13120–5453 has undergone a CON phase, we are likely witnessing it at a time when the feedback has already inflated the nuclear ISM and diluted star formation in the starburst/active galactic nucleus core.

  16. Gas Phase Uranyl Activation: Formation of a Uranium Nitrosyl Complex from Uranyl Azide

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yu; De Jong, Wibe A.; Gibson, John K.

    2015-05-13

    Activation of the oxo bond of uranyl, UO22+, was achieved by collision induced dissociation (CID) of UO2(N3)Cl2– in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The gas phase complex UO2(N3)Cl2– was produced by electrospray ionization of solutions of UO2Cl2 and NaN3. CID of UO2(N3)Cl2– resulted in the loss of N2 to form UO(NO)Cl2–, in which the “inert” uranyl oxo bond has been activated. Formation of UO2Cl2– via N3 loss was also observed. Density functional theory computations predict that the UO(NO)Cl2– complex has nonplanar Cs symmetry and a singlet ground state. Analysis of the bonding of the UO(NO)Cl2– complex shows that the side-on bonded NO moiety can be considered as NO3–, suggesting a formal oxidation state of U(VI). Activation of the uranyl oxo bond in UO2(N3)Cl2– to form UO(NO)Cl2– and N2 was computed to be endothermic by 169 kJ/mol, which is energetically more favorable than formation of NUOCl2– and UO2Cl2–. The observation of UO2Cl2– during CID is most likely due to the absence of an energy barrier for neutral ligand loss.

  17. The evolution of protected species studies to determine effects of offshore oil and gas activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, W.; Fairfield, C. )

    1990-01-09

    The Minerals Management Service (MMS) Environmental Studies Program (ESP) was initiated in 1973 to help ensure that the environmental information on which Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development decisions are based is the most definitive that can be assembled at the time. The majority of ESP studies are designed to provide information on the status of the environment, and to identify the extent of potential impact of OCS development activities. Federal OCS activities must comply with several environmental' acts, including the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act. In response to these acts, MMS has funded a significant amount of research on protected species. The basic intent of these studies is to determine if proposed OCS activities will affect protected species and whether means exist to mitigate any effects found. Over the 15 years of the ESP, protected species studies have evolved from literature syntheses and relatively simple survey efforts, to more complex studies attempting to understand complicated behavioral and physiological responses to OCS effects (e.g. noise, spilled oil), and to evaluate protected species within the context of habitat characterization. This last goal has produced a need for multidisciplinary field research. Two major field efforts have been undertaken in the Beaufort Sea and Georges Bank areas. The question of if' protected species are present has generally been answered for key OCS regions; the next step for effective environmental decision making is to understand why' protected species are present.

  18. Gas phase uranyl activation: formation of a uranium nitrosyl complex from uranyl azide.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu; de Jong, Wibe A; Gibson, John K

    2015-05-13

    Activation of the oxo bond of uranyl, UO2(2+), was achieved by collision induced dissociation (CID) of UO2(N3)Cl2(-) in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The gas phase complex UO2(N3)Cl2(-) was produced by electrospray ionization of solutions of UO2Cl2 and NaN3. CID of UO2(N3)Cl2(-) resulted in the loss of N2 to form UO(NO)Cl2(-), in which the "inert" uranyl oxo bond has been activated. Formation of UO2Cl2(-) via N3 loss was also observed. Density functional theory computations predict that the UO(NO)Cl2(-) complex has nonplanar Cs symmetry and a singlet ground state. Analysis of the bonding of the UO(NO)Cl2(-) complex shows that the side-on bonded NO moiety can be considered as NO(3-), suggesting a formal oxidation state of U(VI). Activation of the uranyl oxo bond in UO2(N3)Cl2(-) to form UO(NO)Cl2(-) and N2 was computed to be endothermic by 169 kJ/mol, which is energetically more favorable than formation of NUOCl2(-) and UO2Cl2(-). The observation of UO2Cl2(-) during CID is most likely due to the absence of an energy barrier for neutral ligand loss.

  19. Substrate lability and plant activity controls greenhouse gas release from Neotropical peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjogersten, Sofie; Hoyos, Jorge; Lomax, Barry; Turner, Ben; Wright, Emma

    2014-05-01

    Almost one third of global CO2 emissions resulting from land use change and substantial CH4 emissions originate from tropical peatlands. However, our understanding of the controls of CO2 and CH4 release from tropical peatlands are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peat lability and the activity of the vegetation on gas release using a combination of field and laboratory experiments. We demonstrated that peat lability constrained CH4 production to the surface peat under anaerobic conditions. The presence of plants shifted the C balance from a C source to a C sink with respect to CO2 while the activity of the root system strongly influenced CH4 emissions through its impact on soil O2 inputs. Both field and laboratory data suggest a coupling between the photosynthetic activity of the vegetation and the release of both CO2 and CH4 following the circadian rhythm of the dominant plant functional types. Forest clearance for agriculture resulted in elevated CH4 release, which we attribute in part to the cessation of root O2 inputs to the peat. We conclude that high emissions of CO2 and CH4 from forested tropical peatlands are likely driven by labile C inputs from the vegetation but that root O2 release may limit CH4 emissions.

  20. Enhanced pulmonary and active skeletal muscle gas exchange during intense exercise after sprint training in men.

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, M J; Heigenhauser, G J; McKelvie, R S; Obminski, G; MacDougall, J D; Jones, N L

    1997-01-01

    1. This study investigated the effects of 7 weeks of sprint training on gas exchange across the lungs and active skeletal muscle during and following maximal cycling exercise in eight healthy males. 2. Pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were measured before and after training during incremental exercise (n = 8) and during and in recovery from a maximal 30 s sprint exercise bout by breath-by-breath analysis (n = 6). To determine gas exchange by the exercising leg muscles, brachial arterial and femoral venous blood O2 and CO2 contents and lactate concentration were measured at rest, during the final 10 s of exercise and during 10 min of recovery. 3. Training increased (P < 0.05) the maximal incremental exercise values of ventilation (VE, by 15.7 +/- 7.1%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 15.0 +/- 4.2%). Sprint exercise peak power (3.9 +/- 1.0% increase) and cumulative 30 s work (11.7 +/- 2.8% increase) were increased and fatigue index was reduced (by -9.2 +/- 1.5%) after training (P < 0.05). The highest VE, VCO2 and VO2 values attained during sprint exercise were not significantly changed after training, but a significant (P < 0.05) training effect indicated increased VE (by 19.2 +/- 7.9%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 12.7 +/- 6.5%), primarily reflecting elevated post-exercise values after training. 4. Arterial O2 and CO2 contents were lower after training, by respective mean differences of 3.4 and 21.9 ml l-1 (P < 0.05), whereas the arteriovenous O2 and CO2 content differences and the respiratory exchange ratio across the leg were unchanged by training. 5. Arterial whole blood lactate concentration and the net lactate release by exercising muscle were unchanged by training. 6. The greater peak pulmonary VO2 and VCO2 with sprint exercise, the increased maximal incremental values, unchanged arterial blood lactate concentration and greater sprint performance all point strongly towards enhanced gas exchange across the lungs and in

  1. Capillary pressure – saturation relationships for gas shales measured using a water activity meter

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, B.; Perfect, E.; McKay, L. D.; Lemiszki, P. J.; DiStefano, V. H.; Anovitz, L. M.; McFarlane, J.; Hale, R. E.; Cheng, C. -L.

    2016-05-10

    Hydraulic fracturing of gas shale formations involves pumping a large volume of fracking fluid into a hydrocarbon reservoir to fracture the rock and thus increase its permeability. The majority of the fracking fluid introduced is never recovered and the fate of this lost fluid, often called “leak off,” has become the source of much debate. Information on the capillary pressure – saturation relationship for each wetting phase is needed to simulate leak off using numerical reservoir models. The petroleum industry commonly employs air – water capillary pressure – saturation curves to predict these relationships for mixed wet reservoirs. Traditional methods of measuring this curve are unsuitable for gas shales due to high capillary pressures associated with the small pores present. Still, a possible alternative method is the water activity meter which is used widely in the soil sciences for such measurements. However, its application to lithified material has been limited. Here, this study utilized a water activity meter to measure air – water capillary pressures (ranging from 1.3 to 219.6 MPa) at several water saturation levels in both the wetting and drying directions. Water contents were measured gravimetrically. Seven types of gas producing shale with different porosities (2.5–13.6%) and total organic carbon contents (0.4–13.5%) were investigated. Nonlinear regression was used to fit the resulting capillary pressure – water saturation data pairs for each shale type to the Brooks and Corey equation. Data for six of the seven shale types investigated were successfully fitted (median R2 = 0.93), indicating this may be a viable method for parameterizing capillary pressure – saturation relationships for inclusion in numerical reservoir models. As expected, the different shale types had statistically different Brooks and Corey parameters. However, there were no significant differences between the Brooks and Corey parameters for the wetting

  2. Enhanced pulmonary and active skeletal muscle gas exchange during intense exercise after sprint training in men.

    PubMed

    McKenna, M J; Heigenhauser, G J; McKelvie, R S; Obminski, G; MacDougall, J D; Jones, N L

    1997-06-15

    1. This study investigated the effects of 7 weeks of sprint training on gas exchange across the lungs and active skeletal muscle during and following maximal cycling exercise in eight healthy males. 2. Pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were measured before and after training during incremental exercise (n = 8) and during and in recovery from a maximal 30 s sprint exercise bout by breath-by-breath analysis (n = 6). To determine gas exchange by the exercising leg muscles, brachial arterial and femoral venous blood O2 and CO2 contents and lactate concentration were measured at rest, during the final 10 s of exercise and during 10 min of recovery. 3. Training increased (P < 0.05) the maximal incremental exercise values of ventilation (VE, by 15.7 +/- 7.1%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 15.0 +/- 4.2%). Sprint exercise peak power (3.9 +/- 1.0% increase) and cumulative 30 s work (11.7 +/- 2.8% increase) were increased and fatigue index was reduced (by -9.2 +/- 1.5%) after training (P < 0.05). The highest VE, VCO2 and VO2 values attained during sprint exercise were not significantly changed after training, but a significant (P < 0.05) training effect indicated increased VE (by 19.2 +/- 7.9%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 12.7 +/- 6.5%), primarily reflecting elevated post-exercise values after training. 4. Arterial O2 and CO2 contents were lower after training, by respective mean differences of 3.4 and 21.9 ml l-1 (P < 0.05), whereas the arteriovenous O2 and CO2 content differences and the respiratory exchange ratio across the leg were unchanged by training. 5. Arterial whole blood lactate concentration and the net lactate release by exercising muscle were unchanged by training. 6. The greater peak pulmonary VO2 and VCO2 with sprint exercise, the increased maximal incremental values, unchanged arterial blood lactate concentration and greater sprint performance all point strongly towards enhanced gas exchange across the lungs and in

  3. Capillary pressure – saturation relationships for gas shales measured using a water activity meter

    DOE PAGES

    Donnelly, B.; Perfect, E.; McKay, L. D.; ...

    2016-05-10

    Hydraulic fracturing of gas shale formations involves pumping a large volume of fracking fluid into a hydrocarbon reservoir to fracture the rock and thus increase its permeability. The majority of the fracking fluid introduced is never recovered and the fate of this lost fluid, often called “leak off,” has become the source of much debate. Information on the capillary pressure – saturation relationship for each wetting phase is needed to simulate leak off using numerical reservoir models. The petroleum industry commonly employs air – water capillary pressure – saturation curves to predict these relationships for mixed wet reservoirs. Traditional methodsmore » of measuring this curve are unsuitable for gas shales due to high capillary pressures associated with the small pores present. Still, a possible alternative method is the water activity meter which is used widely in the soil sciences for such measurements. However, its application to lithified material has been limited. Here, this study utilized a water activity meter to measure air – water capillary pressures (ranging from 1.3 to 219.6 MPa) at several water saturation levels in both the wetting and drying directions. Water contents were measured gravimetrically. Seven types of gas producing shale with different porosities (2.5–13.6%) and total organic carbon contents (0.4–13.5%) were investigated. Nonlinear regression was used to fit the resulting capillary pressure – water saturation data pairs for each shale type to the Brooks and Corey equation. Data for six of the seven shale types investigated were successfully fitted (median R2 = 0.93), indicating this may be a viable method for parameterizing capillary pressure – saturation relationships for inclusion in numerical reservoir models. As expected, the different shale types had statistically different Brooks and Corey parameters. However, there were no significant differences between the Brooks and Corey parameters for the wetting and

  4. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2006-12-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  5. Design and testing of a unique active Compton-suppressed LaBr3(Ce) detector system for improved sensitivity assays of TRU in remote-handled TRU wastes

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Hartwell; M. E. McIlwain; J. A. Kulisek

    2007-10-01

    The US Department of Energy’s transuranic (TRU) waste inventory includes about 4,500 m3 of remote-handled TRU (RH-TRU) wastes composed of a variety of containerized waste forms having a contact surface dose rate that exceeds 2 mSv/hr (200 mrem/hr) containing waste materials with a total TRU concentration greater than 3700 Bq/g (100 nCi/g). As part of a research project to investigate the use of active Compton-suppressed room-temperature gamma-ray detectors for direct non-destructive quantification of the TRU content of these RH-TRU wastes, we have designed and purchased a unique detector system using a LaBr3(Ce) primary detector and a NaI(Tl) suppression mantle. The LaBr3(Ce) primary detector is a cylindrical unit ~25 mm in diameter by 76 mm long viewed by a 38 mm diameter photomultiplier. The NaI(Tl) suppression mantle (secondary detector) is 175 mm by 175 mm with a center well that accommodates the primary detector. An important feature of this arrangement is the lack of any “can” between the primary and secondary detectors. These primary and secondary detectors are optically isolated by a thin layer (.003") of aluminized kapton, but the hermetic seal and thus the aluminum can surrounds the outer boundary of the detector system envelope. The hermetic seal at the primary detector PMT is at the PMT wall. This arrangement virtually eliminates the “dead” material between the primary and secondary detectors, a feature that preliminary modeling indicated would substantially improve the Compton suppression capability of this device. This paper presents both the expected performance of this unit determined from modeling with MCNPX, and the performance measured in our laboratory with radioactive sources.

  6. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.

    PubMed

    Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized

  7. Robotic liquid handling and automation in epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Gaisford, Wendy

    2012-10-01

    Automated liquid-handling robots and high-throughput screening (HTS) are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the screening of large compound libraries, small molecules for activity against disease-relevant target pathways, or proteins. HTS robots capable of low-volume dispensing reduce assay setup times and provide highly accurate and reproducible dispensing, minimizing variation between sample replicates and eliminating the potential for manual error. Low-volume automated nanoliter dispensers ensure accuracy of pipetting within volume ranges that are difficult to achieve manually. In addition, they have the ability to potentially expand the range of screening conditions from often limited amounts of valuable sample, as well as reduce the usage of expensive reagents. The ability to accurately dispense lower volumes provides the potential to achieve a greater amount of information than could be otherwise achieved using manual dispensing technology. With the emergence of the field of epigenetics, an increasing number of drug discovery companies are beginning to screen compound libraries against a range of epigenetic targets. This review discusses the potential for the use of low-volume liquid handling robots, for molecular biological applications such as quantitative PCR and epigenetics.

  8. [Mental health of gas and gas-transport industry workers as an indispensable condition of their efficient occupational activity].

    PubMed

    Polozhiĭ, B S

    2013-01-01

    Mental health workers in industry is a major health and social resource of any developed country. Unfortunately, Russia's level of mental health workers is unfavorable level. We have conducted a survey of employees psychoprophylactic mass of the gas industry, which occupies a leading position in the economy. Found that the prevalence of mental disorders in this professional group is 187 per 1,000 workers. In this case, 99.3% of employees with mental health problems of mentally ill for a long time, they do not receive appropriate treatment. Leading position in the structure occupy disorder with anxious and depressive symptoms, about 75% of all cases. In the treatment of these patients showed the highest efficiency Luvox, which is one of the most appropriate products in a production environment.

  9. Conical Magnetic Bearings Developed for Active Stall Control in Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Kascak, Albert F.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Buccieri, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Active stall control is a current research area at the NASA Glenn Research Center that offers a great benefit in specific fuel consumption by allowing the gas turbine to operate beyond the onset of stall. Magnetic bearings are being investigated as a new method to perform active stall control. This enabling global aviation safety technology would result in improved fuel efficiency and decreased carbon dioxide emissions, as well as improve safety and reliability by eliminating oil-related delays and failures of engine components, which account for 40 percent of the commercial aircraft departure delays. Active stall control works by perturbing the flow in front of the compressor stage such that it cancels the pressure wave, which causes the compressor to go into stall. Radial magnetic bearings are able to whirl the shaft so that variations in blade tip leakage would flow upstream causing a perturbation wave that could cancel the rotating stall cell. Axial or thrust magnetic bearings cannot be used to cancel the surge mode in the compressor because they have a very low bandwidth and thus cannot modulate at a high enough frequency. Frequency response is limited because the thrust runner cannot be laminated. To improve the bandwidth of magnetic thrust bearings, researchers must use laminations to suppress the eddy currents. A conical magnetic bearing can be laminated, resulting in increased bandwidth in the axial direction. In addition, this design can produce both radial and thrust force in a single bearing, simplifying the installation. The proposed solution combines the radial and thrust bearing into one design that can be laminated--a conical magnetic bearing. The new conical magnetic bearing test rig, funded by a Glenn fiscal year 2002 Director's Discretionary Fund, was needed because none of the existing rigs has an axial degree of freedom. The rotor bearing configuration will simulate that of the main shaft on a gas turbine engine. One conical magnetic bearing

  10. CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During the first six months of operation, the primary activities of the JIP were to conduct and plan Workshops, which were as follows: (1) Data Collection Workshop--March 2002 (2) Drilling, Coring and Core Analyses Workshop--May 2002 (3) Modeling, Measurement and Sensors Workshop--May 2002.

  11. Activity, distribution, and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in the near surface soils of onshore oil and gas fields.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kewei; Tang, Yuping; Ren, Chun; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Wanmeng; Sun, Yongge

    2013-09-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have long been used as an important biological indicator for oil and gas prospecting, but the ecological characteristics of MOB in hydrocarbon microseep systems are still poorly understood. In this study, the activity, distribution, and abundance of aerobic methanotrophic communities in the surface soils underlying an oil and gas field were investigated using biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques. Measurements of potential methane oxidation rates and pmoA gene copy numbers showed that soils inside an oil and gas field are hot spots of methane oxidation and MOB abundance. Correspondingly, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses in combination with cloning and sequencing of pmoA genes also revealed considerable differences in the methanotrophic community composition between oil and gas fields and the surrounding soils. Principal component analysis ordination furthermore indicated a coincidence between elevated CH4 oxidation activity and the methanotrophic community structure with type I methanotrophic Methylococcus and Methylobacter, in particular, as indicator species of oil and gas fields. Collectively, our results show that trace methane migrated from oil and gas reservoirs can considerably influence not only the quantity but also the structure of the methanotrophic community.

  12. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    B. Dianda

    2004-06-23

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their related

  13. Waste Handling Practices for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Severynse, T.F.

    2000-08-04

    Solid waste handling operations refers to all activities associated with the segregation, collection, packaging, assay, storage, and removal of solid radioactive waste from radiological facilities. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) is expected to generate the following types of radiological waste, as defined in WSRC Manual 1S, ''Waste Acceptance Criteria'': Low level waste; Mixed hazardous waste; TRU waste; and Mixed TRU waste. Historically, waste handling activities have been demanding proportionately larger amounts of labor, time, and space to effectively manage waste in accordance with increasing regulatory requirements. Since the PIP will be designed for an annual throughput of five metric tonnes plutonium, the facility waste handling operations can be expected to have at least twice the impact of such operations at existing facilities.

  14. Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation technology performance: Activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. Report for November 1997--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Piccot, S.D.; Kirchgessner, D.A.

    1998-12-31

    The paper describes the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Technology Verification Center`s mission, operational characteristics, and current activities in the natural gas industry, solid waste landfill industry, energy industries, and microelectronics industry. It also outlines the Center`s future plans and gives results of a recent phosphoric acid fuel cell verification at two landflls in the US. It describes how technology vendors, developers, users, and others can utilize the Center`s testing, analysis, and outreach activities and outlines the types of technologies planned for testing over the next 3 to 5 years.

  15. Radon-gas extraction and counting system for analyzing radon and radium in groundwater in seismically active areas

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.

    1980-12-08

    A high concentration of radon in groundwater has attracted recent attention as a precursor of seismic activity. We have constructed a system that extracts and counts radon gas from solid, liquid, and gas samples. The radon is extracted in a closed system onto activated charcoal. The desorbed radon is then measured in a phosphored acrylic cell by scintillation counting of gross alpha radiation. The efficiency of the total system (extraction plus counting) is 90 +- 3% or better. Compact design and sturdy construction make the system completely portable and well suited to field operations in remote loations. Results are given for radon and radium in groundwaters in the Livermore area.

  16. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  17. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Beesley

    2005-04-21

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  18. EXTREME -- Handling extreme data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark

    This package provides some utilities, background documentation, and associated files for adapting the Starlink Software Collection, and software which uses it, to handle very large data sets. The principal focus of this is to move to use of 64 bits of address space on 64-bit operating systems. This document (SSN/73) is squarely aimed at the problem of adapting the Starlink Software Collection, and consequently focuses on the three operating systems (Solaris, Linux and Tru64) supported by Starlink, the compiled languages Fortran 77 and ANSI C, and Starlink's somewhat idiosyncratic build mechanisms. However, some of the discussion here may be of interest or use to people who are considering the change from 32 to 64 bits for software in other contexts.

  19. Soil-gas radon concentration monitoring in an active granite quarry from Central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Luís.; Barbosa, Susana; Pereira, Alcides; Aumento, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out in an active quarry located nearby the town of Nelas (Central Portugal), with the primary objective of assessing the effect of regular explosions on soil-gas radon concentrations. Here, a late-orogenic Hercynian porphyritic biotite granite occurs and is exploited for the production of high quality aggregates for different building purposes. This granite is part of the Beiras batholiths, being a geochemically moderately evolved rock, slightly peraluminous, and widely known by the frequent occurrence of associated uranium mineralizations. In fact, more than 4000t of U3O8 was produced from 60 mines of the Beiras region in the last century, over a wide area of more than 10.000 km2, and thousands of anomalies related with the local accumulation of uranium in fault filling materials, metasedimentary enclaves and doleritic veins were recognized during prospecting works. The heterogeneity of uranium distribution in this rock is reflected at the test site; indeed, a gamma ray survey shows that some of the faults that occur in the quarry are slightly mineralized. A total of 7 radon monitoring stations were implemented in the quarry, at a typical depth comprised between 1 and 2 meters, in holes drilled for the purpose. Aware RM-70 pancake GM detectors were used, sensitive to alpha, beta and gamma/X-rays above 10 keV, connected to palmtop computers for data registration (1 minute interval) and power supplied by batteries. Monitoring was carried out during 6 months, in Spring/Summer conditions and the exact time of each explosion was registered manually. Several problems of data loss and power supply affected the stations during the experiment, leading to discontinuities in the records. Still the available data showed important differences in the soil-gas radon concentrations between stations, which can be explained by the heterogeneity of uranium distribution in the rock and increased local permeability. Furthermore, all stations showed a clear daily

  20. Origin and distribution of thiophenes and furans in gas discharges from active volcanoes and geothermal systems.

    PubMed

    Tassi, Franco; Montegrossi, Giordano; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Vaselli, Orlando

    2010-03-31

    The composition of non-methane organic volatile compounds (VOCs) determined in 139 thermal gas discharges from 18 different geothermal and volcanic systems in Italy and Latin America, consists of C(2)-C(20) species pertaining to the alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and O-, S- and N-bearing classes of compounds. Thiophenes and mono-aromatics, especially the methylated species, are strongly enriched in fluids emissions related to hydrothermal systems. Addition of hydrogen sulphide to dienes and electrophilic methylation involving halogenated radicals may be invoked for the formation of these species. On the contrary, the formation of furans, with the only exception of C(4)H(8)O, seems to be favoured at oxidizing conditions and relatively high temperatures, although mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the production of thiophenes can be suggested. Such thermodynamic features are typical of fluid reservoirs feeding high-temperature thermal discharges of volcanoes characterised by strong degassing activity, which are likely affected by conspicuous contribution from a magmatic source. The composition of heteroaromatics in fluids naturally discharged from active volcanoes and geothermal areas can then be considered largely dependent on the interplay between hydrothermal vs. magmatic contributions. This implies that they can be used as useful geochemical tools to be successfully applied in both volcanic monitoring and geothermal prospection.

  1. Origin and Distribution of Thiophenes and Furans in Gas Discharges from Active Volcanoes and Geothermal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tassi, Franco; Montegrossi, Giordano; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Vaselli, Orlando

    2010-01-01

    The composition of non-methane organic volatile compounds (VOCs) determined in 139 thermal gas discharges from 18 different geothermal and volcanic systems in Italy and Latin America, consists of C2–C20 species pertaining to the alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and O-, S- and N-bearing classes of compounds. Thiophenes and mono-aromatics, especially the methylated species, are strongly enriched in fluids emissions related to hydrothermal systems. Addition of hydrogen sulphide to dienes and electrophilic methylation involving halogenated radicals may be invoked for the formation of these species. On the contrary, the formation of furans, with the only exception of C4H8O, seems to be favoured at oxidizing conditions and relatively high temperatures, although mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the production of thiophenes can be suggested. Such thermodynamic features are typical of fluid reservoirs feeding high-temperature thermal discharges of volcanoes characterised by strong degassing activity, which are likely affected by conspicuous contribution from a magmatic source. The composition of heteroaromatics in fluids naturally discharged from active volcanoes and geothermal areas can then be considered largely dependent on the interplay between hydrothermal vs. magmatic contributions. This implies that they can be used as useful geochemical tools to be successfully applied in both volcanic monitoring and geothermal prospection. PMID:20480029

  2. Integrated Payload Data Handling Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGeorge, T.; Wishart, A.; Hann, M.; Phan, N.; Carr, C. M.; Cupido, E.; Fox, P.; Oddy, T.; McGregor, A.; Marshall, A.; Waltham, N.

    2013-09-01

    An integrated Payload Data Handling System (IPDHS) is one in which multiple instruments share a central payload processor for their on-board data processing tasks. This offers a number of advantages over the conventional decentralised architecture. Savings in payload mass and power can be realised because the total processing resource is matched to the requirement, as opposed to the decentralised architecture where the processing resource is in effect the sum of all the applications. Overall development cost can be reduced using a common processor. At individual instrument level the potential benefits include a standardised application development environment, and the opportunity to run the instrument data handling application on a fully redundant and more powerful processor. This paper describes a joint programme by Astrium Ltd, SCISYS UK Limited, Imperial College London and RAL Space to implement a realistic demonstration of an I-PDHS using engineering models of flight instruments (a magnetometer and a camera) and a laboratory demonstrator of a central payload processor which is functionally representative of a flight design. The objective is to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the centralised data processing technique by addressing the key areas of task partitioning to prevent fault propagation and the use of a common development process for the instrument applications. The project is supported by a UK Space Agency grant awarded under the National Space Technology Programme SpaceCITI scheme. The demonstration system is set up at the UK Space Agency's International Space Innovation Centre (ISIC) at Harwell and makes use of the ISIC Concurrent Design Facility (CDF).

  3. Modulation by the noble gas argon of the catalytic and thrombolytic efficiency of tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    David, Hélène N; Haelewyn, Benoît; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Abraini, Jacques H

    2013-01-01

    Argon has been shown to provide cortical as well as, under certain conditions, subcortical neuroprotection in all models so far (middle cerebral artery occlusion, trauma, neonatal asphyxia, etc.). This has led to the suggestion that argon could be a cost-efficient alternative to xenon, a metabolically inert gas thought to be gold standard in gas pharmacology but whose clinical development suffers its little availability and excessive cost of production. However, whether argon interacts with the thrombolytic agent tissue plasminogen activator, which is the only approved therapy of acute ischemic stroke to date, still remains unknown. This latter point is not trivial since previous data have clearly demonstrated the inhibiting effect of xenon on tPA enzymatic and thrombolytic efficiency and the critical importance of the time at which xenon is administered, during or after ischemia, in order not to block thrombolysis and to obtain neuroprotection. Here, we investigated the effect of argon on tPA enzymatic and thrombolytic efficiency using in vitro methods shown to provide reliable prediction of the in vivo effects of both oxygen and the noble inert gases on tPA-induced thrombolysis. We found that argon has a concentration-dependent dual effect on tPA enzymatic and thrombolytic efficiency. Low and high concentrations of argon of 25 and 75 vol% respectively block and increase tPA enzymatic and thrombolytic efficiency. The possible use of argon at low and high concentrations in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke if given during ischemia or after tPA-induced reperfusion is discussed as regards to its neuroprotectant action and its inhibiting and facilitating effects on tPA-induced thrombolysis. The mechanisms of argon-tPA interactions are also discussed.

  4. IFI16 and cGAS cooperate in the activation of STING during DNA sensing in human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Almine, Jessica F.; O'Hare, Craig A. J.; Dunphy, Gillian; Haga, Ismar R.; Naik, Rangeetha J.; Atrih, Abdelmadjid; Connolly, Dympna J.; Taylor, Jordan; Kelsall, Ian R.; Bowie, Andrew G.; Beard, Philippa M.; Unterholzner, Leonie

    2017-01-01

    Many human cells can sense the presence of exogenous DNA during infection though the cytosolic DNA receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). Other putative DNA receptors have been described, but whether their functions are redundant, tissue-specific or integrated in the cGAS-cGAMP pathway is unclear. Here we show that interferon-γ inducible protein 16 (IFI16) cooperates with cGAS during DNA sensing in human keratinocytes, as both cGAS and IFI16 are required for the full activation of an innate immune response to exogenous DNA and DNA viruses. IFI16 is also required for the cGAMP-induced activation of STING, and interacts with STING to promote STING phosphorylation and translocation. We propose that the two DNA sensors IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to prevent the spurious activation of the type I interferon response. PMID:28194029

  5. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-01

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site`s suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Differentially Activates cGAS- and Inflammasome-Dependent Intracellular Immune Responses through ESX-1.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Ruth; Gulen, Muhammet F; Sala, Claudia; Perin, Sonia Garcia; Lou, Ye; Rybniker, Jan; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L; Schmidt, Tobias; Hornung, Veit; Cole, Stewart T; Ablasser, Andrea

    2015-06-10

    Cytosolic detection of microbial products is essential for the initiation of an innate immune response against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). During Mtb infection of macrophages, activation of cytosolic surveillance pathways is dependent on the mycobacterial ESX-1 secretion system and leads to type I interferon (IFN) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. Whereas the inflammasome regulates IL-1β secretion, the receptor(s) responsible for the activation of type I IFNs has remained elusive. We demonstrate that the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is essential for initiating an IFN response to Mtb infection. cGAS associates with Mtb DNA in the cytosol to stimulate cyclic GAMP (cGAMP) synthesis. Notably, activation of cGAS-dependent cytosolic host responses can be uncoupled from inflammasome activation by modulating the secretion of ESX-1 substrates. Our findings identify cGAS as an innate sensor of Mtb and provide insight into how ESX-1 controls the activation of specific intracellular recognition pathways.

  7. Active gas replenishment and sensing of the wetting state in a submerged superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Ben P; Bartlett, Philip N; Wood, Robert J K

    2017-02-15

    Previously superhydrophobic surfaces have demonstrated effective drag reduction by trapping a lubricious gas layer on the surface with micron-sized hydrophobic features. However, prolonged reduction of drag is hindered by the dissolution of the gas into the surrounding water. This paper demonstrates a novel combination of superhydrophobic surface design and electrochemical control methods which allow quick determination of the wetted area and a gas replenishment mechanism to maintain the desirable gas filled state. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to measure the capacitance of the surface which is shown to be proportional to the solid/liquid interface area. To maintain a full gas coverage for prolonged periods the surface is held at an electrical potential which leads to hydrogen evolution. In the desired gas filled state the water does not touch the metallic area of the surface, however after gas has dissolved the water touches the metal which closes the electrochemical circuit causing hydrogen to be produced replenishing the gas in the surface and returning to the gas filled state; in this way the system is self-actuating. This type of surface and electrochemical control shows promise for applications where the gas filled state of superhydrophobic surfaces must be maintained when submerged for long periods of time.

  8. Electronic Publishing or Electronic Information Handling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.

    The current dramatic evolution in information technology is bringing major modifications in the way scientists communicate. The concept of 'electronic publishing' is too restrictive and has often different, sometimes conflicting, interpretations. It is thus giving way to the broader notion of 'electronic information handling' encompassing the diverse types of information, the different media, as well as the various communication methodologies and technologies. New problems and challenges result also from this new information culture, especially on legal, ethical, and educational grounds. The procedures for validating 'published material' and for evaluating scientific activities will have to be adjusted too. 'Fluid' information is becoming a common concept. Electronic publishing cannot be conceived without link to knowledge bases nor without intelligent information retrieval tools.

  9. Cask system design guidance for robotic handling

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J.M.; Drotning, W.D.; Morimoto, A.K.; Bennett, P.C.

    1990-10-01

    Remote automated cask handling has the potential to reduce both the occupational exposure and the time required to process a nuclear waste transport cask at a handling facility. The ongoing Advanced Handling Technologies Project (AHTP) at Sandia National Laboratories is described. AHTP was initiated to explore the use of advanced robotic systems to perform cask handling operations at handling facilities for radioactive waste, and to provide guidance to cask designers regarding the impact of robotic handling on cask design. The proof-of-concept robotic systems developed in AHTP are intended to extrapolate from currently available commercial systems to the systems that will be available by the time that a repository would be open for operation. The project investigates those cask handling operations that would be performed at a nuclear waste repository facility during cask receiving and handling. The ongoing AHTP indicates that design guidance, rather than design specification, is appropriate, since the requirements for robotic handling do not place severe restrictions on cask design but rather focus on attention to detail and design for limited dexterity. The cask system design features that facilitate robotic handling operations are discussed, and results obtained from AHTP design and operation experience are summarized. The application of these design considerations is illustrated by discussion of the robot systems and their operation on cask feature mock-ups used in the AHTP project. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Bond Activation by Metal-Carbene Complexes in the Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shaodong; Li, Jilai; Schlangen, Maria; Schwarz, Helmut

    2016-03-15

    "Bare" metal-carbene complexes, when generated in the gas phase and exposed to thermal reactions under (near) single-collision conditions, exhibit rather unique reactivities in addition to the well-known metathesis and cyclopropanation processes. For example, at room temperature the unligated [AuCH2](+) complex brings about efficient C-C coupling with methane to produce C2Hx (x = 4, 6), and the couple [TaCH2](+)/CO2 gives rise to the generation of the acetic acid equivalent CH2═C═O. Entirely unprecedented is the thermal extrusion of a carbon atom from halobenzenes (X = F, Cl, Br, I) by [MCH2](+) (M = La, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os) and its coupling with the methylene ligand to deliver C2H2 and [M(X)(C5H5)](+). Among the many noteworthy C-N bond-forming processes, the formation of CH3NH2 from [RhCH2](+)/NH3, the generation of CH2═NH2(+) from [MCH2](+)/NH3 (M = Pt, Au), and the production of [PtCH═NH2](+) from [PtCH2](+)/NH3 are of particular interest. The latter species are likely to be involved as intermediates in the platinum-mediated large-scale production of HCN from CH4/NH3 (the DEGUSSA process). In this context, a few examples are presented that point to the operation of co-operative effects even at a molecular level. For instance, in the coupling of CH4 with NH3 by the heteronuclear clusters [MPt](+) (M = coinage metal), platinum is crucial for the activation of methane, while the coinage metal M controls the branching ratio between the C-N bond-forming step and unwanted soot formation. For most of the gas-phase reactions described in this Account, detailed mechanistic insight has been derived from extensive computational work in conjunction with time-honored labeling and advanced mass-spectrometry-based experiments, and often a coherent description of the experimental findings has been achieved. As for some transition metals, in particular those from the third row, the metal-carbene complexes can be formed directly from methane, coupling of the so

  11. Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Curt N.

    2012-07-01

    For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

  12. The origin of the selectivity and activity of ruthenium-cluster catalysts for fuel-cell feed-gas purification: a gas-phase approach.

    PubMed

    Lang, Sandra M; Bernhardt, Thorsten M; Krstić, Marjan; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta

    2014-05-19

    Gas-phase ruthenium clusters Ru(n)(+) (n=2-6) are employed as model systems to discover the origin of the outstanding performance of supported sub-nanometer ruthenium particles in the catalytic CO methanation reaction with relevance to the hydrogen feed-gas purification for advanced fuel-cell applications. Using ion-trap mass spectrometry in conjunction with first-principles density functional theory calculations three fundamental properties of these clusters are identified which determine the selectivity and catalytic activity: high reactivity toward CO in contrast to inertness in the reaction with CO2; promotion of cooperatively enhanced H2 coadsorption and dissociation on pre-formed ruthenium carbonyl clusters, that is, no CO poisoning occurs; and the presence of Ru-atom sites with a low number of metal-metal bonds, which are particularly active for H2 coadsorption and activation. Furthermore, comprehensive theoretical investigations provide mechanistic insight into the CO methanation reaction and discover a reaction route involving the formation of a formyl-type intermediate.

  13. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in RPP active catch tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-06-03

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by River Protection Project (RPP). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  14. CARRIER/CASK HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-23

    The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives casks on railcars and legal-weight trucks (LWTs) (transporters) that transport loaded casks and empty overpacks to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) from the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Casks that come to the MGR on heavy-haul trucks (HHTs) are transferred onto railcars before being brought into the Carrier/Cask Handling System. The system is the interfacing system between the railcars and LWTs and the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) and Canister Transfer System (CTS). The Carrier/Cask Handling System removes loaded casks from the cask transporters and transfers the casks to a transfer cart for either the ATS or CTS, as appropriate, based on cask contents. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives the returned empty casks from the ATS and CTS and mounts the casks back onto the transporters for reshipment. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount loaded casks back onto the transporters and remove empty casks from the transporters. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives overpacks from the ATS loaded with canisters that have been cut open and emptied and mounts the overpacks back onto the transporters for disposal. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount empty overpacks back onto the transporters and remove loaded overpacks from them. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is located within the Carrier Bay of the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of cranes, hoists, manipulators, and supporting equipment. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is designed with the tooling and fixtures necessary for handling a variety of casks. The Carrier/Cask Handling System performance and reliability are sufficient to support the shipping and emplacement schedules for the MGR. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Transport System, ATS, and CTS as noted above. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for building

  15. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    This guide recommends procedures for safe handling and disposal of hazardous substances, along with broad recommendations for developing comprehensive laboratory safety programs. Although specific information is provided, general principles which can be adapted to activities in any laboratory are emphasized. Section 1 focuses on procedures for…

  16. Body-fitted harness provides safe and easy component handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. G.; Rothwell, G. E.

    1966-01-01

    Body-fitted restraint harness enables workers to safely and conveniently handle critical components during their installation or removal. Since the harness supports the components, the worker is able to maneuver through restricted areas with his hands free. It is easily put on, adjusted, and removed, or comfortably worn without interfering with normal activities.

  17. An Evaluation of Gas Law Webquest Based on Active Learning Style in a Secondary School in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy; Siraj, Saedah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the PTEchLS WebQuest on Gas Laws was evaluated. It was designed for Form Four students with active learning styles. The focus of the evaluation was on the usability and effectiveness of the PTechLS WebQuest. Data were collected from interviews and students' achievement scores. Two teachers and eight students volunteered to…

  18. 77 FR 40354 - Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels-Draft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...EPA published on May 10, 2012, Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels--Draft. The initial public comment period for this proposal was 60 days, ending on July 9, 2012. In response to requests from several stakeholders, this action extends the public comment period for an additional 45...

  19. Research activity of the greenhouse gas measurements using optical remote sensing in Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, K.

    2009-12-01

    Japan might be one of the most active countries dedicating themselves to studying the greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements using optical remote sensing not only on the ground but also from space. There are two reasons; one of them ascends to the Kyoto Protocol, agreed in December 1997 in Kyoto, an ancient city of Japan until 19th centuries, was designed to address the international response to serious climate change due to greenhouse gases. The other reason is due to a revision of the Basic Environment Law of Japan in order to meet the Kyoto Protocol in 1998. The State makes efforts to ensure international collaboration so as to effectively promote the monitoring, observation and measurement of the environmental situation with regard to global warming. Main activities are listed in a Table1. They are divided into two categories, i.e. the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), launched on Jan.23, 2009 and active remote sensing using lidar technology. In case of GOSAT, an initial analysis of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations was obtained for clear-sky scenes over land. In the future, after further calibration and validation of the data, observation data and corresponding analyzed products will be made available. On the other hand, studies of the laser remote sensing for measuring GHG have been actively carrying out to achieve reliable data with a higher accuracy at wavelengths of 1.6micron meter (Tokyo Metropolitan University, JAXA, Mitsubishi Electric Co.) and 2 micron meter (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology). As well-known, one of the most interests regarding atmospheric CO2 measurements is that carbon dioxide molecule measured are due to anthropological emission from fossil fuel burning or due to natural one from forest fires etc. We proposed a newly advanced CO2/CO DIAL using a hybrid of pulsed Tm,Ho:YLF and pulsed OPO pumped by it for better understanding them. Now, our effort is directed to find out the most suitable

  20. The non-proliferation experiment and gas sampling as an on-site inspection activity: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    The Non-proliferation Experiment (NPE) is contributing to the development of gas sampling methods and models that may be incorporated into future on-site inspection (OSI) activities. Surface gas sampling and analysis, motivated by nuclear test containment studies, have already demonstrated the tendency for the gaseous products of an underground nuclear test to flow hundreds of meters to the surface over periods ranging from days to months. Even in the presence of a uniform sinusoidal pressure variation, there will be a net flow of cavity gas toward the surface. To test this barometric pumping effect at Rainier Mesa, gas bottles containing sulfur hexaflouride and {sup 3}He were added to the pre-detonation cavity for the 1 kt chemical explosives test. Pre-detonation measurements of the background levels of both gases were obtained at selected sites on top of the mesa. The background levels of both tracers were found to be at or below mass spectrographic/gas chromatographic sensitivity thresholds in the parts-per-trillion range. Post-detonation, gas chromatographic analyses of samples taken during barometric pressure lows from the sampling sites on the mesa indicate the presence of significant levels (300--600 ppt) of sulfur hexaflouride. However, mass spectrographic analyses of gas samples taken to date do not show the presence of {sup 3}He. To explain these observations, several possibilities are being explored through additional sampling/analysis and numerical modeling. For the NPE, the detonation point was approximately 400 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa and the event did not produce significant fracturing or subsidence on the surface of the mesa. Thus, the NPE may ultimately represent an extreme, but useful example for the application and tuning of cavity gas detection techniques.

  1. Productivity and ergonomic investigation of bent-handle pliers.

    PubMed

    Duke, Kelly; Mirka, Gary A; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2004-01-01

    Awkward wrist posture is generally considered an occupational risk factor for hand/wrist disorders, leading to the ergonomic design principle of "bend the tool, not the wrist." Sixteen participants performed a computer jumper installation task and a simple assembly task while productivity, wrist posture, and shoulder posture were measured. The work surface orientation (vertical and 45 degrees) and the level of constraint placed on the user (constrained grip and unconstrained grip) were also varied. The results indicate that the beneficial effects of the bent-handle pliers are task dependent. In the computer jumper task the bent-handle pliers resulted in 5.3% faster task performance, whereas in the assembly task performance was 4.9% faster with the straight-handle pliers. The bent-handle pliers reduced shoulder deviations by 50% in the jumper installation task, and ulnar deviation was reduced by 12% and 22% for the jumper installation task and the assembly task, respectively (all significant at p < .05). However, allowing participants to hold the pliers in a grip configuration of their choosing (unconstrained technique) often reduced these postural benefits. In applying these results to workplace design activities, one should recognize that the ergonomic utility of bent-handle pliers can be considerable but that the 3-D kinematics characteristics of the task must be considered.

  2. Impacts of Oil and Gas Exploration Activities on SOA formation in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahreini, R.; Vu, K. K. T.; Dingle, J. H.; Apel, E. C.; Blake, N. J.; Campos, T. L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Herndon, S. C.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Huey, L. G.; Kaser, L.; Mauldin, L.; Meinardi, S.; Montzka, D.; Nowak, J. B.; Richter, D.; Roscioli, J. R.; Schroeder, J.; Shertz, S.; Stell, M. H.; Tanner, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Walega, J.; Weibring, P.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Oil and gas exploration activities (O&G) in Wattenberg Field, located north of the Denver Metropolitan area, have expanded in the last few years. Although VOC emissions and the potential for ozone formation in the area from these sources have been studied previously, no information is available on the impact on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. During the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol composition were made in the northern Front Range during July-August 2014. We present analyses on evolution of organic aerosol (OA) and their precursors in order to assess the impact of urban vs. O&G emissions on SOA formation. Significant contribution of SOA to total OA was observed in pure urban and urban plumes mixed with O&G emissions. Under an OH-exposure of 2.8×1011 molecule cm-3 s, enhancement ratios of OA relative to carbon monoxide (ΔOA/ΔCO) increased by factors of ~3.6-5.4; however, (ΔSOA/ΔCO)urban+O&G was 87% higher than (ΔSOA/ΔCO)urban. Predicted ΔSOA/ΔCO values from the oxidation of C7-C11 alkanes, C6-C9 aromatics, and biogenics were about a factor of 10-15 too small compared to the measurements. Predicated alkane-derived SOA contributed to 38% (16%) of anthropogenic ΔSOA/ΔCO values in urban+O&G- (urban-) influenced air masses.

  3. Photocatalytic Activity of Nanostructured Anatase Coatings Obtained by Cold Gas Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardon, M.; Fernández-Rodríguez, C.; Garzón Sousa, D.; Doña-Rodríguez, J. M.; Dosta, S.; Cano, I. G.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a photocatalytic nanostructured anatase coating deposited by cold gas spray (CGS) supported on titanium sub-oxide (TiO2- x ) coatings obtained by atmospheric plasma spray (APS) onto stainless steel cylinders. The photocatalytic coating was homogeneous and preserved the composition and nanostructure of the starting powder. The inner titanium sub-oxide coating favored the deposition of anatase particles in the solid state. Agglomerated nano-TiO2 particles fragmented when impacting onto the hard surface of the APS TiO2- x bond coat. The rough surface provided by APS provided an ideal scenario for entrapping the nanostructured particles, which may be adhered onto the bond coat due to chemical bonding; a possible bonding mechanism is described. Photocatalytic experiments showed that CGS nano-TiO2 coating was active for photodegrading phenol and formic acid under aqueous conditions. The results were similar to the performance obtained by competitor technologies and materials such as dip-coating P25® photocatalysts. Disparity in the final performance of the photoactive materials may have been caused by differences in grain size and the crystalline composition of titanium dioxide.

  4. Bactericidal and Fungicidal Activity in the Gas Phase of Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC).

    PubMed

    Proto, Antonio; Zarrella, Ilaria; Cucciniello, Raffaele; Pironti, Concetta; De Caro, Francesco; Motta, Oriana

    2016-08-01

    Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) is usually employed as a disinfectant for the treatment of water, environmental surfaces and medical equipment principally for its effectiveness as a microbicide agent. In this study, we explore the possibility of a new use for NaDCC by investigating the microbicidal activity of chlorine, which derives from the hydrolysis of NaDCC mediated by air humidity, and by testing its effect on the neutralization of microbes present in domestic waste. NaDCC was inserted in a plastic garbage can where LB agar plates, with different dilutions of a known title of four different microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Debaryomyces hansenii and Aspergillus brasiliensis), were weakly inserted. The molecular chlorine (Cl2) levels present in the garbage can were quantified using an iodometric titration. The gas emitted in the garbage can presented a strong microbicide effect, inhibiting the proliferation of all four microorganisms and for four consecutive weeks, thus showing that NaDCC hydrolysis, mediated by air humidity, is able to ensure the decontamination of restricted environments, avoiding the proliferation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  5. Bifurcating fragmentation behavior of gas-phase tryptic peptide dications in collisional activation.

    PubMed

    Savitski, Mikhail M; Fälth, Maria; Fung, Y M Eva; Adams, Christopher M; Zubarev, Roman A

    2008-12-01

    Collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of tryptic peptides is a cornerstone of mass spectrometry-based proteomics research. Principal component analysis of a database containing 15,000 high-resolution CAD mass spectra of gas-phase tryptic peptide dications revealed that they fall into two classes with a good separation between the classes. The main factor determining the class identity is the relative abundance of the peptide bond cleavage after the first two N-terminal residues. A possible scenario explaining this bifurcation involves trans- to cis-isomerization of the N-terminal peptide bond, which facilitates solvation of the N-terminal charge on the second backbone amide and formation of stable b(2) ions in the form of protonated diketopiperazines. Evidence supporting this scenario is derived from statistical analysis of the high-resolution CAD MS/MS database. It includes the observation of the strong deficit of a(3) ions and anomalous amino acid preferences for b(2) ion formation.

  6. Development of engine activity cycles for the prime movers of unconventional natural gas well development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek; Heltzel, Robert; Nix, Andrew; Barrow, Rebekah

    2017-03-01

    With the advent of unconventional natural gas resources, new research focuses on the efficiency and emissions of the prime movers powering these fleets. These prime movers also play important roles in emissions inventories for this sector. Industry seeks to reduce operating costs by decreasing the required fuel demands of these high horsepower engines but conducting in-field or full-scale research on new technologies is cost prohibitive. As such, this research completed extensive in-use data collection efforts for the engines powering over-the-road trucks, drilling engines, and hydraulic stimulation pump engines. These engine activity data were processed in order to make representative test cycles using a Markov Chain, Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation method. Such cycles can be applied under controlled environments on scaled engines for future research. In addition to MCMC, genetic algorithms were used to improve the overall performance values for the test cycles and smoothing was applied to ensure regression criteria were met during implementation on a test engine and dynamometer. The variations in cycle and in-use statistics are presented along with comparisons to conventional test cycles used for emissions compliance.

  7. Experiments in active control of stall on an aeroengine gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.; Wilson, A.G.; Day, I.J.; Swinbanks, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes work carried out between 1989 and 1994 to investigate the application of Active Stall Control to a Rolls-Royce Viper turbojet. The results demonstrate that stall control is feasible and can increase the stable operating range by up to 25 percent of pressure rise. Stall disturbances were detected using rings of high response pressure transducers positioned at different axial planes along the compressor, and processed using a PC-based data acquisition and control system. Actuation was provided by six hydraulically operated sleeve valves positioned to recirculate air over all or part of the compressor. Stall was artificially induced using combinations of in-bleed into the combustor outer casing, fuel spiking, hot gas ingestion, and inlet pressure spoiling, thus replicating many of the transient conditions commonly observed to make a compressor prone to stall. Results are compared from a number of stall control strategies including those demonstrated at low speed by Paduano et al. (1993) and Day (1993). Best results were obtained with detection of nonaxisymmetric disturbances coupled with axisymmetric control action. A control system of this type is demonstrated to be capable of extending the stable engine operating range at all speeds and with each method of inducing stall.

  8. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  9. Handling S/MAR vectors.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Baiker, Armin; Postberg, Jan; Ehrhardt, Anja; Lipps, Hans J

    2012-06-01

    Nonviral episomal vectors represent attractive alternatives to currently used virus-based expression systems. In the late 1990s, it was shown that a plasmid containing an expression cassette linked to a scaffold/matrix attached region (S/MAR) replicates as a low copy number episome in all cell lines tested, as well as primary cells, and can be used for the genetic modification of higher animals. Once established in the cell, the S/MAR vector replicates early during S-phase and, in the absence of selection, is stably retained in the cells for an unlimited period of time. This vector can therefore be regarded as a minimal model system for studying the epigenetic regulation of replication and functional nuclear architecture. In theory, this construct represents an almost "ideal" expression system for gene therapy. In practice, S/MAR-based vectors stably modify mammalian cells with efficiencies far below those of virus-based constructs. Consequently, they have not yet found application in gene therapy trials. Furthermore, S/MAR vector systems are not trivial to handle and several critical technical issues have to be considered when modifying these vectors for various applications.

  10. Temperature and moisture effects on greenhouse gas emissions from deep active-layer boreal soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Smith, Ashly P.; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2016-12-21

    Rapid climatic changes, rising air temperatures, and increased fires are expected to drive permafrost degradation and alter soil carbon (C) cycling in many high-latitude ecosystems. How these soils will respond to changes in their temperature, moisture, and overlying vegetation is highly uncertain, but critical to understand given the large soil C stocks in these regions. We used a laboratory experiment to examine how temperature and moisture control CO2 and CH4 emissions from mineral soils sampled from the bottom of the annual active layer, i.e. directly above permafrost, in an Alaskan boreal forest. Gas emissions from thirty cores, subjected to two temperatures and either field moisture conditions or experimental drought, were tracked over a 100-day incubation; we also measured a variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the cores. Gravimetric water content was 0.31 ± 0.12 (unitless) at the beginning of the incubation; cores at field moisture were unchanged at the end, but drought cores had declined to 0.06 ± 0.04. Carbon dioxide fluxes were strongly influenced by incubation chamber temperature, core water content, and percent soil nitrogen, and had a temperature sensitivity (i.e. Q10) of 1.3 and 1.9 for the field moisture and drought treatments, respectively. Methane emissions were most strongly correlated with percent nitrogen, but neither temperature nor water content was a significant first-order predictor of CH4 fluxes. The cumulative production of C from CO2 was over six orders of magnitudes higher than that from CH4. These results suggest that deep active-layer soils may be much more sensitive to changes in moisture than to temperature, a critical factor as discontinuous permafrost melts in interior Alaska. Deep but unfrozen high-latitude soils have been shown to be strongly affected by long-term experimental warming, and these results provide insight into their future dynamics and feedback potential with future climate change.

  11. Diversity and activity of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils with and without landfill gas recovery systems.

    PubMed

    Su, Yao; Zhang, Xuan; Xia, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Qi; Kong, Jiao-Yan; Wang, Jing; He, Ruo

    2014-05-01

    Aerobic CH4 oxidation plays an important role in mitigating CH4 release from landfills to the atmosphere. Therefore, in this study, oxidation activity and community of methanotrophs were investigated in a subtropical landfill. Among the three sites investigated, the highest CH4 concentration was detected in the landfill cover soil of the site (A) without a landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, although the refuse in the site had been deposited for a longer time (∼14-15 years) compared to the other two sites (∼6-11 years) where a LFG recovery system was applied. In April and September, the higher CH4 flux was detected in site A with 72.4 and 51.7gm(-2)d(-1), respectively, compared to the other sites. The abundance of methanotrophs assessed by quantification of pmoA varied with location and season. A linear relationship was observed between the abundance of methanotrophs and CH4 concentrations in the landfill cover soils (R=0.827, P<0.001). The key factors influencing the methanotrophic diversity in the landfill cover soils were pH, the water content and the CH4 concentration in the soil, of which pH was the most important factor. Type I methanotrophs, including Methylococcus, Methylosarcina, Methylomicrobium and Methylobacter, and type II methanotrophs (Methylocystis) were all detected in the landfill cover soils, with Methylocystis and Methylosarcina being the dominant genera. Methylocystis was abundant in the slightly acidic landfill cover soil, especially in September, and represented more than 89% of the total terminal-restriction fragment abundance. These findings indicated that the LFG recovery system, as well as physical and chemical parameters, affected the diversity and activity of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils.

  12. Gas-Phase Ambient Air Contaminants Exhibit Significant Dioxin-like and Estrogen-like Activity in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Gail P.; Hodge, Erin M.; Diamond, Miriam L.; Yip, Amelia; Dann, Tom; Stern, Gary; Denison, Michael S.; Harper, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Several adverse health effects, such as respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, have been linked to exposure to particulate matter in ambient air; however, the biologic activity of gas-phase ambient organic air contaminants has not been examined as thoroughly. Using aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)–based and estrogen receptor (ER)–based cell bioassay systems, we assessed the dioxin-like and estrogenic activities of gas-phase organic ambient air contaminants compared with those of particulate-phase contaminants using samples collected between seasons over 2 years from an urban and a rural location in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. The concentration of the sum (∑) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which was highest in the gas phase, was 10–100 times more abundant than that of ∑polychlorinated biphenyls, ∑nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and ∑organochlorine pesticides, and 103 to 104 times more abundant than ∑polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans. Gas-phase samples induced significant AHR- and ER-dependent gene expression. The activity of the gas-phase samples was greater than that of the particulate-phase samples in the estrogen assay and, in one case, in the AHR assay. We found no strong associations between either summer or winter seasons or urban or rural locations in the relative efficacy of the extracts in either the ER or AHR assay despite differences in chemical composition, concentrations, and abundance. Our results suggest that mechanistic studies of the health effects of ambient air must consider gas and particulate phases because chemicals present in both phases can affect AHR and ER signaling pathways. PMID:16675423

  13. Measurement of alkali vapor in PFBC flue gas and its control by a fixed granular bed of activated bauxite

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    A fixed granular-bed sorber, with regenerable activated bauxite as the sorbent, for the control of the alkali vapor in the flue gas produced during pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) of coal is being developed. In a gas stream closely simulating the actual PFBC flue gas, activated bauxite is shown to capture NaCl vapor by (1) chemical fixation of the vapor with the intrinsic clay minerals, probably to form thermally stable, water-insoluble sodium aluminosilicates and (2) chemical conversion of NaCl vapor into a condensed-phase sodium sulfate, which has a much lower vapor pressure than does NaCl. The latter predominates the capture process, and the captured sodium sulfate can be easily removed by simple water-leaching to restore the porosity of activated bauxite for reuse. A high-temperature (less than or equal to 900/sup 0/C) and high-pressure (less than or equal to 10 atm) laboratory-scale, fixed, granular-bed alkali sorber has been operated with the Argonne National Laboratory PFBC combustor to (1) measure the alkali vapor concentration in the PFBC flue gas on a real-time, on-line basis, and (2) demonstrate the alkali sorber for the control of alkali vapor from an actual PFBC flue gas. The alkali (Na + K) vapor concentration in particulate filtered hot flue gas was measured to be <10 ppbW with the Ames analyzer. The same measurement with the APST was higher between 90 to 170 ppbW. Therefore, the possibility of sink for sodium vapor in the PFBC/alkali sorber system must be considered. 32 refs.

  14. Protecting worker health and safety using remote handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reed, R.K.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing and installing two large-scale, remotely controlled systems for use in improving worker health and safety by minimizing exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The first system is a full-scale liquid feed system for use in delivering chemical reagents to LLNL`s existing aqueous low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment facility (Tank Farm). The Tank Farm facility is used to remove radioactive and toxic materials in aqueous wastes prior to discharge to the City of Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP), in accordance with established discharge limits. Installation of this new reagent feed system improves operational safety and process efficiency by eliminating the need to manually handle reagents used in the treatment processes. This was done by installing a system that can inject precisely metered amounts of various reagents into the treatment tanks and can be controlled either remotely or locally via a programmable logic controller (PLC). The second system uses a robotic manipulator to remotely handle, characterize, process, sort, and repackage hazardous wastes containing tritium. This system uses an IBM-developed gantry robot mounted within a special glove box enclosure designed to isolate tritiated wastes from system operators and minimize the potential for release of tritium to the atmosphere. Tritiated waste handling is performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. The system is compatible with an existing portable gas cleanup unit designed to capture any gas-phase tritium inadvertently released into the glove box during waste handling.

  15. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  16. Modeling high-pressure adsorption of gas mixtures on activated carbon and coal using a simplified local-density model.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, James E; Robinson, Robert L; Gasem, Khaled A M

    2006-11-07

    The simplified local-density (SLD) theory was investigated regarding its ability to provide accurate representations and predictions of high-pressure supercritical adsorption isotherms encountered in coalbed methane (CBM) recovery and CO2 sequestration. Attention was focused on the ability of the SLD theory to predict mixed-gas adsorption solely on the basis of information from pure gas isotherms using a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). An extensive set of high-pressure adsorption measurements was used in this evaluation. These measurements included pure and binary mixture adsorption measurements for several gas compositions up to 14 MPa for Calgon F-400 activated carbon and three water-moistened coals. Also included were ternary measurements for the activated carbon and one coal. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO2 on dry activated carbon, the SLD-PR can predict the component mixture adsorption within about 2.2 times the experimental uncertainty on average solely on the basis of pure-component adsorption isotherms. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO2 on two of the three wet coals, the SLD-PR model can predict the component adsorption within the experimental uncertainties on average for all feed fractions (nominally molar compositions of 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, and 80/20) of the three binary gas mixture combinations, although predictions for some specific feed fractions are outside of their experimental uncertainties.

  17. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S.C. Khamamkar

    2000-06-23

    The Waste Handling Building Electrical System performs the function of receiving, distributing, transforming, monitoring, and controlling AC and DC power to all waste handling building electrical loads. The system distributes normal electrical power to support all loads that are within the Waste Handling Building (WHB). The system also generates and distributes emergency power to support designated emergency loads within the WHB within specified time limits. The system provides the capability to transfer between normal and emergency power. The system provides emergency power via independent and physically separated distribution feeds from the normal supply. The designated emergency electrical equipment will be designed to operate during and after design basis events (DBEs). The system also provides lighting, grounding, and lightning protection for the Waste Handling Building. The system is located in the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of a diesel generator, power distribution cables, transformers, switch gear, motor controllers, power panel boards, lighting panel boards, lighting equipment, lightning protection equipment, control cabling, and grounding system. Emergency power is generated with a diesel generator located in a QL-2 structure and connected to the QL-2 bus. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System distributes and controls primary power to acceptable industry standards, and with a dependability compatible with waste handling building reliability objectives for non-safety electrical loads. It also generates and distributes emergency power to the designated emergency loads. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System receives power from the Site Electrical Power System. The primary material handling power interfaces include the Carrier/Cask Handling System, Canister Transfer System, Assembly Transfer System, Waste Package Remediation System, and Disposal Container Handling Systems. The system interfaces with the MGR Operations

  18. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, C.A. National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC ); Hopkins, M.E. )

    1991-04-01

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  20. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in...

  5. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current...

  6. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current...

  7. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current...

  8. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current...

  9. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current...

  10. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling. 3.92 Section 3.92 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  11. 9 CFR 3.66 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling. 3.66 Section 3.66 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  12. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  13. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  14. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  15. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  17. 9 CFR 3.118 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling. 3.118 Section 3.118 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  18. 9 CFR 3.118 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling. 3.118 Section 3.118 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means... peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or...

  20. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means... peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or...

  1. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means... peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or...

  2. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means... peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or...

  3. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means... peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  5. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b) Hulling and drying pistachios; (c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling,...

  6. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b) Hulling and drying pistachios; (c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling,...

  7. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b) Hulling and drying pistachios; (c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling,...

  8. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES..., contamination, or other adverse effects to product do not occur during handling....

  9. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES..., contamination, or other adverse effects to product do not occur during handling....

  10. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  11. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  12. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  14. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  15. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one...

  16. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one...

  17. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one...

  18. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one...

  19. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one...

  20. 9 CFR 3.66 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.66 Section 3.66 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  1. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.92 Section 3.92 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  6. Handling an Asthma Flare-Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Handling an Asthma Flare-Up KidsHealth > For Kids > Handling an Asthma Flare-Up Print A A A What's in ... asmáticas What's a Flare-Up? If you have asthma, you probably know about flare-ups . That's when ...

  7. 9 CFR 3.118 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.118 Handling. (a) Carriers and intermediate handlers moving marine... protect the marine mammals. Marine mammals must not be subjected to surrounding air temperatures...

  8. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  13. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  14. Eruptive activity at Mount St Helens, Washington, USA, 1984-1988: a gas geochemistry perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Sutton, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The results from two different types of gas measurement, telemetered in situ monitoring of reducing gases on the dome and airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates in the plume by correlation spectrometry, suggest that the combination of these two methods is particularly effective in detecting periods of enhanced degassing that intermittently punctuate the normal background leakage of gaseous effluent from Mount St Helens to the atmosphere. Gas events were recorded before lava extrusion for each of the four dome-building episodes at Mount St Helens since mid-1984. For two of the episodes, precursory reducing gas peaks were detected, whereas during three of the episodes, COSPEC measurements recorded precursory degassing of sulfur dioxide. During one episode (October 1986), both reducing gas monitoring and SO2 emission rate measurements simultaneously detected a large gas release several hours before lava extrusion. Had both types of gas measurements been operational during each of the dome-building episodes, it is thought that both would have recorded precursory signals for all four episodes. Evidence from the data presented herein suggests that increased degassing at Mount St Helens becomes detectable when fresh upward-moving magma is between 2 km and a few hundred meters below the base of the dome and between about 60 and 12 hours before the surface extrusion of lava. ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  16. Temperature and moisture effects on greenhouse gas emissions from deep active-layer boreal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Smith, A. Peyton; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-12-01

    Rapid climatic changes, rising air temperatures, and increased fires are expected to drive permafrost degradation and alter soil carbon (C) cycling in many high-latitude ecosystems. How these soils will respond to changes in their temperature, moisture, and overlying vegetation is uncertain but critical to understand given the large soil C stocks in these regions. We used a laboratory experiment to examine how temperature and moisture control CO2 and CH4 emissions from mineral soils sampled from the bottom of the annual active layer, i.e., directly above permafrost, in an Alaskan boreal forest. Gas emissions from 30 cores, subjected to two temperatures and either field moisture conditions or experimental drought, were tracked over a 100-day incubation; we also measured a variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the cores. Gravimetric water content was 0.31 ± 0.12 (unitless) at the beginning of the incubation; cores at field moisture were unchanged at the end, but drought cores had declined to 0.06 ± 0.04. Daily CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with incubation chamber temperature, core water content, and percent soil nitrogen. They also had a temperature sensitivity (Q10) of 1.3 and 1.9 for the field moisture and drought treatments, respectively. Daily CH4 emissions were most strongly correlated with percent nitrogen, but neither temperature nor water content was a significant first-order predictor of CH4 fluxes. The cumulative production of C from CO2 was over 6 orders of magnitude higher than that from CH4; cumulative CO2 was correlated with incubation temperature and moisture treatment, with drought cores producing 52-73 % lower C. Cumulative CH4 production was unaffected by any treatment. These results suggest that deep active-layer soils may be sensitive to changes in soil moisture under aerobic conditions, a critical factor as discontinuous permafrost thaws in interior Alaska. Deep but unfrozen high-latitude soils have been shown to be

  17. Temperature and moisture effects on greenhouse gas emissions from deep active-layer boreal soils

    DOE PAGES

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Smith, A. Peyton; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-12-21

    Rapid climatic changes, rising air temperatures, and increased fires are expected to drive permafrost degradation and alter soil carbon (C) cycling in many high-latitude ecosystems. How these soils will respond to changes in their temperature, moisture, and overlying vegetation is uncertain but critical to understand given the large soil C stocks in these regions. We used a laboratory experiment to examine how temperature and moisture control CO2 and CH4 emissions from mineral soils sampled from the bottom of the annual active layer, i.e., directly above permafrost, in an Alaskan boreal forest. Gas emissions from 30 cores, subjected to two temperaturesmore » and either field moisture conditions or experimental drought, were tracked over a 100-day incubation; we also measured a variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the cores. Gravimetric water content was 0.31 ± 0.12 (unitless) at the beginning of the incubation; cores at field moisture were unchanged at the end, but drought cores had declined to 0.06 ± 0.04. Daily CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with incubation chamber temperature, core water content, and percent soil nitrogen. They also had a temperature sensitivity (Q10) of 1.3 and 1.9 for the field moisture and drought treatments, respectively. Daily CH4 emissions were most strongly correlated with percent nitrogen, but neither temperature nor water content was a significant first-order predictor of CH4 fluxes. The cumulative production of C from CO2 was over 6 orders of magnitude higher than that from CH4; cumulative CO2 was correlated with incubation temperature and moisture treatment, with drought cores producing 52–73 % lower C. Cumulative CH4 production was unaffected by any treatment. These results suggest that deep active-layer soils may be sensitive to changes in soil moisture under aerobic conditions, a critical factor as discontinuous permafrost thaws in interior Alaska. Deep but unfrozen high-latitude soils have

  18. Police Handling of Youth Gangs. Reports of the National Juvenile Justice Assessment Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needle, Jerome A.; Stapleton, Wm Vaughan

    Although the organizational structure and activities of youth gangs have been studied, little research has focused on law enforcement strategies to handle youth gang behavior. To examine how police handle youth gangs and law violation and to identify effective prevention and control strategies, the police gang control and youth personnel…

  19. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each rail shipment of low specific activity... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 174.700 Section 174.700 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...

  20. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  1. Gold catalysts for pure hydrogen production in the water-gas shift reaction: activity, structure and reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Burch, Robbie

    2006-12-21

    The production of hydrogen containing very low levels of carbon monoxide for use in polymer electrolyte fuel cells requires the development of catalysts that show very high activity at low temperatures where the equilibrium for the removal of carbon monoxide using the water-gas shift reaction is favourable. It has been claimed that oxide-supported gold catalysts have the required high activity but there is considerable uncertainty in the literature about the feasibility of using these catalysts under real conditions. By comparing the activity of gold catalysts with that of platinum catalysts it is shown that well-prepared gold catalysts are significantly more active than the corresponding platinum catalysts. However, the method of preparation and pre-treatment of the gold catalysts is critical and activity variations of several orders of magnitude can be observed depending on the methods chosen. It is shown that an intimate contact between gold and the oxide support is important and any preparative procedure that does not generate such an interaction, or any subsequent treatment that can destroy such an interaction, may result in catalysts with low activity. The oxidation state and structure of active gold catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction is shown to comprise gold primarily in a zerovalent metallic state but in intimate contact with the support. This close contact between small metallic gold particles and the support may result in the "atoms" at the point of contact having a net charge (most probably cationic) but the high activity is associated with the presence of metallic gold. Both in situ XPS and XANES appear unequivocal on this point and this conclusion is consistent with similar measurements on gold catalysts even when used for CO oxidation. In situ EXAFS measurements under water gas shift conditions show that the active form of gold is a small gold cluster in intimate contact with the oxide support. The importance of the gold/oxide interface is

  2. Unit with Fluidized Bed for Gas-Vapor Activation of Different Carbonaceous Materials for Various Purposes: Design, Computation, Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strativnov, Eugene

    2017-02-01

    We propose the technology of obtaining the promising material with wide specter of application-activated nanostructured carbon. In terms of technical indicators, it will stand next to the materials produced by complex regulations with the use of costly chemical operations. It can be used for the following needs: as a sorbent for hemosorption and enterosorption, for creation of the newest source of electric current (lithium and zinc air batteries, supercapacitors), and for processes of short-cycle adsorption gas separation.

  3. Using the Novel Method of Nonthermal Plasma To Add Cl Active Sites on Activated Carbon for Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bi; Zeng, Xiaobo; Xu, Ping; Chen, Juan; Xu, Yang; Luo, Guangqian; Xu, Minghou; Yao, Hong

    2016-11-01

    A new method using nonthermal plasma to add Cl active sites on activated carbon was proposed to improve the efficiency of activated carbon (AC) for removal of mercury from flue gas. The experiments were conducted via a lab-scale dielectric barrier discharge nonthermal plasma system and a vertical adsorption reactor. The results showed that the nonthermal plasma treatment with a small amount of Cl2 successfully added Cl active sites on AC and greatly increased the mercury removal efficiency of AC by chemisorption in a very short treatment time. The increase in Cl2 concentration for AC treatment promoted the efficiency of AC. The capacity of mercury adsorption positively correlated with the content of Cl2 for AC treatment, which depends on the number of Cl active sites on activated carbon. The treated AC maintained a high mercury removal efficiency within a temperature range of 30-210 °C. SO2 and H2O in flue gas inhibited the removal of mercury by AC, while HCl had a promotional effect. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated the chemisorption of mercury was attributed to the C-Cl groups generated on AC surfaces during Cl2 nonthermal plasma treatment. The C-Cl groups as active sites had strong adsorption energy for mercury, which converted elemental mercury to HgCl2.

  4. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David

    2014-10-15

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  5. Cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids activate the cGAS-STING axis.

    PubMed

    Mankan, Arun K; Schmidt, Tobias; Chauhan, Dhruv; Goldeck, Marion; Höning, Klara; Gaidt, Moritz; Kubarenko, Andrew V; Andreeva, Liudmila; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Hornung, Veit

    2014-12-17

    Intracellular recognition of non-self and also self-nucleic acids can result in the initiation of potent pro-inflammatory and antiviral cytokine responses. Most recently, cGAS was shown to be critical for the recognition of cytoplasmic dsDNA. Binding of dsDNA to cGAS results in the synthesis of cGAMP(2'-5'), which then binds to the endoplasmic reticulum resident protein STING. This initiates a signaling cascade that triggers the induction of an antiviral immune response. While most studies on intracellular nucleic acids have focused on dsRNA or dsDNA, it has remained unexplored whether cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids are also sensed by the innate immune system. Studying synthetic RNA:DNA hybrids, we indeed observed a strong type I interferon response upon cytosolic delivery of this class of molecule. Studies in THP-1 knockout cells revealed that the recognition of RNA:DNA hybrids is completely attributable to the cGAS-STING pathway. Moreover, in vitro studies showed that recombinant cGAS produced cGAMP upon RNA:DNA hybrid recognition. Altogether, our results introduce RNA:DNA hybrids as a novel class of intracellular PAMP molecules and describe an alternative cGAS ligand next to dsDNA.

  6. Regional Air Quality Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing and Natural Gas Activity: Evidence from Ambient VOC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinciguerra, T.; Ehrman, S.; Yao, S.; Dadzie, J.; Chittams, A.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, many anthropogenic pollutants have been successfully reduced, providing improved air quality. However, a new influx of emissions associated with hydraulic fracturing and natural gas operations could be counteracting some of these benefits. Using hourly measurements from Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) in the Baltimore, MD and Washington, D.C. areas, we observed that following a period of decline, daytime ethane concentrations have increased significantly since 2010. This trend appears to be linked with the rapid natural gas production in upwind, neighboring states, especially Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Furthermore, ethane concentrations failed to display this trend at a PAMS site outside of Atlanta, GA, a region without widespread natural gas operations. Year-to-year changes in VOCs were further evaluated by using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to perform source apportionment on hourly observations in Essex, MD from 2005-2013. This process takes ambient measurements and attributes them to sources such as biogenic, natural gas, industrial, gasoline, and vehicle exhaust by using tracer species as identifiers. Preliminary PMF results also indicate an increasing influence of natural gas sources for this area.

  7. High-ionization Gas in Active Galactic Nuclei: Line Profiles and Physical Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodíguez-Ardila, A.; Riffel, R.; Mazzalay, X.; Portilla, J. G.

    2012-08-01

    SOAR/Goodman spectroscopy is employed to detect the coronal lines [Fe VII] 3759, 5159, and 6087 Å, [Ne V] 3423 Å and [Fe X] 6083 Å, the former three suitable to determine the temperature and density of the high-ionization gas. The spectra allow us to fully characterize the profiles of the most conspicuous lines (asymmetries, shifts from the centroid position and line width). The combined results allow us to detect signatures of outflows in the coronal gas and thus set up constrains on the origin of the CLs in AGNs. In addition, AO GEMINI/NIFS IFU spectroscopy is used to study the coronal gas morphology at spatial scales of a few parsecs in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. We found that the gas distribution is rather inhomogeneous and asymmetric. From the comparison of the CL [Mg VIII] with the VLA 6 cm radio emission we found evidence that the CL gas kinematics and morphology is strongly related to the radio jet morphology. All above results allow us to confirm the role that coronal lines have to trace outflows at the inner tens of parsecs of AGNs.

  8. The Cytosolic Sensor cGAS Detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA to Induce Type I Interferons and Activate Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert O; Bell, Samantha L; MacDuff, Donna A; Kimmey, Jacqueline M; Diner, Elie J; Olivas, Joanna; Vance, Russell E; Stallings, Christina L; Virgin, Herbert W; Cox, Jeffery S

    2015-06-10

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are critical mediators of antiviral defense, but their elicitation by bacterial pathogens can be detrimental to hosts. Many intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, induce type I IFNs following phagosomal membrane perturbations. Cytosolic M. tuberculosis DNA has been implicated as a trigger for IFN production, but the mechanisms remain obscure. We report that the cytosolic DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), is required for activating IFN production via the STING/TBK1/IRF3 pathway during M. tuberculosis and L. pneumophila infection of macrophages, whereas L. monocytogenes short-circuits this pathway by producing the STING agonist, c-di-AMP. Upon sensing cytosolic DNA, cGAS also activates cell-intrinsic antibacterial defenses, promoting autophagic targeting of M. tuberculosis. Importantly, we show that cGAS binds M. tuberculosis DNA during infection, providing direct evidence that this unique host-pathogen interaction occurs in vivo. These data uncover a mechanism by which IFN is likely elicited during active human infections.

  9. How the NWC handles software as product

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial provides a hands-on view of how the Nuclear Weapons Complex project should be handling (or planning to handle) software as a product in response to Engineering Procedure 401099. The SQAS has published the document SQAS96-002, Guidelines for NWC Processes for Handling Software Product, that will be the basis for the tutorial. The primary scope of the tutorial is on software products that result from weapons and weapons-related projects, although the information presented is applicable to many software projects. Processes that involve the exchange, review, or evaluation of software product between or among NWC sites, DOE, and external customers will be described.

  10. Mooring and ground handling rigid airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of mooring and ground handling rigid airships are discussed. A brief history of Mooring and Ground Handling Rigid Airships from July 2, 1900 through September 1, 1939 is included. Also a brief history of ground handling developments with large U. S. Navy nonrigid airships between September 1, 1939 and August 31, 1962 is included wherein developed equipment and techniques appear applicable to future large rigid airships. Finally recommendations are made pertaining to equipment and procedures which appear desirable and feasible for future rigid airship programs.

  11. Trace Gas Analyzer (TGA) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and test of a breadboard trace gas analyzer (TGA) is documented. The TGA is a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system. The gas chromatograph subsystem employs a recirculating hydrogen carrier gas. The recirculation feature minimizes the requirement for transport and storage of large volumes of carrier gas during a mission. The silver-palladium hydrogen separator which permits the removal of the carrier gas and its reuse also decreases vacuum requirements for the mass spectrometer since the mass spectrometer vacuum system need handle only the very low sample pressure, not sample plus carrier. System performance was evaluated with a representative group of compounds.

  12. Effects of handle orientation and between-handle distance on bi-manual isometric push strength.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hua; McGorry, Raymond W; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2012-07-01

    Hand-handle interface is seldom considered in contemporary upper limb biomechanical analyses of pushing and pulling strength. A laboratory study was designed to examine if handle rotation in the frontal plane (0°-horizontal, 45°, and 90°-vertical), anterior tilt (0°-parallel to the frontal plane, and 15°), and distance between two handles (31 and 48.6 cm) affect pushing strength and subjective rating of handle preference. A special testing station was constructed to elicit upper limb push exertions that involved minimal contribution of the torso and legs. Within the station, four load cells were used to measure the horizontal (forward pushing) and vertical components of the pushing forces. Thirty-one participants performed seated bi-manual pushing strength tests. Comparing to the reference handle configuration (horizontal, straight, and a 31-cm between-handle distance), the 45°-rotated and tilted handles with a 31-cm between-handle distance allowed 6.7% more pushing output, while the horizontal and tilted handles with a 31-cm between-handle distance resulted in 2.8% less. Subjective preference was correlated with normalized pushing strength (r=0.89). Tilted handles, at 45°-rotated and vertical positions received highest subjective ratings of preference among all handle configurations. Men exerted greater pushing strength with the 48.6-cm handle distance while women's capacity was greatest with the 31-cm distance. The results demonstrated that handle rotation and tilt angles affected pushing strength and should be taken into consideration when evaluating or designing pushing tasks.

  13. Views of Growing Methane Emissions near Oil and Natural Gas Activity: Satellite, Aircraft, and Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollonige, D. E.; Thompson, A. M.; Diskin, G. S.; Hannigan, J. W.; Nussbaumer, E.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the discrepancies between current top-down and bottom-up estimates, additional methane (CH4) measurements are necessary for regions surrounding growing oil and natural gas (ONG) development. We have evaluated satellite measurements of CH4 in US regions with ONG operations for their application as "top-down" constraints (part of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST) project). For validation of the satellite instruments' sensitivities to emitted gases, we focus on regions where the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) campaign deployed ground and aircraft measurements in Maryland (2011), California and Texas (2013), and Colorado (2014). The largest CH4 signals were observed in the Greater Green River and Powder River Basins using Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Representative Tropospheric Volume Mixing Ratio (RTVMR) measurements. A long-term comparison between a ground remote-sensing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at Boulder and TES for 2010-2013 shows good correlation and differences ranging 2.5-5% for their yearly distribution of total column CH4. To determine any correlation between lower/mid-tropospheric CH4 (where a thermal IR sensor, such as TES, is most sensitive) and near-surface/boundary CH4 (where sources emit), we analyze the variability of DISCOVER-AQ aircraft profiles using principal component analysis and assess the correlation between near-surface (0-2 km) and mid-tropospheric (>2 km) CH4 concentrations. Using these relationships, we estimate near-surface CH4 using mid-tropospheric satellite measurements based on the partial column amounts within vertical layers with a linear regression. From this analysis, we will demonstrate whether the uncertainties of satellite-estimated near-surface CH4 are comparable to observed variability near ONG activity. These results will assist validation of satellite instrument

  14. Nanoparticle cluster gas sensor: Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticles for NH3 detection with ultrahigh sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Chen, Nan; Han, Bingqian; Xiao, Xuechun; Chen, Gang; Djerdj, Igor; Wang, Yude

    2015-09-28

    Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. The structure, morphology, chemical state and specific surface area were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2-sorption studies, respectively. The SnO2 nanoparticle cluster matrix consists of tens of thousands of SnO2 nanoparticles with an ultra-small grain size estimated to be 3.0 nm. And there are abundant random-packed wormhole-like pores, caused by the inter-connection of the SnO2 nanoparticles, throughout each cluster. The platinum element is present in two forms including metal (Pt) and tetravalent metal oxide (PtO2) in the Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters. The as-synthesized pure and Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were used to fabricate gas sensor devices. It was found that the gas response toward 500 ppm of ammonia was improved from 6.48 to 203.44 through the activation by Pt. And the results indicate that the sensor based on Pt activated SnO2 not only has ultrahigh sensitivity but also possesses good response-recovery properties, linear dependence, repeatability, selectivity and long-term stability, demonstrating the potential to use Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters as ammonia gas sensors. At the same time, the formation mechanisms of the unique nanoparticle clusters and highly enhanced sensitivity are also discussed.

  15. Genotoxic Monitoring of Nurses Handling Cytotoxic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Tompa, Anna; Biró, Anna; Jakab, Mátyás

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several biomarkers may be used to detect harmful exposure and individual susceptibility to cancer. Monitoring of biomarkers related to exposure may have a significant effect on early detection of cell transformation, thereby aiding the primary prevention of various chronic and malignant diseases. Nurses who handle cytotoxic drugs are exposed to carcinogenic agents, which have the potential to interrupt the cell cycle and to induce chromosomal aberrations. The presence of high chromosomal aberrations indicates the need for intervention even when exposure to these carcinogens is low. Methods: Nationally representative samples of 552 nurses were investigated by a follow-up monitoring system. The measured biomarkers were clinical laboratory routine tests, completed with genotoxicological (chromosome aberrations [CAs] and sister chromatid exchanges [SCEs]) and immunotoxicological monitoring (ratio of lymphocyte subpopulations and lymphocyte activation markers) measured on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results were compared to the data of 140 healthy, age-matched controls. Results: In nurses exposed to cytostatics, we observed a significantly increased frequency of CAs and SCEs compared with those in the controls. Cytostatic drug exposure also manifested itself in an increased frequency of helper T lymphocytes. Genotoxicological and immunotoxicological changes, as well as negative health effects (i.e., iron deficiency, anemia, and thyroid diseases), increased among cytostatic exposed subjects. Conclusions: These results raised concerns about the protection of nursing staff from chemical carcinogens in the working environment. PMID:28083554

  16. Characteristics of the handling and positioning aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    The handling and positioning aid which (HPA) provides a wide range of adjustable work stations both inboard and outboard of the cargo bay is discussed. It can assist with berthing and docking, it is robust, stiff, has a simple control system, and is modular. An articulated arm version of HPA employed in a typical servicing mission is shown. Mounted on a base frame that spans the Orbiter cargo bay, the 6 m arm is long enough to hold the satellite being serviced and keep its solar array clear of the Orbiter radiators. By adjusting the length and angle of the support platform mast, and rotating the tip of the HPA arm, almost every item on the satellite can be reached. Spares and change-out units can be brought to and from the work site by the RMS, which is controlled from the aft flight deck. The fore and aft position of the base frame can be changed between Orbiter flights and this, together with the 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) of the long arm, allows work sites to be chosen that meet the clearance, reach and vision requirements of many missions. Flight article activities are shown are shown above the dashed horizontal line and Development Test Article (DTA) work below. Flight article requirements and concepts and the design of the DTA are developed.

  17. Electronic astronomical information handling and flexible publishing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.

    The current dramatic evolution in information technology is bringing major modifications in the way scientists work and communicate. The concept of electronic information handling encompasses the diverse types of information, the different media, as well as the various communication methodologies and technologies. It ranges from the very collection of data until the final publication of results and sharing of knowledge. New problems and challenges result also from the new information culture, especially on legal, ethical, and educational grounds. Electronic publishing will have to diverge from an electronic version of contributions on paper and will be part of a more general flexible-publishing policy. The benefits of private publishing are questioned. The procedures for validating published material and for evaluating scientific activities will have to be adjusted too. Provision of electronic refereed information independently from commercial publishers in now feasible. Scientists and scientific institutions have now the possibility to run an efficient information server with validated (refereed) material without the help of a commercial publishers.

  18. Biomass-based palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve as gas separation adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Sethupathi, Sumathi; Bashir, Mohammed Jk; Akbar, Zinatizadeh Ali; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been widely recognised as a potential low-cost source for the production of high added value materials and proved to be a good precursor for the production of activated carbons. One of such valuable biomasses used for the production of activated carbons is palm shell. Palm shell (endocarp) is an abundant by-product produced from the palm oil industries throughout tropical countries. Palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve has been widely applied in various environmental pollution control technologies, mainly owing to its high adsorption performance, well-developed porosity and low cost, leading to potential applications in gas-phase separation using adsorption processes. This mini-review represents a comprehensive overview of the palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve preparation method, physicochemical properties and feasibility of palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve in gas separation processes. Some of the limitations are outlined and suggestions for future improvements are pointed out.

  19. Sampling and handling of desert soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blank, G. B.; Cameron, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Report on sampling and handling desert soils includes sections on selection, characterization, and photography of area, site, and soil, sterilization of sampling equipment and containers, and soil sample collection, transport, storage, and dispersal.

  20. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify the significance of intertextuality in students' realizations of low- and high-complexity discourses. In the high-complexity event, we show how students take on different roles and use modality and projection as grammatical resources for opening up, for different positions, multiple voices, and various contextual resources. Successful handling of complexity is construed by the interplay between students' roles in the discourse and resources in language for making multiple voices present. In the high-complexity event, the handling of complexity is guided by the students' sense of purpose. Handling complexity is demanding, and explicit scaffolding is necessary to prevent a potentially complex challenge from being treated as a simple one.

  1. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR... consumption channels of commerce: Provided, That this term does not include sales or deliveries of peanuts...

  2. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR... consumption channels of commerce: Provided, That this term does not include sales or deliveries of peanuts...

  3. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR... consumption channels of commerce: Provided, That this term does not include sales or deliveries of peanuts...

  4. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR... consumption channels of commerce: Provided, That this term does not include sales or deliveries of peanuts...

  5. 7 CFR 959.322 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quantity exemption. Any handler may handle, other than for resale, up to, but not to exceed 110 pounds of.... Processing means cooking or freezing the onions in such a way, or with such other food components, that...

  6. Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the legislative and regulatory regime that affects natural gas and oil exploration and production in offshore regions of the United States. It discusses the role and importance of these areas as well as the competing interests surrounding ownership, production, exploration and conservation.

  7. SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS IN GAS PHASE USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selective oxidations of various primary and secondary alcohols were studied in a gas phase photochemical reactor using immobilized TiO2 catalyst. An annular photoreactor was used at 463K with an average contact time of 32sec. The system was found to be specifically suited for the...

  8. Activities for Students: Predicting Future Gas Prices Using the Standards for Mathematical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bismarck, Stephen F.; Zelkowski, Jeremy; Gleason, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Like many commodities, the price of gasoline continues to rise, and these price changes are readily observed in gas stations' signage. Moreover, algebraic methods are well suited to model price change and answer the student's question. Over the course of one ninety-minute block or two forty-five-minute classes, students build functions…

  9. 77 FR 68144 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Surface Commingling, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Production Measurement, Surface Commingling, and Security; Proposed Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60... requirements in the regulations under Subpart L, Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Surface Commingling, and... Measurement, Surface Commingling, and Security. OMB Control Number: 1014-0002. Abstract: The Outer...

  10. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 5: ACTIVITY FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of controlled-release chlorine dioxide gas on fresh blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on the safety and quality of blueberries was studied. In vitro studies revealed that both ClO2 gas fumigation and ClO2 water direct contact killed food pathogen bacterium, Escherichia coli and fruit decay pathogen fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum. In vivo studies...

  12. Investigations of Air Perfusion through Porous Media and Super-Hydrophobic Surface Active Gas Replenishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlin, Marc; Gose, James W.; Golovin, Kevin; Ceccio, Steven L.; Tuteja, Anish

    2015-11-01

    Super-hydrophobic (SH) materials have been used successfully to generate reduced skin-friction in laminar flows. Success in the laminar regime has led researchers to try SH materials in turbulent flows. More often than not, this has been unsuccessful at providing meaningful skin-friction drag reduction, and has even generated increased drag. This failure is frequently attributed to the wetting of an SH surface or equivalently the transition from the Cassie-Baxter to the Wenzel state. The result is fluid flow over an essentially roughened surface. In this investigation the researchers aim to perfuse small amounts of gas through porous media, including sintered and foam metals, to attain skin-friction drag reduction in a fully-developed turbulent channel flow. As air is perfused through porous media, the solid - liquid interaction at the interface transitions to a solid - liquid - gas interaction. This can result in an interface that functions similarly to SH materials. Controlled air perfusion that provides the necessary replenishment of lost gas at the interface might prevent wetting, and thus eliminate or reduce the effect of the roughness on the flow. This latter possibility is investigated by perfusing small amounts of gas through porous media with and without SH coatings. To quantify the effectiveness of this method, pressure drop is used to infer friction drag along the surface in a fully-developed turbulent channel flow. The authors recognize the support of ONR.

  13. 77 FR 59209 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Requirements; Proposed Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ...: Evaluate requests to burn liquid hydrocarbons and vent and flare gas to ensure that these requests are... reservoirs are being depleted in a manner that will lead to the greatest ultimate recovery of hydrocarbons. This information is collected to determine the capability of hydrocarbon wells and to evaluate...

  14. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities. Pacific update: August 1987 - November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Slitor, Douglas L.; Wiese, Jeffrey D.; Karpas, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    This Pacific Update focuses on the geology and petroleum potential of the Central California and Washington-Oregon OCS Planning Areas. This report discusses the following topics: offshore oil and gas resources of the Pacific region; project-specific developments and status; and magnitude and timing of offshore developments. (CBS)

  15. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 7: BLOW AND PURGE ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  16. Waiting on More than 64 Handles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    defined as 64, then some extra code must be written to deal with this. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Handle MAXIMUM_WAIT_OBJECTS...RESPONSIBLE PERSON Tom Nealis a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code ) (973) 724-8048 Standard...one would wait on all the handles produced by spawning a thread for each group. The following sequence is the block of code /algorithm that was

  17. Identification of Aroma-active Compounds in Essential Oil from Uncaria Hook by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Megumi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maki, Yusuke; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Usami, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Uncaria Hook ("Chotoko" in Japanese), the branch with curved hook of the herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla has been investigated by GC and GC-MS analyses. Eighty-four compounds, representing 90.8% of the total content was identified in oil obtained from Uncaria Hook. The main components i were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (13.4%), α-copaene (8.0%), methyl eugenol (6.8%), δ-cadinene (5.3%), and curcumene (3.6%). The important key aroma-active compounds in the oil were detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), using the flavor dilution (FD) factor to express the odor potency of each compounds. Furthermore, the odor activity value (OAV) has been used as a measure of the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma of the Uncaria Hook oil. The GC-O and AEDA results showed that α-copaene (FD = 4, OAV = 4376), (E)-linalool oxide (FD = 64, OAV = 9.1), and methyl eugenol (FD = 64, OAV = 29) contributed to the woody and spicy odor of Uncaria Hook oil, whereas furfural (FD = 8, OAV = 4808) contributed to its sweet odor. These results warrant further investigations of the application of essential oil from Uncaria Hook in the phytochemical and medicinal fields.

  18. THE RENAL HANDLING OF HEMOGLOBIN

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, H. Franklin; Jandl, James H.

    1969-01-01

    The fate of small doses of isotopically labeled isologous hemoglobin was studied in the rat. When haptoglobin depleted animals were given 2.0 mg of 59Fe hemoglobin intravenously, nearly half was trapped by the kidneys. Kidney 59Fe activity disappeared slowly over several weeks. Whatever iron was lost from the kidneys was largely reutilized. In contrast, the porphyrin of hemoglobin absorbed by the kidneys appeared to be rapidly catabolized, since 5 hr after the injection of 14C or 59Fe heme-labeled hemoglobin only a small fraction was recovered as hematin. Likewise, after injection of globin-labeled hemoglobin, rapid disappearance of kidney protein activity indicated that the absorbed globin was readily catabolized in situ. PMID:5778790

  19. Lateral vibration control of a flexible overcritical rotor via an active gas bearing - Theoretical and experimental comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierart, Fabian G.; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2016-11-01

    The lack of damping of radial gas bearings leads to high vibration levels of a rotor supported by this type of bearing when crossing resonant areas. This is even more relevant for flexible rotors, as studied in this work. In order to reduce these high vibration levels, an active gas bearing is proposed. The control action of this active bearing is selected based on two different strategies: a simple proportional integral derivative controller and an optimal controller. Both controllers are designed based on a theoretical model previously presented. The dynamics of the flexible rotor are modelled aided by the finite element method and the rotor-fluid interaction in the gas bearing is included using the solution of a modified version of the Reynolds equation for compressible fluids, taking into account the piezoelectrically controlled jet action. Performance and accuracy of both model-based controllers are compared against experimental results, showing good agreement. Theoretical and experimental results show a significant increase in the damping ratio of the system, enabling the flexible rotor to run safely across the critical speeds and up to 12,000 rev/min, i.e. 50 percent over the second critical speed without any instability problems.

  20. Ketosis and brain handling of glutamate, glutamine, and GABA.

    PubMed

    Yudkoff, Marc; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Horyn, Oksana; Nissim, Ilana; Nissim, Itzhak

    2008-11-01

    We hypothesize that one mechanism of the anti-epileptic effect of the ketogenic diet is to alter brain handling of glutamate. According to this formulation, in ketotic brain astrocyte metabolism is more active, resulting in enhanced conversion of glutamate to glutamine. This allows for: (a) more efficient removal of glutamate, the most important excitatory neurotransmitter; and (b) more efficient conversion of glutamine to GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter.

  1. Pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy: fast gas heating and active particle production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    The results of a numerical study on kinetic processes initiated by a pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy, when the dissociation degree of oxygen molecules is high, are presented. The calculations of the temporal dynamics of the electron concentration, density of atomic oxygen, vibrational distribution function of nitrogen molecules, and gas temperature agree with the experimental data. It is shown that quenching of electronically excited states of nitrogen N2(B3Πg), N2(C3Πu), N2(a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) by oxygen molecules leads to the dissociation of O2. This conclusion is based on the comparison of calculated dynamics of atomic oxygen in air, excited by a pulsed nanosecond discharge, with experimental data. In air plasma at a high dissociation degree of oxygen molecules ([O]/[O2] > 10%), relaxation of the electronic energy of atoms and molecules in reactions with O atoms becomes extremely important. Active production of NO molecules and fast gas heating in the discharge plasma due to the quenching of electronically excited N2(B3Πg, C3Πu, a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) molecules by oxygen atoms is notable. Owing to the high O atom density, electrons are effectively detached from negative ions in the discharge afterglow. As a result, the decay of plasma in the afterglow is determined by electron-ion recombination, and the electron density remains relatively high between the pulses. An increase in the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules at the periphery of the plasma channel at time delay t = 1-30 μs after the discharge is obtained. This is due to intense gas heating and, as a result, gas-dynamic expansion of a hot gas channel. Vibrationally excited N2(v) molecules produced near the discharge axis move from the axial region to the periphery. Consequently, at the periphery the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules is increased.

  2. Recycle Experience of Dismantled Cask Handling Crane by Surface Removal Sampling at Kori Unit No.1

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K. D.; Baeg, C. Y.; Son, J. K.; Kim, H. S.; Ha, J. A.; Song, M. J.

    2002-02-25

    The Kori No.1, which began operation in 1978, replaced its cask handling crane in 2000. To prove the safety of recycling and reuse of crane scrap, a particular calculation method for surface contamination was used. Because surface radioactive contamination of steel is limited to a few-microns-thick layer, we can calculate the total(removable and fixed contamination) activity of the sample conservatively by this surface removal sampling means. If we multiply the ratio of total surface and the area of the selected surface by its activity, total activity of the scrap can be estimated. Conservatively, the sampled portion can be used as a representative sample of the scrap. Both the inner and outer part of the scrap was sampled separately, and gamma spectra were analyzed to check whether activation had occurred. Before sampling, the entire surface of the steel is scan surveyed by several kinds of GM and GP detectors. Contaminated parts were segregated, or decontaminated to the background. Almost one sample per one ton of steel was collected. Gamma spectra of 62 samples were analyzed by 100% efficiency HP Ge detector. Only 60Co was detected, and its highest activity was 0.01 Bq/g,. This level of activity is much lower than the ''clearance levels'' outlined in IAEA TecDoc-855.(4). The total alpha and total beta for 6 samples were measured in the laboratory by low background alpha, using a beta gas proportional counter. Activities were much lower than 0.005 Bq/g. A representative sample was taken from the complete mixture of 62 samples. Gamma activities of nuclides were measured to estimate the dose to the public. This study revealed that activities of nuclides were lower than 'clearance levels' if decontaminated until the lower limit of detection level of the portable field instrument. New surface removal sampling method was tested. This method allows us to easily calculate the specific activity for the solid material.

  3. Use of manganese oxide and activated carbon fibers for removing a particle, volatile organic compound or ozone from a gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sidheswaran, Meera A.; Destaillats, Hugo; Fisk, William J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention provides for a device for reducing a volatile organic compound (VOC) content of a gas comprising a manganese oxide (MnO.sub.x) catalyst. The manganese oxide (MnO.sub.x) catalyst is capable of catalyzing formaldehyde at room temperature, with complete conversion, to CO.sub.2 and water vapor. The manganese oxide (MnO.sub.x) catalyst itself is not consumed by the reaction of formaldehyde into CO.sub.2 and water vapor. The present invention also provides for a device for reducing or removing a particle, a VOC and/or ozone from a gas comprising an activated carbon filter (ACF) on a media that is capable of being periodically regenerated.

  4. Ultrahigh gas storage both at low and high pressures in KOH-activated carbonized porous aromatic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqiang; Ben, Teng; Zhang, Bingyao; Fu, Yao; Qiu, Shilun

    2013-01-01

    The carbonized PAF-1 derivatives formed by high-temperature KOH activation showed a unique bimodal microporous structure located at 0.6 nm and 1.2 nm and high surface area. These robust micropores were confirmed by nitrogen sorption experiment and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sorption experiments indicated that these novel porous carbon materials have significant gas sorption abilities in both low-pressure and high-pressure environments. Moreover the methane storage ability of K-PAF-1-750 is among the best at 35 bars, and its low-pressure gas adsorption abilities are also comparable to the best porous materials in the world. Combined with excellent physicochemical stability, these materials are very promising for industrial applications such as carbon dioxide capture and high-density clean energy storage.

  5. Effect of Handling, Storage and Cycling on Ni-H2 Cells: Second Plateau Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the effects of handling, storing, and cycling of NiH2 cells, particularly the second plateau phenomenon. Details are given on the criteria for cell selection, cell history, the second plateau capacity at C/2 discharge, and cell reversal test conditions. Tables display a gas analysis and nickel precharge.

  6. 49 CFR 174.600 - Special handling requirements for materials extremely poisonous by inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....600 Special handling requirements for materials extremely poisonous by inhalation. A tank car... a party using railroad siding facilities which are equipped for piping the liquid or gas from the tank car to permanent storage tanks or sufficient capacity to receive the entire contents of the...

  7. 49 CFR 174.600 - Special handling requirements for materials extremely poisonous by inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....600 Special handling requirements for materials extremely poisonous by inhalation. A tank car... a party using railroad siding facilities which are equipped for piping the liquid or gas from the tank car to permanent storage tanks or sufficient capacity to receive the entire contents of the...

  8. 49 CFR 174.600 - Special handling requirements for materials extremely poisonous by inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....600 Special handling requirements for materials extremely poisonous by inhalation. A tank car... a party using railroad siding facilities which are equipped for piping the liquid or gas from the tank car to permanent storage tanks or sufficient capacity to receive the entire contents of the...

  9. 40 CFR 65.161 - Continuous records and monitoring system data handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 65.161 Continuous records and monitoring system data handling...) Monitoring system breakdowns, repairs, preventive maintenance, calibration checks, and zero (low-level) and... section unless an alternative monitoring or recordkeeping system has been requested and approved...

  10. 40 CFR 65.161 - Continuous records and monitoring system data handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 65.161 Continuous records and monitoring system data handling...) Monitoring system breakdowns, repairs, preventive maintenance, calibration checks, and zero (low-level) and... section unless an alternative monitoring or recordkeeping system has been requested and approved...

  11. 40 CFR 65.161 - Continuous records and monitoring system data handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 65.161 Continuous records and monitoring system data handling...) Monitoring system breakdowns, repairs, preventive maintenance, calibration checks, and zero (low-level) and... section unless an alternative monitoring or recordkeeping system has been requested and approved...

  12. 40 CFR 65.161 - Continuous records and monitoring system data handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system data handling. 65.161 Section 65.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 65.161 Continuous records and monitoring system data...

  13. 40 CFR 65.161 - Continuous records and monitoring system data handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system data handling. 65.161 Section 65.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 65.161 Continuous records and monitoring system data...

  14. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN...

  15. Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as

  16. 4D seismic study of active gas seepage systems on the Vestnesa Ridge, offshore W-Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünz, Stefan; Plaza-Faverola, Andreia; Hurter, Sandra; Mienert, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Active gas venting occurs on the Vestnesa Ridge, an elongated sediment drift north of the Molloy Transform and just east of the Molloy Ridge, one of the shortest segments of the slow spreading North-Atlantic Ridge system. The crest of the Vestnesa Ridge at water depth between 1200-1300 m is pierced with fluid-flow features. Seafloor pockmarks vary in size up to 1 km in diameter. High-resolution P-Cable 3D seismic data acquired in 2012 show vertical focused fluid flow features beneath the seafloor pockmarks. These co-called chimneys extend down to the free-gas zone underneath a bottom-simulating reflection. Here, they link up with small fault systems that might provide pathways to the deeper subsurface. The chimney features show a high variability in their acoustic characteristics with alternating blanked or masked zones and high-amplitude anomalies scattered through the whole vertical extent of the chimneys. The amplitude anomalies indicate high-impedance contrasts due to the likely presence of gas or a high-velocity material like gas hydrates or carbonates. We re-acquired the 3D seismic survey in 2013 for time-lapse seismic studies in order to better understand the origin of the amplitude anomalies and in order to track potentially migrating gas fronts up along the chimney structure. Here, we will present the preliminary results of this time-lapse analysis, which will allow us to better understand gas migration and seafloor plumbing systems in continental margins. This work is part of CAGE - Centre of Excellence for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate. Details on the CAGE research plan and organization can be found on www.cage.uit.no to foster opportunities for cross-disciplinary collaboration. Based in Tromsø, at the world's northernmost University, CAGE establishes the intellectual and infrastructure resources for studying the amount of methane hydrate and magnitude of methane release in Arctic Ocean environments on time scales from the Neogene to the

  17. Adaptive and energy efficient SMA-based handling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motzki, P.; Kunze, J.; Holz, B.; York, A.; Seelecke, S.

    2015-04-01

    Shape Memory Alloys (SMA's) are known as actuators with very high energy density. This fact allows for the construction of very light weight and energy-efficient systems. In the field of material handling and automated assembly process, the avoidance of big moments of inertia in robots and kinematic units is essential. High inertial forces require bigger and stronger robot actuators and thus higher energy consumption and costs. For material handling in assembly processes, many different individual grippers for various work piece geometries are used. If one robot has to handle different work pieces, the gripper has to be exchanged and the assembly process is interrupted, which results in higher costs. In this paper, the advantages of using high energy density Shape Memory Alloy actuators in applications of material-handling and gripping-technology are explored. In particular, light-weight SMA actuated prototypes of an adaptive end-effector and a vacuum-gripper are constructed via rapid-prototyping and evaluated. The adaptive end-effector can change its configuration according to the work piece geometry and allows the handling of multiple different shaped objects without exchanging gripper tooling. SMA wires are used to move four independent arms, each arm adds one degree of freedom to the kinematic unit. At the tips of these end-effector arms, SMA-activated suction cups can be installed. The suction cup prototypes are developed separately. The flexible membranes of these suction cups are pulled up by SMA wires and thus a vacuum is created between the membrane and the work piece surface. The self-sensing ability of the SMA wires are used in both prototypes for monitoring their actuation.

  18. Renal handling of terephthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, L.M.; Quebbemann, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    By use of the Sperber in vivo chicken preparation method, infusion of radiolabeled terephthalic acid ((/sup 14/C)TPA) into the renal portal circulation revealed a first-pass excretion of the unchanged compound into the urine. This model was utilized further to characterize the excretory transport of (/sup 14/C)TPA and provide information on the structural specificity in the secretion of dicarboxylic acids. At an infusion rate of 0.4 nmol/min. 60% of the (/sup 14/C)TPA which reached the kidney was directly excreted. An infusion rate of 3 or 6 mumol/min resulted in complete removal of (/sup 14/C)TPA by the kidney. These results indicate that TPA is both actively secreted and actively reabsorbed when infused at 0.4 nmol/min and that active reabsorption is saturated with the infusion of TPA at higher concentrations. The secretory process was saturated with the infusion of TPA at 40 mumol/mn. The excretory transport of TPA was inhibited by the infusion of probenecid, salicylate, and m-hydroxybenzoic acid, indicating that these organic acids share the same organic anion excretory transport process. m-Hydroxybenzoic acid did not alter the simultaneously measured excretory transport of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), suggesting that there are different systems involved in the secretion of TPA and PAH. The structural specificity for renal secretion of dicarboxylic acids was revealed by the use of o-phthalic acid and m-phthalic acid as possible inhibitors of TPA secretion.

  19. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources in Texas and Other Mining Activities: the Water Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicot, J.

    2011-12-01

    A recent study, sponsored by the Texas Water Development Board, considered current and projected water use in the mining industry. It looked at the upstream segment of the oil and gas industry (that is, water used to extract the commodity until it leaves the wellhead), the aggregate, and coal industry, and other substances (industrial sand, lime, etc.). We obtained data through state databases, data collection from private vendors, and direct surveys of the various sectors of the industry. Overall, in 2008, we estimated that the state consumed ~160 thousand acre-feet (AF) in the mining industry, including 35.8 thousand AF for fracing wells (mostly in the Barnett Shale/Fort Worth area) and ~21.0 thousand AF for other purposes in the oil and gas industry, although more spread out across the state, with a higher demand in the Permian Basin area in West Texas. The coal industry used 20.0 thousand AF along the lignite belt from Central to East Texas. The 71.6 thousand AF used by the aggregate industry is distributed over most of the state, but with a clear concentration around major metropolitan areas. The remainder amounts to 11.0 thousand AF and is dominated by industrial sand production (~80% of total). Water is used mostly for drilling wells, stimulating/fracing wells, and secondary and tertiary recovery processes (oil and gas industry); for dewatering and depressurizing pits, with a small amount used for dust control (coal industry); and for dust control and washing (aggregate industry and industrial sand). Reuse/recycling has already been accounted for in water-use values, as well as opportunity usages, such as stormwater collection (aggregates). The split between surface water and groundwater is difficult to assess but it is estimated at ~56% groundwater in 2008. Projections for future use were done by extrapolating current trends, mainly for coal (same energy mix) and aggregates (following population growth). Projections for the oil and gas industry (Barnett

  20. Systems thinking applied to safety during manual handling tasks in the transport and storage industry.

    PubMed

    Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Hillard, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Injuries resulting from manual handling tasks represent an on-going problem for the transport and storage industry. This article describes an application of a systems theory-based approach, Rasmussen's (1997. Safety Science 27, 183), risk management framework, to the analysis of the factors influencing safety during manual handling activities in a freight handling organisation. Observations of manual handling activities, cognitive decision method interviews with workers (n=27) and interviews with managers (n=35) were used to gather information about three manual handling activities. Hierarchical task analysis and thematic analysis were used to identify potential risk factors and performance shaping factors across the levels of Rasmussen's framework. These different data sources were then integrated using Rasmussen's Accimap technique to provide an overall analysis of the factors influencing safety during manual handling activities in this context. The findings demonstrate how a systems theory-based approach can be applied to this domain, and suggest that policy-orientated, rather than worker-orientated, changes are required to prevent future manual handling injuries.