Science.gov

Sample records for active gas handling

  1. The gas-chromatographic analysis system in the JET active gas handling plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lässer, R.; Grieveson, B.; Hemmerich, J. L.; Stagg, R.; Dowhyluk, T.; Torr, K.; Massey, R.; Chambers, P.

    1993-09-01

    A gas chromatographic system for the analysis of gas species to be collected from the JET torus and to be processed in the JET active gas handling plant during the active operation phase with deuterium and tritium plasmas was designed and built by CFFTP under contract with JET. The gas-chromatograph consists of a compression/injection stage and of two parallel, analytical stages, one for the detection of helium, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and the six hydrogen molecules by means of a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and one for the detection of carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide, and higher hydrocarbons by means of a flame ionization detector (FID). A flow proportional counting detector (FPCD) is placed in series to TCD and FID for the specific analysis of tritiated gas compounds. A detailed description of the system and of its performance will be given which was evaluated using several calibrated gas mixtures including test runs with tritiated species at JET. The gas species mentioned above can be detected in the concentration range from ppm levels to 100%. The estimated error is about 20% at very low concentrations and 1% at high concentrations. The required minimum detection limit for the TCD can be achieved by the injection of large samples and the use of large filament currents. In addition, neon or helium can be chosen as carrier gas. The use of Ne increases the sensitivity for hydrogen and allows the detection of He, whereas He carrier gas gives superior TCD results for all other gases. Due to the high sensitivity of the FPCDs ppb levels of tritiated gas species can be detected.

  2. Propane gas: Handle with care

    SciTech Connect

    Fernald, D.

    1996-04-01

    Because of its chemical composition and combustion properties, this liquefied petroleum (LP) gas can be mixed with air and used as a direct replacement for natural gas with no burner or process equipment modifications. One major and growing use of propane is as a vehicle fuel. Growing industrial use of propane also has prompted the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to issue new codes. NFPA standard 58-95, Storing and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases, stresses the need to adhere to safe work and handling practices whenever propane is involved. All employees directly handling the gas should be formally trained and certified, and recertified annually. Although the code applies only to those directly handling propane or operating propane equipment such as portable cylinder filling stations, all employees working around or with propane or other LP gases should understand the characteristics of LP gas and be aware of basic safe handling practices. The paper discusses what LP gas is, special safety concerns, the care required in refilling cylinders, and cylinder inspection.

  3. Waste handling activities in glovebox dismantling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Okada, Takashi; Kashiro, Kashio; Yoshino, Masanori; Hirano, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    The Glovebox Dismantling Facility is a facility to decontaminate and size-reduce after-service gloveboxes in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The wastes generated from these dismantling activities are simultaneously handled and packaged into drums in a bag-out manner. For future waste treatment and disposal, these wastes are separated into material categories. In this paper, we present the basic steps and analyzed data for the waste handling activities. The data were collected from dismantling activities for three gloveboxes (Grinding Pellet Glovebox, Visual Inspection Glovebox, Outer-diameter Screening Glovebox) conducted from 2001-2004. We also describe both current and near-future improvements. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  5. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  6. EVALUATION OF LEAKAGE FROM FUME HOODS USING TRACER GAS, TRACER NANOPARTICLES AND NANOPOWDER HANDLING TEST METHODOLOGIES

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kevin H.; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R.; Bennett, James S.; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 feet/minute) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust air flows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  7. Control rod system useable for fuel handling in a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.

    1976-11-30

    A control rod and its associated drive are used to elevate a complete stack of fuel blocks to a position above the core of a gas-cooled nuclear reactor. A fuel-handling machine grasps the control rod and the drive is unlatched from the rod. The stack and rod are transferred out of the reactor, or to a new location in the reactor, by the fuel-handling machine.

  8. Identifying sensitive sources and key control handles for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-10-01

    This research investigates the effects of adjusting control handle values on greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment, and reveals critical control handles and sensitive emission sources for control through the combined use of local and global sensitivity analysis methods. The direction of change in emissions, effluent quality and operational cost resulting from variation of control handles individually is determined using one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis, and corresponding trade-offs are identified. The contribution of each control handle to variance in model outputs, taking into account the effects of interactions, is then explored using a variance-based sensitivity analysis method, i.e., Sobol's method, and significant second order interactions are discovered. This knowledge will assist future control strategy development and aid an efficient design and optimisation process, as it provides a better understanding of the effects of control handles on key performance indicators and identifies those for which dynamic control has the greatest potential benefits. Sources with the greatest variance in emissions, and therefore the greatest need to monitor, are also identified. It is found that variance in total emissions is predominantly due to changes in direct N2O emissions and selection of suitable values for wastage flow rate and aeration intensity in the final activated sludge reactor is of key importance. To improve effluent quality, costs and/or emissions, it is necessary to consider the effects of adjusting multiple control handles simultaneously and determine the optimum trade-off.

  9. Identifying sensitive sources and key control handles for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-10-01

    This research investigates the effects of adjusting control handle values on greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment, and reveals critical control handles and sensitive emission sources for control through the combined use of local and global sensitivity analysis methods. The direction of change in emissions, effluent quality and operational cost resulting from variation of control handles individually is determined using one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis, and corresponding trade-offs are identified. The contribution of each control handle to variance in model outputs, taking into account the effects of interactions, is then explored using a variance-based sensitivity analysis method, i.e., Sobol's method, and significant second order interactions are discovered. This knowledge will assist future control strategy development and aid an efficient design and optimisation process, as it provides a better understanding of the effects of control handles on key performance indicators and identifies those for which dynamic control has the greatest potential benefits. Sources with the greatest variance in emissions, and therefore the greatest need to monitor, are also identified. It is found that variance in total emissions is predominantly due to changes in direct N2O emissions and selection of suitable values for wastage flow rate and aeration intensity in the final activated sludge reactor is of key importance. To improve effluent quality, costs and/or emissions, it is necessary to consider the effects of adjusting multiple control handles simultaneously and determine the optimum trade-off. PMID:24960125

  10. Gas handling systems using titanium-sponge and uranium bulk getters

    SciTech Connect

    Kherani, N.P.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1985-09-01

    A protium gas handling system using titanium and uranium bulk getters was designed, constructed and tested. Numerous process operations were carried out on this system to aid in the design of a tritium gas handling system four times the experimental scale. Experimental results have shown that high percentages of tritium on long-term titanium storage beds can be recovered in a relatively short period of time and be transferred to uranium bed(s) in direct (pump-less) and pump-aided transfers. An optimum storage time after which the rate of interstitial /sup 3/He evolution would be prohibitive to conduct direct tritium transfers is estimated.

  11. Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Activation and Handling Through Wax Enclosure Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klettlinger, Jennifer L. S.; Yen, Chia H.; Nakley, Leah M.; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis is considered a gas to liquid process which converts syn-gas, a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, into liquids of various hydrocarbon chain length and product distributions. Cobalt based catalysts are used in F-T synthesis and are the focus of this paper. One key concern with handling cobalt based catalysts is that the active form of catalyst is in a reduced state, metallic cobalt, which oxidizes readily in air. In laboratory experiments, the precursor cobalt oxide catalyst is activated in a fixed bed at 350 ?C then transferred into a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with inert gas. NASA has developed a process which involves the enclosure of active cobalt catalyst in a wax mold to prevent oxidation during storage and handling. This improved method allows for precise catalyst loading and delivery into a CSTR. Preliminary results indicate similar activity levels in the F-T reaction in comparison to the direct injection method. The work in this paper was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  12. Mistake-Handling Activities in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Aiso

    2005-01-01

    The handling of mistakes in the mathematics classroom is an area in which only little research is done so far. In mathematics education there are, in fact, several investigations about students' mistakes from a diagnostic perspective, but hardly any studies on the question how teachers react in concrete mathematics lessons. In this article…

  13. Differences in Muscle Activity During Cable Resistance Training Are Influenced by Variations in Handle Types.

    PubMed

    Rendos, Nicole K; Heredia Vargas, Héctor M; Alipio, Taislaine C; Regis, Rebeca C; Romero, Matthew A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-07-01

    Rendos, NK, Heredia Vargas, HM, Alipio, TC, Regis, RC, Romero, MA, and Signorile, JF. Differences in muscle activity during cable resistance training are influenced by variations in handle types. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2001-2009, 2016-There has been a recent resurgence in the use of cable machines for resistance training allowing movements that more effectively simulate daily activities and sports-specific movements. By necessity, these devices require a machine/human interface through some type of handle. Considerable data from material handling, industrial engineering, and exercise training studies indicate that handle qualities, especially size and shape, can significantly influence force production and muscular activity, particularly of the forearm muscles, which affect the critical link in activities that require object manipulation. The purpose for this study was to examine the influence of three different handle conditions: standard handle (StandH), ball handle with the cable between the index and middle fingers (BallIM), and ball handle with the cable between the middle and ring fingers (BallMR), on activity levels (rmsEMG) of the triceps brachii lateral and long heads (TriHLat, TriHLong), brachioradialis (BR), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum (ED) during eight repetitions of standing triceps pushdown performed from 90° to 0° elbow flexion at 1.5 s per contractile stage. Handle order was randomized. No significant differences were seen for triceps or BR rmsEMG across handle conditions; however, relative patterns of activation did vary for the forearm muscles by handle condition, with more coordinated activation levels for the FCR and ED during the ball handle conditions. In addition, the rmsEMG for the ED was significantly higher during the BallIM than any other condition and during the BallMR than the StandH. These results indicate that the use of ball handles with the cable passing between different fingers

  14. Ammonia scrubbing at Cominco's sulphur gas handling plants in Trail, B. C

    SciTech Connect

    Brandsenn, W. )

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the ammonia scrubbing process in the sulphur gas handling plant of Cominco's zinc operations at Trail, B.C. This scrubbing process produces ammonium sulfate fertilizer and, if desired, pure liquid sulphur dioxide. Sulphur deficiency in agricultural soil is becoming a growing concern in many parts of the world. The use of modern fertilizers increases crop yields which removes sulphur from the soil faster than it can be replenished from the atmosphere. Deliberate addition of sulphur to fertilizers is therefore required in many countries. The Cominco process combines the removal of low strength SO{sub 2} from a stackgas, and produces an end product that is the basis of ammonium sulphate fertilizer. The process does not produce any waste products which create disposal problems.

  15. The activation sequence of cellular protein handling systems after proteasomal inhibition in dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction of protein handling has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases and inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been linked to the formation of protein aggregates and proteinopathies in such diseases. While proteasomal inhibition could trigger an array of downstream protein handling changes including up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs), induction of molecular chaperones, activation of the ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and aggresome formation, little is known of the relationship of proteasomal inhibition to the sequence of activation of these diverse protein handling systems. In this study we utilized the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG132 and examined the activity of several major protein handling systems in the immortalized dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell line. In the early phase (up to 6 hours after proteasomal inhibition), MG132 induced time-dependent proteasomal inhibition which resulted in stimulation of the UPR, increased autophagic flux and stimulated heat shock protein response as determined by increased levels of phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)/GADD153, turnover of autophagy related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and increased levels of Hsp70 respectively. After prolonged proteasomal inhibition induced by MG132, we observed the formation of vimentin-caged aggresome-like inclusion bodies. A recovery study after MG132-induced proteasomal inhibition indicated that the autophagy-lysosomal pathway participated in the clearance of aggresomes. Our data characterizes the relationship between proteasome inhibition and activation of other protein handling systems. These data also indicated that the induction of alternate protein handling systems and their temporal relationships may be important factors that determine the extent of accumulation of misfolded proteins in cells as a result of

  16. A passive-active neutron device for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Estep, R.J.; Coop, K.L.; Deane, T.M.; Lujan, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    A combined passive-active neutron assay device was constructed for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste. A study of matrix and source position effects in active assays showed that a knowledge of the source position alone is not sufficient to correct for position-related errors in highly moderating or absorbing matrices. An alternate function for the active assay of solid fuel pellets was derived, although the efficacy of this approach remains to be established. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Individual Information-Centered Approach for Handling Physical Activity Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Minsoo; Rowe, David A.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Robinson, Terrance S.; Mahar, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate individual information (II)-centered methods for handling missing data, using data samples of 118 middle-aged adults and 91 older adults equipped with Yamax SW-200 pedometers and Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. We used a semisimulation approach to create six data sets: three physical activity outcome…

  18. Experience of handling beryllium, tritium and activated components from JET ITER like wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widdowson, A.; Baron-Wiechec, A.; Batistoni, P.; Belonohy, E.; Coad, J. P.; Dinca, P.; Flammini, D.; Fox, F.; Heinola, K.; Jepu, I.; Likonen, J.; Lilley, S.; Lungu, C. P.; Matthews, G. F.; Naish, J.; Pompilian, O.; Porosnicu, C.; Rubel, M.; Villari, R.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    JET components are removed periodically for surface analysis to assess material migration and fuel retention. This paper describes issues related to handling JET components and procedures for preparing samples for analysis; in particular a newly developed procedure for cutting beryllium tiles is presented. Consideration is also given to the hazards likely due to increased tritium inventory and material activation from 14 MeV neutrons following the planned TT and DT operations (DTE2) in 2017. Conclusions are drawn as to the feasibility of handling components from JET post DTE2.

  19. An experimental investigation of 235 sub UF sub 6 fission produced plasmas. [gas handling system for use with nuclear pumped laser experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    A gas handling system capable of use with uranium fluoride was designed and constructed for use with nuclear pumped laser experiments using the TRIGA research reactor. By employing careful design and temperature controls, the UF6 can be first transported into the irradiation chamber, and then, at the conclusion of the experiment, returned to gas cylinders. The design of the system is described. Operating procedures for the UF6 and gas handling systems are included.

  20. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved vehicle handling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Kasać, Josip; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2016-11-01

    Active suspension is commonly considered under the framework of vertical vehicle dynamics control aimed at improvements in ride comfort. This paper uses a collocation-type control variable optimisation tool to investigate to which extent the fully active suspension (FAS) application can be broaden to the task of vehicle handling/cornering control. The optimisation approach is firstly applied to solely FAS actuator configurations and three types of double lane-change manoeuvres. The obtained optimisation results are used to gain insights into different control mechanisms that are used by FAS to improve the handling performance in terms of path following error reduction. For the same manoeuvres the FAS performance is compared with the performance of different active steering and active differential actuators. The optimisation study is finally extended to combined FAS and active front- and/or rear-steering configurations to investigate if they can use their complementary control authorities (over the vertical and lateral vehicle dynamics, respectively) to further improve the handling performance.

  1. Handling and safety enhancement of race cars using active aerodynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diba, Fereydoon; Barari, Ahmad; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-09-01

    A methodology is presented in this work that employs the active inverted wings to enhance the road holding by increasing the downward force on the tyres. In the proposed active system, the angles of attack of the vehicle's wings are adjusted by using a real-time controller to increase the road holding and hence improve the vehicle handling. The handling of the race car and safety of the driver are two important concerns in the design of race cars. The handling of a vehicle depends on the dynamic capabilities of the vehicle and also the pneumatic tyres' limitations. The vehicle side-slip angle, as a measure of the vehicle dynamic safety, should be narrowed into an acceptable range. This paper demonstrates that active inverted wings can provide noteworthy dynamic capabilities and enhance the safety features of race cars. Detailed analytical study and formulations of the race car nonlinear model with the airfoils are presented. Computer simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed active aerodynamic system.

  2. Plasma Sprayed Pour Tubes and Other Melt Handling Components for Use in Gas Atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, David; Rieken, Joel; Heidloff, Andy; Besser, Matthew; Anderson, Iver

    2011-04-01

    Ames Laboratory has successfully used plasma sprayed ceramic components made from yttria stabilized zirconia as melt pouring tubes for gas atomization for many years. These tubes have proven to be strong, thermal shock resistant and versatile. Various configurations are possible both internally and externally. Accurate dimensions are achieved internally with a machined fugitive graphite mandrel and externally by diamond grinding. The previous study of the effect of spray parameters on density was extended to determine the effect of the resulting density on the thermal shock characteristics on down-quenching and up-quenching. Encouraging results also prompted investigation of the use of plasma spraying as a method to construct a melt pour exit stopper that is mechanically robust, thermal shock resistant, and not susceptible to attack by reactive melt additions. The Ames Laboratory operates two close-coupled high pressure gas atomizers. These two atomizers are designed to produce fine and coarse spherical metal powders (5{mu} to 500{mu} diameter) of many different metals and alloys. The systems vary in size, but generally the smaller atomizer can produce up to 5 kg of powder whereas the larger can produce up to 25 kg depending on the charge form and density. In order to make powders of such varying compositions, it is necessary to have melt systems capable of heating and containing the liquid charge to the desired superheat temperature prior to pouring through the atomization nozzle. For some metals and alloys this is not a problem; however for some more reactive and/or high melting materials this can pose unique challenges. Figure 1 is a schematic that illustrates the atomization system and its components.

  3. Analysis of Handling Qualities Design Criteria for Active Inceptor Force-Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malpica, Carlos A.; Lusardi, Jeff A.

    2013-01-01

    The force-feel system characteristics of the cyclic inceptors of most helicopters are set based on the characteristics of the mechanical components in the control system (mass, springs, friction dampers, etc.). For these helicopters, the force-feel characteristics typically remain constant over the entire flight envelope, with perhaps a trim release to minimize control forces while maneuvering. With the advent of fly-by-wire control systems and active inceptors in helicopters, the force-feel characteristics are now determined by the closed-loop response of the active inceptor itself as defined by the inertia, force/displacement gradient, damping, breakout force and detent shape configuration parameters in the inceptor control laws. These systems give the flexibility to dynamically prescribe different feel characteristics for different control modes or flight conditions, and the ability to provide tactile cueing to the pilot through the actively controlled side-stick or center-stick cyclic inceptor. For rotorcraft, a few studies have been conducted to assess the effects of cyclic force-feel characteristics on handling qualities in flight. An early study provided valuable insight into the static force-deflection characteristics (force gradient) and the number of axes controlled by the side-stick controller for the U.S. Army's Advanced Digital/Optical Control System (ADOCS) demonstrator aircraft [1]. The first of a series of studies providing insight on the inceptor dynamic force-feel characteristics was conducted on the NASA/Army CH-47B variable-stability helicopter [2]. This work led to a proposed requirement that set boundaries based on the cyclic natural frequency and inertia, with the stipulation of a lower damping ratio limit of 0.3 [3]. A second study was conducted by the Canadian Institute for Aerospace Research using their variable-stability Bell 205A helicopter [4]. This research suggested boundaries for stick dynamics based on natural frequency and damping

  4. Response of Pacific walruses to disturbances from capture and handling activities at a haul-out in Bristol Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, C.V.; Olson, T.L.; Garner, G.W.; Ballachey, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Observations were made on hems of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) to study their response during the capturing and handling of adult males in summer 1995 at a haul-out at Cape Peirce in southwestern Alaska. Three behaviors (alertness, displacement, and dispersal) were quantified from 16 capture sessions. Herd sizes ranged from 622 to 5,289 walruses. Handling of an immobilized walrus consisted of attempts to attach telemetry devices to the tusks and collect various biological samples. Handling activities resulted in an average of about 10-fold or greater levels of behavior in alertness, displacement, and dispersal than during precapture and darting periods. High levels of behavior usually occurred within the first 45 min of handling. In 8 of 10 capture sessions, walruses returned to predisturbance levels of behavior within 40 min of cessation of the handling disturbance. Alertness and displacement were moderately and negatively correlated with herd size during the handling period, which may reflect an effect of a threshold distance from the point of disturbance to responding individuals. Observations of walruses tagged with VHF radio transmitters indicated that the activities from a given capture session did not preclude tagged walruses from using the haul-out over a subsequent 11-wk monitoring period. Moreover, non-tagged walruses continued to extensively use the haul-out during and after the period in which capture sessions were conducted.

  5. Laboratory Activity on Sample Handling and Maintaining a Laboratory Notebook through Simple pH Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, Mitzy A.; March, Joe L.

    2016-01-01

    Sample handling and laboratory notebook maintenance are necessary skills but can seem abstract if not presented to students in context. An introductory exercise focusing on proper sample handling, data collection and laboratory notebook keeping for the general chemistry laboratory was developed to emphasize the importance of keeping an accurate…

  6. Effect of sample handling on thiamine and thiaminolytic activity in alewife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, G.M.; Brown, S.B.; Brown, L.R.; Moore, K.; Villella, M.; Zajicek, J.L.; Tillitt, D.E.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Honeyfield, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus were collected to evaluate handling and processing conditions that may affect the measurement of their thiamine-thiaminase content. Fish were captured by otter trawl, and reference samples of live fish were quick-frozen on dry ice immediately following capture. Other samples were placed on wet ice (4??C) or held in ambient lake water (21.5??C) for periods of up to 5 h before freezing. Total thiamine levels for reference samples averaged 26 nmol/g and consisted of 66, 15, and 19% thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), thiamine monophosphate (TMP), and unphosphorylated thiamine (Th), respectively. After 120 min at either 4??C or 21.5??C, total thiamine concentrations were lower. At 21.5??C, the TPP proportion had decreased by 30 min and the proportion as Th increased after 60 min. In the groups sampled after 5 h, total thiamine concentrations were not altered but the proportion of TPP was lower and that of Th was higher than in reference samples. The stability of thiamine in thawed muscle samples from previously frozen alewives was poor (40% loss by 1 h at 22??C and 30% loss by 2 h at 4??C). Thiaminase activity averaged 5,975 pmol??g wet weight -1??min-1 in reference samples. In fresh-caught alewives, thiaminase activities were remarkably consistent throughout the sampling period. At 4??C, thiaminase activity in muscle tissue from previously frozen alewives was stable for the entire investigation period. At 25??C, the activity initially increased by 40% after 60 min but then decreased to 50% of initial value after 5 h. We conclude that sampling times greater than 25 min could cause some changes in the various thiamine forms and net loss in total thiamine. The thiamine content in previously frozen alewife samples is highly labile, requiring low temperatures during processing for analysis. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  7. Of "what" and "where" in a natural search task: Active object handling supports object location memory beyond the object's identity.

    PubMed

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2016-08-01

    Looking for as well as actively manipulating objects that are relevant to ongoing behavioral goals are intricate parts of natural behavior. It is, however, not clear to what degree these two forms of interaction with our visual environment differ with regard to their memory representations. In a real-world paradigm, we investigated if physically engaging with objects as part of a search task influences identity and position memory differently for task-relevant versus irrelevant objects. Participants equipped with a mobile eye tracker either searched for cued objects without object interaction (Find condition) or actively collected the objects they found (Handle condition). In the following free-recall task, identity memory was assessed, demonstrating superior memory for relevant compared to irrelevant objects, but no difference between the Handle and Find conditions. Subsequently, location memory was inferred via times to first fixation in a final object search task. Active object manipulation and task-relevance interacted in that location memory for relevant objects was superior to irrelevant ones only in the Handle condition. Including previous object recall performance as a covariate in the linear mixed-model analysis of times to first fixation allowed us to explore the interaction between remembered/forgotten object identities and the execution of location memory. Identity memory performance predicted location memory in the Find but not the Handle condition, suggesting that active object handling leads to strong spatial representations independent of object identity memory. We argue that object handling facilitates the prioritization of relevant location information, but this might come at the cost of deprioritizing irrelevant information. PMID:27165170

  8. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and coated on one side of the film. T...

  9. Effects of mop handle height on shoulder muscle activity and perceived exertion during floor mopping using a figure eight method

    PubMed Central

    WALLIUS, Mari-Anne; RISSANEN, Saara M.; BRAGGE, Timo; VARTIAINEN, Paavo; KARJALAINEN, Pasi A.; RÄSÄNEN, Kimmo; JÄRVELIN-PASANEN, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of mop handle height on electromyographic (EMG) activities of the shoulder muscles and perceived exertion for the shoulder area during floor mopping using a figure eight method. An experimental study with 13 cleaners was conducted using surface EMG and category ratio (CR-10) scale. EMG activity was recorded unilaterally from the upper trapezius, infraspinatus, anterior and middle deltoid muscles. Each subject performed four trials of mopping and each trial consisted of using a different mop handle height (mop adjustment at the level of shoulder, chin, nose and eye) in randomized order. EMG data were normalized to a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). The muscle activities were assessed by estimating the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the amplitude probability distribution function (APDF) of the EMG signals and analysed by linear mixed model analysis. Results showed that shoulder muscle activity was significantly lower when the mop handle height was adjusted to shoulder level or chin level as compared to eye level. These findings were supported by subjective ratings of exertion. It seems that mop handle height adjustment between shoulder and chin level may be recommended as a basis for figure eight mopping. PMID:26423328

  10. Completion of the decommissioning of a former active handling building at UKAEA Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2007-07-01

    Since July 2000, NUKEM Limited has been carrying out the full decommissioning of a former Active Handling Building A59 at Winfrith in Dorset under contract from the nuclear site licence holder, UKAEA. Work has generally centred upon clearance and decontamination of the two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements although a number of other supporting facilities are also involved. This work has proceeded successfully to completion following extensive decontamination of the caves and associated facilities and has been followed by the recent demolition of the main containment building structure. This has permitted a start to be made on the demolition of the two heavily shielded suites of caves which is to be followed by removal of the building slab and restoration of the site. This paper reviews some of the significant tasks undertaken during the past year in preparation for the building and cave line demolition operations. It also reviews the building structure removal and recent progress made with the demolition of the two heavily reinforced concrete cave lines. The procedure used for monitoring the concrete debris from the cave lines has had to be revised during these operations and the reasons for this and a temporary delay in the cave line demolition will be discussed in the context of the remaining sections of the programme. This decommissioning programme has been achieved throughout by the employment of a non-adversarial team working approach between client and contractor. This has been instrumental in developing cost-effective and safe solutions to a range of problems during the programme, demonstrating the worth of adopting this co-operative approach for mutual benefit. (authors)

  11. Remediation of the site of a former active handling building at UKAEA- Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, Jack; Brown, Nick; Cornell, Rowland; Jessop, Gareth

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Since July 2000, NUKEM Limited has been carrying out the decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building, A59 at Winfrith, Dorset, United Kingdom (UK) under contract from the nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, (UKAEA). The building contained two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements and other supporting facilities which have all been decontaminated ready to permit building demolition. The demolition of the building structure and the removal of one cave line was completed during 2006 and the second cave line was demolished by March 2007. The remaining operations to be completed concern removal of the building slab and remediation of underlying soils to the final end point, free for unrestricted use without planning or nuclear regulatory control. Within the building base slab there are a range of contaminated items including secondary drain pipes, filter pits, storage hole liners and ventilation ducts which all have to be recovered for disposal along with around 4,000 m{sup 3} of surrounding concrete. In order to characterise the slab before its removal, supporting information has been obtained from site investigation work including a collimated low resolution, high sensitivity gamma survey using the GroundhogTM system of the foundation slab and the recovery and analysis of 27 cores obtained by drilling through the slab into the underlying soil. During removal of the slab it will be necessary to employ a variety of monitoring techniques to locate and remove the contaminated sections and then expose and monitor the underlying soil for evidence of any residual radioactivity. (authors)

  12. In Flight Evaluation of Active Inceptor Force-Feel Characteristics and Handling Qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lusardi, Jeff A.; Blanken, Chris L.; Ott, Carl Raymond; Malpica, Carlos A.; von Gruenhagen, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inceptor feel-system characteristics on piloted handling qualities has been a research topic of interest for many years. Most of the research efforts have focused on advanced fly-by-wire fixed-wing aircraft with only a few studies investigating the effects on rotorcraft. Consequently, only limited guidance is available on how cyclic force-feel characteristics should be set to obtain optimal handling qualities for rotorcraft. To study this effect, the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate working with the DLR Institute of Flight Systems in Germany under Task X of the U.S. German Memorandum of Understanding have been conducting flight test evaluations. In the U.S., five experimental test pilots have completed evaluations of two Mission Task Elements (MTEs) from ADS-33E-PRF and two command/response types for a matrix of center-stick cyclic force-feel characteristics at Moffett Field. In Germany, three experimental test Pilots have conducted initial evaluations of the two MTEs with two command/response types for a parallel matrix of side-stick cyclic force-feel characteristics at WTD-61 in Manching. The resulting data set is used to correlate the effect of changes in natural frequency and damping ratio of the cyclic inceptor on the piloted handling qualities. Existing criteria in ADS-33E and a proposed Handling Qualities Sensitivity Function that includes the effects of the cyclic force-feel characteristics are also evaluated against the data set and discussed.

  13. Sex-specific effects of handling time on an index of immune activity in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Berzins, Lisha L; Tilman-Schindel, Elinor; Burness, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in the role of the immune system in shaping life-history evolution, sexual selection strategies, and indexes of individual quality. The most frequently used assay of immune function, particularly in avian field studies, is the phytohemagglunitin (PHA) skin test. PHA is injected subcutaneously into the wing web, and the magnitude of the resultant swelling has traditionally been interpreted as an index of an individual's cell-mediated immunocompetence. The test follows one of two protocols: the traditional two-wing injection protocol, with one wing web injected with PHA and the other with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), or the simplified one-wing protocol that omits the PBS injection. In this technical comment, we alert researchers to the importance of considering handling time when performing the PHA test. We show that zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) subjected to the two-wing protocol had a lower wing-web swelling than individuals injected in one wing. In males, handling time explained over 50% of the variation in an individual's skin swelling response; females were relatively unaffected by handling time. We suggest that caution should be exercised when comparing the magnitude of wing-web swelling across studies in which the alternate protocol was followed. In addition, the recording of handling time, and its inclusion in subsequent statistical analyses, may aid in the detection of subtle differences across treatments.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Weili; Liu, Linshu; Jin, Tony Z

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and used to coat one side of the film. The films were subjected to different storage conditions (storage time, storage temperature, and packed or unpacked) and handling conditions (washing, abrasion, and air blowing), and the antimicrobial activity of the films against Salmonella Stanley in tryptic soy broth was determined. The films (8.16 μl of AIT per cm(2) of surface area) significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the growth of Salmonella during 24 h of incubation at 22°C, while the populations of Salmonella in controls increased from ca. 4 to over 8 log CFU/ml, indicating a minimum inactivation of 4 log CFU/ml on films in comparison to the growth on controls. Statistical analyses indicated that storage time, storage temperature, and surface abrasion affected the antimicrobial activity of the films significantly (P < 0.05). However, the differences in microbial reduction between those conditions were less than 0.5 log cycle. The results suggest that the films' antimicrobial properties are stable under practical storage and handling conditions and that these antimicrobial films have potential applications in food packaging.

  15. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

  16. Remote Handled TRU Waste Status and Activities and Challenges at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    MCKENNEY, D.E.

    2000-02-01

    A significant portion of the Department of Energy's forecast volume of remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste will originate from the Hanford Site. The forecasted Hanford RH-TRU waste volume of over 2000 cubic meters may constitute over one-third of the forecast inventory of RH-TRU destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To date, the Hanford TRU waste program has focused on the retrieval, treatment and certification of the contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes. This near-term focus on CH-TRU is consistent with the National TRU Program plans and capabilities. The first shipment of CH-TRU waste from Hanford to the WIPP is scheduled early in Calendar Year 2000. Shipments of RH-TRU from Hanford to the WIPP are scheduled to begin in Fiscal Year 2006 per the National TRU Waste Management Plan. This schedule has been incorporated into milestones within the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). These Tri-Party milestones (designated the ''M-91'' series of milestones) relate to development of project management plans, completion of design efforts, construction and contracting schedules, and initiation of process operations. The milestone allows for modification of an existing facility, construction of a new facility, and/or commercial contracting to provide the capabilities for processing and certification of RH-TRU wastes for disposal at the WIPP. The development of a Project Management Plan (PMP) for TRU waste is the first significant step in the development of a program for disposal of Hanford's RH-TRU waste. This PMP will address the path forward for disposition of waste streams that cannot be prepared for disposal in the Hanford Waste Receiving and Processing facility (a contact-handled, small container facility) or other Site facilities. The PMP development effort has been initiated, and the PMP will be provided to the regulators for their approval by June 30, 2000. This plan will detail the

  17. Preliminary study of gill NA+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon following electroshock or handling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    We compared gill Na+,K+-ATPase in subyearling and yearling spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 3 h, 24 h, and 7 d after exposure to either a short pulsed DC electroshock (300 V, 50 Hz, 8-ms pulse duration) or an acute handling stress. Mean gill Na+,K+-ATPase values ranged from 7.5 to 11.8 ??mol inorganic phosphate (Pi) ?? (mg protein)-1 ?? h-1. No significant differences were detected, with the exception of electroshocked subyearlings 7 d after treatment. Increased activity was attributed to the presence of two influential values. No significant differences were detected after removal of these observations, so the increase was not considered biologically significant. Inclusion of the outliers did not alter our interpretation of the results given that the observed increase was slight compared with the magnitude of changes reported under experimental conditions and in migrating juvenile salmonids. The treatment groups underwent a typical stress response and had significantly elevated cortisol and glucose levels 3 h after treatment. Recovery to control levels occurred within 24 h for cortisol and from 24 h to 7 d for glucose. Our results lead to the conclusion that neither acute electroshock nor acute handling stress alters Na+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon.

  18. Activity Inference for Ambient Intelligence Through Handling Artifacts in a Healthcare Environment

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pérez, Francisco E.; González-Fraga, Jose Ángel; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C.; Rodríguez, Marcela D.

    2012-01-01

    Human activity inference is not a simple process due to distinct ways of performing it. Our proposal presents the SCAN framework for activity inference. SCAN is divided into three modules: (1) artifact recognition, (2) activity inference, and (3) activity representation, integrating three important elements of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) (artifact-behavior modeling, event interpretation and context extraction). The framework extends the roaming beat (RB) concept by obtaining the representation using three kinds of technologies for activity inference. The RB is based on both analysis and recognition from artifact behavior for activity inference. A practical case is shown in a nursing home where a system affording 91.35% effectiveness was implemented in situ. Three examples are shown using RB representation for activity representation. Framework description, RB description and CALog system overcome distinct problems such as the feasibility to implement AmI systems, and to show the feasibility for accomplishing the challenges related to activity recognition based on artifact recognition. We discuss how the use of RBs might positively impact the problems faced by designers and developers for recovering information in an easier manner and thus they can develop tools focused on the user. PMID:22368512

  19. Shock propagation in the exhaust gas handling system of the proposed large altitude rocket cell: methods and preliminary analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, S.B.; Pierce, R.E.

    1984-10-04

    Numerical predictions are to be performed of the shock pressures that would result from the detonation of 100,000 lbm TNT. The initial phase of the project was to develop the methodology for analyzing the problem, develop a preliminary conceptual design to use in initial simulations, and estimate over-pressures, inside the conceptual facility, resulting from the propellant detonation. This report discusses the methods of analysis used to study the problem of the detonation of the propellant, and the propagation of the shock wave inside the exhaust gas processing system, and presents preliminary results. The KOVEC computer code was used to simulate the detonation of 100,000 lbm TNT and develop a boundary prescription for use in the gas dynamics code GASP which models the propagation of the shock wave through the LARC exhaust gas processing system. Results are presented showing the effect of cross-sectional area changes and variations in the initial pressure in the gas processing system on the shock wave peak pressure and propagation speed.

  20. Ergonomic analysis of New York apple harvest work using a Posture-Activities-Tools-Handling (PATH) work sampling approach.

    PubMed

    Earle-Richardson, G; Fulmer, S; Jenkins, P; Mason, C; Bresee, C; May, J

    2004-08-01

    Although back, neck, and shoulder strains are common among migrant and seasonal orchard workers, little data currently exist regarding the ergonomic factors contributing to this problem. We adapted Posture-Activities-Tools-Handling (PATH) instruments and methods for ergonomic job analysis of apple harvest work in three New York orchards, and used the resulting protocol to quantify hazardous activities, loads, and postures. Using a prototype developed previously, we trained twelve contract orchard observers with classroom training and supervised orchard practice. The PATH data were then collected on 14 orchard workers over four days (2,900 observations). Mean coefficients of variation ranged from a low of 0.212 (standing leg neutral) to a high of 0.603 (trunk moderate flexion). Most frequently observed activities were: picking (62.9%), placing and moving apples in the bag (8. 7%), and walking (8.1%). Weight bearing (>10 lb, >4.54 kg) was observed 78.5% of the time throughout a range of activities. Apple harvest work is comparable with other ergonomically high-risk occupations. Future research should focus on low-cost interventions that reduce load and awkward postures.

  1. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits & Approval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement or record of decision shall result in shutdown of an operational

  2. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  3. Gas turbine engine active clearance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  4. Comprehensive combinatory standard correction: a calibration method for handling instrumental drifts of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems.

    PubMed

    Deport, Coralie; Ratel, Jérémy; Berdagué, Jean-Louis; Engel, Erwan

    2006-05-26

    The current work describes a new method, the comprehensive combinatory standard correction (CCSC), for the correction of instrumental signal drifts in GC-MS systems. The method consists in analyzing together with the products of interest a mixture of n selected internal standards, and in normalizing the peak area of each analyte by the sum of standard areas and then, select among the summation operator sigma(p = 1)(n)C(n)p possible sums, the sum that enables the best product discrimination. The CCSC method was compared with classical techniques of data pre-processing like internal normalization (IN) or single standard correction (SSC) on their ability to correct raw data from the main drifts occurring in a dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Three edible oils with closely similar compositions in volatile compounds were analysed using a device which performance was modulated by using new or used dynamic headspace traps and GC-columns, and by modifying the tuning of the mass spectrometer. According to one-way ANOVA, the CCSC method increased the number of analytes discriminating the products (31 after CCSC versus 25 with raw data or after IN and 26 after SSC). Moreover, CCSC enabled a satisfactory discrimination of the products irrespective of the drifts. In a factorial discriminant analysis, 100% of the samples (n = 121) were well-classified after CCSC versus 45% for raw data, 90 and 93%, respectively after IN and SSC. PMID:16631179

  5. Investigation of shallow gas hydrate occurrence and gas seep activity on the Sakhalin continental slope, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Young Keun; Baranov, Boris; Obzhirov, Anatoly; Salomatin, Alexander; Derkachev, Alexander; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Minami, Hrotsugu; Kuk Hong, Jong

    2016-04-01

    The Sakhalin continental slope has been a well-known gas hydrate area since the first finding of gas hydrate in 1980's. This area belongs to the southernmost glacial sea in the northern hemisphere where most of the area sea is covered by sea ice the winter season. Very high organic carbon content in the sediment, cold sea environment, and active tectonic regime in the Sakhalin slope provide a very favorable condition for occurring shallow gas hydrate accumulation and gas emission phenomena. Research expeditions under the framework of a Korean-Russian-Japanese long-term international collaboration projects (CHAOS, SSGH-I, SSGH-II projects) have been conducted to investigate gas hydrate occurrence and gas seepage activities on the Sakhalin continental slope, Russia from 2003 to 2015. During the expeditions, near-surface gas hydrate samples at more than 30 sites have been retrieved and hundreds of active gas seepage structures on the seafloor were newly registered by multidisciplinary surveys. The gas hydrates occurrence at the various water depths from about 300 m to 1000 m in the study area were accompanied by active gas seepage-related phenomena in the sub-bottom, on the seafloor, and in the water column: well-defined upward gas migration structures (gas chimney) imaged by high-resolution seismic, hydroacoustic anomalies of gas emissions (gas flares) detected by echosounders, seafloor high backscatter intensities (seepage structures) imaged by side-scan sonar and bathymetric structures (pockmarks and mounds) mapped by single/multi-beam surveys, and very shallow SMTZ (sulphate-methane transition zone) depths, strong microbial activities and high methane concentrations measured in sediment/seawater samples. The highlights of the expeditions are shallow gas hydrate occurrences around 300 m in the water depth which is nearly closed to the upper boundary of gas hydrate stability zone in the area and a 2,000 m-high gas flare emitted from the deep seafloor.

  6. 78 FR 33051 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, Subzone 9F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, Subzone 9F (Synthetic Natural Gas), Kapolei, Hawaii The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas (Hawai'i Gas), operator of Subzone 9F, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the...

  7. Analysis of core samples from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert gas hydrate stratigraphic test well: Insights into core disturbance and handling

    SciTech Connect

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Lu, Hailong; Winters, William; Boswell, Ray; Hunter, Robert; Collett, Timothy S.

    2009-09-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  8. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David B.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1985-01-01

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  9. Handling Hypothermia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saho, S. Bamba

    1996-01-01

    Presents a unit on the body's response to hypothermia. Includes activities in which students measure the amount of heat absorbed by a white piece of cloth and a black piece of the same material, use cooperative-learning techniques to design a graphic organizer that explains metabolic responses to cold stress, and study the effect of temperature on…

  10. Argon-Hydrogen Shielding Gas Mixtures for Activating Flux-Assisted Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Her-Yueh

    2010-11-01

    Using activating flux for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) to improve penetration capability is a well-established technique. Argon is an inert gas and the one most widely used as a shielding gas for GTAW. For the most austenitic stainless steels, pure argon does not provide adequate weld penetration. Argon-hydrogen mixtures give a more even heat input to the workpiece, increasing the arc voltage, which tends to increase the volume of molten material in the weld pool as well as the weld depth-to-width ratio. Great interest has been shown in the interaction between activating flux and the hydrogen concentration in an argon-based shielding gas. In this study, the weld morphology, the arc profile, the retained delta ferrite content, the angular distortion, and the microstructures were examined. The application of an activating flux combining argon and hydrogen for GTAW is important in the industry. The results of this study are presented here.

  11. Lunar activity from recent gas release.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Peter H; Staid, Matthew I; Pieters, Carlé M

    2006-11-01

    Samples of material returned from the Moon have established that widespread lunar volcanism ceased about 3.2 Gyr ago. Crater statistics and degradation models indicate that last-gasp eruptions of thin basalt flows continued until less than 1.0 Gyr ago, but the Moon is now considered to be unaffected by internal processes today, other than weak tidally driven moonquakes and young fault systems. It is therefore widely assumed that only impact craters have reshaped the lunar landscape over the past billion years. Here we report that patches of the lunar regolith in the Ina structure were recently removed. The preservation state of relief, the number of superimposed small craters, and the 'freshness' (spectral maturity) of the regolith together indicate that features within this structure must be as young as 10 Myr, and perhaps are still forming today. We propose that these features result from recent, episodic out-gassing from deep within the Moon. Such out-gassing probably contributed to the radiogenic gases detected during past lunar missions. Future monitoring (including Earth-based observations) should reveal the composition of the gas, yielding important clues to volatiles archived at great depth over the past 4-4.5 Gyr. PMID:17093445

  12. MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, Barbara; Schůrek, Jakub; Myslík, Vladimír

    2011-11-01

    During the last decade, many groups have grown thin films of various organic materials by the cryogenic Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique with a wide range of applications. This contribution is focused on the summary of our results with deposition and characterization of thin films of fibrinogen, pullulan derivates, azo-polyurethane, cryoglobulin, polyvinyl alcohol, and bovine serum albumin dissolved in physiological serum, dimethyl sulfoxide, sanguine plasma, phosphate buffer solution, H2O, ethylene glycol, and tert-butanol. MAPLE films were characterized using FTIR, AFM, Raman scattering, and SEM. For deposition, a special hardware was developed including a unique liquid nitrogen cooled target holder. Overview of MAPLE thin film applications is given. We studied SnAcAc, InAcAc, SnO2, porphyrins, and polypyrrole MAPLE fabricated films as small resistive gas sensors. Sensors were tested with ozone, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor gases. In the last years, our focus was on the study of fibrinogen-based scaffolds for application in tissue engineering, wound healing, and also as a part of layers for medical devices.

  13. An analysis of flaring and venting activity in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew R; Coderre, Adam R

    2011-02-01

    Alberta, Canada, is an important global producer of petroleum resources. In association with this production, large amounts of gas (1.14 billion m3 in 2008) are flared or vented. Although the amount of flaring and venting has been measurably reduced since 2002, data from 2005 reveal sharp increases in venting, which have important implications in terms of resource conservation and greenhouse gas emissions (which exceeded 8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2008). With use of extensive monthly production data for 18,203 active batteries spanning the years 2002-2008 obtained in close cooperation with the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, a detailed analysis has been completed to examine activity patterns of flaring and venting and reasons behind these trends in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry. In any given year, approximately 6000 batteries reported flaring and/or venting, but the distribution of volumes flared and vented at individual sites was highly skewed, such that small numbers of sites handled large fractions of the total gas flaring and venting in the Province. Examination of month-to-month volume variability at individual sites, cast in terms of a nominal turndown ratio that would be required for a compressor to capture that gas and direct it into a pipeline, further revealed that volumes at a majority of sites were reasonably stable and there was no evidence that larger or more stable sites had been preferentially reduced, leaving potential barriers to future mitigation. Through linking of geospatial data with production data coupled with additional statistical analysis, the 31.2% increase in venting volumes since 2005 was revealed to be predominantly associated with increased production of heavier oils and bitumen in the Lloydminster region of the Province. Overall, the data suggest that quite significant reductions in flaring and venting could be realized by seeking mitigation solutions for only the largest batteries in

  14. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  15. 78 FR 59650 - Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... inviting public comment (78 FR 33051-33052, June 3, 2013). The FTZ Board has determined that no further... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, (Synthetic Natural Gas), Kapolei, Hawaii On May 22, 2013, The Gas Company, LLC dba...

  16. Handling Real-World Context Awareness, Uncertainty and Vagueness in Real-Time Human Activity Tracking and Recognition with a Fuzzy Ontology-Based Hybrid Method

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Natalia; Cadahía, Olmo León; Cuéllar, Manuel Pegalajar; Lilius, Johan; Calvo-Flores, Miguel Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Human activity recognition is a key task in ambient intelligence applications to achieve proper ambient assisted living. There has been remarkable progress in this domain, but some challenges still remain to obtain robust methods. Our goal in this work is to provide a system that allows the modeling and recognition of a set of complex activities in real life scenarios involving interaction with the environment. The proposed framework is a hybrid model that comprises two main modules: a low level sub-activity recognizer, based on data-driven methods, and a high-level activity recognizer, implemented with a fuzzy ontology to include the semantic interpretation of actions performed by users. The fuzzy ontology is fed by the sub-activities recognized by the low level data-driven component and provides fuzzy ontological reasoning to recognize both the activities and their influence in the environment with semantics. An additional benefit of the approach is the ability to handle vagueness and uncertainty in the knowledge-based module, which substantially outperforms the treatment of incomplete and/or imprecise data with respect to classic crisp ontologies. We validate these advantages with the public CAD-120 dataset (Cornell Activity Dataset), achieving an accuracy of 90.1% and 91.07% for low-level and high-level activities, respectively. This entails an improvement over fully data-driven or ontology-based approaches. PMID:25268914

  17. Sprag Handle Wrenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranishm, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Sprag handle wrenches have been proposed for general applications in which conventional pawl-and-ratchet wrenches and sprag and cam "clickless" wrenches are now used. Sprag handle wrenches are so named because they would include components that would function both as parts of handles and as sprags (roller locking/unlocking components). In comparison with all of the aforementioned conventional wrenches, properly designed sprag handle wrenches could operate with much less backlash; in comparison with the conventional clickless wrenches, sprag handle wrenches could be stronger and less expensive (because the sprags would be larger and more easily controllable than are conventional sprags and cams).

  18. The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive alternatives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fang-Yu; Ryvak, Marta; Sayeed, Sara; Zhao, Nick

    2012-04-23

    Natural gas comprises about a quarter of the United States' energy use. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal due to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit, less costly per unit of energy and more readily available domestically in abundant supply. However, due to a number of barriers in the political, infrastructural, pricing and other arenas, the use of natural gas as a significant energy source in the United States has been limited. In our paper, we highlight the favorable qualities of natural gas and its benefits for the consumer, producer, and environment, having compared the costs of the various components of the natural gas business such as drilling and transport to that of coal and oil. Moreover, we touch upon the major issues that have prevented a more prevalent use of the gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure of natural gas is more costly since it is transported though pipelines whereas other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible systems that use trains, trucks and ships. In addition, the powerful lobbies of the coal and oil businesses, along with the inertia in the congress to pass a national climate change bill further dampens incentives for these industries to invest in natural gas, despite its various attractive qualities. We also include discussions of policy proposals to incentive greater use of natural gas in the future.

  19. The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive alternatives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas comprises about a quarter of the United States’ energy use. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal due to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit, less costly per unit of energy and more readily available domestically in abundant supply. However, due to a number of barriers in the political, infrastructural, pricing and other arenas, the use of natural gas as a significant energy source in the United States has been limited. In our paper, we highlight the favorable qualities of natural gas and its benefits for the consumer, producer, and environment, having compared the costs of the various components of the natural gas business such as drilling and transport to that of coal and oil. Moreover, we touch upon the major issues that have prevented a more prevalent use of the gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure of natural gas is more costly since it is transported though pipelines whereas other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible systems that use trains, trucks and ships. In addition, the powerful lobbies of the coal and oil businesses, along with the inertia in the congress to pass a national climate change bill further dampens incentives for these industries to invest in natural gas, despite its various attractive qualities. We also include discussions of policy proposals to incentive greater use of natural gas in the future. PMID:22540989

  20. The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive alternatives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fang-Yu; Ryvak, Marta; Sayeed, Sara; Zhao, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas comprises about a quarter of the United States' energy use. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal due to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit, less costly per unit of energy and more readily available domestically in abundant supply. However, due to a number of barriers in the political, infrastructural, pricing and other arenas, the use of natural gas as a significant energy source in the United States has been limited. In our paper, we highlight the favorable qualities of natural gas and its benefits for the consumer, producer, and environment, having compared the costs of the various components of the natural gas business such as drilling and transport to that of coal and oil. Moreover, we touch upon the major issues that have prevented a more prevalent use of the gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure of natural gas is more costly since it is transported though pipelines whereas other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible systems that use trains, trucks and ships. In addition, the powerful lobbies of the coal and oil businesses, along with the inertia in the congress to pass a national climate change bill further dampens incentives for these industries to invest in natural gas, despite its various attractive qualities. We also include discussions of policy proposals to incentive greater use of natural gas in the future. PMID:22540989

  1. Diagnostics of metal inert gas and metal active gas welding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrlandt, D.

    2016-08-01

    The paper gives a review on studies on metal inert gas (MIG) and metal active gas (MAG) welding processes with the focus on diagnostics of the arc, the material transfer, and the temporal process behaviour in welding experiments. Recent findings with respect to an improved understanding of the main mechanisms in the welding arc and the welding process are summarized. This is linked to actual developments in welding arc and welding process modelling where measurements are indispensable for validation. Challenges of forthcoming studies are illustrated by means of methods under development for welding process control as well as remaining open questions with respect to arc-surface interaction and arc power balance.

  2. Human atherosclerotic plaque alternative macrophages display low cholesterol handling but high phagocytosis because of distinct activities of the PPARɣ and LXRα pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Baron, Morgane; Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Vanhoutte, Jonathan; Copin, Corinne; Sebti, Yasmine; Derudas, Bruno; Mayi, Thérèse; Bories, Gael; Tailleux, Anne; Haulon, Stéphane; Zawadzki, Christophe; Jude, Brigitte; Staels, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Rationale A crucial step in atherogenesis is the infiltration of the sub-endothelial space of large arteries by monocytes where they differentiate into macrophages and transform into lipid-loaded foam cells. Macrophages are heterogeneous cells which adapt their response to environmental cytokines. Th1 cytokines promote monocyte differentiation into M1 macrophages, while Th2 cytokines trigger an “alternative” M2 phenotype. Objective We previously reported the presence of CD68+MR+ M2 macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. However, the function of these plaque CD68+MR+ macrophages is still unknown. Methods and Results Histological analysis revealed that CD68+MR+ locate far from the lipid core of the plaque and contain smaller lipid droplets compared to CD68+MR− macrophages. IL-4 polarized CD68+MR+ display a reduced capacity to handle and efflux cellular cholesterol due to low expression levels of the nuclear receptor Liver X Receptor (LXR)α and its target genes, ABCA1 and ApoE, caused by the high 15-lipoxygenase activity in CD68+MR+ macrophages. By contrast, CD68+MR+ highly express opsonins and receptors involved in phagocytosis resulting in high phagocytic activity. In M2 macrophages, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated receptor (PPAR)γ activation enhances the phagocytic, but not the cholesterol trafficking pathways. Conclusions These data identify a distinct macrophage sub-population with a low susceptibility to become foam cells, but high phagocytic activity due to different regulatory activities of the PPARγ-LXRα pathways. PMID:21350215

  3. Grain-based activated carbons for natural gas storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tengyan; Walawender, Walter P; Fan, L T

    2010-03-01

    Natural gas has emerged as a potential alternative to gasoline due to the increase in global energy demand and environmental concerns. An investigation was undertaken to explore the technical feasibility of implementing the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles with activated carbons from biomass, e.g., sorghum and wheat. The grain-based activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation; the experimental parameters were varied to identify the optimum conditions. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was evaluated through nitrogen adsorption; and the storage capacity, through methane adsorption. A comparative study was also carried out with commercial activated carbons from charcoal. The highest storage factor attained was 89 for compacted grain-based activated carbons from grain sorghum with a bulk density of 0.65 g/cm(3), and the highest storage factor attained is 106 for compacted commercial activated carbons (Calgon) with a bulk density of 0.70 g/cm(3). The storage factor was found to increase approximately linearly with increasing bulk density and to be independent of the extent of compaction. This implies that the grain-based activated carbons are the ideal candidates for the ANG storage.

  4. X-ray Photoexcited Extranuclear Gas in Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Herman

    2015-10-01

    I will present a summary of results from 16 years of high resolution X-ray spectroscopy of gas in the neighborhood of Active Galactic Nuclei. Led by the prototypical Sy 2 galaxy NGC 1068, we now have many examples of circumnuclear gas that is excited by the central source. In galaxies with obscured nuclei, the gas is rich with emission lines from highly ionized species and radiative recombination continua. Outflows are apparent and several cases are resolved at the 1-5 level. The ionization models give velocity, density, and composition diagnostics. These outflows carry significant energy and momentum, affecting the energy budget of the local intergalactic medium. The X-ray Surveyor can examine the prevalence and impact of these ionization cones in the z1 universe.

  5. Upper trapezius muscle activity patterns during repetitive manual material handling and work with with a computer mouse.

    PubMed

    Jensen, C; Finsen, L; Hansen, K; Christensen, H

    1999-10-01

    Firstly, upper trapezius EMG activity patterns were recorded on the dominant side of 6 industrial production workers and on the side operating a computer mouse of 14 computer-aided design (CAD) operators to study differences in acute muscular response related to the repetitiveness of the exposure. The work tasks were performed with median arm movement frequencies ranging from 5 min(-1) to 13 min(-1) and were characterized by work cycle times ranging from less than 30 sec to several days. However, the static and median EMG levels and EMG gap frequencies were similar for all work tasks indicating that shoulder muscle loads may be unaffected by large variations in arm movement frequencies and work cycle times. An exposure variation analyses (EVA) showed that the EMG activity patterns recorded during production work were more repetitive than during CAD work, whereas CAD work was associated with more static muscle activity patterns, both may be associated with a risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. Secondly, upper trapezius EMG activity patterns recorded on the mouse side of the CAD operators were compared with those recorded on the non-mouse side to study differences in muscular responses potentially related to the risk of developing shoulder symptoms which were more prevalent on the mouse side. The number of EMG gaps on the mouse side were significantly lower than the values for the upper trapezius on the non-mouse side indicating that more continuous activity was present in the upper trapezius muscle on the mouse side and EVA analyses showed a more repetitive muscle activity pattern on the mouse side. These findings may be of importance to explain differences in the prevalence of shoulder symptoms.

  6. Atmospheric Impacts of Marcellus Shale Gas Activities in Southwestern Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presto, A. A.; Lipsky, E. M.; Saleh, R.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Pittsburgh and the surrounding regions of southwestern Pennsylvania are subject to intensive natural gas exploration, drilling, and extraction associated with the Marcellus Shale formation. Gas extraction from the shale formation uses techniques of horizontal drilling followed by hydraulic fracturing. There are significant concerns about air pollutant emissions from the development and production of shale gas, especially methane emissions. We have deployed a mobile monitoring unit to investigate the atmospheric impacts of Marcellus Shale gas activities. The mobile sampling platform is a van with an on-board generator, a high-resolution GPS unit, cameras, and instrumentation for measuring methane, criteria gases (SO2, NOx, CO, O3), PM size distributions (scanning mobility particle sizer), black carbon mass (multi-angle absorption photometer), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection), and meteorological data. A major advantage of the mobile sampling unit over traditional, stationary monitors is that it allows us to rapidly visit a variety of sites. Sampling at multiple sites allows us to characterize the spatial variability of pollutant concentrations related to Marcellus activity, particularly methane. Data collected from the mobile sampling unit are combined with GIS techniques and dispersion models to map pollutants related to Marcellus Shale operations. The Marcellus Shale gas activities are a major and variable source of methane. The background methane concentration in Pittsburgh is 2.1 +/- 0.2 ppm. However, two southwestern Pennsylvania counties with the highest density of Marcellus Shale wells, Washington and Greene Counties, have many areas of elevated methane concentration. Approximately 11% of the sampled sites in Washington County and nearly 50% of the sampled sites in Greene County have elevated (>2.3 ppm) methane concentrations, compared to 1.5% of sites with elevated

  7. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  8. Handling sharps and needles

    MedlinePlus

    ... at: www.cdc.gov/sharpssafety/pdf/sharpsworkbook_2008.pdf . Accessed October 27, 2015. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA fact sheet: protecting yourself when handling contaminated ...

  9. Handling qualities of a wide-body transport airplane utilizing Pitch Active Control Systems (PACS) for relaxed static stability application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Brown, Philip W.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Hunt, George E.; Rising, J. J.; Davis, W. J.; Willey, C. S.; Weaver, W. A.; Cokeley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Piloted simulation studies have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two pitch active control systems (PACS) on the flying qualities of a wide-body transport airplane when operating at negative static margins. These two pitch active control systems consisted of a simple 'near-term' PACS and a more complex 'advanced' PACS. Eight different flight conditions, representing the entire flight envelope, were evaluated with emphasis on the cruise flight conditions. These studies were made utilizing the Langley Visual/Motion Simulator (VMS) which has six degrees of freedom. The simulation tests indicated that (1) the flying qualities of the baseline aircraft (PACS off) for the cruise and other high-speed flight conditions were unacceptable at center-of-gravity positions aft of the neutral static stability point; (2) within the linear static stability flight envelope, the near-term PACS provided acceptable flying qualities for static stabilty margins to -3 percent; and (3) with the advanced PACS operative, the flying qualities were demonstrated to be good (satisfactory to very acceptable) for static stabilty margins to -20 percent.

  10. Activated carbon passes tests for acid-gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J.

    1996-06-24

    Use of activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid-gas feed to Claus sulfur-recovery units has been successfully pilot tested in Saudi Arabia. Pilot plant results are discussed here along with issues involved in scale-up to commercial size. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}+s from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated by use of low-pressure steam. A post-regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. The paper discusses feed contaminants, vapor-phase cleanup, testing design, test parameters and results, bed drying after regeneration, regeneration conditions, basic flow, system control, and full-scale installation.

  11. Grain Handling and Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  12. Data Handling and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresidder, Gwen

    2006-01-01

    When marking GCSE data handling coursework, the author was repeatedly reminded just how poor the level of statistical understanding is among students. In response to a feeling that the teaching of handling data topics was limited, the author and her colleague designed a project with Y8 students to try to teach statistics for a deeper…

  13. Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

  14. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.4 Handle. Handle means to... imported peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or sale of cleaned-inshell or shelled peanuts or other activity causing peanuts to enter into...

  15. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.4 Handle. Handle means to... imported peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or sale of cleaned-inshell or shelled peanuts or other activity causing peanuts to enter into...

  16. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.4 Handle. Handle means to... imported peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or sale of cleaned-inshell or shelled peanuts or other activity causing peanuts to enter into...

  17. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (<0.044 mm). The increase in Vm/Vs is due to the increase in bulk density of the carbons. Volumetric methane adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A.; Noh, Joong S.; Agarwal, Rajiv K.

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  19. San Diego Gas and Electric Company Imperial Valley geothermal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichs, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric and its wholly owned subsidiary New Albion Resources Co. have been affiliated with Magma Power Company, Magma Energy Inc. and Chevron Oil Company for the last 2-1/2 years in carrying out geothermal research and development in the private lands of the Imperial Valley. The steps undertaken in the program are reviewed and the sequence that must be considered by companies considering geothermal research and development is emphasized. Activities at the south end of the Salton Sea and in the Heber area of Imperial Valley are leading toward development of demonstration facilities within the near future. The current status of the project is reported.

  20. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  2. Evaluation of an Active Humidification System for Inspired Gas

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Nicolás G.; Villalba, Darío S.; Gogniat, Emiliano; Feld, Vivivana; Ribero Vairo, Noelia; Sartore, Marisa; Bosso, Mauro; Scapellato, José L.; Intile, Dante; Planells, Fernando; Noval, Diego; Buñirigo, Pablo; Jofré, Ricardo; Díaz Nielsen, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The effectiveness of the active humidification systems (AHS) in patients already weaned from mechanical ventilation and with an artificial airway has not been very well described. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an AHS in chronically tracheostomized and spontaneously breathing patients. Methods Measurements were quantified at three levels of temperature (T°) of the AHS: level I, low; level II, middle; and level III, high and at different flow levels (20 to 60 L/minute). Statistical analysis of repeated measurements was performed using analysis of variance and significance was set at a P<0.05. Results While the lowest temperature setting (level I) did not condition gas to the minimum recommended values for any of the flows that were used, the medium temperature setting (level II) only conditioned gas with flows of 20 and 30 L/minute. Finally, at the highest temperature setting (level III), every flow reached the minimum absolute humidity (AH) recommended of 30 mg/L. Conclusion According to our results, to obtain appropiate relative humidity, AH and T° of gas one should have a device that maintains water T° at least at 53℃ for flows between 20 and 30 L/m, or at T° of 61℃ at any flow rate. PMID:25729499

  3. Omnidirectional Actuator Handle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moetteli, John B.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed actuator handle comprises two normally concentric rings, cables, and pulleys arranged such that relative displacement of rings from concentricity results in pulling of cable and consequent actuation of associated mechanism. Unlike conventional actuator handles like levers on farm implements, actuated from one or two directions only, proposed handle reached from almost any direction and actuated by pulling or pushing inner ring in any direction with respect to outer ring. Flanges installed on inner ring to cover gap between inner ring and housing to prevent clothing from being caught.

  4. Remote handling and accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, M. T.

    The high-current levels of contemporary and proposed accelerator facilities induce radiation levels into components, requiring consideration be given to maintenance techniques that reduce personnel exposure. Typical components involved include beamstops, targets, collimators, windows, and instrumentation that intercepts the direct beam. Also included are beam extraction, injection, splitting, and kicking regions, as well as purposeful spill areas where beam tails are trimmed and neutral particles are deposited. Scattered beam and secondary particles activate components all along a beamline such as vacuum pipes, magnets, and shielding. Maintenance techniques vary from hands-on to TV-viewed operation using state-of-the-art servomanipulators. Bottom- or side-entry casks are used with thimble-type target and diagnostic assemblies. Long-handled tools are operated from behind shadow shields. Swinging shield doors, unstacking block, and horizontally rolling shield roofs are all used to provide access. Common to all techniques is the need to make operations simple and to provide a means of seeing and reaching the area.

  5. IC handling robot

    SciTech Connect

    Law, D.O.

    1986-09-01

    Allied Corporation, Bendix Kansas City Division uses many integrated circuits (ICs) which are 100% tested by receiving inspection prior to installation into the next assemblies. Testing includes functional testing followed by a burn-in cycle then additional functional testing. Before an IC can be functionally tested, it must be inserted into a custom plastic carrier which is placed into a metal magazine that fits the functional tester. The ICs are removed from both tester magazines and carriers prior to being placed into connectors mounted on a printed wiring board for burn-in. Then they are removed from the burn-in board and re-inserted into carriers and magazines for additional functional testing. Each device is handled manually a minimum of 12 times before it is accepted. This project established a robotic workcell which automatically prepares a dual in-line packaged (DIP) integrated circuit for several types of inspection operations performed by Receiving Inspection. Specific activities required to accomplish this goal included definition of the work cell, preparation of the robot and other equipment specifications, installation planning, establishment of programming routines and logic, design of operator safeguards, and development of the work cell concept into an operational unit capable of supporting production.

  6. Unvented Drum Handling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-08-01

    This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The

  7. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. PMID:27073166

  8. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  9. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

    2009-08-14

    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  10. Terahertz active photonic crystals for condensed gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Benz, Alexander; Deutsch, Christoph; Brandstetter, Martin; Andrews, Aaron M; Klang, Pavel; Detz, Hermann; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) spectral region, covering frequencies from 1 to 10 THz, is highly interesting for chemical sensing. The energy of rotational and vibrational transitions of molecules lies within this frequency range. Therefore, chemical fingerprints can be derived, allowing for a simple detection scheme. Here, we present an optical sensor based on active photonic crystals (PhCs), i.e., the pillars are fabricated directly from an active THz quantum-cascade laser medium. The individual pillars are pumped electrically leading to laser emission at cryogenic temperatures. There is no need to couple light into the resonant structure because the PhC itself is used as the light source. An injected gas changes the resonance condition of the PhC and thereby the laser emission frequency. We achieve an experimental frequency shift of 10(-3) times the center lasing frequency. The minimum detectable refractive index change is 1.6 × 10(-5) RIU.

  11. Helicopter Handling Qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Helicopters are used by the military and civilian communities for a variety of tasks and must be capable of operating in poor weather conditions and at night. Accompanying extended helicopter operations is a significant increase in pilot workload and a need for better handling qualities. An overview of the status and problems in the development and specification of helicopter handling-qualities criteria is presented. Topics for future research efforts by government and industry are highlighted.

  12. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  13. Cost of Information Handling in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jydstrup, Ronald A.; Gross, Malvern J.

    1966-01-01

    Cost of information handling (noncomputerized) in hospitals was studied in detail from an industrial engineering point of view at Rochester General, Highland, and Geneva General hospitals. Activities were observed, personnel questioned, and time studies carried out. It was found that information handling comprises about one fourth of the hospitals' operating cost—a finding strongly recommending revision and streamlining of both forms and inefficient operations. In an Appendix to this study are presented 15 items that would improve information handling in one area of the hospital, nursing units, where this activity is greater than in any other in a hospital. PMID:5971636

  14. Payload retention fittings for space shuttle payload ground handling mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassisi, V.

    1983-01-01

    New ground fittings for Space Shuttle payload handling were designed, built, and tested by Government and contractor personnel at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, from May 1981 through November 1982. Design evolution of the Space Shuttle Orbiter payload retention fittings, which contained a load-sensitive split bushing in a pillow-block housing, created an incompatibility between the interfacing ground and airborne equipment. New fittings were designed and successfully used beginning with the fifth Space Shuttle flight, STS-5. An active hydraulic spring system containing a gas accumulator in the hydraulic system provided the load relief required to protect the Orbiter bushing from damage.

  15. Back propagation neural network model for predicting the performance of immobilized cell biofilters handling gas-phase hydrogen sulphide and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Rene, Eldon R; López, M Estefanía; Kim, Jung Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

    2013-01-01

    Lab scale studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of two simultaneously operated immobilized cell biofilters (ICBs) for removing hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) from gas phase. The removal efficiencies (REs) of the biofilter treating H2S varied from 50 to 100% at inlet loading rates (ILRs) varying up to 13 g H2S/m(3) ·h, while the NH3 biofilter showed REs ranging from 60 to 100% at ILRs varying between 0.5 and 5.5 g NH3/m(3) ·h. An application of the back propagation neural network (BPNN) to predict the performance parameter, namely, RE (%) using this experimental data is presented in this paper. The input parameters to the network were unit flow (per min) and inlet concentrations (ppmv), respectively. The accuracy of BPNN-based model predictions were evaluated by providing the trained network topology with a test dataset and also by calculating the regression coefficient (R (2)) values. The results from this predictive modeling work showed that BPNNs were able to predict the RE of both the ICBs efficiently.

  16. Back Propagation Neural Network Model for Predicting the Performance of Immobilized Cell Biofilters Handling Gas-Phase Hydrogen Sulphide and Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Rene, Eldon R.; López, M. Estefanía; Kim, Jung Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

    2013-01-01

    Lab scale studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of two simultaneously operated immobilized cell biofilters (ICBs) for removing hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) from gas phase. The removal efficiencies (REs) of the biofilter treating H2S varied from 50 to 100% at inlet loading rates (ILRs) varying up to 13 g H2S/m3·h, while the NH3 biofilter showed REs ranging from 60 to 100% at ILRs varying between 0.5 and 5.5 g NH3/m3·h. An application of the back propagation neural network (BPNN) to predict the performance parameter, namely, RE (%) using this experimental data is presented in this paper. The input parameters to the network were unit flow (per min) and inlet concentrations (ppmv), respectively. The accuracy of BPNN-based model predictions were evaluated by providing the trained network topology with a test dataset and also by calculating the regression coefficient (R2) values. The results from this predictive modeling work showed that BPNNs were able to predict the RE of both the ICBs efficiently. PMID:24307999

  17. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S> ; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation Portable Life Support System (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen (O2) channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the initial instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments leveraging the lessons learned were desired. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU. .

  18. Cost leveling continues; planned activity drops sharply in US gas pipeline cnstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1986-02-01

    Natural gas pipeline construction costs, as measured by the OGJ-Morgan Pipeline cost index for US gas-pipeline construction, barely crept up in the second quarter 1985. Construction activity for lines and compressor stations was down.

  19. Remote-handled transuranic waste study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated from the Nation`s defense activities. The WIPP disposal inventory will include up to 250,000 cubic feet of TRU wastes classified as remote handled (RH). The remaining inventory will include contact-handled (CH) TRU wastes, which characteristically have less specific activity (radioactivity per unit volume) than the RH-TRU wastes. The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA), Public Law 102-579, requires a study of the effect of RH-TRU waste on long-term performance. This RH-TRU Waste Study has been conducted to satisfy the requirements defined by the LWA and is considered by the DOE to be a prudent exercise in the compliance certification process of the WIPP repository. The objectives of this study include: conducting an evaluation of the impacts of RH-TRU wastes on the performance assessment (PA) of the repository to determine the effects of Rh-TRU waste as a part of the total WIPP disposal inventory; and conducting a comparison of CH-TRU and RH-TRU wastes to assess the differences and similarities for such issues as gas generation, flammability and explosiveness, solubility, and brine and geochemical interactions. This study was conducted using the data, models, computer codes, and information generated in support of long-term compliance programs, including the WIPP PA. The study is limited in scope to post-closure repository performance and includes an analysis of the issues associated with RH-TRU wastes subsequent to emplacement of these wastes at WIPP in consideration of the current baseline design. 41 refs.

  20. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general. This... 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each...

  1. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each...

  2. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each...

  3. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  4. Fugitive greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas activities - a case study of Dish, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Roscoe, B.; Lary, D.; Schaefer, D.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Brian, A.; DiGangi, J.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluate new findings on aerial (horizontal and vertical) mapping of methane emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer region to help study fugitive methane emissions from extraction, transmission, and storage of natural gas and oil in Dish, Texas. Dish is located in the Barnett Shale which has seen explosive development of hydraulic fracking activities in recent years. The aerial measurements were performed with a new laser-based methane sensor developed specifically for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) methane sensor, with a mass of 2.5 kg and a precision of < 20 ppbv methane at 1 Hz, was flown on the UT-Dallas ARC Payload Master electronic aircraft at two sites in Texas: one representative of urban emissions of the Dallas-Fort Worth area in Richardson, Texas and another in Dish, Texas, closer to gas and oil activities. Methane mixing ratios at Dish were ubiquitously in the 3.5 - 4 ppmv range which was 1.5 - 2 ppmv higher than methane levels immediately downwind of Dallas. During the flight measurements at Dish, narrow methane plumes exceeding 20 ppmv were frequently observed at altitudes from the surface to 130 m above the ground. Based on the wind speed at the sampling location, the horizontal widths of large methane plumes were of the order of 100 m. The locations of the large methane plumes were variable in space and time over a ~ 1 km2 area sampled from the UAV. Spatial mapping over larger scales (10 km) by ground-based measurements showed similar methane levels as the UAV measurements. To corroborate our measurements, alkane and other hydrocarbon mixing ratios from an on-site TCEQ environmental monitoring station were analyzed and correlated with methane measurements to fingerprint the methane source. We show that fugitive methane emissions at Dish are a significant cause of the large and ubiquitous methane levels on the 1-10 km scale.

  5. SLUG HANDLING DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, J.R.

    1958-09-16

    A device is described for handling fuel elements of a neutronic reactor. The device consists of two concentric telescoped contalners that may fit about the fuel element. A number of ratchet members, equally spaced about the entrance to the containers, are pivoted on the inner container and spring biased to the outer container so thnt they are forced to hear against and hold the fuel element, the weight of which tends to force the ratchets tighter against the fuel element. The ratchets are released from their hold by raising the inner container relative to the outer memeber. This device reduces the radiation hazard to the personnel handling the fuel elements.

  6. Safe Handling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 Compugraphic Corporation was experiencing an unacceptable failure rate on microelectronic chips. Company engineers suspected that static electricity was causing the trouble because some electronic components are highly susceptible to damage by electrostatic charge. From a NASA Tech Brief, they learned that Rockwell International had prepared a report on safe handling practices for electronic components. NASA provided a Technical Support Package detailing 50 safe handling procedures affecting workers, work areas, equipment and packaging materials. Where poor practices were discovered, re-education of employees and other corrective measures were undertaken.

  7. Development of liquid handling techniques in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of experiments dealing with protein crystal growth and also with growth of crystals from solution require complicated fluid handling procedures including filling of empty containers with liquids, mixing of solutions, and stirring of liquids. Such procedures are accomplished in a straight forward manner when performed under terrestrial conditions in the laboratory. However, in the low gravity environment of space, such as on board the Space Shuttle or an Earth-orbiting space station, these procedures sometimes produced entirely undesirable results. Under terrestrial conditions, liquids usually completely separate from the gas due to the buoyancy effects of Earth's gravity. Consequently, any gas pockets that are entrained into the liquid during a fluid handling procedure will eventually migrate towards the top of the vessel where they can be removed. In a low gravity environment any folded gas bubble will remain within the liquid bulk indefinitely at a location that is not known a priori resulting in a mixture of liquid and vapor.

  8. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  9. Responding To Changes in the Decommissioning Plans for Demolition of a Former Active Handling Building at The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2006-07-01

    The full decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building A59 at Winfrith in Dorset is being carried out by RWE NUKEM Limited under contract from the site owners and nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Following recent government changes, the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has now set up contracts with UKAEA for delivery of the site clean-up programme. The building contains two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements together with other supporting facilities. The original intention was to demolish the caves ahead of the building but after detailed consideration it was concluded that demolition of the building in advance of the caves was more operationally effective. As a result, the original decommissioning plan had to be reworked to reflect these changes. The paper briefly explains how this situation arose and the means by which the problems experienced were overcome by a complete revision to the decommissioning programme. The updated plan has been adopted by UKAEA and work is now proceeding apace to clear the building of redundant items, to complete decontamination of all remaining areas and facilities and to carry out detailed radiological surveys to confirm that the building structure is clean and ready for demolition. Both cave lines have been completely decontaminated to low residual levels of activity and are essentially ready for controlled demolition. This paper describes some of the significant tasks undertaken during the past year with particular reference to the decommissioning techniques that gave the greatest success and the limitations of others originally considered. Some of these processes were aimed at minimising the volume of low level waste (LLW) generated by using standard off-the-shelf equipment to remove contamination from {approx}5 Ton concrete blocks recovered from both cave line structures. A

  10. 36 CFR 9.45 - Handling of wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Handling of wastes. 9.45... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.45 Handling of wastes. Oilfield brine, and all other waste and contaminating substances must be kept in the smallest practicable area, must be confined so...

  11. 36 CFR 9.45 - Handling of wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Handling of wastes. 9.45... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.45 Handling of wastes. Oilfield brine, and all other waste and contaminating substances must be kept in the smallest practicable area, must be confined so...

  12. 36 CFR 9.45 - Handling of wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Handling of wastes. 9.45... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.45 Handling of wastes. Oilfield brine, and all other waste and contaminating substances must be kept in the smallest practicable area, must be confined so...

  13. 78 FR 9679 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On January 24, 2013, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel) filed with the Federal..., National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation, 6363 Main Street, Williamsville, New York 14221, or by calling...

  14. A PARENTAL HANDLING QUESTIONNAIRE

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita

    1990-01-01

    SUMMMARY Parental Care and Control, which are two major parental handling, variables are significantly related to psychological morbidity in children where high care-low control is associated with healthy development and low care-high control is related to psychiatric disorder. Parents by & large do not differ in their patterns of handling with regard to age and sex of the child, rural-urban living and SES except that younger children are given more care and those from high SES exercise less control among normal children. However, low care for younger children, high control for older children; low care and high control for males, rural background and higher SES families was associated with psychiatric morbidity in children. PMID:21927469

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Puck Handling

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-01-26

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize excess plutonium and store the plutonium in a high level waste radiation field. To accomplish these goals, the PIP will process various forms of plutonium into plutonium oxide, mix the oxide powder with ceramic precursors, press the mixture into pucks, sinter the pucks into a ceramic puck, load the pucks into metal cans, seal the cans, load the cans into magazines, and load the magazines into a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) canister. These canisters will be sent to the DWPF, an existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facility, where molten high level waste glass will be poured into the canisters encapsulating the ceramic pucks. Due to the plutonium radiation, remote equipment will perform these operations in a contained environment. The Plutonium Immobilization Project is in the early design stages and the facility will begin operation in 2005. This paper will discuss the Plutonium Immobilization puck handling conceptual design and the puck handling equipment testing.

  16. Data inconsistencies from states with unconventional oil and gas activity.

    PubMed

    Malone, Samantha; Kelso, Matthew; Auch, Ted; Edelstein, Karen; Ferrar, Kyle; Jalbert, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The quality and availability of unconventional oil and gas (O&G) data in the United States have never been compared methodically state-to-state. By conducting such an assessment, this study seeks to better understand private and publicly sourced data variability and to identify data availability gaps. We developed an exploratory data-grading tool - Data Accessibility and Usability Index (DAUI) - to guide the review of O&G data quality. Between July and October 2013, we requested, collected, and assessed 5 categories of unconventional O&G data (wells drilled, violations, production, waste, and Class II disposal wells) from 10 states with active drilling activity. We based our assessment on eight data quality parameters (accessibility, usability, point location, completeness, metadata, agency responsiveness, accuracy, and cost). Using the DAUI, two authors graded the 10 states and then averaged their scores. The average score received across all states, data categories, and parameters was 67.1 out of 100, largely insufficient for proper data transparency. By state, Pennsylvania received the highest average ( = 93.5) and ranked first in all but one data category. The lowest scoring state was Texas ( = 44) largely due to its policy of charging for certain data. This article discusses the various reasons for scores received, as well as methodological limitations of the assessment metrics. We argue that the significant variability of unconventional O&G data-and its availability to the public-is a barrier to regulatory and industry transparency. The lack of transparency also impacts public education and broader participation in industry governance. This study supports the need to develop a set of data best management practices (BMPs) for state regulatory agencies and the O&G industry, and suggests potential BMPs for this purpose.

  17. Data inconsistencies from states with unconventional oil and gas activity.

    PubMed

    Malone, Samantha; Kelso, Matthew; Auch, Ted; Edelstein, Karen; Ferrar, Kyle; Jalbert, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The quality and availability of unconventional oil and gas (O&G) data in the United States have never been compared methodically state-to-state. By conducting such an assessment, this study seeks to better understand private and publicly sourced data variability and to identify data availability gaps. We developed an exploratory data-grading tool - Data Accessibility and Usability Index (DAUI) - to guide the review of O&G data quality. Between July and October 2013, we requested, collected, and assessed 5 categories of unconventional O&G data (wells drilled, violations, production, waste, and Class II disposal wells) from 10 states with active drilling activity. We based our assessment on eight data quality parameters (accessibility, usability, point location, completeness, metadata, agency responsiveness, accuracy, and cost). Using the DAUI, two authors graded the 10 states and then averaged their scores. The average score received across all states, data categories, and parameters was 67.1 out of 100, largely insufficient for proper data transparency. By state, Pennsylvania received the highest average ( = 93.5) and ranked first in all but one data category. The lowest scoring state was Texas ( = 44) largely due to its policy of charging for certain data. This article discusses the various reasons for scores received, as well as methodological limitations of the assessment metrics. We argue that the significant variability of unconventional O&G data-and its availability to the public-is a barrier to regulatory and industry transparency. The lack of transparency also impacts public education and broader participation in industry governance. This study supports the need to develop a set of data best management practices (BMPs) for state regulatory agencies and the O&G industry, and suggests potential BMPs for this purpose. PMID:25734825

  18. Effects of Activation Energy to Transient Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akira; Ohtani, Tatsuki

    The smell classifiable gas sensor will be desired for many applications such as gas detection alarms, process controls for food production and so on. We have tried to realize the sensor using transient responses of semiconductor gas sensor consisting of tin dioxide and pointed out that the sensor gave us different transient responses for kinds of gas. Results of model calculation showed the activation energy of chemical reaction on the sensor surface strongly depended on the transient response. We tried to estimate the activation energies by molecular orbital calculation with SnO2 Cluster. The results show that there is a liner relationship between the gradient of the transient responses and activation energies for carboxylic and alcoholic gases. Transient response will be predicted from activation energy in the same kind of gas and the smell discrimination by single semiconductor gas sensor will be realized by this relationship.

  19. Puck Handling Glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscus, J.B.

    2001-01-03

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium in a solid ceramic form. The plutonium, in oxide powder form, will be mixed with uranium oxide powder, ceramic precursors and binders. The combined powder mixture will be milled and possibly granulated; this processed powder will then be dispensed to a (dual action) cold press where it will be formed into green (unsintered) compacts. The compact will have the shape of a puck measuring approximately 3 1/2'' in diameter and 1 3/8'' thick. The green puck, once ejected from the press die, will be picked up by a robot and transferred into the Puck Handling Glovebox. Here the green puck will be inspected and then palletized onto furnace trays. The loaded furnace trays will be stacked/assembled and transported to the furnace where sintering operations will be performed. Finally the sintered pucks will be off loaded, inspected and transferred onto Transfer Trays which will carry the pucks from the Puck Handling Glovebox downstream to subsequent Bagless Transfer Can (BTC) operations. Due to contamination potential and high radiation rates, all Puck Handling Glovebox operations will be performed remotely using robots and specialized automation.

  20. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Remote Handling System for Ignitor^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbiati, L.; Bianchi, A.; Lucca, F.; Coppi, B.

    2005-10-01

    Since access in Ignitor is through the limited width of the equatorial ports, the use of remote handling (RH) technology for any in-vessel intervention is required, even before the vessel becomes activated. In particular, the first wall of Ignitor, which is made of TZM (Molybdenum) tiles mounted on Inconel tile-carriers covering the entire plasma chamber, has been designed to be installed and replaced entirely by the RH system. The presence of radiation screens inside the cryostat and around the ports ensure a sufficiently low level of activation around the machine to avoid the need of ex-vessel RH techniques. The in-vessel RH system is based on two transporters carrying an articulated boom with end-effectors, supported by a movable structure over a transport system that can be lifted and set in position adjacent to two opposite horizontal ports. The design of the in-vessel RH system, of the boom and its enclosure, and of the most significant end-effectors (welding and cutting tools, and tools for the removal and handling of tile carriers) has been completed. A series of other dedicated tools for installation and maintainances of diagnostics components, of the RF antennas, vacuum cleaners, tools for general inspection and metrology are included in the design. ^*Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. DOE.

  2. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  3. HUBBLE OBSERVES SPIRAL GAS DISK IN ACTIVE GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a spiral-shaped disk of hot gas in the core of active galaxy M87. HST measurements show the disk is rotating so rapidly it contains a massive black hole at its hub. A black hole is an object that is so massive yet compact nothing can escape its gravitational pull, not even light. The object at the center of M87 fits that description. It weights as much as three billion suns, but is concentrated into a space no larger than our solar system. Now that astronomers have seen the signature of the tremendous gravitational field at the center of M87, it is clear that the region contains only a fraction of the number of stars that would be necessary to create such a powerful attraction. The giant elliptical galaxy M87 is located 50 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo. Earlier observations suggested the black hole was present, but were not decisive. A brilliant jet of high- speed electrons that emits from the nucleus (diagonal line across image) is believed to be produced by the black hole 'engine.' The image was taken with HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Credit: Holland Ford, Space Telescope Science Institute/Johns Hopkins University; Richard Harms, Applied Research Corp.; Zlatan Tsvetanov, Arthur Davidsen, and Gerard Kriss at Johns Hopkins; Ralph Bohlin and George Hartig at Space Telescope Science Institute; Linda Dressel and Ajay K. Kochhar at Applied Research Corp. in Landover, Md.; and Bruce Margon from the University of Washington in Seattle. NASA PHOTO CAPTION STScI-PR94-23a

  4. GAS HYDRATES AT TWO SITES OF AN ACTIVE CONTINENTAL MARGIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sediment containing gas hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart on the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of gas hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and gas hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and gas hydrates were encountered at 404 m.

  5. Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martínez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons.

  6. Managing oil and gas activities in coastal environments: refuge manual

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, W.L.; Jackson, R.; Snyder, B.

    1981-09-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the impacts of all aspects of oil and gas development upon coastal ecological systems and to assess the safeguards used in protecting refuge lands. Wildlife refuges along the coasts of Texas and Louisiana were selected for intensive study. These refuges were characterized by (1) a diversity of ecosystems, (2) oil exploration, extraction, and transport, and (3) oil and gas development periods of varying durations.

  7. Aircraft handling qualities data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Jewell, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Available information on weight and inertia, aerodynamic derivatives, control characteristics, and stability augmentation systems is documented for 10 representative contemporary airplanes. Data sources are given for each airplane. Flight envelopes are presented and dimensional derivatives, transfer functions for control inputs, and several selected handling qualities parameters have been computed and are tabulated for 10 different flight conditions including the power approach configuration. The airplanes documented are the NT-33A, F-104A, F-4C, X-15, HL-10, Jetstar, CV-880M, B-747, C-5A, and XB-70A.

  8. Solid handling valve

    DOEpatents

    Williams, William R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a solids handling valve for use in combination with lock hoppers utilized for conveying pulverized coal to a coal gasifier. The valve comprises a fluid-actuated flow control piston disposed within a housing and provided with a tapered primary seal having a recessed seat on the housing and a radially expandable fluid-actuated secondary seal. The valve seals are highly resistive to corrosion, erosion and abrasion by the solids, liquids, and gases associated with the gasification process so as to minimize valve failure.

  9. Overview on Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Burger; Deepak Gupta; Patrick Jacobs; John Shillinglaw

    2003-06-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Worldwide, gas hydrate is estimated to hold about 1016 kg of organic carbon in the form of methane (Kvenvolden et al., 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In June 2002, Westport Technology Center was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a ''Best Practices Manual on Gas Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis'' under Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41327. The scope of the task was specifically targeted for coring sediments with hydrates in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and from the present Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship. The specific subjects under this scope were defined in 3 stages as follows: Stage 1: Collect information on coring sediments with hydrates, core handling, core preservation, sample transportation, analysis of the core, and long term preservation. Stage 2: Provide copies of the first draft to a list of experts and stakeholders designated by DOE. Stage 3: Produce a second draft of the manual with benefit of input from external review for delivery. The manual provides an overview of existing information available in the published literature and reports on coring, analysis, preservation and transport of gas hydrates for laboratory analysis as of June 2003. The manual was delivered as draft version 3 to the DOE Project Manager for distribution in July 2003. This Final Report is provided for records purposes.

  10. Students' Strategies for Exception Handling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses and presents various strategies employed by novice programmers concerning exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we provide an analysis tool to measure the level of assimilation of exception handling mechanism; we present and analyse strategies to handle exceptions; we present and analyse…

  11. Sectional device handling tool

    DOEpatents

    Candee, Clark B.

    1988-07-12

    Apparatus for remotely handling a device in an irradiated underwater environment includes a plurality of tubular sections interconnected end-to-end to form a handling structure, the bottom section being adapted for connection to the device. A support section is connected to the top tubular section and is adapted to be suspended from an overhead crane. Each section is flanged at its opposite ends. Axially retractable bolts in each bottom flange are threadedly engageable with holes in the top flange of an adjacent section, each bolt being biased to its retracted position and retained in place on the bottom flange. Guide pins on each top flange cooperate with mating holes on adjacent bottom flanges to guide movement of the parts to the proper interconnection orientation. Each section carries two hydraulic line segments provided with quick-connect/disconnect fittings at their opposite ends for connection to the segments of adjacent tubular sections upon interconnection thereof to form control lines which are connectable to the device and to an associated control console.

  12. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  13. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  14. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must classify drilling fluid-handling areas according to API RP...

  15. Moving in extreme environments: inert gas narcosis and underwater activities.

    PubMed

    Clark, James E

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to the underwater environment for pleasure or work poses many challenges on the human body including thermal stress, barotraumas, decompression sickness as well as the acute effects of breathing gases under pressure. With the popularity of recreational self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving on the increase and deep inland dive sites becoming more accessible, it is important that we understand the effects of breathing pressurised gas at depth can have on the body. One of the common consequences of hyperbaric gas is the narcotic effect of inert gas. Nitrogen (a major component of air) under pressure can impede mental function and physical performance at depths of as little as 10 m underwater. With increased depth, symptoms can worsen to include confusion, disturbed coordination, lack of concentration, hallucinations and unconsciousness. Narcosis has been shown to contribute directly to up to 6% of deaths in divers and is likely to be indirectly associated with other diving incidents at depth. This article explores inert gas narcosis, the effect on divers' movement and function underwater and the proposed physiological mechanisms. Also discussed are some of the factors that affect the susceptibility of divers to the condition. In conclusion, understanding the cause of this potentially debilitating problem is important to ensure that safe diving practices continue. PMID:25713701

  16. Moving in extreme environments: inert gas narcosis and underwater activities.

    PubMed

    Clark, James E

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to the underwater environment for pleasure or work poses many challenges on the human body including thermal stress, barotraumas, decompression sickness as well as the acute effects of breathing gases under pressure. With the popularity of recreational self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving on the increase and deep inland dive sites becoming more accessible, it is important that we understand the effects of breathing pressurised gas at depth can have on the body. One of the common consequences of hyperbaric gas is the narcotic effect of inert gas. Nitrogen (a major component of air) under pressure can impede mental function and physical performance at depths of as little as 10 m underwater. With increased depth, symptoms can worsen to include confusion, disturbed coordination, lack of concentration, hallucinations and unconsciousness. Narcosis has been shown to contribute directly to up to 6% of deaths in divers and is likely to be indirectly associated with other diving incidents at depth. This article explores inert gas narcosis, the effect on divers' movement and function underwater and the proposed physiological mechanisms. Also discussed are some of the factors that affect the susceptibility of divers to the condition. In conclusion, understanding the cause of this potentially debilitating problem is important to ensure that safe diving practices continue.

  17. Active Gas Venting Through Hydrate-Bearing Sediments on the Vestnesa Ridge, Offshore W-Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buenz, S.; Vadakkepuliyambatta, S.; Polyanov, S.; Mienert, J.

    2010-12-01

    Gas hydrate systems offshore western Svalbard are far more extensive (~4000km^2) than previously assumed and include the whole Vestnesa Ridge, an elongated sediment drift north of the Molloy Transform and just east of the Molloy Ridge, one of the shortest segments of the slow spreading North-Atlantic Ridge system. The crest of the Vestnesa Ridge at water depth between 1200-1300 m is pierced with fluid-flow features. Seafloor pockmarks vary in size up to 1 km in diameter. Pockmarks are generally larger at the onset of the Vestnesa Ridge than at its western termination. A recent cruise with R/V Jan Mayen discovered methane flares in the water column above the pockmark field at the onset of the Vestnesa Ridge. Over a period of one week at least 4 pockmarks were continuously active and methane flares in the water column reached a height of approximately 800 m. The extent of the active gas venting is much stronger than discovered earlier and it is still unclear what has triggered the increase in gas expulsion from seafloor sediments. Any connection to hundreds of active gas vents further to the east at the shelf edge in water depth of 250-400 m remains speculative at this point but cannot be ruled out. High -resolution 3D seismic data acquired in 2007 and 2010 also show significant dissimilarities of the sub-seafloor expression of these fluid leakage systems. At the western end of the Vestnesa Ridge, sub-seafloor fluid flow features resemble well-described pipe structures. However, the seismic expression of the active fluid flow features is much broader, much more chaotic, dome-shaped and is not very similar to a typical chimney structure. The Vestnesa Ridge gas-hydrate and free- gas system occurs within few km of a mid-oceanic ridge and transform fault, which makes this gas hydrate system unique on Earth. The close proximity to the spreading centre and its hydrothermal circulation system affects the dynamics of the gas-hydrate and free-gas system. The high heat flow

  18. Implementing an Inexpensive and Accurate Introductory Gas Density Activity with High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, W. Patrick; Joseph, Christopher; Morey, Samantha; Santos Romo, Ana; Shope, Cullen; Strang, Jonathan; Yang, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    A simplified activity examined gas density while employing cost-efficient syringes in place of traditional glass bulbs. The exercise measured the density of methane, with very good accuracy and precision, in both first-year high school and AP chemistry settings. The participating students were tasked with finding the density of a gas. The…

  19. 78 FR 76827 - Midwestern Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Midwestern Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On December 4, 2013, Midwestern Gas Transmission Company (Midwestern) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  20. Hot-wire detector for chemically active materials used in gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Hot-filament detector analyzes chemically active materials used in gas chromatography. The detector reacts chemically with the effluent vapors in the gas chromatographic apparatus to change the electrical resistance of the filament as a function of the affluent composition. Due to the changes produced by chemical action on the filament, the system is often calibrated.

  1. GAS PHASE SELECTIVE PHOTOXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND MOLECULAR OXYGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas Phase Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Light-Activated Titanium Dioxide and Molecular Oxygen

    Gas phase selective oxidations of various primary and secondary alcohols are studied in an indigenously built stainless steel up-flow photochemical reactor using ultravi...

  2. 78 FR 10261 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the revision of the gas distribution annual report... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477) or visit...

  3. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  4. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning. PMID:24456468

  5. A single-nanoparticle NO2 gas sensor constructed using active molecular plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lichan; Wu, Bo; Guo, Longhua; Tey, Ruiwen; Huang, Youju; Kim, Dong-Hwan

    2015-01-25

    A single-nanoparticle plasmonic sensor for the sensitive detection of gas molecules (NO2) has been constructed. Taking advantage of active molecular plasmonics, the analyte selectively triggers a measurable spectral shift of ferrocene-modified single gold nanorods.

  6. Low oil and gas prices slow Midcontinent activity

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1995-12-01

    The Midcontinent is home to some of the nation`s oldest, most well-established fields. But state officials are beginning to see the results of long-term industry saturation: The majors are beginning to leave, nobody can afford to use advanced recovery techniques when oil and gas prices are so low and sometimes today`s producers are being asked to clean up yesterday`s mistakes.

  7. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Self-Activated Transparent All-Graphene Gas Sensor with Endurance to Humidity and Mechanical Bending.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Hoo; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Yong-Jin; Shim, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Soo Young; Hong, Byung Hee; Jang, Ho Won

    2015-10-27

    Graphene is considered as one of leading candidates for gas sensor applications in the Internet of Things owing to its unique properties such as high sensitivity to gas adsorption, transparency, and flexibility. We present self-activated operation of all graphene gas sensors with high transparency and flexibility. The all-graphene gas sensors which consist of graphene for both sensor electrodes and active sensing area exhibit highly sensitive, selective, and reversible responses to NO2 without external heating. The sensors show reliable operation under high humidity conditions and bending strain. In addition to these remarkable device performances, the significantly facile fabrication process enlarges the potential of the all-graphene gas sensors for use in the Internet of Things and wearable electronics.

  9. Self-Activated Transparent All-Graphene Gas Sensor with Endurance to Humidity and Mechanical Bending.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Hoo; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Yong-Jin; Shim, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Soo Young; Hong, Byung Hee; Jang, Ho Won

    2015-10-27

    Graphene is considered as one of leading candidates for gas sensor applications in the Internet of Things owing to its unique properties such as high sensitivity to gas adsorption, transparency, and flexibility. We present self-activated operation of all graphene gas sensors with high transparency and flexibility. The all-graphene gas sensors which consist of graphene for both sensor electrodes and active sensing area exhibit highly sensitive, selective, and reversible responses to NO2 without external heating. The sensors show reliable operation under high humidity conditions and bending strain. In addition to these remarkable device performances, the significantly facile fabrication process enlarges the potential of the all-graphene gas sensors for use in the Internet of Things and wearable electronics. PMID:26321290

  10. REMOTE HANDLING ARRANGEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Ginns, D.W.

    1958-04-01

    A means for handling remotely a sample pellet to be irradiated in a nuclear reactor is proposed. It is comprised essentially of an inlet tube extending through the outer shield of the reactor and being inclined so that its outer end is at a higher elevation than its inner end, an outlet tube extending through the outer shield being inclined so that its inner end is at a higher elevation than its outer end, the inner ends of these two tubes being interconnected, and a straight tube extending through the outer shield and into the reactor core between the inlet and outlet tubes and passing through the juncture of said inner ends. A rod-like member is rotatably and slidely operated within the central straight tube and has a receptacle on its inner end for receiving a sample pellet from the inlet tube. The rod member is operated to pick up a sample pellet from the inlet tube, carry the sample pellet into the irradiating position within the core, and return to the receiving position where it is rotated to dump the irradiated pellet into the outlet tube by which it is conveyed by gravity to the outside of the reactor. Stop members are provided in the inlet tube, and electrical operating devices are provided to control the sequence of the operation automatically.

  11. Fluid handling equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Devices and techniques used in fluid-handling and vacuum systems are described. Section 1 presents several articles on fluid lines and tubing. Section 2 describes a number of components such as valves, filters, and regulators. The last section contains descriptions of a number of innovative fluid-handling systems.

  12. Apparatus for remotely handling components

    DOEpatents

    Szkrybalo, Gregory A.; Griffin, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    The inventive apparatus for remotely handling bar-like components which define a longitudinal direction includes a gripper mechanism for gripping the component including first and second gripper members longitudinally fixedly spaced from each other and oriented parallel to each other in planes transverse to the longitudinal direction. Each gripper member includes a jaw having at least one V-groove with opposing surfaces intersecting at a base and extending radially relative to the longitudinal direction for receiving the component in an open end between the opposing surfaces. The V-grooves on the jaw plate of the first and second gripper members are aligned in the longitudinal direction to support the component in the first and second gripper members. A jaw is rotatably mounted on and a part of each of the first and second gripper members for selectively assuming a retracted mode in which the open end of the V-groove is unobstructed and active mode in which the jaw spans the open end of the V-groove in the first and second gripper members. The jaw has a locking surface for contacting the component in the active mode to secure the component between the locking surface of the jaw and the opposing surfaces of the V-groove. The locking surface has a plurality of stepped portions, each defining a progressively decreasing radial distance between the base of the V-groove and the stepped portion opposing the base to accommodate varying sizes of components.

  13. High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated carbon - I. Effects of gas composition and metal addition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cal, M.P.; Strickler, B.W.; Lizzio, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Various types of activated carbon sorbents were evaluated for their ability to remove H2S from a simulated coal gas stream at a temperature of 550 ??C. The ability of activated carbon to remove H2S at elevated temperature was examined as a function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal addition), and gas composition. A sorbent prepared by steam activation, HNO3 oxidation and impregnated with Zn, and tested in a gas stream containing 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% N2, had the greatest H2S adsorption capacity. Addition of H2, CO, and H2O to the inlet gas stream reduced H2S breakthrough time and H2S adsorption capacity. A Zn impregnated activated carbon, when tested using a simulated coal gas containing 0.5% H2S, 49.5% N2, 13% H2, 8.5% H2O, 21% CO, and 7.5% CO2, had a breakthrough time of 75 min, which was less than 25 percent of the length of breakthrough for screening experiments performed with a simplified gas mixture of 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, and 49.5% N2.

  14. Gas6 receptors Axl, Sky and Mer enhance platelet activation and regulate thrombotic responses.

    PubMed

    Gould, W R; Baxi, S M; Schroeder, R; Peng, Y W; Leadley, R J; Peterson, J T; Perrin, L A

    2005-04-01

    Gas6 (encoded by growth arrest-specific gene 6) is a vitamin-K dependent protein highly homologous to coagulation protein S that is secreted from platelet alpha-granules and has recently been demonstrated to participate in platelet thrombus formation. The current study evaluated the contribution of each of the three known Gas6 receptors (Axl, Sky and Mer) in human and mouse platelet function. Flow cytometry analyses confirmed that all three receptors are present on both human and mouse platelets. Pre-incubation of human platelets with either an anti-Gas6 antibody or blocking antibodies to Sky or Mer inhibited platelet aggregation and degranulation responses to both ADP and the PAR-1 activating peptide, SFLLRN, by more than 80%. In contrast, a stimulatory anti-Axl antibody increased activation responses to these agonists, suggesting a potentiating role for Gas6 in platelet activation. Moreover, in a mouse model of thrombosis, administration of Gas6 or Sky blocking antibodies resulted in a decrease in thrombus weight similar to clopidogrel but, unlike clopidogrel, produced no increase in template bleeding. Thus, Gas6 enhances platelet degranulation and aggregation responses through its known receptors, promoting platelet activation and mediating thrombus formation such that its inhibition prevents thrombosis without increasing bleeding. PMID:15733062

  15. HiRISE observations of gas sublimation-driven activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, N.; Hansen, C. J.; Portyankina, G.; Russell, P. S.; Bridges, N. T.

    2009-04-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to monitor the seasonal evolution of several regions at high southern latitudes and, in particular, the geyser-like activity which may result from the process described by Kieffer [JGR, 112, 8005, 2007] involving translucent CO2 ice. Here, we mostly concentrate on observations of the Inca City (81S, 296E) region. The observations indicate rapid on-set of activity at the beginning of southern spring with activity initiating before HiRISE can obtain adequately illuminated images (Ls < 174 at Inca City). Most sources became active within the subsequent 8 weeks. Activity is indicated by the production of dark deposits surrounded by brighter bluer deposits which probably arise from the freezing out of vented CO2 [Titus et al., AGU Abstract P41A-0188, 2007]. These deposits originate from araneiform structures (spiders), stones on ridges, cracks on slopes, and along linear cracks in the slab ice on flatter surfaces. The type of activity observed can often be explained qualitatively by considering the local topography. Some dark fans were observed to shorten enormously in length on a timescale of 18 days. We consider this to be strong evidence that emission was in progress at the time of HiRISE image acquisition. The orientations of surficial deposits were mostly topographically controlled in Inca City in 2007. The deposition of dark material also appeared to be influenced by local topography suggesting that the ejection from the vents was at low velocity (<10 m/s) and that a ground-hugging flow type process (a sort of "cryo-fumarole") may have been occurring. The presentation will illustrate the above features and make a first comparison between activity separated by one full Martian year. Our first observations indicate a stronger influence of wind in 2009.

  16. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    P.A. Kumar

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Handling Building (WHB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WHB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement areas ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination within the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WHB. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System is designed to perform its safety functions under accident conditions and other Design Basis Events (DBEs) (such as earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and loss of the primary electric power). Additional system design features (such as compartmentalization with independent subsystems) limit the potential for cross-contamination within the WHB. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits. The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is

  17. Modelling of evaporation of a dispersed liquid component in a chemically active gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, V. G.; Naumov, V. I.; Kotov, V. Yu.

    1994-01-01

    A model has been developed to investigate evaporation of dispersed liquids in chemically active gas flow. Major efforts have been directed at the development of algorithms for implementing this model. The numerical experiments demonstrate that, in the boundary layer, significant changes in the composition and temperature of combustion products take place. This gives the opportunity to more correctly model energy release processes in combustion chambers of liquid-propellant rocket engines, gas-turbine engines, and other power devices.

  18. GRI's Gas Appliance Technology Center annual report, January 1989-January 1990 (Activity at A. G. A. laboratories)

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, C.A.

    1990-09-01

    The report describes specific codes and standards support work involved in developing test procedures for (1) flame rollout safety switches, (2) combination space/water heating appliances, (3) gas logs, (4) appliance connectors, and (5) griddles. Technology development activities included (1) gas grill and gas logs compatible with the SMART House, (2) water purification, (3) eliminating or reducing gas appliance venting requirements. Product development activities included (1) flame coloring technology for gas fireplaces and logs and (2) combination broiler/griddle. Assessment studies evaluated (1) emission requirements for gas-fired cooling equipment and (2) commercial kitchen ventilation.

  19. Geodatabase of Wyoming statewide oil and gas drilling activity to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a geographic information system (GIS) of Wyoming statewide historical oil and gas drilling activity for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). The WLCI is representative of the partnerships being formed by the USGS with other Department of the Interior bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners that are committed to maintaining healthy landscapes, sustaining wildlife, and preserving recreational and grazing uses as energy resources development progresses in southwestern Wyoming. This product complements the 2009 USGS publication on oil and gas development in southwestern Wyoming http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/437/) by approximating, based on database attributes, the time frame of drilling activity for each well (start and stop dates). This GIS product also adds current oil and gas drilling activity not only in the area encompassing the WLCI, but also statewide. Oil and gas data, documentation, and spatial data processing capabilities are available and can be downloaded from the USGS website. These data originated from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (WOGCC), represent decades of oil and gas drilling (1900 to 2010), and will facilitate a landscape-level approach to integrated science-based assessments, resource management and land-use decision making.

  20. Information Handling is the Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concerns surrounding the automation of information handling. There are two types of decision support software that supports most Space Station Flight Controllers. one is very simple, and the other is very complex. A middle ground is sought. This is the reason for the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed (HCAAST) Project. The aim is to study flight controllers at work, and in the bigger picture, with particular attention to how they handle information and how coordination of multiple teams is performed. The focus of the project is on intelligent assistants to assist in handling information for the flight controllers.

  1. HAND TRUCK FOR HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    DOEpatents

    King, D.W.

    1959-02-24

    A truck is described for the handling of large and relatively heavy pieces of equipment and particularly for the handling of ion source units for use in calutrons. The truck includes a chassis and a frame pivoted to the chassis so as to be operable to swing in the manner of a boom. The frame has spaced members so arranged that the device to be handled can be suspended between or passed between these spaced members and also rotated with respect to the frame when the device is secured to the spaced members.

  2. Use of hydrogen as a carrier gas for the analysis of steroids with anabolic activity by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Guerra, J A; Prado, P; García-Tenorio, S Vargas

    2011-10-14

    Due to the impact in the media and the requirements of sensitivity and robustness, the detection of the misuse of forbidden substances in sports is a really challenging area for analytical chemistry, where any study focused on enhancing the performance of the analytical methods will be of great interest. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of using hydrogen instead of helium as a carrier gas for the analysis of anabolic steroids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron ionization. There are several drawbacks related with the use of helium as a carrier gas: it is expensive, is a non-renewable resource, and has limited availability in many parts of the world. In contrast, hydrogen is readily available using a hydrogen generator or high-pressure bottled gas, and allows a faster analysis without loss of efficiency; nevertheless it should not be forgotten that due to its explosiveness hydrogen must be handled with caution. Throughout the study the impact of the change of the carrier gas will be evaluated in terms of: performance of the chromatographic system, saving of time and money, impact on the high vacuum in the analyzer, changes in the fragmentation behaviour of the analytes, and finally consequences for the limits of detection achieved with the method.

  3. Activated carbon treatment of municipal solid waste incineration flue gas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengyong; Ji, Ya; Buekens, Alfons; Ma, Zengyi; Jin, Yuqi; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-02-01

    Activated carbon injection is widely used to control dioxins and mercury emissions. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to its modelling. This paper proposes an expansion of the classical Everaerts-Baeyens model, introducing the expression of fraction of free adsorption sites, f (s), and asserting the significant contribution of fly ash to dioxins removal. Moreover, the model monitors dioxins partitioning between vapour and particulate phase, as well as removal efficiency for each congener separately. The effects of the principal parameters affecting adsorption are analysed according to a semi-analytical, semi-empirical model. These parameters include temperature, contact time during entrained-flow, characteristics (grain-size, pore structure, specific surface area) and dosage of activated carbon, lignite cokes or mineral adsorbent, fly ash characteristics and concentration, and type of incinerator plant. PMID:23179511

  4. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. The development and testing of collapsible intermodal containers for the handling and transport of coal combustion residues

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.L.; Thomasson, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    SEEC, Incorporated, is developing a collapsible intermodal container (CIC{trademark}) designed for containment and transport of fly ash and other dry-flowable bulk commodities. The CIC is specially configured to ride in open top rail cars, but as an intermodal container, it also rides in barges and on flat bed trailers. This allows SEEC to use unit coal train back haul capacity to transport fly ash to markets at and near coal mines. SEEC`s goals for this project were to design a CIC for handling and transporting dry fly ash, and then demonstrate the CIC technology. During this project, SEEC has performed extensive initial design work, leading to the manufacture of three prototype CICs for demonstration. Preliminary tests to examine safety issues included finite element analyses and an overload test in which the CIC was lifted while carrying weight in excess of its rated capacity. In both cases, the CIC met all safety requirements. With the above information satisfying possible safety concerns in hand, SEEC worked with SIU and other cooperators to plan and carry out field demonstration and testing of three CICs. This demonstration/testing including filling the CICs with fly ash, transporting them in a coal hopper car, handling with standard intermodal equipment, and emptying by inverting (two CICs) and by vacuuming (one CIC). Results were very positive. Filling with fly ash, transporting, and intermodal handling went very well, as did emptying by vacuum. Emptying by inverting was less successful, but most of the problems were predicted ahead of time, and were mostly due to lack of fly ash fluidizing equipment as much as anything. Throughout the testing, valuable information was gathered that will greatly accelerate refinement of both the CIC and the system of CIC handling.

  5. Influence of Activating Flux and Helium Shielding Gas on an Austenitic Stainless Steel Weldment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Her-Yueh; Yang, Chung-Wei

    2013-06-01

    Activating flux-assisted gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is a well-established method for enhancing weld penetration. In GTAW, steel is usually welded with a shielding gas that contains mostly argon. However, pure argon does not provide enough weld penetration. Argon-helium mixtures are inert and a greater concentration of helium would increase the arc voltage and the weld depth-to-width (D/W) ratio. There is a significant level of interest in the interaction between activating flux and shielding gas composition. Weld morphology, arc profile, retained δ ferrite content, angular distortion, and microstructure are extremely important in applying the activating flux combination argon-helium in GTAW; therefore, in this work, all these were studied.

  6. Ergonomic material-handling device

    DOEpatents

    Barsnick, Lance E.; Zalk, David M.; Perry, Catherine M.; Biggs, Terry; Tageson, Robert E.

    2004-08-24

    A hand-held ergonomic material-handling device capable of moving heavy objects, such as large waste containers and other large objects requiring mechanical assistance. The ergonomic material-handling device can be used with neutral postures of the back, shoulders, wrists and knees, thereby reducing potential injury to the user. The device involves two key features: 1) gives the user the ability to adjust the height of the handles of the device to ergonomically fit the needs of the user's back, wrists and shoulders; and 2) has a rounded handlebar shape, as well as the size and configuration of the handles which keep the user's wrists in a neutral posture during manipulation of the device.

  7. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  8. Production of activated char from Illinois coal for flue gas cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Kruse, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Activated chars were produced from Illinois coal and tested in several flue gas cleanup applications. High-activity chars that showed excellent potential for both SO2 and NOx removal were prepared from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal. The SO2 (120 ??C) and NOx (25 ??C) removal performance of one char compared favorably with that of a commercial activated carbon (Calgon Centaur). The NOx removal performance of the same char at 120 ??C exceeded that of the Centaur carbon by more than 1 order of magnitude. Novel char preparation methods were developed including oxidation/thermal desorption and hydrogen treatments, which increased and preserved, respectively, the active sites for SO2 and NOx adsorption. The results of combined SO2/NOx removal tests, however, suggest that SO2 and NOx compete for similar adsorption sites and SO2 seems to be more strongly adsorbed than NO. A low-activity, low-cost char was also developed for cleanup of incinerator flue gas. A three-step method involving coal preoxidation, pyrolysis, and CO2 activation was used to produce the char from Illinois coal. Five hundred pounds of the char was tested on a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial incinerator in Germany. The char was effective in removing >97% of the dioxins and furans present in the flue gas; mercury levels were below detectable limits.

  9. Gas dynamics of the active medium of a supersonic cw HF chemical laser

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Igor' A; Rotinyan, Mikhail A; Krivitskii, A M

    2000-12-31

    Gas-dynamic characteristics of a 5-kW supersonic cw HF chemical laser with a nozzle array of size 25 cm x 2.8 cm and the nozzle - nozzle mixing scheme were experimentally studied. The distributions of Mach numbers, static pressure, total pressure behind the normal shock, and the loss of total pressure were measured in the flow of an active medium in wide ranges of variation of the flow rate of secondary fuel (hydrogen) and pressure in the atomic-fluorine generator. The energy parameters of the laser were found to be interrelated with the gas dynamics and the optical quality of the active laser medium. (lasers)

  10. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-10-25

    The purpose of this sampling activity is to obtain data to support an initial evaluation of potential hazards due to the presence of combustible gas in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). Results of the hazard analysis will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will he collected in SUMMA' canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides the procedures for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and ventilation rates.

  11. Handling of liquid holdup in Duyong two-phase flow pipeline system

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, M.R.; Singh, B. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with the handling of liquids in the multi-phase flow pipeline system within Carigali's Duyong Offshore Gas Complex and the Onshore Gas Terminal, in Kerteh, Terongganu. The data and operations experience gathered necessitate changes to the operating procedures originally identified during the design phase. This is to ensure more efficient handling of liquid hold-up in the pipeline during low gas flowrates.

  12. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection

    PubMed Central

    Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming. PMID:27231914

  13. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection.

    PubMed

    Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming.

  14. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection.

    PubMed

    Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming. PMID:27231914

  15. Glovebags handle asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, K.

    1997-12-01

    Regulations from OSHA mean that industry can use glovebags to perform many asbestos maintenance operations in less time, at less cost, and with less chance of personnel being exposed. The regulations became effective July 10, 1995, with some clarifications issued since that date. The standards allow glovebags to be used in maintenance operations or removal of asbestos from straight runs of pipe without any size limitations. They can also be used on elbows and other connections if the glovebags are designed for a particular configuration. The paper discusses potential savings, construction activities, procedures that must be followed when using glovebags, and training.

  16. Statistical evaluation of the impact of shale gas activities on ozone pollution in North Texas.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; John, Kuruvilla

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, substantial growth in shale gas exploration and production across the US has changed the country's energy outlook. Beyond its economic benefits, the negative impacts of shale gas development on air and water are less well known. In this study the relationship between shale gas activities and ground-level ozone pollution was statistically evaluated. The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area in north-central Texas was selected as the study region. The Barnett Shale, which is one the most productive and fastest growing shale gas fields in the US, is located in the western half of DFW. Hourly meteorological and ozone data were acquired for fourteen years from monitoring stations established and operated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The area was divided into two regions, the shale gas region (SGR) and the non-shale gas (NSGR) region, according to the number of gas wells in close proximity to each monitoring site. The study period was also divided into 2000-2006 and 2007-2013 because the western half of DFW has experienced significant growth in shale gas activities since 2007. An evaluation of the raw ozone data showed that, while the overall trend in the ozone concentration was down over the entire region, the monitoring sites in the NSGR showed an additional reduction of 4% in the annual number of ozone exceedance days than those in the SGR. Directional analysis of ozone showed that the winds blowing from areas with high shale gas activities contributed to higher ozone downwind. KZ-filtering method and linear regression techniques were used to remove the effects of meteorological variations on ozone and to construct long-term and short-term meteorologically adjusted (M.A.) ozone time series. The mean value of all M.A. ozone components was 8% higher in the sites located within the SGR than in the NSGR. These findings may be useful for understanding the overall impact of shale gas activities on the local and regional ozone

  17. Statistical evaluation of the impact of shale gas activities on ozone pollution in North Texas.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; John, Kuruvilla

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, substantial growth in shale gas exploration and production across the US has changed the country's energy outlook. Beyond its economic benefits, the negative impacts of shale gas development on air and water are less well known. In this study the relationship between shale gas activities and ground-level ozone pollution was statistically evaluated. The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area in north-central Texas was selected as the study region. The Barnett Shale, which is one the most productive and fastest growing shale gas fields in the US, is located in the western half of DFW. Hourly meteorological and ozone data were acquired for fourteen years from monitoring stations established and operated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The area was divided into two regions, the shale gas region (SGR) and the non-shale gas (NSGR) region, according to the number of gas wells in close proximity to each monitoring site. The study period was also divided into 2000-2006 and 2007-2013 because the western half of DFW has experienced significant growth in shale gas activities since 2007. An evaluation of the raw ozone data showed that, while the overall trend in the ozone concentration was down over the entire region, the monitoring sites in the NSGR showed an additional reduction of 4% in the annual number of ozone exceedance days than those in the SGR. Directional analysis of ozone showed that the winds blowing from areas with high shale gas activities contributed to higher ozone downwind. KZ-filtering method and linear regression techniques were used to remove the effects of meteorological variations on ozone and to construct long-term and short-term meteorologically adjusted (M.A.) ozone time series. The mean value of all M.A. ozone components was 8% higher in the sites located within the SGR than in the NSGR. These findings may be useful for understanding the overall impact of shale gas activities on the local and regional ozone

  18. ALTEA Data Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Fino, L.; Altea Team

    The ALTEA project is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration aimed at studying the possible functional damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS) due to particle radiation in space environment. The ALTEA facility is scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) in November, 15th 2004. ALTEA will operate in two different modes: unmanned DOSI mode to measure radiation fluxes on board ISS and manned CNSM mode to study concurrently the passage of cosmic radiation through the brain, the functional status of the visual system and the electrophysiological dynamics of the cortical activity. In this paper it will be explained how ALTEA data is packaged, downloaded, stored and analysed. Hardware and software solutions of a fault-tolerance storage system and a real-time analysis system will be presented. A storage server will collect downloaded data and if an interruption occurs can request lost data to previous storage sites. Collected data will be ready for off-line analysis. Real-time analysis of DOSI data will be able to parse binary file, monitor ALTEA HK, perform pedestal subtraction, adaptive pedestal correction, bad data rejection, track reconstruction, released energy calculation, LET calculation, particle recognition, relative and absolute nuclear abundances calculation, differential and integral radiation fluxes calculation and statistics on particle direction. We are considering the use of a multi-processor Linux workstation, with ASMP real-time kernel and dedicated DSP boards, for the real-time analysis. CNSM data will be analysed off-line and various analysis will be carried out in addition to previous ones: electrophysiological data analysis, absorbed radiation doses in brain, correlation between particles and Light Flash phenomena or other brain activity alterations.

  19. Survey of oil and gas activities on federal wildlife refuges and waterfowl production areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ethridge, M.; Guerrieri, U.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of survey data provides empirical evidence of the effects of oil and gas activities on federal wildlife refuges. The paper reports the results of a systematic survey of units of the National Wildlife Refuge System by the American Petroleum Institute in the form of questionnaires sent to refuge managers. The data suggest that oil and gas operations have had little or no adverse effect on wildlife on most refuges and Waterfowl Protection Areas, that oil and gas activities have detracted little from and have often enhanced other economic and recreational uses which occur on the refuges, and that appropriate regulations, stipulations, and restrictions are a key government management tool for protecting wildlife and other refuge resources. 3 figures, 44 tables.

  20. Consequences of hot gas in the broad line region of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T.; Mushotzky, R.

    1985-01-01

    Models for hot gas in the broad line region of active galactic nuclei are discussed. The results of the two phase equilibrium models for confinement of broad line clouds by Compton heated gas are used to show that high luminosity quasars are expected to show Fe XXVI L alpha line absorption which will be observed with spectrometers such as those planned for the future X-ray spectroscopy experiments. Two phase equilibrium models also predict that the gas in the broad line clouds and the confining medium may be Compton thick. It is shown that the combined effects of Comptonization and photoabsorption can suppress both the broad emission lines and X-rays in the Einstein and HEAO-1 energy bands. The observed properties of such Compton thick active galaxies are expected to be similar to those of Seyfert 2 nuclei. The implications for polarization and variability are also discussed.

  1. High accuracy laboratory spectroscopy to support active greenhouse gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D. A.; Bielska, K.; Cygan, A.; Havey, D. K.; Okumura, M.; Miller, C. E.; Lisak, D.; Hodges, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Recent carbon dioxide (CO2) remote sensing missions have set precision targets as demanding as 0.25% (1 ppm) in order to elucidate carbon sources and sinks [1]. These ambitious measurement targets will require the most precise body of spectroscopic reference data ever assembled. Active sensing missions will be especially susceptible to subtle line shape effects as the narrow bandwidth of these measurements will greatly limit the number of spectral transitions which are employed in retrievals. In order to assist these remote sensing missions we have employed frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FS-CRDS) [2], a high-resolution, ultrasensitive laboratory technique, to measure precise line shape parameters for transitions of O2, CO2, and other atmospherically-relevant species within the near-infrared. These measurements have led to new HITRAN-style line lists for both 16O2 [3] and rare isotopologue [4] transitions in the A-band. In addition, we have performed detailed line shape studies of CO2 transitions near 1.6 μm under a variety of broadening conditions [5]. We will address recent measurements in these bands as well as highlight recent instrumental improvements to the FS-CRDS spectrometer. These improvements include the use of the Pound-Drever-Hall locking scheme, a high bandwidth servo which enables measurements to be made at rates greater than 10 kHz [6]. In addition, an optical frequency comb will be utilized as a frequency reference, which should allow for transition frequencies to be measured with uncertainties below 10 kHz (3×10-7 cm-1). [1] C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, et al., J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007). [2] J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. W. Miller, G. E. Scace, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849-863 (2004). [3] D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2021-2036 (2010). [4] D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, S. S. Yu, M. Okumura, et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc

  2. T & I--Gas Welding. Kit No. 68. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanford, Frank

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on gas welding are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the occupational cluster of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  3. Systematic Expansion of Active Spaces beyond the CASSCF Limit: A GASSCF/SplitGAS Benchmark Study.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D; Li Manni, Giovanni; Stoneburner, Samuel J; Ma, Dongxia; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-07-14

    The applicability and accuracy of the generalized active space self-consistent field, (GASSCF), and (SplitGAS) methods are presented. The GASSCF method enables the exploration of larger active spaces than with the conventional complete active space SCF, (CASSCF), by fragmentation of a large space into subspaces and by controlling the interspace excitations. In the SplitGAS method, the GAS configuration interaction, CI, expansion is further partitioned in two parts: the principal, which includes the most important configuration state functions, and an extended, containing less relevant but not negligible ones. An effective Hamiltonian is then generated, with the extended part acting as a perturbation to the principal space. Excitation energies of ozone, furan, pyrrole, nickel dioxide, and copper tetrachloride dianion are reported. Various partitioning schemes of the GASSCF and SplitGAS CI expansions are considered and compared with the complete active space followed by second-order perturbation theory, (CASPT2), and multireference CI method, (MRCI), or available experimental data. General guidelines for the optimum applicability of these methods are discussed together with their current limitations. PMID:26575738

  4. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    SciTech Connect

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  6. The Development of a New Practical Activity: Using Microorganisms to Model Gas Cycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    For many in the school science classroom, the term "microbiology" has become synonymous with "bacteriology". By overlooking other microbes, teachers may miss out on powerful practical tools. This article describes the development of an activity that uses algae and yeast to demonstrate gas cycling, and presents full instructions…

  7. Comparison of marine gas hydrates in sediments of an active and passive continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two sites of the Deep Sea Drilling Project in contrasting geologic settings provide a basis for comparison of the geochemical conditions associated with marine gas hydrates in continental margin sediments. Site 533 is located at 3191 m water depth on a spit-like extension of the continental rise on a passive margin in the Atlantic Ocean. Site 568, at 2031 m water depth, is in upper slope sediment of an active accretionary margin in the Pacific Ocean. Both sites are characterized by high rates of sedimentation, and the organic carbon contents of these sediments generally exceed 0.5%. Anomalous seismic reflections that transgress sedimentary structures and parallel the seafloor, suggested the presence of gas hydrates at both sites, and, during coring, small samples of gas hydrate were recovered at subbottom depths of 238m (Site 533) and 404 m (Site 568). The principal gaseous components of the gas hydrates wer methane, ethane, and CO2. Residual methane in sediments at both sites usually exceeded 10 mll-1 of wet sediment. Carbon isotopic compositions of methane, CO2, and ??CO2 followed parallel trends with depth, suggesting that methane formed mainly as a result of biological reduction of oxidized carbon. Salinity of pore waters decreased with depth, a likely result of gas hydrate formation. These geochemical characteristics define some of the conditions associated with the occurrence of gas hydrates formed by in situ processes in continental margin sediments. ?? 1984.

  8. Sarcoplasmic reticulum and L-type Ca²⁺ channel activity regulate the beat-to-beat stability of calcium handling in human atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Llach, Anna; Molina, Cristina E; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Padró, Josep; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2011-07-01

    Irregularities in intracellular calcium on a beat-to-beat basis can precede cardiac arrhythmia, but the mechanisms inducing such irregularities remain elusive. This study tested the hypothesis that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and L-type calcium channel activity determine the beat-to-beat response and its rate dependency. For this purpose, patch-clamp technique and confocal calcium imaging was used to record L-type calcium current (ICa) and visualize calcium in human atrial myocytes subjected to increasing stimulation frequencies (from 0.2 to 2 Hz). The beat-to-beat response was heterogeneous among a population of 133 myocytes, with 30 myocytes responding uniformly at all frequencies, while alternating and irregular responses were induced in 78 and 25 myocytes, respectively. Myocytes with uniform responses had the lowest frequency of calcium wave-induced transient inward currents (ITI; 0.4 ± 0.2 min⁻¹), ICa density (1.8 ± 0.3 pA pF⁻¹) and caffeine-releasable calcium load (6.2 ± 0.5 amol pF⁻¹), while those with alternating responses had the highest ITI frequency (1.8 ± 0.3 min⁻¹,P =0.003) and ICa density (2.4 ± 0.2 pA pF⁻¹, P =0.04). In contrast, the calcium load was highest in myocytes with irregular responses (8.5 ± 0.7 amol pF⁻¹, P =0.01). Accordingly, partial ICa inhibition reduced the incidence (from 78 to 44%, P <0.05) and increased the threshold frequency for beat-to-beat alternation (from 1.3 ± 0.2 to 1.9 ± 0.2 Hz, P <0.05). Partial inhibition of SR calcium release reduced the ITI frequency, increased calcium loading and favoured induction of irregular responses, while complete inhibition abolished beat-to-beat alternation at all frequencies. In conclusion, the beat-to-beat response was heterogeneous among human atrial myocytes subjected to increasing stimulation frequencies, and the nature and stability of the response were determined by the SR and L-type calcium channel activities, suggesting that these mechanisms are key to

  9. [Impact of introduction of O2 on the welding arc of gas pool coupled activating TIG].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Wang, Yan-Lei; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2014-05-01

    In the present paper, Boltzmann plot method was applied to analyze the temperature distributions of the are plasma when the gas pool coupled activating TIG welding was at different coupling degrees with the outer gas being O2. Based on this study of temperature distributions, the changing regularities of are voltage and are appearance were studied. The result shows that compared with traditional TIG welding, the introduction of O2 makes the welding arc constricted slightly, the temperature of the are center build up, and the are voltage increase. When argon being the inner gas, oxygen serving as the outer gas instead of argon makes the are constricted more obviously. When the coupling degree increases from 0 to 2, the temperature of the are center and the are voltage both increase slightly. In the gas pool coupled activating TIG welding the are is constricted not obviously, and the reason why the weld penetration is improved dramatically in the welding of stainless steel is not are constriction. PMID:25095400

  10. OFF-GAS MERCURY CONTROL USING SULFUR-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON – TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2007-05-01

    Several laboratory and pilot-scale tests since the year 2000 have included demonstrations of off-gas mercury control using fixed bed, sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. These demonstrations have included operation of carbon beds with gas streams containing a wide range of mercury and other gas species concentrations representing off-gas from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste treatment processes including electrical resistance heated (joule-heated) glass melters, fluidized bed calciners, and fluidized bed steam reformers. Surrogates of various DOE mixed waste streams (or surrogates of offgas from DOE mixed waste streams) including INL “sodium bearing waste” (SBW), liquid “low activity waste” (LAW) from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and liquid waste from Savannah River National Laboratory (“Tank 48H waste”) have been tested. Test results demonstrate mercury control efficiencies up to 99.999%, high enough to comply with the Hazardous Waste (HWC) Combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards even when the uncontrolled off-gas mercury concentrations exceed 400,000 ug/dscm (at 7% O2), and confirm carbon bed design parameters for such high efficiencies. Results of several different pilot-scale and engineering-scale test programs performed over several years are presented and compared.

  11. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI.

  12. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI. PMID:26939033

  13. Tracking Dissolved Methane Concentrations near Active Seeps and Gas Hydrates: Sea of Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. T.; Aoki, S.; Matsumoto, R.; Tomaru, H.; Owari, S.; Nakajima, R.; Doolittle, D. F.; Brant, B.

    2015-12-01

    A number of regions in the Sea of Japan are known for active gas venting and for gas hydrate exposures on the sea floor. In this investigation we employed several gas sensors mounted on a ROV in order to determine the concentrations of dissolved methane in the water near these sites. Methane concentrations were determined during two-second intervals throughout each ROV deployment during the cruise. The methane sensor deployments were coupled with seawater sampling using Niskin bottles. Dissolved gas concentrations were later measured using gas chromatography in order to compare with the sensor results taken at the same time. The observed maximum dissolved methane concentrations were much lower than saturation values, even when the ROV manipulators were in contact with gas hydrate. Nonetheless, dissolved concentrations did reach several thousands of nmol/L near gas hydrate exposures and gas bubbles, more than two orders of magnitude over the instrumental detection limits. Most of the sensors tested were able to detect dissolved methane concentrations as low as 10 nmol/L which permitted detection when the ROV approached methane plume sites, even from several tens of meters above the sea floor. Despite the low detection limits, the methane sensors showed variable response times when returning to low-background seawater (~5nM). For some of the sensors, the response time necessary to return to background values occurred in a matter of minutes, while for others it took several hours. Response time, as well as detection limit, should be an important consideration when selecting methane sensors for ROV or AUV investigations. This research was made possible, in part, through funding provided by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  14. Future emissions from oil, gas, and shipping activities in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, G. P.; Nilssen, T. B.; Lindholt, L.; Eide, M. S.; Glomsrød, S.; Eide, L. I.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.

    2011-02-01

    The Arctic sea-ice is retreating faster than predicted by climate models and could become ice free during summer this century. The reduced sea-ice extent may effectively "unlock" the Arctic Ocean to increased human activities such as transit shipping and expanded oil and gas production. Travel time between Europe and the north Pacific Region can be reduced by up to 50% with low sea-ice levels and the use of this route could increase substantially as the sea-ice retreats. Oil and gas activities already occur in the Arctic region and given the large undiscovered petroleum resources increased activity could be expected with reduced sea-ice. We use a detailed global energy market model and a bottom-up shipping model with a sea-ice module to construct emission inventories of Arctic shipping and petroleum activities in 2030 and 2050. The emission inventories are on a 1× 1 degree grid and cover both short-lived pollutants and ozone pre-cursors (SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, BC, OC) and the long-lived greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). We find rapid growth in transit shipping due to increased profitability with the shorter transit times compensating for increased costs in traversing areas of sea-ice. Oil and gas production remains relatively stable leading to reduced emissions from emission factor improvements. The location of oil and gas production moves into locations requiring more ship transport relative to pipeline transport, leading to rapid emissions growth from oil and gas transport via ship. Our emission inventories for the Arctic region will be used as input into chemical transport, radiative transfer, and climate models to quantify the role of Arctic activities in climate change compared to similar emissions occurring outside of the Arctic region.

  15. Safe handling of large animals.

    PubMed

    Grandin, T

    1999-01-01

    The major causes of accidents with cattle, horses, and other grazing animals are: panic due to fear, male dominance aggression, or the maternal aggression of a mother protecting her newborn. Danger is inherent when handling large animals. Understanding their behavior patterns improves safety, but working with animals will never be completely safe. Calm, quiet handling and non-slip flooring are beneficial. Rough handling and excessive use of electric prods increase chances of injury to both people and animals, because fearful animals may jump, kick, or rear. Training animals to voluntarily cooperate with veterinary procedures reduces stress and improves safety. Grazing animals have a herd instinct, and a lone, isolated animal can become agitated. Providing a companion animal helps keep an animal calm. PMID:10329901

  16. Bacteriophage-nanocomposites: an easy and reproducible method for the construction, handling, storage and transport of conjugates for deployment of bacteriophages active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ian R; Illsley, Matthew; Korobeinyk, Alina V; Whitby, Raymond L D

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work was proof of concept to develop a novel, cost effective protocol for the binding of bacteriophages to a surface without loss of function, after storage in various media. The technology platform involved covalently bonding bacteriophage 13 (a Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage) to two magnetised multiwalled carbon nanotube scaffolds using a series of buffers; bacteriophage-nanotube (B-N) conjugates were efficacious after storage at 20 °C for six weeks. B-N conjugates were added to human cell culture in vitro for 9 days without causing necrosis and apoptosis. B-N conjugates were frozen (-20 °C) in cell culture media for several weeks, after which recovery from the human cell culture medium was possible using a simple magnetic separation technique. The retention of viral infective potential was demonstrated by subsequent spread plating onto lawns of susceptible P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the human cell culture medium revealed the production of interleukins by the human fibroblasts upon exposure to the bacteriophage. One day after exposure, IL-8 levels transitorily increased between 60 and 100 pg/mL, but this level was not found on any subsequent days, suggesting an initial but not long lasting response. This paper outlines the development of a method to deliver antimicrobial activity to a surface that is small enough to be combined with other materials. To our knowledge at time of publication, this is the first report of magnetically coupled bacteriophages specific to human pathogens which can be recovered from test systems, and could represent a novel means to conditionally deploy antibacterial agents into living eukaryotic systems without the risks of some antibiotic therapies.

  17. Evaluation of a biologically active cover for mitigation of landfill gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Barlaz, M A; Green, R B; Chanton, J P; Goldsmith, C D; Hater, G R

    2004-09-15

    Landfills are the third largest source of anthropogenic CH4 in the United States, and there is potential for reduction in this source of greenhouse gases and other contaminants. The objective of this work was to contrast emissions of CH4 and non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) from landfill cells covered with soil or a biologically active cover consisting of yard waste compost. On the basis of four field campaigns over 14 months, CH4 emissions from the biocover (BC) varied from -1.73 to 1.33 g m(-2) d(-1), with atmospheric uptake measured in 52% of tests. BC emissions did not increase when the gas collection system was turned off. Uptake of atmospheric CH4 was measured in 54% of tests on the soil cover (SC) when the gas collection was system active and 12% when the gas collection system was off. Many (26%) relatively high fluxes (>15 g m(-2) d(-1)) were measured from the SC as were some dramatic effects due to deactivation of the gas collection system. In tests with positive emissions, stable isotope measurements showed that the BC and SC were responsible for oxidation of 55% and 21% of the CH4 reaching the bottom of the respective cover. Seven of the highest 10 NMOC emissions were measured in the SC, and 17 of 21 fluxes for speciated organic compounds were higher in the SC. The relationship between CH4, NMOC, and individual organic compound emissions suggested a correlation between CH4 and trace organic oxidation. BCs can reduce landfill gas emissions in the absence of a gas collection system and can serve as a polishing step in the presence of an active system.

  18. Activated carbon cleanup of the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the details of a recently developed novel process using activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur recovery units. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This effect is especially evident in split flow Claus plants which bypass some of the acid gas feed stream around the initial combustion step because of a low hydrogen sulfide concentration. This new clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}{sup +} hydrocarbons from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated using low pressure steam. A post regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. This technology was extensively pilot tested in Saudi Aramco`s facilities in Saudi Arabia. Full scale commercial units are planned for two plants in the near future with the first coming on-line in 1997. The process described here represents the first application of activated carbon in this service, and a patent has been applied for. The paper will discuss the pilot plant results and the issues involved in scale-up to commercial size.

  19. Using technology to promote safe patient handling and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Technology has improved and expanded the equipment options for use in patient handling. There is substantial evidence that these activities expose healthcare professionals, including nurses and physical therapists, to risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. There is also evidence that ergonomic use of equipment to assist with patient handling is associated with decreases in injuries among healthcare providers. The use of patient-handling equipment has additional potential for facilitating the goals of rehabilitation and improving patient outcomes. This article presents an overview of new research areas and a discussion of these topics.

  20. The reactor-activator for gas-jet deposition of diamond structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebrov, A. K.; Andreev, M. N.; B'yadovskiy, T. T.; Kubrak, K. V.; Yudin, I. B.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a new method of deposition of diamond and diamond like structures by using the original reactor for activation of carbonaceous gas mixtures. One of the important characteristics of the described reactor is the power efficiency owing to low heat losses. The new method of gas flow formation opens new possibilities to get important trade-offs (wide range of background conditions and others). The principal possibility of diamond deposition is proved by experiments with the flow of hydrogen and methane mixture in tungsten resistively heating cylindrical channels. Electron microphotographs and Raman spectrum of deposited structures prove the fact that deposited samples are diamond structures. Numerical study of the mixture flow through the reactor was carried for optimization of gas flow conducted to a substrate.

  1. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding.

    PubMed

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558 MPa) and wire feed rate, 19 m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7 mm, welding speed, 200 mm/min, welding voltage, 30 V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10 L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10-20 L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%.

  2. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  3. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

  4. Non-contact handling device

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Mark; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.

    2007-05-15

    A pressurized fluid handling nozzle has a body with a first end and a second end, a fluid conduit and a recess at the second end. The first end is configured for connection to a pressurized fluid source. The fluid conduit has an inlet at the first end and an outlet at the recess. The nozzle uses the Bernoulli effect for lifting a part.

  5. Resistor pulse-handling capability

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, L.E.

    1981-04-01

    Methods for calculating pulse-handling capabilities of various resistor types are described. The work represents a compilation of studies derived from various sources, as indicated in the bibliography. The results indicate that resistors may be subjected to short-duration pulses exceeding their rated powers without sustaining permanent damage.

  6. Expert Systems and Document Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Describes significant attributes of expert systems, contrasts them to conventional computer systems, and provides an overview of the R1 expert system used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to put together operational systems that meet customers' requirements. Document handling, particularly pictures and images in documents, is also briefly…

  7. The Evolution of Galaxies (via SF activity and gas content) versus Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cybulski, Ryan; Yun, Min Su

    2016-01-01

    My dissertation work concerns the accurate mapping of the large-scale structure (LSS), traced by galaxies, and the assessment of the dependence of fundamental galaxy properties (e.g. star-formation activity, color, and gas content) on their environment. Mapping of the LSS is done with two complementary techniques, and together they provide both a local measure of the density field and a more global characterization of the environment of a galaxy, thereby allowing for a more complete measure of a galaxy's environment. I have applied this LSS mapping technique to the entire Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic galaxy sample at z<0.05, divided into multiple redshift bins, to explore the environmental dependence on galaxy evolution over a significant volume and a large dynamic range of environments. I will also present a more focused study looking at the molecular gas content of galaxies in two clusters at z~0.2, based on a program I am leading with the Large Millimeter Telescope that has obtained CO spectroscopy for ~70 galaxies with a range of stellar masses, atomic gas masses, and different parts of projected phase space around the two clusters. This molecular gas study provides a detailed statistical look at how the molecular and atomic gas contents of galaxies are affected by the environmental processes in their host clusters. I will summarize all of my results in these various aspects of my dissertation, with the overall theme of how galaxies are affected by their environment.

  8. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must classify drilling...

  9. Tomato handling practices in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Elizabeth; Green, Laura R; Stone, Carmily; Reimann, Dave; Nicholas, Dave; Mason, Ryan; Frick, Roberta; Coleman, Sandra; Bushnell, Lisa; Blade, Henry; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, multiple outbreaks of Salmonella infection have been associated with fresh tomatoes. Investigations have indicated that tomato contamination likely occurred early in the farm-to-consumer chain, although tomato consumption occurred mostly in restaurants. Researchers have hypothesized that tomato handling practices in restaurants may contribute to these outbreaks. However, few empirical data exist on how restaurant workers handle tomatoes. This study was conducted to examine tomato handling practices in restaurants. Members of the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) observed tomato handling practices in 449 restaurants. The data indicated that handling tomatoes appropriately posed a challenge to many restaurants. Produce-only cutting boards were not used on 49% of tomato cutting observations, and gloves were not worn in 36% of tomato cutting observations. Although tomatoes were washed under running water as recommended in most (82%) of the washing observations, tomatoes were soaked in standing water, a practice not recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in 18% of observations, and the temperature differential between the wash water and tomatoes did not meet FDA guidelines in 21% of observations. About half of all batches of cut tomatoes in holding areas were above 41 degrees F (5 degrees C), the temperature recommended by the FDA. The maximum holding time for most (73%) of the cut tomatoes held above 41 degrees F exceeded the FDA recommended holding time of 4 h for unrefrigerated tomatoes (i.e., tomatoes held above 41 degrees F). The information provided by this study can be used to inform efforts to develop interventions and thus prevent tomato-associated illness outbreaks.

  10. Effects of Particle Size on the Gas Sensitivity and Catalytic Activity of In2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoshui; Gu, Ruiqin; Zhao, Jinling; Jin, Guixin; Zhao, Mengke; Xue, Yongliang

    2015-10-01

    Nanosized In2O3 powders with different particle sizes were prepared by the microemulsion synthetic method. The effects of particle size on the gas-sensing and catalytic properties of the as-prepared In2O3 were investigated. Reductions in particle size to nanometer levels improved the sensitivity and catalytic activity of In2O3 to i-C4H10 and C2H5OH. The sensitivity of nanosized In2O3 (<42 nm) sensors to i-C4H10, H2 and C2H5OH was 2-4 times higher than that of chemically precipitated In2O3 (130 nm) sensor. A nearly linear relationship was observed between the catalytic activity and specific surface area of In2O3 for the oxidation of i-C4H10 and C2H5OH at 275 °C. The relationship between gas sensitivity and catalytic activity was further discussed. The results of this work reveal that catalytic activity plays a key role in enhancing the sensitivity of gas-sensing materials.

  11. Gas6/Axl pathway promotes tumor invasion through the transcriptional activation of Slug in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsin-Jung; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ling; Chung, Ling; Yuan, Ray-Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common fatal cancers worldwide. Other than the sorafenib treatment, no effective systemic therapy has been available thus far. Most targets in molecularly targeted therapy for cancer are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Therefore, identifying activated RTKs in HCC is critical for developing new molecularly targeted therapies. Using a phospho-RTK array, we found that Axl is one of the most frequently activated RTKs in liver cancer cell lines. The knockdown of Axl by RNA interference significantly reduced cell migration and invasion in the HCC cell lines HA22T and Mahlavu. Stimulation of HCC cell lines by Axl ligand growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) enhanced cell migration and invasion. The Gas6/Axl pathway enhanced the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factor Slug, which is essential for the invasion-promoting activity of Axl. Treating HCC cells with the Axl inhibitor bosutinib suppressed Slug expression and decreased the invasiveness of HCC cell lines. These findings indicate that Gas6/Axl regulates tumor invasion through the transcriptional activation of Slug.

  12. Reduction of spinal loading through the use of handles.

    PubMed

    Davis, K G; Marras, W S; Waters, T R

    1998-08-01

    A study was performed to investigate how different types of handle coupling affect the loading on the spine. Ten male grocery item selectors performed a laboratory simulation of a warehouse palletizing task. Participants transferred the cases from a pallet in a storage bin to the destination pallet. The trunk motions and muscle activities were monitored by a Lumbar Motion Monitor (LMM) and electromyographic electrodes, respectively, and used as input to an EMG-assisted biomechanical model. The results of the study revealed that the presence of handles reduced the complex loads on the spine. This was particuarly true when lifting to the lowest positions of the pallet, where the highest forces occurred. It was determined that the maximum spinal compression forces were reduced by an average of 6.8% when handles were added to the cases. The presence of handles affected the moments imposed on the trunk in the lower regions on the pallet, indicating a difference in lifting style and/or more sagittal flexion. The results of this study suggest that the multiplier for handle coupling in the 1991 NIOSH Revised Lifting Equation was appropriate for higher lifts (at 133.8 cm), but needs to be more protective for 'poor' coupling conditions with lower vertical heights, which are the most common in industry. Based on these results, it is recommended that handles be designed into the cases that are commonly lifted from low levels in warehousing and other manual materials handling situations. PMID:9715674

  13. The Role of Molecular Gas in Obscuring Seyfert Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, E. K. S.; Davies, R. I.; Malkan, M. A.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Müller Sánchez, F.; Sternberg, A.

    2009-05-01

    In a sample of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) studied at a spatial resolution on the order of 10 pc, we show that the interstellar medium traced by the molecular hydrogen ν = 1-0 S(1) line at 2.1 μm forms a geometrically thick, clumpy disk. The kinematics of the molecular gas reveals general rotation, although an additional significant component of random bulk motion is required by the high local velocity dispersion. The size scale of the typical gas disk is found to have a radius of ~30 pc with a comparable vertical height. Within this radius, the average gas mass is estimated to be ~107 M sun based on a typical gas mass fraction of 10%, which suggests column densities of N H ~ 5 × 1023 cm-2. Extinction of the stellar continuum within this same region suggests lower column densities of N H ~2 × 1022 cm-2, indicating that the gas distribution on these scales is dominated by dense clumps. In half of the observed Seyfert galaxies, this lower column density is still great enough to obscure the AGN at optical/infrared wavelengths. We conclude, based on the spatial distribution, kinematics, and column densities that the molecular gas observed is spatially mixed with the nuclear stellar population and is likely to be associated with the outer extent of any smaller scale nuclear obscuring structure. Furthermore, we find that the velocity dispersion of the molecular gas is correlated with the star formation rate per unit area, suggesting a link between the two phenomena, and that the gas surface density follows known "Schmidt-Kennicutt" relations. The molecular/dusty structure on these scales may be dynamic since it is possible that the velocity dispersion of the gas, and hence the vertical disk height, is maintained by a short, massive inflow of material into the nuclear region and/or by intense, short-lived nuclear star formation. Based on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of

  14. Gas flux measurements of episodic bimodal eruptive activity at Karymsky volcano (Kamchatka, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, S.; Galle, B.; Melnikov, D.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanoes of intermediate magmatic composition commonly exhibit episodes of intermittent gas and ash emission of variable duration. Due to the multiple conditions present at each system, different mechanisms have been proposed to account for the observed activity, and without key measurements at hand, a definite understanding of the situation might not be singled out. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Central Kamchatka, has presented a remarkably stable pattern of bimodal eruption since a few weeks after its violent reactivation in 1996. Periods of quasi-periodic explosive emissions with typical recurrence intervals of 3-10 min are alternated with episodes of semi-continuous discharge which intensity has a typical modulation at a frequency of 1 Hz. Geophysical studies at Karymsky have identified the main visual, seismic and acoustic features of these two eruption modalities. From these observations, the time scales of the processes have been defined and relevant models have been formulated, according to which the two modes are controlled by the rheological properties of an intruding gas-saturated magma batch and a shallow gas-depleted magma plug. Explosions are explained as the consequence of the formation of temporary sealing, overpressure buildup and vent clearance. Clearly, direct measurements of the gas emission rate are the key parameter to test such models. In this work, we report on the results of a field campaign for SO2 gas measurements carried out at Karymsky during 10-14 September 2011. We deployed 2 NOVAC-type, scanning DOAS systems as well as 1 rapid wide-Field of View mini-DOAS plume tracker. With this setup, we derived time-resolved SO2 flux, plume height, direction and speed, and detected pulses of increasing emission with high temporal resolution. We observed phases of explosive and quiescent degassing with variable amounts of ash emission and detected intensity changes of the associated acoustic signals. The repose time intervals between these

  15. Passive and active soil gas sampling at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area III, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, M.D.; Goering, T.J.; Peace, J.L.

    1996-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessing and remediating the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area III. The Mixed Waste Landfill is a 2.6 acre, inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. In 1993 and 1994, an extensive passive and active soil gas sampling program was undertaken to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds in the subsurface at the landfill. Passive soil gas surveys identified levels of PCE, TCE, 1,1, 1-TCA, toluene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, dichloroethyne, and acetone above background. Verification by active soil gas sampling confirmed concentrations of PCE, TCE, 1,1,1-TCA, and 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane at depths of 10 and 30 feet below ground surface. In addition, dichlorodifluoroethane and trichlorofluoromethane were detected during active soil gas sampling. All of the volatile organic compounds detected during the active soil gas survey were present in the low ppb range.

  16. Warfarin blocks Gas6-mediated Axl activation required for pancreatic cancer epithelial plasticity and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kirane, Amanda; Ludwig, Kathleen F.; Sorrelle, Noah; Haaland, Gry; Sandal, Tone; Ranaweera, Renate; Toombs, Jason E.; Wang, Miao; Dineen, Sean P.; Micklem, David; Dellinger, Michael T.; Lorens, James B.; Brekken, Rolf A.

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing ‘old’ drugs can facilitate rapid clinical translation but necessitates novel mechanistic insight. Warfarin, a vitamin K “antagonist” used clinically for the prevention of thrombosis for over 50 years, has been shown to have anti-cancer effects. We hypothesized that the molecular mechanism underlying its anti-tumor activity is unrelated to its effect on coagulation, but is due to inhibition of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase on tumor cells. Activation of Axl by its ligand Gas6, a vitamin K-dependent protein, is inhibited at doses of warfarin that do not affect coagulation. Here we show that inhibiting Gas6-dependent Axl activation with low dose warfarin or with other tumor-specific Axl targeting agents, blocks the progression and spread of pancreatic cancer. Warfarin also inhibited Axl-dependent tumor cell migration, invasiveness and proliferation while increasing apoptosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy. We conclude that Gas6-induced Axl signaling is a critical driver of pancreatic cancer progression and its inhibition with low dose warfarin or other Axl targeting agents may improve outcome in patients with Axl-expressing tumors. PMID:26206560

  17. The Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Activity on Ozone Formation in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Hills, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Schroeder, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Richter, D.; Walega, J.; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Campos, T. L.; Stell, M. H.; Heikes, B.; Treadaway, V.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D.; Cohen, R. C.; Flocke, F. M.; Pfister, G.; Knote, C. J.; Emmons, L. K.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) was a ground-based and airborne field study designed to characterize and understand air quality in the Colorado Front Range, where National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) ozone levels are frequently exceeded during summertime. A primary goal of the study was to determine the factors controlling surface ozone in the Front Range. As part of the project, measurements of many trace gases were observed on board the NSF/NCAR C-130 by a suite of instrumentation, including the NCAR Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA), which made measurements of a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs are crucial for characterizing emissions and photochemical processing in the Front Range, as well as the air transported into the region. During recent years, oil and natural gas (O&NG) activity in the Front Range has been growing rapidly. Ratios of observed aromatic hydrocarbons, butanes and pentanes demonstrate distinct fingerprinting that can be used to distinguish both between different types of O&NG activities and between O&NG extraction regions in the FRAPPE study region and beyond. Using the observed hydrocarbon data along with other trace gas observations, we will compare contributions of O&NG emissions to OH reactivities in different regions in the Front Range, and present box model results demonstrating the impact of O&NG activities on ozone formation.

  18. The Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Activity on Ozone Formation in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Hills, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Schroeder, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Richter, D.; Walega, J.; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Campos, T. L.; Stell, M. H.; Heikes, B.; Treadaway, V.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D.; Cohen, R. C.; Flocke, F. M.; Pfister, G.; Knote, C. J.; Emmons, L. K.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) was a ground-based and airborne field study designed to characterize and understand air quality in the Colorado Front Range, where National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) ozone levels are frequently exceeded during summertime. A primary goal of the study was to determine the factors controlling surface ozone in the Front Range. As part of the project, measurements of many trace gases were observed on board the NSF/NCAR C-130 by a suite of instrumentation, including the NCAR Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA), which made measurements of a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs are crucial for characterizing emissions and photochemical processing in the Front Range, as well as the air transported into the region. During recent years, oil and natural gas (O&NG) activity in the Front Range has been growing rapidly. Ratios of observed aromatic hydrocarbons, butanes and pentanes demonstrate distinct fingerprinting that can be used to distinguish both between different types of O&NG activities and between O&NG extraction regions in the FRAPPE study region and beyond. Using the observed hydrocarbon data along with other trace gas observations, we will compare contributions of O&NG emissions to OH reactivities in different regions in the Front Range, and present box model results demonstrating the impact of O&NG activities on ozone formation.

  19. Adsorption of iodine from COIL waste gas on soaked coal-based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junbo; Hao, Shan; Gao, Liping

    2014-04-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has wide application prospects in military, industrial and medical treatment fields as a second generation gas chemical laser to follow the first HF/DF chemical laser. However, a COIL releases large amounts of gas, such as helium, oxygen, chlorine and iodine. Chlorides have a serious corrosive effect on the system, especially iodine vapor crystallization, which seriously endangers the normal use of vacuum systems, and radioactive methyl iodide, which is hazardous to operators and pollutes the environment. The use of soaked coal-based activated carbon as an adsorbent for removing methyl iodine is proposed, while it is proposed that coal-based activated carbon is an effective adsorbent for removing stable iodine. The research conducted in this work shows that iodine residues are less than 0.5 μg ml-1 after the adsorption treatment and the decontamination factor of the coal-based activated carbon for removing stable iodine is more than 1000. Using this method can achieve the purpose of removing harmful iodine, satisfy the requirements for engineering applications, and also be applied to other nuclear power plant flue gas treatments.

  20. NARROW DUST JETS IN A DIFFUSE GAS COMA: A NATURAL PRODUCT OF SMALL ACTIVE REGIONS ON COMETS

    SciTech Connect

    Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V. M.; Rubin, M.; Fougere, N.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2012-04-10

    Comets often display narrow dust jets but more diffuse gas comae when their eccentric orbits bring them into the inner solar system and sunlight sublimates the ice on the nucleus. Comets are also understood to have one or more active areas covering only a fraction of the total surface active with sublimating volatile ices. Calculations of the gas and dust distribution from a small active area on a comet's nucleus show that as the gas moves out radially into the vacuum of space it expands tangentially, filling much of the hemisphere centered on the active region. The dust dragged by the gas remains more concentrated over the active area. This explains some puzzling appearances of comets having collimated dust jets but more diffuse gaseous atmospheres. Our test case is 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Rosetta mission target comet, whose activity is dominated by a single area covering only 4% of its surface.

  1. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-04-07

    This design calculation revises and updates the previous criticality evaluation for the canister handling, transfer and staging operations to be performed in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) documented in BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004 [DIRS 167614]. The purpose of the calculation is to demonstrate that the handling operations of canisters performed in the CHF meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section 4.9.2.2), the nuclear facility safety requirement in ''Project Requirements Document'' (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275], p. 4-206), the functional/operational nuclear safety requirement in the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' document (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557], p. 75), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirements described in the ''Canister Handling Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], Sections 3.1.1.3.4.13 and 3.2.3). Specific scope of work contained in this activity consists of updating the Category 1 and 2 event sequence evaluations as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7). The CHF is limited in throughput capacity to handling sealed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) canisters, defense high-level radioactive waste (DHLW), naval canisters, multicanister overpacks (MCOs), vertical dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), and multipurpose canisters (MPCs) (if and when they become available) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], p. 1-1). It should be noted that the design and safety analyses of the naval canisters are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. In addition, this calculation is valid for the current design of the CHF and may not reflect the ongoing design evolution of the facility

  2. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, G.H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

  3. Effects of Globally Waste-Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Huckaby, James L.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2002-12-18

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  4. Gas6-mediated survival in NIH3T3 cells activates stress signalling cascade and is independent of Ras.

    PubMed

    Goruppi, S; Ruaro, E; Varnum, B; Schneider, C

    1999-07-22

    Gas6 is a growth factor membrane of the vitamin K-dependent family of proteins which is preferentially expressed in quiescent cells. Gas6 was identified as the ligand for Axl tyrosine kinase receptor family. Consistent with this, Gas6 was previously reported to induce cell cycle re-entry of serum-starved NIH3T3 cells and to prevent cell death after complete growth factor withdrawal, the survival effect being uncoupled from Gas6-induced mitogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that both Gas6 mitogenic and survival effects are mediated by Src and the phosphatidylinositol3-OH kinase (PI3K). Here we report that Ras is required for Gas6 mitogenesis but is dispensable for its survival effect. Gas6-induced survival requires the activity of the small GTPases of the Rho family, Rac and Rho, together with the downstream kinase Pak. Overexpression of the respective dominant negative constructs abrogates Gas6-mediated survival functions. Addition of Gas6 to serum starved cells results in the activation of AKT/PKB and in the phosphorylation of the Bcl-2 family member, Bad. By ectopic expression of a catalytically inactive form of AKT/PKB, we demonstrate that AKT/PKB is necessary for Gas6-mediated survival functions. We further show evidence that Gas6 stimulation of serum starved NIH3T3 cells results in a transient ERK, JNK/SAPK and p38 MAPK activation. Blocking ERK activation did not influence Gas6-induced survival, suggesting that such pathway is not involved in Gas6 protection from cell death. On the contrary we found that the late constitutive increase of p38 MAPK activity associated with cell death was downregulated in Gas6-treated NIH3T3 cells thus suggesting that Gas6 might promote survival by interfering with this pathway. Taken together the evidence here provided identity elements involved in Gas6 signalling more specifically elucidating the pathway responsible for Gas6-induced cell survival under conditions that do not allow cell proliferation.

  5. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse by physical activation with CO2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachrun, Sutrisno; AyuRizka, Noni; Annisa, SolichaHidayat; Arif, Hidayat

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to study the effects of different carbonization temperatures (400, 600, and 800oC) on characteristics of porosity in activated carbon derived from carbonized sugarcane bagassechar at activation temperature of 800oC. The results showed that the activated carbon derived from high carbonized temperature of sugarcane bagassechars had higher BET surface area, total volume, micropore volume and yield as compared to the activated carbon derived from low carbonized temperature. The BET surface area, total volume and micropore volume of activated carbon prepared from sugarcane bagassechars obtained at 800oC of carbonized temperature and activation time of 120 min were 661.46m2/g, 0.2455cm3/g and 0.1989cm3/g, respectively. The high carbonization temperature (800oC) generated a highly microporous carbonwith a Type-I nitrogen adsorption isotherm, while the low carbonization temperature (400 and 600oC) generated a mesoporous one with an intermediate between types I and IInitrogen adsorption isotherm.

  6. Removal of VOCs from humidified gas streams using activated carbon cloth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cal, M.P.; Rood, M.J.; Larson, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of relative humidity (RH) on the adsorption of soluble (acetone) and insoluble (benzene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with activated carbon cloths (ACC). A gravimetric balance was used in conjunction with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrophotometer to determine the individual amounts of water and VOC adsorbed on an ACC sample. RH values from 0 to 90% and organic concentrations from 350 to 1000 ppmv were examined. The presence of water vapor in the gas-stream along with acetone (350 and 500 ppmv) had little effect on the adsorption capacity of acetone even at 90% RH. Water vapor in the gas stream had little effect on the adsorption capacity of benzene (500 ppmv) until about 65% RH, when a rapid decrease resulted in the adsorption capacity of benzene with increasing RH. This RH was also about where capillary condensation of water vapor occurs within ACC pores. Water vapor condenses within the ACC pores, making them unavailable for benzene adsorption. Increasing benzene concentration can have a significant effect on the amount of water vapor adsorbed. At 86% RH and 500 ppmv, 284 mg/g water was adsorbed, while at 86% RH and 1000 ppmv, only 165 mg/g water was adsorbed. Water vapor was more inhibitory for benzene adsorption as benzene concentration in the gas stream decreased. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Active seafloor gas vents on the Shelf and upper Slope in Canadian Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S. R.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Blasco, S.; Taylor, A. E.; Melling, H.; Vagle, S.; Conway, K.; Riedel, M.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.

    2012-12-01

    seafloor topographic features on the continental slope suggests these are also active vent sites. Vigorous degassing of methane and pore water freshening in cores from features suggest the presence of near seafloor gas hydrate accumulations. If correct, a feature at 290m depth hosts the shallowest known marine gas hydrate occurrence. Here a layer of very cold ocean waters (-1.7°C) extends to ~200m depths, below which the temperature increases slowly with depth. A consequence of the exceptionally low upper water column temperatures is that the top of the methane hydrate stability zone is only slightly shallower that the 290m seafloor feature. Thus, gas hydrate harbored within seafloor sediments at 290m is vulnerable to decomposition with even subtle climatically-induced warming of the overlying water. Further geoscience studies are planned for 2012 and 2013 to study geological processes, geohazards and the sensitivity of the shelf / slope setting to climate change in the Arctic.

  8. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  9. Extraction, identification, and functional characterization of a bioactive substance from automated compound-handling plastic tips.

    PubMed

    Watson, John; Greenough, Emily B; Leet, John E; Ford, Michael J; Drexler, Dieter M; Belcastro, James V; Herbst, John J; Chatterjee, Moneesh; Banks, Martyn

    2009-06-01

    Disposable plastic labware is ubiquitous in contemporary pharmaceutical research laboratories. Plastic labware is routinely used for chemical compound storage and during automated liquid-handling processes that support assay development, high-throughput screening, structure-activity determinations, and liability profiling. However, there is little information available in the literature on the contaminants released from plastic labware upon DMSO exposure and their resultant effects on specific biological assays. The authors report here the extraction, by simple DMSO washing, of a biologically active substance from one particular size of disposable plastic tips used in automated compound handling. The active contaminant was identified as erucamide ((Z)-docos-13-enamide), a long-chain mono-unsaturated fatty acid amide commonly used in plastics manufacturing, by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of the DMSO-extracted material. Tip extracts prepared in DMSO, as well as a commercially obtained sample of erucamide, were active in a functional bioassay of a known G-protein-coupled fatty acid receptor. A sample of a different disposable tip product from the same vendor did not release detectable erucamide following solvent extraction, and DMSO extracts prepared from this product were inactive in the receptor functional assay. These results demonstrate that solvent-extractable contaminants from some plastic labware used in the contemporary pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) environment can be introduced into physical and biological assays during routine compound management liquid-handling processes. These contaminants may further possess biological activity and are therefore a potential source of assay-specific confounding artifacts.

  10. Infrared Laser Activation of Soluble and Membrane Protein Assemblies in the Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Mikhailov, Victor A; Liko, Idlir; Mize, Todd H; Bush, Matthew F; Benesch, Justin L P; Robinson, Carol V

    2016-07-19

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) is the dominant method for probing intact macromolecular complexes in the gas phase by means of mass spectrometry (MS). The energy obtained from collisional activation is dependent on the charge state of the ion and the pressures and potentials within the instrument: these factors limit CID capability. Activation by infrared (IR) laser radiation offers an attractive alternative as the radiation energy absorbed by the ions is charge-state-independent and the intensity and time scale of activation is controlled by a laser source external to the mass spectrometer. Here we implement and apply IR activation, in different irradiation regimes, to study both soluble and membrane protein assemblies. We show that IR activation using high-intensity pulsed lasers is faster than collisional and radiative cooling and requires much lower energy than continuous IR irradiation. We demonstrate that IR activation is an effective means for studying membrane protein assemblies, and liberate an intact V-type ATPase complex from detergent micelles, a result that cannot be achieved by means of CID using standard collision energies. Notably, we find that IR activation can be sufficiently soft to retain specific lipids bound to the complex. We further demonstrate that, by applying a combination of collisional activation, mass selection, and IR activation of the liberated complex, we can elucidate subunit stoichiometry and the masses of specifically bound lipids in a single MS experiment.

  11. User experience network. Supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units may not activate.

    PubMed

    2009-07-01

    The supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units manufactured before April 2009 may not activate in the event of a gas supply loss if the device's silencer accessory is attached. However, the unit's FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) and low-airway-pressure alarms will activate in such cases. If both of these alarms activate simultaneously, users should suspect a failure of the gas supply pressure. Identifying affected units requires testing that can be conducted during the device's next scheduled maintenance.

  12. Relationship between fumarole gas composition and eruptive activity at Galeras Volcano, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, T.P.; Williams, S.N.; Arehart, G.B.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1996-06-01

    Forecasting volcanic eruptions is critical to the mitigation of hazards for the millions of people living dangerously close to active volcanoes. Volcanic gases collected over five years from Galeras Volcano, Colombia, and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition show the effects of long-term degassing of the magma body and a gradual decline in sulfur content of the gases. In contrast, short-term (weeks), sharp variations are the precursors to explosive eruptions. Selective absorption of magmatic SO{sub 2} and HCl due to interaction with low-temperature geothermal waters allows the gas emissions to become dominated by CO{sub 2}. Absorption appears to precede an eruption because magmatic volatiles are slowed or retained by a sealing carapace, reducing the total flux of volatiles and allowing the hydrothermal volatiles to dominate gas emissions. Temporal changes in gas compositions were correlated with eruptive activity and provide new evidence bearing on the mechanism of this type of `pneumatic` explosive eruptions. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Reversible Storage of Hydrogen and Natural Gas in Nanospace-Engineered Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Beckner, Matt; Rash, Tyler; Yu, Ping; Suppes, Galen; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    An overview is given of the development of advanced nanoporous carbons as storage materials for natural gas (methane) and molecular hydrogen in on-board fuel tanks for next-generation clean automobiles. High specific surface areas, porosities, and sub-nm/supra-nm pore volumes are quantitatively selected by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process. Tunable bimodal pore-size distributions of sub-nm and supra-nm pores are established by subcritical nitrogen adsorption. Optimal pore structures for gravimetric and volumetric gas storage, respectively, are presented. Methane and hydrogen adsorption isotherms up to 250 bar on monolithic and powdered activated carbons are reported and validated, using several gravimetric and volumetric instruments. Current best gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are: 256 g CH4/kg carbon and 132 g CH4/liter carbon at 293 K and 35 bar; 26, 44, and 107 g H2/kg carbon at 303, 194, and 77 K respectively and 100 bar. Adsorbed film density, specific surface area, and binding energy are analyzed separately using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Langmuir model, and lattice gas models.

  14. Airborne Measurements of Emissions from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Activities in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Roiger, A.; Raut, J.; Rose, M.; Weinzierl, B.; Reiter, A.; Thomas, J. L.; Marelle, L.; Law, K.; Schlager, H.

    2013-12-01

    A rapid decline of Arctic sea ice is expected to promote hydrocarbon extraction in the Arctic, which in turn will increase emissions of atmospheric pollutants. To investigate impacts of different pollution sources on the Arctic atmosphere, an aircraft campaign based in northern Norway was conducted in July 2012, as a part of the EU ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change Economy and Society) project. One of the flights focused on measuring emissions from various oil/gas exploration and production facilities ~110 km south of the Arctic Circle in the Norwegian Sea. Fresh and aged (from 5 minutes to 2.5 hours old) exhaust plumes from oil/gas production platforms, drilling rigs and tankers were probed with extensive aerosol and trace gas instrumentations. It was found that different types of facilities emit plumes with distinct chemical compositions. For example, tanker plumes were characterized by high SO2 concentration and high fraction of non-volatile particles while plumes from oil/gas production platforms showed significant increase in the nucleation mode particle concentration. Drilling rigs were found to be high black carbon emitters. In addition to the fresh plumes, relatively aged plumes (1.5 - 2.5 hours old) from a facility under development were measured. Even in these aged plumes, total particle concentrations were more than 6 times higher than the background concentration. Therefore, emissions from oil and gas activities are expected to have a significant impact on local air quality and atmospheric composition. With the aid of FLEXPART-WRF (a Lagrangian dispersion model) simulations, the results of this study will be used to validate and improve current emission inventories. In the future, these improved emission inventories can be used in regional and global chemical transport models to more accurately predict future Arctic air pollution.

  15. Development of Active Gas-Gap Heat Switch for Double-Stage Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishisaki, Y.; Henmi, K.; Akamatsu, H.; Enoki, T.; Ohashi, T.; Hoshino, A.; Shinozaki, K.; Matsuo, H.; Okada, N.; Oshima, T.

    2012-06-01

    We designed and fabricated an active gas-gap heat switch (AGGHS), which ON/OFF the heat conduction between the 1st stage (0.05-2 K) and the 2nd stage (1-4 K) of a double-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (DADR). Our design geometrically separates two components which dominates the ON or OFF performance, and achieved heat conductivity of 6 mW/K (ON) or 4 μW/K (OFF) at 2 K. The ON/OFF is controlled by a heater attached to the charcoal box to adsorb/deadsorb 4He gas inside. We introduced the AGGHS to the DADR and successfully cooled the detector stage down to 60 mK, working properly more than a year.

  16. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The...

  17. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The...

  18. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The...

  19. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The...

  20. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The marine... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable gas detectors....

  1. Handling the Young Cerebral Palsied Child at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnie, Nancie R.

    Written primarily for parents of cerebral palsied children, the text discusses and illustrates methods for handling the child in daily activities. Introduced with a questionnaire concerning developmental stages and activity levels, the manual describes the most common difficulties of the spastic, athetoid, ataxic, or flaccid child. Drawings and…

  2. An Electric Propulsion "Shepherd" for Active Debris Removal that Utilizes Ambient Gas as Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus among the space debris technical community that limiting the long-term growth of debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) requires that space users limit the accumulation of mass in orbit. This is partially accomplished by mitigation measures for current and future LEO systems, but there is now interest in removing mass that has already accumulated in LEO from more than 50 years of space activity (termed "Active Debris Removal", or ADR). Many ADR proposals face complex technical issues of how to grapple with uncooperative targets. Some researchers have suggested the use of conventional ion thrusters to gently "blow" on objects to gradually change their orbits, without ever having to come into physical contact with the target. The chief drawback with these methods is the cost per object removed. Typically, a space "tug" or an ion-drive "shepherd" can only remove a few objects per mission due to limited propellant. Unless a cost-effective way that removes tens of objects per mission can be found, it is not clear that any of the ideas so far proposed will be economically viable. In this paper, a modified version of the ion-drive "shepherd" is proposed that uses ambient atmospheric gases in LEO as propellant for the ion drives. This method has the potential to greatly extend the operational lifetime of an ADR mission, as the only mission limit is the lifetime of the components of the satellite itself, not on its fuel supply. An ambient-gas ion-drive "shepherd" would enhance the local atmospheric drag on an object by ionizing and accelerating the ambient gas the target would have encountered anyway, thereby hastening its decay. Also, the "shepherd" satellite itself has a great deal of flexibility to maneuver back to high altitude and rendezvous with its next target using the ion drive not limited by fuel supply. However, the amount of available ambient gas is closely tied to the altitude of the spacecraft. It may be possible to use a "hybrid

  3. An Electric Propulsion "Shepherd" for Active Debris Removal that Utilizes Ambient Gas as Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus among the space debris technical community that limiting the long ]term growth of debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) requires that space users limit the accumulation of mass in orbit. This is partially accomplished by mitigation measures for current and future LEO systems, but there is now interest in removing mass that has already accumulated in LEO from more than 50 years of space activity (termed "Active Debris Removal", or ADR). Many ADR proposals face complex technical issues of how to grapple with uncooperative targets. Some researchers have suggested the use of conventional ion thrusters to gently "blow" on objects to gradually change their orbits, without ever having to come into physical contact with the target. The chief drawback with these methods is the cost per object removed. Typically, a space "tug" or an ion-drive "shepherd" can only remove a few objects per mission due to limited propellant. Unless a costeffective way that removes tens of objects per mission can be found, it is not clear that any of the ideas so far proposed will be economically viable. In this paper, a modified version of the ion-drive "shepherd" is proposed that uses ambient atmospheric gases in LEO as propellant for the ion drives. This method has the potential to greatly extend the operational lifetime of an ADR mission, as the only mission limit is the lifetime of the components of the satellite itself, not on its fuel supply. An ambient-gas ion-drive "shepherd" would the local atmospheric drag on an object by ionizing and accelerating the ambient gas the target would have encountered anyway, thereby hastening its decay. Also, the "shepherd" satellite itself has a great deal of flexibility to maneuver back to high altitude and rendezvous with its next target using the ion drive not limited by fuel supply. However, the amount of available ambient gas is closely tied to the altitude of the spacecraft. It may be possible to use a "hybrid" approach that

  4. Violent Gas Venting on the Heng-Chun Mud Volcano, South China Sea Active Continental Margin offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; Cheng, W. Y.; Tseng, Y. T.; Chen, N. C.; Hsieh, I. C.; Yang, T. F.

    2014-12-01

    Accumulation of methane as gas hydrate under the sea floor has been considered a major trap for both thermal and biogenic gas in marine environment. Aided by rapid AOM process near the sea floor, fraction of methane escaping the sea floor has been considered at minuscule. However, most studies focused mainly on deepwater gas hydrate systems where gas hydrate remain relatively stable. We have studied methane seeps on the active margin offshore Taiwan, where rapid tectonic activities occur. Our intention is to evaluate the scale and condition of gas seeps in the tectonic active region. Towcam, coring, heat probe, chirp, multibeam bathymetric mapping and echo sounding were conducted at the study areas. Our results showed that gas is violently venting at the active margin, not only through sediments, but also through overlying sea water, directly into the atmosphere. Similar ventings, but, not in this scale, have also been identified previously in the nearby region. High concentrations of methane as well as traces of propane were found in sediments and in waters with flares. In conjunction, abundant chemosynthetic community, life mussel, clams, tube worms, bacterial mats together with high concentrations of dissolve sulfide, large authigenic carbonate buildups were also found. Our results indicate that methane could be another major green house gas in the shallow water active margin region.

  5. Design and testing of a unique active Compton-suppressed LaBr3(Ce) detector system for improved sensitivity assays of TRU in remote-handled TRU wastes

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Hartwell; M. E. McIlwain; J. A. Kulisek

    2007-10-01

    The US Department of Energy’s transuranic (TRU) waste inventory includes about 4,500 m3 of remote-handled TRU (RH-TRU) wastes composed of a variety of containerized waste forms having a contact surface dose rate that exceeds 2 mSv/hr (200 mrem/hr) containing waste materials with a total TRU concentration greater than 3700 Bq/g (100 nCi/g). As part of a research project to investigate the use of active Compton-suppressed room-temperature gamma-ray detectors for direct non-destructive quantification of the TRU content of these RH-TRU wastes, we have designed and purchased a unique detector system using a LaBr3(Ce) primary detector and a NaI(Tl) suppression mantle. The LaBr3(Ce) primary detector is a cylindrical unit ~25 mm in diameter by 76 mm long viewed by a 38 mm diameter photomultiplier. The NaI(Tl) suppression mantle (secondary detector) is 175 mm by 175 mm with a center well that accommodates the primary detector. An important feature of this arrangement is the lack of any “can” between the primary and secondary detectors. These primary and secondary detectors are optically isolated by a thin layer (.003") of aluminized kapton, but the hermetic seal and thus the aluminum can surrounds the outer boundary of the detector system envelope. The hermetic seal at the primary detector PMT is at the PMT wall. This arrangement virtually eliminates the “dead” material between the primary and secondary detectors, a feature that preliminary modeling indicated would substantially improve the Compton suppression capability of this device. This paper presents both the expected performance of this unit determined from modeling with MCNPX, and the performance measured in our laboratory with radioactive sources.

  6. 75 FR 70021 - Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... Location Project purpose FONSI Shell Exploration & Production, Beaufort Sea, Alaska...... Conduct...

  7. Active differential optical absorption spectroscopy for NO2 gas pollution using blue light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljalal, Abdulaziz; Gasmi, Khaled; Al-Basheer, Watheq

    2015-05-01

    Availability of high intensity light emitting diodes in the blue region offer excellent opportunity for using them in active Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) to detect air pollution. Their smooth and relatively broad spectral emissions as well as their long life make them almost ideal light sources for active DOAS. In this study, we report the usage of a blue light emitting diode in an active DOAS setup to measure traces of NO2 gas and achieving few parts per billion detection limit for a path length of 300 m. Details of the setup will be presented along with the effects on measurement accuracy due to shifts in the measured spectra calibration and due to using theoretical instrument Gaussian function instead of the measured instrument function.

  8. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.4 Handle. Handle means to... imported peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by...

  9. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.4 Handle. Handle means to... imported peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by...

  10. 7 CFR 985.8 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.8 Handle. Handle means to prepare oil for market, acquire oil from a producer, use oil commercially of own production, or sell, transport, or ship (except as a common or contract carrier of oil owned by another), or otherwise place...

  11. 7 CFR 985.8 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.8 Handle. Handle means to prepare oil for market, acquire oil from a producer, use oil commercially of own production, or sell, transport, or ship (except as a common or contract carrier of oil owned by another), or otherwise place...

  12. 7 CFR 985.8 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.8 Handle. Handle means to prepare oil for market, acquire oil from a producer, use oil commercially of own production, or sell, transport, or ship (except as a common or contract carrier of oil owned by another), or otherwise place...

  13. 7 CFR 985.8 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.8 Handle. Handle means to prepare oil for market, acquire oil from a producer, use oil commercially of own production, or sell, transport, or ship (except as a common or contract carrier of oil owned by another), or otherwise place...

  14. 7 CFR 985.8 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.8 Handle. Handle means to prepare oil for market, acquire oil from a producer, use oil commercially of own production, or sell, transport, or ship (except as a common or contract carrier of oil owned by another), or otherwise place...

  15. Hubble Space Telescope communications and data handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesko, John

    1991-01-01

    The communications and data handling system of the HST are described in detail. Consideration is given to observation scheduling, commanding, telemetry, scientific data collection, spacecraft data handling systems, and the use of the TDRSS and NASCOM data network. The science instruments control and data handling subsystem is presented in schematic form.

  16. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another)...

  17. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another)...

  18. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another)...

  19. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another)...

  20. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another)...

  1. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  2. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  3. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  4. 7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whey handling. 58.443 Section 58.443 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.443 Whey handling. (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of whey. If outside, necessary precautions shall be taken to minimize flies, insects and development...

  5. 7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey handling. 58.443 Section 58.443 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.443 Whey handling. (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of whey. If outside, necessary precautions shall be taken to minimize flies, insects and development...

  6. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  7. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  8. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  9. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  10. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  11. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  12. Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

    2007-12-01

    An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

  13. The influence of variations in biophysical conditions on hemolysis near ultrasonically activated gas-filled micropores

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.; Thomas, R.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Hemolysis induced by 1.9-MHz ultrasound in 0.5% suspensions of canine erythrocytes with 3.7-{mu}m-diam micropore-trapped gas bodies was investigated for a variety of biophysical conditions. For isotonic media, hemolysis increased with exposure duration but did not greatly change with exposure temperature, or prior heat treatment. The temperature results were especially interesting because increased temperatures might have been expected to increase the sensitivity of the cells to the ultrasonically activated gas bodies. Variations in osmolarity had little influence on the results. Increasing the viscosity of the medium decreased the effect, and this did not seem to depend on the molecular weight of the dextran additive. A medium with elevated mass density seemed to increase the effectiveness of the exposures. This condition eliminated the density difference between the cells and the medium, and might have been expected to reduce the effectiveness of the exposures, because the radiation force, which theoretically gathers cells to the gas bodies, is minimized for such conditions. This information should aid in developing refinements to the theoretical understanding of low-intensity ultrasonic bioeffects.

  14. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding

    PubMed Central

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558 MPa) and wire feed rate, 19 m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7 mm, welding speed, 200 mm/min, welding voltage, 30 V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10 L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10–20 L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%. PMID:26491719

  15. Robotic liquid handling and automation in epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Gaisford, Wendy

    2012-10-01

    Automated liquid-handling robots and high-throughput screening (HTS) are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the screening of large compound libraries, small molecules for activity against disease-relevant target pathways, or proteins. HTS robots capable of low-volume dispensing reduce assay setup times and provide highly accurate and reproducible dispensing, minimizing variation between sample replicates and eliminating the potential for manual error. Low-volume automated nanoliter dispensers ensure accuracy of pipetting within volume ranges that are difficult to achieve manually. In addition, they have the ability to potentially expand the range of screening conditions from often limited amounts of valuable sample, as well as reduce the usage of expensive reagents. The ability to accurately dispense lower volumes provides the potential to achieve a greater amount of information than could be otherwise achieved using manual dispensing technology. With the emergence of the field of epigenetics, an increasing number of drug discovery companies are beginning to screen compound libraries against a range of epigenetic targets. This review discusses the potential for the use of low-volume liquid handling robots, for molecular biological applications such as quantitative PCR and epigenetics. PMID:22933618

  16. Robotic liquid handling and automation in epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Gaisford, Wendy

    2012-10-01

    Automated liquid-handling robots and high-throughput screening (HTS) are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the screening of large compound libraries, small molecules for activity against disease-relevant target pathways, or proteins. HTS robots capable of low-volume dispensing reduce assay setup times and provide highly accurate and reproducible dispensing, minimizing variation between sample replicates and eliminating the potential for manual error. Low-volume automated nanoliter dispensers ensure accuracy of pipetting within volume ranges that are difficult to achieve manually. In addition, they have the ability to potentially expand the range of screening conditions from often limited amounts of valuable sample, as well as reduce the usage of expensive reagents. The ability to accurately dispense lower volumes provides the potential to achieve a greater amount of information than could be otherwise achieved using manual dispensing technology. With the emergence of the field of epigenetics, an increasing number of drug discovery companies are beginning to screen compound libraries against a range of epigenetic targets. This review discusses the potential for the use of low-volume liquid handling robots, for molecular biological applications such as quantitative PCR and epigenetics.

  17. Investigation of CO2 induced biogeochemical reactions and active microorganisms of two German gas fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoth, N.; Kassahun, A.; Seifert, J.; Krüger, M.; Bretschneider, H.; Gniese, C.; Frerichs, J.; Simon, A.; Simon, E.; Muschalle, T.

    2009-04-01

    can be summarised, that mainly the differences between wells treated with chemical foams (to enhance the gas lift) and such without this treatment have to take into account. The autoclave experiments for the Schneeren site show the importance of biogeochemical reactions for the long-term pressure behaviour of the storage unit. During autotrophic (CO2 consuming) metabolic activities a CO2 turnover into the liquid and solid phase takes place (DOC increase, carbonate phase formation). Without the knowledge of these biogeochemical induced processes the accompanied decreasing pressure can be interpreted wrongly as a leaky storage unit. That's why a well-founded biogeochemical process understanding is important.

  18. Measurement of activity coefficients of mixtures by head-space gas chromatography: general procedure.

    PubMed

    Luis, Patricia; Wouters, Christine; Van der Bruggen, Bart; Sandler, Stanley I

    2013-08-01

    Head-space gas chromatography (HS-GC) is an applicable method to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements and determine activity coefficients. However, the reproducibility of the data may be conditioned by the experimental procedure concerning to the automated pressure-balanced system. The study developed in this work shows that a minimum volume of liquid in the vial is necessary to ensure the reliability of the activity coefficients since it may become a parameter that influences the magnitude of the peak areas: the helium introduced during the pressurization step may produce significant variations of the results when too small volume of liquid is selected. The minimum volume required should thus be evaluated prior to obtain experimentally the concentration in the vapor phase and the activity coefficients. In this work, the mixture acetonitrile-toluene is taken as example, requiring a sample volume of more than 5mL (about more than 25% of the vial volume). The vapor-liquid equilibrium and activity coefficients of mixtures at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 molar fraction) and four temperatures (35, 45, 55 and 70°C) have been determined. Relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 5% have been obtained, indicating the good reproducibility of the method when a sample volume larger than 5mL is used. Finally, a general procedure to measure activity coefficients by means of pressure-balanced head-space gas chromatography is proposed. PMID:23809803

  19. A SiO 2-1 SURVEY TOWARD GAS-RICH ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Jiangshui; Shi, Yong; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2013-12-01

    In order to study the feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we performed a survey of SiO J = 2-1 (v = 0) transition toward ten gas-rich active galaxies with the IRAM 30 m telescope. As the first survey of SiO in such galaxies, we detected SiO J = 2-1 (v = 0) emission in six galaxies above the 3σ level and one galaxy (NGC 3690) at the 2.7σ level. The detection rate is not related to the AGN type or to star formation activity. In comparison with M82, which is a pure star-forming galaxy without nuclear activity, our SiO detections could not be completely ascribed to being due to star formation activity. This suggests that the AGN feedback may be efficient in producing SiO molecules in such galaxies. Further surveys with large single-dish millimeter telescopes and interferometers are necessary for understanding the origin of SiO in galaxies with nuclear activity.

  20. Tumor-selective mitochondrial network collapse induced by atmospheric gas plasma-activated medium.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kosuke; Asai, Tomohiko; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Sahara, Junki; Koguchi, Haruhisa; Fukuda, Noboru; Suzuki-Karasaki, Miki; Soma, Masayoshi; Suzuki-Karasaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-04-12

    Non-thermal atmospheric gas plasma (AGP) exhibits cytotoxicity against malignant cells with minimal cytotoxicity toward normal cells. However, the mechanisms of its tumor-selective cytotoxicity remain unclear. Here we report that AGP-activated medium increases caspase-independent cell death and mitochondrial network collapse in a panel of human cancer cells, but not in non-transformed cells. AGP irradiation stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in AGP-activated medium, and in turn the resulting stable ROS, most likely hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), activated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial ROS (mROS) accumulation. Culture in AGP-activated medium resulted in cell death and excessive mitochondrial fragmentation and clustering, and these responses were inhibited by ROS scavengers. AGP-activated medium also increased dynamin-related protein 1-dependent mitochondrial fission in a tumor-specific manner, and H2O2 administration showed similar effects. Moreover, the vulnerability of tumor cells to mitochondrial network collapse appeared to result from their higher sensitivity to mROS accumulation induced by AGP-activated medium or H2O2. The present findings expand our previous observations on death receptor-mediated tumor-selective cell killing and reinforce the importance of mitochondrial network remodeling as a powerful target for tumor-selective cancer treatment.

  1. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P.

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  2. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2006-12-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  3. Waste Handling Practices for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Severynse, T.F.

    2000-08-04

    Solid waste handling operations refers to all activities associated with the segregation, collection, packaging, assay, storage, and removal of solid radioactive waste from radiological facilities. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) is expected to generate the following types of radiological waste, as defined in WSRC Manual 1S, ''Waste Acceptance Criteria'': Low level waste; Mixed hazardous waste; TRU waste; and Mixed TRU waste. Historically, waste handling activities have been demanding proportionately larger amounts of labor, time, and space to effectively manage waste in accordance with increasing regulatory requirements. Since the PIP will be designed for an annual throughput of five metric tonnes plutonium, the facility waste handling operations can be expected to have at least twice the impact of such operations at existing facilities.

  4. Influence of altered precipitation pattern on greenhouse gas emissions and soil enzyme activities in Pannonian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Stefan Johannes; Michel, Kerstin; Berthold, Helene; Baumgarten, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kitzler, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation patterns are likely to be altered due to climate change. Recent models predict a reduction of mean precipitation during summer accompanied by a change in short-term precipitation variability for central Europe. Correspondingly, the risk for summer drought is likely to increase. This may especially be valid for regions which already have the potential for rare, but strong precipitation events like eastern Austria. Given that these projections hold true, soils in this area will receive water irregularly in few, heavy rainfall events and be subjected to long-lasting dry periods in between. This pattern of drying/rewetting can alter soil greenhouse gas fluxes, creating a potential feedback mechanism for climate change. Microorganisms are the key players in most soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformation processes including greenhouse gas exchange. A conceptual model proposed by Schimel and colleagues (2007) links microbial stress-response physiology to ecosystem-scale biogeochemical processes: In order to cope with decreasing soil water potential, microbes modify resource allocation patterns from growth to survival. However, it remains unclear how microbial resource acquisition via extracellular enzymes and microbial-controlled greenhouse gas fluxes respond to water stress induced by soil drying/rewetting. We designed a laboratory experiment to test for effects of multiple drying/rewetting cycles on soil greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O, NO), microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity. Three soils representing the main soil types of eastern Austria were collected in June 2012 at the Lysimeter Research Station of the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) in Vienna. Soils were sieved to 2mm, filled in steel cylinders and equilibrated for one week at 50% water holding capacity (WHC) for each soil. Then soils were separated into two groups: One group received water several times per week (C=control), the other group received

  5. Impact of activity driver uncertainty on methane emissions from the natural gas transmission and storage sector in the United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerle, D.

    2015-12-01

    Increased exploration, production and use of natural gas has raised interest in methane emissions from the natural gas industry, since methane is the primary component of natural gas and a potent greenhouse gas. A recent study of the transmission and storage (T&S) sector in the United States indicated that activity estimates - i.e. estimates of the number of facilities, facility configuration, equipment utilization, and similar - may have as large an impact on national estimates of emissions as estimates of emissions rates for various emission categories. This presentation highlights the development of activity estimates for T&S and the impact of the estimates on the magnitude and uncertainty of national emissions estimates. Finally, the work suggest methods a hierarchy of methods for collecting additional activity data that could balance reporting requirements with scientific benefit.

  6. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    B. Dianda

    2004-06-23

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their related

  7. Satellite observation of pollutant emissions from gas flaring activities near the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Hsu, N. Christina; Sayer, Andrew M.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Fu, Joshua S.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Lee, Jaehwa; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2016-05-01

    Gas flaring is a common practice in the oil industry that can have significant environmental impacts, but has until recently been largely overlooked in terms of relevance to climate change. We utilize data from various satellite sensors to examine pollutant emissions from oil exploitation activities in four areas near the Arctic. Despite the remoteness of these sparsely populated areas, tropospheric NO2 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is substantial at ˜1 × 1015 molecules cm-2, suggesting sizeable emissions from these industrial activities. Statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level, corresponding uncertainties in parentheses) increasing trends of 0.017 (±0.01) × 1015 and 0.015 (±0.006) × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1 over 2004-2015 were found for Bakken (USA) and Athabasca (Canada), two areas having recently experienced fast expansion in the oil industry. This rapid change has implications for emission inventories, which are updated less frequently. No significant trend was found for the North Sea (Europe), where oil production has been declining since the 1990s. For northern Russia, the trend was just under the 95% significance threshold at 0.0057 (±0.006) × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1. This raises an interesting inconsistency as prior studies have suggested that, in contrast to the continued, albeit slow, expansion of Russian oil/gas production, gas flaring in Russia has decreased in recent years. However, only a fraction of oil fields in Russia were covered in our analysis. Satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data revealed similar tendencies, albeit at a weaker level of statistical significance, due to the longer lifetime of aerosols and contributions from other sources. This study demonstrates that synergetic use of data from multiple satellite sensors can provide valuable information on pollutant emission sources that is otherwise difficult to acquire.

  8. Gas-leaking fuel elements number and fission gas product coolant volumetric activities assessment in the VVER-440 nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuta, Marcin

    1992-07-01

    In a nuclear power plant it is required to monitor continuously the number of gas-leaking fuel elements and the contamination level of the primary coolant by fission gas products. It is proposed to use the radiation monitoring system equipped with the computer technics provided with the suitable program package for fulfilment this requirements. The input data to start up the program consists of the 88Kr volumetric activity measured by the radiation monitoring system and three actual technological parameters: coolant temperature at inlet, thermal power and coolant flow rate.

  9. Risk assessment of oil and gas well drilling activities in Iran - a case study: human factors.

    PubMed

    Amir-Heidari, Payam; Farahani, Hadi; Ebrahemzadih, Mehrzad

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling activities are associated with numerous hazards which have the potential to cause injury or harm for people, property and the environment. These hazards are also a threat for the reputation of drilling companies. To prevent accidents and undesired events in drilling operations it is essential to identify, evaluate, assess and control the attendant risks. In this work, a structured methodology is proposed for risk assessment of drilling activities. A case study is performed to identify, analyze and assess the risks arising from human factors in one of the on shore drilling sites in southern Iran. A total of 17 major hazards were identified and analyzed using the proposed methodology. The results showed that the residual risks of 100% of these hazards were in the acceptable or transitional zone, and their levels were expected to be lowered further by proper controls. This structured methodology may also be used in other drilling sites and companies for assessing the risks.

  10. Toluene vapor capture by activated carbon particles in a dual gas-solid cyclone system.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun Hui; Ngo, Khanh Quoc; Park, Young Koo; Jo, Young Min

    2012-08-01

    Capturing of odorous compounds such as toluene vapor by a particulate-activated carbon adsorbent was investigated in a gas-solid cyclone, which is one type of mobile beds. The test cyclone was early modified with the post cyclone (PoC) and a spiral flow guide to the vortex finder. The proposed process may contribute to the reduction of gases and dust from industrial exhausts, especially when dealing with a low concentration of odorous elements and a large volume ofdust flow. In this device, the toluene capturing efficiency at a 400 ppm concentration rose up to 77.4% when using activated carbon (AC) particles with a median size of 27.03 microm. A maximum 96% of AC particles could be collected for reuse depending on the size and flow rate. The AC regenerated via thermal treatment showed an adsorption potential up to 66.7% throughout repeated tests.

  11. Simulation of mercury capture by activated carbon injection in incinerator flue gas. 2. Fabric filter removal.

    PubMed

    Scala, F

    2001-11-01

    Following a companion paper focused on the in-duct mercury capture in incinerator flue gas by powdered activated carbon injection, this paper is concerned with the additional mercury capture on the fabric filter cake, relevant to baghouse equipped facilities. A detailed model is presented for this process, based on material balances on mercury in both gaseous and adsorbed phases along the growing filter cake and inside the activated carbon particles,taking into account mass transfer resistances and adsorption kinetics. Several sorbents of practical interest have been considered, whose parameters have been evaluated from available literature data. The values and range of the operating variables have been chosen in order to simulate typical incinerators operating conditions. Results of simulations indicate that, contrary to the in-duct removal process, high mercury removal efficiencies can be obtained with moderate sorbent consumption, as a consequence of the effective gas/sorbent contacting on the filter. Satisfactory utilization of the sorbents is predicted, especially at long filtration times. The sorbent feed rate can be minimized by using a reactive sorbent and by lowering the filter temperature as much as possible. Minor benefits can be obtained also by decreasing the sorbent particle size and by increasing the cleaning cycle time of the baghouse compartments. Reverse-flow baghouses were more efficient than pulse-jet baghouses, while smoother operation can be obtained by increasing the number of baghouse compartments. Model results are compared with available relevant full scale data. PMID:11718360

  12. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2005-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  13. ENERGY EFFICIENT THERMAL MANAGEMENT FOR NATURAL GAS ENGINE AFTERTREATMENT VIA ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen

    2004-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  14. Simulation of mercury capture by activated carbon injection in incinerator flue gas. 2. Fabric filter removal.

    PubMed

    Scala, F

    2001-11-01

    Following a companion paper focused on the in-duct mercury capture in incinerator flue gas by powdered activated carbon injection, this paper is concerned with the additional mercury capture on the fabric filter cake, relevant to baghouse equipped facilities. A detailed model is presented for this process, based on material balances on mercury in both gaseous and adsorbed phases along the growing filter cake and inside the activated carbon particles,taking into account mass transfer resistances and adsorption kinetics. Several sorbents of practical interest have been considered, whose parameters have been evaluated from available literature data. The values and range of the operating variables have been chosen in order to simulate typical incinerators operating conditions. Results of simulations indicate that, contrary to the in-duct removal process, high mercury removal efficiencies can be obtained with moderate sorbent consumption, as a consequence of the effective gas/sorbent contacting on the filter. Satisfactory utilization of the sorbents is predicted, especially at long filtration times. The sorbent feed rate can be minimized by using a reactive sorbent and by lowering the filter temperature as much as possible. Minor benefits can be obtained also by decreasing the sorbent particle size and by increasing the cleaning cycle time of the baghouse compartments. Reverse-flow baghouses were more efficient than pulse-jet baghouses, while smoother operation can be obtained by increasing the number of baghouse compartments. Model results are compared with available relevant full scale data.

  15. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  16. The effect of mustard gas on the biological activity of soil.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, N; Polyak, Yu; Kuzikova, I; Orlova, O; Zharikov, G

    2008-03-01

    A special group of substances that are very dangerous for the biosphere includes war gases such as mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The influence of mustard gas hydrolysis products (MGHPs) on soil microbiota has been investigated. These substances bear numerous toxic effects on soil microorganisms. They change significantly the number and the specific composition of soil microbiota and inhibit the enzyme activity of soils. The main "ecological targets" of mustard and its hydrolysis products' toxic action have been determined. MGHPs affect the growth and reproduction of soil micromycetes, as well as their morphological and cultural properties. Increase in number and size of mitochondria in the fungal cells is accompanied by increase in dehydrogenases activity. Cell permeability influenced by MGHPs grows in connection with concentration of toxicants. Increase of permeability corresponds to growth of the amount of unsaturated fatty acids. The changes in the fatty acid composition of lipids in the cells of the soil micromycetes display their adaptation to adverse impact of the substances studied. MGHPs and thiodiglycol enhance synthesis of polysaccharides and pigments.

  17. A census of gas outflows in type 2 active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Woo, Jong-Hak E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-11-01

    We perform a census of ionized gas outflows using a sample of ∼23,000 type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z ∼ 0.1. By measuring the velocity offset of narrow emission lines, i.e., [O III] λ5007 and Hα, with respect to the systemic velocity measured from the stellar absorption lines, we find that 47% of AGNs display an [O III] line-of-sight velocity offset ≥ 20 km s{sup –1}. The fraction of the [O III] velocity offset in type 2 AGNs is comparable to that in type 1 AGNs after considering the projection effect. AGNs with a large [O III] velocity offset preferentially have a high Eddington ratio, implying that the detected velocity offsets are related to black hole activity. The distribution of the host galaxy inclination is clearly different between the AGNs with blueshifted [O III] and the AGNs with redshifted [O III], supporting the combined model of the biconical outflow and dust obscuration. In addition, for ∼3% of AGNs, [O III] and Hα show comparable large velocity offsets, indicating a more complex gas kinematics than decelerating outflows in a stratified narrow-line region.

  18. The effect of mustard gas on the biological activity of soil.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, N; Polyak, Yu; Kuzikova, I; Orlova, O; Zharikov, G

    2008-03-01

    A special group of substances that are very dangerous for the biosphere includes war gases such as mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The influence of mustard gas hydrolysis products (MGHPs) on soil microbiota has been investigated. These substances bear numerous toxic effects on soil microorganisms. They change significantly the number and the specific composition of soil microbiota and inhibit the enzyme activity of soils. The main "ecological targets" of mustard and its hydrolysis products' toxic action have been determined. MGHPs affect the growth and reproduction of soil micromycetes, as well as their morphological and cultural properties. Increase in number and size of mitochondria in the fungal cells is accompanied by increase in dehydrogenases activity. Cell permeability influenced by MGHPs grows in connection with concentration of toxicants. Increase of permeability corresponds to growth of the amount of unsaturated fatty acids. The changes in the fatty acid composition of lipids in the cells of the soil micromycetes display their adaptation to adverse impact of the substances studied. MGHPs and thiodiglycol enhance synthesis of polysaccharides and pigments. PMID:17537425

  19. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Beesley

    2005-04-21

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  20. Intelligent packaging and material handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Shell, Richard; Slutzky, Gale D.

    1991-02-01

    The problem of palletizing (stacking on a pallet) randomly arriving mixed size and content parcels is an important task in most distribution warehouses. Today this task requires human interaction for a solution however recently several attempts have been made to automate the solution. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the problem an expert system approach and an estimate of the key subproblems which have been identified which are necessary for a solution. The concepts of space filling and emptying as encountered in warehousing are briefly described. Also brief descriptions of two generations of a robotic system for mixed parcel palletizing are presented. The results with these test systems indicate that automatic parcel handling at speeds comparable to humans is feasible however further work is required to obtain a robust solution.

  1. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling...

  2. Active control of combustion instabilities in low NO{sub x} gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Neumeier, Y.

    1995-10-01

    This 3-year research program was initiated in September, 1995, to investigate active control of detrimental combustion instabilities in low NO{sub x} gas turbines (LNGT), which burn natural gas in a lean premixed mode to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. The program will investigate the mechanisms that drive these instabilities. Furthermore, it will study active control systems (ACS) that can effectively prevent the onset of such instabilities and/or reduce their amplitudes to acceptable levels. An understanding of the driving mechanisms will not only guide the development of effective ACS for LNGT but may also lead to combustor design changes (i.e., passive control) that will fully or partially resolve the problem. Initial attempts to stabilize combustors (i.e., chemical rockets) by ACS were reported more than 40 years ago, but were unsuccessful due to lack of adequate sensors, electronics, and actuators for performing the needed control actions. Progress made in recent years in sensor and actuator technology, electronics, and control theory has rekindled interest in developing ACS for unstable combustors. While initial efforts in this area, which focused on active control of instabilities in air breathing combustors, have demonstrated the considerable potential of active control, they have also indicated that more effective observers, controllers, and actuators are needed for practical applications. Considerable progress has been made in the observer and actuator areas by the principal investigators of this program during the past 2 years under an AFOSR program. The developed observer is based upon wavelets theory, and can identify the amplitudes, frequencies, and phases of the five most dominant combustor modes in (virtually) real time. The developed actuator is a fuel injector that uses a novel magneto-strictive material to modulate the fuel flow rate into the combustor.

  3. Integrated Payload Data Handling Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGeorge, T.; Wishart, A.; Hann, M.; Phan, N.; Carr, C. M.; Cupido, E.; Fox, P.; Oddy, T.; McGregor, A.; Marshall, A.; Waltham, N.

    2013-09-01

    An integrated Payload Data Handling System (IPDHS) is one in which multiple instruments share a central payload processor for their on-board data processing tasks. This offers a number of advantages over the conventional decentralised architecture. Savings in payload mass and power can be realised because the total processing resource is matched to the requirement, as opposed to the decentralised architecture where the processing resource is in effect the sum of all the applications. Overall development cost can be reduced using a common processor. At individual instrument level the potential benefits include a standardised application development environment, and the opportunity to run the instrument data handling application on a fully redundant and more powerful processor. This paper describes a joint programme by Astrium Ltd, SCISYS UK Limited, Imperial College London and RAL Space to implement a realistic demonstration of an I-PDHS using engineering models of flight instruments (a magnetometer and a camera) and a laboratory demonstrator of a central payload processor which is functionally representative of a flight design. The objective is to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the centralised data processing technique by addressing the key areas of task partitioning to prevent fault propagation and the use of a common development process for the instrument applications. The project is supported by a UK Space Agency grant awarded under the National Space Technology Programme SpaceCITI scheme. The demonstration system is set up at the UK Space Agency's International Space Innovation Centre (ISIC) at Harwell and makes use of the ISIC Concurrent Design Facility (CDF).

  4. Preliminary results of systematic sampling of gas manifestations in geodynamically active areas of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; D'Alessandro, Walter; Calabrese, Sergio; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Greece is located on a convergent plate boundary comprising the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian, while the Arabian plate approaches the Eurasian in a northwestward motion. It is considered to be one of the most tectonically active regions of Earth with a complex geodynamic setting, deriving from a long and complicated geological history. Due to this specific geological background, conditions for the formation of many thermal springs are favoured. In the past years, almost all the already known sites of degassing (fumaroles, soil gases, mofettes, gas bubbling in cold and thermal waters) located in the Hellenic area were sampled at least one time. Collected samples were analysed for their chemical (He, Ne, Ar, O2, N2, H2, H2S, CO, CH4 and CO2) and isotopic composition (He, C and N). Some of these sites have been selected for systematic sampling. Four of them have records longer than 10 years with tens of samplings also considering some literature data. Two of the sites are located in active volcanic areas (Santorini and Nisyros) while the other two are close to actively spreading graben structures with intense seismic activity (Gulf of Korinth and Sperchios basin). Results allowed to define long term background values and also some interesting variation related to seismic or volcanic activity.

  5. Modeling Hot Gas Flow in the Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus of NGC3115

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Wong, K.; Irwin, J.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the dynamical estimates of the black hole (BH) mass, NGC3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this work we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy by the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. We reach reduced χi^2=1 fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed X-ray data. Radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3*10^{9}Msun. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r_ s 1arcsec, so that most of gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius r_B=2-4arcsec, outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2*10^{-3}Msun/yr. We find a shallow density profile r^{-β} with β 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.5-10arcsec as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r<1arcsec, and (4) the outflow at r>1arcsec. Conduction makes the density profile shallow only very close to the BH at r<0.1arcsec. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature T_v at any radius. The temperature profile is shallow outside of the Bondi radius because the enclosed stellar mass is proportional to radius M_en r, which leads to flat virial temperature profile.

  6. Modeling hot gas flow in the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus of NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2014-02-20

    Based on the dynamical black hole (BH) mass estimates, NGC 3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1 Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC 3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this paper we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy from the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction as the small-scale feedback mechanism, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. Fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed data, we find the best-fitting solutions with χ{sup 2}/dof = 1.00 for dof = 236 both with and without conduction. The radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r {sub st} ≲ 1'', so that most of the gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius r{sub B} = 2''-4'', outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We find a shallow density profile n∝r {sup –β} with β ≈ 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.''5-10'' as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r ≲ 1'', and (4) the outflow at r ≳ 1''. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature T{sub v} at any radius.

  7. Predicting mixed-gas adsorption equilibria on activated carbon for precombustion CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    García, S; Pis, J J; Rubiera, F; Pevida, C

    2013-05-21

    We present experimentally measured adsorption isotherms of CO2, H2, and N2 on a phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbon, which had been previously synthesized for the separation of CO2 in a precombustion capture process. The single component adsorption isotherms were measured in a magnetic suspension balance at three different temperatures (298, 318, and 338 K) and over a large range of pressures (from 0 to 3000-4000 kPa). These values cover the temperature and pressure conditions likely to be found in a precombustion capture scenario, where CO2 needs to be separated from a CO2/H2/N2 gas stream at high pressure (~1000-1500 kPa) and with a high CO2 concentration (~20-40 vol %). Data on the pure component isotherms were correlated using the Langmuir, Sips, and dual-site Langmuir (DSL) models, i.e., a two-, three-, and four-parameter model, respectively. By using the pure component isotherm fitting parameters, adsorption equilibrium was then predicted for multicomponent gas mixtures by the extended models. The DSL model was formulated considering the energetic site-matching concept, recently addressed in the literature. Experimental gas-mixture adsorption equilibrium data were calculated from breakthrough experiments conducted in a lab-scale fixed-bed reactor and compared with the predictions from the models. Breakthrough experiments were carried out at a temperature of 318 K and five different pressures (300, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 kPa) where two different CO2/H2/N2 gas mixtures were used as the feed gas in the adsorption step. The DSL model was found to be the one that most accurately predicted the CO2 adsorption equilibrium in the multicomponent mixture. The results presented in this work highlight the importance of performing experimental measurements of mixture adsorption equilibria, as they are of utmost importance to discriminate between models and to correctly select the one that most closely reflects the actual process.

  8. Cask system design guidance for robotic handling

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J.M.; Drotning, W.D.; Morimoto, A.K.; Bennett, P.C.

    1990-10-01

    Remote automated cask handling has the potential to reduce both the occupational exposure and the time required to process a nuclear waste transport cask at a handling facility. The ongoing Advanced Handling Technologies Project (AHTP) at Sandia National Laboratories is described. AHTP was initiated to explore the use of advanced robotic systems to perform cask handling operations at handling facilities for radioactive waste, and to provide guidance to cask designers regarding the impact of robotic handling on cask design. The proof-of-concept robotic systems developed in AHTP are intended to extrapolate from currently available commercial systems to the systems that will be available by the time that a repository would be open for operation. The project investigates those cask handling operations that would be performed at a nuclear waste repository facility during cask receiving and handling. The ongoing AHTP indicates that design guidance, rather than design specification, is appropriate, since the requirements for robotic handling do not place severe restrictions on cask design but rather focus on attention to detail and design for limited dexterity. The cask system design features that facilitate robotic handling operations are discussed, and results obtained from AHTP design and operation experience are summarized. The application of these design considerations is illustrated by discussion of the robot systems and their operation on cask feature mock-ups used in the AHTP project. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Curt N.

    2012-07-01

    For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

  10. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-01

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site`s suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling.

  11. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  12. Key factor in rice husk Ash/CaO sorbent for high flue gas desulfurization activity.

    PubMed

    Dahlan, Irvan; Lee, Keat Teong; Kamaruddin, Azlina Harun; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2006-10-01

    Siliceous materials such as rice husk ash (RHA) have potential to be utilized as high performance sorbents for the flue gas desulfurization process in small-scale industrial boilers. This study presents findings on identifying the key factorfor high desulfurization activity in sorbents prepared from RHA. Initially, a systematic approach using central composite rotatable design was used to develop a mathematical model that correlates the sorbent preparation variables to the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. The sorbent preparation variables studied are hydration period, x1 (6-16 h), amount of RHA, x2 (5-15 g), amount of CaO, x3 (2-6 g), amount of water, x4 (90-110 mL), and hydration temperature, x5 (150-250 degrees C). The mathematical model developed was subjected to statistical tests and the model is adequate for predicting the SO2 desulfurization activity of the sorbent within the range of the sorbent preparation variables studied. Based on the model, the amount of RHA, amount of CaO, and hydration period used in the preparation step significantly influenced the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. The ratio of RHA and CaO used in the preparation mixture was also a significant factor that influenced the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. A RHA to CaO ratio of 2.5 leads to the formation of specific reactive species in the sorbent that are believed to be the key factor responsible for high desulfurization activity in the sorbent. Other physical properties of the sorbent such as pore size distribution and surface morphology were found to have insignificant influence on the desulfurization activity of the sorbent.

  13. Preliminary radiation dose assessment to WIPP waste handling personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Harvill, J P

    1985-02-01

    For CH TRU waste handling operations, the receipt and unloading of the TRUPACT is estimated to result in doses to the waste handlers and radiation control personnel of 4.46 man-rem and 0.45 man-rem, respectively. Another portion of the CH TRU waste handling operation which is estimated to result in a relatively high percentage of the total dose is the transfer of CH TRU waste containers from the hoist cage area and subsequent storage in the underground areas. The doses calculated for waste handling and radiation control personnel are 1.87 and 0.45 man-rem, respectivley. These doses represent 24% and 30% of the total CH TRU waste handling doses for these two occupational groups. For RH TRU waste handling the doses are more evenly distributed over the operational steps. The only operational segment which may be clearly considered as resulting in a large percentage of the total RH TRU waste handling dose is the emplacement operation. The series of steps comprising the emplacement operation result in 0.35 man-rem and 0.034 man-rem to the waste handlers and radiation control personnel, respectively. Annual, external wholebody doses for all waste handling operations and support activities are estimated as 11.02 man-rem for waste handlers and 2.41 man-rem for radiation control personnel. With current manpower levels of 16 waste handlers and 8 radiation control personnel, the calculated dose per worker is 0.69 rem for waste handlers and 0.30 rem for radiation control personnel. Combining the highest calculated organ dose with the external wholebody dose, the total dose to the bone per worker is 0.81 rem for waste handlers and 0.45 rem for radiation control personnel. These estimated doses fall below the Department of Energy design requirement that the combined external and internal doses be less than ones rem per person per year.

  14. Determination of Carboxypeptidase Activity in Clinical Pathogens by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lough, Fraser; Perry, John D.; Stanforth, Stephen P.; Dean, John R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel method for the determination of benzoic acid has been employed to identify carboxypeptidase activities in clinically relevant pathogens. Benzoic acid was determined after chemical derivatization by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). N-Benzoyl amino acid substrates were evaluated for the detection of carboxypeptidase activities in a number of clinical pathogens. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis of these substrates, benzoic acid was produced which was detected by extraction from the liquid culture supernatant, derivatization as the trimethylsilyl ester, with subsequent analysis by GC–MS. Enzymatic hydrolysis of N-benzoyl glycine was observed for S. agalactiae, M. morganii, and A. baumannii. In addition, P. fluorescens was found to hydrolyze N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid. Although the method provides an alternative approach for determining carboxypeptidase activity, ultimately it would not be a suitable method in a clinical setting. However, the method is well-suited for identifying carboxypeptidase activities that have not been previously described or to corroborate a carboxypeptidase assay with the ninhydrin reagent. PMID:27226648

  15. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    This guide recommends procedures for safe handling and disposal of hazardous substances, along with broad recommendations for developing comprehensive laboratory safety programs. Although specific information is provided, general principles which can be adapted to activities in any laboratory are emphasized. Section 1 focuses on procedures for…

  16. Influence of Shielding Gas and Mechanical Activation of Metal Powders on the Quality of Surface Sintered Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The thesis analyses the influence of argon shielding gas and mechanical activation of PMS-1 copper powder and DSK-F75 cobalt chrome molybdenum powder on the surface sintered layer quality under various sintering conditions. Factors affecting the quality of the sintered surface and internal structure are studied. The obtained results prove positive impact of the shielding gas and mechanical activation. Sintering PMS-1 copper powder in argon shielding gas after mechanical activation leads to reduced internal stresses and roughness, as well as improved strength characteristics of the sintered surface. Analysis of sintered samples of mechanically activated DSK-F75 cobalt chrome molybdenum powder shows that the strength of the sintered surface grows porosity and coagulation changes.

  17. CARRIER/CASK HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-23

    The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives casks on railcars and legal-weight trucks (LWTs) (transporters) that transport loaded casks and empty overpacks to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) from the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Casks that come to the MGR on heavy-haul trucks (HHTs) are transferred onto railcars before being brought into the Carrier/Cask Handling System. The system is the interfacing system between the railcars and LWTs and the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) and Canister Transfer System (CTS). The Carrier/Cask Handling System removes loaded casks from the cask transporters and transfers the casks to a transfer cart for either the ATS or CTS, as appropriate, based on cask contents. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives the returned empty casks from the ATS and CTS and mounts the casks back onto the transporters for reshipment. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount loaded casks back onto the transporters and remove empty casks from the transporters. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives overpacks from the ATS loaded with canisters that have been cut open and emptied and mounts the overpacks back onto the transporters for disposal. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount empty overpacks back onto the transporters and remove loaded overpacks from them. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is located within the Carrier Bay of the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of cranes, hoists, manipulators, and supporting equipment. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is designed with the tooling and fixtures necessary for handling a variety of casks. The Carrier/Cask Handling System performance and reliability are sufficient to support the shipping and emplacement schedules for the MGR. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Transport System, ATS, and CTS as noted above. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for building

  18. Managing oil and gas activities in coastal environments. Volume I: comprehensive report. Report for 1977-81

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, W.L.; Jackson, R.; Snyder, B.

    1982-03-01

    This report documents the management of oil and gas development on national wildlife refuges on the Louisiana and Texas coasts. It explains the nature of ownership, leasing rights, and legal considerations related to oil and gas extraction on refuges. The report describes five federal refuges selected for analysis and the different marsh and estuarine ecosystems found on the refuges and in the coastal zone. It explains oil and gas extraction and transport methods used in coastal systems, and examines how each habitat is affected by these activities. Existing regulations and guidelines are analyzed and new ones proposed. The report is a planning tool for refuge personnel to aid them in assessing impacts, issuing permits, and generally managing oil and gas activities.

  19. Study on removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas over activated coke treated by acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinfeng; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Song, Jingke; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Xunan; Xie, Yine

    2015-02-01

    This work addressed the investigation of activated coke (AC) treated by acids. Effects of AC samples, modified by ether different acids (H2SO4, HNO3 and HClO4) or HClO4 of varied concentrations, on Hg0 removal were studied under simulated flue gas conditions. In addition, effects of reaction temperature and individual flue gas components including O2, NO, SO2 and H2O were discussed. In the experiments, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied to explore the surface properties of sorbents and possible mechanism of Hg0 oxidation. Results showed that AC sample treated by HClO4 of 4.5 mol/L exhibited maximum promotion of efficiency on Hg0 removal at 160 °C. NO was proved to be positive in the removal of Hg0. And SO2 displayed varied impact in capturing Hg0 due to the integrated reactions between SO2 and modified AC. The addition of O2 could improve the advancement further to some extent. Besides, the Hg0 removal capacity had a slight declination when H2O was added in gas flow. Based on the analysis of XPS and FTIR, the selected sample absorbed Hg0 mostly in chemical way. The reaction mechanism, deduced from results of characterization and performance of AC samples, indicated that Hg0 could firstly be absorbed on sorbent and then react with oxygen-containing (Csbnd O) or chlorine-containing groups (Csbnd Cl) on the surface of sorbent. And the products were mainly in forms of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and mercuric oxide (HgO).

  20. Three active galactic nuclei close to the effective Eddington limit for dusty gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, R. V.; Fabian, A. C.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Meléndez, M.; Winter, L. M.; Trippe, M. L.

    2013-06-01

    The effective Eddington limit for dusty gas surrounding active galactic nucleus (AGN) is lower than the canonical Eddington limit for hydrogen gas. Previous results from the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope 9-month catalogue suggested that in the overwhelming majority of local AGN, the dusty absorbing gas is below this effective Eddington limit, implying that radiation pressure is insufficient to blow away the absorbing clouds. We present an analysis of three objects from that sample which were found to be close to the effective Eddington limit (NGC 454, 2MASX J03565655-4041453 and XSS J05054-2348), using newly obtained XMM-Newton data. We use the X-ray data to better constrain the absorbing column density, and supplement them with XMM Optical Monitor data, infrared Spitzer and Herschel data were available to construct a broad-band spectral energy distribution to estimate refined bolometric luminosities and Eddington ratios for these three objects. The new XMM-Newton observations show all three objects moving away from the region expected for short-lived absorption in the NH-λEdd plane into the `long-lived absorption' region. We find our conclusions robust to different methods for estimating the bolometric luminosity and Eddington ratio. Interestingly, 2MASX J03565655-4041453 and XSS J05054-2348 now exhibit complex X-ray spectra, at variance with previous analyses of their Swift/X-Ray Telescope data. We find evidence for absorption variability in NGC 454 and 2MASX J03565655-4041453, perhaps implying that although the radiation pressure from the central engine is insufficient to cause clearly detectable outflows, it may cause absorption variations over longer time-scales. However, more robust black hole mass estimates would improve the accuracy of the Eddington ratio estimates for these objects.

  1. Pulmonary gas exchange is not impaired 24 h after extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Prisk, G Kim; Fine, Janelle M; Cooper, Trevor K; West, John B

    2005-12-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) during spaceflight involves a significant decompression stress. Previous studies have shown an increase in the inhomogeneity of ventilation-perfusion ratio (VA/Q) after some underwater dives, presumably through the embolic effects of venous gas microemboli in the lung. Ground-based chamber studies simulating EVA have shown that venous gas microemboli occur in a large percentage of the subjects undergoing decompression, despite the use of prebreathe protocols to reduce dissolved N(2) in the tissues. We studied eight crewmembers (7 male, 1 female) of the International Space Station who performed 15 EVAs (initial cabin pressure 748 mmHg, final suit pressure either approximately 295 or approximately 220 mmHg depending on the suit used) and who followed the denitrogenation procedures approved for EVA from the International Space Station. The intrabreath VA/Q slope was calculated from the alveolar Po(2) and Pco(2) in a prolonged exhalation maneuver on the day after EVA and compared with measurements made in microgravity on days well separated from the EVA. There were no significant changes in intrabreath VA/Q slope as a result of EVA, although there was a slight increase in metabolic rate and ventilation (approximately 9%) on the day after EVA. Vital capacity and other measures of pulmonary function were largely unaltered by EVA. Because measurements could only be performed on the day after EVA because of logistical constraints, we were unable to determine an acute effect of EVA on VA/Q inequality. The results suggest that current denitrogenation protocols do not result in any major lasting alteration to gas exchange in the lung.

  2. Beginnings of remote handling at the RAL Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Liska, D.J.; Hirst, J.

    1985-01-01

    Expenditure of funds and resources for remote maintenance systems traditionally are delayed until late in an accelerator's development. However, simple remote-surveillance equipment can be included early in facility planning to set the stage for future remote-handling needs and to identify appropriate personnel. Some basic equipment developed in the UK at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) that serves this function and that has been used to monitor beam loss during commissioning is described. A photograph of this equipment, positioned over the extractor septum magnet, is shown. This method can serve as a pattern approach to the problem of initiating remote-handling activities in other facilities.

  3. Manual handling injuries in health care workers.

    PubMed

    Bewick, N; Gardner, D

    2000-01-01

    Nursing aides are particularly susceptible to manual handling injuries because they have the primary responsibility for heavy lifting. The aim of this study was to determine why a specific group of nursing aides have the highest manual handling injury rate in their hospital. The study investigated the adequacy of the manual handling training program, knowledge of manual handling, mechanical aid availability, and use of mechanical aids. Results indicated that the nursing aides' manual handling knowledge was adequate but that they rarely used mechanical aids. This lack of use of aids was in part due to an over-reliance on their own strength and abilities. This may have been due to a lack of suitable mechanical aids on the wards or a lack of familiarity with the available aids. This study suggests that neither training alone nor the purchase of equipment alone is likely to resolve manual handling problems. PMID:10927667

  4. Low-Temperature Photochemically Activated Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide for Highly Stable Room-Temperature Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Jaisutti, Rawat; Kim, Jaeyoung; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2016-08-10

    We report on highly stable amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) gas sensors for ultraviolet (UV)-activated room-temperature detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The IGZO sensors fabricated by a low-temperature photochemical activation process and exhibiting two orders higher photocurrent compared to conventional zinc oxide sensors, allowed high gas sensitivity against various VOCs even at room temperature. From a systematic analysis, it was found that by increasing the UV intensity, the gas sensitivity, response time, and recovery behavior of an IGZO sensor were strongly enhanced. In particular, under an UV intensity of 30 mW cm(-2), the IGZO sensor exhibited gas sensitivity, response time and recovery time of 37%, 37 and 53 s, respectively, against 750 ppm concentration of acetone gas. Moreover, the IGZO gas sensor had an excellent long-term stability showing around 6% variation in gas sensitivity over 70 days. These results strongly support a conclusion that a low-temperature solution-processed amorphous IGZO film can serve as a good candidate for room-temperature VOCs sensors for emerging wearable electronics. PMID:27430635

  5. Low-Temperature Photochemically Activated Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide for Highly Stable Room-Temperature Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Jaisutti, Rawat; Kim, Jaeyoung; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2016-08-10

    We report on highly stable amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) gas sensors for ultraviolet (UV)-activated room-temperature detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The IGZO sensors fabricated by a low-temperature photochemical activation process and exhibiting two orders higher photocurrent compared to conventional zinc oxide sensors, allowed high gas sensitivity against various VOCs even at room temperature. From a systematic analysis, it was found that by increasing the UV intensity, the gas sensitivity, response time, and recovery behavior of an IGZO sensor were strongly enhanced. In particular, under an UV intensity of 30 mW cm(-2), the IGZO sensor exhibited gas sensitivity, response time and recovery time of 37%, 37 and 53 s, respectively, against 750 ppm concentration of acetone gas. Moreover, the IGZO gas sensor had an excellent long-term stability showing around 6% variation in gas sensitivity over 70 days. These results strongly support a conclusion that a low-temperature solution-processed amorphous IGZO film can serve as a good candidate for room-temperature VOCs sensors for emerging wearable electronics.

  6. Managing oil and gas activities in coastal environments. Volume II: comprehensive report. Report for 1977-81

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, W.L.; Jackson, R.; Snyder, B.

    1982-03-01

    This report documents the management of oil and gas development on national wildlife refuges on the Louisiana and Texas coasts. It explains the nature of ownership, leasing rights, and legal considerations related to oil and gas extraction on refuges. The report describes five federal refuges selected for analysis and the different marsh and estuarine ecosystems found on the refuges and in the coastal zone. It explains oil and gas extraction and transport methods used in coastal systems, and examines how each habitat is affected by these activities.

  7. Gas-phase activation and reaction dynamics of chiral ion-dipole complexes.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Antonello; Speranza, Maurizio

    2003-11-01

    A family of enantiomerically pure oxonium ions, that is O-protonated 1-aryl-1-methoxyethanes, has been generated in the gas phase by the (CH(3))(2)Cl(+) methylation of the corresponding 1-arylethanols. Some information on their reaction dynamics was obtained from a detailed kinetic study of their inversion of configuration and dissociation. The activation parameters of the inversion reaction are found to obey two different isokinetic relationships depending upon the nature and the position of the substituents in the oxonium ions. In contrast, the activation parameters of the dissociation reaction obey a single isokinetic relationship. The inversion and dissociation rate constants do not follow simple linear free-energy relationships. This complicated kinetic picture has been rationalized in terms of different activation dynamics in gaseous CH(3)Cl, which, in turn, determine the reaction dynamics of the oxonium ion. When the predominant activation of the oxonium ion involves resonant energy exchange from the 1015 cm(-1) CH(3) rocking mode of unperturbed CH(3)Cl, the inversion reaction proceeds through the dynamically most favored TS, characterized by the unassisted C(alpha)bond;O bond elongation. When, instead, the activation of the oxonium ions requires the formation of an intimate encounter complex with CH(3)Cl, the inversion reaction takes place via the energetically most favored TS, characterized by multiple coordination of the CH(3)OH moiety with the H(alpha) and H(ortho) atoms of the benzylic residue. The activation dynamics operating in the intimate encounter complex with CH(3)Cl is also responsible for the dissociation of most selected oxonium ions.

  8. Role of the Exposed Polar Facets in the Performance of Thermally and UV Activated ZnO Nanostructured Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies (nanowires, nanodisks, and nanostars) were synthesized hydrothermally. Gas sensing properties of the as-grown nanostructures were investigated under thermal and UV activation. The performance of the ZnO nanodisk gas sensor was found to be superior to that of other nanostructures (Sg ∼ 3700% to 300 ppm ethanol and response time and recovery time of 8 and 13 s). The enhancement in sensitivity is attributed to the surface polarities of the different structures on the nanoscale. Furthermore, the selectivity of the gas sensors can be achieved by controlling the UV intensity used to activate these sensors. The highest sensitivity value for ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, and toluene are recorded at the optimal UV intensity of 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, and 4 mW/cm2, respectively. Finally, the UV activation mechanism for metal oxide gas sensors is compared with the thermal activation process. The UV activation of analytes based on solution processed ZnO structures pave the way for better quality gas sensors. PMID:24009781

  9. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care. PMID:25680494

  10. ATA diagnostic data handling system: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, F.W.; Kallman, J.; McDonald, J.; Slominski, M.

    1984-06-14

    The functions to be performed by the ATA diagnostic data handling system are discussed. The capabilities of the present data acquisition system (System 0) are presented. The goals for the next generation acquisition system (System 1), currently under design, are discussed. Facilities on the Octopus system for data handling are reviewed. Finally, we discuss what has been learned about diagnostics and computer based data handling during the past year.

  11. Optimal placement of piezoelectric plates for active vibration control of gas turbine blades: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, F.; Marx, N.; Gentili, S.; Schwingshackl, C. W.; Di Mare, L.; Cerri, G.; Dini, D.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that the gas turbine blade vibrations can give rise to catastrophic failures and a reduction of the blades life because of fatigue related phenomena[1]-[3] . In last two decades, the adoption of piezoelectric elements, has received considerable attention by many researcher for its potential applicability to different areas of mechanical, aerospace, aeronautical and civil engineering. Recently, a number of studies of blades vibration control via piezoelectric plates and patches have been reported[4]-[6] . It was reported that the use of piezoelectric elements can be very effective in actively controlling vibrations. In one of their previous contributions[7] , the authors of the present manuscript studied a model to control the blade vibrations by piezoelectric elements and validated their results using a multi-physics finite elements package (COMSOL) and results from the literature. An optimal placement method of piezoelectric plate has been developed and applied to different loading scenarios for realistic configurations encountered in gas turbine blades. It has been demonstrated that the optimal placement depends on the spectrum of the load, so that segmented piezoelectric patches have been considered and, for different loads, an optimal combination of sequential and/or parallel actuation and control of the segments has been studied. In this paper, an experimental investigation carried out by the authors using a simplified beam configuration is reported and discussed. The test results obtained by the investigators are then compared with the numerical predictions [7] .

  12. Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Arthur C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the North Slope Borough, and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation conducted a four-year study designed to identify, define, and delineate a shallow coalbed natural gas (CBNG) resource with the potential to provide locally produced, affordable power to the community of Wainwright, Alaska. From 2007 through 2010, drilling and testing activities conducted at three sites in or near Wainwright, identified and evaluated an approximately 7.5-ft-thick, laterally continuous coalbed that contained significant quantities of CBNG. This coalbed, subsequently named the Wainwright coalbed, was penetrated at depths ranging from 1,167 ft to 1,300 ft below land surface. Core samples were collected from the Wainwright coalbed at all three drill locations and desorbed-gas measurements were taken from seventeen 1-ft-thick sections of the core. These measurements indicate that the Wainwright coalbed contains enough CBNG to serve as a long-term energy supply for the community. Although attempts to produce viable quantities of CBNG from the Wainwright coalbed proved unsuccessful, it seems likely that with proper well-field design and by utilizing currently available drilling and reservoir stimulation techniques, this CBNG resource could be developed as a long-term economically viable energy source for Wainwright.

  13. Characterization of airborne particles generated from metal active gas welding process.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, C; Gomes, J F; Carvalho, P; Santos, T J G; Miranda, R M; Albuquerque, P

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the characterization of particles emitted in the metal active gas welding of carbon steel using mixture of Ar + CO2, and intends to analyze which are the main process parameters that influence the emission itself. It was found that the amount of emitted particles (measured by particle number and alveolar deposited surface area) are clearly dependent on the distance to the welding front and also on the main welding parameters, namely the current intensity and heat input in the welding process. The emission of airborne fine particles seems to increase with the current intensity as fume-formation rate does. When comparing the tested gas mixtures, higher emissions are observed for more oxidant mixtures, that is, mixtures with higher CO2 content, which result in higher arc stability. These mixtures originate higher concentrations of fine particles (as measured by number of particles by cm(3) of air) and higher values of alveolar deposited surface area of particles, thus resulting in a more severe worker's exposure. PMID:24730680

  14. Characterization of airborne particles generated from metal active gas welding process.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, C; Gomes, J F; Carvalho, P; Santos, T J G; Miranda, R M; Albuquerque, P

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the characterization of particles emitted in the metal active gas welding of carbon steel using mixture of Ar + CO2, and intends to analyze which are the main process parameters that influence the emission itself. It was found that the amount of emitted particles (measured by particle number and alveolar deposited surface area) are clearly dependent on the distance to the welding front and also on the main welding parameters, namely the current intensity and heat input in the welding process. The emission of airborne fine particles seems to increase with the current intensity as fume-formation rate does. When comparing the tested gas mixtures, higher emissions are observed for more oxidant mixtures, that is, mixtures with higher CO2 content, which result in higher arc stability. These mixtures originate higher concentrations of fine particles (as measured by number of particles by cm(3) of air) and higher values of alveolar deposited surface area of particles, thus resulting in a more severe worker's exposure.

  15. On current US strategy and technologies for spent fuel handling

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Stringer, J.B.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has recently completed a topical safety analysis report outlining the design and operation of a Centralized Interim Storage Facility for spent commercial nuclear fuel. During the course of the design, dose assessments indicated the need for remote operation of many of the cask handling operations. Use of robotic equipment was identified as a desirable handling solution that is capable of automating many of the operations to maintain throughput, and sufficiently flexible to handle five or more different storage cask designs in varying numbers on a given day. This paper discusses the facility and the dose assessment leading to this choice, and reviews factors to be considered when choosing robotics or automation. Further, a new computer simulation tool to quantify dose to humans working in radiological environments, the Radiological Environment Modeling System (REMS), is introduced. REMS has been developed to produce a more accurate estimate of dose to radiation workers in new activities with radiological hazards.

  16. "Make My Day": Handling Conflict. ERIC Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demo, Mary Penasack

    1986-01-01

    Features documents in "Resources in Education" that describe how the following occupational groups handle conflict: nurses, school superintendents, city managers, board members, teachers, and training directors. (PD)

  17. 7 CFR 917.6 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... for peaches, packing or causing the fruit to be packed also constitutes handling; Provided...

  18. 7 CFR 917.6 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... for peaches, packing or causing the fruit to be packed also constitutes handling; Provided...

  19. Handling difficult materials: Household appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.

    1994-05-01

    At last count in 1990, the US EPA reported that 2.8 million tons of household appliances (often called ''white goods'') were discarded -- about 2% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. These figures may not seem particularly epic, but, considering the potentially harmful coolants, lubricants, and insulating materials left behind in these machines, the amount may be cause for concern. Management of these items is, of course, not impossible, just difficult. As more and more landfills turn white goods away, recycling is becoming the hot'' option. According to a study by the Steel Recycling Institute, about 4 million of the 8 million units discarded in the US were recycled in 1992. Recycling figures like these are impressive for any secondary material, demonstrating the strides appliance recycling has made in recent years. Implemented in May 1993, EPA's final rule on household appliance handling mandates that 80%--90% of all CFC or HCFC coolants must be recovered with certified equipment by a certified technician, who must record how the refrigerant is removed and where it is sent for recovery.

  20. Rapid quantification of dimethyl methylphosphonate from activated carbon particles by static headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Billingsley, Brit G; Logue, Brian A

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon (AC) particles are utilized as an adsorbent for binding hazardous vapors in protective equipment. The binding affinity and utilization of these AC particles should be known to ensure effective and efficient use. Therefore, a simple and effective method was developed for the quantification of the chemical warfare agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), from AC particles. Static headspace gas chromatography mass-spectrometry with internal standard, DMMP-d6, was used to perform the analysis. The method produced a linear dynamic range of 2.48-620g DMMP/kg carbon and a detection limit of 1.24g DMMP/kg carbon. Furthermore, the method produced a coefficient of variation of less than 16% for all intra- and inter-assay analyses. The method provided a simple and effective procedure for quantifying DMMP from AC particles and was applied to the analysis of a DMMP-exposed AC protective respirator filter.

  1. Outflowing Diffuse Gas in the Active Galactic Nucleus of NGC 1068

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geballe, T. R.; Mason, R. E.; Oka, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spectra of the archetypal Type II Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 in a narrow wavelength interval near 3.7 μm have revealed a weak absorption feature due to two lines of the molecular ion {{{H}}}3+. The observed wavelength of the feature corresponds to a velocity of -70 km s-1 relative to the systemic velocity of the galaxy, implying an outward flow from the nucleus along the line of sight. The absorption by H{}3+ along with the previously known broad hydrocarbon absorption at 3.4μm are probably formed in diffuse gas that is in close proximity to the continuum source, i.e., within a few tens of parsecs of the central engine. Based on that conclusion and the measured H{}3+ absorption velocity and with the assumption of a spherically symmetric wind we estimate a rate of mass outflow from the active galactic nucleus of ˜1 M⊙ yr-1.

  2. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics for multiple trace impurities in various gas streams on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, T.C.; Kumar, R. )

    1993-01-01

    Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption data for seven trace impurities (propylene, Freon-12 (CF[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]), n-butane, methylene chloride, acetone, n-hexane, toluene, and Freon-22 (CHFCl[sub 2])) from various carrier gases (helium, nitrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide) are provided. Activated carbon at several temperatures and pressures is used as the adsorbent. Two empirical characteristic curves, one relating equilibrium isotherms of trace impurities with their physical properties and the other relating mass-transfer coefficients with equilibrium properties, are generated. These can be used to predict equilibrium capacities and mass-transfer zone lengths for multiple trace impurities from a carrier gas and design a thermal swing adsorption clean-up system.

  3. Rapid quantification of dimethyl methylphosphonate from activated carbon particles by static headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Billingsley, Brit G; Logue, Brian A

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon (AC) particles are utilized as an adsorbent for binding hazardous vapors in protective equipment. The binding affinity and utilization of these AC particles should be known to ensure effective and efficient use. Therefore, a simple and effective method was developed for the quantification of the chemical warfare agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), from AC particles. Static headspace gas chromatography mass-spectrometry with internal standard, DMMP-d6, was used to perform the analysis. The method produced a linear dynamic range of 2.48-620g DMMP/kg carbon and a detection limit of 1.24g DMMP/kg carbon. Furthermore, the method produced a coefficient of variation of less than 16% for all intra- and inter-assay analyses. The method provided a simple and effective procedure for quantifying DMMP from AC particles and was applied to the analysis of a DMMP-exposed AC protective respirator filter. PMID:23639122

  4. Nonlinear activity of acoustically driven gas bubble near a rigid boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimov, Alexey

    2015-10-28

    The presence of a boundary can produce considerable changes in the oscillation amplitude of the bubble and its scattered echo. The present study fills a gap in the literature, in that it is concerned theoretically with the bubble activity at relatively small distances from the rigid boundary. It was shown that the bi-spherical coordinates provide separation of variables and are more suitable for analysis of the dynamics of these constrained bubbles. Explicit formulas have been derived which describe the dependence of the bubble emission near a rigid wall on its size and the separation distance between the bubble and the boundary. As applications, time reversal technique for gas leakage detection and radiation forces that are induced by an acoustic wave on a constrained bubble were analyzed.

  5. Handling, genetic and housing effects on the mouse stress system, dopamine function, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Gariépy, Jean-Louis; Rodriguiz, Ramona Marie; Jones, Byron C

    2002-08-01

    This research was designed to examine how early stimulation (i.e., handling), subsequent housing conditions and genetic factors interact to produce adult differences in stress regulation. High-aggressive (NC900) and low-aggressive (NC100) mice were handled for 3 weeks potspartum and were subsequently isolated or grouped until observed as adults in an open field or a dyadic test. In NC100, handling abolished the temporal variations seen in open-field activity among the nonhandled subjects and reduced corticosterone (CORT) activation. In NC900, these two measures were unaffected by handling. Only among handled NC100 did subsequent group rearing further reduce CORT activation. By contrast, handling caused an up-regulation of D1 dopamine receptors in both lines, and, in NC100, this effect was increased by group rearing. In a dyadic encounter with another male mouse, subjects of both lines showed handling effects. NC100 froze less rapidly and NC900 attacked more rapidly. This multifactorial design showed that the systemic effects of handling are modulated by genetic background, and that measures of these effects are affected by experience beyond infancy. Our findings also showed that the effects of handling vary when assessed across different physiological systems and across social and nonsocial testing conditions.

  6. Gas Phase Uranyl Activation: Formation of a Uranium Nitrosyl Complex from Uranyl Azide

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yu; De Jong, Wibe A.; Gibson, John K.

    2015-05-13

    Activation of the oxo bond of uranyl, UO22+, was achieved by collision induced dissociation (CID) of UO2(N3)Cl2– in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The gas phase complex UO2(N3)Cl2– was produced by electrospray ionization of solutions of UO2Cl2 and NaN3. CID of UO2(N3)Cl2– resulted in the loss of N2 to form UO(NO)Cl2–, in which the “inert” uranyl oxo bond has been activated. Formation of UO2Cl2– via N3 loss was also observed. Density functional theory computations predict that the UO(NO)Cl2– complex has nonplanar Cs symmetry and a singlet ground state. Analysis of the bonding of the UO(NO)Cl2– complex shows that the side-on bonded NO moiety can be considered as NO3–, suggesting a formal oxidation state of U(VI). Activation of the uranyl oxo bond in UO2(N3)Cl2– to form UO(NO)Cl2– and N2 was computed to be endothermic by 169 kJ/mol, which is energetically more favorable than formation of NUOCl2– and UO2Cl2–. The observation of UO2Cl2– during CID is most likely due to the absence of an energy barrier for neutral ligand loss.

  7. Substrate lability and plant activity controls greenhouse gas release from Neotropical peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjogersten, Sofie; Hoyos, Jorge; Lomax, Barry; Turner, Ben; Wright, Emma

    2014-05-01

    Almost one third of global CO2 emissions resulting from land use change and substantial CH4 emissions originate from tropical peatlands. However, our understanding of the controls of CO2 and CH4 release from tropical peatlands are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peat lability and the activity of the vegetation on gas release using a combination of field and laboratory experiments. We demonstrated that peat lability constrained CH4 production to the surface peat under anaerobic conditions. The presence of plants shifted the C balance from a C source to a C sink with respect to CO2 while the activity of the root system strongly influenced CH4 emissions through its impact on soil O2 inputs. Both field and laboratory data suggest a coupling between the photosynthetic activity of the vegetation and the release of both CO2 and CH4 following the circadian rhythm of the dominant plant functional types. Forest clearance for agriculture resulted in elevated CH4 release, which we attribute in part to the cessation of root O2 inputs to the peat. We conclude that high emissions of CO2 and CH4 from forested tropical peatlands are likely driven by labile C inputs from the vegetation but that root O2 release may limit CH4 emissions.

  8. Capillary pressure – saturation relationships for gas shales measured using a water activity meter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Donnelly, B.; Perfect, E.; McKay, L. D.; Lemiszki, P. J.; DiStefano, V. H.; Anovitz, L. M.; McFarlane, J.; Hale, R. E.; Cheng, C. -L.

    2016-05-10

    Hydraulic fracturing of gas shale formations involves pumping a large volume of fracking fluid into a hydrocarbon reservoir to fracture the rock and thus increase its permeability. The majority of the fracking fluid introduced is never recovered and the fate of this lost fluid, often called “leak off,” has become the source of much debate. Information on the capillary pressure – saturation relationship for each wetting phase is needed to simulate leak off using numerical reservoir models. The petroleum industry commonly employs air – water capillary pressure – saturation curves to predict these relationships for mixed wet reservoirs. Traditional methodsmore » of measuring this curve are unsuitable for gas shales due to high capillary pressures associated with the small pores present. Still, a possible alternative method is the water activity meter which is used widely in the soil sciences for such measurements. However, its application to lithified material has been limited. Here, this study utilized a water activity meter to measure air – water capillary pressures (ranging from 1.3 to 219.6 MPa) at several water saturation levels in both the wetting and drying directions. Water contents were measured gravimetrically. Seven types of gas producing shale with different porosities (2.5–13.6%) and total organic carbon contents (0.4–13.5%) were investigated. Nonlinear regression was used to fit the resulting capillary pressure – water saturation data pairs for each shale type to the Brooks and Corey equation. Data for six of the seven shale types investigated were successfully fitted (median R2 = 0.93), indicating this may be a viable method for parameterizing capillary pressure – saturation relationships for inclusion in numerical reservoir models. As expected, the different shale types had statistically different Brooks and Corey parameters. However, there were no significant differences between the Brooks and Corey parameters for the wetting and

  9. Satellite observation of pollutant emissions from gas flaring activities near the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Hsu, N. Christina; Sayer, Andrew M.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Fu, Joshua S.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Lee, Jaehwa; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2016-05-01

    Gas flaring is a common practice in the oil industry that can have significant environmental impacts, but has until recently been largely overlooked in terms of relevance to climate change. We utilize data from various satellite sensors to examine pollutant emissions from oil exploitation activities in four areas near the Arctic. Despite the remoteness of these sparsely populated areas, tropospheric NO2 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is substantial at ∼1 × 1015 molecules cm-2, suggesting sizeable emissions from these industrial activities. Statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level, corresponding uncertainties in parentheses) increasing trends of 0.017 (±0.01) × 1015 and 0.015 (±0.006) × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1 over 2004-2015 were found for Bakken (USA) and Athabasca (Canada), two areas having recently experienced fast expansion in the oil industry. This rapid change has implications for emission inventories, which are updated less frequently. No significant trend was found for the North Sea (Europe), where oil production has been declining since the 1990s. For northern Russia, the trend was just under the 95% significance threshold at 0.0057 (±0.006) × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1. This raises an interesting inconsistency as prior studies have suggested that, in contrast to the continued, albeit slow, expansion of Russian oil/gas production, gas flaring in Russia has decreased in recent years. However, only a fraction of oil fields in Russia were covered in our analysis. Satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data revealed similar tendencies, albeit at a weaker level of statistical significance, due to the longer lifetime of aerosols and contributions from other sources. This study demonstrates that synergetic use of data from multiple satellite sensors can provide valuable information on pollutant emission sources that is otherwise difficult to acquire.

  10. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.

    PubMed

    Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized

  11. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.

    PubMed

    Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized

  12. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S.C. Khamamkar

    2000-06-23

    The Waste Handling Building Electrical System performs the function of receiving, distributing, transforming, monitoring, and controlling AC and DC power to all waste handling building electrical loads. The system distributes normal electrical power to support all loads that are within the Waste Handling Building (WHB). The system also generates and distributes emergency power to support designated emergency loads within the WHB within specified time limits. The system provides the capability to transfer between normal and emergency power. The system provides emergency power via independent and physically separated distribution feeds from the normal supply. The designated emergency electrical equipment will be designed to operate during and after design basis events (DBEs). The system also provides lighting, grounding, and lightning protection for the Waste Handling Building. The system is located in the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of a diesel generator, power distribution cables, transformers, switch gear, motor controllers, power panel boards, lighting panel boards, lighting equipment, lightning protection equipment, control cabling, and grounding system. Emergency power is generated with a diesel generator located in a QL-2 structure and connected to the QL-2 bus. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System distributes and controls primary power to acceptable industry standards, and with a dependability compatible with waste handling building reliability objectives for non-safety electrical loads. It also generates and distributes emergency power to the designated emergency loads. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System receives power from the Site Electrical Power System. The primary material handling power interfaces include the Carrier/Cask Handling System, Canister Transfer System, Assembly Transfer System, Waste Package Remediation System, and Disposal Container Handling Systems. The system interfaces with the MGR Operations

  13. Conical Magnetic Bearings Developed for Active Stall Control in Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Kascak, Albert F.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Buccieri, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Active stall control is a current research area at the NASA Glenn Research Center that offers a great benefit in specific fuel consumption by allowing the gas turbine to operate beyond the onset of stall. Magnetic bearings are being investigated as a new method to perform active stall control. This enabling global aviation safety technology would result in improved fuel efficiency and decreased carbon dioxide emissions, as well as improve safety and reliability by eliminating oil-related delays and failures of engine components, which account for 40 percent of the commercial aircraft departure delays. Active stall control works by perturbing the flow in front of the compressor stage such that it cancels the pressure wave, which causes the compressor to go into stall. Radial magnetic bearings are able to whirl the shaft so that variations in blade tip leakage would flow upstream causing a perturbation wave that could cancel the rotating stall cell. Axial or thrust magnetic bearings cannot be used to cancel the surge mode in the compressor because they have a very low bandwidth and thus cannot modulate at a high enough frequency. Frequency response is limited because the thrust runner cannot be laminated. To improve the bandwidth of magnetic thrust bearings, researchers must use laminations to suppress the eddy currents. A conical magnetic bearing can be laminated, resulting in increased bandwidth in the axial direction. In addition, this design can produce both radial and thrust force in a single bearing, simplifying the installation. The proposed solution combines the radial and thrust bearing into one design that can be laminated--a conical magnetic bearing. The new conical magnetic bearing test rig, funded by a Glenn fiscal year 2002 Director's Discretionary Fund, was needed because none of the existing rigs has an axial degree of freedom. The rotor bearing configuration will simulate that of the main shaft on a gas turbine engine. One conical magnetic bearing

  14. 78 FR 69121 - Information Collection Activities: Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... to Oil and Gas Pipelines Under the OCS Lands Act; Proposed Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-day... Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines Under the OCS Lands Act. DATES: You must submit comments by... Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines Under the OCS Lands Act. OMB Control Number: 1014-0012....

  15. Light-activated NO2 gas sensing of the networked CuO-decorated ZnS nanowire gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sunghoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Kheel, Hyejoon; Ko, Taegyung; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Lee, Chongmu

    2016-05-01

    CuO-decorated ZnS nanowires were synthesized by the thermal evaporation of ZnS powders followed by a solvothermal process for CuO decoration. The NO2 gas sensing properties of multiple-networked pristine and CuO-decorated ZnS nanowire sensors were then examined. The diameters of the CuO nanoparticles ranged from 20 to 60 nm. The multiple-networked pristine and CuO-decorated ZnS nanowire sensors showed the responses of 394 and 1055 %, respectively, to 5 ppm of NO2 at room temperature under UV illumination at 2.2 mW/cm2. The response and recovery times of the ZnS nanowire sensor to 5 ppm of NO2 were also reduced by decoration with the CuO nanoparticles. The responses of the sensors to NO2 at room temperature increased significantly with increasing UV illumination intensity. The underlying mechanisms for the enhanced response of the ZnS nanowire sensor to NO2 gas by CuO decoration and UV irradiation are discussed.

  16. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  17. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b) Hulling and drying pistachios; (c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling,...

  18. 9 CFR 3.118 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.118 Section 3.118 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means... peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or...

  20. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means... peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or...

  1. 9 CFR 3.66 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.66 Section 3.66 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Transportation Standards § 3.66 Handling. (a) Any person who is subject to the Animal Welfare regulations and...

  2. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  3. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  4. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  5. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one...

  7. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one...

  10. Information Handling, Organizational Structure, and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael K.

    1989-01-01

    Uses examples from military strategic communications to demonstrate that organizational structures and the distribution of power within organizational structures adapt to changes in information handling capability. It is concluded that delegation and decentralization can be viewed as indicative of inadequate information handling and that improved…

  11. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  12. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  13. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  14. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  15. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  16. Safe patient handling for rehabilitation professionals.

    PubMed

    Waters, Thomas R; Rockefeller, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Every day, thousands of physical therapists and rehabilitation nurses are required to perform physically demanding therapeutic patient handling tasks that are stressful to the caregiver and increase his or her risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). In rehabilitation, patient handling tasks might be classified as"traditional" or "therapeutic."Traditional tasks have a practical goal, such as transferring a patient from bed to a wheelchair, and therapeutic tasks have more targeted goals such as facilitating patient function and independence. Therapeutic patient handling tasks present a greater risk for caregivers to sustain work-related MSDs than typical patient handling tasks do because caregivers are exposed to high mechanical loads on the spinal tissues for longer amounts of time. The Veterans Health Administration, Association of Rehabilitation Nurses, and the American Physical Therapy Association endorse the use of modern patient handling technology as part of a comprehensive safe patient handling program for providing therapy in rehabilitation settings. Information about patient handling technology that is effective in reducing the risk of work-related MSDs from performing therapeutic patient handling and movement tasks is also presented and discussed in this article.

  17. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  18. 7 CFR 927.316 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling regulation. 927.316 Section 927.316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.316 Handling regulation. During the period August...

  19. 7 CFR 927.316 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling regulation. 927.316 Section 927.316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.316 Handling regulation. During the period August...

  20. 7 CFR 927.316 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling regulation. 927.316 Section 927.316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.316 Handling regulation. During the period August...

  1. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  2. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means... peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or...

  3. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means... peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or...

  4. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means... peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or...

  5. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in...

  6. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in...

  7. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in...

  8. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in...

  9. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in...

  10. 9 CFR 3.66 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling. 3.66 Section 3.66 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Transportation Standards § 3.66 Handling. (a) Any person who is subject to the Animal Welfare regulations and...

  11. 9 CFR 3.118 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling. 3.118 Section 3.118 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.118...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  16. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current...

  17. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current...

  18. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current...

  19. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current...

  20. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current...

  1. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b) Hulling and drying pistachios; (c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling,...

  2. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b) Hulling and drying pistachios; (c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling,...

  3. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b) Hulling and drying pistachios; (c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling,...

  4. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b) Hulling and drying pistachios; (c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling,...

  5. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  6. CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During the first six months of operation, the primary activities of the JIP were to conduct and plan Workshops, which were as follows: (1) Data Collection Workshop--March 2002 (2) Drilling, Coring and Core Analyses Workshop--May 2002 (3) Modeling, Measurement and Sensors Workshop--May 2002.

  7. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  8. Moving and handling: reducing risk through assessment.

    PubMed

    Warren, Gemma

    2016-06-01

    Manual handling injuries can occur almost anywhere in a healthcare environment, and most staff perform a variety of moving and handling tasks every day. Heavy lifting, awkward posture, and previous or existing injury can increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. A healthcare professional's involvement in moving and handling is more widespread than it might appear, and their actions and understanding of techniques, legislation and guidelines have a direct effect on patient care. Every situation that involves the handling, or partial handling, of a person presents varying levels of risk to the patient and the carer. Maintaining a good level of patient mobility and independence is an essential part of care delivery and can reduce the risk of long-term physical and psychological effects. Delivery of care should focus on the individual's capacity, not their incapacity, to ensure that they are treated with dignity and respect.

  9. Origin and Distribution of Thiophenes and Furans in Gas Discharges from Active Volcanoes and Geothermal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tassi, Franco; Montegrossi, Giordano; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Vaselli, Orlando

    2010-01-01

    The composition of non-methane organic volatile compounds (VOCs) determined in 139 thermal gas discharges from 18 different geothermal and volcanic systems in Italy and Latin America, consists of C2–C20 species pertaining to the alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and O-, S- and N-bearing classes of compounds. Thiophenes and mono-aromatics, especially the methylated species, are strongly enriched in fluids emissions related to hydrothermal systems. Addition of hydrogen sulphide to dienes and electrophilic methylation involving halogenated radicals may be invoked for the formation of these species. On the contrary, the formation of furans, with the only exception of C4H8O, seems to be favoured at oxidizing conditions and relatively high temperatures, although mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the production of thiophenes can be suggested. Such thermodynamic features are typical of fluid reservoirs feeding high-temperature thermal discharges of volcanoes characterised by strong degassing activity, which are likely affected by conspicuous contribution from a magmatic source. The composition of heteroaromatics in fluids naturally discharged from active volcanoes and geothermal areas can then be considered largely dependent on the interplay between hydrothermal vs. magmatic contributions. This implies that they can be used as useful geochemical tools to be successfully applied in both volcanic monitoring and geothermal prospection. PMID:20480029

  10. Risk assessment of oil and gas well drilling activities in Iran - a case study: human factors.

    PubMed

    Amir-Heidari, Payam; Farahani, Hadi; Ebrahemzadih, Mehrzad

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling activities are associated with numerous hazards which have the potential to cause injury or harm for people, property and the environment. These hazards are also a threat for the reputation of drilling companies. To prevent accidents and undesired events in drilling operations it is essential to identify, evaluate, assess and control the attendant risks. In this work, a structured methodology is proposed for risk assessment of drilling activities. A case study is performed to identify, analyze and assess the risks arising from human factors in one of the on shore drilling sites in southern Iran. A total of 17 major hazards were identified and analyzed using the proposed methodology. The results showed that the residual risks of 100% of these hazards were in the acceptable or transitional zone, and their levels were expected to be lowered further by proper controls. This structured methodology may also be used in other drilling sites and companies for assessing the risks. PMID:26333832

  11. Venous gas emboli and exhaled nitric oxide with simulated and actual extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Lars L; Blogg, S Lesley; Lindholm, Peter; Gennser, Mikael; Hemmingsson, Tryggve; Linnarsson, Dag

    2009-10-01

    The decompression experienced due to the change in pressure from a space vehicle (1013hPa) to that in a suit for extravehicular activity (EVA) (386hPa) was simulated using a hypobaric chamber. Previous ground-based research has indicated around a 50% occurrence of both venous gas emboli (VGE) and symptoms of decompression illness (DCI) after similar decompressions. In contrast, no DCI symptoms have been reported from past or current space activities. Twenty subjects were studied using Doppler ultrasound to detect any VGE during decompression to 386hPa, where they remained for up to 6h. Subjects were supine to simulate weightlessness. A large number of VGE were found in one subject at rest, who had a recent arm fracture; a small number of VGE were found in another subject during provocation with calf contractions. No changes in exhaled nitric oxide were found that can be related to either simulated EVA or actual EVA (studied in a parallel study on four cosmonauts). We conclude that weightlessness appears to be protective against DCI and that exhaled NO is not likely to be useful to monitor VGE.

  12. Origin and distribution of thiophenes and furans in gas discharges from active volcanoes and geothermal systems.

    PubMed

    Tassi, Franco; Montegrossi, Giordano; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Vaselli, Orlando

    2010-03-31

    The composition of non-methane organic volatile compounds (VOCs) determined in 139 thermal gas discharges from 18 different geothermal and volcanic systems in Italy and Latin America, consists of C(2)-C(20) species pertaining to the alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and O-, S- and N-bearing classes of compounds. Thiophenes and mono-aromatics, especially the methylated species, are strongly enriched in fluids emissions related to hydrothermal systems. Addition of hydrogen sulphide to dienes and electrophilic methylation involving halogenated radicals may be invoked for the formation of these species. On the contrary, the formation of furans, with the only exception of C(4)H(8)O, seems to be favoured at oxidizing conditions and relatively high temperatures, although mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the production of thiophenes can be suggested. Such thermodynamic features are typical of fluid reservoirs feeding high-temperature thermal discharges of volcanoes characterised by strong degassing activity, which are likely affected by conspicuous contribution from a magmatic source. The composition of heteroaromatics in fluids naturally discharged from active volcanoes and geothermal areas can then be considered largely dependent on the interplay between hydrothermal vs. magmatic contributions. This implies that they can be used as useful geochemical tools to be successfully applied in both volcanic monitoring and geothermal prospection.

  13. Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.

    1992-06-30

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met.

  14. Overview of experimental studies of biological effects of medical ultrasound caused by gas body activation and inertial cavitation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas L

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound exposure can induce bioeffects in mammalian tissue by the nonthermal mechanism of gas body activation. Pre-existing bodies of gas may be activated even at low-pressure amplitudes. At higher-pressure amplitudes, violent cavitation activity with inertial collapse of microbubbles can be generated from latent nucleation sites or from the destabilization of gas bodies. Mechanical perturbation at the activation sites leads to biological effects on nearby cells and structures. Shockwave lithotripsy was the first medical ultrasound application for which significant cavitational bioeffects were demonstrated in mammalian tissues, including hemorrhage and injury in the kidney. Lithotripter shockwaves can also cause hemorrhage in lung and intestine by activation of pre-existing gas bodies in these tissues. Modern diagnostic ultrasound equipment develops pressure amplitudes sufficient for inertial cavitation, but the living body normally lacks suitable cavitation nuclei. Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are suspensions of microscopic gas bodies created to enhance the echogenicity of blood. Ultrasound contrast agent gas bodies also provide nuclei for inertial cavitation. Bioeffects from contrast-aided diagnostic ultrasound depend on pressure amplitude, UCA dose, dosage delivery method and image timing parameters. Microvascular leakage, capillary rupture, cardiomyocyte killing, inflammatory cell infiltration, and premature ventricular contractions have been reported for myocardial contrast echocardiography with clinical ultrasound machines and clinically relevant agent doses in laboratory animals. Similar bioeffects have been reported in intestine, skeletal muscle, fat, lymph nodes and kidney. These microscale bioeffects could be induced unknowingly in diagnostic examinations; however, the medical significance of bioeffects of diagnostic ultrasound with contrast agents is not yet fully understood in relation to the clinical setting.

  15. Comet 103P/Hartley 2 at perihelion: gas and dust activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, L. M.; Lin, Z.-Y.; Meech, K.

    2011-08-01

    Context. The comet 103P/Hartley 2, target of the EPOXI mission (NASA), was supposed to be observed for 3 days around its perihelion, from October 27 to 29, 2010, but photometric data were obtained only on October 27 and 29, 2010. On both dates, the comet visibility was not optimal due to its proximity to the Moon, as projected on the plane of the sky, whereas on October 28, the comet could not be observed at all. Aims: The goal of the campaign was to give ground support to the EPOXI mission by establishing a baseline of activity at perihelion to be compared with in situ activity observed by the space mission about 7 days later on Nov. 4, 2010. We aimed to assess gas and dust production rates, to study the gas and dust coma morphology, to investigate the behaviour of the refractory component by analysing the dust colour variations with date and with projected cometocentric distance, ρ, and to determine the slope of the surface brightness profiles, B, as a function of ρ. Methods: Long-slit spectra and optical broad- and narrowband images were acquired with the instrument ACAM mounted on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at La Palma Observatory. We investigated the evolution of the dust coma morphology from the images acquired with specific continuum cometary filters (in the blue and red wavelength region) with image-enhancing techniques. We studied (1) the gas and dust production rates; (2) the dust radial brightness profiles; (3) the profiles of the CN, C2, C3 and NH2 column densities, and (4) the CN and C3 coma morphologies. The dust and gas profiles were azimuthally averaged, as well as measured in both the E-W direction (~Sun-antisolar direction) and in a direction defined by the slit orientation at PA 70 to 250 degrees. Results: The morphological analysis of the dust coma reveals only one structure. Aside from the dust tail in the west direction, a bright jet is detected in images acquired on October 27 at 03:00-04:00 UT. This jet turns on and off and it is

  16. Modulation by the noble gas argon of the catalytic and thrombolytic efficiency of tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    David, Hélène N; Haelewyn, Benoît; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Abraini, Jacques H

    2013-01-01

    Argon has been shown to provide cortical as well as, under certain conditions, subcortical neuroprotection in all models so far (middle cerebral artery occlusion, trauma, neonatal asphyxia, etc.). This has led to the suggestion that argon could be a cost-efficient alternative to xenon, a metabolically inert gas thought to be gold standard in gas pharmacology but whose clinical development suffers its little availability and excessive cost of production. However, whether argon interacts with the thrombolytic agent tissue plasminogen activator, which is the only approved therapy of acute ischemic stroke to date, still remains unknown. This latter point is not trivial since previous data have clearly demonstrated the inhibiting effect of xenon on tPA enzymatic and thrombolytic efficiency and the critical importance of the time at which xenon is administered, during or after ischemia, in order not to block thrombolysis and to obtain neuroprotection. Here, we investigated the effect of argon on tPA enzymatic and thrombolytic efficiency using in vitro methods shown to provide reliable prediction of the in vivo effects of both oxygen and the noble inert gases on tPA-induced thrombolysis. We found that argon has a concentration-dependent dual effect on tPA enzymatic and thrombolytic efficiency. Low and high concentrations of argon of 25 and 75 vol% respectively block and increase tPA enzymatic and thrombolytic efficiency. The possible use of argon at low and high concentrations in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke if given during ischemia or after tPA-induced reperfusion is discussed as regards to its neuroprotectant action and its inhibiting and facilitating effects on tPA-induced thrombolysis. The mechanisms of argon-tPA interactions are also discussed.

  17. [Mental health of gas and gas-transport industry workers as an indispensable condition of their efficient occupational activity].

    PubMed

    Polozhiĭ, B S

    2013-01-01

    Mental health workers in industry is a major health and social resource of any developed country. Unfortunately, Russia's level of mental health workers is unfavorable level. We have conducted a survey of employees psychoprophylactic mass of the gas industry, which occupies a leading position in the economy. Found that the prevalence of mental disorders in this professional group is 187 per 1,000 workers. In this case, 99.3% of employees with mental health problems of mentally ill for a long time, they do not receive appropriate treatment. Leading position in the structure occupy disorder with anxious and depressive symptoms, about 75% of all cases. In the treatment of these patients showed the highest efficiency Luvox, which is one of the most appropriate products in a production environment.

  18. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  19. Bond Activation by Metal-Carbene Complexes in the Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shaodong; Li, Jilai; Schlangen, Maria; Schwarz, Helmut

    2016-03-15

    "Bare" metal-carbene complexes, when generated in the gas phase and exposed to thermal reactions under (near) single-collision conditions, exhibit rather unique reactivities in addition to the well-known metathesis and cyclopropanation processes. For example, at room temperature the unligated [AuCH2](+) complex brings about efficient C-C coupling with methane to produce C2Hx (x = 4, 6), and the couple [TaCH2](+)/CO2 gives rise to the generation of the acetic acid equivalent CH2═C═O. Entirely unprecedented is the thermal extrusion of a carbon atom from halobenzenes (X = F, Cl, Br, I) by [MCH2](+) (M = La, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os) and its coupling with the methylene ligand to deliver C2H2 and [M(X)(C5H5)](+). Among the many noteworthy C-N bond-forming processes, the formation of CH3NH2 from [RhCH2](+)/NH3, the generation of CH2═NH2(+) from [MCH2](+)/NH3 (M = Pt, Au), and the production of [PtCH═NH2](+) from [PtCH2](+)/NH3 are of particular interest. The latter species are likely to be involved as intermediates in the platinum-mediated large-scale production of HCN from CH4/NH3 (the DEGUSSA process). In this context, a few examples are presented that point to the operation of co-operative effects even at a molecular level. For instance, in the coupling of CH4 with NH3 by the heteronuclear clusters [MPt](+) (M = coinage metal), platinum is crucial for the activation of methane, while the coinage metal M controls the branching ratio between the C-N bond-forming step and unwanted soot formation. For most of the gas-phase reactions described in this Account, detailed mechanistic insight has been derived from extensive computational work in conjunction with time-honored labeling and advanced mass-spectrometry-based experiments, and often a coherent description of the experimental findings has been achieved. As for some transition metals, in particular those from the third row, the metal-carbene complexes can be formed directly from methane, coupling of the so

  20. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David

    2014-10-15

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  1. Laryngoscope handles: a potential for infection.

    PubMed

    Simmons, S A

    2000-06-01

    Laryngoscope handles do not usually come in direct contact with the patient's mucous membranes. Consequently, routine disinfection of laryngoscope handles is not currently standard practice unless gross contamination is clearly evident. Recent reports indicate that apparently clean handles may be contaminated with blood or body fluids. No report examined microbes on handles. The present article describes the incidence and types of microbes on laryngoscope handles after their use in the operating rooms of a 502-bed medical center in northwestern Pennsylvania. Twenty laryngoscope handles were cultured on Mueller Hinton 5% sheep blood agar plates. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours and examined for growth. The identification, incidence, and susceptibility patterns of organisms were determined. Microorganisms were present on all 20 laryngoscope handles. Nine different types were isolated; some strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Organisms were categorized as contaminants or opportunistic pathogens. The presence of opportunistic pathogens places anesthesia providers and patients at risk of nosocomial infections. Based on the recommendations of the 1997 American Association of Nurse Anesthetists' Infection Control Guide and the results of the present study, institutional guidelines should be established for the use of disposable laryngoscope covers, high-level (destroying all microorganisms with the exception of high numbers of bacterial spores) disinfection, or sterilization of laryngoscope equipment between each patient use.

  2. 76 FR 52006 - Information Collection Activity: Leasing of Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas and Sulphur in the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... 15, 2011, we published a Federal Register notice (76 FR 21393) announcing that we would submit this... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Information Collection Activity: Leasing of... Leasing of Minerals Other than Oil, Gas and Sulphur in the Outer Continental Shelf (OMB No. 1010-...

  3. 75 FR 18545 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0067, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations, Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0067, Oil and Gas Well- Completion.... ACTION: Notice of extension of an information collection (1010-0067). SUMMARY: To comply with the...; 381 Elden Street, MS-4024; Herndon, Virginia 20170-4817. Please reference ICR 1010-0067 in...

  4. 75 FR 13570 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0043, Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations, Renewal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0043, Oil and Gas Well- Workover.... ACTION: Notice of renewal of an information collection (1010-0043). SUMMARY: To comply with the Paperwork...; Herndon, Virginia 20170-4817. Please reference ICR 1010-0043 in your comment and include your name...

  5. 77 FR 2513 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... the Notice of Availability (76 FR 82275, December 30, 2011). Public Meetings Comments will be accepted... in the Notice of Availability Federal Register document (76 FR 82275, December 30, 2011)) will be... Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  6. 78 FR 21347 - Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... content of the Supplemental DEIS can be found in the Notice of Availability (78 FR 19212, March 29, 2013... Statement for Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... released for public comment the ``Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the...

  7. An Evaluation of Gas Law Webquest Based on Active Learning Style in a Secondary School in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy; Siraj, Saedah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the PTEchLS WebQuest on Gas Laws was evaluated. It was designed for Form Four students with active learning styles. The focus of the evaluation was on the usability and effectiveness of the PTechLS WebQuest. Data were collected from interviews and students' achievement scores. Two teachers and eight students volunteered to…

  8. 17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of basins, trends, provinces, plays, areas-of-interest, etc. (16) Oil and gas producing activities... reasonable certainty through reliable technology. Portions of the reservoir that do not meet this reasonable... unless geoscience, engineering, or performance data and reliable technology establishes a lower...

  9. 17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of basins, trends, provinces, plays, areas-of-interest, etc. (16) Oil and gas producing activities... reasonable certainty through reliable technology. Portions of the reservoir that do not meet this reasonable... unless geoscience, engineering, or performance data and reliable technology establishes a lower...

  10. 17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of basins, trends, provinces, plays, areas-of-interest, etc. (16) Oil and gas producing activities... reasonable certainty through reliable technology. Portions of the reservoir that do not meet this reasonable... unless geoscience, engineering, or performance data and reliable technology establishes a lower...

  11. 77 FR 40354 - Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels-Draft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...EPA published on May 10, 2012, Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels--Draft. The initial public comment period for this proposal was 60 days, ending on July 9, 2012. In response to requests from several stakeholders, this action extends the public comment period for an additional 45...

  12. 75 FR 28052 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0051, Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... (74 FR 56858) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for approval. The notice provided the... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0051, Oil and Gas Production... Request AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of extension of an...

  13. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in RPP active catch tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-06-03

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by River Protection Project (RPP). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  14. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in TWRS active catch tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-05-20

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  15. Biological activity of a leached chernozem contaminated with the products of combustion of petroleum gas and its restoration upon phytoremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireeva, N. A.; Novoselova, E. I.; Shamaeva, A. A.; Grigoriadi, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    It is shown that contamination of leached chernozems by combustion products of petroleum gas favors changes in the biological activity of the soil: the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria and micromycetes has increased, as well as the activity of catalase and lipase and phytotoxicity. Bromopsis inermis Leys used as a phytoameliorant has accelerated the destruction of hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere. The benzpyrene concentration in plants on contaminated soils considerably exceeds its background concentration.

  16. Mooring and ground handling rigid airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of mooring and ground handling rigid airships are discussed. A brief history of Mooring and Ground Handling Rigid Airships from July 2, 1900 through September 1, 1939 is included. Also a brief history of ground handling developments with large U. S. Navy nonrigid airships between September 1, 1939 and August 31, 1962 is included wherein developed equipment and techniques appear applicable to future large rigid airships. Finally recommendations are made pertaining to equipment and procedures which appear desirable and feasible for future rigid airship programs.

  17. Handling time and choice in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Shettleworth, S J

    1985-09-01

    According to optimal foraging theory, animals should prefer food items with the highest ratios of energy intake to handling time. When single items have negligible handling times, one large item should be preferred to a collection of small ones of equivalent total weight. However, when pigeons were offered such a choice on equal concurrent variable-interval schedules in a shuttlebox, they preferred the side offering many small items per reinforcement to that offering one or a few relatively large items. This preference was still evident on concurrent fixed-cumulative-duration schedules in which choosing the alternative with longer handling time substantially lowered the rate of food intake.

  18. How the NWC handles software as product

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial provides a hands-on view of how the Nuclear Weapons Complex project should be handling (or planning to handle) software as a product in response to Engineering Procedure 401099. The SQAS has published the document SQAS96-002, Guidelines for NWC Processes for Handling Software Product, that will be the basis for the tutorial. The primary scope of the tutorial is on software products that result from weapons and weapons-related projects, although the information presented is applicable to many software projects. Processes that involve the exchange, review, or evaluation of software product between or among NWC sites, DOE, and external customers will be described.

  19. The origin of the selectivity and activity of ruthenium-cluster catalysts for fuel-cell feed-gas purification: a gas-phase approach.

    PubMed

    Lang, Sandra M; Bernhardt, Thorsten M; Krstić, Marjan; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta

    2014-05-19

    Gas-phase ruthenium clusters Ru(n)(+) (n=2-6) are employed as model systems to discover the origin of the outstanding performance of supported sub-nanometer ruthenium particles in the catalytic CO methanation reaction with relevance to the hydrogen feed-gas purification for advanced fuel-cell applications. Using ion-trap mass spectrometry in conjunction with first-principles density functional theory calculations three fundamental properties of these clusters are identified which determine the selectivity and catalytic activity: high reactivity toward CO in contrast to inertness in the reaction with CO2; promotion of cooperatively enhanced H2 coadsorption and dissociation on pre-formed ruthenium carbonyl clusters, that is, no CO poisoning occurs; and the presence of Ru-atom sites with a low number of metal-metal bonds, which are particularly active for H2 coadsorption and activation. Furthermore, comprehensive theoretical investigations provide mechanistic insight into the CO methanation reaction and discover a reaction route involving the formation of a formyl-type intermediate. PMID:24803209

  20. Bactericidal and Fungicidal Activity in the Gas Phase of Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC).

    PubMed

    Proto, Antonio; Zarrella, Ilaria; Cucciniello, Raffaele; Pironti, Concetta; De Caro, Francesco; Motta, Oriana

    2016-08-01

    Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) is usually employed as a disinfectant for the treatment of water, environmental surfaces and medical equipment principally for its effectiveness as a microbicide agent. In this study, we explore the possibility of a new use for NaDCC by investigating the microbicidal activity of chlorine, which derives from the hydrolysis of NaDCC mediated by air humidity, and by testing its effect on the neutralization of microbes present in domestic waste. NaDCC was inserted in a plastic garbage can where LB agar plates, with different dilutions of a known title of four different microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Debaryomyces hansenii and Aspergillus brasiliensis), were weakly inserted. The molecular chlorine (Cl2) levels present in the garbage can were quantified using an iodometric titration. The gas emitted in the garbage can presented a strong microbicide effect, inhibiting the proliferation of all four microorganisms and for four consecutive weeks, thus showing that NaDCC hydrolysis, mediated by air humidity, is able to ensure the decontamination of restricted environments, avoiding the proliferation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. PMID:27086304

  1. Experiments in active control of stall on an aeroengine gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.; Wilson, A.G.; Day, I.J.; Swinbanks, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes work carried out between 1989 and 1994 to investigate the application of Active Stall Control to a Rolls-Royce Viper turbojet. The results demonstrate that stall control is feasible and can increase the stable operating range by up to 25 percent of pressure rise. Stall disturbances were detected using rings of high response pressure transducers positioned at different axial planes along the compressor, and processed using a PC-based data acquisition and control system. Actuation was provided by six hydraulically operated sleeve valves positioned to recirculate air over all or part of the compressor. Stall was artificially induced using combinations of in-bleed into the combustor outer casing, fuel spiking, hot gas ingestion, and inlet pressure spoiling, thus replicating many of the transient conditions commonly observed to make a compressor prone to stall. Results are compared from a number of stall control strategies including those demonstrated at low speed by Paduano et al. (1993) and Day (1993). Best results were obtained with detection of nonaxisymmetric disturbances coupled with axisymmetric control action. A control system of this type is demonstrated to be capable of extending the stable engine operating range at all speeds and with each method of inducing stall.

  2. Quick actuating closure and handling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Johnny W.; White, Dorsey E., III; Updike, Benjamin T.; Gregory, Peyton B.

    1988-01-01

    A quick activating closure and handling system, which utilizes conical sections for locking, was developed to allow quick access to the combustor internal components of the 8 ft High Temperature Tunnel. These critical components include the existing methane spraybar, a transpiration cooled nozzle and the new liquid oxygen (LOX) injection system housed within the combustor. A substantial cost savings will be realized once the mechanism is installed since it will substantially reduce the access time and increase the time available for conducting wind tunnel tests. A need exists for more frequent inspections when the wind tunnel operates at the more severe conditions generated by using LOX in the combustor. A loads analysis and a structural (finite element) analysis were conducted to verify that the new closure system is compatible with the existing pressure shell. In addition, strain gages were placed on the pressure vessel to verify how the pressure shell reacts to transient pressure loads. A scale model of the new closure system was built to verify the operation of the conical sections in the locking mechanisms.

  3. Assessment of microbial respiratory activity of a manufactured gas plant soil after remediation using sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Mai, Maike; Li, Peijun

    2005-09-30

    Microbial activity of a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil, as well as remaining oil degradability, before and after remediation using sunflower oil was assessed. A sandy soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was collected from an MGP site in Berlin, Germany. Column solubilizations of PAHs from the field-moist soil and air-dried soil using sunflower oil as an extractant at an oil/soil ratio of 2:1 (v/m) were carried out to compare PAH removals from the soil under these two conditions. After column solubilizations, portions of untreated soil (UTS), solubilized field-moist soil (SFMS), and solubilized air-dried soil (SADS) were amended with nutrients. Both nutrient amended and unamended soil samples were subjected to soil respiratory measurement. Soil respiration parameters, such as basal respiration rate, nutrient-induced respiration rate, lag time, exponential growth rate, respiratory activation quotient, peak maximum time, and cumulative CO2 evolution were calculated from the soil respiration curves. The parameters were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least-significance difference (LSD). Results showed that the impact of soil moisture on the PAH removals was quite significant, with the SADS showing higher PAH removals and the SFMS showing lower ones. There were significant differences between the respiration parameters with respect to the UTS, SFMS, and SADS. Basal respiration rate, nutrient-induced respiration rate, and exponential growth rate were lower for the SFMS and SADS relative to the UTS. Lag time and peak maximum time were higher for the SFMS and SADS relative to the UTS. Exponential growth rate was higher for the SFMS relative to the SADS. These parameters demonstrated that soil microbial activity was reduced at the onset of the test, because a lot of bioavailable materials for microbial growth were removed by sunflower oil. On the other hand, cumulative CO2 evolutions in the SFMS and SADS were higher than that in

  4. Effects of offshore oil and gas development activities in southern California on larval settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.T.; Barnett, A.; Krause, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    A series of in situ field experiments were conducted to determine effects of oil and gas drilling activities on the settlement of marine larvae in the deep ocean (180 m). The study sites were a series of three drilling rigs and three reference sites between Pt. Arguello and Pt. Conception in California. Experiments were carried out in both pre-drilling and drilling phases to test the effects of drilling activities (e.g. drilling, drilling mud release, and produced water discharges) on the ability of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) larvae to settle using an in situ experiment. Their in situ experiment involved reciprocal transplants of settling plates that were ``filmed`` with bacteria from each site. After filming in the field at each of two heights, plates were mounted into chambers, covered with mesh and placed onto recoverable larval arrays for deployment in the field. Before deployment the authors injected approximately 300 competent red abalone larvae into each chamber. One larval array was deployed at each site for three days and each array contained plates filmed at all sites. In addition sterile plates (no surface filming) were included at each site. Upon recovery the number of settled abalone larvae were counted. Therefore, the experiment tested location-related (drilling sites versus reference), waterborne, and height effects on settlement in both the pre-drilling and drilling phases. Their results show that red abalone served as a sensitive indicator for in situ studies of larval settlement. The authors found significantly higher numbers of abalone settling onto plates that were filmed versus those that were not. The authors also found significantly lower settlement rates between the pre-drilling and drilling periods.

  5. Gas-Phase Ambient Air Contaminants Exhibit Significant Dioxin-like and Estrogen-like Activity in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Gail P.; Hodge, Erin M.; Diamond, Miriam L.; Yip, Amelia; Dann, Tom; Stern, Gary; Denison, Michael S.; Harper, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Several adverse health effects, such as respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, have been linked to exposure to particulate matter in ambient air; however, the biologic activity of gas-phase ambient organic air contaminants has not been examined as thoroughly. Using aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)–based and estrogen receptor (ER)–based cell bioassay systems, we assessed the dioxin-like and estrogenic activities of gas-phase organic ambient air contaminants compared with those of particulate-phase contaminants using samples collected between seasons over 2 years from an urban and a rural location in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. The concentration of the sum (∑) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which was highest in the gas phase, was 10–100 times more abundant than that of ∑polychlorinated biphenyls, ∑nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and ∑organochlorine pesticides, and 103 to 104 times more abundant than ∑polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans. Gas-phase samples induced significant AHR- and ER-dependent gene expression. The activity of the gas-phase samples was greater than that of the particulate-phase samples in the estrogen assay and, in one case, in the AHR assay. We found no strong associations between either summer or winter seasons or urban or rural locations in the relative efficacy of the extracts in either the ER or AHR assay despite differences in chemical composition, concentrations, and abundance. Our results suggest that mechanistic studies of the health effects of ambient air must consider gas and particulate phases because chemicals present in both phases can affect AHR and ER signaling pathways. PMID:16675423

  6. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  7. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  8. Handle Fireworks with Care on The Fourth

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159649.html Handle Fireworks With Care on the Fourth Take steps to ... THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Americans love fireworks, especially on the Fourth of July, but experts ...

  9. Flat-package DIP handling tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelou, E.; Fraser, R.

    1977-01-01

    Device, using magnetic attraction, can facilitate handling of integrated-circuit flat packages and prevent contamination and bent leads. Tool lifts packages by their cases and releases them by operation of manual plunger.

  10. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify the significance of intertextuality in students' realizations of low- and high-complexity discourses. In the high-complexity event, we show how students take on different roles and use modality and projection as grammatical resources for opening up, for different positions, multiple voices, and various contextual resources. Successful handling of complexity is construed by the interplay between students' roles in the discourse and resources in language for making multiple voices present. In the high-complexity event, the handling of complexity is guided by the students' sense of purpose. Handling complexity is demanding, and explicit scaffolding is necessary to prevent a potentially complex challenge from being treated as a simple one.

  11. 9 CFR 3.142 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be exercised to avoid handling of the primary enclosure in such a manner that may cause physical or emotional trauma to the live animal contained therein. (c) Primary enclosures used to transport any...

  12. 9 CFR 3.142 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be exercised to avoid handling of the primary enclosure in such a manner that may cause physical or emotional trauma to the live animal contained therein. (c) Primary enclosures used to transport any...

  13. 9 CFR 3.142 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be exercised to avoid handling of the primary enclosure in such a manner that may cause physical or emotional trauma to the live animal contained therein. (c) Primary enclosures used to transport any...

  14. 9 CFR 3.142 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be exercised to avoid handling of the primary enclosure in such a manner that may cause physical or emotional trauma to the live animal contained therein. (c) Primary enclosures used to transport any...

  15. 9 CFR 3.142 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be exercised to avoid handling of the primary enclosure in such a manner that may cause physical or emotional trauma to the live animal contained therein. (c) Primary enclosures used to transport any...

  16. Modeling high-pressure adsorption of gas mixtures on activated carbon and coal using a simplified local-density model.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, James E; Robinson, Robert L; Gasem, Khaled A M

    2006-11-01

    The simplified local-density (SLD) theory was investigated regarding its ability to provide accurate representations and predictions of high-pressure supercritical adsorption isotherms encountered in coalbed methane (CBM) recovery and CO2 sequestration. Attention was focused on the ability of the SLD theory to predict mixed-gas adsorption solely on the basis of information from pure gas isotherms using a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). An extensive set of high-pressure adsorption measurements was used in this evaluation. These measurements included pure and binary mixture adsorption measurements for several gas compositions up to 14 MPa for Calgon F-400 activated carbon and three water-moistened coals. Also included were ternary measurements for the activated carbon and one coal. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO2 on dry activated carbon, the SLD-PR can predict the component mixture adsorption within about 2.2 times the experimental uncertainty on average solely on the basis of pure-component adsorption isotherms. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO2 on two of the three wet coals, the SLD-PR model can predict the component adsorption within the experimental uncertainties on average for all feed fractions (nominally molar compositions of 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, and 80/20) of the three binary gas mixture combinations, although predictions for some specific feed fractions are outside of their experimental uncertainties. PMID:17073487

  17. Halogenated greenhouse gas emissions over Central Europe inferred from ambient air measurements and 222-Rn activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Christoph; Brunner, Dominik; Vollmer, Martin K.; O'Doherty, Simon; Manning, Alistair; Reimann, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    To check for compliance with the reduction targets defined under the Kyoto Protocol, each participating country has to report its greenhouse gas emissions to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). These emissions are calculated using a bottom-up approach, by combining categories of compound use and specific activity (release) functions. The uncertainties of these estimates are not well defined, thereby making an independent validation of the reported emissions highly desirable. Top-down estimates based on atmospheric concentration measurements and using a reference species as a priori information are a promising method for independent emission estimates. For this purpose, atmospheric Radon (222-Rn) is very well suited due to its exactly known radioactive decay lifetime of 5.5 days and its homogeneous release over soil with comparatively small spatial and temporal variability. In the present study, concentration measurements of halogenated greenhouse gases such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and SF6 at the remote sites Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) and Mace Head (Ireland) were combined with backward calculations of the Lagrangian Particle dispersion model FLEXPART to derive emission rates over Central Europe. The ability of FLEXPART to simulate the origin of air masses arriving at the receptor point was checked using 222-Rn measurements in combination with the flux map recently developed by Szegvary et al. (2007), and analysis was restricted to episodes where FLEXPART successfully reproduced the observed concentration pattern of 222-Rn. This procedure not only removes all measurements where the flow regime of air masses is uncertain and source attribution of emissions is therefore difficult, but also allows to correct for potential model uncertainties originating e.g. from the complex topography not resolved by the model. The top-down estimations derived in this study generally agree well with the bottom-up estimates

  18. Activation of Metal-Organic Precursors by Electron Bombardment in the Gas Phase for Enhanced Deposition of Solid Films.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huaxing; Qin, Xiangdong; Zaera, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The incorporation of gas-phase electron-impact ionization and activation of metal-organic compounds into atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is reported as a way to enhance film growth with stable precursors. Specifically, it is shown here that gas-phase activation of methylcyclopentadienylmanganese tricarbonyl, MeCpMn(CO)3, which was accomplished by using a typical nude ion gauge employed in many ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) studies, enhances its dissociative adsorption on silicon surfaces, affording the design of ALD cycles with more extensive Mn deposition and at lower temperatures. Significantly higher Mn uptakes were demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on both silicon dioxide films and on Si(100) wafers Ar(+)-sputtered to remove their native oxide layer. The effectiveness of this electron-impact activation approach in ALD is explained in terms of the cracking patterns seen in mass spectrometry for the metal-organic precursor used.

  19. Ross Hazardous and Toxic Materials Handling Facility: Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    URS Consultants, Inc.

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) owns a 200-acre facility in Washington State known as the Ross Complex. Activities at the Ross Complex routinely involve handling toxic substances such as oil-filled electrical equipment containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organic and inorganic compounds for preserving wood transmission poles, and paints, solvents, waste oils, and pesticides and herbicides. Hazardous waste management is a common activity on-site, and hazardous and toxic substances are often generated from these and off-site activities. The subject of this environmental assessment (EA) concerns the consolidation of hazardous and toxic substances handling at the Complex. This environmental assessment has been developed to identify the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the proposal. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to determine if the proposed action is likely to have a significant impact on the environment. In addition to the design elements included within the project, mitigation measures have been identified within various sections that are now incorporated within the project. This facility would be designed to improve the current waste handling practices and to assist BPA in meeting Federal and state regulations.

  20. Deuterium Gas Analysis by Residual Gas Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, B. K.; Shukla, R.; Das, R.; Shyam, A.; Rao, A. D. P.

    2012-11-01

    Hydrogen gas is generated by electrolysis method in a compact hydrogen generator. A simple procedure reduces handling and storage of hydrogen cylinders for laboratory applications. In such a system, we are producing deuterium gas from heavy water by electrolysis method. After production of the deuterium gas, we have checked the purity level of the outgoing deuterium from the electrolyser. The test was carried out in a high vacuum system in which one residual gas analyser (RGA) was mounted. The deuterium gas was inserted by one manual gas leak valve in to the vacuum system. In this study, the effect of the emission current of the RGA on the detection of the deuterium was performed. In this paper, we will discuss the detail analysis of the deuterium gas and the effect of the emission current on the partial pressure measurement.

  1. [Removal efficiency of dioxins in flue gas from MSW incineration by using bag house and activated carban filter/adsorbor].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiying; Nie, Yongfeng; Tian, Honghai; Quan, Hao; Yin, Huiming; Hai, Ying

    2003-03-01

    This paper study the removal efficiency of dioxins in the flue gas from small-scale MSW incinerator, by using bag house, activated carban filter/adsorbor, and the combined unit of the bag house and activated carban filter/adsorbor. The removal efficiencies of the above three units respectively were 39.7%, 61.9%, 93.4% at 850-900 degrees C. It was shown that the combined unit of the bg house and activated carban filter/adsobor could reduce the operation cost, as well as meet the national criterion.

  2. Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaofen; Rouseff, Russell

    2014-05-21

    Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars ('Prima Dona', 'Jewel', 'Snow Chaser', and 'Kestrel') were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and identified via GC-PFPD and GC-MS using retention indices of reference compounds and mass spectral data. The aromas of total, unseparated SPME extracts evaluated using GC-O were rated 8.2-9.0/10 for the four cultivars in terms of similarity to the original blueberry homogenates. In terms of GC-O aroma similarity, those aroma active volatile groups characterized as green, fruity, and floral were most intense. Of the 43 volatiles found to have aroma activity, 38 were identified and 13 had not been previously reported in blueberries. Although linalool and (E)-2-hexenal were common major aroma impact volatiles, dominant aroma-active volatiles were different for each cultivar. Principal component analysis confirmed that each cultivar possessed a unique aroma active profile as each cultivar was clustered into a separate score plot quadrant.

  3. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  4. Activated carbon fiber cloth adsorber with cryogenic condensation to capture and recover MEK and toluene from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, C.S.; Lordgooei, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) of 1990 mandate reductions in emissions of toxic volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) to the atmosphere. These regulations have stimulated interest in developing new technologies to remove, capture, and recover TVOCs from air for reuse. A laboratory-scale activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC)-cryogenic air quality control device was developed and operated to remove, capture, and recover methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and toluene from gas streams. The system was tested with gas streams at room temperature, ambient pressure, and TVOC concentrations near 1000 ppmv in air. The relative humidity of the inlet gas stream was controlled to either 0 or 90%. The fixed bed adsorber contained 19.2 g of ACFC with a cross-sectional area of 16 cm2. The superficial gas velocity through the bed was 5.2 cm/sec, with a pressure drop near 23 cm H{sub 2}O. Breakthrough times for MEK were between 5.5 and 6.0 hr for dry inlet gas streams. Breakthrough times decreased by 36% at 90% RH. Comparable results were obtained for tests with toluene. Once the ACFC was saturated, it was regenerated in a low flow rate stream of N{sub 2} using electrothermal desorption. The gas stream emitted from the fixed bed during regeneration had TVOC concentrations near the saturation values for the compounds of interest. The TVOCs were then recovered for reuse with a cryogenic condenser between 203 and 233 K. Laboratory-scale tests demonstrate that the ACFC-cryogenic condensation system can operate consistently at low inlet TVOC concentrations generated over 18 hr periods. Results from the laboratory-scale system indicate this new device allows for successful removal, capture, and recovery of TVOCs such as MEK and toluene from simulated industrial gas streams, at low and high relative humidity conditions. No contamination of TVOC in the adsorption-regeneration-recovery process was detected by mass spectrometry.

  5. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, C.A. National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC ); Hopkins, M.E. )

    1991-04-01

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Mobility of a gas-pressurized elastic glove for extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Abe, Chikara; Iwata, Chihiro; Yamagata, Kenji; Murakami, Naoko; Tanaka, Masao; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Morita, Hironobu

    2010-04-01

    Usability of a gas-pressurized elastic glove for extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated by comparing its performance with that of a non-elastic glove like that in the current EVA suit. The right hands of eight healthy volunteers were studied in a chamber. The bare hand at normal ambient pressure, and at -220 mmHg of the chamber pressure (producing the same pressure differential as the current US EVA suit) with each of the gloves. No significant difference in cutaneous blood flow or skin temperature was observed between the gloves. Range of motion (ROM) in the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger with the elastic glove (87.4±4.9°) was significantly wider than that with the non-elastic glove (70.6±2.3°), but the surface electromyography (EMG) amplitude during flexion with the elastic glove was significantly smaller than that with the non-elastic glove (29.3±2.7 mV vs. 46.7±2.3 mV for elastic and non-elastic gloves, respectively). The elastic glove also allowed smaller reduction in grip strength and longer endurance time than the non-elastic glove (-44.3±6.0% vs. -59.4±1.5% from the bare hand grip strength, 26.3±5.7% vs. 10.9±3.1% of the bare hand endurance time, for elastic and non-elastic glove, respectively). The static effects of non-elastic and elastic gloves are similar, but the mobility of the elastic glove is better than that of the non-elastic glove like the one used in the current EVA suit.

  7. In-Situ Quantification of Methanotrophic Activity in a Landfill Cover Soil Using Gas Push-Pull Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, K. E.; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Schroth, M. H.; Zeyer, J.

    2007-12-01

    Landfills are both a major anthropogenic source and a sink for the greenhouse gas CH4. Methanogenic bacteria produce CH4 during the anaerobic digestion of landfill waste, whereas, methanotrophic bacteria consume CH4 as it is transported through a landfill cover soil. Methanotrophs are thought to be ubiquitous in soils, but typically exist in large numbers at oxic/anoxic interfaces, close to anaerobic methane sources but exposed to oxygen required for metabolism. Accurate in-situ quantification of the sink strength of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils is needed for global carbon balances and for local emissions mitigation strategies. We measured in-situ CH4 concentrations at 30, 60, and 100 cm depth at 18 evenly spaced locations across a landfill cover soil. Furthermore, we performed Gas Push-Pull Tests (GPPTs) to estimate in-situ rates of methanotrophic activity in the cover soil. The GPPT is a gas-tracer test in which a gas mixture containing CH4, O2, and non-reactive tracer gases is injected (pushed) into the soil followed by extraction (pull) from the same location. Quantification of CH4 oxidation rates is based upon comparison of the breakthrough curves of CH4 and tracer gases. We present the results of a series of GPPTs conducted at two locations in the cover soil to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of this technique to quantify methanotrophic activity. Additional GPPTs were performed with a methanotrophic inhibitor in the injection gas mixture to confirm the appropriate choice of tracers to quantify CH4 oxidation. Estimated CH4 oxidation rate constants indicate that the cover soil contains a highly active methanotrophic community.

  8. Direct gas-phase detection of nerve and blister warfare agents utilizing active capillary plasma ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wolf, J-C; Schaer, M; P Siegenthaler, P; Zenobi, R

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasensitive direct gas-phase detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is demonstrated utilizing active capillary plasma ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation. Four G- agents, two V-agents and various blistering agents [including sulfur mustard (HD)] were detected directly in the gas phase with limits of detection in the low parts per trillion (ng m(-3)) range. The direct detection of HD was shown for dry carrier gas conditions, but signals vanished when humidity was present, indicating a possible direct detection of HD after sufficient gas phase pretreatment. The method provided sufficient sensitivity to monitor directly the investigated volatile CWAs way below their corresponding minimal effect dose, and in most cases even below the eight hours worker exposure concentration. In general, the ionization is very soft, with little to no in-source fragmentation. Especially for the G-agents, some dimer formation occurred at higher concentrations. This adds complexity, but also further selectivity, to the corresponding mass spectra. Our results show that the active capillary plasma ionization is a robust, sensitive, "plug and play" ambient ionization source suited (but not exclusively) to the very sensitive detection of CWAs. It has the potential to be used with portable MS instrumentation. PMID:26307710

  9. Neonatal handling and gender modulate brain monoamines and plasma corticosterone levels following repeated stressors in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Pondiki, Stavroula; Papaioannou, Agapi; Alikaridis, Filaretos; Stamatakis, Antonis; Gerozissis, Kyriaki; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2004-01-01

    Neonatal handling affects the response to repeated stress in a sexually dimorphic manner. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these gender-dependent effects, we investigated the consequences of neonatal androgenization and handling on adult stress reactivity by determining: (a) immobility time during repeated forced swimming, (b) plasma corticosterone levels, and (c) brain serotonin and dopamine levels and turnover after either repeated forced swimming, or repeated forced swimming followed by repeated restraint stress. In neonatally androgenized females, immobility time was lower in the handled than in the non-handled rats, a pattern resembling that of the males, suggesting that the sexually dimorphic effect of handling on immobility time can be attributed to the organizational effects of testosterone. No differences were found between androgenized females and females injected neonatally with vehicle, indicating that the gender differences in circulating corticosterone are not due to the organizational effects of testosterone. The stress of a neonatal injection interacted with neonatal handling resulting in lower plasma corticosterone and hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin levels in the neonatally injected handled animals following repeated forced swimming. The serotonergic system appears to be sensitive to both the organizational actions of testosterone and the effects of handling, since handled androgenized females had higher serotonin levels and decreased turnover following repeated forced swimming stress, compared to those injected neonatally with vehicle. Handling resulted in increased hypothalamic and striatal serotonin levels in both males and females following repeated forced swimming. Our results reveal that handling has gender-dependent effects on adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and brain monoaminergic system reactivity to stress and that these effects can be attributed to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal

  10. Effect of Handling, Storage and Cycling on Ni-H2 Cells: Second Plateau Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the effects of handling, storing, and cycling of NiH2 cells, particularly the second plateau phenomenon. Details are given on the criteria for cell selection, cell history, the second plateau capacity at C/2 discharge, and cell reversal test conditions. Tables display a gas analysis and nickel precharge.

  11. Eruptive activity at Mount St Helens, Washington, USA, 1984-1988: a gas geochemistry perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Sutton, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The results from two different types of gas measurement, telemetered in situ monitoring of reducing gases on the dome and airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates in the plume by correlation spectrometry, suggest that the combination of these two methods is particularly effective in detecting periods of enhanced degassing that intermittently punctuate the normal background leakage of gaseous effluent from Mount St Helens to the atmosphere. Gas events were recorded before lava extrusion for each of the four dome-building episodes at Mount St Helens since mid-1984. For two of the episodes, precursory reducing gas peaks were detected, whereas during three of the episodes, COSPEC measurements recorded precursory degassing of sulfur dioxide. During one episode (October 1986), both reducing gas monitoring and SO2 emission rate measurements simultaneously detected a large gas release several hours before lava extrusion. Had both types of gas measurements been operational during each of the dome-building episodes, it is thought that both would have recorded precursory signals for all four episodes. Evidence from the data presented herein suggests that increased degassing at Mount St Helens becomes detectable when fresh upward-moving magma is between 2 km and a few hundred meters below the base of the dome and between about 60 and 12 hours before the surface extrusion of lava. ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  13. 4D Time-Lapse Seismic Analysis of Active Gas Seepage Systems on the Vestnesa Ridge, Offshore W-Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunz, S.; Hurter, S.; Plaza-Faverola, A. A.; Mienert, J.

    2014-12-01

    Active gas venting occurs on the Vestnesa Ridge, an elongated sediment drift north of the Molloy Transform and just east of the Molloy Ridge, one of the shortest segments of the slow spreading North-Atlantic Ridge system. The crest of the Vestnesa Ridge at water depth between 1200-1300 m is pierced with fluid-flow features. Seafloor pockmarks vary in size up to 1 km in diameter with significant morphological features consisting of small ridges, diapiric structures and small pits. Detailed hydro-acoustic surveying shows that gas mostly emanates from the small-scale pits, where also hydrates have been recovered by sediment sampling. High-resolution P-Cable 3D seismic data acquired in 2012 show vertical focused fluid flow features beneath the seafloor pockmarks. These co-called chimneys extend down to the free-gas zone underneath a bottom-simulating reflection (BSR). Here, they link up with small fault systems that might provide pathways to the deeper subsurface. The chimney features show a high variability in their acoustic characteristics with alternating blanked or masked zones and high-amplitude anomalies scattered through the whole vertical extent of the chimneys. The amplitude anomalies indicate high-impedance contrasts due to the likely presence of gas or a high-velocity material like gas hydrates or carbonates. In most cases, the high-amplitude anomalies line up along specific vertical pathways that connect nicely with the small-scale pits at the surface where gas bubbles seep from the seafloor. We re-acquired the 3D seismic survey in 2013 for time-lapse seismic studies in order to better understand the origin of the amplitude anomalies and in order to track potentially migrating gas fronts up along the chimney structure. The time-lapse seismic analysis indicates several areas, where gas migration may have led to changes in acoustic properties of the subsurface. These areas are located along chimney structures and the BSR. This work provides a basis for better

  14. Rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Chen, Robert T. N.; Key, David L.

    1988-01-01

    Joint NASA/Army efforts at the Ames Research Center to develop rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria began in earnest in 1975. Notable results were the UH-1H VSTOLAND variable stability helicopter, the VFA-2 camera-and-terrain-board simulator visual system, and the generic helicopter real-time mathematical model, ARMCOP. An initial series of handling-qualities studies was conducted to assess the effects of rotor design parameters, interaxis coupling, and various levels of stability and control augmentation. The ability to conduct in-flight handling-qualities research was enhanced by the development of the NASA/Army CH-47 variable-stability helicopter. Research programs conducted using this vehicle include vertical-response investigations, hover augmentation systems, and the effects of control-force characteristics. The handling-qualities data base was judged to be sufficient to allow an update of the military helicopter handling-qualities specification, MIL-H-8501. These efforts, including not only the in-house experimental work but also contracted research and collaborative programs performed under the auspices of various international agreements. The report concludes by reviewing the topics that are currently most in need of work, and the plans for addressing these topics.

  15. Handling Qualities Implications for Crewed Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Arthur, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Handling qualities embody those qualities or characteristics of an aircraft that govern the ease and precision with which a pilot is able to perform the tasks required in support of an aircraft role. These same qualities are as critical, if not more so, in the operation of spacecraft. A research, development, test, and evaluation process was put into effect to identify, understand, and interpret the engineering and human factors principles which govern the pilot-vehicle dynamic system as they pertain to space exploration missions and tasks. Toward this objective, piloted simulations were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center for earth-orbit proximity operations and docking and lunar landing. These works provide broad guidelines for the design of spacecraft to exhibit excellent handling characteristics. In particular, this work demonstrates how handling qualities include much more than just stability and control characteristics of a spacecraft or aircraft. Handling qualities are affected by all aspects of the pilot-vehicle dynamic system, including the motion, visual and aural cues of the vehicle response as the pilot performs the required operation or task. A holistic approach to spacecraft design, including the use of manual control, automatic control, and pilot intervention/supervision is described. The handling qualities implications of design decisions are demonstrated using these pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of docking operations and lunar landings.

  16. Project Execution Plan for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Danny Anderson

    2014-07-01

    As part of ongoing cleanup activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is proceeding under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 USC 9601 et seq. 1980). INL-generated radioactive waste has been disposed of at RWMC since 1952. The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at RWMC accepted the bulk of INL’s contact and remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) for disposal. Disposal of contact-handled LLW and remote-handled LLW ion-exchange resins from the Advanced Test Reactor in the open pit of the SDA ceased September 30, 2008. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at RWMC will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the SDA (approximately at the end of fiscal year FY 2017). The continuing nuclear mission of INL, associated ongoing and planned operations, and Naval spent fuel activities at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) require continued capability to appropriately dispose of contact and remote handled LLW. A programmatic analysis of disposal alternatives for contact and remote-handled LLW generated at INL was conducted by the INL contractor in Fiscal Year 2006; subsequent evaluations were completed in Fiscal Year 2007. The result of these analyses was a recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) that all contact-handled LLW generated after September 30, 2008, be disposed offsite, and that DOE proceed with a capital project to establish replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability. An analysis of the alternatives for providing replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability has been performed to support Critical Decision-1. The highest ranked alternative to provide this required capability has been determined to be the development of a new onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility to replace the existing remote-handled LLW disposal vaults at the SDA. Several offsite DOE

  17. Safe handling and disposal of laboratory animal waste.

    PubMed

    Hill, D

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory animal handlers have a strict obligation to consider the safe handling and disposal of their animal waste streams. It is their responsibility to evaluate the hazards, assess the risks, and choose an appropriate strategy. Potential hazards include chemicals, such as commonly used sterilants and disinfectants; physical risks, such as heavy or repetitive lifting activities; hazardous micro-organisms or allergens; and radiologic agents. Furthermore, many animal studies involve compounds with unknown toxicity, which may require special precautions. Animal handlers must protect themselves by using appropriate engineering controls of work practice to minimize their exposure, adding the use of personal protective equipment when necessary. In addition, compliance with institutional waste handling procedures that meet federal, state, and local environmental requirements is essential to ensure the safe transport and disposal of animal waste streams.

  18. Explicit spatial compatibility is not critical to the object handle effect.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Elizabeth J; Churches, Owen; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2016-10-01

    In object perception studies, a response advantage arises when the handle of an object is congruent with the responding hand. This handle effect is thought to reflect increased motor activation of the hand most suited to grasp the object, consistent with affordance theories of object representation. An alternative explanation has been proposed, however, which suggests that the handle effect is related to a simple spatial compatibility effect (the Simon effect). In 3 experiments, we determined whether the handle effect would emerge in the absence of explicit spatial compatibility between handle and response. Stimulus and response location was varied vertically and participants made horizontally orthogonal, bimanual responses to objects' kitchen/garage category, color (as in a traditional Simon effect) or upright/inverted orientation. Categorization and inversion tasks, which relied on object knowledge, elicited a handle effect and a vertical Simon effect regarding stimulus and response locations. When participants judged object color, as per standard Simon effect paradigms, the handle effect disappeared but the Simon effect strengthened. These data demonstrate a dissociation between affordance and spatial compatibility effects and prove that affordance plays an important role in the handle effect. Models that incorporate both affordance and spatial compatibility mechanisms are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27668425

  19. Explicit spatial compatibility is not critical to the object handle effect.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Elizabeth J; Churches, Owen; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2016-10-01

    In object perception studies, a response advantage arises when the handle of an object is congruent with the responding hand. This handle effect is thought to reflect increased motor activation of the hand most suited to grasp the object, consistent with affordance theories of object representation. An alternative explanation has been proposed, however, which suggests that the handle effect is related to a simple spatial compatibility effect (the Simon effect). In 3 experiments, we determined whether the handle effect would emerge in the absence of explicit spatial compatibility between handle and response. Stimulus and response location was varied vertically and participants made horizontally orthogonal, bimanual responses to objects' kitchen/garage category, color (as in a traditional Simon effect) or upright/inverted orientation. Categorization and inversion tasks, which relied on object knowledge, elicited a handle effect and a vertical Simon effect regarding stimulus and response locations. When participants judged object color, as per standard Simon effect paradigms, the handle effect disappeared but the Simon effect strengthened. These data demonstrate a dissociation between affordance and spatial compatibility effects and prove that affordance plays an important role in the handle effect. Models that incorporate both affordance and spatial compatibility mechanisms are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-10-01

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  1. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-05-01

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  2. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-02-01

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  3. Tolerance of acute hypoxia while performing operator activity and after a prolonged period under altered gas environment conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloshchinskiy, P.; Golets, L.; Agadzhanyan, N. A.; Sergiyenko, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Human and animal studies on physiological factors in resistance to acute hypoxia are elaborated. Results show that tolerance of acute hypoxia depends on gas composition and temperature in a sealed cabin, on the length of the stay and motive regime, and on the kind of operator and professional activity. After preliminary adaptation to hypoxia, resistance of the body increases not only to insufficiency of oxygen in inspired air, but also to the effects of other extremum factors of manned space flight.

  4. The role of hydration in enzyme activity and stability: 2. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity and stability in a continuous gas phase reactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Russell, A J

    1996-03-20

    The degree of enzyme hydration is the one of the most important factors which can affect enzyme activity and stability in water-limited environments. Alcohol dehydrogenase from baker's yeast (YADH) has been used as a model enzyme to study the effects of hydration on activity, stability, and cofactor stability with gas phase substrates. In all cases, the enzyme is essentially inactive until a temperature-independent degree of surface coverage by water molecules has been reached. The critical water content corresponds to 40-50% of a single monolayer. Careful control of the degree of hydration, by adjustments to gas humidity and temperature, enables the enzyme to be stabilized for periods exceeding 1 month, whereas in water the half-life of the enzyme is 30 min. The reaction with gas phase substrates follows a pseudo-first-order mechanism with an activation energy of 7.5 +/- kcal/mol, which is almost half of that in aqueous solution. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Construction and operation of replacement hazardous waste handling facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0423, for the construction and operation of a replacement hazardous waste handling facility (HWHF) and decontamination of the existing HWHF at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California. The proposed facility would replace several older buildings and cargo containers currently being used for waste handling activities and consolidate the LBL`s existing waste handling activities in one location. The nature of the waste handling activities and the waste volume and characteristics would not change as a result of construction of the new facility. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC. 4321 et seq. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required.

  6. The cytosolic sensor cGAS detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA to induce type I interferons and activate autophagy

    PubMed Central

    MacDuff, Donna A.; Kimmey, Jacqueline M.; Diner, Elie J.; Olivas, Joanna; Vance, Russell E.; Stallings, Christina L.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Type I interferons (IFNs) are critical mediators of antiviral defense, but their elicitation by bacterial pathogens can be detrimental to hosts. Many intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, induce type I IFNs following phagosomal membrane perturbations. Cytosolic M. tuberculosis DNA has been implicated as a trigger for IFN production, but the mechanisms remain obscure. We report that the cytosolic DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), is required for activating IFN production via the STING/TBK1/IRF3 pathway during M. tuberculosis and L. pneumophila infection of macrophages, whereas L. monocytogenes short-circuits this pathway by producing the STING agonist, c-di-AMP. Upon sensing cytosolicDNA, cGAS also activates cell-intrinsic antibacterial defenses, promoting autophagic targeting of M. tuberculosis. Importantly, we show that cGAS binds M. tuberculosis DNA during infection, providing direct evidence that this unique host-pathogen interaction occurs in vivo. These data uncover a mechanism by which IFN is likely elicited during active human infections. PMID:26048136

  7. Measuring volcanic gases at Taal Volcano Main Crater for monitoring volcanic activity and possible gas hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpa, M.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Reniva, P.; Bariso, E.; Padilla, G.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Barrancos, J.; Calvo, D.; Nolasco, D.; Padron, E.; Garduque, R.; Villacorte, E.; Fajiculay, E.; Perez, N.; Solidum, R.

    2012-12-01

    Taal is an active volcano located in southwest Luzon, Philippines. It consists of mainly tuff cones which have formed an island at the center of a 30 km wide Taal Caldera. Most historical eruptions, since 1572 on Taal Volcano Island, have been characterized as hydromagmatic eruptions. Taal Main Crater, produced during the 1911 eruption, is the largest crater in the island currently filled by a 1.2 km wide, 85 m deep acidic lake. The latest historical eruption occurred in 1965-1977. Monitoring of CO2 emissions from the Main Crater Lake (MCL) and fumarolic areas within the Main Crater started in 2008 with a collaborative project between ITER and PHIVOLCS. Measurements were done by accumulation chamber method using a Westsystem portable diffuse fluxmeter. Baseline total diffuse CO2 emissions of less than 1000 t/d were established for the MCL from 3 campaign-type surveys between April, 2008 to March, 2010 when seismicity was within background levels. In May, 2010, anomalous seismic activity from the volcano started and the total CO2 emission from the MCL increased to 2716±54 t/d as measured in August, 2010. The CO2 emission from the lake was highest last March, 2011 at 4670±159 t/d when the volcano was still showing signs of unrest. Because CO2 emissions increased significantly (more than 3 times the baseline value) at this time, this activity may be interpreted as magmatic and not purely hydrothermal. Most likely deep magma intrusions occurred but did not progress further to shallower depths and no eruption occurred. No large increase in lake water temperature near the surface (average for the whole lake area) during the period when CO2 was above background, it remained at 30-34°C and a few degrees lower than average ambient temperature. Total CO2 emissions from the MCL have decreased to within baseline values since October, 2011. Concentrations of CO2, SO2 and H2S in air in the fumarolic area within the Main Crater also increased in March, 2011. The measurements

  8. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  9. Fire-hazard control during coal handling

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    The potential for serious power plant fires and explosions is growing along with the increased use of volatile, low-sulfur coal use and environmental regulations requiring closed conveyor systems for handling coal. The volume of coal handled and the range of physical characteristics in different coals intensifies the problem. Western coal produces more dust because it is more friable than eastern coal and is more prone to sponaneous combustion. Closed storage and handling systems increase the hazards of methane and carbon monoxide. The article described prevention, detection, and firefighting techniques, and notes that a variety of systems is needed to cover all the hazards. Human behavior and coordination are also essential ingredients. ll figures.

  10. Nanoparticle cluster gas sensor: Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticles for NH3 detection with ultrahigh sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Chen, Nan; Han, Bingqian; Xiao, Xuechun; Chen, Gang; Djerdj, Igor; Wang, Yude

    2015-09-28

    Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. The structure, morphology, chemical state and specific surface area were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2-sorption studies, respectively. The SnO2 nanoparticle cluster matrix consists of tens of thousands of SnO2 nanoparticles with an ultra-small grain size estimated to be 3.0 nm. And there are abundant random-packed wormhole-like pores, caused by the inter-connection of the SnO2 nanoparticles, throughout each cluster. The platinum element is present in two forms including metal (Pt) and tetravalent metal oxide (PtO2) in the Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters. The as-synthesized pure and Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were used to fabricate gas sensor devices. It was found that the gas response toward 500 ppm of ammonia was improved from 6.48 to 203.44 through the activation by Pt. And the results indicate that the sensor based on Pt activated SnO2 not only has ultrahigh sensitivity but also possesses good response-recovery properties, linear dependence, repeatability, selectivity and long-term stability, demonstrating the potential to use Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters as ammonia gas sensors. At the same time, the formation mechanisms of the unique nanoparticle clusters and highly enhanced sensitivity are also discussed. PMID:26289622

  11. Nanoparticle cluster gas sensor: Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticles for NH3 detection with ultrahigh sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Chen, Nan; Han, Bingqian; Xiao, Xuechun; Chen, Gang; Djerdj, Igor; Wang, Yude

    2015-09-28

    Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. The structure, morphology, chemical state and specific surface area were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2-sorption studies, respectively. The SnO2 nanoparticle cluster matrix consists of tens of thousands of SnO2 nanoparticles with an ultra-small grain size estimated to be 3.0 nm. And there are abundant random-packed wormhole-like pores, caused by the inter-connection of the SnO2 nanoparticles, throughout each cluster. The platinum element is present in two forms including metal (Pt) and tetravalent metal oxide (PtO2) in the Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters. The as-synthesized pure and Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were used to fabricate gas sensor devices. It was found that the gas response toward 500 ppm of ammonia was improved from 6.48 to 203.44 through the activation by Pt. And the results indicate that the sensor based on Pt activated SnO2 not only has ultrahigh sensitivity but also possesses good response-recovery properties, linear dependence, repeatability, selectivity and long-term stability, demonstrating the potential to use Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters as ammonia gas sensors. At the same time, the formation mechanisms of the unique nanoparticle clusters and highly enhanced sensitivity are also discussed.

  12. Cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids activate the cGAS-STING axis.

    PubMed

    Mankan, Arun K; Schmidt, Tobias; Chauhan, Dhruv; Goldeck, Marion; Höning, Klara; Gaidt, Moritz; Kubarenko, Andrew V; Andreeva, Liudmila; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Hornung, Veit

    2014-12-17

    Intracellular recognition of non-self and also self-nucleic acids can result in the initiation of potent pro-inflammatory and antiviral cytokine responses. Most recently, cGAS was shown to be critical for the recognition of cytoplasmic dsDNA. Binding of dsDNA to cGAS results in the synthesis of cGAMP(2'-5'), which then binds to the endoplasmic reticulum resident protein STING. This initiates a signaling cascade that triggers the induction of an antiviral immune response. While most studies on intracellular nucleic acids have focused on dsRNA or dsDNA, it has remained unexplored whether cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids are also sensed by the innate immune system. Studying synthetic RNA:DNA hybrids, we indeed observed a strong type I interferon response upon cytosolic delivery of this class of molecule. Studies in THP-1 knockout cells revealed that the recognition of RNA:DNA hybrids is completely attributable to the cGAS-STING pathway. Moreover, in vitro studies showed that recombinant cGAS produced cGAMP upon RNA:DNA hybrid recognition. Altogether, our results introduce RNA:DNA hybrids as a novel class of intracellular PAMP molecules and describe an alternative cGAS ligand next to dsDNA.

  13. Regional Air Quality Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing and Natural Gas Activity: Evidence from Ambient VOC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinciguerra, T.; Ehrman, S.; Yao, S.; Dadzie, J.; Chittams, A.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, many anthropogenic pollutants have been successfully reduced, providing improved air quality. However, a new influx of emissions associated with hydraulic fracturing and natural gas operations could be counteracting some of these benefits. Using hourly measurements from Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) in the Baltimore, MD and Washington, D.C. areas, we observed that following a period of decline, daytime ethane concentrations have increased significantly since 2010. This trend appears to be linked with the rapid natural gas production in upwind, neighboring states, especially Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Furthermore, ethane concentrations failed to display this trend at a PAMS site outside of Atlanta, GA, a region without widespread natural gas operations. Year-to-year changes in VOCs were further evaluated by using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to perform source apportionment on hourly observations in Essex, MD from 2005-2013. This process takes ambient measurements and attributes them to sources such as biogenic, natural gas, industrial, gasoline, and vehicle exhaust by using tracer species as identifiers. Preliminary PMF results also indicate an increasing influence of natural gas sources for this area.

  14. Views of Growing Methane Emissions near Oil and Natural Gas Activity: Satellite, Aircraft, and Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollonige, D. E.; Thompson, A. M.; Diskin, G. S.; Hannigan, J. W.; Nussbaumer, E.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the discrepancies between current top-down and bottom-up estimates, additional methane (CH4) measurements are necessary for regions surrounding growing oil and natural gas (ONG) development. We have evaluated satellite measurements of CH4 in US regions with ONG operations for their application as "top-down" constraints (part of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST) project). For validation of the satellite instruments' sensitivities to emitted gases, we focus on regions where the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) campaign deployed ground and aircraft measurements in Maryland (2011), California and Texas (2013), and Colorado (2014). The largest CH4 signals were observed in the Greater Green River and Powder River Basins using Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Representative Tropospheric Volume Mixing Ratio (RTVMR) measurements. A long-term comparison between a ground remote-sensing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at Boulder and TES for 2010-2013 shows good correlation and differences ranging 2.5-5% for their yearly distribution of total column CH4. To determine any correlation between lower/mid-tropospheric CH4 (where a thermal IR sensor, such as TES, is most sensitive) and near-surface/boundary CH4 (where sources emit), we analyze the variability of DISCOVER-AQ aircraft profiles using principal component analysis and assess the correlation between near-surface (0-2 km) and mid-tropospheric (>2 km) CH4 concentrations. Using these relationships, we estimate near-surface CH4 using mid-tropospheric satellite measurements based on the partial column amounts within vertical layers with a linear regression. From this analysis, we will demonstrate whether the uncertainties of satellite-estimated near-surface CH4 are comparable to observed variability near ONG activity. These results will assist validation of satellite instrument

  15. Synthesis of trapezohedral indium oxide nanoparticles with high-index {211} facets and high gas sensing activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiguang; Han, Xiao; Sun, Linqiang; Gao, Shengguang; Li, Liang; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Wang, Chao

    2015-06-14

    Nanocrystals with high-index facets usually exhibit higher catalytic activities than those with only low-index facets. Trapezohedron-shaped (TS) In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets were successfully synthesized in an oleic acid (OA) and trioctylamine (TOA) system. It has been demonstrated that the gas sensing activity of TS In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets is higher than that of octahedron-shaped In2O3 particles with exposed low-index {111} facets. PMID:25930122

  16. Synthesis of trapezohedral indium oxide nanoparticles with high-index {211} facets and high gas sensing activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiguang; Han, Xiao; Sun, Linqiang; Gao, Shengguang; Li, Liang; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Wang, Chao

    2015-06-14

    Nanocrystals with high-index facets usually exhibit higher catalytic activities than those with only low-index facets. Trapezohedron-shaped (TS) In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets were successfully synthesized in an oleic acid (OA) and trioctylamine (TOA) system. It has been demonstrated that the gas sensing activity of TS In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets is higher than that of octahedron-shaped In2O3 particles with exposed low-index {111} facets.

  17. Intelligent material handling: use of vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Stephen L.; Lee, Kok-Meng; Lee, Eun-Ho; Single, Thomas; Li, Da-ren

    1991-02-01

    Vision systems will play an increasing role in inteffigent material handling systems. This paper discusses two hardware principles which make possible a host of cost-effective applications--integrated vision systems and the use of retroreflective materials. Described are (1) the design cost and performance characteristics of integrated systems those with the microcomputer array detector and illumination as part of a single circuit (2) the impact of using retroreflective materials those with apparent brightness of more than 1000 times that of diffuse white surfaces and (3) some specific applications: AGV guidance part handling and AS/RS control.

  18. Options in Extraterrestrial Sample Handling and Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastassiou, Dimitri A.

    2000-10-01

    This presentation mentions important service functions such as: sample preservation, hazard assessment, and handling. It also discuss how preliminary examination of samples is necessary for sample hazard assessment and for sample allocations. Clean facilities and clean sample handling are required. Conflicts, cross contamination issues will be present and need to be resolved. Extensive experience is available for extraterrestrial samples and must be sought and applied. Extensive experience is available in studies of pathogenicity and must be sought and applied as necessary. Advisory and oversight structures must also be in place

  19. Options in Extraterrestrial Sample Handling and Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, Dimitri A.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation mentions important service functions such as: sample preservation, hazard assessment, and handling. It also discuss how preliminary examination of samples is necessary for sample hazard assessment and for sample allocations. Clean facilities and clean sample handling are required. Conflicts, cross contamination issues will be present and need to be resolved. Extensive experience is available for extraterrestrial samples and must be sought and applied. Extensive experience is available in studies of pathogenicity and must be sought and applied as necessary. Advisory and oversight structures must also be in place

  20. Structural interaction with transportation and handling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Problems involved in the handling and transportation of finished space vehicles from the factory to the launch site are presented, in addition to recommendations for properly accounting for in space vehicle structural design, adverse interactions during transportation. Emphasis is given to the protection of vehicle structures against those environments and loads encountered during transportation (including temporary storage) which would exceed the levels that the vehicle can safely withstand. Current practices for verifying vehicle safety are appraised, and some of the capabilities and limitations of transportation and handling systems are summarized.