Science.gov

Sample records for active geophysical monitoring

  1. Geophysical Mapping and Monitoring of Active Planets (GMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, P. J.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2017-02-01

    Recent findings require a strongly upward revision of volcano-tectonic activity rate estimates for Venus and Mars. We propose a program of Geophysical Mapping and Monitoring of Active Planets (GMAP) including seismology, gravimetry, InSAR, and GPS.

  2. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  3. Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Activity within a Wetland Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, M.; Zhang, C.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.

    2007-05-01

    We performed Induced Polarization (IP) and Self Potential (SP) measurements to record the geoelectrical signatures of microbial activity within a wetland soil. The experiment was conducted in laboratory, utilizing an open flow column set up. Soil samples from Kearny Marsh (KM), a shallow water wetland, were collected and stored at 4o Celsius prior to the start of the experiment. Two columns were dry packed with a mix of KM soil and sterile Ottawa sand (50% by weight). One column was sterilized and used as a control while the other column retained the biologically active soil sample. Both columns were saturated with a minimal salts medium capable of supporting microbial life; after saturation, a steady flow rate of one pore volume per day was maintained throughout the experiment. Ambient temperature and pressure changes (at the inflow and outflow of each column) were continuously monitored throughout the experiment. Common geochemical parameters, such as Eh, pH, and fluid conductivity were measured at the inflow and outflow of each column at regular intervals. IP and SP responses were continuously recorded on both columns utilizing a series of electrodes along the column length; additionally for the SP measurements we used a reference electrode at the inflow tube. Strong SP anomalies were observed for all the locations along the active column. Black visible mineral precipitant also formed in the active column. The observed precipitation coincided with the times that SP anomalies developed at each electrode position. These responses are associated with microbial induced sulfide mineralization. We interpret the SP signal as the result of redox processes associated with this mineralization driven by gradients in ionic concentration and mobility within the column, similar to a galvanic cell mechanism. IP measurements show no correlation with these visual and SP responses. Destructive analysis of the samples followed the termination of the experiment. Scanning electron

  4. Geophysical Monitoring of Active Infiltration Experiments for Recharge Estimation: Gains and Pains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, U.; Lamparter, A.; Houben, G.; Koeniger, P.; Stoeckl, L.; Guenther, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water supply on the island of Langeoog, North Sea, solely depends on groundwater from a freshwater lens. The correct estimation of the recharge rate is critical for a sustainable use of the resource. Extensive hydrogeological and geophysical studies have revealed differences in groundwater recharge by a factor of two and more between the top of the dunes and the dune valleys. The most convincing proof of these differences in recharge is based on isotope analysis (age dating) but boreholes are scarce and a direct proof of recharge is desired. For this purpose active infiltration experiments are performed and geophysically monitored. Former applications of this method in sand and loess soil gave evidence for the applicability of the geophysical observation when combined with tensiometers installed in situ at depth. These results showed firstly that in sandy soil the water reaches the groundwater table quicker than anticipated due to the water repellent characteristic of the dry sand, inhibiting the lateral spreading of the water. The studies also revealed that in loess preferential flow is initiated by ponding and that sprinkling caused very slow movement of water within the unsaturated zone and the water remained near the surface. On the island of Langeoog field experiments underlined the importance of water repellency on the dune surface, indicating that the rain water runs off superficially into the dune valleys where higher recharge is found. The active infiltration zone of the experiment covers an area of some 7m² and includes steeper parts of the dune. The infiltration will vary depending on rainfall intensity and duration, original water content and vegetation cover. What results can we reliably expect from the active experiment and what additional measurements are required to back up the findings? Results are ambiguous with regard to the quantitative assessment but the processes can be visualized by geophysical monitoring in situ.

  5. Integrated Interpretation of Geophysical, Geotechnical, and Environmental Monitoring Data to Define Precursors for Landslide Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, S.; Chambers, J.; Merritt, A.; Wilkinson, P.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Maurer, H.; Dixon, N.

    2014-12-01

    To develop a better understanding of the failure mechanisms leading to first time failure or reactivation of landslides, the British Geological Survey is operating an observatory on an active, shallow landslide in North Yorkshire, UK, which is a typical example of slope failure in Lias Group mudrocks. This group and the Whitby Mudstone Formation in particular, show one of the highest landslide densities in the UK. The observatory comprises geophysical (i.e., ERT and self-potential monitoring, P- and S-wave tomography), geotechnical (i.e. acoustic emission and inclinometer), and hydrological and environmental monitoring (i.e. weather station, water level, soil moisture, soil temperature), in addition to movement monitoring using real-time kinematic GPS. In this study we focus on the reactivation of the landslide at the end of 2012, after an exceptionally wet summer. We present an integrated interpretation of the different data streams. Results show that the two lobes (east and west), which form the main focus of the observatory, behave differently. While water levels, and hence pore pressures, in the eastern lobe are characterised by a continuous increase towards activation resulting in significant movement (i.e. metres), water levels in the western lobe are showing frequent drainage events and thus lower pore pressures and a lower level of movement (i.e. tens of centimetres). This is in agreement with data from the geoelectrical monitoring array. During the summer season, resistivities generally increase due to decreasing moisture levels. However, during the summer of 2012 this seasonal pattern was interrupted, with the reactivated lobe displaying strongly decreasing resistivities (i.e. increasing moisture levels). The self-potential and soil moisture data show clear indications of moisture accumulation prior to the reactivation, followed by continuous discharge towards the base of the slope. Using the different data streams, we present 3D volumetric images of

  6. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jin-Feng; Li, Lin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Tan, Ming-You; Cui, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Yun-Yin; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Jia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical techniques play key roles in the measuring, monitoring, and verifying the safety of CO2 sequestration and in identifying the efficiency of CO2-enhanced oil recovery. Although geophysical monitoring techniques for CO2 sequestration have grown out of conventional oil and gas geophysical exploration techniques, it takes a long time to conduct geophysical monitoring, and there are many barriers and challenges. In this paper, with the initial objective of performing CO2 sequestration, we studied the geophysical tasks associated with evaluating geological storage sites and monitoring CO2 sequestration. Based on our review of the scope of geophysical monitoring techniques and our experience in domestic and international carbon capture and sequestration projects, we analyzed the inherent difficulties and our experiences in geophysical monitoring techniques, especially, with respect to 4D seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation.

  7. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  8. Geophysical Model Applications for Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Walter, W; Tkalcic, H; Franz, G; Gok, R; Rodgers, A

    2005-07-11

    Geophysical models constitute an important component of calibration for nuclear explosion monitoring. We will focus on four major topics and their applications: (1) surface wave models, (2) receiver function profiles, (3) regional tomography models, and (4) stochastic geophysical models. First, we continue to improve upon our surface wave model by adding more paths. This has allowed us to expand the region to all of Eurasia and into Africa, increase the resolution of our model, and extend results to even shorter periods (7 sec). High-resolution models exist for the Middle East and the YSKP region. The surface wave results can be inverted either alone, or in conjunction with other data, to derive models of the crust and upper mantle structure. One application of the group velocities is to construct phase-matched filters in combination with regional surface-wave magnitude formulas to improve the mb:Ms discriminant and extend it to smaller magnitude events. Next, we are using receiver functions, in joint inversions with the surface waves, to produce profiles directly under seismic stations throughout the region. In the past year, we have been focusing on deployments throughout the Middle East, including the Arabian Peninsula and Turkey. By assembling the results from many stations, we can see how regional seismic phases are affected by complicated upper mantle structure, including lithospheric thickness and anisotropy. The next geophysical model item, regional tomography models, can be used to predict regional travel times such as Pn and Sn. The times derived by the models can be used as a background model for empirical measurements or, where these don't exist, simply used as is. Finally, we have been exploring methodologies such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to generate data-driven stochastic models. We have applied this technique to the YSKP region using surface wave dispersion data, body wave travel time data, receiver functions, and gravity data. The models

  9. Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids by Space Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since its establishment on 1/1/1998 by the International Earth Rotation Service, the Coordinating Center for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids (MGGF) and its seven Special Bureaus have engaged in an effort to support and facilitate the understanding of the geophysical fluids in global geodynamics research. Mass transports in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") will cause the following geodynamic effects on a broad time scale: (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, with ever increasing precision/accuracy and temporal/spatial resolution. Each of the seven Special Bureaus within MGGF is responsible for calculations related to a specific Earth component or aspect -- Atmosphere, Ocean, Hydrology, Ocean Tides, Mantle, Core, and Gravity/Geocenter. Angular momenta and torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift will be computed for geophysical fluids based on global observational data, and from state-of-the-art models, some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. The results are archived and made available to the scientific research community. This paper reports the status of the MGGF activities and current results.

  10. Non-Seismic Geophysical Approaches to Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoversten, G.M.; Gasperikova, Erika

    2004-09-01

    This chapter considers the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration of CO2. The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, electromagnetic (EM) and streaming potential (SP) geophysical techniques as monitoring tools are examined. An example of tilt measurements illustrates another potential monitoring technique, although it has not been studied to the extent of other techniques in this chapter. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO2 enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. The second scenario is of a pilot DOE CO2 sequestration experiment scheduled for summer 2004 in the Frio Brine Formation in South Texas, USA. Numerical flow simulations of the CO2 injection process for each case were converted to geophysical models using petrophysical models developed from well log data. These coupled flow simulation geophysical models allow comparrison of the performance of monitoring techniques over time on realistic 3D models by generating simulated responses at different times during the CO2 injection process. These time-lapse measurements are used to produce time-lapse changes in geophysical measurements that can be related to the movement of CO2 within the injection interval.

  11. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  12. Geophysical Models for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Flanagan, M

    2003-07-16

    Geophysical models are increasingly recognized as an important component of regional calibrations for seismic monitoring. The models can be used to predict geophysical measurements, such as body wave travel times, and can be derived from direct regional studies or even by geophysical analogy. While empirical measurements of these geophysical parameters might be preferred, in aseismic regions or regions without seismic stations, this data might not exist. In these cases, models represent a 'best guess' of the seismic properties in a region, which improves on global models such as the PREM (Preliminary Reference Earth Model) or the IASPEI (International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior) models. The model-based predictions can also serve as a useful background for the empirical measurements by removing trends in the data. To this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the WENA model for Western Eurasia and North Africa. This model is constructed using a regionalization of several dozen lithospheric (crust and uppermost mantle) models, combined with the Laske sediment model and 3SMAC upper mantle. We have evaluated this model using a number of data sets, including travel times, surface waves, receiver functions, and waveform analysis. Similarly, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a geophysical model for East Asia, allowing LLNL/LANL to construct a model for all of Eurasia and North Africa. These models continue to evolve as new and updated datasets are used to critically assess the predictive powers of the model. Research results from this meeting and other reports and papers can be used to update and refine the regional boundaries and regional models. A number of other groups involved in monitoring have also developed geophysical models. As these become available, we will be assessing the models and their constitutive components for their suitability for inclusion in the National Nuclear Security

  13. Geophysical methods for monitoring infiltration in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquet, Yves; Pessel, Marc; Saintenoy, Albane

    2015-04-01

    Geophysics provides useful tools for monitoring water infiltration in soil essentially because they are non-invasive and have a good time-resolution. We present some results obtained on different soils using two geophysical techniques: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Infiltration in a loamy soil was monitored using a 2D Wenner array set up under a tension disc infiltrometer. A good imaging of the infiltration bulb below the infiltrometer could be achieved provided a sufficient resistivity contrast between the wet and the dry soil zones. ERT data could be used to invert soil hydraulic properties. However, we found that the information provided by the ERT could be of limited importance in regard to the information provided by the infiltration rate dynamics if the ERT spatial resolution is not small enough to capture the details of the infiltration front at the limit between the wet and dry soil zones. GPR was found to be a good tool to monitor the progression of the infiltration front in a sandy soil. By combining a water transport simulation model (HYDRUS-1D), a method for transforming water content into dielectric permittivity values (CRIM), and an electromagnetic wave propagation model (GprMax), the Mualem-van Genuchten hydraulic parameters could be retrieved from radargrams obtained under constant or falling head infiltration experiments. Both ERT and GPR methods have pros and cons. Time and spatial resolutions are of prime importance to achieve a sufficient sensitivity to all soil hydraulic parameters. Two exploration fields are suggested: the combination of different geophysical methods to explore infiltration in heterogeneous soils, and the development of integrated infiltrometers that allow geophysical measurements while monitoring water infiltration rate in soil.

  14. Simulated geophysical monitoring of radioactive waste repository barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, Anton

    Estimation of attenuation of the elastic waves in clays and high clay-content rocks is important for the quality of geophysical methods relying on processing the recorded waveforms. Time-lapse imaging is planned to be employed for monitoring of the condition of high-radioactive waste repositories. Engineers can analyze and optimize configuration of the monitoring system using numerical modelling tools. The reliability of modeling requires proper calibration. The purpose of this thesis is threefold: (i) propose a calibration methodology for the wave propagation tools based on the experimental data, (ii) estimate the attenuation in bentonite as a function of temperature and water content, and (iii) investigate the feasibility of active sonic monitoring of the engineered barriers. The results suggest that pronounced inelastic behavior of bentonite has to be taken into account in geophysical modeling and analysis. The repository--scale models confirm that active sonic monitoring is capable of depicting physical changes in the bentonite barrier.

  15. Studies in geophysics: Active tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Active tectonics is defined within the study as tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society. Such movements and their associated hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence and emergence. The entire range of geology, geophysics, and geodesy is, to some extent, pertinent to this topic. The needs for useful forecasts of tectonic activity, so that actions may be taken to mitigate hazards, call for special attention to ongoing tectonic activity. Further progress in understanding active tectonics depends on continued research. Particularly important is improvement in the accuracy of dating techniques for recent geologic materials.

  16. Geophysical Monitoring of Soil Stabilization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saneiyan, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Werkema, D. D., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of population led to the need of urban expansion into lands with problematic soils. For safe land development, the stability of problematic soils has to be enhanced. Among the many methods utilized, microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is of particular interest as a low energy, cost efficient and potentially long term ground improvement technique. As with other soil improvement methods though, high resolution temporal and spatial monitoring methods are missing. Geophysical methods can fill that gap, by efficiently complementing and extending current monitoring practices. Geophysical methods can offer low cost, no intrusive, continuous and spatially extensive monitoring of ground improvement techniques. With this work we test two of the most promising methods for monitoring MICP, Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); additionally, we performed shear wave velocity measurements - the established standard on soil strength characterization - for direct comparison with NMR and SIP. The tests were performed in columns filled with unconsolidated porous media (e.g. Ottawa sand, glass beads) while binding was promoted with the addition of calcite. For the first part of the experiment we used abiotic methods for Calcite formation, while the second part involves microbial induced processes. The objective of this work is to quantify the sensitivity of NMR and SIP on soil strengthening as a result of calcite precipitation. Early results suggest that both methods, SIP and NMR, are sensitive calcite precipitation and dissolution processes.

  17. Monitoring Vadose Zone Desiccation with Geophysical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2013-05-01

    Soil desiccation was recently field tested as a potential vadose zone remediation technology. Desiccation removes water from the vadose zone and significantly decreases the aqueous-phase permeability of the desiccated zone, thereby decreasing movement of moisture and contaminants. The 2-D and 3-D distribution of moisture content reduction over time provides valuable information for desiccation operations and for determining when treatment goals have been reached. This type of information can be obtained through use of geophysical methods. Neutron moisture logging, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography, and cross-hole ground penetrating radar approaches were evaluated with respect to their ability to provide effective spatial and temporal monitoring of desiccation during a treatability study conducted in the vadose zone of the DOE Hanford Site in WA.

  18. Geophysical monitoring of a field-scale biostimulation pilot project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Casey, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    The USGS conducted a geophysical investigation in support of a U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division field-scale biostimulation pilot project at Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), downgradient of the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate subsurface injection of vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) to stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. To monitor the emplacement and movement of the VOE and changes in water chemistry resulting from VOE dissolution and/or enhanced biological activity, the USGS acquired cross-hole radar zero-offset profiles, traveltime tomograms, and borehole geophysical logs during five site visits over 1.5 years. Analysis of pre- and postinjection data sets using petrophysical models developed to estimate VOE saturation and changes in total dissolved solids provides insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of VOE and ground water with altered chemistry. Radar slowness-difference tomograms and zero-offset slowness profiles indicate that the VOE remained close to the injection wells, whereas radar attenuation profiles and electromagnetic induction logs indicate that bulk electrical conductivity increased downgradient of the injection zone, diagnostic of changing water chemistry. Geophysical logs indicate that some screened intervals were located above or below zones of elevated dissolved solids; hence, the geophysical data provide a broader context for interpretation of water samples and evaluation of the biostimulation effort. Our results include (1) demonstration of field and data analysis methods for geophysical monitoring of VOE biostimulation and (2) site-specific insights into the spatial and temporal distributions of VOE at the ACP. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

  19. Astronaut-Deployable Geophysical and Environmental Monitoring Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, S. D.; Bleacher, J. E.; Smith, M. D.; Khayat, A.; Conrad, P.

    2017-02-01

    Geophysical and environmental monitoring stations could be deployed by astronauts exploring Mars, the Moon, or asteroids, and create a broad network that would collect high-value scientific information while also enhancing astronaut safety.

  20. Geophysical Monitoring for Validation of Transient Permafrost Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, C.; Hilbich, C.; Marmy, A.; Scherler, M.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost is a widespread phenomenon at high latitudes and high altitudes and describes the permanently frozen state of the subsurface in lithospheric material. In the context of climate change, both, new monitoring and modelling techniques are required to observe and predict potential permafrost changes, e.g. the warming and degradation which may lead to the liberation of carbon (Arctic) and the destabilisation of permafrost slopes (mountains). Mountain permafrost occurrences in the European Alps are characterised by temperatures only a few degrees below zero and are therefore particularly sensitive to projected climate changes in the 21st century. Traditional permafrost observation techniques are mainly based on thermal monitoring in vertical and horizontal dimension, but they provide only weak indications of physical properties such as ice or liquid water content. Geophysical techniques can be used to characterise permafrost occurrences and to monitor their changes as the physical properties of frozen and unfrozen ground measured by geophysical techniques are markedly different. In recent years, electromagnetic, seismic but especially electrical methods have been used to continuously monitor permafrost occurrences and to detect long-term changes within the active layer and regarding the ice content within the permafrost layer. On the other hand, coupled transient thermal/hydraulic models are used to predict the evolution of permafrost occurrences under different climate change scenarios. These models rely on suitable validation data for a certain observation period, which is usually restricted to data sets of ground temperature and active layer depth. Very important initialisation and validation data for permafrost models are, however, ground ice content and unfrozen water content in the active layer. In this contribution we will present a geophysical monitoring application to estimate ice and water content and their evolution in time at a permafrost station in

  1. Geophysical Characterization and Monitoring for Anomalous Transport (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.

    2013-12-01

    For several decades, geophysical methods (e.g., electrical, electromagnetic, and radar) have been used to monitor transport of ionic tracers and contaminants, thus providing information about the spatial and temporal morphology and evolution of tracer or contaminant plumes. In the last five years, time-lapse geophysical methods have been applied to understand non-equilibrium between mobile and immobile (or less mobile) domains in porous media (e.g., fractures and matrix) and surface water (i.e., transient storage). Electrical methods have been used in combination with conventional sampling to investigate the exchange of solute between domains and thereby infer exchange rates and relative volumes of mobile and immobile domains. Other methods, including nuclear magnetic resonance and complex resistivity, have been used to study the distribution of pore sizes present, which in turn control anomalous transport. Here, we (1) review the underlying petrophysical/hydrologic link between anomalous transport and geophysical monitoring; (2) review the emerging body of work using geophysical methods to understand anomalous transport and summarize case studies involving field experiments at an aquifer-storage recovery site in Charleston, SC, and two Department of Energy sites in Hanford, WA and Naturita, CO; and (3) discuss potential future directions for geophysical research to further elucidate anomalous transport behavior.

  2. Integration of remote sensing and geophysical techniques for coastal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Carone, M. T.; Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Imbrenda, V.; D'Emilio, M.; Guariglia, A.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal areas are of great environmental, economic, social, cultural and recreational relevance; therefore, the implementation of suitable monitoring and protection actions is fundamental for their preservation and for assuring future use of this resource. Such actions have to be based on an ecosystem perspective for preserving coastal environment integrity and functioning and for planning sustainable resource management of both the marine and terrestrial components (ICZM-EU initiative). We implemented an integrated study based on remote sensing and geophysical techniques for monitoring a coastal area located along the Ionian side of Basilicata region (Southern Italy). This area, between the Bradano and Basento river mouths, is mainly characterized by a narrow shore (10-30 m) of fine sandy formations and by a pine forest planted in the first decade of 50's in order to preserve the coast and the inland cultivated areas. Due to drought and fire events and saltwater intrusion phenomena, such a forest is affected by a strong decline with consequent environmental problems. Multispectral satellite data were adopted for evaluating the spatio-temporal features of coastal vegetation and the structure of forested patterns. The increase or decrease in vegetation activity was analyzed from trends estimated on a time series of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps. The fragmentation/connection levels of vegetated patterns was assessed form a set of landscape ecology metrics elaborated at different structure scales (patch, class and landscape) on satellite cover classifications. Information on shoreline changes were derived form a multi-source data set (satellite data, field-GPS surveys and Aerial Laser Scanner acquisitions) by taking also into account tidal effects. Geophysical campaigns were performed for characterizing soil features and limits of salty water infiltrations. Form vertical resistivity soundings (VES), soil resistivity maps at different a deeps (0

  3. Expendable bubble tiltmeter for geophysical monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westphal, J.A.; Carr, M.A.; Miller, W.F.; Dzurisin, D.

    1983-01-01

    An unusually rugged highly sensitive and inexpensive bubble tiltmeter has been designed, tested, and built in quantity. These tiltmeters are presently used on two volcanoes and an Alaskan glacier, where they continuously monitor surface tilts of geological interest. This paper discusses the mechanical, thermal, and electric details of the meter, and illustrates its performance characteristics in both large (>10-4 radian) and small (<10-6 radian) tilt environments. The meter's ultimate sensitivity is better than 2??10-8 radians rms for short periods (hours), and its useful dynamic range is greater than 10 4. Included is a short description of field use of the instrument for volcano monitoring.

  4. ``Recycling'' Geophysics: Monitoring and Isotopic Analysis of Engineered Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, R.; Singh, K. P.; Ogle, N.; Ntarlagiannis, D.

    2010-12-01

    The emerging sub discipline of biogeophysics has provoked debate on the mechanisms of microbial processes that may contribute to geophysical signatures. At field scales geophysical signatures are often non unique due to the many parameters (physical, chemical, and biological) that are involved. It may be easier to apply geophysical techniques such as electrodic potential (EP), self potential (SP) and induced polarization (IP) to engineered biological systems where there is a degree of control over the design of the physical and chemical domain. Here we present results of a column experiment that was designed to anaerobically biodegrade dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate. The column utilises a recycled porous media (concrete) to help sequester organic carbon. Electrodic potential, self potential and induced polarisation are used in conjunction with chemical and isotopic techniques to monitor the effectiveness of this approach. Preliminary carbon and oxygen isotopic analysis on concrete from the column in contact with leachate show isotopic enrichment suggesting abiotic precipitation of carbonates.

  5. Coupled thermal and geophysical modelling for monitoring of permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rings, Jörg; Scherler, Martin; Hauck, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Geophysical methods, and especially the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method, are being recognised as standard tools for the detection and monitoring of permafrost. Recent advances in automated data acquisition and processing have made their application worthwhile for continuous monitoring systems even in harsh and heterogeneous terrain. ERT yields 2- and 3-dimensional data of the subsurface and is sensitive to the unfrozen water and ice content, which is complementary to the 1-dimensional temperature measurements conducted in boreholes. For future autonomous and widespread monitoring systems for permafrost, a purely geophysical approach is envisaged, because the low costs and minimal disturbance of the system to be monitored is one of the major advantages of geophysics as opposed to boreholes. However, the link between the indirectly measured geophysical property (e.g. electrical resistivity in case of ERT) of the subsurface and temperature is often non-trivial and cannot be determined without ground truth data from boreholes or extensive laboratory calibration. In this contribution, we introduce a Bayesian filtering approach of coupled geophysical and thermal modelling to predict subsurface temperatures based on ERT monitoring data without the need for borehole or laboratory data. We use sequential Bayesian filtering or particle filtering, which has the advantage of continuously providing probability distributions of state (temperature) and parameters (e.g. the link between resistivity and temperature) whenever measurements become available. A particle filter approximates these distributions by a set of discrete, weighted particles. For each particle, initial state and parameter are drawn from prior distributions and thermal conduction is modelled independently. The modelled change in temperature is transferred to change in resistivity by a linear relation, and an ERT forward model is used to simulate the system response. Then, the particles are

  6. Geodesy on GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, V.; Folkner, W.; Le Maistre, S.; Rosenblatt, P.; Yseboodt, M.; Asmar, S.; Marty, J. C.; Banerdt, B.

    2011-10-01

    We propose to use the X-band radio link of the GEMS lander on the surface of Mars with the objective to better determine the rotation and interior structure of Mars. This X-band radio link consists in two-way Doppler measurements from a direct radiolink between the Martian Lander and deep space tracking stations on the Earth. On the basis of these measurements, it will be possible to monitor the lander position relative to the Earth and in turn to improve the determination of the Mars' orientation and rotation parameters (MOP), i.e. the rotation rate variations (or Length of Days LOD), the precession rate and the nutations of the rotation axis, and the orientation of Mars around its rotation axis (polar motion). In this study we perform analytical and numerical simulations of these Doppler measurements in order to quantify the precision that can be obtained on the MOP. These simulations permit to build a strategy to be applied to future data processing in order to improve the precision on the MOP determination. As these parameters are related to the interior of the planet as well as to its seasonal angular momentum changes induced by the CO2 sublimation/condensation process, we further discuss the expected improvement in our knowledge of Mars' interior, i.e. state, size, and composition of the Martian core, and of the CO2 mass budget in the Martian atmosphere and ice caps.

  7. Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change number 9. Summary report 1980

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuisi, J.J.

    1981-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the research operations and accomplishments by the Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) program and by outside investigators working cooperatively with GMCC in 1980. It includes descriptions of management and operations at GMCC's four baseline sites, scientific data from the measurement projects, conclusions from analyses of data and recent basic research achievements. The four observatories are located in Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and South Pole.

  8. Time-Lapse Geophysics for Aquifer Characterization and Remediation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. W.

    2003-12-01

    Time-lapse monitoring of subsurface processes is an emerging and promising area of hydrogeophysics. The use of non-invasive or minimally invasive geophysical methods to indirectly measure time-varying fluid saturation, solute concentration, and other hydraulic and geochemical conditions facilitates cost-effective aquifer characterization and remediation. The USGS Office of Ground Water, Branch of Geophysics, in cooperation with USEPA, DOD, and university researchers, has applied time-lapse geophysics for site characterization and remediation monitoring at a number of sites. This talk presents recent examples of applied research, including: (1) application of cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole radar methods to monitor vegetable-oil emulsion injections for biostimulation at a Navy site in Fridley, MN; (2) application of borehole and cross-borehole radar methods to monitor steam injections for remediation of VOCs at the former Loring Air Force Base, ME; (3) application of electrical resistivity tomography to monitor saline tracer tests at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, MA; (4) use of borehole and cross-borehole flowmeter and a discrete-zone packer system to characterize bedrock aquifer hydraulics and water quality at the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, CT; and (5) application of crosshole radar methods to monitor a saline tracer in fractured bedrock at the USGS Mirror Lake Site, NH. The goals of these studies are (1) to provide increasingly quantitative information about the subsurface, critical for developing models of aquifer structure, dynamics, and processes, and (2) identification of the spatial and temporal distributions of tracers, contamination, and fluids injected to enhance degradation of contaminants.

  9. Geophysical Characterization and Monitoring for the Frio Pilot Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, L. R.; Hovorka, S.; Hoversten, G.; Fouad, K.; Holtz, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Frio Pilot test involves injection of approximately 3000 tons of CO2 into the brine-saturated Frio formation at a depth of approximately 1500 m at a test site located northeast of Houston. The CO2 is injected from a new well drilled for the test while an existing well provides subsurface access for monitoring. Geophysical data for characterization included 3-D surface seismic and well logs, which were available because of the extensive oil and gas exploration and production in the area. Seismic interpretation coupled with petrophysical analyses and other geologic data showed that the test site is located in a small fault block off the flank of a salt dome. The injection interval consists of alternating layers of sand and shale, with sand layer thickness on the order of 10 m, overlain by the 75 m thick Anahuac shale. Well logs in the new well provide data to confirm test site stratigraphy as well as data needed for interpretation of geophysical monitoring measurements. Geophysical monitoring involves time-lapse measurements, incorporating both surface and borehole techniques. Selection of techniques was aided by modeling in which reservoir simulation predicted fluid distributions, which were then input to geophysical models to predict performance of candidate techniques. Interpretation of crosswell seismic with appropriate rock physics models can potentially provide quantitative information on CO2 saturation between boreholes. Vertical seismic profiling will be used to map the areal distribution of the plume. Low resolution but inexpensive streaming potential measurements will also be carried out to sense the advancing CO2 front.

  10. Reflection of processes of non-equilibrium two-phase filtration in oil-saturated hierarchical medium in data of active wave geophysical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Andrey; Khachay, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    structure located in layer number J of an N-layered elastic medium. The algorithm developed for modeling, and the method of mapping and monitoring of heterogenic highly complicated two-phase medium can be used for managing viscous oil extraction in mining conditions and light oil in sub-horizontal boreholes. The demand for effective economic parameters and fuller extraction of oil and gas from deposits dictates the necessity of developing new geotechnology based on the fundamental achievements in the area of geophysics and geomechanics

  11. Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

  12. Space Geodesy Monitoring Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid Earth-core system (the 'global geophysical fluids') are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, oceanic and solid tides, hydrological water and idsnow redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. The temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have proven to be an effective tool in monitorihg certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in observing and understanding of these geodynamic effects. This paper will use several prominent examples to illustrate the triumphs in research over the past years under a 'Moore's law' in space geodesy. New space missions and projects promise to further advance our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as of the solid Earth's response to such changes in terms of Earth's mechanical properties.

  13. Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.

  14. Geophysical Techniques for Monitoring CO2 Movement During Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Erika Gasperikova; G. Michael Hoversten

    2005-11-15

    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques for two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  15. GEOFIM: A WebGIS application for integrated geophysical modeling in active volcanic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currenti, Gilda; Napoli, Rosalba; Sicali, Antonino; Greco, Filippo; Negro, Ciro Del

    2014-09-01

    We present GEOFIM (GEOphysical Forward/Inverse Modeling), a WebGIS application for integrated interpretation of multiparametric geophysical observations. It has been developed to jointly interpret scalar and vector magnetic data, gravity data, as well as geodetic data, from GPS, tiltmeter, strainmeter and InSAR observations, recorded in active volcanic areas. GEOFIM gathers a library of analytical solutions, which provides an estimate of the geophysical signals due to perturbations in the thermal and stress state of the volcano. The integrated geophysical modeling can be performed by a simple trial and errors forward modeling or by an inversion procedure based on NSGA-II algorithm. The software capability was tested on the multiparametric data set recorded during the 2008-2009 Etna flank eruption onset. The results encourage to exploit this approach to develop a near-real-time warning system for a quantitative model-based assessment of geophysical observations in areas where different parameters are routinely monitored.

  16. Geophysical monitoring for climatic change. Number 8. Summary report 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, G.A.

    1980-12-01

    The Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) program, which has operated for eight years, is described. The most significant change in the GMCC operational program in 1979 was the initiation of 10 additional CO2 flask sampling stations. Continuous measurement of CO2 and aerosol scattering at four wavelengths, using a nephelometer, was begun at the South Pole station at the end of 1978 and continued throughout 1979. A filter collection system was installed at the Barrow station to make possible the determination of the mass of the carbonaceous aerosols. Early results show that graphitic carbon makes up a significant part of the arctic haze, and because of its optical absorptivity, it may cause a significant contribution to the radiative energy budget. At the Mauna Loa Observatory a new cooperative measurement program to observe the chemical composition of aerosols was initiated.

  17. Report on studies to monitor the interactions between offshore geophysical exploration activities and bowhead whales in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, Fall 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, R.; Ljungblad, D.; Clarke, J.T.

    1983-07-01

    A total of 34 survey flights were initiated between 27 August and 4 October 1982 to assess the potential effects of marine geophysical survey work on westward migrating bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). No overt changes in whale behavior were observed that could unequivocally be interpreted as responses to seismic noise, with the possible exception of huddling behavior observed on 14-15 September that may have been caused by the onset of seismic sounds. Statistical analyses were performed on four categories of respiratory behavior (blows per surfacing, mean blow interval per surfacing, surface times and dive times) to test for differences between times when whales were and were not exposed to seismic sounds.

  18. Core Angular Momentum and the IERS Sub-Centers Activity for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids. Part 1; Core Angular Momentum and Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Xia-Dong; Chao, Benjamin (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The part of the grant was to use recordings of seismic waves travelling through the earth's core (PKP waves) to study the inner core rotation and constraints on possible density anomalies in the fluid core. The shapes and relative arrival times of such waves associated with a common source were used to reduce the uncertainties in source location and excitation and the effect of unknown mantle structure. The major effort of the project is to assemble historical seismograms with long observing base lines. We have found original paper records of SSI earthquakes at COL between 1951 and 1966 in a warehouse of the U.S. Geological Survey office in Golden, Colorado, extending the previous measurements at COL by Song and Richards [1996] further back 15 years. Also in Alaska, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks Geophysical Institute (UAFGI) has been operating the Alaskan Seismic Network with over 100 stations since the late 1960s. Virtually complete archives of seismograms are still available at UAFGI. Unfortunately, most of the archives are in microchip form (develocorders), for which the use of waveforms is impossible. Paper seismograms (helicorders) are available for a limited number of stations, and digital recordings of analog signals started around 1989. Of the paper records obtained, stations at Gilmore Dome (GLM, very close to COL), Yukon (FYU), McKinley (MCK), and Sheep Creek Mountain (SCM) have the most complete continuous recordings.

  19. Factors to be Considered in Long-Term Monitoring of a Former Nuclear Test Site in a Geophysically Active and Water-rich Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J.; Hill, G.; Patrick, M.; Freymueller, J.; Barnes, D.; Kelley, J.; Layer, P.

    2001-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is currently undertaking an ambitious program of environmental remediation of the surface of Amchitka Island in the western Aleutians, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted during 1963-1971. Among these tests was Cannikin, at approximately 5 megatons the largest nuclear device ever exploded underground by the United States and equivalent in seismic energy release to a magnitude 7 earthquake. The blast caused about 1 m of uplift of the Bering Sea coastline in the 3-km-wide fault-bounded block within which it was detonated. The impending final transfer of stewardship of this area to the US Fish and Wildlife Service as part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge raises anew the question of the potential for transport of radionuclides from the shot cavity, located at 1791 m depth in mafic laharic breccias, into the accessible environment. In particular, there is concern about whether such contaminants could become concentrated in the marine food chain that is used for subsistence by Alaskan Natives (and by the broader international community through the North Pacific and Bering Fisheries). Both possible transport pathways in the form of faults and transport medium in the form of abundant water are present. Since the pre-plate tectonics paradigm days of active testing, the scientific community's understanding of the tectonic context of the Aleutian Islands has grown tremendously. Recently, the first direct measurements of motion within the arc have been made. How this new understanding should guide plans for long-term monitoring of the site is an important question. Convergence due to subduction of the North Pacific plate beneath North America ranges from near-normal at the Alaska Peninsula and eastern Aleutian islands to highly oblique in the west. Amchitka itself can be seen as a subaerial portion of a 200-km-long Rat Island arc crest segment. This fragment has torn from the Andreanof Islands to the east at

  20. A new data logger for integrated geophysical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orazi, Massimo; Peluso, Rosario; Caputo, Antonio; Giudicepietro, Flora; Martini, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    GILDA digital recorder is a data logger developed at Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV). It provides excellent data quality with low power consumption and low production cost. It is widely used in the multi-parametric monitoring networks of Neapolitan volcanoes and Stromboli volcano. We have improved the characteristics of GILDA recorder to realize a robust user-oriented acquisition system for integrated geophysical monitoring. We have designed and implemented new capabilities concerning the use of the low rate channels to get data of environmental parameters of the station. We also improved the stand-alone version of the data logger. This version can be particularly useful for scientific experiments and to rapidly upgrade permanent monitoring networks. Furthermore, the local storage can be used as back-up for the monitoring systems in continuous transmission, in case of failure of the transmission system. Some firmware changes have been made in order to improve the performance of the instrument. In particular, the low rate acquisition channels were conditioned to acquire internal parameters of the recorder such as the temperature and voltage. A prototype of the new version of the logger is currently installed at Campi Flegrei for a experimental application. Our experiment is aimed at testing the new version of GILDA data logger in multi-board configuration for multiparametric acquisitions. A second objective of the experiment is the comparison of the recorded data with geochemical data acquired by a multiparametric geochemical station to investigate possible correlations between seismic and geochemical parameters. The target site of the experiment is "Bocca Grande" fumarole in Solfatara volcano. By exploiting the modularity of GILDA, for the experiment has been realized an acquisition system based on three dataloggers for a total of 12 available channels. One of GILDA recorders is the Master and the other two are Slaves. The Master is responsible for the initial

  1. Investigating volcanic hazard in Cape Verde Islands through geophysical monitoring: network description and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, B.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.

    2014-02-01

    We describe a new geophysical network deployed in the Cape Verde Archipelago for the assessment and monitoring of volcanic hazards as well as the first results from the network. Across the archipelago, the ages of volcanic activity range from ca. 20 Ma to present. In general, older islands are in the east and younger ones are in the west, but there is no clear age progression of eruptive activity as widely separated islands have erupted contemporaneously on geological timescales. The overall magmatic rate is low, and there are indications that eruptive activity is episodic, with intervals between episodes of intense activity ranging from 1 to 4 Ma. Although only Fogo Island has experienced eruptions (mainly effusive) in the historic period (last 550 yr), Brava and Santo Antão have experienced numerous geologically recent eruptions, including violent explosive eruptions, and show felt seismic activity and geothermal activity. Evidence for recent volcanism in the other islands is more limited and the emphasis has therefore been on monitoring of the three critical islands of Fogo, Brava and Santo Antão, where volcanic hazard levels are highest. Geophysical monitoring of all three islands is now in operation. The first results show that on Fogo, the seismic activity is dominated by hydrothermal events and volcano-tectonic events that may be related to settling of the edifice after the 1995 eruption; in Brava by volcano-tectonic events (mostly offshore), and in Santo Antão by volcano-tectonic events, medium-frequency events and harmonic tremor. Both in Brava and in Santo Antão, the recorded seismicity indicates that relatively shallow magmatic systems are present and causing deformation of the edifices that may include episodes of dike intrusion.

  2. Investigating volcanic hazard in Cape Verde Islands through geophysical monitoring: network description and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, B.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.

    2013-09-01

    We describe a new geophysical network deployed in the Cape Verde archipelago for the assessment and monitoring of volcanic hazards, and the first results from the network. Across the archipelago, the ages of volcanic activity range from ca. 20 Ma to present. In general, older islands are in the east and younger ones are in the west, but there is no clear age progression and widely-separated islands have erupted contemporaneously on geological time scales. The overall magmatic rate is low, and there are indications that eruptive activity is episodic, with intervals between episodes of intense activity ranging from 1 to 4 Ma. Although only Fogo island has experienced eruptions (mainly effusive) in the historic period (last 550 yr), Brava and Santo Antão have experienced numerous geologically recent eruptions including violent explosive eruptions, and show felt seismic activity and geothermal activity. Evidence for recent volcanism in the other islands is more limited and the emphasis has therefore been on monitoring of the three critical islands of Fogo, Brava and Santo Antão, where volcanic hazard levels are highest. Geophysical monitoring of all three islands is now in operation. The first results show that in Fogo the seismic activity is dominated by hydrothermal events and volcano-tectonic events that may be related to settling of the edifice after the 1995 eruption; in Brava by volcano-tectonic events (mostly offshore), and in Santo Antão by volcano-tectonic events, medium frequency events and harmonic tremor. Both in Brava and in Santo Antão, the recorded seismicity indicates that relatively shallow magmatic systems are present and causing deformation of the edifices that may include episodes of dike intrusion.

  3. Reactive Transport Modeling and Geophysical Monitoring of Bioclogging at Reservoir Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surasani, V.; Commer, M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Li, L.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    In Microbial-Enhanced-Hydrocarbon-Recovery (MEHR), preferential bioclogging targets the growth of the biofilms (def. immobilized biopolymers with active cells embodied in it) in highly permeable thief zones to enhance sweep efficiency in oil reservoirs. During MEHR, understanding and controlling bioclogging is hindered by the lack of advanced modeling and monitoring tools; these deficiencies contribute to suboptimal performance. Our focus in this study was on developing a systematic approach to understand and monitor bioclogging at the reservoir scale using a combination of reactive transport modeling and geophysical imaging tools (EM & seismic). In this study, we created a realistic reservoir model from a heterogeneous gas reservoir in the Southern Sacramento basin, California; the model well (Citizen Green #1) was characterized using sonic, electrical, nuclear, and NMR logs for hydrologic and geophysical properties. From the simplified 2D log data model, a strip of size 150m x75m with several high permeability streaks is identified for bioclogging simulation experiments. From the NMR log data it is observed that a good linear correlation exist between logarithmic permeability (0.55- 3.34 log (mD)) versus porosity (0.041-0.28). L. mesenteroides was chosen as the model bacteria. In the presence of sucrose, it enzymatically catalyzes the production of dextran, a useful bioclogging agent. Using microbial kinetics from our laboratory experiment and reservoir heterogeneity, a reactive transport model (RTM) is established for two kinds of bioclogging treatments based on whether microbes are present in situ or are supplied externally. In both cases, sucrose media (1.5 M) is injected at the rate of 1 liter/s for 20 days into the center of high permeable strip to stimulate microbes. Simulations show that the high dextran production was deep into the formation from the injection well. This phenomenon can be explained precisely with bacterial kinetics and injection rate. In

  4. Geophysical Monitoring of Two types of Subsurface Injection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nano-scale particles of zero-valent iron (ZVI) were injected into the subsurface at the 100-D area of the DOE Hanford facility. The intent of this iron injection was to repair a gap in the existing in-situ redox manipulation barrier located at the site. A number of geophysical me...

  5. Preliminary results of the ground geophysical monitoring in Gschliefgraben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Lovisolo, Mario; Supper, Robert; Ita, Anna; Baron, Ivo; Ottowitz, David

    2010-05-01

    In September 2009, a fully automatic multiparametric in place column D.M.S. IUT, (68 sensors, active monitoring depth = 33 m) designed and manufactured by the Italian company C.S.G. S.r.l., was installed in an inclinometric borehole by helicopter at Gschliefgraben landslide. The landslide is affecting houses and a road at the eastern rim of the Traunsee and caused considerable damage in 2007/2008. The survey area is located at the border of the Flysch Zone and the Northern Limestone Alps, which is known to be prone to landslide activity. Extensive drainaging reduces the amount of precipitation seeping into the ground. Thus, the displacement monitored in real time by DMS at the present time seems to be not strickly dependent of rainfall. The preliminary data show a main sliding zone occurring at 10-12 m bgl. The mean velocity was 10 mm/month in the interval time 24 September - 24 November, then the time history shows an increase up to 15 mm/month until the end of December. In the first days of January 2010 the velocity trend is reducing to 2 mm/week. An extensive geolectrical survey has been performed before to interpret the subsurface structure regarding possible depths and spatial delimitation of the sliding zone and to find the best position of the monitoring system. In the vicinity of the inclinometer a geoelectric monitoring system (GeoMonitor4D, developed by the Geological Survey of Austria) was installed to correlate measured resistivity values with displacement rates. It consists of 2 profiles, with a length of 120m and 192m. Both systems send their data once a day automatically by UMTS to the data centers in Ricaldone (Italy) and Vienna (Austria). In spring 2010 a second DMS column will be placed at the foot of the hill. The integrated analysis of the airborne and ground measurements, carried out by the Geological Survey of Austria combined with several other parameters, provided by the Torrent and Avalanche Control, will contribute to understand the

  6. Multiple geophysical surveys for old landfill monitoring in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huanhuan; Giannis, Apostolos; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Victor W-C

    2017-01-01

    One-dimensional boring presents limitations on mapping the refuse profile in old landfills owning to waste heterogeneity. Electrical imaging (EI) and multiple-analysis of surface wave (MASW) were hereby deployed at an old dumping ground in Singapore to explore the subsurface in relation to geotechnical analysis. MASW estimated the refuse boundary with a higher precision as compared to EI, due to its endurance for moisture variation. EI and MASW transection profiles suggested spots of interest, e.g., refuse pockets and leachate mounds. 3D inversion of EI and MASW data further illustrated the transformation dynamics derived by natural attenuation, for instance the preferential infiltration pathway. Comparison of geophysical surveys at different years uncovered the subterranean landfill conditions, indicating strong impacts induced by aging, precipitation, and settlement. This study may shed light on a characterization framework of old landfills via combined geophysical models, thriving landfill knowledge with a higher creditability.

  7. Monitoring Microbe-Induced Sulfide Precipitation Under Dynamic Flow Conditions Using Multiple Geophysical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Banfield, J.

    2004-05-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of using minimally invasive geophysical techniques to monitor microbe-induced sulfide precipitation in saturated sand-packed columns under dynamic flow conditions. Specifically, the effect of zinc and iron sulfide precipitation on geophysical signatures was evaluated during stimulated sulfate-reduction by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Four inoculated columns and one non-inoculated control were operated under a continuous upward flow velocity of 50cm/day with the following measurements made: multi-port fluid sampling, cross-column acoustic wave propagation, induced polarization, time domain reflectometry and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Over a period of seven weeks, the onset and progression of sulfate reduction within the columns was confirmed through decreasing substrate and aqueous metals concentrations, increased biomass, and visible regions of sulfide accumulation. Decreases in initial lactate and sulfate concentrations (2.8mM and 4.0mM, respectively) followed predicted stoichiometric relationships and soluble Zn(II) and Fe(II) concentrations (0.31mM and 0.36mM, respectively) were reduced to levels below detection through sequestration as insoluble sulfide phases. The areas where sulfide precipitation and accumulation occurred resulted in significant changes in two of the three geophysical measurements. High frequency (400-600kHz) acoustic wave amplitudes were reduced by nearly an order of magnitude over the course of the experiment with no significant accompanying change in wave velocity. Neither the wave amplitudes nor the velocities changed significantly in the downgradient portions of the column where microbial activity and sulfide precipitation were depressed due to depleted substrate and metals concentrations. The frequency content of the transmitted waves remained unchanged throughout the course of the experiment. Over the frequency range of the induced polarization measurements (0.1-1000Hz

  8. Linking Geophysical Networks to International Economic Development Through Integration of Global and National Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner-Lam, A.

    2007-05-01

    Outside of the research community and mission agencies, global geophysical monitoring rarely receives sustained attention except in the aftermath of a humanitarian disaster. The recovery and rebuilding period focuses attention and resources for a short time on regional needs for geophysical observation, often at the national or sub-national level. This can result in the rapid deployment of national monitoring networks, but may overlook the longer-term benefits of integration with global networks. Even in the case of multinational disasters, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, it has proved difficult to promote the integration of national solutions with global monitoring, research and operations infrastructure. More importantly, continuing operations at the national or sub-national scale are difficult to sustain once the resources associated with recovery and rebuilding are depleted. Except for some notable examples, the vast infrastructure associated with global geophysical monitoring is not utilized constructively to promote the integration of national networks with international efforts. This represents a missed opportunity not only for monitoring, but for developing the international research and educational collaborations necessary for technological transfer and capacity building. The recent confluence of highly visible disasters, global multi-hazard risk assessments, evaluations of the relationships between natural disasters and socio-economic development, and shifts in development agency policies, provides an opportunity to link global geophysical monitoring initiatives to central issues in international development. Natural hazard risk reduction has not been the first priority of international development agendas for understandable, mainly humanitarian reasons. However, it is now recognized that the so-called risk premium associated with making development projects more risk conscious or risk resilient is relatively small relative to potential losses. Thus

  9. Space weather monitoring by ground-based means carried out in Polar Geophysical Center at Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzhura, Alexander

    A real-time information on geophysical processes in polar regions is very important for goals of Space Weather monitoring by the ground-based means. The modern communication systems and computer technology makes it possible to collect and process the data from remote sites without significant delays. A new acquisition equipment based on microprocessor modules and reliable in hush climatic conditions was deployed at the Roshydromet networks of geophysical observations in Arctic and is deployed at observatories in Antarctic. A contemporary system for on-line collecting and transmitting the geophysical data from the Arctic and Antarctic stations to AARI has been realized and the Polar Geophysical Center (PGC) arranged at AARI ensures the near-real time processing and analyzing the geophysical information from 11 stations in Arctic and 5 stations in Antarctic. The space weather monitoring by the ground based means is one of the main tasks standing before the Polar Geophysical Center. As studies by Troshichev and Janzhura, [2012] showed, the PC index characterizing the polar cap magnetic activity appeared to be an adequate indicator of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere and the energy that is accumulating in the magnetosphere. A great advantage of the PC index application over other methods based on satellite data is a permanent on-line availability of information about magnetic activity in both northern and southern polar caps. A special procedure agreed between Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Space Institute of the Danish Technical University (DTUSpace) ensures calculation of the unified PC index in quasi-real time by magnetic data from the Thule and Vostok stations (see public site: http://pc-index.org). The method for estimation of AL and Dst indices (as indicators of state of the disturbed magnetosphere) based on data on foregoing PC indices has been elaborated and testified in the Polar Geophysical Center. It is

  10. Geophysical monitoring of the submerged area of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy): experiences and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, Giovanni; Guardato, Sergio; De Martino, Prospero; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; Bobbio, Antonella; Chierici, Francesco; Pignagnoli, Luca; Beranzoli, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring system of the Campi Flegrei caldera is made up of a dense geophysical network of seismological and geodetic instruments with data acquired and processed at the Monitoring Center of INGV in Naples. As one third of the caldera is covered by the sea, a marine monitoring system has been operating since 2008 in the center of the gulf of Pozzuoli, where the sea depth is about 100 m at ~2.5 km from the coast. The main component of the monitoring system is CUMAS (Cabled Underwater Multidisciplinary Acquisition System), which consists of a sea floor module equipped with geophysical and oceanographic sensors (broad band seismometer, accelerometer, hydrophone, bottom pressure recorder and single point three component water-current meter) and status and control sensors. CUMAS is connected by cable to the top of an elastic beacon buoy equipped with the power supply and data transmission devices. The buoy consists of a float placed below sea level, surrounding and holding a steel pole that supports a turret structure above sea level. The pole, turret and float system are rigidly connected to the ballast on the sea bottom. Thus a GPS installed on the turret can record the vertical sea floor displacement related to the volcanic activity of the area. The GPS has operated since January 2012 with continuous acquisition lasting more than three years and has recorded a cumulative seafloor uplift of about 7-8 cm. The comparison of the pattern of the GPS buoy data with those of the land stations confirms a quasi-symmetrical vertical displacement field of the caldera area. Measurement of vertical sea floor displacement has also been obtained by the analysis of bottom pressure recorder data. These results, in conjunction with the analysis of seismic and hydrophone data, have encouraged us to extend the marine monitoring system with the deployment in the Gulf of Pozzuoli of three new similar systems. We also present preliminary results of the first few months of activity of

  11. Investigation of novel geophysical techniques for monitoring CO2 movement during sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hoversten, G. Michael; Gasperikova, Erika

    2003-10-31

    Cost effective monitoring of reservoir fluid movement during CO{sub 2} sequestration is a necessary part of a practical geologic sequestration strategy. Current petroleum industry seismic techniques are well developed for monitoring production in petroleum reservoirs. The cost of time-lapse seismic monitoring can be born because the cost to benefit ratio is small in the production of profit making hydrocarbon. However, the cost of seismic monitoring techniques is more difficult to justify in an environment of sequestration where the process produces no direct profit. For this reasons other geophysical techniques, which might provide sufficient monitoring resolution at a significantly lower cost, need to be considered. In order to evaluate alternative geophysical monitoring techniques we have undertaken a series of numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} sequestration scenarios. These scenarios have included existing projects (Sleipner in the North Sea), future planned projects (GeoSeq Liberty test in South Texas and Schrader Bluff in Alaska) as well as hypothetical models based on generic geologic settings potentially attractive for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In addition, we have done considerable work on geophysical monitoring of CO{sub 2} injection into existing oil and gas fields, including a model study of the Weyburn CO{sub 2} project in Canada and the Chevron Lost Hills CO{sub 2} pilot in Southern California (Hoversten et al. 2003). Although we are specifically interested in considering ''novel'' geophysical techniques for monitoring we have chosen to include more traditional seismic techniques as a bench mark so that any quantitative results derived for non-seismic techniques can be directly compared to the industry standard seismic results. This approach will put all of our finding for ''novel'' techniques in the context of the seismic method and allow a quantitative analysis of the cost/benefit ratios of the newly considered methods compared to the traditional

  12. Joint inversion of geophysical data for site characterization and restoration monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P. A.

    1998-05-28

    The purpose of this project is to develop a computer code for joint inversion of seismic and electrical data, to improve underground imaging for site characterization and remediation monitoring. The computer code developed in this project will invert geophysical data to obtain direct estimates of porosity and saturation underground, rather than inverting for seismic velocity and electrical resistivity or other geophysical properties. This is intended to be a significant improvement in the state-of-the-art of underground imaging, since interpretation of data collected at a contaminated site would become much less subjective. Potential users include DOE scientists and engineers responsible for characterizing contaminated sites and monitoring remediation of contaminated sites. In this three-year project, we use a multi-phase approach consisting of theoretical and numerical code development, laboratory investigations, testing on available laboratory and borehole geophysics data sets, and a controlled field experiment, to develop practical tools for joint electrical and seismic data interpretation.

  13. Considerations on the Use of 3-D Geophysical Models to Predict Test Ban Monitoring Observables

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B; Zucca, J J; McCallen, D B; Pasyanos, M E; Flanagan, M P; Myers, S C; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J; Harben, P E

    2007-07-09

    The use of 3-D geophysical models to predict nuclear test ban monitoring observables (phase travel times, amplitudes, dispersion, etc.) is widely anticipated to provide improvements in the basic seismic monitoring functions of detection, association, location, discrimination and yield estimation. A number of questions arise when contemplating a transition from 1-D, 2-D and 2.5-D models to constructing and using 3-D models, among them: (1) Can a 3-D geophysical model or a collection of 3-D models provide measurably improved predictions of seismic monitoring observables over existing 1-D models, or 2-D and 2 1/2-D models currently under development? (2) Is a single model that can predict all observables achievable, or must separate models be devised for each observable? How should joint inversion of disparate observable data be performed, if required? (3) What are the options for model representation? Are multi-resolution models essential? How does representation affect the accuracy and speed of observable predictions? (4) How should model uncertainty be estimated, represented and how should it be used? Are stochastic models desirable? (5) What data types should be used to construct the models? What quality control regime should be established? (6) How will 3-D models be used in operations? Will significant improvements in the basic monitoring functions result from the use of 3-D models? Will the calculation of observables through 3-D models be fast enough for real-time use or must a strategy of pre-computation be employed? (7) What are the theoretical limits to 3-D model development (resolution, uncertainty) and performance in predicting monitoring observables? How closely can those limits be approached with projected data availability, station distribution and inverse methods? (8) What priorities should be placed on the acquisition of event ground truth information, deployment of new stations, development of new inverse techniques, exploitation of large

  14. Geophysical Monitoring of Coupled Microbial and Geochemical Processes During Stimulated Subsurface Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kenneth H.; Kemna, Andreas; Wilkins, Michael J.; Druhan, Jennifer L.; Arntzen, Evan V.; N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Long, Philip E.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2009-08-05

    Understanding how microorganisms alter their physical and chemical environment during bioremediation is hindered by our inability to resolve subsurface microbial activity with high spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate the use of a minimally invasive geophysical technique to monitor stimulated microbial activity during acetate amendment in an aquifer near Rifle, Colorado. During electrical induced polarization (IP) measurements, spatiotemporal variations in the phase response between imposed electric current and the resultant electric field correlated with changes in groundwater geochemistry accompanying stimulated iron and sulfate reduction and sulfide mineral precipitation. The magnitude of the phase response varied with measurement frequency (0.125 and 1 Hz) andwasdependent upon the dominant metabolic process. The spectral effect was corroborated using a biostimulated column experiment containing Rifle sediments and groundwater. Fluids and sediments recovered from regions exhibiting an anomalous phase response were enriched in Fe(II), dissolved sulfide, and cell-associated FeS nanoparticles. The accumulation of mineral precipitates and electroactive ions altered the ability of pore fluids to conduct electrical charge, accounting for the anomalous IP response and revealing the usefulness of multifrequency IP measurements for monitoring mineralogical and geochemical changes accompanying stimulated subsurface bioremediation.

  15. Spatial & Temporal Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Atekwana, E. A.; Werkema, D. D.; Haugen, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    can provide a powerful tool for assessing microbial growth or biofilm formation and the associated changes in porous media, such as those that occur during bioremediation and microbial enhanced oil recovery. Furthermore, this study suggests microbial growth and biofilm development can yield a detectable geophysical response without biomineralization effects. Acknowledgments: This material is based in part on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. OCE-0729642, EAR 0722410 (MRI), EAR 0525316, and REU Award # 0552918, and EPA Student Services Contract EP07D000660. LJPN would like to acknowledge support from Geosciences Research Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy (DEFG02-97ER14785 08).

  16. Vibration Sources For Geophysical Monitoring of A Medium and Solving of Engineering-geophysical Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Emanov, A. F.; Soloviev, V. M.; Kashun, V. N.; Salnikov, A. S.

    Various vibration sources (powerful stationary, movable and portable) have been de- veloped and are recently used in the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. These vibrators provide the seismic wave excitation with high stability of radiation. The module design of vibrosources includes the following main elements: the power chamber with a set of centrifugal debalances, the radiating platform and the load, and permits easy to move vibrosources at any necessary distances. The fre- quency of sounding signals varies from a few to 100 Hz. The radiation force changes from 50 kg to 100 tons. The both parameters depend on design of vibrosources. As a result of experimental and methodical studies, carried out in different regions of the Siberia, the monochromatic signals from powerful vibrosources have been recorded in distances to 1500 km, and the high-quality vibroseismic records have been obtained at distances to 350 km. The conducted experimental researches with vibrosources of various design operating in different modes of radiation (sweep and monochromatic signal) at different frequency ranges evidently show an efficiency of application of the powerful stationary, movable and portable vibrosources to vibroseismic studying of earthquake focal zones in seismically active regions, studying the variations of stress- strain condition of a medium, studying of a deep structure as well as at solution of a number of engineering and applied problems, such as: increase of oilfield recovery, detail seismic zoning of territory, investigation of earthquake resistance of buildings and structures.

  17. CzechGeo/EPOS - Distributed System of Permanent Observatory Measurements and Temporary Monitoring of Geophysical Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejda, Pavel; Čápová, Dana; Fischer, Tomáš; Kaláb, Zdeněk; Kostelecký, Jakub; Plicka, Vladimír; Stemberk, Josef; Špaček, Petr

    2016-04-01

    CzechGeo/EPOS is a distributed network of geoscience observations operated by the Czech research institutions and universities. The system consists of permanent observatories usually incorporated in global data networks, local stations or networks in areas significant in the long-term for basic research or applications and mobile stations which serve for repeated observations at selected points, or for field measurements, usually within the scope of large international projects. CzechGeo/EPOS is closely connected with the large European research infrastructure EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and its service covers continuous monitoring of geophysical fields on Czech territory and in selected areas abroad via long uninterrupted series of measurements on fixed sites, which are vital for understanding of Earth interior processes. The infrastructure is organized in 5 sections: Seismology, GNSS and Gravimetry, Geodynamics, Geomagnetism, Geological and Geophysical Databases. CzechGeo/EPOS provides user-friendly data access to global or regional data bases/repositories, including real-time data access whenever possible, transmits access to high-level products (e.g. waveform data, seismological bulletins and regional catalogues, geomagnetic indices) and integrates data in the frame of the Implementation Phase of the EPOS Project. CzechGeo/EPOS involves nearly all observational activities related to the solid Earth carried out by the Czech geoscience institutions and thus is indispensable for any geoscience research on our territory. Through participation in more than twenty global or regional networks CzechGeo/EPOS builds up close cooperation with European partners and contributes substantially to better understanding of the processes in the Earth's interior.

  18. Geophysical monitoring for climatic change number 11. Summary report 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.M.; Bodhaine, B.A.

    1983-12-01

    Contents: EL Chichon sunrise at Mauna Loa; Observatory reports; Continuing GMCC programs; Special projects; Cooperative programs; International activities; Publications and presentations by GMCC staff, 1982.

  19. Geophysical Monitoring Methods Evaluation for the FutureGen 2.0 Project

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, Chris E.; USA, Richland Washington; Vermeul, Vince R.; USA, Richland Washington; Bonneville, Alain; USA, Richland Washington; Sullivan, E. Charlotte; USA, Richland Washington; Johnson, Tim C.; USA, Richland Washington; Spane, Frank A.; USA, Richland Washington; Gilmore, Tyler J.; USA, Richland Washington

    2014-12-31

    A comprehensive monitoring program will be needed in order to assess the effectiveness of carbon sequestration at the FutureGen 2.0 carbon capture and storage (CCS) field-site. Geophysical monitoring methods are sensitive to subsurface changes that result from injection of CO2 and will be used for: (1) tracking the spatial extent of the free phase CO2 plume, (2) monitoring advancement of the pressure front, (3) identifying or mapping areas where induced seismicity occurs, and (4) identifying and mapping regions of increased risk for brine or CO2 leakage from the reservoir. Site-specific suitability and cost effectiveness were evaluated for a number of geophysical monitoring methods including: passive seismic monitoring, reflection seismic imaging, integrated surface deformation, time-lapse gravity, pulsed neutron capture logging, cross-borehole seismic, electrical resistivity tomography, magnetotellurics and controlled source electromagnetics. The results of this evaluation indicate that CO2 injection monitoring using reflection seismic methods would likely be difficult at the FutureGen 2.0 site. Electrical methods also exhibited low sensitivity to the expected CO2 saturation changes and would be affected by metallic infrastructure at the field site. Passive seismic, integrated surface deformation, time-lapse gravity, and pulsed neutron capture monitoring were selected for implementation as part of the FutureGen 2.0 storage site monitoring program.

  20. Geophysical Monitoring Methods Evaluation for the FutureGen 2.0 Project

    DOE PAGES

    Strickland, Chris E.; USA, Richland Washington; Vermeul, Vince R.; ...

    2014-12-31

    A comprehensive monitoring program will be needed in order to assess the effectiveness of carbon sequestration at the FutureGen 2.0 carbon capture and storage (CCS) field-site. Geophysical monitoring methods are sensitive to subsurface changes that result from injection of CO2 and will be used for: (1) tracking the spatial extent of the free phase CO2 plume, (2) monitoring advancement of the pressure front, (3) identifying or mapping areas where induced seismicity occurs, and (4) identifying and mapping regions of increased risk for brine or CO2 leakage from the reservoir. Site-specific suitability and cost effectiveness were evaluated for a number ofmore » geophysical monitoring methods including: passive seismic monitoring, reflection seismic imaging, integrated surface deformation, time-lapse gravity, pulsed neutron capture logging, cross-borehole seismic, electrical resistivity tomography, magnetotellurics and controlled source electromagnetics. The results of this evaluation indicate that CO2 injection monitoring using reflection seismic methods would likely be difficult at the FutureGen 2.0 site. Electrical methods also exhibited low sensitivity to the expected CO2 saturation changes and would be affected by metallic infrastructure at the field site. Passive seismic, integrated surface deformation, time-lapse gravity, and pulsed neutron capture monitoring were selected for implementation as part of the FutureGen 2.0 storage site monitoring program.« less

  1. Joint inversion of geophysical data for site characterization and restoration monitoring. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.A.; Roberts, J.J.; Berryman, J.G.; Wildenschild, D.

    1998-06-01

    'The purpose of this project is to develop a computer code for joint inversion of seismic and electrical data, to improve underground imaging for site characterization and remediation monitoring. The computer code developed in this project will invert geophysical data to obtain direct estimates of porosity and saturation underground, rather than inverting for seismic velocity and electrical resistivity or other geophysical properties. This is intended to be a significant improvement in the state-of-the-art of underground imaging, since interpretation of data collected at a contaminated site would become much less subjective. Potential users include DOE scientists and engineers responsible for characterizing contaminated sites and monitoring remediation of contaminated sites. In this three-year project, the authors use a multi-phase approach consisting of theoretical and numerical code development, laboratory investigations, testing on available laboratory and borehole geophysics data sets, and a controlled field experiment, to develop practical tools for joint electrical and seismic data interpretation. This report summarizes work after about 1.7 years of a 3-year project. Progress on laboratory measurements is described first, followed by progress on developing algorithms for the inversion code to relate geophysical data to porosity and saturation.'

  2. Geophysical Monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 Storage Site, Saskatchewan, Canada (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3300 m depth, starting in November, 2013. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of geophysical methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a spectrum of geophysical techniques are being tested at the Aquistore site. Various time-lapse seismic methods, including 3D surface and vertical seismic profiles (VSP) as well as crosswell seismic tomography, are designed to provide monitoring of the CO2 plume. Novel components of the seismic monitoring include use of a sparse permanent array and borehole recording using a fiber optic distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) system. Gravity and electromagnetic methods are providing complementary monitoring. Pre-injection baseline surveys have been acquired for each of these methods. In addition, continuous pre-injection monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 to establish background surface deformation patterns and local seismicity prior to the start of CO2 injection. A network of GPS stations, surface tiltmeters and InSAR reflectors has been deployed to monitor injection-related surface deformation. Passive seismic monitoring is being conducted using two orthogonal linear arrays of surface geophones.

  3. Geophysical Monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 Storage Site, Saskatchewan, Canada (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Huang, Z.; Xu, M.; Mi, N.; Yu, D.; Li, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3300 m depth, starting in November, 2013. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of geophysical methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a spectrum of geophysical techniques are being tested at the Aquistore site. Various time-lapse seismic methods, including 3D surface and vertical seismic profiles (VSP) as well as crosswell seismic tomography, are designed to provide monitoring of the CO2 plume. Novel components of the seismic monitoring include use of a sparse permanent array and borehole recording using a fiber optic distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) system. Gravity and electromagnetic methods are providing complementary monitoring. Pre-injection baseline surveys have been acquired for each of these methods. In addition, continuous pre-injection monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 to establish background surface deformation patterns and local seismicity prior to the start of CO2 injection. A network of GPS stations, surface tiltmeters and InSAR reflectors has been deployed to monitor injection-related surface deformation. Passive seismic monitoring is being conducted using two orthogonal linear arrays of surface geophones.

  4. Borehole geophysical monitoring of amendment emplacement and geochemical changes during vegetable oil biostimulation, Anoka County Riverfront Park, Fridley, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, Jr., John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.; Kochiss, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    Based on the geophysical data, conceptual models of the distributions of emulsified vegetable oil and ground water with altered chemistry were developed. The field data indicate that, in several cases, the plume of ground water with altered chemistry would not be detected by direct chemical sampling given the construction of monitoring wells; hence the geophysical data provide valuable site-specific insights for the interpretation of water samples and monitoring of biostimulation projects. Application of geophysical methods to data from the ACP demonstrated the utility of radar for monitoring biostimulation injections.

  5. The Physics of Heavy Oils: Implications for Recovery and Geophysical Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Douglas

    2007-03-01

    Our capacity to find and produce conventional light petroleum oils are unable to keep pace with the growth in the growing global demand for energy. With the breakpoint between petroleum production and consumption imminent, a good deal of recent efforts have focused on developing the `heavy' hydrocarbon reserves. Such resources include the extensive heavy oil deposits of Venezuela, the bitumen resources of Canada, and even the solid kerogens (oil shale) of the United States. Capital investments, in particular, have been large in Canada's oil sands due in part to the extensive nature of the resource and already in excess of 30% of Canada's production comes from heavier hydrocarbon deposits. The larger input costs associated with such projects, however, requires that the production be monitored more fully; and this necessitates that both the oils and the porous media which hold them be understood. Geophysical `time-lapse' monitoring seeks to better constrain the areal distribution and movements of fluids in the subsurface by examining the changes in a geophysical response such as seismic reflectivity, micro-gravity variations, or electrical conductivity that arise during production. For example, a changed geophysical seismic character directly depends on relies on variations in the longitudinal and transverse wave speeds and attenuation and mass densities of the materials in the earth. These are controlled by a number of extrinsic conditions such as temperature, fluid pressure, confining stress, and fluid phase and saturation state. Understanding the geophysical signature over a given reservoir requires that the behavior of the porous rock physical properties be well understood and a variety of measurements are being made in laboratories. In current practice, the interpretation of the geophysical field responses is assisted by combined modeling of fluid flow and seismic wave fields. The least understood link in this process, however, is the lack of knowledge on rock

  6. Modeling and Evaluation of Geophysical Methods for Monitoring and Tracking CO2 Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Jeff

    2012-11-30

    Geological sequestration has been proposed as a viable option for mitigating the vast amount of CO{sub 2} being released into the atmosphere daily. Test sites for CO{sub 2} injection have been appearing across the world to ascertain the feasibility of capturing and sequestering carbon dioxide. A major concern with full scale implementation is monitoring and verifying the permanence of injected CO{sub 2}. Geophysical methods, an exploration industry standard, are non-invasive imaging techniques that can be implemented to address that concern. Geophysical methods, seismic and electromagnetic, play a crucial role in monitoring the subsurface pre- and post-injection. Seismic techniques have been the most popular but electromagnetic methods are gaining interest. The primary goal of this project was to develop a new geophysical tool, a software program called GphyzCO2, to investigate the implementation of geophysical monitoring for detecting injected CO{sub 2} at test sites. The GphyzCO2 software consists of interconnected programs that encompass well logging, seismic, and electromagnetic methods. The software enables users to design and execute 3D surface-to-surface (conventional surface seismic) and borehole-to-borehole (cross-hole seismic and electromagnetic methods) numerical modeling surveys. The generalized flow of the program begins with building a complex 3D subsurface geological model, assigning properties to the models that mimic a potential CO{sub 2} injection site, numerically forward model a geophysical survey, and analyze the results. A test site located in Warren County, Ohio was selected as the test site for the full implementation of GphyzCO2. Specific interest was placed on a potential reservoir target, the Mount Simon Sandstone, and cap rock, the Eau Claire Formation. Analysis of the test site included well log data, physical property measurements (porosity), core sample resistivity measurements, calculating electrical permittivity values, seismic data

  7. Developing geophysical monitoring at Mayon volcano, a collaborative project EOS-PHIVOLCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, D.; Laguerta, E.; Baloloy, A.; Valerio, R.; Marcial, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Mayon is an openly-degassed volcano, producing mostly small, frequent eruptions, most recently in Aug-Sept 2006 and Dec 2009. Mayon volcano status is level 1 with low seismicity dominated mostly local and regional tectonic earthquakes with continuous emission of SO2 from its crater. A research collaboration between Earth Observatory of Singapore-NTU and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) have been initiated in 2010 with effort to develop a multi-disciplinary monitoring system around Mayon includes geophysical monitoring, gas geochemical monitoring, and petrologic studies. Currently there are 4 broadband seismographs, 3 short period instruments, and 4 tiltmeters. These instruments will be telemetered to the Lignon Hill Volcano Observatory through radio and 3G broadband internet. We also make use of our self-made low-cost datalogger which has been operating since Jan 2011, performing continuous data acquisition with sampling rate of 20 minute/sample and transmitted through gsm network. First target of this monitoring system is to obtain continuous multi parameter data transmitted in real time to the observatory from different instruments. Tectonically, Mayon is located in the Oas Graben, a northwest-trending structural depression. Previous study using InSAR data, showing evidence of a left-lateral oblique slip movement of the fault North of Mayon. Understanding on what structures active deformation is occurring and how deformation signal is currently partitioned between tectonic and volcanic origin is a key for characterizing magma movement in the time of unrest. Preliminary analysis of the tangential components of tiltmeters (particularly the stations 5 and 7.5 NE from the volcano) shows gradual inflation movement over a few months period. The tangential components for tiltmeters are roughly perpendicular to the fault north of Mayon. This may suggest downward tilting of the graben in the northern side of Mayon. Another possibility is that

  8. A Resolution Analysis of Two Geophysical Imaging Methods For Characterizing and Monitoring Hydrologic Conditions in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Alumbaugh, D.; LaBreque, D.; Brainard, J.; Hammond, G.

    2006-08-02

    The objective of this research project was to analyze the resolution of two geophysical imaging techniques: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR) for monitoring subsurface flow and transport processes within the vadose zone. This was accomplished through a coupled approach involving very fine-scale unsaturated flow forward modeling, conversion of the resultant flow and solute fields to geophysical property models, forward geophysical modeling using the property model obtained from the last step to obtain synthetic geophysical data, and finally inversion of this synthetic data. These geophysical property models were then compared to those derived from the conversion of the hydrologic forward modeling to provide an understanding of the resolution and limitations of the geophysical techniques.

  9. 78 FR 33859 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Geological and Geophysical Exploration Activities in the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Continental Shelf (OCS) Geological and Geophysical Exploration Activities in the Gulf of Mexico; Correction... in the Federal Register (78 FR 27427) entitled ``Outer Continental Shelf Geological and...

  10. Natural hazards activities of the National Geophysical Data Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockridge, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, has been given the task of collecting, managing, and disseminating the great mass of inofmation produced by scientific observations of the geophysical environment. This article describes NGDC data bases that speifically relate to natural hazards. 

  11. Time-Lapse Electrical Geophysical Monitoring of Amendment-Based Biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy C; Versteeg, Roelof J; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Major, William; Lane, John W

    2015-01-01

    Biostimulation is increasingly used to accelerate microbial remediation of recalcitrant groundwater contaminants. Effective application of biostimulation requires successful emplacement of amendment in the contaminant target zone. Verification of remediation performance requires postemplacement assessment and contaminant monitoring. Sampling-based approaches are expensive and provide low-density spatial and temporal information. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is an effective geophysical method for determining temporal changes in subsurface electrical conductivity. Because remedial amendments and biostimulation-related biogeochemical processes often change subsurface electrical conductivity, ERT can complement and enhance sampling-based approaches for assessing emplacement and monitoring biostimulation-based remediation. Field studies demonstrating the ability of time-lapse ERT to monitor amendment emplacement and behavior were performed during a biostimulation remediation effort conducted at the Department of Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) Yard, in Brandywine, Maryland, United States. Geochemical fluid sampling was used to calibrate a petrophysical relation in order to predict groundwater indicators of amendment distribution. The petrophysical relations were field validated by comparing predictions to sequestered fluid sample results, thus demonstrating the potential of electrical geophysics for quantitative assessment of amendment-related geochemical properties. Crosshole radar zero-offset profile and borehole geophysical logging were also performed to augment the data set and validate interpretation. In addition to delineating amendment transport in the first 10 months after emplacement, the time-lapse ERT results show later changes in bulk electrical properties interpreted as mineral precipitation. Results support the use of more cost-effective surface-based ERT in conjunction with limited field sampling to improve spatial

  12. Time-Lapse Electrical Geophysical Monitoring of Amendment-Based Biostimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Versteeg, Roelof; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Major, William; Lane, John W.

    2015-12-02

    Biostimulation is increasingly used to accelerate microbial remediation of recalcitrant groundwater contaminants. Effective application of biostimulation requires successful emplacement of amendment in the contaminant target zone. Verification of remediation performance requires postemplacement assessment and contaminant monitoring. Sampling based approaches are expensive and provide low-density spatial and temporal information. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is an effective geophysical method for determining temporal changes in subsurface electrical conductivity. Because remedial amendments and biostimulation-related biogeochemical processes often change subsurface electrical conductivity, ERT can complement and enhance sampling-based approaches for assessing emplacement and monitoring biostimulation-based remediation. Field studies demonstrating the ability of time-lapse ERT to monitor amendment emplacement and behavior were performed during a biostimulation remediation effort conducted at the Department of Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) Yard, in Brandywine, Maryland, United States. Geochemical fluid sampling was used to calibrate a petrophysical relation in order to predict groundwater indicators of amendment distribution. The petrophysical relations were field validated by comparing predictions to sequestered fluid sample results, thus demonstrating the potential of electrical geophysics for quantitative assessment of amendment-related geochemical properties. Crosshole radar zero-offset profile and borehole geophysical logging were also performed to augment the data set and validate interpretation. In addition to delineating amendment transport in the first 10 months after emplacement, the time-lapse ERT results show later changes in bulk electrical properties interpreted as mineral precipitation. Results support the use of more cost-effective surfacebased ERT in conjunction with limited field sampling to improve spatial

  13. Limiting aspects of using geophysical time-lapse measurements for contaminant site monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, H. K.; Bloem, E.

    2010-12-01

    Winter maintenance at airports and roads in the areas with winter frost requires the use of large quantities of de-icing chemicals. These chemicals infiltrate the unsaturated zone during winter and spring due to the mixing with snow next to the roads or runways and may hence pollute the groundwater. Geophysical methods provide insight into soil heterogeneity and characteristics and may, when used in time-lapse mode, serve as a monitoring technique for contaminant transport over larger areas than traditional sampling techniques such as suction cups, soil sampling techniques and groundwater wells. The presence of a mixture of materials and contaminants in the subsurface, as well as the natural temporal variable conditions such as temperature and water saturation are among the challenges of geophysical monitoring of flow and transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Some examples of the use of geophysical measurements for contaminant site monitoring from the literature will be given as well as insight to more specific challenges both practical and scientifically for a case study in Norway. The case study shows results of electrical resistivity measurements along two profiles next to one of the runways at Oslo airport, Gardermoen. One profile is located parallel to the runway and within the zone affected by contaminated snow, while the other set of surface electrodes are installed at an angle from the runway and covers areas both affected and unaffected by de-icing chemicals. In addition to time-lapse electrical resistivity measurements, the soil temperature, volumetric water content and the electrical conductivity of the soil water is measured at 4 depths at the crossing point of the two cables. Theoretical improvements and managerial aspects still required for the applicability of this monitoring technique at contaminated sites will be discussed.

  14. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Kristina; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2015-02-24

    This documents contains the final report for the project "Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods" (DE-SC0007049) Executive Summary: Our research aimed to develop borehole measurement techniques capable of monitoring subsurface processes, such as changes in pore geometry and iron/sulfur geochemistry, associated with remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides. Previous work has demonstrated that geophysical method spectral induced polarization (SIP) can be used to assess subsurface contaminant remediation; however, SIP signals can be generated from multiple sources limiting their interpretation value. Integrating multiple geophysical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), with SIP, could reduce the ambiguity of interpretation that might result from a single method. Our research efforts entails combining measurements from these methods, each sensitive to different mineral forms and/or mineral-fluid interfaces, providing better constraints on changes in subsurface biogeochemical processes and pore geometries significantly improving our understanding of processes impacting contaminant remediation. The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site was used as a test location for our measurements. The Rifle IFRC site is located at a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado. Leachate from spent mill tailings has resulted in residual uranium contamination of both groundwater and sediments within the local aquifer. Studies at the site include an ongoing acetate amendment strategy, native microbial populations are stimulated by introduction of carbon intended to alter redox conditions and immobilize uranium. To test the geophysical methods in the field, NMR and MS logging measurements were collected before, during, and after acetate amendment. Next, laboratory NMR, MS, and SIP measurements

  15. Geophysical Monitoring of Ground Surface Deformation Associated with a Confined Aquifer Storage and Recovery Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, Alain; Heggy, Essam; Strickland, Christopher; Normand, Jonathan; Dermond, Jeffrey; Fang, Yilin; Sullivan, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    One important issue in the storage of large volumes of fluids, mainly water and CO2, in the deep subsurface is to determine the resulting field-scale-induced displacements and consequences of overpressures on the mechanical integrity of the storage reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost-effective, and repeatable geophysical techniques of micro-gravimetry, differential global positioning system (DGPS), and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR). These techniques were field tested and evaluated for the first time on an active large-volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project in Pendleton, Oregon, USA, where three ASR wells are injecting up to 1.9 million m3 year-1 into basalt aquifers to a depth of about 150 m. Injection and recovery of water at the wells are accompanied by significant gravity anomalies and vertical deformation of the ground surface localized to the immediate surroundings of the injection wells as evidenced by DGPS and gravity measurements collected in 2011. At a larger scale, and between 2011 and 2013, DInSAR monitoring of the Pendleton area shows sub- centimetric deformation in the western part of the city and close to the injection locations associated with ASR cycle. Deformations are found to be temporally out phased with the injection and recovery events due to complex groundwater flow. A numerical simulation of the effect of the water injection gives results in good agreement with the observations and confirms the validity of the approach, which could be deployed in similar geological contexts to look at the mechanical effects of water and gas injections.

  16. Geophysical Monitoring of Ground Surface Deformation Associated with a Confined Aquifer Storage and Recovery Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville, Alain; Heggy, Essam; Strickland, Christopher E.; Normand, Jonathan; Dermond, Jeffrey A.; Fang, Yilin; Sullivan, E. C.

    2015-08-11

    A main issue in the storage of large volumes of fluids, mainly water and CO2, in the deep subsurface is to determine their field-scale-induced displacements and consequences on the mechanical behavior of the storage reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost-effective, and repeatable geophysical techniques of micro-gravimetry, differential global positioning system (DGPS), and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR). These techniques were field tested and evaluated in an active large-volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project in Pendleton, Oregon, USA, where three ASR wells are injecting up to 1.9 million m3/yr-1 into basalt aquifers to a depth of about 150 m. Injection and recovery of water at the wells was accompanied by significant gravity anomalies and vertical deformation of the ground surface localized to the immediate surroundings of the injection wells as evidenced by DGPS and gravity measurements collected in 2011. At a larger scale, and between 2011 and 2013, DInSAR monitoring of the Pendleton area suggests the occurrence of sub-centimetric deformation in the western part of the city and close to the injection locations associated with the ASR cycle. A numerical simulation of the effect of the water injection gives results in good agreement with the observations and confirms the validity of the approach, which could be deployed in similar geological contexts to look at the mechanical effects of water and gas injections. The gravity signal reflects deep phenomena and gives additional insight into the repartition of fluids in the subsurface.

  17. Geophysical Monitoring of Ground Surface Deformation Associated with a Confined Aquifer Storage and Recovery Operation

    DOE PAGES

    Bonneville, Alain; Heggy, Essam; Strickland, Christopher E.; ...

    2015-08-11

    A main issue in the storage of large volumes of fluids, mainly water and CO2, in the deep subsurface is to determine their field-scale-induced displacements and consequences on the mechanical behavior of the storage reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost-effective, and repeatable geophysical techniques of micro-gravimetry, differential global positioning system (DGPS), and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR). These techniques were field tested and evaluated in an active large-volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project in Pendleton, Oregon, USA, where three ASR wells are injecting up to 1.9 million m3/yr-1more » into basalt aquifers to a depth of about 150 m. Injection and recovery of water at the wells was accompanied by significant gravity anomalies and vertical deformation of the ground surface localized to the immediate surroundings of the injection wells as evidenced by DGPS and gravity measurements collected in 2011. At a larger scale, and between 2011 and 2013, DInSAR monitoring of the Pendleton area suggests the occurrence of sub-centimetric deformation in the western part of the city and close to the injection locations associated with the ASR cycle. A numerical simulation of the effect of the water injection gives results in good agreement with the observations and confirms the validity of the approach, which could be deployed in similar geological contexts to look at the mechanical effects of water and gas injections. The gravity signal reflects deep phenomena and gives additional insight into the repartition of fluids in the subsurface.« less

  18. Long-term air quality monitoring at the South Pole by the NOAA program Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.; Rodhaine, B.A.; Komhyr, W.D.; Oltmans, S.J.; Steele, L.P.

    1988-02-01

    The objectives of the NOAA program of Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) for the South Pole include measurements of atmospheric changes which can potentially impact climate. This paper discusses the long-term GMCC South Pole air chemistry data for carbon dioxide, total ozone, surface ozone, methane, halocarbons, nitrous oxide, and aerosol concentrations, comparing the findings with GMCC data for other regions. Special consideration is given to the results of recent GMCC ozonesonde operations and to an asessment of Dobson ozone spectrophotometer data taken at South Pole by NOAA since 1964. Data are discussed in the framework of Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon. 49 references.

  19. MCO Monitoring activity description

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-11-09

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description.

  20. Geophysical monitoring of a groundwater tracer in the Gray Delta, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, S.K.; Fitts, C.R.; Versteeg, R.

    1997-10-01

    Surface geophysical measurements were successful in monitoring a groundwater tracer experiment within the municipality of Gray, Maine. Low levels of volatile organic compounds have been detected in the town`s water-supply well field, which is located 900 meters away from the municipal landfill. In order to discover the relationship between the well field and landfill, a tracer experiment was conducted at an accessible location between them. The tracer, consisting of minor amounts of salt mixed with water recovered from each injection point, was injected at two locations 10 meters apart within a sand pit; one injection was in a monitoring well screened from 3.4 to 6.4 m below ground surface, and the other was a surficial injection, within a pit dug into the saturated zone of the aquifer approximately I m below ground surface. Geophysical methods tested included spontaneous polarization (SP), resistivity, induced polarization (IP), frequency- and time-domain electromagnetics (EM), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Resistivity methods included the dipole-dipole array, radial array, and mise-a-la-masse. The radial array was a modified pole-dipole array where one transmitter electrode was down the injection well at the screen, and the other was some distance away. Potential measuring points were located at n-spacings of 1, 2, 3, and 4, using an a-spacing of 5 m. IP data were also acquired along with resistivity data. GPR data were collected using both 200 MHz and I 00 MHz antennas. Initially, the most effective and efficient geophysical method for location of the tracer was the SP method. Radial array resistivity, GPR, and mise-a-la-masse methods also proved effective in detecting the tracer. Frequency-domain EM (terrain conductivity) measurements proved excessively noisy. This paper describes SP, radial array resistivity, and GPR methods, since they appear at this stage of our analysis to be the most informative.

  1. Geophysical monitoring of a complex geologic framework: the multi-disciplinary sensor networks in Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarero, M.; Di Prima, S.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Rossi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2004 the Osservatorio Etneo INGV has begun a new approach to the geophysical monitoring of volcanic and seismic areas of Sicily (Italy) where the core is a new type of remote infrastructure able to efficiently accommodate different kinds of sensor. In particular our multi-parametric network is mainly focused on the monitoring of different geophysical parameters (seismic ground velocity and acceleration, infrasound and ground deformation GPS).The whole seismic network consists of 66 broad band digital stations, 19 analog stations, 13 accelerometric stations and 12 infrasonic stations, for a total of 110 stations while the Continuous GPS network consist of 80 stations. Every station is equipped with solar panels in order to satisfy the power requirements of the instruments and with satellite-based communication systems. In this work we show both the technical solutions of this integrated network and its main advantages, if compared with older kinds of remote stations. Moreover we show some examples of the more interesting scientific results achieved thank to this technologically advanced network.

  2. A resolution analysis of two geophysical imaging methods for characterizing and monitoring hydrologic conditions in the Vadose zone.

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, James Robert; Hammond, Gary.; Alumbaugh, David L.; La Brecque, D.J.

    2007-06-01

    This research project analyzed the resolution of two geophysical imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR), for monitoring subsurface flow and transport processes within the vadose zone. The study was based on petrophysical conversion of moisture contents and solute distributions obtained from unsaturated flow forward modeling. This modeling incorporated boundary conditions from a potable water and a salt tracer infiltration experiment performed at the Sandia-Tech Vadose Zone (STVZ) facility, and high-resolution spatial grids (6.25-cm spacing over a 1700-m domain) and incorporated hydraulic properties measured on samples collected from the STVZ. The analysis process involved petrophysical conversion of moisture content and solute concentration fields to geophysical property fields, forward geophysical modeling using the geophysical property fields to obtain synthetic geophysical data, and finally, inversion of this synthetic data. These geophysical property models were then compared to those derived from the conversion of the hydrologic forward modeling to provide an understanding of the resolution and limitations of the geophysical techniques.

  3. Geophysical measurements and monitoring on the Pechgraben Landslide in Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Gruber, Stefanie; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Schattauer, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    In January 2013, after an intense rainfall of about 400 mm, the historic slope movement northwest of the village of Pechgraben (municipality Großraming, Upper Austria) started to move. Already in early March the landslide with an area of about 7 hectares came to a halt. After the long-lasting rainfall (200mm) from June 1st to 3rd 2013 the Pechgraben landslide was reactivated with an extent of about 80 ha on June 6th. This landslide is therefore the largest in Austria since the last 5 years. Several million cubic meters of loose material was moving towards the settlement area. Already one day later, on June 7th, 2013, emergency measures began immediately. The Geological Survey of Austria (GBA), the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering (IAN), and the consultant engineering office Moser/Jaritz as well as the local fire brigade and the federal armed forces supported the Torrent and Avalanche Control with their remediation measures. In addition to the emergency measures, which consisted mainly of water diversion and material removal, a comprehensive monitoring system (GPS, inclinometer, geoelectric monitoring, airborne laserscan and aerial photogrammetry, etc.) has been created in order to document the development of the slope movement and to be able to take further measures if necessary. The geophysical part undertaken by the Geological Survey of Austria consisted of an airborne geophysical survey (EM, magnetics, gamma radiation) as well as several geoelectric profiles to understand the geology and mechanism of the landslide. To monitor the movement, we set up 5 different geoelectrical monitoring profiles, permanent inclinometers, photo monitoring, piezometers, as well as soil humidity and precipitation sensors. Hübl, J., Schraml, K., Lindner, G., Tartarotti, T., Gruber, H., Gasperl, W., Supper, R., Jochum, B., Ottowitz, D., Gruber, S., Marschallinger, R., Moser, G. (2015): Synthesebericht der H

  4. Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH4

  5. Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S.S.; Zhang, G.; Williams, K.H.; Taylor, J.; Fujita, Y.; Smith, R.

    2011-07-15

    Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH{sub 4}{sup

  6. Laboratory scale electrokinetic remediation and geophysical monitoring of metal-contaminated marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Matteo; Pazzi, Veronica; Losito, Gabriella

    2013-04-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging technology that can be used to remove contaminants from soils and sediments. This technique relies on the application of a low-intensity electric field to extract heavy metals, radionuclides and some organic compounds. When the electric field is applied three main transport processes occur in the porous medium: electromigration, electroosmosis and electrophoresis. Monitoring of electrokinetic processes in laboratory and field is usually conducted by means of point measurements and by collecting samples from discrete locations. Geophysical methods can be very effective in obtaining high spatial and temporal resolution mapping for an adequate control of the electrokinetic processes. This study investigates the suitability of electrokinetic remediation for extracting heavy metals from dredged marine sediments and the possibility of using geophysical methods to monitor the remediation process. Among the geophysical methods, the spectral induced polarization technique was selected because of its capability to provide valuable information about the physico-chemical characteristics of the porous medium. Electrokinetic remediation experiments in laboratory scale were made under different operating conditions, obtained by varying the strength of the applied electric field and the type of conditioning agent used at the electrode compartments in each experiment. Tap water, 0.1M citric acid and 0.1M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively as processing fluids. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as conditioning agent and the electric potential was increased, as these two factors promoted the electroosmotic flow which is considered to be the key transport mechanism. The removal efficiencies ranged from 9.5% to 27% depending on the contaminant concerned. These percentages are likely to be raised by a further increase of the applied electric field. Furthermore, spectral induced polarization

  7. Geophysical techniques to aquifer locating and monitoring for industrial zones in North Hanoi, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giang, Nguyen; Duan, Nguyen; Thanh, Le; Hida, Noboru

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical methods were applied for hydrogeological targets in many countries including Vietnam. This paper presents results of using complex geophysical techniques as well as 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), vertical electrical sounding (VES), very low frequency (VLF), and seismic refraction for geological structure investigation for locating the aquifers and assessing the hydrogeological conditions for groundwater potential in industrial zones of North Hanoi, Vietnam. The locations of two aquifers are determined by their depth and thickness on the basis of resistivity and seismic velocity values which were proved by stratifications of three boreholes to 40-60 m of depth on the study area. There are connections from surface water to shallow aquifer by hydraulic windows, as follows from VLF data. The deeper aquifer can be considered as a potential groundwater supply, but the water level is descending in time, as shown by hydrological monitoring. However, with careful use and by reducing sources of pollution, groundwater can continue to be an important natural resource for future.

  8. Geophysical and botanical monitoring of simulated graves in a tropical rainforest, Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K.; Saumett, Miguel; Evans, Gethin T.

    2016-12-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of missing people and forced disappearances, currently 80,000 only in Colombia. Successful detection of shallow buried human remains by forensic search teams is currently difficult in varying terrain and climates. Within this research we built four simulated clandestine burial styles in tropical rainforests, as this is a common scenario and depositional environment encountered in Latin America, to gain knowledge of optimum forensic geophysics detection techniques. The results of geophysically monitoring these burials using ground penetrating radar, magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity are presented from one to forty three weeks post-burial. Radar survey results with both the 250 MHz and 500 MHz frequency antennae showed good detection of modern simulated burials on 2D profiles and horizontal time slices but poor detection on the other simulated graves. Magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity results were generally poor at detecting the simulated targets. Observations of botanical variations on the test site show rapid regrowth of Malvaceae and Petiveria alliacea vegetation over all burials that are common in these forests, which can make detection more difficult.

  9. Geophysical monitoring of simulated graves with resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity and GPR in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Evans, Gethin T

    2016-04-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of both missing people and forced disappearances, ∼71,000 Colombia alone. Successful detection of buried human remains by forensic search teams can be difficult in varying terrain and climates. Three clandestine burials were simulated at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America. In order to gain critical knowledge of optimum geophysical detection techniques, burials were monitored using: ground penetrating radar, magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity up to twenty-two months post-burial. Radar survey results showed good detection of modern 1/2 clothed pig cadavers throughout the survey period on 2D profiles, with the 250MHz antennae judged optimal. Both skeletonised and decapitated and burnt human remains were poorly imaged on 2D profiles with loss in signal continuity observed throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good anomalies observed over targets, but these decreased in amplitude over the post-burial time. These were judged due to detecting disturbed grave soil rather than just the buried targets. Magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity were successful at target detection in contrast to bulk ground conductivity surveys which were unsuccessful. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Forensic geophysical surveys should be undertaken at suspected burial sites.

  10. Monitoring soil-vegetation interactions using non-invasive geophysical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, M.; Cassiani, G.; Boaga, J.; Rossi, M.; Vignoli, G.; Deiana, R.; Ursino, N.; Putti, M.; Majone, B.; Bellin, A.; Blaschek, M.; Duttmann, R.; Meyer, S.; Ludwig, R.; Soddu, A.; Dietrich, P.; Werban, U.

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions is of utmost importance in the solution of a number of hydrological questions and practical issues, including flood control, agricultural best practice, slope stability and impacts of climatic changes. Geophysical time-lapse monitoring can greatly contribute to the understanding of these interactions particularly for its capability to map in space and time the effects of vegetation on soil moisture content. In this work we present the results of two case studies showing the potential of hydro-geophysics in this context. The first example refers to the long term monitoring of the soil static and dynamic characteristics in an experimental site located in Sardinia (Italy). The main objective of this study is to understand the effects of soil - water - plants interactions on soil water balance. A combination of time-lapse electromagnetic induction (EMI) monitoring over wide areas and localized irrigation tests monitored by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and TDR soil moisture measurements is here used, in order to achieve quantitative field-scale estimates of moisture content from topsoil layer. Natural gamma-ray emission mapping, texture analysis and laboratory calibration of an electrical constitutive relationship on soil samples complete the dataset. We therefore observed that the growth of vegetation, with the associated below ground allocation of biomass, has a significant impact on the soil moisture dynamics. In particular vegetation extracts a large amount of water from the soil in the hot season, but it also reduces evaporation by shadowing the soil surface. In addition, vegetation enhances the soil wetting process as the root system facilitates water infiltration, thus creating a positive feedback system. The second example regards the time-lapse monitoring of soil moisture content in an apple orchard located in the Alpine region of Northern Italy (Trento). A three-dimensional cross-hole ERT

  11. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  12. Geophysical characterization of buried active faults: the Concud Fault (Iberian Chain, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Óscar; Lafuente, Paloma; Arlegui, Luis; Liesa, Carlos L.; Simón, José L.

    2016-11-01

    The Concud Fault is a 14-km-long active fault that extends close to Teruel, a city with about 35,000 inhabitants in the Iberian Range (NE Spain). It shows evidence of recurrent activity during Late Pleistocene time, posing a significant seismic hazard in an area of moderate-to-low tectonic rates. A geophysical survey was carried out along the mapped trace of the southern branch of the Concud Fault to evaluate the geophysical signature from the fault and the location of paleoseismic trenches. The survey identified a lineation of inverse magnetic dipoles at residual and vertical magnetic gradient, a local increase in apparent conductivity, and interruptions of the underground sediment structure along GPR profiles. The origin of these anomalies is due to lateral contrast between both fault blocks and the geophysical signature of Quaternary materials located above and directly south of the fault. The spatial distribution of anomalies was successfully used to locate suitable trench sites and to map non-exposed segments of the fault. The geophysical anomalies are related to the sedimentological characteristics and permeability differences of the deposits and to deformation related to fault activity. The results illustrate the usefulness of geophysics to detect and map non-exposed faults in areas of moderate-to-low tectonic activity where faults are often covered by recent pediments that obscure geological evidence of the most recent earthquakes. The results also highlight the importance of applying multiple geophysical techniques in defining the location of buried faults.

  13. Geophysical monitoring from seafloor observatories in Italian volcanic sites: Marsili Seamount, Etna Volcano and Stromboli Island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanetti, Gabriele; Monna, Stephen; Lo Bue, Nadia; Embriaco, Davide; Frugoni, Francesco; Marinaro, Giuditta; De Caro, Mariagrazia; Sgroi, Tiziana; Montuori, Caterina; De Santis, Angelo; Cianchini, Gianfranco; Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Many volcanoes on Earth are located within or near the oceans and observations from the seafloor can be very important for a more complete understanding of the structure and nature of these volcanoes. We present some results obtained from data acquired in volcanic sites in the Central Mediterranean Sea. Data were taken by means of stand-alone free-fall systems, and fixed-point ocean observatories, both cabled and autonomous, some of which are part of the European research infrastructure EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory, www.emso-eu.org). EMSO observatories strongly rely on a multidisciplinary approach, in spite of the many technical challenges that the operation of very different sensors by means of a single acquisition system presents. We focus on three volcanic sites near the coasts of Italy (Marsili seamount, Stromboli Island and Etna Volcano) involved in subduction processes and to the opening of the Central Mediterranean basin. Through multidisciplinary analysis we were able to associate geophysical and oceanographic signals to a common volcanic source in a more reliable way with respect to single sensor analysis, showing the potential of long-term seafloor monitoring in unravelling otherwise still obscure aspects of such volcanoes. The very strong expansion of seafloor monitoring, which is taking place both in the quantity of the infrastructures and in the technological capabilities, suggests that there will be important developments in the near future.

  14. Geophysical monitoring of simulated clandestine graves using electrical and ground-penetrating radar methods: 0-3 years after burial.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John R; Hansen, James D; Jones, Glenda M; Cassidy, Nigel J; Cassella, John P

    2012-11-01

    This study provides forensic search teams with systematic geophysical monitoring data over simulated clandestine graves for comparison to active cases. Simulated "wrapped" and "naked" burials were created. Multigeophysical surveys were collected over a 3-year monitoring period. Bulk ground resistivity, electrical resistivity imaging, multifrequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and grave and background "soil-water" conductivity data were collected. Resistivity surveys revealed the naked burial had consistently low-resistivity anomalies, whereas the wrapped burial had small, varying high-resistivity anomalies. GPR 110- to 900-MHz frequency surveys showed the wrapped burial could be detected throughout, with the "naked" burial mostly resolved. Two hundred and twenty-five megahertz frequency GPR data were optimal. "Soil-water" analyses showed rapidly increasing (year 1), slowly increasing (year 2), and decreasing (year 3) conductivity values. Results suggest resistivity and GPR surveys should be collected if target "wrapping" is unknown, with winter to spring surveys optimal. Resistivity surveys should be collected in clay-rich soils.

  15. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  16. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  17. Status of data, major results, and plans for geophysical activities, Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, H.W.; Hardin, E.L.; Nelson, P.H.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes past and planned geophysical activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Project and is intended to serve as a starting point for integration of geophysical activities. This report relates past results to site characterization plans, as presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). This report discusses seismic exploration, potential field methods, geoelectrical methods, teleseismic data collection and velocity structural modeling, and remote sensing. This report discusses surface-based, airborne, borehole, surface-to-borehole, crosshole, and Exploratory Shaft Facility-related activities. The data described in this paper, and the publications discussed, have been selected based on several considerations; location with respect to Yucca Mountain, whether the success or failure of geophysical data is important to future activities, elucidation of features of interest, and judgment as to the likelihood that the method will produce information that is important for site characterization. 65 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Final Report U.S. Department of Energy Joint Inversion of Geophysical Data for Site Characterization and Restoration Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.A.; Berryman, J.G.; Bertete-Aguirre, H.; Bonner, B.P.; Roberts, J.J.; Wildenschild, D.

    2000-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to conduct basic research leading to significant improvements in the state-of-the-art of geophysical imaging of the shallow subsurface. Geophysical techniques are commonly used for underground imaging for site characterization and restoration monitoring. in order to improve subsurface imaging, the objective was to develop improved methods for interpreting geophysical data collected in the field, by developing better methods for relating measured geophysical properties, such as seismic velocity and electrical conductivity, to hydrogeology parameters of interest such as porosity, saturation, and soil composition. They met the objectives using an approach that combined laboratory experiments, comparison to available field data, rock physics theories, and modeling, to find relationships between geophysical measurements, hydrogeological parameters and soil composition. The primary accomplishments of this project in the last year (FY99) were that they completed the laboratory measurements of ultrasonic velocities in soils at low pressures and the measurements of complex electrical conductivity in those same soils; they used x-ray computed microtomography to image the microstructure of several soil samples; they used rock physics theories and modeling to relate the geophysical measurements to the microstructure and hydrological properties; they developed a theoretical technique for relating compressional and shear wave velocities to fluid distribution in porous media; they showed how electrical conductivity is related to clay content and microstructure; they developed an inversion algorithm for inferring soil composition given compressional and shear wave velocities and tested the algorithm on synthetic field seismic data; they completed two patent applications; they wrote three journal papers; and they made 15 presentations of their results at eight scientific meetings.

  19. The Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE) on the Mars Geophysical Monitoring and Sounding (GEMS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Asmar, S. W.; Dehant, V. M.; Banerdt, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Geophysical Monitoring and Sounding (GEMS) mission provides unique and critical information about the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolutions. GEMS begins the geophysical exploration of the Martian interior using seismic and thermal measurements and rotational dynamics, providing information about the initial accretion of the planet, the formation and differentiation of its core and crust, and the subsequent evolution of the interior. One of the mission's investigations is the Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE), which uses the spacecraft X-band communication link to receive Doppler and ranging observables. The objective of RISE is to determine the mineralogy, temperature, and state of the deep interior of Mars, complementing information provided by seismology. The mineralogy and temperature of the deep interior will provide key information on the accretion of the planet, and can be used to test theories of terrestrial planet accretion and thermal evolution. The interior structure will be inferred by the effect on variations in the orientation of Mars with respect to inertial space. The precession, nutation, and polar motion of Mars result from the interaction of the interior mass distribution with the gravity of the Sun. RISE will provide improved estimates of Mars' precession and nutation, polar motion, and length-of-day variations by monitoring the Doppler shift due to the rotation of Mars on the radio signal between the spacecraft and tracking stations. RISE will reduce the uncertainty in the precession rate and therefore also in the moment of inertia by a factor of ten or more. The moment of inertia can be used as a constraint on the core size and density, core temperature and mineralogy. The improved accuracy of the moment of inertia can constraint the core size and eliminate many, if not most, possible composition ratios. In addition, the measurements of the nutation of Mars will determine whether the Martian

  20. Integration & Co-development of a Geophysical CO2 Monitoring Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-07-24

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has emerged as a key technology for dramatic short-term reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in particular from large stationary. A key challenge in this arena is the monitoring and verification (M&V) of CO2 plumes in the deep subsurface. Towards that end, we have developed a tool that can simultaneously invert multiple sub-surface data sets to constrain the location, geometry, and saturation of subsurface CO2 plumes. We have focused on a suite of unconventional geophysical approaches that measure changes in electrical properties (electrical resistance tomography, electromagnetic induction tomography) and bulk crustal deformation (til-meters). We had also used constraints of the geology as rendered in a shared earth model (ShEM) and of the injection (e.g., total injected CO{sub 2}). We describe a stochastic inversion method for mapping subsurface regions where CO{sub 2} saturation is changing. The technique combines prior information with measurements of injected CO{sub 2} volume, reservoir deformation and electrical resistivity. Bayesian inference and a Metropolis simulation algorithm form the basis for this approach. The method can (a) jointly reconstruct disparate data types such as surface or subsurface tilt, electrical resistivity, and injected CO{sub 2} volume measurements, (b) provide quantitative measures of the result uncertainty, (c) identify competing models when the available data are insufficient to definitively identify a single optimal model and (d) rank the alternative models based on how well they fit available data. We present results from general simulations of a hypothetical case derived from a real site. We also apply the technique to a field in Wyoming, where measurements collected during CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced oil recovery serve to illustrate the method's performance. The stochastic inversions provide estimates of the most probable location, shape, volume of the plume and most likely CO{sub 2

  1. Overview on geophysical monitoring at the Ketzin CO2 storage site (Germany) using seismic and geoelectric methods (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, P.; Ivandic, M.; Ivanova, A.; Juhlin, C.; Lueth, S.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.

    2013-12-01

    At Ketzin, a town close to Berlin, the first European onshore pilot scale project was initiated in 2004. After baseline characterization and drilling, CO2 injection was commenced in June 2008. As of August 2013, ~67 kilotons have been injected. Using one injection well, the CO2 is injected in a super-critical state into sandstones of the Stuttgart Formation, a saline aquifer at 620 m to 650 m depth. The depth of the Ketzin reservoir and injected mass of CO2 are not representative for CCS activities at an industrial scale. However, due to the relatively small amount of CO2 injected, combined with a complex storage reservoir, the site poses qualified conditions for testing of monitoring approaches. Consequently, a wide range of geophysical methods are in operation at the Ketzin site. Asides from well logging, both seismic methods and electric resistivity tomography (ERT) are being extensively applied. The applied survey setups comprise surface measurements, borehole measurements, and combined surface-downhole measurements. So far, the most comprehensive view onto the CO2 migration in the Ketzin reservoir is provided by two repeat 3D seismic surveys acquired in 2009 and 2012. They revealed a time-lapse seismic signal from the reservoir which indicates that the CO2 has progressively expanded to distances of 400-600 m away from the injection well by 2012. The apparent westward component of the plume migration observed in the 2009 data, is confirmed by a more pronounced westward component in the 2012 data. Consistent with the seismic monitoring, an increase in electrical resistivity around the injector was mapped by means of repeated surface-downhole ERT which indicates the presence of the injected CO2. These ERT surveys consist of current injections at the surface and voltage registration at the storage reservoir by means of a permanent electrode array that is installed in three wells (injector plus two monitoring wells). The imaged resistivity increase is consistent

  2. A Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique for the Assessment and Monitoring of Leachates in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    ALUMBAUGH,DAVID L.; YEH,JIM; LABRECQUE,DOUG; GLASS,ROBERT J.; BRAINARD,JAMES; RAUTMAN,CHRIS

    1999-06-15

    The objective of this study is to develop and field test a new, integrated Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique (HHGIT) for characterization of the vadose zone at contaminated sites. This new approach to site characterization and monitoring can provide detailed maps of hydrogeological heterogeneity and the extent of contamination by combining information from 3D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and/or 2D cross borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR) surveys, statistical information about heterogeneity and hydrologic processes, and sparse hydrologic data. Because the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of the vadose zone (from the ERT and XBGPR measurements, respectively) can be correlated to the fluid saturation and/or contaminant concentration, the hydrologic and geophysical measurements are related.

  3. Time-lapse Geophysical Monitoring of the Subsurface Hydrology at Kings Park, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adekoya, Tunde; McGrath, Gavan; Leopold, Matthias; Shragge, Jeffrey; Challis, Anthea; Stevens, Jason; Miller, Ben

    2015-04-01

    resistivity measurements. This research work monitors water variations within the Kings Park and how they are related to the hydrological properties of the subsurface soils. The geophysical investigations indicated that the seasonal wetting front propagates to at least 10 m below the surface. The hydrological tests reveal that the soils are mainly sands with low water retention capacity, however water retention capacity increases with depth from about 3.5 m (increase in silts/clay content). This suggests that during the long dry summer period, water may not be available to plants with shallow roots (plants with roots < 3.5 m deep). Water may therefore be a limiting factor responsible for the decline in Banksia plants.

  4. MUG-OBS - Multiparameter Geophysical Ocean Bottom System : a new instrumental approach to monitor earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    hello, yann; Charvis, Philippe; Yegikyan, Manuk; verfaillie, Romain; Rivet, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Real time monitoring of seismic activity is a major issue for early warning of earthquakes and tsunamis. It can be done using regional scale wired nodes, such as Neptune in Canada and in the U.S, or DONET in Japan. Another approach to monitor seismic activity at sea is to deploying repeatedly OBS array like during the amphibious Cascadia Initiative (four time 1-year deployments), the Japanese Pacific Array (broadband OBSs "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey" with 2-years autonomy), the Obsismer program in the French Lesser Antilles (eight time 6-months deployments) and the Osisec program in Ecuador (four time 6-months deployments). These autonomous OBSs are self-recovered or recovered using an ROV. These systems are costly including ship time, and require to recover the OBS before to start working on data. Among the most recent alternative we developed a 3/4 years autonomy ocean bottom system with 9 channels (?) allowing the acquisition of different seismic or environmental parameters. MUG-OBS is a free falling instrument rated down to 6000 m. The installation of the sensor is monitored by acoustic commands from the surface and a health bulletin with data checking is recovered by acoustic during the installation. The major innovation is that it is possible to recover the data any time on demand (regularly every 6-months or after a crisis) using one of the 6 data-shuttles released from the surface by acoustic command using a one day fast cruise boat of opportunity. Since sensors stayed at the same location for 3 years, it is a perfect tool to monitor large seismic events, background seismic activity and aftershock distribution. Clock, drift measurement and GPS localization is automatic when the shuttle reaches the surface. For remote areas, shuttles released automatically and a seismic events bulletin is transmitted. Selected data can be recovered by two-way Iridium satellite communication. After a period of 3 years the main station is self-recovered by

  5. Joint inversion of geophysical data for site characterization and restoration monitoring. FY97 annual progress report for EMSP

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.A.; Berryman, J.G.; Bonner, B.P.; Roberts, J.J.; Wildenschild, D.

    1997-01-01

    'The purpose of this project is to develop a computer code for joint in-version of seismic and electrical data, to improve underground imaging for site characterization and remediation monitoring. The computer code developed in this project will invert geophysical data to obtain direct estimates of porosity and saturation underground, rather than inverting for seismic velocity and electrical resistivity or other geophysical properties. This is intended to be a significant improvement in the state-of-the-art of under-ground imaging, since interpretation of data collected at a contaminated site would become much less subjective. The schedule of this project is as follows: In the first year, investigators perform laboratory measurements of elastic and electrical properties of sand-clay mixtures containing various fluids. Investigators also develop methods of relating measurable geophysical properties to porosity and saturation by using rock physics theories, geostatistical, and empirical techniques together with available laboratory measurements. In the second year, investigators finish any necessary laboratory measurements and apply the methods de-veloped in the first year to invert available borehole log data to predict measured properties of cores and sediments from a borehole. Investigators refine the inversion code in the third year and carry out a field experiment to collect seismic and electrical data. Investigators then use the inversion code to invert the field data to produce estimates of porosity and saturation in the field area where the data were collected. This report describes progress made in the first year of this three-year project.'

  6. Prospect of Continuous VLBI Measurement of Earth Rotation in Monitoring Geophysical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Ma, Chopo; Clark, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Large-scale mass transports in the geophysical fluids of the Earth system excite Earth's rotational variations in both length-of-day and polar motion. The excitation process is via the conservation of angular momentum. Therefore Earth rotation observations contain information about the integrated angular momentum (consisting of both the mass term and the motion term) of the geophysical fluids, which include atmosphere, hydrosphere, mantle, and the outer and inner cores. Such global information is often important and otherwise unattainable depending on the nature of the mass transport, its magnitude and time scale. The last few years have seen great advances in VLBI measurement of Earth rotation in precision and temporal resolution. These advances have opened new. areas in geophysical fluid studies, such as oceanic tidal angular momentum, atmospheric tides, Earth librations, and rapid atmospheric angular momentum fluctuations. Precision of 10 microseconds in UTI and 200 microarcseconds in polar motion can now be achieved on hourly basis. Building upon this heritage, the multi-network geodetic VLBI project, Continuous Observation of the Rotation of the Earth (CORE), promises to further these studies and to make possible studies on elusive but tell-tale geophysical processes such as oscillatory modes in the core and in the atmosphere. Currently the early phase of CORE is underway. Within a few years into the new mellinnium, the upcoming space gravity missions (such as GRACE) will measure the temporal variations in Earth's gravitational field, thus providing complementary information to that from Earth rotation study for a better understanding of global geophysical fluid processes.

  7. Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils Remediated with a Bioelectrochemical System.

    PubMed

    Mao, Deqiang; Lu, Lu; Revil, André; Zuo, Yi; Hinton, John; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-08-02

    Efficient noninvasive techniques are desired for monitoring the remediation process of contaminated soils. We applied the direct current resistivity technique to image conductivity changes in sandbox experiments where two sandy and clayey soils were initially contaminated with diesel hydrocarbon. The experiments were conducted over a 230 day period. The removal of hydrocarbon was enhanced by a bioelectrochemical system (BES) and the electrical potentials of the BES reactors were also monitored during the course of the experiment. We found that the variation in electrical conductivity shown in the tomograms correlate well with diesel removal from the sandy soil, but this is not the case with the clayey soil. The clayey soil is characterized by a larger specific surface area and therefore a larger surface conductivity. In sandy soil, the removal of the diesel and products from degradation leads to an increase in electrical conductivity during the first 69 days. This is expected since diesel is electrically insulating. For both soils, the activity of BES reactors is moderately imaged by the inverted conductivity tomogram of the reactor. An increase in current production by electrochemically active bacteria activity corresponds to an increase in conductivity of the reactor.

  8. Considerations of the Use of 3-D Geophysical Models to Predict Test Ban Monitoring Observables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    global tomography , is to perform joint inversions of several or even many data types to estimate one or often several geophysical parameters. The use...may be sparse in the deeper, more homogeneous mantle and core. In the nuclear test ban application, some geographic regions will be more accurately...reflection seismology, gravity anomaly data from satellite orbital perturbations, heat flow , normal mode peak splitting, and constraints from geologic or

  9. Methods for monitoring and forecasting volcanic hazards and eruptions using seismology and other geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRoin, Nicole

    Recent eruptions of three Alaskan volcanoes have provided the opportunity to study the relationships between seismicity and volcanic hazards and other phenomena. The ability to forecast or track volcanic activity through seismicity is important because seismic monitoring can be done in real time, 24 hours a day, regardless of weather, dangerous conditions or distance. To this end, the eruptions of Veniaminof in 2005, Augustine Volcano in 2006, and Redoubt Volcano in 2009, have been studied with the focus on understanding how seismic recordings and measurements are related to physical characteristics of eruption phenomena. Positive correlations were seen in relationships between ash plume heights at Veniaminof and their accompanying seismic magnitudes, and sizes and directions of rockfalls and block-and-ash flows at Augustine with seismic amplitude ratios and magnitudes. The relationship of rockfall occurrences in background years was also correlated with seasons and weather patterns, making easier the identification of rockfall increases that may be eruption precursors. Volcanic tremor, which frequently occurs accompanying volcanic eruptions, is studied during the Redoubt eruption, through the generation of duration-amplitude plots, and the potential for a new forecasting or monitoring tool is discussed.

  10. Deformation Monitoring of AN Active Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapchuk, A.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of low frequency earthquakes, slow slip events and other deformation phenomena, new for geophysics, change our understanding of how the energy accumulated in the Earth's crust do release. The new geophysical data make one revise the underlying mechanism of geomechanical processes taking place in fault zones. Conditions for generating different slip modes are still unclear. The most vital question is whether a certain slip mode is intrinsic for a fault or may be controlled by external factors. This work presents the results of two and a half year deformation monitoring of a discontinuity in the zone of the Main Sayanskiy Fault. Main Sayanskiy Fault is right-lateral strike-slip fault. Observations were performed in the tunnel of Talaya seismic station (TLY), Irkutsk region, Russia. Measurements were carried out 70 m away from the entrance of the tunnel, the thickness of overlying rock was about 30 m. Inductive sensors of displacement were mounted at the both sides of a discontinuity, which recorded three components of relative fault side displacement with the accuracy of 0.2 mcm. Temperature variation inside the tunnel didn't exceed 0.5oC during the all period of observations. Important information about deformation properties of an active fault was obtained. A pronounced seasonality of deformation characteristics of discontinuity is observed in the investigated segment of rock. A great number of slow slip events with durations from several hours to several weeks were registered. Besides that alterations of fault deformation characteristics before the megathrust earthquake M9.0 Tohoku Oki 11 March 2011 and reaction to the event itself were detected. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 14-17-00719).

  11. MUG-OBS - Multiparameter Geophysical Ocean Bottom System : a new instrumental approach to monitor earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hello, Y.; Yegikyan, M.; Charvis, P.; Verfaillie, R.; Philippe, O.

    2015-12-01

    There are several attempts to monitor real time seismic activity, using regional scale wired nodes, such as Neptune in Canada and in the U.S, Antares in France or DONET in Japan.On another hand there are also initiatives in deploying repeatedly OBS array like during the amphibious Cascadia Initiative (four 1-year deployments), the Japanese Pacific Array (broadband OBSs "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey" with 2-years autonomy), the Obsismer program in the French Lesser Antilles (eight 6-months deployments) and the Osisec program in Ecuador (four 6-months deployments). These OBSs are autonomous, they are self-recovered or recovered using an ROV. These systems are costly including ship time, and require to recover the OBS before to start working on data.Among the most recent alternative we developed a 3-years autonomy OBS equipped with a Nanometrics Trillium 120 s, a triaxial accelerometer, a differential, an absolute pressure gauge, and a hydrophone. MUG-OBS is a free falling instrument rated down to 6000 m. The installation of the sensor is monitored by acoustic commands from the surface and a health bulletin with data checking is recovered by acoustic during the installation. The major innovation is that it is possible to recover the data any time on demand (regularly every 6-months or after a seismic crisis) utilizing one of the 6 data-shuttles released from the surface by acoustic command using a one day fast cruise boat of opportunity. Since sensors stayed at the same location for 3 years (when an OBS is redeployed on the same site, it will not land in the same place), it is a perfect tool to monitor slow seismic events, background seismic activity and aftershock distribution. Clock, drift measurement and GPS localization is automatic when the shuttle reaches the surface. A new version is being developed; for remote areas, shuttles released automatically and a seismic events bulletin is transmitted. Selected data can be recovered by two- way Iridium

  12. Long-term Geophysical Monitoring of Simulated Clandestine Graves using Electrical and Ground Penetrating Radar Methods: 4-6 Years After Burial.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John R; Roberts, Daniel; Dick, Henry C; Wisniewski, Kristopher D; Cassidy, Nigel J; Cassella, John P

    2016-03-01

    This ongoing monitoring study provides forensic search teams with systematic geophysical data over simulated clandestine graves for comparison to active cases. Simulated "wrapped," "naked," and "control" burials were created. Multiple geophysical surveys were collected over 6 years, here showing data from 4 to 6 years after burial. Electrical resistivity (twin electrode and ERI), multifrequency GPR, grave and background soil water were collected. Resistivity surveys revealed that the naked burial had low-resistivity anomalies up to year four but then difficult to image, whereas the wrapped burial had consistent large high-resistivity anomalies. GPR 110- to 900-MHz frequency surveys showed that the wrapped burial could be detected throughout, but the naked burial was either not detectable or poorly resolved. 225-MHz frequency GPR data were optimal. Soil water analyses showed decreasing (years 4 to 5) to background (year 6) conductivity values. Results suggest both resistivity and GPR surveying if burial style unknown, with winter to spring surveys optimal and increasingly important as time increases.

  13. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  14. Time Frequency Analysis of The Land Subsidence Monitored Data with Exploration Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan geographic patterns and various industry water, caused Zhuoshui River Fan groundwater extraction of excess leads to land subsidence, affect the safety of high-speed railway traffic and public construction. It is necessary to do the deeply research on the reason and behavior of subsidence. All the related element will be confer including the water extracted groundwater that be used on each industry or the impact of climate change rainfall and the ground formation characteristics. Conducted a series of in situ measurements and monitoring data with Hilbert Huang Transform. Discussion of subsidence mechanism and estimate the future high-speed rail traffic may affect the extent of providing for future reference remediation. We investigate and experiment on the characteristic of land subsidence in Yun Lin area. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and signal normalized are be used to discuss the physical meanings and interactions among the time series data of settlement, groundwater, pumping, rainfall and micro-tremor of ground. The broadband seismic signals of the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology, (BATS) obtained near the Zhuoshui River (WLGB in Chia Yi, WGKB in Yun Lin and RLNB in Zhang Hua) were analyzed by using HHT and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to discuss the micro-tremor characteristics of the settled ground. To compare among ten years series data of micro-tremor, groundwater and land subsidence monitoring wells, we can get more information about land subsidence. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were performed to correlate the resistivity profile and borehole logging data at the test area. The relationships among resistivity, groundwater variation, and ground subsidence obtained from the test area have been discussed. Active and passive multichannel analysis of surface waves method (MASW) can calculate Poisson's ratio by using shear velocity and pressure velocity. The groundwater level can be presumed when Poisson's ratio arrive 0

  15. Geophysical, Stratigraphic, and Flow-Zone Logs of Selected Test, Monitor, and Water-Supply Wells in Cayuga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J. Alton; Williams, John H.; Eckhardt, David A.V.; Miller, Todd S.

    2003-01-01

    Volatile-organic compounds have been detected in water sampled from more than 50 supply wells between the City of Auburn and Village of Union Springs in Cayuga County, New York, and the area was declared a Superfund site in 2002. In 2001-04, geophysical logs were collected from 37 test, monitor, and water-supply wells as a preliminary part of the investigation of volatile-organic compound contamination in the carbonate-bedrock aquifer system. The geophysical logs included gamma, induction, caliper, wellbore image, deviation, fluid resistivity and temperature, and flowmeter. The geophysical logs were analyzed along with core samples and outcrops of the bedrock to define the stratigraphic units and flow zones penetrated by the wells. This report describes the logging methods used in the study and presents the geophysical, stratigraphic, and flow-zone logs.

  16. Monitoring active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most spectacular, awesomely beautiful, and at times destructive displays of natural energy is an erupting volcano, belching fume and ash thousands of meters into the atmosphere and pouring out red-hot molten lava in fountains and streams. Countless eruptions in the geologic past have produced volcanic rocks that form much of the Earth's present surface. The gradual disintegration and weathering of these rocks have yielded some of the richest farmlands in the world, and these fertile soils play a significant role in sustaining our large and growing population. Were it not for volcanic activity, the Hawaiian Islands with their sugar cane and pineapple fields and magnificent landscapes and seascapes would not exist to support their residents and to charm their visitors. Yet, the actual eruptive processes are catastrophic and can claim life and property.

  17. The Synthetic Convection Log - geophysical detection and identification of density-driven convection in monitoring wells and boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, S.

    2009-12-01

    Detection and quantification of flow and transport is an important part of groundwater geophysics. A distinctive flow and transport problem occurs in boreholes and groundwater monitoring wells. They locally distort the natural flow field and open up an additional possibility of vertical heat and mass transfer between rock formations (e.g. aquifers), surrounding, and atmosphere. A variety of processes can cause a mass input or exchange through the fluid column. Density-driven convection (also called free convection or natural convection) plays an important role among them. Density-driven convective flows have adulterating effects on groundwater samples and in-situ measurements in monitoring wells and boreholes. Gases and other (dissolved) substances are possibly transported into new depths where varying chemical processes may arise. Consequently, knowing about the existence of vertical density-driven flows in fluid columns is crucial for hydrological investigations and for borehole geophysics. Moreover, temperatures in fluid columns and in the proximate formation may depart significantly from the ones in the surrounding rock when affected by vertical convection. Thus, understanding convective flow within the borehole is also important for subsurface water movement investigations and geothermics. The existence of significant vertical free convection was proven using pilot scale experiments and numerical modeling. However, so far, no particular logging device or interpretation algorithm was available that could detect free convection. Here an interpretation algorithm will be presented that approaches the problem. The so-called Synthetic Convection Log (SYNCO-Log) enables in-situ detection and even identification of free convective, including double-diffusive, flows using state-of-the-art geophysical borehole measurements like temperature and water conductivity/mud resistivity logs. In the sense of a "quick look" interpretation, the SYNCO-Log visually divides the fluid

  18. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP - REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES FOR MONITORING CO2 MOVEMENT DURING SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Gasperikova, Erika; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2005-10-01

    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  19. Monitoring super-volcanoes: Geophysical and geochemical signals at Yellowstone and other large caldera systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Smith, R.B.; Hill, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Earth's largest calderas form as the ground collapses during immense volcanic eruptions, when hundreds to thousands of cubic kilometres of magma are explosively withdrawn from the Earth's crust over a period of days to weeks. Continuing long after such great eruptions, the resulting calderas often exhibit pronounced unrest, with frequent earthquakes, alternating uplift and subsidence of the ground, and considerable heat and mass flux. Because many active and extinct calderas show evidence for repetition of large eruptions, such systems demand detailed scientific study and monitoring. Two calderas in North America, Yellowstone (Wyoming) and Long Valley (California), are in areas of youthful tectonic complexity. Scientists strive to understand the signals generated when tectonic, volcanic and hydrothermal (hot ground water) processes intersect. One obstacle to accurate forecasting of large volcanic events is humanity's lack of familiarity with the signals leading up to the largest class of volcanic eruptions. Accordingly, it may be difficult to recognize the difference between smaller and larger eruptions. To prepare ourselves and society, scientists must scrutinize a spectrum of volcanic signals and assess the many factors contributing to unrest and toward diverse modes of eruption. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  20. Monitoring super-volcanoes: geophysical and geochemical signals at Yellowstone and other large caldera systems.

    PubMed

    Lowenstern, Jacob B; Smith, Robert B; Hill, David P

    2006-08-15

    Earth's largest calderas form as the ground collapses during immense volcanic eruptions, when hundreds to thousands of cubic kilometres of magma are explosively withdrawn from the Earth's crust over a period of days to weeks. Continuing long after such great eruptions, the resulting calderas often exhibit pronounced unrest, with frequent earthquakes, alternating uplift and subsidence of the ground, and considerable heat and mass flux. Because many active and extinct calderas show evidence for repetition of large eruptions, such systems demand detailed scientific study and monitoring. Two calderas in North America, Yellowstone (Wyoming) and Long Valley (California), are in areas of youthful tectonic complexity. Scientists strive to understand the signals generated when tectonic, volcanic and hydrothermal (hot ground water) processes intersect. One obstacle to accurate forecasting of large volcanic events is humanity's lack of familiarity with the signals leading up to the largest class of volcanic eruptions. Accordingly, it may be difficult to recognize the difference between smaller and larger eruptions. To prepare ourselves and society, scientists must scrutinize a spectrum of volcanic signals and assess the many factors contributing to unrest and toward diverse modes of eruption.

  1. Characterizing water and CO2 fluxes and their driving impact factors by using a hierarchical diagnostic geophysical monitoring concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Uta; Schütze, Claudia; Dietrich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Processes in soil, plants and near surface atmosphere interact with each other in a complex way. Soil is an environmental component and important part of our ecosystems. Parent material of soils determines the original supply of nutrients. However, environmental parameters such as meteorological and land use have also an influence to the soil conditions. The objective of our research work is the development of a hierarchical diagnostic monitoring concept for the characterization of water and CO2 fluxes and their driving impact factors to provide information on structures and fluxes in the soil-vegetation- atmosphere system. As part of this hierarchical diagnostic monitoring concept, several methods and technologies from different disciplines (such as chemistry, hydrogeology, and geophysics) will either be combined or used complementary to one another. Our approach will allow large spatial areas to be consistently covered, for efficient monitoring of increases in spatial and temporal resolutions. Firstly, remote sensing monitoring methods for large-scale application (more than 1km2) are used to obtain information about energy and matter fluxes in the atmosphere. A common spectroscopic method for analysis is FTIR spectroscopy, where chemical anorganic and organic compounds can be detected through their characteristic infra-red absorption frequencies or wavelengths. Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP FTIR) spectrometry is a sensitive and non-invasive method to detect and quantify a wide range of gases simultaneously. Subsequently, meso-scale methods (0.01-1km2) can be employed which investigate subsurface characteristics to describe geological and soil structures and dynamics. Various soil parameters can be mapped using rapid, nearly non-destructive methods (e.g. geophysics, spectroscopy), for quasi-continuous 2D as well as 3D mapping of soil physical and hydrological properties. Finally, point measurements at plot scale (less than 0.01km2) enable high

  2. Global Estimates of Fine Particulate Matter Using a Combined Geophysical-Statistical Method with Information from Satellites, Models, and Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Brauer, Michael; Hsu, N. Christina; Kahn, Ralph A.; Levy, Robert C.; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sayer, Andrew M.; Winker, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We estimated global fine particulate matter (PM(sub 2.5)) concentrations using information from satellite-, simulation- and monitor-based sources by applying a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to global geophysically-based satellite-derived PM(sub 2.5) estimates. Aerosol optical depth from multiple satellite products (MISR, MODIS Dark Target, MODIS and SeaWiFS Deep Blue, and MODIS MAIAC) was combined with simulation (GEOS-Chem) based upon their relative uncertainties as determined using ground-based sun photometer (AERONET) observations for 1998-2014. The GWR predictors included simulated aerosol composition and land use information. The resultant PM(sub 2.5) estimates were highly consistent (R(sup 2) equals 0.81) with out-of-sample cross-validated PM(sub 2.5) concentrations from monitors. The global population-weighted annual average PM(sub 2.5) concentrations were 3-fold higher than the 10 micrograms per cubic meter WHO guideline, driven by exposures in Asian and African regions. Estimates in regions with high contributions from mineral dust were associated with higher uncertainty, resulting from both sparse ground-based monitoring, and challenging conditions for retrieval and simulation. This approach demonstrates that the addition of even sparse ground-based measurements to more globally continuous PM(sub 2.5) data sources can yield valuable improvements to PM(sub 2.5) characterization on a global scale.

  3. Global Estimates of Fine Particulate Matter using a Combined Geophysical-Statistical Method with Information from Satellites, Models, and Monitors.

    PubMed

    van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Brauer, Michael; Hsu, N Christina; Kahn, Ralph A; Levy, Robert C; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sayer, Andrew M; Winker, David M

    2016-04-05

    We estimated global fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations using information from satellite-, simulation- and monitor-based sources by applying a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to global geophysically based satellite-derived PM2.5 estimates. Aerosol optical depth from multiple satellite products (MISR, MODIS Dark Target, MODIS and SeaWiFS Deep Blue, and MODIS MAIAC) was combined with simulation (GEOS-Chem) based upon their relative uncertainties as determined using ground-based sun photometer (AERONET) observations for 1998-2014. The GWR predictors included simulated aerosol composition and land use information. The resultant PM2.5 estimates were highly consistent (R(2) = 0.81) with out-of-sample cross-validated PM2.5 concentrations from monitors. The global population-weighted annual average PM2.5 concentrations were 3-fold higher than the 10 μg/m(3) WHO guideline, driven by exposures in Asian and African regions. Estimates in regions with high contributions from mineral dust were associated with higher uncertainty, resulting from both sparse ground-based monitoring, and challenging conditions for retrieval and simulation. This approach demonstrates that the addition of even sparse ground-based measurements to more globally continuous PM2.5 data sources can yield valuable improvements to PM2.5 characterization on a global scale.

  4. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.

  5. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION DEVELOPING NONINVASIVE TOOLS TO MONITOR PAST LEAKS AROUND HANFORD TANK FARMS

    SciTech Connect

    MYERS DA; RUCKER DF; LEVITT MT; CUBBAGE B; NOONAN GE; MCNEILL M; HENDERSON C

    2011-06-17

    A characterization program has been developed at Hanford to image past leaks in and around the underground storage tank facilities. The program is based on electrical resistivity, a geophysical technique that maps the distribution of electrical properties of the subsurface. The method was shown to be immediately successful in open areas devoid of underground metallic infrastructure, due to the large contrast in material properties between the highly saline waste and the dry sandy host environment. The results in these areas, confirmed by a limited number of boreholes, demonstrate a tendency for the lateral extent of the underground waste plume to remain within the approximate footprint of the disposal facility. In infrastructure-rich areas, such as tank farms, the conventional application of electrical resistivity using small point-source surface electrodes initially presented a challenge for the resistivity method. The method was then adapted to directly use the buried infrastructure as electrodes for both transmission of electrical current and measurements of voltage. For example, steel-cased wells that surround the tanks were used as long electrodes, which helped to avoid much of the infrastructure problems. Overcoming the drawbacks of the long electrode method has been the focus of our work over the past seven years. The drawbacks include low vertical resolution and limited lateral coverage. The lateral coverage issue has been improved by supplementing the long electrodes with surface electrodes in areas devoid of infrastructure. The vertical resolution has been increased by developing borehole electrode arrays that can fit within the small-diameter drive casing of a direct push rig. The evolution of the program has led to some exceptional advances in the application of geophysical methods, including logistical deployment of the technology in hazardous areas, development of parallel processing resistivity inversion algorithms, and adapting the processing tools

  6. Application of geotechnical and geophysical field measurements in an active alpine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, D. R.; Fankhauser, K.; Springman, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall can trigger landslides, rockfalls and debris flow events. When rainfall infiltrates into the soil, the suction (if there is any) is reduced, until positive water pressure can be developed, decreasing the effective stresses and leading to a potential failure. A challenging site for the study of mass movement is the Meretschibach catchment, a location in the Swiss Alps in the vicinity of Agarn, Canton of Valais. To study the effect of rainfall on slope stabilities, the soil characterization provides valuable insight on soil properties, necessary to establish a realistic ground model. This model, together with an effective long term-field monitoring, deliver the essential information and boundary conditions for predicting and validating rainfall- induced slope instabilities using numerical and physical modelling. Geotechnical monitoring, including soil temperature and volumetric water content measurements, has been performed on the study site together with geophysical measurements (ERT) to study the effect of rainfall on the (potential) triggering of landslides on a scree slope composed of a surficial layer of gravelly soil. These techniques were combined to provide information on the soil characteristics and depth to the bedrock. Seasonal changes of precipitation and temperature were reflected in corresponding trends in all measurements. A comparison of volumetric water content records was obtained from decagons, time domain reflectometry (TDR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) conducted throughout the spring and summer months of 2014, yielding a reasonable agreement.

  7. Flow dynamics in hyper-saline aquifers: hydro-geophysical monitoring and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaken, Klaus; Piero Deidda, Gian; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Putti, Mario; Paniconi, Claudio; Scudeler, Carlotta; Kemna, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Saline-freshwater interaction in porous media is a phenomenon of practical interest particularly for the management of water resources in arid and semi-arid environments, where precious freshwater resources are threatened by seawater intrusion and where storage of freshwater in saline aquifers can be a viable option. Saline-freshwater interactions are controlled by physico-chemical processes that need to be accurately modeled. This in turn requires monitoring of these systems, a non-trivial task for which spatially extensive, high-resolution non-invasive techniques can provide key information. In this paper we present the field monitoring and numerical modeling components of an approach aimed at understanding complex saline-freshwater systems. The approach is applied to a freshwater injection experiment carried out in a hyper-saline aquifer near Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy). The experiment was monitored using time-lapse cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). To investigate the flow dynamics, coupled numerical flow and transport modeling of the experiment was carried out using an advanced three-dimensional (3-D) density-driven flow-transport simulator. The simulation results were used to produce synthetic ERT inversion results to be compared against real field ERT results. This exercise demonstrates that the evolution of the freshwater bulb is strongly influenced by the system's (even mild) hydraulic heterogeneities. The example also highlights how the joint use of ERT imaging and gravity-dependent flow and transport modeling give fundamental information for this type of study.

  8. Modeling the resolution of inexpensive, novel non-seismic geophysical monitoring tools to monitor CO2 injection into coal beds

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, E.; Hoversten, G.M.

    2008-09-01

    A sensitivity study of gravity and electromagnetic (EM) techniques, and amplitude vs. angle (AVA) analysis for CO{sub 2} movement in coal beds was based on the SECARB pilot test planned in the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. In the area of interest, coalbed methane is produced mainly from the Black Creek, Mary Lee, and Pratt coal zones at depths between 400 and 700 m and approximately 3 m thick on average. The permeability of coal in the Black Warrior basin decreases exponentially with depth as overburden stress increases. The permeability of the top layer is 100 mD, while the permeability of the deepest layer is around 1 mD. The pilot field test will include injecting a total of 1000 tons of CO{sub 2} into these three coal zones ({approx}300 tons to each zone). The density, sonic and resistivity well-logs from a deep disposal well a couple of miles from the pilot test site were used to create background (pre-injection) models. Our laboratory measurements of seismic velocity and electrical resistivity as a function of CO{sub 2} saturation on coal core samples were used to provide a link between the coalbed CO{sub 2} flow simulation models and the geophysical models. The sensitivity studies showed that while the response to the 300 tons of CO{sub 2} injected into a single layer wouldn't produce measurable surface response for either gravity or EM, the response due to an industrial-size injection would produce measurable surface signal for both techniques. Gravity inversion results illustrated that, provided we can collect high-quality gravity data in the field and we have some a priori information about the depth of the reservoir, we can recover the spatial location of CO{sub 2} plume correctly, although with the smoothing constraint of the inversion, the area was slightly overestimated, resulting in an underestimated value of density change. AVA analysis showed that by inverting seismic and EM data jointly, much better estimates of CO{sub 2} saturation can be

  9. Web Based Autonomous Geophysical/Hydrological Monitoring of the Gilt Edge Mine Site: Implementation and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Wangerud, K.; Mattson, E.; Ankeny, M.; Richardson, A.; Heath, G.

    2005-05-01

    The Ruby Gulch repository at the Gilt Edge Mine Superfund site is a capped waste rock repository. Early in the system design EPA and its subcontractor, Bureau of Reclamation, recognized the need for long-term monitoring system to provide information on the repository behavior with the following objectives: 1 Provide information on the integrity of the newly constructed surface cover and diversion system 2 Continually assess the waste's hydrological and geochemical behavior, such that rational decisions can be made for the operation of this cover and liner system 3 Easily access of information pertaining to the system performance to stakeholders 4 Integration of a variety of data sources to produce information which could be used to enhance future cover designs. Through discussions between EPA, the Bureau of Reclamation and Idaho National Laboratory a long-term monitoring system was designed and implemented allowing EPA to meet these objectives. This system was designed to provide a cost effective way to deal with massive amounts of data and information, subject to the following specifications: 1 Data acquisition should occur autonomously and automatically, 2 Data management, processing and presentation should be automated as much as possible, 3 Users should be able to access all data and information remotely through a web browser. The INL long-term monitoring system integrates the data from a set of 522 electrodes resistivity electrodes consisting of 462 surface electrodes and 60 borehole electrodes (in 4 wells with 15 electrodes each), an outflow meter at the toe of the repository, an autonomous, remotely accessible weather station, and four wells (average depths of 250 feet) with thermocouples, pressure transducers and sampling ports for water and air. The monitoring system has currently been in operation for over a year, and has collected data continuously over this period. Results from this system have shown both the diurnal variation in rockmass behavior

  10. Feasibility of Geophysical Monitoring of Carbon-Sequestrated Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, Subhashis; Alvarado, Vladimir

    2013-09-30

    As carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is sequestered from the bottom of a brine reservoir and allowed to migrate upward, the effects of the relative permeability hysteresis due to capillary trapping and buoyancy driven migration tend to make the reservoir patchy saturated with different fluid phases over time. Seismically, such a patchy saturated reservoir induces an effective anisotropic behavior whose properties are primarily dictated by the nature of the saturation of different fluid phases in the pores and the elastic properties of the rock matrix. By combining reservoir flow simulation and modeling with seismic modeling, it is possible to derive these effective anisotropic properties, which, in turn, could be related to the saturation of CO{sub 2} within the reservoir volume any time during the post-injection scenario. Therefore, if time-lapse seismic data are available and could be inverted for the effective anisotropic properties of the reservoir, they, in combination with reservoir simulation could potentially predict the CO{sub 2} saturation directly from the time-lapse seismic data. It is therefore concluded that the time-lapse seismic data could be used to monitor the carbon sequestrated saline reservoirs. But for its successful implementation, seismic modeling and inversion methods must be integrated with the reservoir simulations. In addition, because CO{sub 2} sequestration induces an effective anisotropy in the sequestered reservoir and anisotropy is best detected using multicomponent seismic data compared to single component (P-wave) data, acquisition, processing, and analysis is multicomponent seismic data is recommended for these time-lapse studies. Finally, a successful implementation of using time-lapse seismic data for monitoring the carbon sequestrated saline reservoirs will require development of a robust methodology for inverting multicomponent seismic data for subsurface anisotropic properties.

  11. Record of the Solar Activity and of Other Geophysical Phenomenons in Tree Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigozo, Nivaor Rodolfo

    1999-01-01

    Tree ring studies are usually used to determine or verify climatic factors which prevail in a given place or region and may cause tree ring width variations. Few studies are dedicated to the geophysical phenomena which may underlie these tree ring width variations. In order to look for periodicities which may be associated to the solar activity and/or to other geophysical phenomena which may influence tree ring growth, a new interactive image analysis method to measure tree ring width was developed and is presented here. This method makes use of a computer and a high resolution flatbed scanner; a program was also developed in Interactive Data Language (IDL 5.0) to study ring digitized images and transform them into time series. The main advantage of this method is the tree ring image interactive analysis without needing complex and high cost instrumentation. Thirty-nine samples were collected: 12 from Concordia - S. C., 9 from Canela - R. S., 14 from Sao Francisco de Paula - R. S., one from Nova Petropolis - R. S., 2 from Sao Martinho da Serra - R. S. e one from Chile. Fit functions are applied to ring width time series to obtain the best long time range trend (growth rate of every tree) curves and are eliminated through a standardization process that gives the tree ring index time series from which is performed spectral analysis by maximum entropy method and iterative regression. The results obtained show periodicities close to 11 yr, 22 yr Hale solar cycles and 5.5 yr for all sampling locations 52 yr and Gleissberg cycles for Concordia - S. C. and Chile samples. El Nino events were also observed with periods around 4 e 7 yr.

  12. Monitoring and Assessment of Saltwater Intrusion using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing and Geophysical measurements of Guimaras Island, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, B. C. B.

    2015-12-01

    Degrading groundwater quality due to saltwater intrusion is one of the key challenges affecting many island aquifers. These islands hold limited capacity for groundwater storage and highly dependent on recharge due to precipitation. But its ease of use, natural storage and accessibility make it more vulnerable to exploitation and more susceptible to encroachment from its surrounding oceanic waters. Estimating the extent of saltwater intrusion and the state of groundwater resources are important in predicting and managing water supply options for the community. In Guimaras island, central Philippines, increasing settlements, agriculture and tourism are causing stresses on its groundwater resource. Indications of saltwater intrusion have already been found at various coastal areas in the island. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based approach using the GALDIT index was carried out. This includes six parameters assessing the seawater intrusion vulnerability of each hydrogeologic setting: Groundwater occurrence, Aquifer hydraulic conductivity, Groundwater Level above sea, Distance to shore, Impact of existing intrusion and Thickness of Aquifer. To further determine the extent of intrusion, Landsat images of various thematic layers were stacked and processed for unsupervised classification and electrical resistivity tomography using a 28-electrode system with array lengths of 150 and 300 meters was conducted. The GIS index showed where the vulnerable areas are located, while the geophysical measurements and images revealed extent of seawater encroachment along the monitoring wells. These results are further confirmed by the measurements collected from the monitoring wells. This study presents baseline information on the state of groundwater resources and increase understanding of saltwater intrusion dynamics in island ecosystems by providing a guideline for better water resource management in the Philippines.

  13. Geophysical Signatures to Monitor Fluids and Mineralization for CO2 Sequestration in Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otheim, L. T.; Adam, L.; Van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M. L.; Mcling, T. L.; Podgorney, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in large reservoirs can reduce emissions of this green house gas into the atmosphere. Basalts are promising host rocks due to their volumetric extend, worldwide distribution, and recent observations that CO2-water mixtures react with basalt minerals to precipitate as carbonate minerals, trapping the CO2. The chemical reaction between carbonic acid and minerals rich in calcium, magnesium and iron precipitates carbonates in the pore space. This process would increase the elastic modulus and velocity of the rock. At the same time, the higher compressibility of CO2 over water changes the elastic properties of the rock, decreasing the saturated rock bulk modulus and the P-wave velocity. Reservoirs where the rock properties change as a result of fluid or pressure changes are commonly monitored with seismic methods. Here we present experiments to study the feasibility of monitoring CO2 migration in a reservoir and CO2-rock reactions for a sequestration scenario in basalts. Our goal is to measure the rock's elastic response to mineralization with non-contacting ultrasonic lasers, and the effect of fluid substitution at reservoir conditions at seismic and ultrasonic frequencies. For the fluid substitution experiment we observe changes in the P- and S-wave velocities when saturating the sample with super-critical (sc) CO2, CO2-water mixtures and water alone for different pore and confining pressures. The bulk modulus of the rock is significantly dependent on frequency in the 2~to 106~Hz range, for CO2-water mixtures and pure water saturations. Dry and pure CO2 (sc or gas) do not show a frequency dependence on the modulus. Moreover, the shear wave modulus is not dispersive for either fluid. The frequency dependence of the elastic parameters is related to the attenuation (1/Q) of the rock. We will show the correlation between frequency dependent moduli and attenuation data for the different elastic moduli of the rocks. Three other basalt samples

  14. Geophysical monitoring of near surface CO2 injection at Svelvik - Learnings from the CO2FieldLab experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querendez, Etor; Romdhane, Anouar; Jordan, Michael; Eliasson, Peder; Grimstad, Alv-Arne

    2014-05-01

    A CO2 migration field laboratory for testing monitoring methods and tools has been established in the glaciofluvial-glaciomarine Holocene deposits of the Svelvik ridge, near Oslo (Norway). At the site, feasibility, sensitivity, acquisition geometry and usefulness of various surface and subsurface monitoring tools are investigated during controlled CO2 injection experiments. In a first stage, a shallow CO2 injection experiment was conducted in September 2011. Approximately 1700 kg of CO2 was injected at 18 m depth below surface in an unconsolidated sand formation. The objectives of this experiment were to (i) detect and, where possible, quantify migrated CO2 concentrations at the surface and very shallow subsurface, (ii) evaluate the sensitivity of the monitoring tools and (iii) study the impact of the vadose zone on observed measurements. Results showed that all deployed monitoring tools (for surface and near-surface gas monitoring, subsurface water monitoring and subsurface geophysical monitoring) where able to detect the presence of CO2 even though the CO2 plume did not migrate vertically as expected in what was thought to be an homogeneous unconsolidated sand structure. The upper part of the site revealed to be more heterogeneous than expected, mainly due to the highly variable lamination and channelling of the morainic sediments and to the presence of pebble and cobble beds sporadically showing throughout the deposits. Building on the learnings from the 18m depth injection experiment, a second experiment is being planned for a deeper injection, at a depth of 65m. Re-processing of the appraisal 2D multi-channel seismic with state-of-the-art processing techniques, like Linear Radon coherent and random noise attenuation and Full Waveform Inversion followed by pre-stack depth migration, corroborate the presence of heterogeneities at the near surface. Based on the re-interpreted seismic sections, a more realistic 3D geomodel, where the complex topography of the site

  15. Anatahan Activity and Monitoring, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A.; White, R.; Koyanagi, S.; Trusdell, F.; Kauahikaua, J.; Marso, J.; Ewert, J.

    2005-12-01

    Anatahan volcano began erupting in 2003 and continued with a second eruptive phase in 2004. In January 2005 the volcano began a sequence of eruptions and unrest that continues as of September 2005. The activity has been characterized by punctuated episodes of very steamy strombolian activity and vigorous ash emission. Some of the ash emissions have reached 50,000-foot elevations, with VOG and ash occasionally reaching the Philippines and southernmost Japan, over 1000 miles away. Vigorous ash emission has been almost continuous since June 2005. A M4.8 long-period earthquake (LP) occurred in mid-August, one of the largest LPs recorded on the planet in the last quarter-century. Real-time monitoring consisting of a few telemetered short-period seismometers and acoustic sensors has been severely hampered by ashfall on the small island. Monitoring efforts have been focused on the aircraft/ash hazard, with the goal of providing the FAA and airline industry with rapid notice of seismic signatures that may indicate ash columns rising to the altitude of airline traffic, or nominally above 20,000-30,000 ft.

  16. 78 FR 22239 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey on the Mid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean, April 2013... on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the north Atlantic Ocean in international waters, from April 2013... authorized takes for the seismic survey on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean. The results of...

  17. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  18. Recent Developments in Geology, Geochemistry and Geophysics Applied to Hydrothermal Reservoir Mapping and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Joseph N.; Nielson, Dennis L.; Wright, Phillip M.

    1989-03-21

    Progress in research and development of four of UURI's projects are reviewed in this paper. First, the development of chemical tracers has evolved to a field test in the Dixie Valley geothermal system in Nevada. Second, the measurement of in situ stress continues to demonstrate changes with location in the orientation of stress within active geothermal systems. Third, we continue to develop hydrologic models of geothermal systems based upon fluid inclusion measurements. Fourth, we are developing equipment that will allow testing of borehole to borehole and borehole to surface electrical resistivity techniques for locating fluid-filled fractures.

  19. The study of the midlatitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity at Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berényi, Kitti; Kis, Árpád; Barta, Veronika; Novák, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere, causing several physical and chemical atmospheric processes. The changes and phenomena, which can be seen as a result of these processes, generally called ionospheric storm. These processes depend on altitude, term of the day, and the strength of solar activity, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude. The differences between ionospheric regions mostly come from the variations of altitude dependent neutral and ionized atmospheric components, and from the physical parameters of solar radiation. We examined the data of the ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding instruments of the European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory), called ionosonde, to determine how and what extent a given strength of a geomagnetic disturbance affect the middle latitude ionospheric regions in winter. We chose the storm for the research from November 2012 and March 2015. As the main result of our research, we can show significant differences between the each ionospheric (F1 and F2) layer parameters on quiet and strong stormy days. When we saw, that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase from their quiet day value, then the effect of the ionospheric storm was positive, otherwise, if they drop, they were negative. With our analysis, the magnitude of these changes could be determined. Furthermore we demonstrated, how a full strong geomagnetic storm affects the ionospheric foF2 parameter during different storm phases. It has been showed, how a positive or negative ionospheric storm develop during a geomagnetic storm. For a more completed analysis, we compared also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. Therefore we determined, that the data of the ionosonde at Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory are appropriate, it detects the same state of ionosphere like the

  20. A NEW UNDERSTANDING OF THE EUROPA ATMOSPHERE AND LIMITS ON GEOPHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Shemansky, D. E.; Liu, X.; Yoshii, J.; Yung, Y. L.; Hansen, C. J.; Hendrix, A. R.; Esposito, L. W.

    2014-12-20

    Deep extreme ultraviolet spectrograph exposures of the plasma sheet at the orbit of Europa, obtained in 2001 using the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph experiment, have been analyzed to determine the state of the gas. The results are in basic agreement with earlier results, in particular with Voyager encounter measurements of electron density and temperature. Mass loading rates and lack of detectable neutrals in the plasma sheet, however, are in conflict with earlier determinations of atmospheric composition and density at Europa. A substantial fraction of the plasma species at the Europa orbit are long-lived sulfur ions originating at Io, with ∼25% derived from Europa. During the outward radial diffusion process to the Europa orbit, heat deposition forces a significant rise in plasma electron temperature and latitudinal size accompanied with conversion to higher order ions, a clear indication that mass loading from Europa is very low. Analysis of far ultraviolet spectra from exposures on Europa leads to the conclusion that earlier reported atmospheric measurements have been misinterpreted. The results in the present work are also in conflict with a report that energetic neutral particles imaged by the Cassini ion and neutral camera experiment originate at the Europa orbit. An interpretation of persistent energetic proton pitch angle distributions near the Europa orbit as an effect of a significant population of neutral gas is also in conflict with the results of the present work. The general conclusion drawn here is that Europa is geophysically far less active than inferred in previous research, with mass loading of the plasma sheet ≤4.5 × 10{sup 25} atoms s{sup –1} two orders of magnitude below earlier published calculations. Temporal variability in the region joining the Io and Europa orbits, based on the accumulated evidence, is forced by the response of the system to geophysical activity at Io. No evidence for the direct injection of H{sub 2}O

  1. Inside the polygonal walls of Amelia (Central Italy): A multidisciplinary data integration, encompassing geodetic monitoring and geophysical prospections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercoli, M.; Brigante, R.; Radicioni, F.; Pauselli, C.; Mazzocca, M.; Centi, G.; Stoppini, A.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a portion of the ancient (VI and IV centuries BC) polygonal walls of Amelia, in Central Italy. After the collapse of a portion of the walls which occurred in January 2006, a wide project started in order to monitor their external facade and inspect the characteristics of the internal structure, currently not clearly known. In this specific case, the preservation of such an important cultural heritage was mandatory, therefore invasive methods like drilling or archaeological essays cannot be used. For this purpose, a multidisciplinary approach represents an innovative way to shed light on their inner structure. We combine several non-invasive techniques such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), specifically adapted for this study, Laser Scanning and Digital Terrestrial Photogrammetry, integrated with other geomatic measures provided by a Total Station and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). After collecting some historical information, we gather the whole datasets exploring for their integration an interpretation approach borrowed from the reflection seismic (attribute analysis and three dimensional visualization). The results give rise for the first time to the internal imaging of this ancient walls, highlighting features associable to different building styles related to different historical periods. Among the result, we define a max wall thickness of about 3.5 m for the cyclopic sector, we show details of the internal block organization and we detect low resistivity values interpretable with high water content behind the basal part of the walls. Then, quantitative analyses to assess their reliable geotechnical stability are done, integrating new geometrical constrains provided by the geophysics and geo-technical ground parameters available in literature. From this analysis, we highlight how the Amelia walls are interested, in the investigated sector, by a critical pseudo-static equilibrium.

  2. Monitoring and modeling very large, rapid infiltration using geophysics during the 2014 Lower Colorado River pulse flow experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.; Macy, J. P.; Callegary, J. B.; Lopez, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    In March and April 2014, an unprecedented experiment released over 100x106 cubic meters (81,000 acre-feet) of water from Morelos Dam into the normally-dry lower Colorado River below Yuma, Arizona, USA. More than half of the water released from Morelos Dam infiltrated within the limitrophe reach, a 32-km stretch between the Northern U.S.-Mexico International Boundary and the Southern International Boundary, a distance of just 32 river-kilometers. To characterize the spatial and temporal extent of infiltration, scientists from the US Geological Survey, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Baja California, and Universidad Autónoma de Baja California carried out several geophysical surveys. Frequency-domain electromagnetic transects throughout the limitrophe reach showed that the subsurface comprised exclusively sandy material, with little finer-grained material to impede or otherwise influence infiltration. Direct current resistivity clearly imaged the rising water table near the stream channel. Both techniques provide valuable parameterization and calibration information for a surface-water/groundwater interaction model currently in development. Time-lapse gravity data were collected at 25 stations to expand the monitoring well network and provide storage-coefficient information for the groundwater model. Despite difficult field conditions, precise measurements of large gravity changes showed that changes in groundwater storage in the upper reach of the study area, where groundwater levels were highest, were constrained to the near vicinity of the river channel. Downstream near the Southern International Boundary, however, groundwater storage increased substantially over a large area, expanding into the regional aquifer that supplies irrigation water to surrounding agriculture.

  3. Pilot CCS project in Indonesia "Gundih CCS project": Geological and geophysical surveys for site selection and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Takahashi, Toru; Kitamura, Keigo; Onishi, Kyosuke; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Rachmat Sule, Mohammad; Kadir, Wawan Gunawan A.; Widarto, Djedi S.; Sebayang, Rio I.; Prasetyo, Agung; Priyono, Awali; Widianto, Eko; Sapiie, Benyamin

    2013-04-01

    A pilot CCS project in Indonesia will be implemented in Gundih area, Central Java Province. The Gundih area is a gas field, and gas is ready to be produced by Pertamina EP. The CO2 content within the produced gas is more than 20% in the Gundih field, so that CO2 injection near the gas production well could be effective way to avoid abundant CO2 emission. Before implementing CO2 injection, the reservoir for CO2 injection must be characterized carefully by conducting subsurface characterization and evaluation, in order to make sure that the reservoir is suitable for CCS. Here we report preliminary results of site surveys for the determination of CO2 injection site in the Gundih area. Subsurface structures imaged on seismic reflection profiles indicate that the Ngrayong formation is one of the candidates for CO2 injection. The lithology of the Ngrayong formation is sandstone, and the depth of the formation is ~1 km in the Gundih area. Since we could not find large-scale structural closure (i.e., anticline) for the Ngrayong formation, we need to consider residual trapping. To reveal hydrological properties (e.g., permeability) of the Ngrayong formation, we obtained rock samples from the outcrop of the Ngrayong formation. Using the laboratory-derived hydrological properties and subsurface structures extracted from seismic data (e.g., geometry of the Ngrayong formation), we will apply reservoir simulation in order to determine CO2 injection site. To design the geophysical monitoring survey (e.g., receiver and source position in time-lapse seismic survey), furthermore, we conduct simulation study for the constructed geological model and estimate elastic and electric responses associated with CO2 injection.

  4. Study of Seismic Activity Using Geophysical and Radio Physical Equipment for Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvavadze, N.; Tsereteli, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most dangerous and destructive natural hazards are earthquakes, which is confirmed by recent earthquakes such as Nepal 2015, Japan and Turkey 2011. Because of this, study of seismic activity is important. Studying any process, it is necessary to use different methods of observation, which allows us to increase accuracy of obtained data. Seismic activity is a complex problem and its study needs different types of observation methods. Two main problems of seismic activity study are: reliable instrumental observations and earthquake short-term predictions. In case of seismic risks it is necessary to have reliable accelerometer data. One of the most promising field in earthquake short-term prediction is very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic wave propagation in ionosphere observation. To study Seismic activity of Caucasus region, was created observation complex using Accelerometer, Velocimeter and VLF electromagnetic waves received from communication stations (located in different area of the world) reflected from low ionosphere. System is created and operates at Tbilisi State University Ionosphere Observatory, near Tbilisi in Tabakhmela 42.41'70 N, 44.80'92 E, Georgia. Data obtained is sent to a local server located at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, TSU, for storage and processing. Diagram for complex is presented. Also data analysis methods were created and preliminary processing was done. In this paper we present some of the results: Earthquake data from ionosphere observations as well as local earthquakes recorded with accelerometer and velocimeter. Complex is first in 6 that will be placed around Georgia this year. We plan on widening network every year.

  5. An Experiment to Test Geophysical Methods For Monitoring Fluid Re-Injection at the Wairakei Geothermal Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Bowles-Martinez, E.; Feucht, D. W.; Ryan, J.; Caldwell, T. G.; Bannister, S. C.; Bertrand, T.; Bennie, S.; Bourguignon, S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is supporting US students to participate in GNS Science’s geothermal research program supported by the New Zealand Government. The NSF international program aims to quick-start a new generation of geothermal-oriented US geophysics students who will be poised to be active participants and leaders in US geothermal energy development. This year’s project evaluated joint passive seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) field measurements to determine three-dimensional (3-D) reservoir characteristics during fluid withdrawal and re-injection. A preliminary test of the ability to achieve repeatable MT data in high noise locations was carried out in the Wairakei geothermal field using a 14-site base-line MT survey and repeat occupations at four sites. Different data processing schemes identified MT frequency bands where impedance phase tensor data were most sensitive to known variables such as daily solar source variations, wind, and drilling operations. Other frequency bands were identified where good MT repeatability will allow further tests. A streamlined method was developed for visualizing 3-D earthquake focal mechanisms resulting from production changes in geothermal reservoirs. The computer program allows spatial sorting of seismic events and thus subsurface fracture identification.

  6. A forward modeling approach to relate geophysical observables at active volcanoes to deep magma dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagna, C. P.; Longo, A.; Papale, P.; Vassalli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Cassioli, A.

    2010-12-01

    Geophysical signals usually recorded at active volcanoes mainly consist of i) seismicity - high frequency volcano-tectonic events, volcanic tremor, and LP, VLP, and ULP events, ii) ground displacement, and iii) gravity changes. These signals are inverted to constrain the characteristics of the underground signal source, usually under the simplifying assumptions of point source or small volume homogeneous source with simple geometry. We have instead designed a forward approach, that complements the more classical inverse approaches, whereby magma chamber dynamics are numerically solved for compressible-to-incompressible multi-component magmas in geometrically complex systems constituted by one or more magma chambers connected through dykes. Our new code, that we named GALES (GAlerkin LEast Squares), solves the complex time-space-dependent dynamics of convection and mixing of magmas with different composition and properties, and reveals patterns of overpressure much more complex than commonly assumed in inverse analyses. Time-space-dependent stress distributions computed along the rigid magma-wall boundaries are employed as boundary conditions in either numerical simulations of wave propagation through the rock system by taking into account wall rock heterogeneities and topographic surface, or semi-analytical solutions of the Green’s functions in homogeneous infinite space. Ground displacement computed at the topographic surface ranges from the seismic to the quasi-static frequency band. Density variations associated to the simulated magma convection dynamics are instead employed to determine the corresponding gravity change at the surface. Seismicity, ground deformation, and gravity changes associated to deep magma dynamics are therefore computed as a function of time at different points on the Earth’s surface. Performed numerical simulations involve cases with largely different magma/dyke size, geometry and depth, and magma compositions from basaltic to

  7. Plasma Jet Motion Across the Geomagnetic Field in the ``North Star'' Active Geophysical Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, B. G.; Zetzer, J. I.; Podgorny, I. M.; Sobyanin, D. B.; Meng, C.-I.; Erlandson, R. E.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Pfaff, R. F.; Lynch, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    The active geophysical rocket experiment ``North Star'' was carried out in the auroral ionosphere on January 22, 1999, at the Poker Flat Research Range (Alaska, USA) using the American research rocket Black Brant XII with explosive plasma generators on board. Separable modules with scientific equipment were located at distances of from 170 to 1595 m from the plasma source. The experiment continued the series of the Russian-American joint experiments started by the ``Fluxus'' experiment in 1997. Two injections of aluminum plasma across the magnetic field were conducted in the ``North Star'' experiment. They were different, since in the first injection a neutral gas cloud was formed in order to increase the plasma ionization due to the interaction of neutrals of the jet and cloud. The first and second injections were conducted at heights of 360 and 280 km, respectively. The measurements have shown that the charged particle density was two orders of magnitude higher in the experiment with the gas release. The magnetic field in the first injection was completely expelled by the dense plasma of the jet. The displacement of the magnetic field in the second injection was negligible. The plasma jet velocity in both injections decreased gradually due to its interaction with the geomagnetic field. One of the most interesting results of the experiment was the conservation of high plasma density during the propagation of the divergent jet to considerable distances. This fact can be explained by the action of the critical ionization velocity mechanism.

  8. Aquarius geophysical model function and combined active passive algorithm for ocean surface salinity and wind retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, Simon; Tang, Wenqing; Fore, Alexander; Hayashi, Akiko; Song, Yuhe T.; Lagerloef, Gary

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the updated Combined Active-Passive (CAP) retrieval algorithm for simultaneous retrieval of surface salinity and wind from Aquarius' brightness temperature and radar backscatter. Unlike the algorithm developed by Remote Sensing Systems (RSS), implemented in the Aquarius Data Processing System (ADPS) to produce Aquarius standard products, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's CAP algorithm does not require monthly climatology SSS maps for the salinity retrieval. Furthermore, the ADPS-RSS algorithm fully uses the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) wind for data correction, while the CAP algorithm uses the NCEP wind only as a constraint. The major updates to the CAP algorithm include the galactic reflection correction, Faraday rotation, Antenna Pattern Correction, and geophysical model functions of wind or wave impacts. Recognizing the limitation of geometric optics scattering, we improve the modeling of the reflection of galactic radiation; the results are better salinity accuracy and significantly reduced ascending-descending bias. We assess the accuracy of CAP's salinity by comparison with ARGO monthly gridded salinity products provided by the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC) and Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC). The RMS differences between Aquarius CAP and APDRC's or JAMSTEC's ARGO salinities are less than 0.2 psu for most parts of the ocean, except for the regions in the Intertropical Convergence Zone, near the outflow of major rivers and at high latitudes.

  9. Near-Real-Time Geophysical and Biological Monitoring of Bioremediation Methods at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrell, A. N.; Haas, A.; Revil, A.; Figueroa, L. A.; Rodriguez, D.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    Bioremediation has been utilized on subsurface uranium contamination at the Rifle IRFC site in Colorado by injecting acetate as an electron donor. However, successfully monitoring the progress of subsurface bioremediation over time is difficult and requires long-term stewardship considerations to ensure cost effective treatment due to biological, chemical, and hydrological heterogeneity. In order to better understand the complex heterogeneities of the subsurface and the resultant effect on microbial activity, innovative subsurface monitoring techniques must be investigated. The key hypothesis of this work is that a combination of data from electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation reduction potential, and water level sensors will provide sufficient information for identifying and localizing bioremediation activity and will provide better predictions of deleterious biogeochemical change. In order to test the proof-of-concept of these sensing techniques and to deconvolve the redox activity from other electric potential changing events involved in bioremediation, a 2D tank (2.4m x 1.2m x 0.6m) experiment has been developed. Field material obtained from the Rifle IRFC site will be packed in the tank and an artificial groundwater will flow across the tank through constant-head boundaries. The experiment will utilize sensors for electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation-reduction potential, and water level monitoring. Electrode-based microbial monitoring will be used to estimate microbial activity by measuring how much electrical current indigenous bacteria are producing. Self potential monitoring will be used to measure the natural electrical voltage potential between sampled points, providing indications of when and where electrical activity is occurring; such as reduction of radionuclides. In addition to the application of sensing technologies, this work will explore the application of a wireless sensor

  10. Geophysical technique and groundwater monitoring to detect leachate contamination in the surrounding area of a landfill--Londrina (PR--Brazil).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Deize Dias; Silva, Sandra M C P; Fernandes, Fernandes; Teixeira, Raquel S; Celligoi, André; Dall'Antônia, Luiz Henrique

    2012-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to define leachate plume by using two techniques: geophysical and groundwater sampling in order to evaluate groundwater contamination. After performing a topographic survey and using geophysics, the leachate plume was identified. With this data, the wells for groundwater monitoring were located. Groundwater samples were analyzed for: COD, BOD, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, TKN and heavy metals. Through the electroresistivity method it was possible to define the shape of plume contamination. This method was important to locate the groundwater monitoring wells. The results of the physicochemical parameters showed the suitability of the geophysical study. The highest values of electric conductivity and alkalinity correspond to the wells located in the area interpreted as contaminated by leachate in the map of the resistivity. Even with seasonal variations, BOD values are low if compared to Brazilian environmental regulations, but COD values are higher up to 40 times the values of BOD. The concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd and Cu in the groundwater are below the limits established by the potable water quality standards in Brazil, except for Pb whose concentration in groundwater were higher if compared to Brazilian legislation.

  11. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  12. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA.

    PubMed

    Harte, Philip T; Smith, Thor E; Williams, John H; Degnan, James R

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  13. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  14. Activity of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira Volcanoes (Dem. Rep. of Congo) Revealed Using Geological, Geophysical and InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauthier, C.; Cayol, V.; Hooper, A.; Kervyn, F.; Marinkovic, P.; D'Oreye, N.; Poland, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Ground-based monitoring of active volcanoes in Africa can be problematic due to political instabilities, safety issues and poor accessibility. Remote-sensing techniques such as Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR, more commonly InSAR), are therefore very useful and provide robust observational tools for natural hazard assessment, regardless of local conditions. Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira volcanoes (which experienced nine eruptions from December 1996 to January 2010) are located in the western branch of the East African Rift (Virunga Volcanic Province, North Kivu, Dem. Rep. of Congo). InSAR has recorded ground displacements related to most of the tectonic and volcanic events that have occurred since 1996 using SAR images from the JERS, ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2 and ALOS satellites. This database provides excellent spatial and temporal resolution of deformation, leading to insights into tectonic and volcanic processes. Loss of coherence within the SAR signal due to rapid-changing equatorial vegetation hampers the use of InSAR as a volcano-tectonic monitoring tool. We partially overcome this limitation using 1) a large number of SAR images, including about 150 ENVISAT and more than 100 RADARSAT-1 images, 2) short repeat times of 24 and 35 days for RADARSAT-1 and ENVISAT, respectively, and 3) satellites with longer wavelengths, such as JERS and ALOS. Using a large dataset combining short revisit time SAR images significantly increases the chances of producing interferograms with good coherence. A longer wavelength radar signal better penetrates vegetation cover, also increasing coherence. Furthermore, useful data were retrieved in low-coherence areas by applying the “StaMPS” (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers) method, which combines a small baseline and persistent scatterers approach, to our largest SAR datasets. Using several look angles from both ascending and descending orbital tracks, we were able to characterize

  15. Active geodynamics of the Marmara Sea region: How to combine all geophysical observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Hayrullah; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Lengliné, Olivier; Bouchon, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The Marmara Sea region is presently hosting a major seismic gap along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). The region is located at the western termination of a unique sequence of large earthquakes initiated by the 1939 Mw 7.9 Erzincan earthquake and propagated westwards over 1000 km. Understanding the active geodynamics of the Marmara region is essential to assess the seismic behaviour of the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) and its related structures. We therefore have taken an initiative to give a comprehensive view of the regional lithosphere and the geomechanical response of the fault trying to combine all important geophysical observations. Using the broadband seismic data acquired between 2007-2015, we computed crustal seismic velocity distribution (from ambient noise tomography), crustal thickness map (from receiver function analysis) and uppermost mantle velocity distribution (from Pn tomography). The vast amount of data provides a good spatial coverage of the region and high resolution of images. Along the Main Marmara Fault (MMF), we present the seismicity below the Marmara Sea for the period the 2006-2015 to provide insights on the seismic response of the fault. The analysis shows that the seismic behaviour is varying along the fault. In addition, long term repeating earthquakes are searched along the MMF and found in the western part of the MMF. In the light of accurate and extensive observations, several open questions emerge from this compilation: Is the cumulated seismic moment released by the repeaters comparable to tectonic rate of the fault in the region? Are there any correlations between the rheology of the crust and the seismic response of the fault? Is there an influence of the fault asymmetry on the fault rupture?

  16. Geophysical signature of hydration-dehydration processes in active subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    inclusions in arc lavas. High electrical conductivities up to 1 S/m in the hydrated wedge of the hot subductions (Ryukyu, Kyushu, Cascadia) reflect high fluid concentration, while low to moderate (<0.01 S/m) conductivities in the cold subductions (N-E Japan, Bolivia) reflect low fluid flow. This is consistent with the seismic observations of extensive shallow serpentinization in hot subduction zones, while serpentinization is sluggish in cold subduction zones. Bezacier, L., et al. 2010. Elasticity of antigorite, seismic detection of serpentinites, and anisotropy in subduction zones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 289, 198-208. Reynard, B., 2012. Serpentine in active subduction zones. Lithos, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2012.10.012. Reynard, B., Mibe, K. & Van de Moortele, B., 2011. Electrical conductivity of the serpentinised mantle and fluid flow in subduction zones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 307, 387-394. Reynard, B., Nakajima, J. & Kawakatsu, H., 2010. Earthquakes and plastic deformation of anhydrous slab mantle in double Wadati-Benioff zones. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L24309.

  17. Geophysical Imaging of Active Tectonics: A Case Study From the Inter Andean Valley, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Call, C.; Meltzer, A.; Alvardo, A.

    2004-12-01

    and 350ns (9 and 26m assuming a dielectric permittivity of 16). Combination of GPR and near-surface seismic techniques compliment each other by providing varying vertical resolutions and depths of penetrations. This case study provides valuable information that is relevant to future studies utilizing near-surface geophysics to identify and image active structures in the Inter Andean Valley or other geologically similar areas.

  18. 78 FR 8497 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... geophysical (seismic) survey off the central coast of California, November to December, 2012. ADDRESSES: The... incidental to conducting a marine seismic survey within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the central coast... (Langseth) and a seismic airgun array to collect seismic data as part of the Offshore Central...

  19. High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula 2014, USGS Field Activity 2014-002-FA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth E.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, David S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Brothers, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A USGS cruise was conducted in the summer of 2014 to map the inner-continental shelf of the Delmarva Peninsula using geophysical and sampling techniques to define the geologic framework that governs coastal system evolution at storm-event and longer timescales. Geophysical data collected during the 2014 cruise include swath bathymetric, sidescan sonar, chirp and boomer seismic reflection profiles, acoustic Doppler current profiler, and sample and bottom photograph and video data. Preliminary datasets of backscatter and bathymetry are released here to the public and collaborators while final datasets for all data collected will be released in 2015. More information about the USGS survey conducted as part of the Hurricane Sandy Response-- Geologic Framework and Coastal Vulnerability Study can be found at the project website or on the WHCMSC Field Activity Web pages

  20. Geophysical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Geophysical measurements involve no magic or mystery but straightforward applications of physical principles. This book is both a geophysical survey and a reference guide. It explains the physical principles involved in geophysical methods. Over one-third of the text is devoted to seismic methods. Comprehensive topics in the volume include: the measurement of different physical properties and their geological significance; how different kinds of measurements are combined to draw geological conclusions; surface, borehole, airborne, and satellite measurements; computer processing and interactive methods; geodetic, gravity, magnetic, radioactive, heat flow, and electrical methods; interpretation of natural processes such as earthquakes and heat flow; and a summation of present knowledge of the earth.

  1. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  2. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes geophysical techniques such as seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys of offshare acreage, and land-data gathering from a three-dimensional representation made from closely spaced seismic lines. (MLH)

  3. Insights from geophysical monitoring into the volcano structure and magma supply systems at three very different oceanic islands in the Cape Verde archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, B. V.; Day, S.; Fonseca, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Three oceanic volcano islands in the west of the Cape Verde archipelago are considered to have the highest levels of volcanic hazard in the archipelago: Fogo, Brava, and Santo Antao. Fogo has had frequent mainly effusive eruptions in historic time, the most recent in 1995, whilst Brava and Santo Antao have ongoing geothermal activity and felt earthquakes, and have experienced geologically recent violent explosive eruptions. Therefore, these three islands have been the focus of recent efforts to set up seismic networks to monitor their activity. Here we present the first results from these networks, and propose interpretations of the monitored seismic activity in terms of subsurface volcano structures, near-surface intrusive activity and seasonal controls on geothermal activity. In Fogo, most recorded seismic events are hydrothermal events. These show a strong seasonal variation, increasing during the summer rain season and decreasing afterwards. Rare volcano-tectonic (VT) events (0.1activity, are located mainly in and below the Monte Amarelo lateral collapse scar. They are interpreted as shear failures between unconsolidated material at the base of the collapse scar fill and underlying more rigid pre-collapse rocks with abundant dikes, occuring as a result of long-term gravitational re-adjustment of the collapse scar fill after inflation of the island due to the 1995 eruption. Brava experiences frequent swarms of VT events. These are located mostly offshore, with a small proportion of on-shore events. The positions of offshore events are strongly correlated with seamounts and hence are interpreted as due to submarine volcanic processes. Onshore events (0.7

  4. Geological and geophysical activities at Spallanzani Science Department (Liceo Scientifico Statale "Lazzaro Spallanzani" - Tivoli, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favale, T.; De Angelis, F.; De Filippis, L.

    2012-04-01

    The high school Liceo Scientifico "Lazzaro Spallanzani" at Tivoli (Rome) has been fully involved in the study of geological and geophysical features of the town of Tivoli and the surrounding area in the last twelve years. Objective of this activity is to promote the knowledge of the local territory from the geological point of view. Main activities: • School year 2001-2002: Setting up inside the school building of a Geological Museum focusing on "Geological Evolution of Latium, Central Italy" (in collaboration with colleagues M. Mancini, and A. Pierangeli). • March, 15, 2001: Conference of Environmental Geology. Lecturer: Prof. Raniero Massoli Novelli, L'Aquila University and Società Italiana di Geologia Ambientale. • School years 2001-2002 and 2002-2003: Earth Sciences course for students "Brittle deformation and tectonic stress in Tivoli area". • November, 2003: Conference of Geology, GIS and Remote Sensing. Lecturers: Prof. Maurizio Parotto and Dr Alessandro Cecili (Roma Tre University, Rome), and Dr Stefano Pignotti (Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sulla Montagna, Rome). • November, 2003, 2004 and 2005: GIS DAY, organized in collaboration with ESRI Italia. • School year 2006-2007: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on travertine formation). • School year 2010-2011: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli. Geology, Hydrogeology and Microbiology of the basin, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on thermal springs and spa). In the period 2009-2010 a seismic station with three channels, currently working, was designed and built in our school by the science teachers Felice De Angelis and Tomaso Favale. Our seismic station (code name LTTV) is part of Italian Experimental Seismic Network (IESN) with identification code IZ (international database IRIS-ISC). The three drums are online in real time on websites http

  5. Continuous monitoring of the lunar or Martian subsurface using on-board pattern recognition and neural processing of Rover geophysical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Charles E.; Boyd, Richard V.; Sternberg, Ben K.

    1991-01-01

    The overall aim is to provide base technology for an automated vision system for on-board interpretation of geophysical data. During the first year's work, it was demonstrated that geophysical data can be treated as patterns and interpreted using single neural networks. Current research is developing an integrated vision system comprising neural networks, algorithmic preprocessing, and expert knowledge. This system is to be tested incrementally using synthetic geophysical patterns, laboratory generated geophysical patterns, and field geophysical patterns.

  6. Monitoring by Control Technique - Activated Carbon Adsorber

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Activated Carbon Adsorber control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  7. Geophysical Imaging for Investigating the Delivery and Distribution of Amendments in the Heterogeneous Subsurface of the F.E. Warren AFB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    continuous active source seismic monitoring (CASSM), which was the first-of-kind deployment for remediation monitoring. Other traditional datasets (such as...introduced using different strategies (e.g., pneumatic fracturing, traditional injection, jetting, etc.), provided that the geophysical attributes are...see Appendix A). As part of the assessment process, geophysical interpretations were compared to data collected from traditional measurements, such

  8. Particle Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

    2014-05-01

    Geophysics research has long been dominated by classical mechanics, largely disregarding the potential of particle physics to augment existing techniques. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in probing Earth's interior with muons and neutrinos. Existing results for various volcanological targets are reviewed. Geoneutrinos are also highlighted as examples in which the neutrino probes elucidate the composition of Earth's deep interior. Particle geophysics has the potential to serve as a useful paradigm to transform our understanding of Earth as dramatically as the X-ray transformed our understanding of medicine and the body.

  9. Preliminary report on geophysical well-logging activity on the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.; Hodges, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project has culminated in a 10,564-ft deep test well, State 2-14 well, in the Imperial Valley of southern California. A comprehensive scientific program of drilling, coring, and downhole measurements, which was conducted for about 5 months, has obtained much scientific information concerning the physical and chemical processes associated with an active hydrothermal system. This report primarily focuses on the geophysical logging activities at the State 2-14 well and provides early dissemination of geophysical data to other investigators working on complementary studies. Geophysical-log data were obtained by a commercial logging company and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the commercial logs were obtained during three visits to the site; only one commercial log was obtained below a depth of 6,000 ft. The commercial logs obtained were dual induction, natural gamma, compensated neutron formation density, caliper and sonic. The USGS logging effort consisted of four primary periods, with many logs extending below a depth of 6,000 ft. The USGS logs obtained were temperature, caliper, natural gamma, gamma spectral, epithermal neutron, acoustic velocity, full-waveform, and acoustic televiewer. Various problems occurred throughout the drilling phase of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project that made successful logging difficult: (1) borehole constrictions, possibly resulting from mud coagulation, (2) maximum temperatures of about 300 C, and (3) borehole conditions unfavorable for logging because of numerous zones of fluid loss, cement plugs, and damage caused by repeated trips in and out of the hole. These factors hampered and compromised logging quality at several open-hole intervals. The quality of the logs was dependent on the degree of probe sophistication and sensitivity to borehole-wall conditions. Digitized logs presented were processed on site and are presented in increments of 1,000 ft. A summary of the numerous

  10. MoMAR observatory: A Geophysical, Geological and Oceanographical Approach to the Monitoring of the Lucky Strike Segment (GRAVILUCK Cruise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, V.; Cannat, M.; Graviluck Scientific Party, A.

    2006-12-01

    The GRAVILUCK expedition, conducted in August 2006 on the R/V ATALANTE, was mainly dedicated to the installation of a seafloor geodetic network in the framework of the MoMAR ("Monitoring the Mid-Atlantic Ridge") project, to study active mid-ocean ridge processes along a slow-spreading ridge segment. The chosen site for this integrated "observatory" effort is the Lucky Strike segment (37°N) along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, South of the Azores Archipelago; it combines both logistic and scientific interests, and has been studied in depth by geologists, geophysicists and biologists for many years. It also presents an intense hydrothermal activity and hosts an axial magma chamber under its center discovered last year during the SISMOMAR cruise. The installation of 9 permanent geodetic benchmarks and the time-zero pressure and gravity measurements were conducting during 19 Nautile dives. Pressure changes measured at a benchmark can be due to environmental variability, to a change in the elevation of the point, or to both. To quantify environmental variations, we monitored water column with full depth CTD prior to each dive, and shallow CTD yoyos down to 500 m during the dives. These oceanographic measurements will allow us to directly model and remove part of the environmental variability and thus increase our capability to detect small vertical motions over several years. Three additional Nautile dives were dedicated to geology and gravity cartography of the central volcano. In addition to the day program, 10 nights were devoted to a geological survey using the TowCam (camera, magnetometer, wax coring, CTD) to characterize tectonic and magmatic features of the Lucky Strike volcano, their relationship to the magma chamber location, and identification of areas of most recent apparent volcanic activity; 10 other nights were dedicated to studying ocean circulation and induced mixing around the Lucky Strike site. GRAVILUCK cruise Scientific Party: CNRS/IPGP: J. Ammann, V

  11. Active and passive electrical and seismic time-lapse monitoring of earthen embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittgers, Justin Bradley

    In this dissertation, I present research involving the application of active and passive geophysical data collection, data assimilation, and inverse modeling for the purpose of earthen embankment infrastructure assessment. Throughout the dissertation, I identify several data characteristics, and several challenges intrinsic to characterization and imaging of earthen embankments and anomalous seepage phenomena, from both a static and time-lapse geophysical monitoring perspective. I begin with the presentation of a field study conducted on a seeping earthen dam, involving static and independent inversions of active tomography data sets, and self-potential modeling of fluid flow within a confined aquifer. Additionally, I present results of active and passive time-lapse geophysical monitoring conducted during two meso-scale laboratory experiments involving the failure and self-healing of embankment filter materials via induced vertical cracking. Identified data signatures and trends, as well as 4D inversion results, are discussed as an underlying motivation for conducting subsequent research. Next, I present a new 4D acoustic emissions source localization algorithm that is applied to passive seismic monitoring data collected during a full-scale embankment failure test. Acoustic emissions localization results are then used to help spatially constrain 4D inversion of collocated self-potential monitoring data. I then turn to time-lapse joint inversion of active tomographic data sets applied to the characterization and monitoring of earthen embankments. Here, I develop a new technique for applying spatiotemporally varying structural joint inversion constraints. The new technique, referred to as Automatic Joint Constraints (AJC), is first demonstrated on a synthetic 2D joint model space, and is then applied to real geophysical monitoring data sets collected during a full-scale earthen embankment piping-failure test. Finally, I discuss some non-technical issues related to

  12. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  13. Active personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Tore; Borak, Tom; Braby, L. A.; Lusby, Terry; Semones, Edward J.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.

    As astronauts return to the Moon-and this time, work for extended periods-there will be a critical need for crew personnel radiation monitoring as they operate lunar rovers or otherwise perform a myriad of extravehicular activities (EVAs). Our focus is on development of a small personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA that responds to the complex radiation quality and changing dose rates on the Moon. Of particular concern are active monitoring capabilities that provide both early warning and radiation dosimetry information during solar particle events (SPEs). To accomplish this, we are developing small detectors integrated with modern high speed, low power microelectronics to measure dose-rate and dose-mean lineal energy in real time. The monitor is designed to perform over the range of dose rates and LETs expected from both GCR and SPE radiations during lunar EVA missions. The monitor design provides simultaneous measurement of dose-equivalent rates at two tissue-equivalent depths simulating skin and marrow. The compact personal monitor is estimated to be the size of a cell phone and would fit on an EVA spacesuit (e.g., in backpack) or in a toolbox. The four-year development effort (which began December 2007) will result in a prototype radiation monitor field tested and characterized for the major radiations expected on the surface of the Moon. We acknowledge support from NSBRI through grants to NASA Ames Research Center (T. Straume, PI) and Colorado State University (T. Borak, PI).

  14. Integrated Geophysical Monitoring Program to Study Flood Performance and Incidental CO2 Storage Associated with a CO2 EOR Project in the Bell Creek Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnison, S. A.; Ditty, P.; Gorecki, C. D.; Hamling, J. A.; Steadman, E. N.; Harju, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center, is working with Denbury Onshore LLC to determine the effect of a large-scale injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep clastic reservoir for the purpose of simultaneous CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and to study incidental CO2 storage at the Bell Creek oil field located in southeastern Montana. This project will reduce CO2 emissions by more than 1 million tons a year while simultaneously recovering an anticipated 30 million barrels of incremental oil. The Bell Creek project provides a unique opportunity to use and evaluate a comprehensive suite of technologies for monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of CO2 on a large-scale. The plan incorporates multiple geophysical technologies in the presence of complementary and sometimes overlapping data to create a comprehensive data set that will facilitate evaluation and comparison. The MVA plan has been divided into shallow and deep subsurface monitoring. The deep subsurface monitoring plan includes 4-D surface seismic, time-lapse 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) surveys incorporating a permanent borehole array, and baseline and subsequent carbon-oxygen logging and other well-based measurements. The goal is to track the movement of CO2 in the reservoir, evaluate the recovery/storage efficiency of the CO2 EOR program, identify fluid migration pathways, and determine the ultimate fate of injected CO2. CO2 injection at Bell Creek began in late May 2013. Prior to injection, a monitoring and characterization well near the field center was drilled and outfitted with a distributed temperature-monitoring system and three down-hole pressure gauges to provide continuous real-time data of the reservoir and overlying strata. The monitoring well allows on-demand access for time-lapse well-based measurements and borehole seismic instrumentation. A 50-level permanent borehole array of 3-component geophones was installed in a

  15. Teaching oriented geophysical software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Victor; Rivero, Lluis; Casas, Albert

    2000-08-01

    Interactive teaching techniques encourage students to adopt an active role in their education and should therefore be used at different levels of the teaching sequence. In order to mitigate the lack of educational software for Applied Geophysics, a fully interactive graphic software has been developed. The program is written in Visual Basic with some subroutines in FORTRAN and is designed for IBM-PC microcomputers using a Windows environment. The program offers the majority of the processes involved in geophysical data handling, modelling, tutorials, and instrument simulators.

  16. Stress monitoring versus microseismic ruptures in an active deep mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnellier, Alice; Bouffier, Christian; Bigarré, Pascal; Nyström, Anders; Österberg, Anders; Fjellström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, underground mining industry has developed high-technology mass mining methods to optimise the productivity at deep levels. Such massive extraction induces high-level stress redistribution generating seismic events around the mining works, threatening safety and economics. For this reason mining irregular deep ore bodies calls for steadily enhanced scientific practises and technologies to guarantee the mine environment to be safer and stable for the miners and the infrastructures. INERIS, within the framework of the FP7 European project I2Mine and in partnership with the Swedish mining company Boliden, has developed new methodologies in order to monitor both quasi-static stress changes and ruptures in a seismic prone area. To this purpose, a unique local permanent microseismic and stress monitoring network has been installed into the deep-working Garpenberg mine situated to the north of Uppsala (Sweden). In this mine, ore is extracted using sublevel stoping with paste fill production/distribution system and long-hole drilling method. This monitoring network has been deployed between about 1100 and 1250 meter depth. It consists in six 1-component and five 3-component microseismic probes (14-Hz geophones) deployed in the Lappberget area, in addition to three 3D stress monitoring cells that focus on a very local exploited area. Objective is three-fold: to quantify accurately quasi-static stress changes and freshly-induced stress gradients with drift development in the orebody, to study quantitatively those stress changes versus induced detected and located microseismic ruptures, and possibly to identify quasi-static stress transfer from those seismic ruptures. Geophysical and geotechnical data are acquired continuously and automatically transferred to INERIS datacenter through the web. They are made available on a secured web cloud monitoring infrastructure called e.cenaris and completed with mine data. Such interface enables the visualisation of the

  17. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  18. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  19. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  20. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  1. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  2. Integrated near surface geophysics across the active Mount Marzano Fault System (southern Italy): seismogenic hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. C.; Giocoli, A.; Peronace, E.; Piscitelli, S.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe an original geophysical multi-method approach applied to the Mount Marzano Fault System. This is one of the most hazardous seismogenic faults of the Apennines (Irpinia, southern Italy), and it was responsible for the 1980, Mw 6.9, earthquake, along with many others before. We carried out electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) microtremor analysis along several common transects designed across the potential and/or certain fault traces. The data obtained from these non-invasive, inexpensive, expeditious methods mutually integrate with and complement each other, providing a valuable subsurface image of the near surface fault architecture. ERT depicts the general shallow image of the fault zone and of the fault-controlled sedimentary basin, with the depth of the buried bedrock cross-correlated through ambient-noise HVSR results. GPR delineates the very shallow geometry of the fault and of the associated deformation. Coupled with previous paleoseismological studies, these data allow the evaluation of some fault parameters and the precise locating of the fault trace, to aid future paleoseismological investigations aimed at seismic risk reduction programs.

  3. Active part of Charlie--Gibbs fracture zone: A study using sonar and other geophysical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Searle, R.

    1981-01-10

    A short survey with Gloria side-scan sonar and other geophysical instruments has revealed new information about Charlie--Gibbs fracture zone between 29/sup 0/ and 36 /sup 0/W. The traces of two transform faults have been clearly delineated. They fit small circles about the pole of rotation with an rms error of only about 1 km, but they do not always follow the deepest parts of the transform valleys. The transforms are joined by a short spreading center at 31 /sup 0/45 'W. The median transverse ridge appears to have been produced by normal seafloor spreading at this center and bears identifiable Vine-Matthews magnetic anomalies. A transverse ridge along the eastern inactive part of the northern transform may be an intrusive feature. Considerable thickness of sediment appear to have been deposited in the northern transform valley from Norwegian Sea overflow water passing through the fracture zone, but transverse ridges have prevented the sediment reaching the southern valley.

  4. High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula, 2014, USGS Field Activity 2014-002-FA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth; Ackerman, Seth D.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, David S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Brothers, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological Survey cruise was conducted in the summer of 2014 to map the inner continental shelf of the Delmarva Peninsula using geophysical and sampling techniques to define the geologic framework that governs coastal system evolution at storm-event and longer timescales. Data collected during the 2014 cruise include swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar, chirp and boomer seismic-reflection profiles, acoustic Doppler current profiler, and sample and bottom photograph data. Processed data in raster and vector format are released here for the swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and seismic-reflection profiles. More information about the USGS survey conducted as part of the Hurricane Sandy Response-- Geologic Framework and Coastal Vulnerability Study can be found at the project website or on the WHCMSC Field Activity Web pages:

  5. Geophysical monitoring of solute transport in dual-domain environments through laboratory experiments, field-scale solute tracer tests, and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Ryan David

    The advection-dispersion equation (ADE) fails to describe non-Fickian solute transport breakthrough curves (BTCs) in saturated porous media in both laboratory and field experiments, necessitating the use of other models. The dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) model partitions the total porosity into mobile and less-mobile domains with an exchange of mass between the two domains, and this model can reproduce better fits to BTCs in many systems than ADE-based models. However, direct experimental estimation of DDMT model parameters remains elusive and model parameters are often calculated a posteriori by an optimization procedure. Here, we investigate the use of geophysical tools (direct-current resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and complex conductivity) to estimate these model parameters directly. We use two different samples of the zeolite clinoptilolite, a material shown to demonstrate solute mass transfer due to a significant internal porosity, and provide the first evidence that direct-current electrical methods can track solute movement into and out of a less-mobile pore space in controlled laboratory experiments. We quantify the effects of assuming single-rate DDMT for multirate mass transfer systems. We analyze pore structures using material characterization methods (mercury porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray computer tomography), and compare these observations to geophysical measurements. Nuclear magnetic resonance in conjunction with direct-current resistivity measurements can constrain mobile and less-mobile porosities, but complex conductivity may have little value in relation to mass transfer despite the hypothesis that mass transfer and complex conductivity lengths scales are related. Finally, we conduct a geoelectrical monitored tracer test at the Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, MS. We relate hydraulic and electrical conductivity measurements to generate a 3D hydraulic conductivity field, and compare to

  6. The geophysical contribution to the safeguard of historical sites in active volcanic areas.. The Vesuvius case-history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patella, Domenico; Mauriello, Paolo

    1999-03-01

    The Earth's surface is characterized by the presence of many active volcanoes, most of which are surrounded by ancient villages. High-valued historical sites are often so exposed that it becomes imperative to perform volcanic risk assessment including cultural heritage. For the safeguard of the historical property in volcanic areas, two major problems are definition of (a) criteria for diagnosis and evaluation of hazard and vulnerability, and (b) methods for risk prevention and mitigation. In this paper, we first review the state-of-the-art and most outstanding geophysical prospecting and modeling methods currently on the use, which contribute to the solution of the problems mentioned above. We then show the results of an application on the most alarming volcano in Italy, Mount Vesuvius in the Neapolitan area. The imaged configuration of the feeding and plumbing systems induces to consider Vesuvius a high-risk volcano with a high probability of pyroclastic flow in case of reactivation. Finally, we show the results from a modeling approach of a pyroclastic flow simulating the eruptive scenario of Vesuvius compatible with its internal structure and dynamics. The simulation shows that the emplacement of artificial barriers close to the eruptive vent is a practical solution to reduce the local radial momentum of the pyroclastic flow and to transfer the related energy to the vertical buoyant cloud. The Vesuvius case history allows us to conclude that the integrated geophysical surveying and modeling approach can notably contribute to make decisions and also for the protection of the historical heritage in active volcanic areas.

  7. Jovian dust streams: A monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruger, H.; Geissler, P.; Horanyi, M.; Graps, A.L.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Moissl, R.; Johnson, T.V.; Grun, E.

    2003-01-01

    Streams of high speed dust particles originate from Jupiter's moon Io. After release from Io, the particles collect electric charges in the Io plasma torus, gain energy from the co-rotating electric field of Jupiter's magnetosphere, and leave the Jovian system into interplanetary space with escape speeds over 200 km s-1. The Galileo spacecraft has continuously monitored the dust streams during 34 revolutions about Jupiter between 1996 and 2002. The observed dust fluxes exhibit large orbit-to-orbit variability due to systematic and stochastic changes. After removal of the systematic variations, the total dust emission rate of Io has been calculated. It varies between 10-3 and 10 kg s-1, and is typically in the range of 0.1 to 1 kg s-1. We compare the dust emission rate with other markers of volcanic activity on Io like large-area surface changes caused by volcanic deposits and sightings of volcanic plumes. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Reporters to monitor cellular MMP12 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos-Correa, Amanda; Mall, Marcus A.; Schultz, Carsten

    2010-02-01

    Macrophage elastase, also called MMP12, belongs to a family of proteolytic enzymes whose best known physiological function is the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Under certain pathological conditions, including inflammation, chronic overexpression of MMP12 has been observed and its elevated proteolytic activity has been suggested to be the cause of pulmonary emphysema. However, it was until recently impossible to monitor the activity of MMP12 under disease conditions, mainly due to a lack of detection methods. Recent development of new reporters for monitoring MMP12 activity in living cells, such as LaRee1, provided novel insights into the pathobiology of MMP12 in pulmonary inflammation.1 In the future, these reporters might contribute to improved diagnosis and in finding better treatments for chronic inflammatory lung diseases and emphysema. Our approach for visualizing MMP12 activity is based on peptidic, membrane-targeted FRET (Foerster Resonance Energy Transfer) reporters. Here we describe a set of new reporters containing different fluorophore pairs as well as modifications in the membrane-targeting lipid moiety. We studied the influence of these modifications on reporter performance and the reporter mobility on live cell membranes by FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). Finally, we generated several new fluorescently labeled MMP inhibitors based on the peptidic reporter structures as prototypes for future tools to inhibit and monitor MMP activity at the same time.

  9. TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES an active seismic and passive seismic experiment at Mt. Etna volcano. An integrated marine and onland geophysical survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Jesus. M.; Patane, Domenico; Puglisi, Guisseppe; Zuccarello, Lucciano; Bianco, Francesca; Luehr, Birger; Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Prudencio, Janire; Koulakov, Ivan; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Cocina, Ornella; Coltelli, Mauro; Scarfi, Lucciano; De Gori, Pascuale; Carrion, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    An active seismic experiment to study the internal structure of Etna Volcano is going to carried out on Sicily and Aeolian islands. The main objective of the TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES experiment, beginning in summer 2014, is to perform a high resolution seismic tomography, in velocity and attenuation, in Southern Italy, by using active and passive seismic data, in an area encompassing outstanding volcanoes as Mt. Etna, and Aeolian volcanoes. The achievement of this objective is based on the integration and sharing of the in-situ marine and land experiments and observations and on the implementation of new instruments and monitoring systems. For the purpose, onshore and offshore seismic stations and passive and active seismic data generated both in marine and terrestrial environment will be used. Additionally, other geophysical data, mainly magnetic and gravimetric data will be considered to obtain a joint Upper Mantle-Crust structure that could permit to make progress in the understanding of the dynamic of the region. This multinational experiment which involves institutions from Spain, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Portugal, Russia, USA and Mexico. During the experiment more than 6.600 air gun shots performed by the Spanish Oceanographic vessel "Sarmiento de Gamboa" will be recorder on a dense local seismic network consisting of 100 on land non-permanent stations, 70 on land permanent stations and 20-25 OBSs. Contemporaneously other marine geophysical measures will be performed using a marine Gravimeter LaCoste&Romberg Air-Sea Gravity System II and a Marine Magnetometer SeaSPY. The experiments will provide a unique data set in terms of data quantity and quality, and it will provide a detailed velocity and attenuation structural image of volcano edifice. The results will be essential in the development and interpretation of future volcanic models. It is noteworthy that this project is fully transversal, multidisciplinary and crosses several

  10. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  11. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Systems and Electromagnetic Geophysical Monitoring of Fluid Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jihoon; Um, Evan; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    We investigate fracture propagation induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. For rigorous, full 3D modeling, we employ a numerical method that can model failure resulting from tensile and shear stresses, dynamic nonlinear permeability, leak-off in all directions, and thermo-poro-mechanical effects with the double porosity approach. Our numerical results indicate that fracture propagation is not the same as propagation of the water front, because fracturing is governed by geomechanics, whereas water saturation is determined by fluid flow. At early times, the water saturation front is almost identical to the fracture tip, suggesting that the fracture is mostly filled with injected water. However, at late times, advance of the water front is retarded compared to fracture propagation, yielding a significant gap between the water front and the fracture top, which is filled with reservoir gas. We also find considerable leak-off of water to the reservoir. The inconsistency between the fracture volume and the volume of injected water cannot properly calculate the fracture length, when it is estimated based on the simple assumption that the fracture is fully saturated with injected water. As an example of flow-geomechanical responses, we identify pressure fluctuation under constant water injection, because hydraulic fracturing is itself a set of many failure processes, in which pressure consistently drops when failure occurs, but fluctuation decreases as the fracture length grows. We also study application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods, because these methods are highly sensitive to changes in porosity and pore-fluid properties due to water injection into gas reservoirs. Employing a 3D finite-element EM geophysical simulator, we evaluate the sensitivity of the crosswell EM method for monitoring fluid movements in shaly reservoirs. For this sensitivity evaluation, reservoir models are generated through the coupled flow

  12. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    1992-01-01

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases.

  13. [A monitor of the biomechanical cardiac activity].

    PubMed

    Masloboev, Iu P; Okhritskiĭ, A A; Prilutskiĭ, D A; Selishchev, S V

    2004-01-01

    A monitor of the biomechanical cardiac activity is described, which was elaborated on the basis of the accelerometer sensor and sigma-delta ADC for the purpose of registering the ballistocardiograms and seismocardiograms. The device ensures a non-stop signal recording for as long as 8 hours with the data being preserved in an inbuilt memory. Data are fed to the computer through the USB port. An algorithm is suggested for recordings processing by using the neuron-net technologies.

  14. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1991-01-22

    This invention relates to a regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor 5 concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC 10 exhaust gases.

  15. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  16. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Deborah Michael; Sprigle, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6) who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001) when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use.

  17. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  18. Pre-Launch Phase 1 Calibration and Validation Rehearsal of Geophysical Data Products of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Dunbar, R.; Das, N. N.; Kim, S.; Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G. J.; Liu, Q.; Kimball, J. S.; Yi, Y.; Cosh, M. H.; Bindlish, R.; Crow, W. T.; Dang, L.; Yueh, S. H.; Njoku, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in October 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments will operate onboard the SMAP spacecraft in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. SMAP measurements will enable significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. The SMAP science data product suite of geophysical parameters will include estimates of surface (top 5 cm) and root-zone (down to 1-m depth) soil moisture, net ecosystem exchange, and classification of the frozen/non-frozen state of the landscape. The primary validation reference of the data products will be ground-based measurements. Other remote sensing and model-based products will be used as additional resources. The post-launch timeline of the mission requires that the geophysical data products are validated (with respect to the mission requirements) within 12 months after a 3-month in-orbit check-out phase. SMAP is taking several preparatory steps in order to meet this schedule. One of the main steps consists of running a rehearsal to exercise calibration and validation procedures planned for the Cal/Val Phase. The rehearsal is divided into two stages. Phase 1, which was conducted in June-August 2013, focused on validation methodologies for the geophysical data products. Phase 2, which will be conducted in May-June 2014, includes operational aspects including a fully functioning SMAP Science Data System. (Note that the rehearsals do not include an airborne field

  19. Astronomical and Geophysical Activities in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) during 1781-88 by Bento Sanches Dorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Gallego, M. C.

    2006-08-01

    We summarized the works realised by Bento Sanches Dorta, a Portuguese Royal Astronomer who went to South America to perform a great number of astronomical and geophysical observations during the period 1781-1788.

  20. Interpretations on the Geologic Setting of Yogyakarta Earthquakes 2006 (Central Java, Indonesia) Based on Integration of Aftershock Monitoring and Existing Geologic, Geophysical and Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setijadji, L. D.; Watanabe, K.; Fukuoka, K.; Ehara, S.; Setiadji, Y.; Rahardjo, W.; Susilo, A.; Barianto, D. H.; Harijoko, A.; Sudarno, I.; Pramumijoyo, S.; Hendrayana, H.; Akmalludin, A.; Nishijima, J.; Itaya, T.

    2007-05-01

    The unprecedented 26 May 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake (central Java, Indonesia) that took victims of 5,700 lives was generally accepted to have a depth of about 10 km and moment magnitude of 6.4. However, the definition of location of active fault is still under debate as the epicenter of mainshock was reported quite differently by several institutions. Many researchers believe that the Opak fault which is located at the eastern boundary of Yogyakarta low-land area (or Yogyakarta Basin) and the high-land region of Southern Mountains was the source of year 2006 earthquakes. However, our result of aftershocks observation suggests that the ruptured zone was not located along the Opak fault but from an unknown fault located about 10 km to the east from it and within the Southern Mountains domain. Unfortunately, surface geologic manifestations are scarce as this area is now largely covered by limestone. Therefore the suspected active fault system must be studied through interpretations of the subsurface geology and evaluation of the Cenozoic geo-history of the region utilizing existing geologic, geophysical and remote sensing data. This work suggests that the Yogyakarta Basin is a volcano-tectonic depression formed gradually since the early Tertiary period (Oligo-Miocene or older). Geological and geophysical evidence suggest that structural trends changed from the Oligocene NE-SW towards the Oligo-Miocene NNE-SSW and the Plio-Pleistocene NW-SE and E-W directions. The ruptured "X" fault during the Yogyakarta earthquakes 2006 is likely to be a NNE-SSW trending fault which is parallel to the Opak fault and both were firstly active in the Oligo-Miocene as sinistral strike-slip faults. However, while the Opak fault had changed into a normal faulting after the Pliocene, the evidence from Kali Ngalang and Kali Widoro suggests that the "X" fault system was still reactivated as a strike-slip one during the Plio-Pleistocene orogeny. As this new interpretation of active fault causes

  1. A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Lee; Day-Lewis, Frederick; Lane, John; Versteeg, Roelof; Ward, Anderson; Binley, Andrew; Johnson, Timothy; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2011-08-31

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing {approx}60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along {approx}3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial

  2. 77 FR 56613 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ..., and an acoustic Doppler current profiler continuously throughout the survey except while on station for marine coring activities. Acoustic stimuli (i.e., increased underwater sound) generated during... for a more detailed description of the authorized action, including vessel and acoustic...

  3. System and method for monitoring cellular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Fraser, Scott E. (Inventor); Lansford, Russell D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring cellular activity in a cellular specimen. According to one embodiment, a plurality of excitable markers are applied to the specimen. A multi-photon laser microscope is provided to excite a region of the specimen and cause fluorescence to be radiated from the region. The radiating fluorescence is processed by a spectral analyzer to separate the fluorescence into respective wavelength bands. The respective bands of fluorescence are then collected by an array of detectors, with each detector receiving a corresponding one of the wavelength bands.

  4. System and method for monitoring cellular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Fraser, Scott E. (Inventor); Lansford, Russell D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring cellular activity in a cellular specimen. According to one embodiment, a plurality of excitable markers are applied to the specimen. A multi-photon laser microscope is provided to excite a region of the specimen and cause fluorescence to be radiated from the region. The radiating fluorescence is processed by a spectral analyzer to separate the fluorescence into respective wavelength bands. The respective bands of fluorescence are then collected by an array of detectors, with each detector receiving a corresponding one of the wavelength bands.

  5. Solar-geophysical data number 499, March 1986, supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This supplement contains the description and explanation of the data in the monthly publication Solar-Geophysical Data, compiled by the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) in Boulder, Colo., USA. Solar-Geophysical Data is intended to keep research workers informed on a timely schedule of the major events of solar activity and the associated interplanetary, ionospheric, radio propagation and other geophysical effects.

  6. Late Quaternary activity along the Ferrara thrust inferred from stratigraphic architecture and geophysical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Marco; Bignardi, Samuel; Caputo, Riccardo; Minarelli, Luca; Abu-Zeid, Nasser; Santarato, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    Since Late Miocene, the Emilia-Romagna portion of the Po Plain-Adriatic foredeep basin was progressively affected by compressional deformation, due to the northward propagation of the Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. The major tectonic structures within the basin have been recognised and are relatively well known, thanks to the widespread, even if outdated, seismic survey, performed after WW II, for hydrocarbon exploration. More recently, a large amount of surface and shallow-subsurface information has been provided by the CARG geological mapping project. The region therefore provides a valuable opportunity to discuss the genetic relationship between tectonic deformation, eustatic-paleoclimatic fluctuations, and depositional architecture. The activity of blind thrusts and fault-propagation folds induced repeated angular unconformities and impressive lateral variations in the Pliocene-Quaternary stratigraphy, causing thickness changes, from a few metres, close to the Apennines piedmont line, to more than 9 km, in fast subsiding depocenters (e.g. Lido di Savio). In the Ferrara region, the post-Miocene succession ranges from about 4 km, west of Sant'Agostino, to less than 200 m, on the Casaglia anticline, where Late Quaternary fluvial strata rest on Miocene marine marls, with an angular unconformity relationship. In this sector of the Po Plain, the tip-line of the northernmost thrust has been reconstructed north of the Po River (Occhiobello) and is associated with the growth of a large fold (Ferrara-Casaglia anticline), cross-cut by a complex splay of minor backthrusts and reverse faults. The thrust-anticline structure hosts an energy producing geothermal field, whose hydrogeological behaviour is largely influenced by the fracture pattern. The Apennines frontal thrust probably provided the seismic source for the earthquakes that severely damaged Ferrara, during the 1570 a.D. fall season, as documented by the structural damage still visible in many historic buildings (e

  7. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  8. Multiwavelength monitoring of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent multiwavelength monitoring of active galactic nuclei (AGN), particularly with the IUE satellite, has produced extraordinay advances in our understanding of the energy-generation mechanism(s) in the central engine and of the structure of the surrounding material. Examples discussed here include both ordinary AGN and blazars (the collective name for highly variable, radio-loud AGN like BL Lac objects and Optically Violently Variable quasars). In the last decade, efforts to obtain single-epoch multiwavelength spectra led to fundamentally new models for the structure of AGN, involving accretion disks for AGN and relativistic jets for blazars. Recent extensions of multiwavelength spectroscopy into the temporal domain have shown that while these general pictures may be correct, the details were probably wrong. Campaigns to monitor Seyfert 1 galaxies like NGC 4151, NGC 5548 and Fairall 9 at infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths indicate that broad-emission line regions are stratified by ionization, density, and velocity; argue against a standard thin accretion disk model; and suggest that X-rays represent primary rather than reprocessed radiation. For blazars, years of radio monitoring indicated emission from an inhomogeneous synchrotron-emitting plasma, which could also produce at least some of the shorter-wavelength emission. The recent month-long campaign to observe the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 has revealed remarkably rapid variability that extends from the infrared through the X-ray with similar amplitude and little or no discernible lag. This lends strong support to relativistic jet models and rules out the proposed accretion disk model for the ultraviolet-X-ray continuum.

  9. Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.

    1999-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, tides, hydrological water redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. With only a few exceptions on the Earth surface, the temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have the capability of monitoring certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. These techniques include the very-long-baseline interferometry, satellite laser ranging and Doppler tracking, and the Global Positioning System, all entail global observational networks. While considerable advances have been made in observing and understanding of the dynamics of Earth's rotation, only the lowest-degree gravitational variations have been observed and limited knowledge of geocenter motion obtained. New space missions, projects and initiatives promise to further improve the measurements and hence our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding and modeling capability of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as the solid Earth's response to such changes in constraining the modeling of Earth's mechanical properties.

  10. Geophysical Detection of Biomineralization Within Selenium Contaminated Lake Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.

    2006-05-01

    Geophysical measurements during active selenite reduction were made on lake sediment from Belews Lake in North Carolina that was verified to contain indigenous cultures known to precipitate the metalloid selenium. The sediment was wet-packed into columns with a mixture of Ottawa sand (80% sand, 20% sediment) to facilitate flow through the sediment. Electrical geophysical measurements were continually monitored as a selenite medium flowed through the column. Electrical conductivity of the influent and outflow solutions was also monitored and outflow samples, taken twice a day, were used to determine the selenite concentrations reduced within the column. Within a few days of beginning the experiment, the sediment/sand mixture within the column exhibited widespread red discoloration, confirming the microbial reduction of selenite to elemental selenium within the column. The electrical formation factor exhibited a smooth increase in time that we attribute to the continual precipitation of selenium biominerals. The geophysical dataset provides a novel means to ascertain rates of biomineralization within the column; information that is difficult to extract from aqueous or solid phase chemistry. The geophysical data indicate that most of the microbial activity occurred within the first 5 days of the experiment.

  11. Geophysical Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, E.

    1998-01-01

    Of the many geophysical remote-sensing techniques available today, a few are suitable for the water ice-rich, layered material expected at the north martian ice cap. Radio echo sounding has been used for several decades to determine ice thickness and internal structure. Selection of operating frequency is a tradeoff between signal attenuation (which typically increases with frequency and ice temperature) and resolution (which is proportional to wavelength). Antenna configuration and size will be additional considerations for a mission to Mars. Several configurations for ice-penetrating radar systems are discussed: these include orbiter-borne sounders, sounding antennas trailed by balloons and penetrators, and lander-borne systems. Lander-borne systems could include short-wave systems capable of resolving fine structure and layering in the upper meters beneath the lander. Spread-spectrum and deconvolution techniques can be used to increase the depth capability of a radar system. If soundings over several locations are available (e.g., with balloons, rovers, or panning short-wave systems), then it will be easier to resolve internal layering, variations in basal reflection coefficient (from which material properties may be inferred), and the geometry of nonhorizontal features. Sonic sounding has a long history in oil and gas exploration. It is, however, unlikely that large explosive charges, or even swept-frequency techniques such as Vibroseis, would be suitable for a Polar lander -- these systems are capable of penetrating several kilometers of material at frequencies of 10-200 Hz, but the energy required to generate the sound waves is large and potentially destructive. The use of audio-frequency and ultrasonic sound generated by piezoelectric crystals is discussed as a possible method to explore layering and fine features in the upper meters of the ice cap. Appropriate choice of transducer(s) will permit operation over a range of fixed or modulated frequencies

  12. Monitoring of Crew Activity with FAMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, L.; Cajochen, C.; Bromundt, V.

    2007-10-01

    The success of long duration space missions, such as manned missions to Mars, depends on high and sustained levels of vigilance and performance of astronauts and operators working in the technology rich environment of a spacecraft. Experiment 'Monitoring of Crew Activity with FAMOS' was set up to obtain operational experience with complimentary methods / technologies to assess the alertness / sleepiness status of selected AustroMars crewmembers on a daily basis. We applied a neurobehavioral test battery consisting of 1) Karolinska Sleepiness Scale KSS, 2) Karolinska Drowsiness Test KDT, 3) Psychomotor Vigilance Task PVT, combined with 4) left eye video recordings with an early prototype of the FAMOS Fatigue Monitoring System headset currently being developed by Sowoon Technologies (CH), and 5) Actiwatches that were worn continuously. A test battery required approximately 15 minutes and was repeated up to 4 times daily by 2 to 4 subjects. Here we present the data analysis of methods 1, 2, 3, and 5, while data analysis of method 4 is still in progress.

  13. Active chaotic excitation for bolted joint monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasel, Timothy R.; Todd, Michael D.; Park, Gyuhae

    2006-03-01

    Recent research has shown that high frequency chaotic excitation and state space reconstruction may be used to identify incipient damage (loss of preload) in a bolted joint. In this study, a new experiment is undertaken with updated test equipment, including a piezostack actuator that allows for precise control of bolt preload. The excitation waveform is applied to a macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch that is bonded to the test structure and is sensed in an active manner using a second MFC patch. A novel prediction error algorithm, based on comparing filtered properties of the guided chaotic waves, is used to determine the damage state of a frame structure and is shown to be highly sensitive to small levels of bolt preload loss. The performance of the prediction error method is compared with standard structural health monitoring damage features that are based on time series analysis using auto-regressive (AR) models.

  14. Geophysical exploration of an active pockmark field in the Bay of Concarneau, southern Brittany, and implications for resident suspension feeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, Agnès; Ehrhold, Axel; Rigolet, Carinne; Souron, Aurélie; Cordier, Céline; Clouet, Hélène; Dubois, Stanislas F.

    2014-06-01

    About a decade ago, a large field of pockmarks (individual features up to 30 m in diameter and <2 m deep) was discovered in water depths of 15-40 m in the Bay of Concarneau in southern Brittany along the French Atlantic coast, covering an overall area of 36 km2 and characterised by unusually high pockmark densities in places reaching 2,500 per square kilometre. As revealed by geophysical swath and subbottom profile data ground-truthed by sediment cores collected during two campaigns in 2005 and 2009, the confines of the pockmark field show a spectacular spatial association with those of a vast expanse of tube mats formed by a benthic community of the suspension-feeding amphipod Haploops nirae. The present study complements those findings with subbottom chirp profiles, seabed sonar imagery and ultrasonic backscatter data from the water column acquired in April 2011. Results show that pockmark distribution is influenced by the thickness of Holocene deposits covering an Oligocene palaeo-valley system. Two groups of pockmarks were identified: (1) a group of large (>10 m diameter), more widely scattered pockmarks deeply rooted (up to 8 ms two-way travel time, TWTT) in the Holocene palaeo-valley infills, and (2) a group of smaller, more densely spaced pockmarks shallowly rooted (up to 2 ms TWTT) in interfluve deposits. Pockmark pore water analyses revealed high methane concentrations peaking at ca. 400 μl/l at 22 and 30 cm core depth in silty sediments immediately above Haploops-bearing layers. Water column data indicate acoustic plumes above pockmarks, implying ongoing pockmark activity. Pockmark gas and/or fluid expulsion resulting in increased turbidity (resuspension of, amongst others, freshly settled phytoplankton) could at least partly account for the strong spatial association with the phytoplankton-feeding H. nirae in the Bay of Concarneau, exacerbating impacts of anthropogenically induced eutrophication and growing offshore trawling activities. Tidally driven

  15. 77 FR 19242 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...NMFS has received an application from Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (L-DEO), a part of Columbia University, for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine geophysical survey in the central Pacific Ocean, May through June, 2012. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting......

  16. An Automatic Tremor Activity Monitoring System (TAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, H.; Thompson, P. J.; Rogers, G.; Dragert, H.; Spence, G.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed an algorithm that quantitatively characterizes the level of seismic tremors from recorded seismic waveforms. For each hour of waveform at a given station, the process begins with the calculation of scintillation index and moving average with various time lengths. The scintillation index (essentially the `normalized variance of intensity of the signal') is adapted from the studies of pulses in radio waves and is an efficient tool to identify the energy bursts of tremor signals. Both scintillation index and moving average values are fed into a series of logic gates to determine if tremor activity exists. This algorithm is implemented in the Tremor Activity Monitoring System (TAMS) to provide automatic early alerts for episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events in the northern Cascadia margin. Currently, TAMS retrieves the digital waveforms recorded during the previous day from the Canadian National Seismographic Network (CNSN) archive server at 1 AM every morning. The detecting process is repeated for all stations and hours to determine the level of tremor activity of the previous day. If a sufficient number of stations within a radius of 100 km are determined to have tremor patterns and coherent tremor arrivals can be found at more than 3 stations, TAMS automatically sends out alert emails to a list of subscribers with a figure summarizing the hours and locations of coherent tremors. TAMS outputs are very consistent with the work done by visual inspection, especially for major ETS events. It is straightforward to configure TAMS into a near-real-time system that can send out hourly (or shorter) reports if necessary.

  17. Optimization and geophysical inverse problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.

    2000-10-01

    A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness

  18. Assessing heat tracing experiment data sets for direct forecast of temperature evolution in subsurface models: an example of well and geophysical monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, Thomas; Maria, Klepikova; Jef, Caers

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogeological inverse modeling is used for integrating data and calibrating subsurface model parameters. On one hand, deterministic approaches are relatively fast but fail to catch the uncertainty related to the spatial distribution of model parameters. On the other hand, stochastic inverse modeling is time-consuming and sampling the full high-dimensional parameter space is generally impossible. Even then, the end result is not the inverted model itself, but the forecast built from such models. In this study, we investigate a prediction-focused approach (PFA) in order to derive a direct statistical relationship between data and forecast without explicitly calibrating any models to the data. To derive this relationship, we first sample a limited number of models from the prior distribution using geostatistical methods. For each model, we then apply two forward simulations: the first corresponds to the forward model of the data (past), the second corresponds to the forward model of the forecast (future). The relationship between observed data and forecast is generally highly non-linear, depending on the complexity of the prior distribution and the differences in the two forward operators. In order to derive a useful relationship, we first reduce the dimension of the data and the forecast through principal component analysis (PCA) related techniques in order to keep the most informative part of both sets. Then, we apply canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to establish a linear relationship between data and forecast in the reduced space components. If such a relationship exists, it is possible to directly sample the posterior distribution of the forecast with a multi-Gaussian framework. In this study, we apply this methodology to forecast the evolution with time of the distribution of temperature in a control panel in an alluvial aquifer. We simulate a heat tracing experiment monitored with both well logging probes and electrical resistivity tomography. We show (1

  19. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing.

  20. Air-depolyable geophysics package

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.L.; Harben, P.E.

    1993-11-01

    We are using Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) diverse expertise to develop a geophysical monitoring system that can survive being dropped into place by a helicopter or airplane. Such an air-deployable system could significantly decrease the time and effort needed to set up such instruments in remote locations following a major earthquake or volcanic eruption. Most currently available geophysical monitoring and survey systems, such as seismic monitoring stations, use sensitive, fragile instrumentation that requires personnel trained and experienced in data acquisition and field setup. Rapid deployment of such equipment can be difficult or impossible. Recent developments in low-power electronics, new materials, and sensors that are resistant to severe impacts have made it possible to develop low-cost geophysical monitoring packages for rapid deployment missions. Our strategy was to focus on low-cost battery-powered systems that would have a relatively long (several months) operational lifetime. We concentrated on the conceptual design and engineering of a single-component seismic system that could survive an air-deployment into an earth material, such as alluvium. Actual implementation of such a system is a goal of future work on this concept. For this project, we drew on LLNL`s Earth Sciences Department, Radio Shop, Plastics Shop, and Weapons Program. The military has had several programs to develop air-deployed and cannon-deployed seismometers. Recently, a sonobuoy manufacturer has offered an air-deployable geophone designed to make relatively soft landings.

  1. A System for Monitoring Posture and Physical Activity Using Accelerometers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Abstract- Accelerometers can be used to monitor physical activity in the home over prolonged periods. We describe a novel system for...processing schema in which these parameters are extracted is described. Keywords - physical activity , accelerometers, congestive heart failure, chronic...When monitoring the condition of patients with neurodegenerative or chronic diseases, a knowledge of their body movement and physical activity

  2. 78 FR 33369 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine geophysical (i.e., seismic) survey in the deep water of the Gulf of Mexico, April to May...

  3. 78 FR 11821 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine geophysical (seismic) survey in the Gulf of Mexico, April to May, 2013. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to......

  4. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  5. Crosswell CASSM(Continuous Active-Source Seismic Monitoring): Recent Developments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, T. M.; Niu, F.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Solbau, R.; Silver, P. G.

    2009-12-01

    Continuous active-source monitoring using borehole sources and sensors in a crosswell configuration has proven to be a useful tool for monitoring subsurface processes (Silver, et al, 2007; Daley, et al, 2007; Niu, et al, 2008). This recent work has focused on two applications: monitoring stress changes related to seismicity and monitoring changes in fluid distribution related to geologic storage of CO2. Field tests have demonstrated precision in travel time measurement of up to 1.1 x 10-7 s, and in velocity perturbation measurement of up to 1.1 x 10-5 (Niu, et al 2008). In this talk I will summarize our preceding work and discuss current developments. Current efforts address both hardware and design challenges to improving the methodology. Hardware issues include deployment of multiple piezoelectric sources in shallow and deep boreholes, source and sensor deployment on tubing inside casing, and deployment with other monitoring instrumentation. Design issues are focused on use of multiple sources and/or sensors to obtain optimal spatial resolution for monitoring processes in the interwell region. This design issue can be investigated with optimal experiment design theory. New field experiments for monitoring seismicity (at SAFOD) and CO2 injection (at a US Dept of Energy pilot) are in the design/deployment stage. Current status of these projects will be discussed. References: Silver, P.G., Daley, T.M., Niu, F., Majer, E.L., 2007, Active source monitoring of crosswell seismic travel time for stress induced changes, Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, v97, n1B, p281-293. Daley, T.M., R.D. Solbau, J.B. Ajo-Franklin, S.M. Benson, 2007, Continuous active-source monitoring of CO2 injection in a brine aquifer, Geophysics, v72, n5, pA57-A61, DOI:10.1190/1.2754716. Niu, F., Silver, P.G., Daley, T.M., Cheng, X., Majer, E.L., 2008, Preseismic velocity changes observed from active source monitoring at the Parkfield SAFOD drill site, Nature, 454, 204-208, DOI:10

  6. Instructional physical activity monitor video in english and spanish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ActiGraph activity monitor is a widely used method for assessing physical activity. Compliance with study procedures in critical. A common procedure is for the research team to meet with participants and demonstrate how and when to attach and remove the monitor and convey how many wear-days are ...

  7. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. GRID based Thermal Images Processing for volcanic activity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiagli, S.; Coco, S.; Drago, L.; Laudani, A.,; Lodato, L.; Pollicino, G.; Torrisi, O.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the Catania Section of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) has been running the video stations recording the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, Stromboli and the Fossa Crater of Vulcano island. The video signals of 11 video cameras (seven operating in the visible band and four in infrared) are sent in real time to INGV Control Centre where they are visualized on monitors and archived on a dedicated NAS storage. The video surveillance of the Sicilian volcanoes, situated near to densely populated areas, helps the volcanologists providing the Civil Protection authorities with updates in real time on the on-going volcanic activity. In particular, five video cameras are operating on Mt. Etna and they record the volcano from the south and east sides 24 hours a day. During emergencies, mobile video stations may also be used to better film the most important phases of the activity. Single shots are published on the Catania Section intranet and internet websites. On June 2006 a A 40 thermal camera was installed in Vulcano La Fossa Crater. The location was in the internal and opposite crater flank (S1), 400 m distant from the fumarole field. The first two-year of data on temperature distribution frequency were recorded with this new methodology of acquisition, and automatically elaborated by software at INGV Catania Section. In fact a dedicated software developed in IDL, denominated Volcano Thermo Analysis (VTA), was appositely developed in order to extract a set of important features, able to characterize with a good approssimation the volcanic activity. In particular the program first load and opportunely convert the thermal images, then according to the Region Of Interest (ROI) and the temperature ranges defined by the user provide to automatic spatial and statistic analysis. In addition the VTA is able to analysis all the temporal series of images available in order to achieve the time-event analysis and the dynamic of the volcanic

  9. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611

  10. 77 FR 27189 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... reflection and refraction profiles to monitor the post-seismic response of the outer acretionary prism, the...-energy seismic methodology to monitor the post-seismic response of the outer accretionary prism, the...

  11. Application of borehole geophysics to fracture identification and characterization in low porosity limestones and dolostones

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical logging was conducted in exploratory core holes drilled for geohydrological investigations at three sites used for waste disposal on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Geophysical log response was calibrated to borehole geology using the drill core. Subsequently, the logs were used to identify fractures and fractured zones and to characterize the hydrologic activity of such zones. Results of the study were used to identify zones of ground water movement and to select targets for subsequent piezometer and monitoring well installation. Neutron porosity, long- and short-normal resistivity, and density logs exhibit anomalies only adjacent to pervasively fractured zones and rarely exhibit anomalies adjacent to individual fractures, suggesting that such logs have insufficient resolution to detect individual fractures. Spontaneous potential, single point resistance, acoustic velocity, and acoustic variable density logs, however, typically exhibit anomalies adjacent to both individual fractures and fracture zones. Correlation is excellent between fracture density logs prepared from the examination of drill core and fractures identified by the analysis of a suite of geophysical logs that have differing spatial resolution characteristics. Results of the study demonstrate the importance of (1) calibrating geophysical log response to drill core from a site, and (2) running a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs that can evaluate both large- and small-scale rock features. Once geophysical log responses to site-specific geological features have been established, logs provide a means of identifying fracture zones and discriminating between hydrologically active and inactive fracture zones. 9 figs.

  12. Detection of the Temporal Variations of Structure Sensitive Bodies by the Active Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, N.; Kumazawa, M.

    2004-12-01

    Observable phenomena that cause temporal variations of stress field related to generations of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions could be mainly the reflected wave from scattering sources. The heterogeneity in the lithosphere originated from both stress state and heterogeneous distribution of fluid-bearing rocks can be the scattering sources. Temporal variations of the scattering sources due to the structure sensitivity of rocks are essential characteristics of seismogenic regions as well as the active volcanic regions. The active geophysical monitoring would be the essential tool to detect and clarify such an evolving process that governed by the structure sensitivity of rocks in the crust and upper mantle. Among many structure sensitive phenomena, probable changes in the reflected seismic or electromagnetic signals are expected in the temporal variations of impedance and anisotropic dispersion of the transmitted signals in the subduction zone where the scattering sources are evolving associated with the movement of the fluid mainly composed of supercritical water in the crust and upper mantle conditions. Recently discovered slow slip events and deep non-volcanic tremors in the subduction zone could be one of the most challenging targets to clarify their characteristics by using the active monitoring techniques.

  13. Application of geophysical methods for environmental control in mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, K.; Muellerova, J.; Hofrichterova, L.

    1994-12-31

    In areas affected by mining operations, a variety of methods ar necessary to acquire information for making decisions related to environmental protection. Of great importance are geophysical methods to collect data about: seismic activity and seismic hazard in the area of interest; radon risk; damage to rock massif resulting from mining operations and development of subsidence depression as mining advances; inhomogeneities in compactness of gangue fills and defects in dams and roadbeds; and hydrodynamic changes and contamination of groundwater. The importance of geophysical methods has increased recently, particularly as applied to monitoring or to the repeatable measurement-variant on fixed points. In the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Basin, a seismic station of the first range OKP was built in 1980. Between 1986 and 1990, the regional diagnostic polygon was established, involving 10 three-component stations uniformly distributed throughout the Ostrava-Karvina Basin that allows seismic activity--both natural and, particularly, that induced by mining operations--to be monitored continuously. Analysis of seismic events related to the advance of mining and to engineering and geological conditions enabled researchers to develop a seismic hazard map for surface facilities. This map is useful for design purposes and for making decisions related to maintenance and damages. Emanation measurements, together with other geophysical methods (e.g., resistivity, seismic, acoustic, and thermic measurements), are utilized to determine stability conditions in the area and to observe development of subsidence depressions and slope deformations. Some of the results from these surveys are given.

  14. Linking geophysics and soil function modelling - two examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, J.; Franko, U.; Werban, U.; Dietrich, P.; Behrens, T.; Schmidt, K.; Fank, J.; Kroulik, M.

    2011-12-01

    iSOIL - "Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping" is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment. The iSOIL project aims at reliable mapping of soil properties and soil functions with various methods including geophysical, spectroscopic and monitoring techniques. The general procedure contains three steps (i) geophysical monitoring, (ii) generation of soil property maps and (iii) process modelling. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the methodological procedure on two different examples. Example A focuses on the turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM) since many soil functions in a direct or indirect way depend on SOM and SOM depletion is amongst the worst soil threats. Example B deals with the dynamics of soil water and the direct influence on crop biomass production. The applied CANDY model (Franko et al. 1995) was developed to describe dynamics of soil organic matter and mineral nitrogen as well as soil water and temperature. The new module PLUS extends CANDY to simulate crop biomass production based on environmental influences (Krüger et al. 2011). The methodological procedure of example A illustrates a model application for a field site in the Czech Republic using generated soil maps from combined geophysical data. Modelling requires a complete set of soil parameters. Combining measured soil properties and data of geophysical measurements (electrical conductivity and gamma spectrometry) is the basis for digital soil mapping which provided data about clay, silt and sand as well as SOC content. With these data pedotransfer functions produce detailed soil input data (e.g. bulk and particle density, field capacity, wilting point, saturated conductivity) for the rooted soil profile. CANDY calculated different indicators for SOM and gave hints about

  15. Geophysical fields of a megalopolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, A. A.; Loktev, D. N.; Rybnov, Yu. S.; Soloviev, S. P.; Kharlamov, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    A description of the Center of Geophysical Monitoring for Systematic Investigation of Negative Consequences for the Human Environment and Infrastructure of the City of Moscow Resulting from Natural and Technogenic Factors, which is part of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGD RAS), is presented. The results of synchronous observations of the seismic vibrations, electric and acoustic fields, and atmospheric meteoparameters performed at the Center and in the Mikhnevo Geophysical observatory of IGD RAS situated outside of the zone of the Moscow influence are examined. It is shown that the megalopolis influence consists of an increase in the amplitudes of the physical fields, a change in their spectral composition, and the violation of natural periodicities. A technogenic component that has a considerable impact on the natural physical processes in the surface atmosphere is an important factor that characterizes a megalopolis.

  16. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C.; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V.; Serrano, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature. PMID:26393604

  17. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V; Serrano, Juan J

    2015-09-18

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature.

  18. Imprints of Natural Phenomena and Human Activity Observed During 10 Years of ELF Magnetic Measurements at the Hylaty Geophysical Station in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieckarz, Zenon

    2016-12-01

    Current human activity produces strong electromagnetic pollution. The power spectrum in the extremely low frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) range is mainly polluted by anthropogenic narrow spectral lines at 16.66, 50, and 60 Hz and their harmonics. Meanwhile, signatures connected with natural phenomena appearing in the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere are also observed in the same frequency range. This paper presents the amplitude behaviour of the anthropogenic lines in the years 2005-2014 based on the 10 years of activity of the Hylaty station situated in southeast Poland. The analysis includes, i.a., an assessment of the correctness of the choice of the Bieszczady mountains as a location for the installation of an ELF station for long-term geophysical and climatological studies.

  19. Photocardiography: a novel method for monitoring cardiac activity in fish.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masayuki; Hirano, Ruriko; Shima, Takao

    2009-05-01

    A non-invasive technique to monitor cardiac activity in small fish, such as goldfish, zebrafish, and medaka, is needed. In the present study, we developed photocardiography (PCG), a non-invasive optical method, to record cardiac activity in small fish. The method monitors changes in near-infrared light transmission through the heart using a phototransistor located outside the body. With this technique, heartbeats in fish of various sizes (14-218 mm) were stably recorded. PCG was applied to monitor the heartbeat during fear-related classical heart rate conditioning in goldfish wherein an electrical shock was used as an unconditioned stimulus. The heartbeats were continuously monitored, even when the beat coincided with the electrical shock, showing that PCG is robust even in an electrically noisy environment. This technique is particularly useful when monitoring the heartbeats of fish of small size or in the presence of ambient electrical noise, conditions in which the use of conventional electrocardiography (ECG) is difficult.

  20. Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Pott, J.; Carlisle, S.

    1994-05-01

    In situ design verification activities am being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented.

  1. Serious games for Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes

  2. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    What is Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM)? The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) is an expandable habitat technology demonstration on ISS; increase human-rated inflatable structure Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to level 9. NASA managed ISS payload project in partnership with Bigelow Aerospace. Launched to ISS on Space X 8 (April 8th, 2016). Fully expanded on May 28th, 2016. Jeff Williams/Exp. 48 Commander first entered BEAM on June 5th, 2016.

  3. Environmental and Engineering Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prem V.

    1997-12-01

    Geophysical imaging methods provide solutions to a wide variety of environmental and engineering problems: protection of soil and groundwater from contamination; disposal of chemical and nuclear waste; geotechnical site testing; landslide and ground subsidence hazard detection; location of archaeological artifacts. This book comprehensively describes the theory, data acquisition and interpretation of all of the principal techniques of geophysical surveying: gravity, magnetic, seismic, self-potential, resistivity, induced polarization, electromagnetic, ground-probing radar, radioactivity, geothermal, and geophysical borehole logging. Each chapter is supported by a large number of richly illustrated case histories. This book will prove to be a valuable textbook for senior undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental and applied geophysics, a supplementary course book for students of geology, engineering geophysics, civil and mining engineering, and a reference work for professional earth scientists, engineers and town planners.

  4. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  5. High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula 2014, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-002-FA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth; Ackerman, Seth; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, David S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Brothers, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological Survey cruise was conducted in the summer of 2014 to map the inner continental shelf of the Delmarva Peninsula using geophysical and sampling techniques to define the geologic framework that governs coastal system evolution at storm-event and longer timescales. Data collected during the 2014 cruise include swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar, chirp and boomer seismic-reflection profiles, acoustic Doppler current profiler, and sample and bottom photograph data. Processed data in raster and vector format are released for the swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and seismic-reflection profiles. More information about the USGS survey conducted as part of the Hurricane Sandy Response-- Geologic Framework and Coastal Vulnerability Study can be found at the project website or on the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Field Activity Web pages:

  6. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  7. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics.

  8. High temperature geophysical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1988-06-01

    The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  9. Field and Laboratory GPR Monitoring of Biological Activity in Saturated Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoflias, Georgios; Schillig, Peter; McGlashan, Michael; Roberts, Jennifer; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of "biogeophysics". The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present a field study and a laboratory experiment that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Three competing mechanisms are postulated to cause the changes observed in the radar data: 1) biogenic gas production, 2) mineral dissolution, and 3) biomass growth. However, due to the inherent complexity and uncertainties associated with field experimentation, the relative effect of each mechanism on the GPR signal could not be confirmed. To overcome the limitations of field observations in assessing the response of GPR signals to biomass formation, a 90-day laboratory

  10. 76 FR 38412 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: Geological and Geophysical (G&G) Explorations of the OCS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... must preserve, protect, and develop oil and natural gas resources in a manner that is consistent with... compliance. We will protect information from respondents considered proprietary according to the Freedom of..., computers and software you purchase to prepare for collecting information, monitoring, and record...

  11. Multiscale geophysical imaging of the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsekian, A. D.; Singha, K.; Minsley, B. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Slater, L.

    2015-03-01

    Details of Earth's shallow subsurface—a key component of the critical zone (CZ)—are largely obscured because making direct observations with sufficient density to capture natural characteristic spatial variability in physical properties is difficult. Yet this inaccessible region of the CZ is fundamental to processes that support ecosystems, society, and the environment. Geophysical methods provide a means for remotely examining CZ form and function over length scales that span centimeters to kilometers. Here we present a review highlighting the application of geophysical methods to CZ science research questions. In particular, we consider the application of geophysical methods to map the geometry of structural features such as regolith thickness, lithological boundaries, permafrost extent, snow thickness, or shallow root zones. Combined with knowledge of structure, we discuss how geophysical observations are used to understand CZ processes. Fluxes between snow, surface water, and groundwater affect weathering, groundwater resources, and chemical and nutrient exports to rivers. The exchange of gas between soil and the atmosphere have been studied using geophysical methods in wetland areas. Indirect geophysical methods are a natural and necessary complement to direct observations obtained by drilling or field mapping. Direct measurements should be used to calibrate geophysical estimates, which can then be used to extrapolate interpretations over larger areas or to monitor changing processes over time. Advances in geophysical instrumentation and computational approaches for integrating different types of data have great potential to fill gaps in our understanding of the shallow subsurface portion of the CZ and should be integrated where possible in future CZ research.

  12. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Shore, R F; van den Brink, N W; van Hattum, B; Bustnes, J O; Duke, G; Fritsch, C; García-Fernández, A J; Helander, B O; Jaspers, V; Krone, O; Martínez-López, E; Mateo, R; Movalli, P; Sonne, C

    2014-06-01

    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for >20years; most monitoring was conducted for >5years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6-10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable

  13. Basic exploration geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to geophysical methods used to explore for natural resources and to survey earth's geology is presented in this volume. It is suitable for second-and third-year undergraduate students majoring in geology or engineering and for professional engineering and for professional engineers and earth scientists without formal instruction in geophysics. The author assumes the reader is familiar with geometry, algebra, and trigonometry. Geophysical exploration includes seismic refraction and reflection surveying, electrical resistivity and electromagnetic field surveying, and geophysical well logging. Surveying operations are described in step-by-step procedures and are illustrated by practical examples. Computer-based methods of processing and interpreting data as well as geographical methods are introduced.

  14. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  15. Synergy of tectonic geomorphology, applied geophysics and remote sensing techniques reveals new data for active extensional tectonism in NW Peloponnese (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoulis, Ioannis; Vassilakis, Emmanuel; Mavroulis, Spyridon; Alexopoulos, John; Dilalos, Spyridon; Erkeki, Athanasia

    2015-05-01

    In tectonically active areas, such as in the northwest Peloponnese of western Greece, geomorphic processes are strongly influenced by active faulting; in many cases such faults cannot be easily identified. In this paper we apply multidisciplinary analysis (morphotectonic indices, neotectonic mapping, geophysical surveys and remote sensing techniques) to map the recently-recognized east-west trending Pineios River normal fault zone with a high degree of accuracy, and to better understand its contribution to the evolution of the ancient region of Elis during Holocene time. Fault activity seems to be related to frequent changes in river flow patterns and to displacements of the nearby shoreline. We argue that fault activity is the main reason for migration of Pineios river mouth as documented for several time periods during historical time. Quantitative constraints on deformation caused by the faulting were applied through the application of the morphotectonic indices proposed in this paper, including drainage network asymmetry and sinuosity, and mountain front sinuosity, all of which indicate that this is a highly active structure. Slip rates calculated to be as high as 0.48 mm/yr for the last 209 ka (based on previously published dating) were verified by applied geophysical methods. The fault surface discontinuity was identified at depth using vertical electrical resistivity measurements and depositional layers of different resistivity were found to be clearly offset. Displacement increases toward the west, reaching an observed maximum of 110 m. The most spectacular landform alteration due to surface deformation is the north-south migration of the river estuary into completely different open sea areas during the late Quaternary, mainly during the Holocene. The sediment transport path has been altered several times due to these changes in river geometry with and the most recent seeming to have occurred almost 2000 years ago. The river estuary migrated to its

  16. Well-construction, water-level, geophysical, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.; Robinson, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-five wells were installed at 39 sites in the Arnold Air Force Base area in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. The wells were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Well depths ranged from 11 to 384 feet. Water-quality samples were collected from 60 wells and analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds. The median dissolved-solids concentrations were 60 milligrams per liter in the shallow aquifer, 48 million gallons per liter in the Manchester aquifer, 1,235 milligrams per liter in the Fort Payne aquifer, and 1,712 milligrams per liter in the upper Central Basin aquifer. Caliper, temperature, natural gamma, electric, neutron porosity, gamma-gamma density, and acoustic velocity borehole-geophysical logs were obtained for the six deep wells completed below the Chattanooga Shale. Petrographic and modal analysis were performed on rock samples from each deep well. These six deep wells provide the first information in the study area on hydraulic head and water quality from below the Chattanooga Shale.

  17. Electromagnetic geophysical observation with controlled source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    In the paper the new theoretical and methodical approaches are examined for detailed investigations of the structure and state of the geological medium, and its behavior as a dynamic system in reaction to external man-made influences. To solve this problem it is necessary to use geophysical methods that have sufficient resolution and that are built on more complicated models than layered or layered-block models. One of these methods is the electromagnetic induction frequency-geometrical method with controlled sources. Here we consider new approaches using this method for monitoring rock shock media by means of natural experiments and interpretation of the practical results. That method can be used by oil production in mines, where the same events of non stability can occur. The key ideas of twenty first century geophysics from the point of view of geologist academician A.N. Dmitrievskiy [Dmitrievskiy, 2009] are as follows. "The geophysics of the twenty first century is an understanding that the Earth is a self-developing, self-supporting geo-cybernetic system, in which the role of the driving mechanism is played by the field gradients; the evolution of geological processes is a continuous chain of transformations and the interaction of geophysical fields in the litho- hydro- and atmosphere. The use of geophysical principles of a hierarchical quantum of geophysical space, non-linear effects, and the effects of reradiating geophysical fields will allow the creation of a new geophysics. The research, in which earlier only pure geophysical processes and technologies were considered, nowadays tends to include into consideration geophysical-chemical processes and technologies. This transformation will allow us to solve the problems of forecasting geo-objects and geo-processes in previously unavailable geological-technological conditions." The results obtained allow us to make the following conclusions, according to the key ideas of academician A.N. Dmitrievskiy: the rock

  18. A fractured rock geophysical toolbox method selection tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Johnson, C.D.; Slater, L.D.; Robinson, J.L.; Williams, J.H.; Boyden, C.L.; Werkema, D.D.; Lane, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical technologies have the potential to improve site characterization and monitoring in fractured rock, but the appropriate and effective application of geophysics at a particular site strongly depends on project goals (e.g., identifying discrete fractures) and site characteristics (e.g., lithology). No method works at every site or for every goal. New approaches are needed to identify a set of geophysical methods appropriate to specific project goals and site conditions while considering budget constraints. To this end, we present the Excel-based Fractured-Rock Geophysical Toolbox Method Selection Tool (FRGT-MST). We envision the FRGT-MST (1) equipping remediation professionals with a tool to understand what is likely to be realistic and cost-effective when contracting geophysical services, and (2) reducing applications of geophysics with unrealistic objectives or where methods are likely to fail.

  19. Phillips Laboratory Geophysics Scholar Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    research at Phillips Laboratory . Research sponsored by Air Force Geophysics Laboratory ...Geophysics Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory , Geophysics Directorate), United States Air Force for its sponsorship of this research through the Air ...September 1993 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited PHILLIPS LABORATORY Directorate of Geophysics AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND

  20. Geophysical Model Research and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Walter, W; Tkalcic, H; Franz, G; Flanagan, M

    2004-07-07

    Geophysical models constitute an important component of calibration for nuclear explosion monitoring. We will focus on four major topics: (1) a priori geophysical models, (2) surface wave models, (3) receiver function derived profiles, and (4) stochastic geophysical models. The first, a priori models, can be used to predict a host of geophysical measurements, such as body wave travel times, and can be derived from direct regional studies or even by geophysical analogy. Use of these models is particularly important in aseismic regions or regions without seismic stations, where data of direct measurements might not exist. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the Western Eurasia and North Africa (WENA) model which has been evaluated using a number of data sets, including travel times, surface waves, receiver functions, and waveform analysis (Pasyanos et al., 2004). We have joined this model with our Yellow Sea - Korean Peninsula (YSKP) model and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) East Asia model to construct a model for all of Eurasia and North Africa. Secondly, we continue to improve upon our surface wave model by adding more paths. This has allowed us to expand the region to all of Eurasia and into Africa, increase the resolution of our model, and extend results to even shorter periods (7 sec). High-resolution models exist for the Middle East and the YSKP region. The surface wave results can be inverted either alone, or in conjunction with other data, to derive models of the crust and upper mantle structure. We are also using receiver functions, in joint inversions with the surface waves, to produce profiles directly under seismic stations throughout the region. In a collaborative project with Ammon, et al., they have been focusing on stations throughout western Eurasia and North Africa, while we have been focusing on LLNL deployments in the Middle East, including Kuwait, Jordan, and the United Arab Emirates. Finally, we have been

  1. EarthScope Content Module for IRIS Active Earth Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuillan, P. J.; Welti, R.; Johnson, J. A.; Shiffman, C. R.; Olds, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Active Earth Monitor (AEM) is an interactive computer-based display for university lobbies, museums, visitor centers, schools and libraries. AEM runs in a standard Internet web browser in full screen mode. The display consists of a customizable set of content pages about plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis. Low-cost and simple-to-implement, the Active Earth Monitor provides a way to engage audiences with earth science information without spending resources on a large exhibit. The EarthScope Active Earth Monitor content set highlights the connections between the landscape and the research and monitoring being conducted by EarthScope in partnership with regional monitoring networks. Modules consist of chapters that focus on What is EarthScope?, EarthScope Observatories, and EarthScope Research Results. Content topics are easily explored using a web page button type navigation interface via a touch screen or mouse. A formative evaluation of general public users informed the interface design. Chapters in the modules start with a general overview and proceed to detailed specifics. Each chapter utilizes at least one set of live or near real-time research data (often more than one). This exposes the general public to active ongoing research that is engaging, relevant to the individual user, and explained in easy to understand terms. All live content is updated each time a user accesses the individual page displaying the live data. Leading questions are presented allowing the user to examine the content before accessing the answer via pop-up box. Diagrams and charts of research data have explanatory keys that allow users to self explore all content. Content pages can be created and inserted in the Active Earth Monitor by utilizing the simple HTML/CSS coding.;

  2. Influence of Activity Monitor Location and Bout Duration on Free-Living Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.; Bennett, Gary G.; Bond, Kathleen S.; Webster, Michael D.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the location (ankle, hip, wrist) where an activity monitor (AM) is worn and of the minimum bout duration (BD) on physical activity (PA) variables during free-living monitoring. Study 1 participants wore AMs at three locations for 1 day while wearing the Intelligent Device for Energy…

  3. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section 884.2730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a...

  4. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section 884.2730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a...

  5. Geophysical investigation at Fort Detrick Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, J.L.; Simms, J.E.

    1993-07-01

    Results of a comprehensive, integrated geophysical investigation of 15 suspected disposal areas at Area B, Fort Detrick, Maryland, are presented. Between 1943 and 1969, Fort Detrick served as the nation's center for military offensive and defensive biological research. As a result of this activity, chemically and biologically contaminated materials were generated and disposed in burial pits at Site B. Based on historical and visual information, 15 sites suspected of containing burial pits were selected to be examined in greater detail using geophysical methods. The geophysical investigations were designed to detect anomalous conditions indicative of past disposal activities. The geophysical program included electromagnetic (EM), magnetic, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and seismic refraction methods. Anomalous conditions were found at several of the sites tested and noted. The anomalous conditions may have resulted from the presence of buried material or from physical and/or chemical soil changes caused by disposal activities.... Geophysics, Electromagnetics ground penetrating radar, Geophysical surveys, Magnetics, Seismic refraction.

  6. Monitoring eruptive activity at Mount St. Helens with TIR image data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, R.G.; Hook, S.J.; Ramsey, M.S.; Realmuto, V.J.; Schneider, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) data from the MASTER airborne imaging spectrometer were acquired over Mount St. Helens in Sept and Oct, 2004, before and after the onset of recent eruptive activity. Pre-eruption data showed no measurable increase in surface temperatures before the first phreatic eruption on Oct 1. MASTER data acquired during the initial eruptive episode on Oct 14 showed maximum temperatures of ???330??C and TIR data acquired concurrently from a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) camera showed maximum temperatures ???675??C, in narrow (???1-m) fractures of molten rock on a new resurgent dome. MASTER and FLIR thermal flux calculations indicated a radiative cooling rate of ???714 J/m2/S over the new dome, corresponding to a radiant power of ???24 MW. MASTER data indicated the new dome was dacitic in composition, and digital elevation data derived from LIDAR acquired concurrently with MASTER showed that the dome growth correlated with the areas of elevated temperatures. Low SO2 concentrations in the plume combined with sub-optimal viewing conditions prohibited quantitative measurement of plume SO2. The results demonstrate that airborne TIR data can provide information on the temperature of both the surface and plume and the composition of new lava during eruptive episodes. Given sufficient resources, the airborne instrumentation could be deployed rapidly to a newly-awakening volcano and provide a means for remote volcano monitoring. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Research e-infrastructure for "Geophysics" mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, V.; Mogilevsky, M.; Nazirov, R.; Eismont, N.; Melnik, A.

    2009-04-01

    Space mission "Geophysics" intended for monitoring of ionospheric plasma parameters, electromagnetic emission and solar activity. In the frame of the project will be launched five small satellites on solar-synchronous orbits: two satellites on circular orbit, altitude ~700 km, orbit plane - morning-evening, another two satellites at the same altitude but orbit plane - day-night and the last satellite - on elliptic orbit with ~1200 km apogee and ~400 km perigee. Such choice of spacecraft constellation configuration is so some extent similar to the configuration usually used for the Earth remote sensing tasks. It gives advantages for the project because it allows to apply technologies of remote sensing satellites practically off shelved. From the other side it gives new possibilities for geophysics experiments followed from the fact that the measurements may be considered as the ones done by the instruments having the size of the Earth scale. However it brings more strict requirements for information support of the mission in general and for ground segment particularly. In needs not only on-line processing but on-line interpretation too, operative feedback link between interpretation and operation subsystems etc. Satisfaction of such strict requirements from one side and necessity for using of existing ground resources (taking in account budget limitations) implied creating of unified ground information infrastructure for target payload of the mission. This e-infrastructure will cover traditional ground systems which are treated as systems based on Resource-Oriented Architecture (ROA) and will produce unified integration platform based on Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) which will collects all needed services and provides access to them in frame of unified cyber-infrastructure. The article describes technology and methodology aspects of design of this system.

  8. Monitoring cell concentration and activity by multiple excitation fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Li, J K; Asali, E C; Humphrey, A E; Horvath, J J

    1991-01-01

    Four key cellular metabolic fluorophores--tryptophan, pyridoxine, NAD(P)H, and riboflavin--were monitored on-line by a multiple excitation fluorometric system (MEFS) and a modified SLM 8000C scanning spectrofluorometer in three model yeast fermentation systems--bakers' yeast growing on glucose, Candida utilis growing on ethanol, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RTY110/pRB58 growing on glucose. The measured fluorescence signals were compared with cell concentration, protein concentration, and cellular activity. The results indicate that the behavior and fluorescence intensity of various fluorophores differ in the various fermentation systems. Tryptophan fluorescence is the best signal for the monitoring of cell concentration in bakers' yeast and C. utilis fermentations. Pyridoxine fluoresce is the best signal for the monitoring of cell concentration in the S. cerevisiae RTY110/pRB58 fermentation. In bakers' yeast fermentations the pyridoxine fluorescence signal can be used to monitor cellular activity. The NAD(P)H fluorescence signal is a good indicator of cellular activity in the C. utilis fermentation. For this fermentation NAD(P)H fluorescence can be used to control ethanol feeding in a fed-batch process.

  9. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 556, December 1990. Part 1 (prompt reports). Data for November, October 1990, and late data

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    ;Contents: Detailed Index for 1990; Data for November 1990--Solar-Terrestrial Environment, IUWDS Alert Periods (Advance and Worldwide), Solar Activity Indices, Solar Flares, Solar Radio Emission, Standford Mean Solar Magnetic Field; Data for October 1990--Solar Active Regions, Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances, Solar Radio Spectral Observations, Cosmic Ray Measurements by Neutron Monitor, Geomagnetic Indices; Late Data--Cosmic Rays Huancayo August 1990, Geomagnetic Activity Indices September 1990, International Geophysical Calendar 1991 with recommended scientific programs.

  10. Twenty-three Years of Evolving "State-of-the-Art" CORK Borehole Geophysical Monitoring: A Review of Technologies and Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. E.; Becker, K.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H. W.; Kinoshita, M.; Paros, J. M.; Inderbitzen, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    The first successful attempt to instrument an Ocean Drilling Program borehole for formation pressure and temperature monitoring and fluid sampling was accomplished in 1991 in Hole 857D, and the system there has been in nearly continuous operation since that time. This hole and others that followed have provided many new insights into ocean crustal and subduction zone hydrogeology and geodynamics, while at the same time being the "proving ground" for a number of technological advances in ocean borehole monitoring, including 1) the CORK scheme itself for sealing holes for hydrologic recovery to natural-state conditions after drilling; 2) the use of absolute pressure sensors for monitoring both relative formation pressures and changes in seafloor depth; 3) multi-level completions for pressure monitoring that leave cased borehole interiors open for other instrumentation; 4) the development of ultra-high-precision, low-power digital recording systems for examining the effects on the formation of seismic and microseismic loading; and 5) the proof-of-concept of an optical communications system that eliminates dependence on submersibles or ROVs for data download operations (see Tivey et al., this session). Relatively low-sample-rate data spanning the first part of the more than two decades of operations have shown how large anomalous pressures generated thermally and by deformation can be; how seafloor tidal loading influences formation pressure and can drive an "a.c." component of flow; and how seismogenic and slow strain can be observed by way of formation-fluid pressure transients. More recent instrumentation has allowed much higher fidelity observations (1 Hz sampling at a resolution of 10-8 of full-scale), and thus is permitting complementary studies of hydrologic, oceanographic, seismic, and microseismic phenomena. Plans for the future include connections to shore via observatory cable systems, such as those of NEPTUNE Canada and DONET, for unlimited power supply and

  11. Borehole Geophysical, Water-Level, and Water-Quality Investigation of a Monitoring Well Completed in the St. Francois Aquifer in Oregon County, Missouri, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.; Kleeschulte, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A deep (more than 2,000 feet) monitoring well was installed in an area being explored for lead and zinc deposits within the Mark Twain National Forest in southern Missouri. The area is a mature karst terrain where rocks of the Ozark aquifer, a primary source of water for private and public supplies and major springs in the nearby Eleven Point National Wild and Scenic River and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, are exposed at the surface. The potential lead deposits lie about 2,000 feet below the surface within a deeper aquifer, called the St. Francois aquifer. The two aquifers are separated by the St. Francois confining unit. The monitoring well was installed as part of a series of investigations to examine potentiometric head relations and water-quality differences between the two aquifers. Results of borehole flowmeter measurements in the open borehole and water-level measurements from the completed monitoring well USGS-D1 indicate that a seasonal upward gradient exists between the St. Francois aquifer and the overlying Ozark aquifer from about September through February. The upward potentiometric heads across the St. Francois confining unit that separates the two aquifers averaged 13.40 feet. Large reversals in this upward gradient occurred during the late winter through summer (about February through August) when water levels in the Ozark aquifer were as much as 138.47 feet higher (average of 53.84 feet) than water levels in the St. Francois aquifer. Most of the fluctuation of potentiometric gradient is caused by precipitation and rapid recharge that cause large and rapid increases in water levels in the Ozark aquifer. Analysis of water-quality samples collected from the St. Francois aquifer interval of the monitoring well indicated a sodium-chloride type water containing dissolved-solids concentrations as large as 1,300 milligrams per liter and large concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, boron, and lithium. In contrast, water in the overlying Ozark

  12. Limited activity monitoring in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Shic, Frederick; Bradshaw, Jessica; Klin, Ami; Scassellati, Brian; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2011-03-22

    This study used eye-tracking to examine how 20-month-old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n=28), typical development (TD) (n=34), and non-autistic developmental delays (DD) (n=16) monitored the activities occurring in a context of an adult-child play interaction. Toddlers with ASD, in comparison to control groups, showed less attention to the activities of others and focused more on background objects (e.g., toys). In addition, while all groups spent the same time overall looking at people, toddlers with ASD looked less at people's heads and more at their bodies. In ASD, these patterns were associated with cognitive deficits and greater autism severity. These results suggest that the monitoring of the social activities of others is disrupted early in the developmental progression of autism, limiting future avenues for observational learning.

  13. Monitoring and evaluating school nutrition and physical activity policies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer P; McKenna, Mary L; Butler, Gregory P

    2010-01-01

    Given the increase in the number of Canadian jurisdictions with school nutrition and/or physical activity policies, there is a need to assess the effectiveness of such policies. The objectives of this paper are to 1) provide an overview of key issues in monitoring and evaluating school nutrition and physical activity policies in Canada and 2) identify areas for further research needed to strengthen the evidence base and inform the development of effective approaches to monitoring and evaluation. Evaluation indicators, data sources and existing tools for evaluating nutrition and physical activity are reviewed. This paper has underscored the importance of identifying common indicators and approaches, using a comprehensive approach based on the WHO framework and ensuring that research capacity and funding is in place to facilitate high-quality evaluation efforts in the future.

  14. Active fault segments as potential earthquake sources: Inferences from integrated geophysical mapping of the Magadi fault system, southern Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuria, Z. N.; Woldai, T.; van der Meer, F. D.; Barongo, J. O.

    2010-06-01

    Southern Kenya Rift has been known as a region of high geodynamic activity expressed by recent volcanism, geothermal activity and high rate of seismicity. The active faults that host these activities have not been investigated to determine their subsurface geometry, faulting intensity and constituents (fluids, sediments) for proper characterization of tectonic rift extension. Two different models of extension direction (E-W to ESE-WNW and NW-SE) have been proposed. However, they were based on limited field data and lacked subsurface investigations. In this research, we delineated active fault zones from ASTER image draped on ASTER DEM, together with relocated earthquakes. Subsequently, we combined field geologic mapping, electrical resistivity, ground magnetic traverses and aeromagnetic data to investigate the subsurface character of the active faults. Our results from structural studies identified four fault sets of different age and deformational styles, namely: normal N-S; dextral NW-SE; strike slip ENE-WSW; and sinistral NE-SW. The previous studies did not recognize the existence of the sinistral oblique slip NE-SW trending faults which were created under an E-W extension to counterbalance the NW-SE faults. The E-W extension has also been confirmed from focal mechanism solutions of the swarm earthquakes, which are located where all the four fault sets intersect. Our findings therefore, bridge the existing gap in opinion on neo-tectonic extension of the rift suggested by the earlier authors. Our results from resistivity survey show that the southern faults are in filled with fluid (0.05 and 0.2 Ωm), whereas fault zones to the north contain high resistivity (55-75 Ωm) material. The ground magnetic survey results have revealed faulting activity within active fault zones that do not contain fluids. In addition, the 2D inversion of the four aero-magnetic profiles (209 km long) revealed: major vertical to sub vertical faults (dipping 75-85° east or west); an

  15. The value to the anaesthetist of monitoring cerebral activity.

    PubMed

    Langford, R M; Thomsen, C E

    1994-03-01

    The administration rate of general anaesthetic drugs is at present guided by clinical experience, and indirect indicators such as haemodynamic parameters. In the presence of muscle relaxants most of the clinical signs of inadequate anaesthesia are lost and accidental awareness may occur. A number of monitoring modalities, primarily based on analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been proposed for measurement of the anaesthetic depth. Moreover intraoperative cerebral monitoring may also provide the anaesthetist with early warning of cerebral ischaemia, or information on specific neurological pathways. To facilitate this, it is essential to combine analysis of the spontaneous EEG with recording of evoked potentials, to assess both cortical and subcortical activity/events. None of the reviewed methods, however promising, can alone meet all of the requirements for intraoperative monitoring of cerebral function. We suggest that the future direction should be to integrate several modalities in a single device, to provide valuable new information, upon which to base clinical management decisions.

  16. Measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra activities in natural waters using a radon-in-air monitor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, G.; Burnett, W.C.; Dulaiova, H.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Moore, W.S.

    2001-01-01

    We report a simple new technique for measuring low-level radium isotopes (224Ra and 226Ra) in natural waters. The radium present in natural waters is first preconcentrated onto MnO2-coated acrylic fiber (Mn fiber) in a column mode. The radon produced from the adsorbed radium is then circulated through a closed air-loop connected to a commercial radon-in-air monitor. The monitor counts alpha decays of radon daughters (polonium isotopes) which are electrostatically collected onto a silicon semiconductor detector. Count data are collected in energy-specific windows, which eliminate interference and maintain very low backgrounds. Radium-224 is measured immediately after sampling via 220Rn (216Po), and 226Ra is measured via 222Rn (218Po) after a few days of ingrowth of 222Rn. This technique is rapid, simple, and accurate for measurements of low-level 224Ra and 226Ra activities without requiring any wet chemistry. Rapid measurements of short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra, along with long-lived 226Ra, may thus be made in natural waters using a single portable system for environmental monitoring of radioactivity as well as tracing of various geochemical and geophysical processes. The technique could be especially useful for the on-site rapid determination of 224Ra which has recently been found to occur at elevated activities in some groundwater wells.

  17. Geophysical Fiber Interferometer Gyroscope.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-31

    gravitational antenna. Basically, their device was a Twyman -Green laser interferometer that was allegedly well-isolated from its thermal and...r ~AD-AO92 913 UTAH UNIV RESEARCH INST SALT LAKE CITY GEOSPACE SCIE-EYC F/B 20/6 GEOPHYSICAL FIBER INTERFEROMETER GYROSCOPE(U) .S DEC 79 L 0 WEAVER...ACCESSION no: S, 111CIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AF6ii M_ __ _ __I_ _ 4. TItLIL (eovm4jk"IU .TYEo nPaTawn.ocoet GEOPHYSICAL FIBER INTERFEROMETER GYROSCOPE. / 9

  18. Pre-Launch phase 2 rehearsal of the calibration and validation of soil moisture active passive (SMAP) geophysical data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in early November 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes L-band radar and radiometer measurements sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna...

  19. On-line Monitoring and Active Control for Transformer Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiabi; Zhao, Tong; Tian, Chun; Wang, Xia; He, Zhenhua; Duan, Lunfeng

    This paper introduces the system for on-line monitoring and active noise control towards the transformer noise based on LabVIEW and the hardware equipment including the hardware and software. For the hardware part, it is mainly focused on the composition and the role of hardware devices, as well as the mounting location in the active noise control experiment. And the software part introduces the software flow chats, the measurement and analysis module for the sound pressure level including A, B, C weighting methods, the 1/n octave spectrum and the power spectrum, active noise control module and noise data access module.

  20. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  1. Sentinel-1 Contribution to Monitoring Maritime Activity in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaria, Carlos; Greidanus, Harm; Fournier, Melanie; Eriksen, Torkild; Vespe, Michele; Alvarez, Marlene; Arguedas, Virginia Fernandez; Delaney, Conor; Argentieri, Pietro

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents results on the use of Sentinel-1 combined with satellite AIS to monitor maritime activity in the Arctic. Such activities are expected to increase, even if not uniformly across the Arctic, as the ice cover in the region retreats due to changes in climate. The objectives of monitoring efforts in the region can vary from country to country, but are generally related to increasing awareness on non- cooperative, small and cruise ships, fisheries, safety at sea, and Search and Rescue. A ship monitoring study has been conducted, involving more than 2,000 Sentinel-1 images acquired during one year in the central Arctic, where the ship densities are high. The main challenges to SAR-based monitoring in this area are described, solutions for some of them are proposed, and analyses of the results are shown. With the high detection thresholds needed to prevent false alarms from sea ice, 16% of the ships detected overall in the Sentinel-1 images have not been correlated to AIS- transmitting ships, and 48% of the AIS-transmitting ships are not correlated to ships detected in the images.

  2. Toward Active Monitoring of Piping Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joon-Soo; Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hee; Eom, Heung-Seop; Im, Kwang-Hee

    2004-02-26

    Piping in nuclear power plants is exposed to severe environmental conditions so that it is very susceptible to failure caused by the growth of defects. Thus, it is necessary to have thorough inspection of piping in order to detect defects before failure. Unfortunately, however, inspection of piping in nuclear power plants is not easy in practice because of its long length as well as the radioactive environment. To take care of this difficulty, a research endeavor to develop techniques to monitor piping in nuclear power plants continuously and actively using ultrasonic guided wave is currently undertaken. This paper reports initial results of our endeavor including design of an ultrasonic array system for active monitoring of piping.

  3. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  4. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOEpatents

    Beverly, Claude R.; Ernstberger, Harold G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  5. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOEpatents

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  6. Monitoring microbial growth and activity using spectral induced polarization and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Keating, Kristina; Revil, Andre

    2015-04-01

    Microbes and microbial activities in the Earth's subsurface play a significant role in shaping subsurface environments and are involved in environmental applications such as remediation of contaminants in groundwater and oil fields biodegradation. Stimulated microbial growth in such applications could cause wide variety of changes of physical/chemical properties in the subsurface. It is critical to monitor and determine the fate and transportation of microorganisms in the subsurface during such applications. Recent geophysical studies demonstrate the potential of two innovative techniques, spectral induced polarization (SIP) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for monitoring microbial growth and activities in porous media. The SIP measures complex dielectric properties of porous media at low frequencies of exciting electric field, and NMR studies the porous structure of geologic media and characterizes fluids subsurface. In this laboratory study, we examined both SIP and NMR responses from bacterial growth suspension as well as suspension mixed with silica sands. We focus on the direct contribution of microbes to the SIP and NMR signals in the absence of biofilm formation or biomineralization. We used Zymomonas mobilis and Shewanella oneidensis (MR-1) for SIP and NMR measurements, respectively. The SIP measurements were collected over the frequency range of 0.1 - 1 kHz on Z. mobilis growth suspension and suspension saturated sands at different cell densities. SIP data show two distinct peaks in imaginary conductivity spectra, and both imaginary and real conductivities increased as microbial density increased. NMR data were collected using both CPMG pulse sequence and D-T2 mapping to determine the T2-distribution and diffusion properties on S. oneidensis suspension, pellets (live and dead), and suspension mixed with silica sands. NMR data show a decrease in the T2-distribution in S. oneidensis suspension saturated sands as microbial density increase. A

  7. Geophysics News 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen

    The last two years have witnessed many major geophysical events such as the Loma Prieta earthquake, new insights into plate motions, new seismic and mid-ocean ridge observational programs, and new views of a distant planet. AGU's Public Information Committee, chaired by Debra Knopman of the U.S. Geological Survey, was asked by the American Institute of Physics to prepare a series of articles on the major topics in geophysics for publication in Physics News in 1990. Several of those papers did appear in the AIP publication. In the absence of a comparable publication devoted solely to a summary of news in geophysics, AGU is publishing the 20 articles solicited by the Public Information Committee as a booklet, Geophysics News 1990, that is being distributed to the media. The articles are also being published in Eos starting with this issue and continuing for the next several weeks. The topics covered in these articles range from the world's deepest rocks to the powerful blast waves from major solar flares.

  8. Contribution of geophysical data in delineating the active subsurface structures along the southeastern Mediterranean and northern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Salah; Elwan, Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    The solution obtained with 3D Euler deconvolution gives better-focused depth estimates, which are closer to the real position of sources; the results presented here can be used to constrain depth to active crustal structures (fault system, magmatic activity and subduction zones) for southeastern Mediterranean and northern Egypt. The results indicated that the area was affected by sets of structural systems, which primarily trended in the NE-SW to NNE-SSW and NW-SE, directions. The estimated shallow Bouguer results (for SI dikes, sills and flows models) shows an abrupt change depth values (1-8 km) almost clustered along the eastern segment of the Cyprian arc, Indicates continuation of the ophiolite at a depth below younger sediments of the Latakia and southern Antalya Basins. This means that, the Eratosthenes Seamount block is in the process of dynamically subsiding beneath Cyprus to the north and thrusted onto the Levantine Basin to the south. Nevertheless, the Cyprian arc region is dominated by several compressional shallow fault systems (0-4 km) trended E-W to WNW direction, which may initiated due to the northward-directed movement of Africa and ongoing subducting the Levant oceanic segment beneath the Tauric arc south of Cyprus. However, the deep magnetic depths (28 km, for SI of dipole model) correspond more closely to the Moho depth in the oceanic regions of marine part, with a high proportion of Younger Granites (Eratosthenes Seamount, Florence Rise, South Cyprus, eastern part of Levantine Basin and north Nile Cone) which are accompanied with low heat flow values. We can state that the clustering of most shallow earthquakes along this structures (especially beneath southern part of Florence Rise) may most likely be attributed to the active mantle upwelling (volcanic earthquakes), which are ultimately related to volcanic processes. Whereas, the Moho depth reaches to 35 km beneath the continental regions of Nile Delta basins and northern Sinai, which are

  9. Tools and data acquisition of borehole geophysical logging for the Florida Power and Light Company Turkey Point Power Plant in support of a groundwater, surface-water, and ecological monitoring plan, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacker, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs were obtained from selected exploratory coreholes in the vicinity of the Florida Power and Light Company Turkey Point Power Plant. The geophysical logging tools used and logging sequences performed during this project are summarized herein to include borehole logging methods, descriptions of the properties measured, types of data obtained, and calibration information.

  10. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-11-05

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0-60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems.

  11. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0–60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems. PMID:26538293

  12. Terrestrial Planet Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence

  13. An Interactive Geospatial Database and Visualization Approach to Early Warning Systems and Monitoring of Active Volcanoes: GEOWARN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogu, R. C.; Schwandner, F. M.; Hurni, L.; Dietrich, V. J.

    2002-12-01

    Large parts of southern and central Europe and the Pacific rim are situated in tectonically, seismic and volcanological extremely active zones. With the growth of population and tourism, vulnerability and risk towards natural hazards have expanded over large areas. Socio-economical aspects, land use, tourist and industrial planning as well as environmental protection increasingly require needs of natural hazard assessment. The availability of powerful and reliable satellite, geophysical and geochemical information and warning systems is therefore increasingly vital. Besides, once such systems have proven to be effective, they can be applied for similar purposes in other European areas and worldwide. Technologies today have proven that early warning of volcanic activity can be achieved by monitoring measurable changes in geophysical and geochemical parameters. Correlation between different monitored data sets, which would improve any prediction, is very scarce or missing. Visualisation of all spatial information and integration into an "intelligent cartographic concept" is of paramount interest in order to develop 2-, 3- and 4-dimensional models to approach the risk and emergency assessment as well as environmental and socio-economic planning. In the framework of the GEOWARN project, a database prototype for an Early Warning System (EWS) and monitoring of volcanic activity in case of hydrothermal-explosive and volcanic reactivation has been designed. The platform-independent, web-based, JAVA-programmed, interactive multidisciplinary multiparameter visualization software being developed at ETH allows expansion and utilization to other volcanoes, world-wide databases of volcanic unrest, or other types of natural hazard assessment. Within the project consortium, scientific data have been acquired on two pilot sites: Campi Flegrei (Italy) and Nisyros Greece, including 2&3D Topography and Bathymetry, Elevation (DEM) and Landscape models (DLM) derived from conventional

  14. Human psychophysiological activity monitoring methods using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Uzieblo-Zyczkowska, B.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of fiber optic sensor system for human psycho-physical activity detection. A fiber optic sensor that utilizes optical phase interferometry or intensity in modalmetric to monitor a patient's vital signs such as respiration cardiac activity, blood pressure and body's physical movements. The sensor, which is non-invasive, comprises an optical fiber interferometer that includes an optical fiber proximately situated to the patient so that time varying acusto-mechanical signals from the patient are coupled into the optical fiber. The system can be implemented in embodiments ranging form a low cost in-home to a high end product for in hospital use.

  15. On Planning and Exploiting Schumann Resonance Measurements for Monitoring the Electrical Productivity of Global Lightning Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtak, V. C.; Williams, E.

    2010-12-01

    The spatial-temporal behavior of world-wide lightning activity can be effectively used as an indicator of various geophysical processes, the global climate change being of a special interest among them. Since it has been reliably established that the lightning activity presents a major source of natural electromagnetic background in the Schumann resonance (SR) frequency range (5 to 40 Hz), SR measurements provide a continuous flow of information about this globally distributed source, thus forming an informative basis for monitoring its behavior via an inversion of observations into the source’s properties. To have such an inversion procedure effective, there is a series of prerequisites to comply with when planning and realizing it: (a) a proper choice of observable parameters to be used in the inversion; (b) a proper choice of a forward propagation model that would be accurate enough to take into consideration the major propagation effects occurring between a source and observer; (c) a proper choice of a method for inverting the sensitivity matrix. While the prerequisite (a) is quite naturally fulfilled by considering the SR resonance characteristics (modal frequencies, intensities, and quality factors), the compliance with prerequisites (b) and (c) has benefitted greatly from earlier seminal work on geophysical inversion by T.R. Madden. Since it has been found that the electrodynamic non-uniformities of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, primarily the day/night, play an essential role in low-frequency propagation, use has been made of theory for the two-dimensional telegraph equation (TDTE; Kirillov, 2002) developed on the basis of the innovative suggestion by Madden and Thompson (1965) to consider the waveguide, both physically and mathematically, by analogy with a two-dimensional transmission line. Because of the iterative nature of the inversion procedure and the complicated, non-analytical character of the propagation theory, a special, fast-running TDTE

  16. In-vessel activation monitors in JET: Progress in modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, Georges; Lengar, I.; Syme, B.; Popovichev, S.; Arnold, Dirk; Laubenstein, Matthias

    2008-10-15

    Activation studies were performed in JET with new in-vessel activation monitors. Though primarily dedicated to R and D in the challenging issue of lost {alpha} diagnostics for ITER, which is being addressed at JET with several techniques, these monitors provide for both neutron and charged particle fluences. A set of samples with different orientation with respect to the magnetic field is transported inside the torus by means of a manipulator arm (in contrast with the conventional JET activation system with pneumatic transport system). In this case, radionuclides with longer half-life were selected and ultralow background gamma-ray measurements were needed. The irradiation was closer to the plasma and this potentially reduces the neutron scattering problem. This approach could also be of interest for ITER, where the calibration methods have yet to be developed. The MCNP neutron transport model for JET was modified to include the activation probe and so provide calculations to help assess the new data. The neutron induced activity on the samples are well reproduced by the calculations.

  17. Advanced Performance Modeling with Combined Passive and Active Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dovrolis, Constantine; Sim, Alex

    2015-04-15

    To improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling of scientific data transfers on high-speed networks, the "Advanced Performance Modeling with combined passive and active monitoring" (APM) project investigates and models a general-purpose, reusable and expandable network performance estimation framework. The predictive estimation model and the framework will be helpful in optimizing the performance and utilization of networks as well as sharing resources with predictable performance for scientific collaborations, especially in data intensive applications. Our prediction model utilizes historical network performance information from various network activity logs as well as live streaming measurements from network peering devices. Historical network performance information is used without putting extra load on the resources by active measurement collection. Performance measurements collected by active probing is used judiciously for improving the accuracy of predictions.

  18. FINAL PROJECT REPORT: A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Slater

    2011-08-15

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing ~60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial variability in

  19. Non-Destructive Geophysical Monitoring of Near-Surface Water-Content: Comparison Between GPR Velocities Obtained From Surface and Well Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangue, M.

    2005-12-01

    Pollution of sub-surface aquifers is a major environmental problem. An important step would be the validation of a non-destructive methodology able to monitor water tranfers from the soil surface to the water table in quality and quantity. The study zone is situated in the alluvial plain of the Adour river in the northen Pyrénées piemont (France). It is located at the border of corn field where fertilizers and irrigation are applied. The alluvial deposits are composed of pebbles, sand, silt which overly an impermeable layer of clay with pebbles. From february 2002 to january 2003, multi-offset Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) profiling was conducted, completed with electrical conductivity measurements. From the obtained data, total porosity was determinated and the monitoring of vertical transport from soil surface to the water table was performed each month. To process GPR data, original technique were used, Common Refexion Surface Stack (CRS) for the RMS velocity estimation, followed by kriging for interpolation. In order to convert RMS velocities in time into interval velocity in depth, the classical Dix formula was used. In january 2004 and in june 2005, crosswell transmission GPR data were recorded so as to compare with the results obtained from the multi-offset GPR acquisition. The purpose is to validate the non-destructive surface methodology from different comparisons between the two datasets. Ten holes were drilled along the same profile every five meters with a six meters depth. Transmitter and receiver are in different holes and measurements were recorded from wells pair. From the crosswell GPR dataset, in a first step, only horizontal raypathes were considered, i.e., transmitter and receiver at the same depth and at a five meters distance. For such a subset, assumption of straight raypathes is reasonnable due to the weak dip of the soil layers that we can consider as sub-horizontal. Comparisons were made between velocities obtained from multi-offset GPR

  20. Design considerations in an active medical product safety monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Joshua J; Fireman, Bruce; Ryan, Patrick B; Maclure, Malcolm; Gerhard, Tobias; Toh, Sengwee; Rassen, Jeremy A; Nelson, Jennifer C; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Active medical product monitoring systems, such as the Sentinel System, will utilize electronic healthcare data captured during routine health care. Safety signals that arise from these data may be spurious because of chance or bias, particularly confounding bias, given the observational nature of the data. Applying appropriate monitoring designs can filter out many false-positive and false-negative associations from the outset. Designs can be classified by whether they produce estimates based on between-person or within-person comparisons. In deciding which approach is more suitable for a given monitoring scenario, stakeholders must consider the characteristics of the monitored product, characteristics of the health outcome of interest (HOI), and characteristics of the potential link between these. Specifically, three factors drive design decisions: (i) strength of within-person and between-person confounding; (ii) whether circumstances exist that may predispose to misclassification of exposure or misclassification of the timing of the HOI; and (iii) whether the exposure of interest is predominantly transient or sustained. Additional design considerations include whether to focus on new users, the availability of appropriate active comparators, the presence of an exposure time trend, and the measure of association of interest. When the key assumptions of self-controlled designs are fulfilled (i.e., lack of within-person, time-varying confounding; abrupt HOI onset; and transient exposure), within-person comparisons are preferred because they inherently avoid confounding by fixed factors. The cohort approach generally is preferred in other situations and particularly when timing of exposure or outcome is uncertain because cohort approaches are less vulnerable to biases resulting from misclassification.

  1. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, N.; Sánchez, P.; Schwartz, S. R.; Miyamoto, H.

    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique microgravity environment that these bodies possess, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesized through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical, and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging toward a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that are currently being used to investigate regolith processes occurring on small-body surfaces and that are contributing to the interpretation of observations and the design of future space missions.

  2. FRET-based optical assay for monitoring riboswitch activation.

    PubMed

    Harbaugh, Svetlana; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Davidson, Molly; Narayanan, Latha; Trott, Sandra; Chushak, Yaroslav G; Stone, Morley O

    2009-05-11

    Riboswitches are regulatory RNAs located in the 5'-untranslated region of mRNA sequences that recognize and bind to small molecules and regulate the expression of downstream genes. Creation of synthetic riboswitches to novel ligands depends on the ability to monitor riboswitch activation in the presence of analyte. In our work, we have coupled a synthetic riboswitch to an optical reporter assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two genetically encoded fluorescent proteins. The theophylline-sensitive riboswitch was placed upstream of the Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease coding sequence. Our FRET construct was composed of eGFP and a nonfluorescent yellow fluorescent protein mutant called REACh (for resonance energy-accepting chromoprotein) connected with a peptide linker containing a TEV protease cleavage site. Addition of theophylline to the E. coli cells activates the riboswitch and initiates the translation of mRNA. Synthesized protease cleaves the linker in the FRET-based fusion protein causing a change in the fluorescence signal. By this method, we observed an 11-fold increase in cellular extract fluorescence in the presence of theophylline. The advantage of using an eGFP-REACh pair is the elimination of acceptor fluorescence. This leads to an improved detection of FRET via better signal-to-noise ratio, allowing us to monitor riboswitch activation in a wide range of analyte concentrations from 0.01 to 2.5 mM.

  3. Monitoring Heparin Therapy with the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, R. K.; Michel, A.

    1971-01-01

    Difficulties associated with the whole blood clotting time (W.B.C.T.) as a method of monitoring heparin therapy have led to the investigation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (A.P.T.T.) as an alternative. The conclusion is reached that the latter procedure possesses several advantages. Using the method described and a citrate-preserved blood sample collected just prior to the administration of the next serial dose of heparin, the suggested therapeutic duration of the A.P.T.T. is 70 seconds or twice the mean control value. A practical range for this method is 60 to 70 seconds. PMID:5557913

  4. Monitoring rice farming activities in the Mekong Delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. F.; Chen, C. R.; Chiang, S. H.; Chang, L. Y.; Khin, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Half of the world's population depends on rice for survival. Rice agriculture thus plays an important role in the developing world's economy. Vietnam is one of the largest rice producers and suppliers on earth and more than 80% of the exported rice was produced from the Mekong Delta region, which is situated in the southwestern Vietnam and encompasses approximately 40,000 km2. Changes in climate conditions could likely trigger the increase of insect populations and rice diseases, causing the potential loss of rice yields. Monitoring rice-farming activities through crop phenology detection can provide policymakers with timely strategies to mitigate possible impacts on the potential yield as well as rice grain exports to ensure food security for the region. The main objective of this study is to develop a logistic-based algorithm to investigate rice sowing and harvesting activities from the multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Landsat fusion data. We processed the data for two main cropping seasons (i.e., winter-spring and summer-autumn seasons) through a three-step procedure: (1) MODIS-Landsat data fusion, (2) construction of the time-series enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2) data, (3) rice crop phenology detection. The EVI2 data derived from the fusion results between MODIS and Landsat data were compared with that of Landsat data indicated close correlation between the two datasets (R2 = 0.93). The time-series EVI2 data were processed using the double logistic method to detect the progress of sowing and harvesting activities in the region. The comparisons between the estimated sowing and harvesting dates and the field survey data revealed the root mean squared error (RMSE) values of 8.4 and 5.5 days for the winter-spring crop and 9.4 and 12.8 days for the summer-autumn crop, respectively. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the double logistic-based algorithm for rice crop monitoring from temporal MODIS-Landsat fusion data

  5. Environmental Monitoring Networks Optimization Using Advanced Active Learning Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, Mikhail; Volpi, Michele; Copa, Loris

    2010-05-01

    The problem of environmental monitoring networks optimization (MNO) belongs to one of the basic and fundamental tasks in spatio-temporal data collection, analysis, and modeling. There are several approaches to this problem, which can be considered as a design or redesign of monitoring network by applying some optimization criteria. The most developed and widespread methods are based on geostatistics (family of kriging models, conditional stochastic simulations). In geostatistics the variance is mainly used as an optimization criterion which has some advantages and drawbacks. In the present research we study an application of advanced techniques following from the statistical learning theory (SLT) - support vector machines (SVM) and the optimization of monitoring networks when dealing with a classification problem (data are discrete values/classes: hydrogeological units, soil types, pollution decision levels, etc.) is considered. SVM is a universal nonlinear modeling tool for classification problems in high dimensional spaces. The SVM solution is maximizing the decision boundary between classes and has a good generalization property for noisy data. The sparse solution of SVM is based on support vectors - data which contribute to the solution with nonzero weights. Fundamentally the MNO for classification problems can be considered as a task of selecting new measurement points which increase the quality of spatial classification and reduce the testing error (error on new independent measurements). In SLT this is a typical problem of active learning - a selection of the new unlabelled points which efficiently reduce the testing error. A classical approach (margin sampling) to active learning is to sample the points closest to the classification boundary. This solution is suboptimal when points (or generally the dataset) are redundant for the same class. In the present research we propose and study two new advanced methods of active learning adapted to the solution of

  6. A process activity monitor for AOS/VS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckosky, R. A.; Lindley, S. W.; Chapman, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    With the ever increasing concern for computer security, users of computer systems are becoming more sensitive to unauthorized access. One of the initial security concerns for the Shuttle Management Information System was the problem of users leaving their workstations unattended while still connected to the system. This common habit was a concern for two reasons: it ties up resources unnecessarily and it opens the way for unauthorized access to the system. The Data General MV/10000 does not come equipped with an automatic time-out option on interactive peripherals. The purpose of this memorandum is to describe a system which monitors process activity on the system and disconnects those users who show no activity for some time quantum.

  7. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-03-08

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (NM) impedance technique are sighted and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency EIM impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acoustic-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens, (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  8. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-02-29

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance technique are cited and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency E/M impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acousto-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  9. Differential actigraphy for monitoring asymmetry in upper limb motor activities.

    PubMed

    Rabuffetti, M; Meriggi, P; Pagliari, C; Bartolomeo, P; Ferrarin, M

    2016-09-21

    Most applications of accelerometry-based actigraphy require a single sensor, properly located onto the body, to estimate, for example, the level of activity or the energy expenditure. Some approaches adopt a multi-sensor setup to improve those analyses or to classify different types of activity. The specific case of two symmetrically placed actigraphs allowing, by some kind of differential analysis, for the assessment of asymmetric motor behaviors, has been considered in relatively few studies. This article presents a novel method for differential actigraphy, which requires the synchronized measurements of two triaxial accelerometers (programmable eZ430-Chronos, Texas Instruments, USA) placed symmetrically on both wrists. The method involved the definition of a robust epoch-related activity index and its implementation on-board the adopted programmable platform. Finally, the activity recordings from both sensors allowed us to define a novel asymmetry index AR24 h ranging from  -100% (only the left arm moves) to  +100% (only the right arm moves) with null value marking a perfect symmetrical behavior. The accuracy of the AR24 h index was 1.3%. Round-the-clock monitoring on 31 healthy participants (20-79 years old, 10 left handed) provided for the AR24 h reference data (range  -5% to 21%) and a fairly good correlation to the clinical handedness index (r  =  0.66, p  <  0.001). A subset of 20 participants repeated the monitoring one week apart evidencing an excellent test-retest reliability (r  =  0.70, p  <  0.001). Such figures support future applications of the methodology for the study of pathologies involving motor asymmetries, such as in patients with motor hemisyndromes and, in general, for those subjects for whom a quantification of the asymmetry in daily motor performances is required to complement laboratory tests.

  10. Active Volcano Monitoring using a Space-based Hyperspectral Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipar, J. J.; Dunn, R.; Cooley, T.

    2010-12-01

    Active volcanoes occur on every continent, often in close proximity to heavily populated areas. While ground-based studies are essential for scientific research and disaster mitigation, remote sensing from space can provide rapid and continuous monitoring of active and potentially active volcanoes [Ramsey and Flynn, 2004]. In this paper, we report on hyperspectral measurements of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Hyperspectral images obtained by the US Air Force TacSat-3/ARTEMIS sensor [Lockwood et al, 2006] are used to obtain estimates of the surface temperatures for the volcano. ARTEMIS measures surface-reflected light in the visible, near-infrared, and short-wave infrared bands (VNIR-SWIR). The SWIR bands are known to be sensitive to thermal radiation [Green, 1996]. For example, images from the NASA Hyperion hyperspectral sensor have shown the extent of wildfires and active volcanoes [Young, 2009]. We employ the methodology described by Dennison et al, (2006) to obtain an estimate of the temperature of the active region of Kilauea. Both day and night-time images were used in the analysis. To improve the estimate, we aggregated neighboring pixels. The active rim of the lava lake is clearly discernable in the temperature image, with a measured temperature exceeding 1100o C. The temperature decreases markedly on the exterior of the summit crater. While a long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensor would be ideal for volcano monitoring, we have shown that the thermal state of an active volcano can be monitored using the SWIR channels of a reflective hyperspectral imager. References: Dennison, Philip E., Kraivut Charoensiri, Dar A. Roberts, Seth H. Peterson, and Robert O. Green (2006). Wildfire temperature and land cover modeling using hyperspectral data, Remote Sens. Environ., vol. 100, pp. 212-222. Green, R. O. (1996). Estimation of biomass fire temperature and areal extent from calibrated AVIRIS spectra, in Summaries of the 6th Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, Pasadena, CA

  11. Geophysics publications honored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geophysics and geology publications by the U.S. Geological Survey were awarded one first- and two third-place prizes at the ‘Blue Pencil’ ceremony last month, sponsored by the National Association of Government Communicators.First place in the news release category went to Frank Forrester, an AGU member and recently retired USGS information officer. Editors and artists of the bimonthly USGS Earthquake Information Bulletin were awarded third place in the category for technical magazines using at least two colors.

  12. Evaluation of activity monitors in manual wheelchair users with paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V.; Ding, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of SenseWear® (SW) and RT3 activity monitors (AMs) in estimating energy expenditure (EE) in manual wheelchair users (MWUs) with paraplegia for a variety of physical activities. Methods Twenty-four subjects completed four activities including resting, wheelchair propulsion, arm-ergometry exercise, and deskwork. The criterion EE was measured by a K4b2 portable metabolic cart. The EE estimated by the SW and RT3 were compared with the criterion EE by the absolute differences and absolute percentage errors. Intraclass correlations and the Bland and Altman plots were also used to assess the agreements between the two AMs and the metabolic cart. Correlations between the criterion EE and the estimated EE and sensors data from the AMs were evaluated. Results The EE estimation errors for the AMs varied from 24.4 to 125.8% for the SW and from 22.0 to 52.8% for the RT3. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the criterion EE and the EE estimated by the two AMs for each activity and all activities as a whole were considered poor with all the ICCs smaller than 0.75. Except for deskwork, the EE from the SW was more correlated to the criterion EE than the EE from the RT3. Conclusion The results indicate that neither of the AMs is an appropriate tool for quantifying physical activity in MWUs with paraplegia. However, the accuracy of EE estimation could be potentially improved by building new regression models based on wheelchair-related activities. PMID:21528634

  13. Clinical value of monitoring eosinophil activity in asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Koller, D Y; Herouy, Y; Götz, M; Hagel, E; Urbanek, R; Eichler, I

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the use of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in monitoring disease activity in childhood asthma, serum ECP in 175 asthmatic children was assessed. Forty five patients with cystic fibrosis, 23 with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), and 87 healthy children were used as controls. Serum ECP concentrations (34.3 micrograms/l v 9.8 micrograms/l) were significantly higher in children with bronchial asthma than in healthy control subjects. In symptomatic patients with asthma serum ECP concentrations were increased compared with those from asymptomatic patients (40.2 micrograms/l v 14.4 micrograms/l), irrespective of treatment modalities (that is steroids, beta 2 agonists, or sodium cromoglycate). Moreover, atopy and infection appeared to be factors enhancing eosinophil activity in bronchial asthma as measured by serum ECP (58.4 micrograms/l v 36.8 micrograms/l and 68.8 micrograms/l v 42.2 micrograms/l, respectively). In a longitudinal trial, antiasthmatic treatment modalities (that is steroids) reduced serum ECP within four weeks (42.2 micrograms/l v 19.0 micrograms/l). In conclusion, the data indicate that (1) eosinophils also play a central part in childhood asthma; (2) serum concentrations of ECP in children with bronchial asthma are related to the disease severity and may thus be used for monitoring inflammation in childhood asthma; (3) eosinophil activity appears to be enhanced by atopy and infection; and (4) longitudinal measurements of serum ECP concentrations may be useful for optimising anti-inflammatory treatment in children with bronchial asthma. PMID:8554357

  14. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  15. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the VLBI system at the fundamental station GGAO. It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the report year. The Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) consists of a 5-meter radio telescope for VLBI, a new 12-meter radio telescope for VLBI2010 development, a 1-meter reference antenna for microwave holography development, an SLR site that includes MOBLAS-7, the NGSLR development system, and a 48" telescope for developmental two-color Satellite Laser Ranging, a GPS timing and development lab, a DORIS system, meteorological sensors, and a hydrogen maser. In addition, we are a fiducial IGS site with several IGS/IGSX receivers. GGAO is located on the east coast of the United States in Maryland. It is approximately 15 miles NNE of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland.

  16. IDEEA activity monitor: validity of activity recognition for lying, reclining, sitting and standing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuyu; Larson, Janet L

    2013-03-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates the independent negative effects of sedentary behavior on health, but there are few objective measures of sedentary behavior. Most instruments measure physical activity and are not validated as measures of sedentary behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the IDEEA system's measures of sedentary and low-intensity physical activities: lying, reclining, sitting and standing. Thirty subjects, 14 men and 16 women, aged 23 to 77 years, body mass index (BMI) between 18 to 34 kg/m(2), participated in the study. IDEEA measures were compared to direct observation for 27 activities: 10 lying in bed, 3 lying on a sofa, 1 reclining in a lawn chair, 10 sitting and 3 standing. Two measures are reported, the percentage of activities accurately identified and the percentage of monitored time that was accurately labeled by the IDEEA system for all subjects. A total of 91.6% of all observed activities were accurately identified and 92.4% of the total monitored time was accurately labeled. The IDEEA system did not accurately differentiate between lying and reclining so the two activities were combined for calculating accuracy. Using this approach the IDEEA system accurately identified 96% of sitting activities for a total of 97% of the monitored sitting time, 99% and 99% for standing, 87% and 88% for lying in bed, 87% and 88% for lying on the sofa, and 83% and 83% for reclining on a lawn chair. We conclude that the IDEEA system accurately recognizes sitting and standing positions, but it is less accurate in identifying lying and reclining positions. We recommend combining the lying and reclining activities to improve accuracy. The IDEEA system enables researchers to monitor lying, reclining, sitting and standing with a reasonable level of accuracy and has the potential to advance the science of sedentary behaviors and low-intensity physical activities.

  17. Single-Molecule Electronic Monitoring of DNA Polymerase Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marushchak, Denys O.; Pugliese, Kaitlin M.; Turvey, Mackenzie W.; Choi, Yongki; Gul, O. Tolga; Olsen, Tivoli J.; Rajapakse, Arith J.; Weiss, Gregory A.; Collins, Philip G.

    Single-molecule techniques can reveal new spatial and kinetic details of the conformational changes occurring during enzymatic catalysis. Here, we investigate the activity of DNA polymerases using an electronic single-molecule technique based on carbon nanotube transistors. Single molecules of the Klenow fragment (KF) of polymerase I were conjugated to the transistors and then monitored via fluctuations in electrical conductance. Continuous, long-term monitoring recorded single KF molecules incorporating up to 10,000 new bases into single-stranded DNA templates. The duration of individual incorporation events was invariant across all analog and native nucleotides, indicating that the precise structure of different base pairs has no impact on the timing of incorporation. Despite similar timings, however, the signal magnitudes generated by certain analogs reveal alternate conformational states that do not occur with native nucleotides. The differences induced by these analogs suggest that the electronic technique is sensing KF's O-helix as it tests the stability of nascent base pairs.

  18. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.

    PubMed

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere.

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Monitoring of Light-Activated Motorized Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Pinn-Tsong

    Our group has developed a family of single molecules termed nanocars, which are aimed at performing controllable motion on surfaces. In this work, a series of light-activated motorized nanomachines incorporated with a MHz frequency light-activated unidirectional rotary motor were designed and synthesized. We hope the light-activated motor can serve as the powering unit for the nanomachines, and perform controllable translational motion on surfaces or in solution. A series of motorized nanovehicles intended for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging were designed and synthesized. A p-carborane-wheeled motorized nanocar was synthesized and monitored by STM. Single-molecule imaging was accomplished on a Cu(111) surface. However, further manipulations did lead to motor induced lateral motion. We attributed this result to the strong molecule-surface interactions between the p-carborane-wheeled nanocar and the Cu(111) surface and possible energy transfer between the rotary motor and the Cu(111) surface. To fine-tune the molecule-surface interactions, an adamantane-wheeled motorized nanocar and a three-wheel nanoroadster were designed and synthesized. In addition, the STM substrates will be varied and different combinations of molecule-surface interactions will be studied. As a complimentary imaging method to STM, single-molecule fluorescence microscopy (SMFM) also provides single-molecule level resolution. Unlike STM experiment requires ultra-high vacuum and conductive substrate, SMFM experiment is conducted at ambient conditions and uses non-conductive substrate. This imaging method allows us to study another category of molecule-surface interactions. We plan to design a fluorescent motorized nanocar that is suitable for SMFM studies. However, both the motor and fluorophore are photochemically active molecules. In proximity, some undesired energy transfer or interference could occur. A cyanine 5- (cy5-) tagged motorized nanocar incorporated with the MHz motor was

  20. Multi-level continuous active source seismic monitoring (ML-CASSM): Application to shallow hydrofracture monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.; Butler-Veytia, B.; Peterson, J.; Gasperikova, E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    Induced subsurface processes occur over a wide variety of time scales ranging from seconds (e.g. fracture initiation) to days (e.g. unsteady multiphase flow) and weeks (e.g. induced mineral precipitation). Active source seismic monitoring has the potential to dynamically characterize such alterations and allow estimation of spatially localized rates. However, even optimal timelapse seismic surveys have limited temporal resolution due to both the time required to acquire a survey and the cost of continuous field deployment of instruments and personnel. Traditional timelapse surveys are also limited by experimental repeatability due to a variety of factors including geometry replication and near-surface conditions. Recent research has demonstrated the value of semi-permanently deployed seismic systems with fixed sources and receivers for use in monitoring a variety of processes including near-surface stress changes (Silver et.al. 2007), subsurface movement of supercritical CO2 (Daley et.al. 2007), and preseismic velocity changes in fault regions (Niu et. al. 2008). This strategy, referred to as continuous active source seismic monitoring (CASSM), allows both precise quantification of traveltime changes on the order of 1.1 x 10-7 s and temporal sampling on the order of minutes. However, as previously deployed, CASSM often sacrifices spatial resolution for temporal resolution with previous experiments including only a single source level. We present results from the first deployment of CASSM with a large number of source levels under automated control. Our system is capable of autonomously acquiring full tomographic datasets (10 sources, 72 receivers) in 3 minutes without human intervention, thus allowing active source seismic imaging (rather than monitoring) of processes with short durations. Because no sources or receivers are moved in the acquisition process, signal repeatability is excellent and subtle waveform changes can be interpreted with increased confidence

  1. Use of Small Fluorescent Molecules to Monitor Channel Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sharon; Stringer, Sarah; Naik, Rajesh; Stone, Morley

    2001-03-01

    The Mechanosensitive channel of Large conductance (MscL) allows bacteria to rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions such as osmolarity. The MscL channel opens in response to increases in membrane tension, which allows for the efflux of cytoplasmic constituents. Here we describe the cloning and expression of Salmonella typhimurium MscL (St-MscL). Using a fluorescence efflux assay, we demonstrate that efflux through the MscL channel during hypoosmotic shock can be monitored using endogenously produced fluorophores. In addition, we observe that thermal stimulation, i.e., heat shock, can also induce efflux through MscL. We present the first evidence of thermal activation of MscL efflux by heat shocking cells expressing the S. typhimurium protein variant. This finding has significant biosensor implications, especially for investigators exploring the use of channel proteins in biosensor applications. Thermal biosensors are relatively unexplored, but would have considerable commercial and military utility.

  2. Automatic Video System for Continues Monitoring of the Meteor Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koten, Pavel; Fliegel, Karel; Vítek, Stanislav; Páta, Petr

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we present current progress in development of new observational instruments for the double station video experiment. The Meteor Automatic Imager and Analyser (MAIA) system is based on digital monochrome camera JAI CM-040 and well proved image intensifier XX1332. Both the observations as well as the data processing will be fully automatic. We are expecting the recorded data of better quality and both spatial and time resolution in comparison with currently used analogue system. The main goal of the MAIA project is to monitor activity of the meteor showers and sporadic meteor each night for the period of at least 3 years. First version of the system was already assembled and has been intensively tested in the optical laboratory. Optical properties were measured and the result confirmed our expectations according to image quality and resolution. First night sky observation was already carried out.

  3. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  4. Detection of physical activities using a physical activity monitor system for wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Intille, Stephen S; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rory A; Ding, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Availability of physical activity monitors for wheelchair users can potentially assist these individuals to track regular physical activity (PA), which in turn could lead to a healthier and more active lifestyle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate algorithms for a physical activity monitoring system (PAMS) to detect wheelchair based activities. The PAMS consists of a gyroscope based wheel rotation monitor (G-WRM) and an accelerometer device (wocket) worn on the upper arm or on the wrist. A total of 45 persons with spinal cord injury took part in the study, which was performed in a structured university-based laboratory environment, a semi-structured environment at the National Veterans Wheelchair Games, and in the participants' home environments. Participants performed at least ten PAs, other than resting, taken from a list of PAs. The classification performance for the best classifiers on the testing dataset for PAMS-Arm (G-WRM and wocket on upper arm) and PAMS-Wrist (G-WRM and wocket on wrist) was 89.26% and 88.47%, respectively. The outcomes of this study indicate that multi-modal information from the PAMS can help detect various types of wheelchair-based activities in structured laboratory, semi-structured organizational, and unstructured home environments.

  5. INDIRECT MEASUREMENT OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY TO MONITOR NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The remediation of ground water contamination by natural attenuation, specifically biodegradation, requires continual monitoring. This research is aimed at improving methods for evaluating the long-term performance of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA), specifically changes in ...

  6. [Development of a wearable electrocardiogram monitor with recognition of physical activity scene].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zihong; Wu, Baoming; Yin, Jian; Gong, Yushun

    2012-10-01

    To overcome the problems of current electrocardiogram (ECG) tele-monitoring devices used for daily life, according to information fusion thought and by means of wearable technology, we developed a new type of wearable ECG monitor with the capability of physical activity recognition in this paper. The ECG monitor synchronously detected electrocardiogram signal and body acceleration signal, and recognized the scene information of physical activity, and finally determined the health status of the heart. With the advantages of accuracy for measurement, easy to use, comfort to wear, private feelings and long-term continuous in monitoring, this ECG monitor is quite fit for the heart-health monitoring in daily life.

  7. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, F. H.

    In the past 8 years, since Pedlosky's book was first published, it has found a well established place in the literature of dynamical meteorology and physical oceanography. Geophysicists less familiar with these fields may need to be reminded that the subject of geophysical fluid dynamics, in the narrow definition used in the title of the book, refers to the theory of the large-scale motions of the atmosphere and the oceans. Topics such as thermal convection in the atmosphere or in Earth's mantle and core are not treated in this book, and the reader will search in vain for a discussion of atmospheric or oceanic tides. The theory of quasi-geostrophic flow is described comprehensively, however, and its major applications to problems of atmospheric and oceanic circulations are considered in detail.

  8. Sampling functions for geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

  9. Geophysics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A physical model of Mars is presented on the basis of light-scattering observations of the Martian atmosphere and surface and interior data obtained from observations of the geopotential field. A general description of the atmosphere is presented, with attention given to the circulation and the various cloud types, and data and questions on the blue haze-clearing effect and the seasonal darkening wave are summarized and the Mie scattering model developed to explain these observations is presented. The appearance of the planet from earth and spacecraft through Mariner 9 is considered, and attention is given to the preparation of topographical contour maps, the canal problem and large-scale lineaments observed from Mariner 9, the gravity field and shape of the planet and the application of Runcorn's geoid/convection theory to Mars. Finally, a summary of Viking results is presented and their application to the understanding of Martian geophysics is discussed.

  10. Using VHF Lightning Observations to Monitor Explosive Volcanic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.; McNutt, S. R.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Edens, H. E.

    2011-12-01

    Lightning is an integral part of explosive volcanic eruptions and volcanic lightning measurements are a useful tool for volcano monitoring. VHF measurements of volcanic lightning can be made remotely, at distances of up to 100 km. A strategically placed network of 6 or more VHF ground stations could locate lightning in eruption columns from several regional volcanoes, and a minimum of two stations could be used to monitor a single volcano. Such a network would be particularly useful for detection or confirmation of explosive activity in situations where volcanoes are remotely located, and thus lack visual observations, or are not well instrumented with seismic networks. Furthermore, clouds are fully transparent to VHF signals, making lightning detection possible even when weather obscures visual observations. Recent VHF observations of volcanic lightning at Augustine Volcano (Alaska, USA, 2006), Redoubt Volcano (Alaska, USA, 2009) and Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland, 2010) have shown that two basic types of VHF signals are observed during volcanic eruptions, one of which is unique to volcanic activity. The unique signal, referred to as a 'continual RF' signal, was caused by very high rates of small 'vent discharges' occurring directly above the vent in the eruption column and was unlike any observations of lightning in meteorological thunderstorms. Vent discharges were observed to begin immediately following an explosive eruption. The second type of signal is from conventional lightning discharges, such as upward directed 'near-vent lightning' and isolated 'plume lightning.' Near-vent lightning was observed to begin 1-2 minutes following the onset of an explosive eruption while plume lightning began 4 or more minutes after the onset. At Redoubt the plume lightning occurred at such high rates that it rivaled lightning rates of supercell thunderstorms on the Great Plains of the United States. While both types of lightning signals can be used as indicators that explosive

  11. Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.

    1989-12-01

    A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per {mu}Ci/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 {mu}s, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for {sup 18}F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Smart helmet: Monitoring brain, cardiac and respiratory activity.

    PubMed

    von Rosenberg, Wilhelm; Chanwimalueang, Theerasak; Goverdovsky, Valentin; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-01-01

    The timing of the assessment of the injuries following a road-traffic accident involving motorcyclists is absolutely crucial, particularly in the events with head trauma. Standard apparatus for monitoring cardiac activity is usually attached to the limbs or the torso, while the brain function is routinely measured with a separate unit connected to the head-mounted sensors. In stark contrast to these, we propose an integrated system which incorporates the two functionalities inside an ordinary motorcycle helmet. Multiple fabric electrodes were mounted inside the helmet at positions featuring good contact with the skin at different sections of the head. The experimental results demonstrate that the R-peaks (and therefore the heart rate) can be reliably extracted from potentials measured with electrodes on the mastoids and the lower jaw, while the electrodes on the forehead enable the observation of neural signals. We conclude that various vital sings and brain activity can be readily recorded from the inside of a helmet in a comfortable and inconspicuous way, requiring only a negligible setup effort.

  13. Active Learning Framework for Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Xin

    2016-05-16

    Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is a set of techniques that estimate the electricity usage of individual appliances from power measurements taken at a limited number of locations in a building. One of the key challenges in NILM is having too much data without class labels yet being unable to label the data manually for cost or time constraints. This paper presents an active learning framework that helps existing NILM techniques to overcome this challenge. Active learning is an advanced machine learning method that interactively queries a user for the class label information. Unlike most existing NILM systems that heuristically request user inputs, the proposed method only needs minimally sufficient information from a user to build a compact and yet highly representative load signature library. Initial results indicate the proposed method can reduce the user inputs by up to 90% while still achieving similar disaggregation performance compared to a heuristic method. Thus, the proposed method can substantially reduce the burden on the user, improve the performance of a NILM system with limited user inputs, and overcome the key market barriers to the wide adoption of NILM technologies.

  14. Targeted Proteomics Approaches To Monitor Microbial Activity In Basalt Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paszczynski, A. J.; Paidisetti, R.

    2007-12-01

    Microorganisms play a major role in biogeochemical cycles of the Earth. Information regarding microbial community composition can be very useful for environmental monitoring since the short generation times of microorganisms allows them to respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Microbial mediated attenuation of toxic chemicals offers great potential for the restoration of contaminated environments in an ecologically acceptable manner. Current knowledge regarding the structure and functional activities of microbial communities is limited, but more information is being acquired every day through many genomic- and proteomic- based methods. As of today, only a small fraction of the Earth's microorganisms has been cultured, and so most of the information regarding the biodegradation and therapeutic potentials of these uncultured microorganisms remains unknown. Sequence analysis of DNA and/or RNA has been used for identifying specific microorganisms, to study the community composition, and to monitor gene expression providing limited information about metabolic state of given microbial system. Proteomic studies can reveal information regarding the real-time metabolic state of the microbial communities thereby aiding in understanding their interaction with the environment. In research described here the involvement of microbial communities in the degradation of anthropogenic contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE) was studied using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. The co- metabolic degradation of TCE in the groundwater of the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Test Area North (TAN) site of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was monitored by the characterization of peptide sequences of enzymes such as methane monooxygenases (MMOs). MMOs, expressed by methanotrophic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of methane and non-specific co-metabolic oxidation of TCE. We developed a time- course cell lysis method to release proteins from complex microbial

  15. Effect of solar activity and geophysical disturbance on physical-chemical processes in liquid medium: Preliminary analysis of storm-glass activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovsky, E. A.; Tarashchuk, V. P.; Vladimirsky, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    Changes in the state of a solution in storm glasses (Fitzroy retort) have been recorded by measuring the height of the level of crystals. Devices manufactured by a group of Crimean researchers have been used to measure these characteristics daily since 1995. Fragments of an accumulated observation dataset have been processed employing standard meteorological and cosmophysical indices. It is found that, 2-3 days before isolated sharp drops in the atmospheric pressure, crystal formation intensifies synchronously in two devices. A relationship is found between the activity under study and changes in the A p geomagnetic-disturbance index and the flare-intensity index. There is a set of quasi-stable periods in variations of the activity of storm glasses, of which the 120-, 185-, and 360-day periods are most significant. The obtained results are generally consistent with views that changes in the background electromagnetic low-frequency fields are a physical agent influencing the process of crystal formation.

  16. A bioluminescent caspase-1 activity assay rapidly monitors inflammasome activation in cells.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Martha; Moehring, Danielle; Muñoz-Planillo, Raúl; Núñez, Gabriel; Callaway, Justin; Ting, Jenny; Scurria, Mike; Ugo, Tim; Bernad, Laurent; Cali, James; Lazar, Dan

    2017-03-04

    Inflammasomes are protein complexes induced by diverse inflammatory stimuli that activate caspase-1, resulting in the processing and release of cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and pyroptosis, an immunogenic form of cell death. To provide a homogeneous method for detecting caspase-1 activity, we developed a bioluminescent, plate-based assay that combines a substrate, Z-WEHD-aminoluciferin, with a thermostable luciferase in an optimized lytic reagent added directly to cultured cells. Assay specificity for caspase-1 is conferred by inclusion of a proteasome inhibitor in the lytic reagent and by use of a caspase-1 inhibitor to confirm activity. This approach enables a specific and rapid determination of caspase-1 activation. Caspase-1 activity is stable in the reagent thereby providing assay convenience and flexibility. Using this assay system, caspase-1 activation has been determined in THP-1 cells following treatment with α-hemolysin, LPS, nigericin, gramicidin, MSU, R848, Pam3CSK4, and flagellin. Caspase-1 activation has also been demonstrated in treated J774A.1 mouse macrophages, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from mice, as well as in human primary monocytes. Caspase-1 activity was not detected in treated BMDMs derived from Casp1(-/-) mice, further confirming the specificity of the assay. Caspase-1 activity can be measured directly in cultured cells using the lytic reagent, or caspase-1 activity released into medium can be monitored by assay of transferred supernatant. The caspase-1 assay can be multiplexed with other assays to monitor additional parameters from the same cells, such as IL-1β release or cell death. The caspase-1 assay in combination with a sensitive real-time monitor of cell death allows one to accurately establish pyroptosis. This assay system provides a rapid, convenient, and flexible method to specifically and quantitatively monitor caspase-1 activation in cells in a plate-based format. This will allow a more efficient and effective

  17. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    (EM) methods can also be used for monitoring changes in water content and pollutant spreading during the maintenance phase. The objective of this study was to describe various geophysical methods which could benefit the road planning, construction and maintenance phases focusing on hydrological impacts.

  18. Geophysical Technologies to Image Old Mine Works

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaan Hanna; Jim Pfeiffer

    2007-01-15

    ZapataEngineering, Blackhawk Division performed geophysical void detection demonstrations for the US Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). The objective was to advance current state-of-practices of geophysical technologies for detecting underground mine voids. The presence of old mine works above, adjacent, or below an active mine presents major health and safety hazards to miners who have inadvertently cut into locations with such features. In addition, the presence of abandoned mines or voids beneath roadways and highway structures may greatly impact the performance of the transportation infrastructure in terms of cost and public safety. Roads constructed over abandoned mines are subject to potential differential settlement, subsidence, sinkholes, and/or catastrophic collapse. Thus, there is a need to utilize geophysical imaging technologies to accurately locate old mine works. Several surface and borehole geophysical imaging methods and mapping techniques were employed at a known abandoned coal mine in eastern Illinois to investigate which method best map the location and extent of old works. These methods included: 1) high-resolution seismic (HRS) using compressional P-wave (HRPW) and S-wave (HRSW) reflection collected with 3-D techniques; 2) crosshole seismic tomography (XHT); 3) guided waves; 4) reverse vertical seismic profiling (RVSP); and 5) borehole sonar mapping. In addition, several exploration borings were drilled to confirm the presence of the imaged mine voids. The results indicated that the RVSP is the most viable method to accurately detect the subsurface voids with horizontal accuracy of two to five feet. This method was then applied at several other locations in Colorado with various topographic, geologic, and cultural settings for the same purpose. This paper presents the significant results obtained from the geophysical investigations in Illinois.

  19. Time-reversal methods in geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Larmat, Carene S.; Guyer, Robert A.; Johnson, Paul A.

    2010-08-15

    Before the 20th century there were few seismometers. So Earth's dynamic geophysical processes were poorly understood. Today the potential for understanding those processes is enormous: The number of seismic instruments is continually increasing, their data are easily stored and shared, and computing power grows exponentially. As a result, seismologists are rapidly discovering new kinds of seismic signals in the frequency range 0.001-100 Hz, as well as relatively large nonseismic displacements, monitored by the global positioning system, occurring over days or weeks.

  20. Physical Activity Measured by Physical Activity Monitoring System Correlates with Glucose Trends Reconstructed from Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zecchin, Chiara; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Dalla Man, Chiara; Manohar, Chinmay; Levine, James A.; Basu, Ananda; Kudva, Yogish C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), physical activity (PA) lowers the risk of cardiovascular complications but hinders the achievement of optimal glycemic control, transiently boosting insulin action and increasing hypoglycemia risk. Quantitative investigation of relationships between PA-related signals and glucose dynamics, tracked using, for example, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors, have been barely explored. Subjects and Methods In the clinic, 20 control and 19 T1DM subjects were studied for 4 consecutive days. They underwent low-intensity PA sessions daily. PA was tracked by the PA monitoring system (PAMS), a system comprising accelerometers and inclinometers. Variations on glucose dynamics were tracked estimating first- and second-order time derivatives of glucose concentration from CGM via Bayesian smoothing. Short-time effects of PA on glucose dynamics were quantified through the partial correlation function in the interval (0, 60 min) after starting PA. Results Correlation of PA with glucose time derivatives is evident. In T1DM, the negative correlation with the first-order glucose time derivative is maximal (absolute value) after 15 min of PA, whereas the positive correlation is maximal after 40–45 min. The negative correlation between the second-order time derivative and PA is maximal after 5 min, whereas the positive correlation is maximal after 35–40 min. Control subjects provided similar results but with positive and negative correlation peaks anticipated of 5 min. Conclusions Quantitative information on correlation between mild PA and short-term glucose dynamics was obtained. This represents a preliminary important step toward incorporation of PA information in more realistic physiological models of the glucose–insulin system usable in T1DM simulators, in development of closed-loop artificial pancreas control algorithms, and in CGM-based prediction algorithms for generation of hypoglycemic alerts. PMID

  1. Hydrogochemical tools for monitoring active volcanoes: Applications to El Chichón volcano, México.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armienta, M. A.; de La Cruz-Reyna, S.; Ramos, S.; Morton, O.; Ceniceros, N.; Aguayo, A.; Cruz, O.

    2010-03-01

    In 1982, a series of eruptions resulted in the worst disaster linked with volcanic activity in México. The characteristics of the phenomena together with a lack of prevention measures resulted in approximately 2000 deaths. An important aspect to prevent disasters is a thorough knowledge and monitoring of the potentially destructive natural phenomena. Monitoring the activity of dormant or active volcanoes by various methods is thus a key measure to estimate the hazard and design adequate risk reduction measures. Despite of the 1982 volcanic disaster, until only a few years, hydrogeochemical monitoring was the only regular surveillance of El Chichón post-eruptive activity. The first samples of the crater-lake water were collected by Casadevall et al. in 1983. Since 1985, a systematic sampling and chemical analyses program has been carried out by the Geophysics Institute in collaboration with local authorities from the State of Chiapas. Chemical analyses of main ions and Rare Earth elements (REE) are performed in the Laboratorio de Química Analítica and Laboratorio ICP-MS of the Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM. Results are interpreted considering the physico-chemical changes that may be recognized as precursors of volcanic activity. The problem is difficult because at least two main water reservoirs feed the crater lake; besides, dissolution of acid volcanic gases, water-rock interactions and geochemical processes among dissolved species have resulted in a complex chemical behavior of the lake-water along the years. The calculated degree of neutralization, pH values, and chloride and sulfate concentrations of samples taken at different dates result in a classification of the volcano as active or inactive according to the method developed by Varekamp. A pH of 0.5, very high conductivity and a temperature of about 50°C characterized the first years following the eruptions. An overall decrease on the temperature and ionic concentrations, along with a less acid p

  2. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  3. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  4. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  5. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  7. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 497, January 1986. Part 1: (Prompt reports). Date for December 1985, November 1985 and late data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Solar-Geophysical Data Number 497, January 1986, Part 1 (prompt reports); Data for December 1985, November 1985 and Late Data contains the Data for December 1985-(IUWDS alert periods (advance and worldwide), solar activity indices, Solar flares, Vostok inferred interplanetary magnetic field polarity, Stanford mean solar magnetic field); data for November 1985-(solar active regions, sudden ionospheric disturbances, solar radio spectral observations, cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, geomagnetic indices, radio propagation indices); and late data-(geomagnetic indices, calcium plage data).

  8. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. T.; Hammond, D. K.; Jeevarajan, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    . Respir. Dis. 138 (1988) 1213-1219). The size and cost of these instruments makes them unattractive for the monitoring of lunar dust activity. A more suitable technique is based on the change in fluorescence of a molecule upon reaction with a hydroxyl radical (or other radical species). Fluorescence instruments are much less costly and bulky than ESR spectrometers, and small fluorescence sensors for space missions have already been developed (F. Gao, et al., J. Biomed. Opt. 10 (2005) 054005). For the current fluorescence studies, the terephthalate molecule has been chosen for monitoring the production of hydroxyl radicals in solution. As shown in Scheme 1, the reaction between the non-fluorescent terephthalate molecule and a hydroxyl radical produces the highly-fluorescent 2-hydroxyterephthalate molecule.

  9. Apollo Director Phillips Monitors Apollo 11 Pre-Launch Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    From the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) control room, Apollo Program Director Lieutenant General Samuel C. Phillips monitors pre-launch activities for Apollo 11. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the KSC in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  10. Laser activated nanothermolysis of leukemia cells monitored by photothermal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitri; Lukianova, Ekaterina; Shnip, Alexander; Zheltov, George; Potapnev, Michail; Savitsky, Valeriy; Klimovich, Olga; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    We are developing new diagnostic and therapeutic technologies for leukemia based on selective targeting of leukemia cells with gold nanoparticles and thermomechanical destruction of the tumor cells with laser-induced microbubbles. Clusters of spherical gold nanoparticles that have strong optical absorption of laser pulses at 532 nm served as nucleation sites of vapor microbubbles. The nanoparticles were targeted selectively to leukemia cells using leukemia-specific surface receptors and a set of two monoclonal antibodies. Application of a primary myeloid-specific antibody to tumor cells followed by targeting the cells with 30-nm nanoparticles conjugated with a secondary antibody (IgG) resulted in formation of nanoparticulate clusters due to aggregation of IgGs. Formation of clusters resulted in substantial decrease of the damage threshold for target cells. The results encourage development of Laser Activated Nanothermolysis as a Cell Elimination Therapy (LANCET) for leukemia. The proposed technology can be applied separately or in combination with chemotherapy for killing leukemia cells without damage to other blood cells. Potential applications include initial reduction of concentration of leukemia cells in blood prior to chemotherapy and treatment of residual tumor cells after the chemotherapy. Laser-induced bubbles in individual cells and cell damage were monitored by analyzing profile of photothermal response signals over the entire cell after irradiation with a single 10-ns long laser pulse. Photothermal microscopy was utilized for imaging formation of microbubbles around nanoparticulate clusters.

  11. Cooperative wireless network control based health and activity monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Prakash, R; Ganesh, A Balaji; Girish, Siva V

    2016-10-01

    A real-time cooperative communication based wireless network is presented for monitoring health and activity of an end-user in their environment. The cooperative communication offers better energy consumption and also an opportunity to aware the current location of a user non-intrusively. The link between mobile sensor node and relay node is dynamically established by using Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Link Quality Indicator (LQI) based on adaptive relay selection scheme. The study proposes a Linear Acceleration based Transmission Power Decision Control (LA-TPDC) algorithm to further enhance the energy efficiency of cooperative communication. Further, the occurrences of false alarms are carefully prevented by introducing three stages of sequential warning system. The real-time experiments are carried-out by using the nodes, namely mobile sensor node, relay nodes and a destination node which are indigenously developed by using a CC430 microcontroller integrated with an in-built transceiver at 868 MHz. The wireless node performance characteristics, such as energy consumption, Signal-Noise ratio (SNR), Bit Error Rate (BER), Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and transmission offset are evaluated for all the participated nodes. The experimental results observed that the proposed linear acceleration based transmission power decision control algorithm almost doubles the battery life time than energy efficient conventional cooperative communication.

  12. Step detection and activity recognition accuracy of seven physical activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Storm, Fabio A; Heller, Ben W; Mazzà, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts), Up (Jawbone), One (Fitbit), ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd.), Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc.), Tractivity (Kineteks Corp.) and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia). Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc) were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications.

  13. Step Detection and Activity Recognition Accuracy of Seven Physical Activity Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Fabio A.; Heller, Ben W.; Mazzà, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts), Up (Jawbone), One (Fitbit), ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd.), Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc.), Tractivity (Kineteks Corp.) and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia). Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc) were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications. PMID:25789630

  14. Active and passive seismic methods for characterization and monitoring of unstable rock masses: field surveys, laboratory tests and modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombero, Chiara; Baillet, Laurent; Comina, Cesare; Jongmans, Denis; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate characterization and monitoring of potentially unstable rock masses may provide a better knowledge of the active processes and help to forecast the evolution to failure. Among the available geophysical methods, active seismic surveys are often suitable to infer the internal structure and the fracturing conditions of the unstable body. For monitoring purposes, although remote-sensing techniques and in-situ geotechnical measurements are successfully tested on landslides, they may not be suitable to early forecast sudden rapid rockslides. Passive seismic monitoring can help for this purpose. Detection, classification and localization of microseismic events within the prone-to-fall rock mass can provide information about the incipient failure of internal rock bridges. Acceleration to failure can be detected from an increasing microseismic event rate. The latter can be compared with meteorological data to understand the external factors controlling stability. On the other hand, seismic noise recorded on prone-to-fall rock slopes shows that the temporal variations in spectral content and correlation of ambient vibrations can be related to both reversible and irreversible changes within the rock mass. We present the results of the active and passive seismic data acquired at the potentially unstable granitic cliff of Madonna del Sasso (NW Italy). Down-hole tests, surface refraction and cross-hole tomography were carried out for the characterization of the fracturing state of the site. Field surveys were implemented with laboratory determination of physico-mechanical properties on rock samples and measurements of the ultrasonic pulse velocity. This multi-scale approach led to a lithological interpretation of the seismic velocity field obtained at the site and to a systematic correlation of the measured velocities with physical properties (density and porosity) and macroscopic features of the granitic cliff (fracturing, weathering and anisotropy). Continuous

  15. Cadence Feedback With ECE PEDO to Monitor Physical Activity Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Ardic, Fusun; Göcer, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the monitoring capabilities of the equipment for clever exercise pedometer (ECE PEDO) that provides audible feedback when the person exceeds the upper and lower limits of the target step numbers per minute and to compare step counts with Yamax SW-200 (YX200) as the criterion pedometer. A total of 30 adult volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were classified as normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10), and obese (n = 10). After the submaximal exercise test on a treadmill, the moderate intensity for walking was determined by using YX200 pedometer and then the number of steps taken in a minute was measured. Lower and upper limits of steps per minute (cadence) were recorded in ECE PEDO providing audible feedback when the person's walking speed gets out of the limits. Volunteers walked for 30 minutes in the individual step count range by attaching the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer on both sides of the waist belt in the same session. Step counts of the volunteers were recorded. Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation, and Bland–Altman analyses were performed to show the relationship and agreement between the results of 2 devices. Subjects took an average of 3511 ± 426 and 3493 ± 399 steps during 30 minutes with ECE PEDO and criterion pedometer, respectively. About 3500 steps taken by ECE PEDO reflected that this pedometer has capability of identifying steps per minute to meet moderate intensity of physical activity. There was a strong correlation between step counts of both devices (P < 0.001, r = 0.96). Correlations across all three BMI categories and both sex remained consistently high ranging from 0.92 to 0.95. There was a high level of agreement between the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer in the Bland–Altman analysis. Although both devices showed a strong similarity in counting steps, the ECE PEDO provides monitoring of intensity such that a person can walk in a specified time with a

  16. Jesuit Geophysical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udias, Agustin; Stauder, William

    Jesuits have had ah interest in observing and explaining geophysical phenomena since this religious order, the Society of Jesus, was founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Three principal factors contributed to this interest: their educational work in colleges and universities, their missionary endeavors to remote lands where they observed interesting and often as yet undocumented natural phenomena, and a network of communication that brought research of other Jesuits readily to their awareness.One of the first and most important Jesuit colleges was the Roman College (today the Gregorian University) founded in 1551 in Rome, which served as a model for many other universities throughout the world. By 1572, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), professor of mathematics at the Roman College, had already initiated an important tradition of Jesuit research by emphasizing applied mathematics and insisting on the need of serious study of mathematics in the program of studies in the humanities. In 1547 he directed a publication of Euclid's work with commentaries, and published several treatises on mathematics, including Arithmetica Practica [1585], Gnomonicae [1581], and Geometrica Practica [1606]. Clavius was also a Copernican and supported his friend Galileo when he announced the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter.

  17. A ``model`` geophysics program

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    In 1993, I tested a radio-controlled airplane designed by Jim Walker of Brigham Young University for low-elevation aerial photography. Model-air photography retains most of the advantages of standard aerial photography --- the photographs can be used to detect lineaments, to map roads and buildings, and to construct stereo pairs to measure topography --- and it is far less expensive. Proven applications on the Oak Ridge Reservation include: updating older aerial records to document new construction; using repeated overflights of the same area to capture seasonal changes in vegetation and the effects of major storms; and detecting waste trench boundaries from the color and character of the overlying grass. Aerial photography is only one of many possible applications of radio-controlled aircraft. Currently, I am funded by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development to review the state of the art in microavionics, both military and civilian, to determine ways this emerging technology can be used for environmental site characterization. Being particularly interested in geophysical applications, I am also collaborating with electrical engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design a model plane that will carry a 3-component flux-gate magnetometer and a global positioning system, which I hope to test in the spring of 1994.

  18. Geology of the Crust and Mantle, Western United States: Geophysical data reveal a thin crust and anomalous upper mantle characteristic of active regions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G A; Talwani, M

    1964-12-18

    compressional and transverse waves in the upper mantle may be related to this problem. Whatever its origin and composition, an anomalous upper mantle characterizes many regions of present or recent tectonic activity, such as Japan and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (39). The anomalous mantle of western North America might form a continuous belt to the south, with anomalous mantle beneath the crest of the East Pacific Rise (40). The anomalous upper mantle may thus be an essential part of the heat engine driving the tectonic activity of these regions. The Basin and Range region was broken into blocks and laterally extended during the Cenozoic uplift, so that some blocks lagged behind, or sank. Some of the intricate disruption of the upper crust may be related to shallow Cenozoic volcanism. The relatively large and rigid Sierra Nevada block may have been tilted westward during Basin-Range deformation because of the high density of greenstones on the west side and the lower density of granitic rocks to the east. Man's environment, in the longer view of geologic time, is strongly influenced by mountain-building processes originating in the earth's crust and mantle. In the scale of a few lifetimes, climate, sea level, and the shape of the land are appreciably altered. How this comes about, and whether man can hope to influence the processes, are challenging, unsolved problems. But enough has now been learned about the crust and mantle to suggest precisely what questions must be answered and what critical experiments performed. Note added in proof: Osborne (42) has directed our attention to the possibility that the granitic rocks and also the andesites and dacites were formed by fractional crystallization of basaltic magma under conditions of high oxygen pressure. This possibility in no way conflicts with the geophysical data. In fact, such direct additions to the silicic upper crust from the mantle or lower crust would simplify the perplexing problem of how the crust is replenished in areas

  19. COUPLED GEOPHYSICAL-HYDROLOGICAL MODELING OF A CONTROLLED NAPL SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past studies have shown reasonable sensitivity of geophysical data for detecting or monitoring the movement of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface. However, heterogeneity in subsurface properties and in NAPL distribution commonly results in non-unique data

    ...

  20. An attempt to monitor tectonic forces in the Vrancea active geodynamic zone: The Baspunar experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita; Plopeanu, Marin

    2013-04-01

    An alternative model attempting to explain the unusual sub-crustal seismicity occurring in the bending zone of East Carpathians within full intra-continental environment (the so-called Vrancea zone) has assumed the presence of a FFT unstable triple junction between the three lithospheric compartments joining the area: East European Plate (EEP), Intra-Alpine Microplate (IaP) and the Moesian Microplate (MoP). Geophysical imprints (e.g. EM data, potential fields, seismic tomography), and indirect geological evidence (e.g. absence of the volcanism associated to subduction zones, the unusual high Neogene tectonic subsidence, symmetry and normal faulting within compressional environment of Focsani basin) support the hypothesis. The above-mentioned model considers the intermediate-depth seismicity as the result of the thermo-baric-accommodation phenomena generated within the colder lithosphere collapsed into the hotter upper mantle. Therefore, the amount of seismic energy thus released should be related to the volume of the lithosphere brought into thermo-baric disequilibrium by sinking into the upper mantle. Vertical dynamics of the Vrancea unstable triple junction (VTJ) seems to be controlled by the both tangential tectonic forces driving the neighbouring plates and the gravitational pull created by the eclogitization of VTJ lower crust. But, while eclogitization provides a relatively constant force, acceleration of sinking is expected to be provided by changes in the tectonic forces acting on VTJ. As changes in tectonic forces should reflect in changes of the dynamics of lithospheric compartments, geodetic means were considered for helping in their monitoring. The Peceneaga-Camena Fault (PCF) is a major lithospheric contact separating MoP and EEP, starting from the W Black Sea basin to the Vrancea zone. Geological evidence advocate for its variable geodynamic behaviour during the time, both as left-lateral or right-lateral fault. Unfortunately, GPS campaigns, so far

  1. Measurement of activity in older adults: reliability and validity of the Step Activity Monitor.

    PubMed

    Resnick, B; Nahm, E S; Orwig, D; Zimmerman, S S; Magaziner, J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Step Activity Monitor (SAM) when used with older adults. A total of 30 subjects with a mean age of 86 +/- 6.1 participated in the study. Sixty one-minute walks were measured with the SAM, and two observers visually counted steps. Four participants wore the SAM for 6 to 48 hours and maintained activity diaries. The intraclass correlation for the SAM recordings was R = .84. There was an overall step counting accuracy of 96%. The diaries supported the SAM data for those who wore the SAM for extended periods. The SAM is an easy to use, comfortable, valid, and reliable measure of activity in older adults and particularly may be useful to triangulate measurement of activity in these individuals.

  2. Geophysical applications for levee assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

    Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A

  3. Geophysical observations at cavity collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bazargan-Sabet, Behrooz; Lebert, François; Bernardie, Séverine; Gourry, Jean-Christophe

    2010-05-01

    In Lorraine region (France) salt layers at about 200 meters depth are exploited by Solvay using solution mining methodology which consists in extracting the salt by dissolution, collapsing the cavern overburden during the exploitation phase and finally reclaiming the landscape by creating a water area. In this process, one of the main challenges for the exploiting company is to control the initial 120-m diameter collapse so as to minimize possible damages. In order to detect potential precursors and understand processes associated with such collapses, a wide series of monitoring techniques including micro seismics, broad-band seismology, hydro-acoustic, electromagnetism, gas probing, automatic leveling, continuous GPS, continuous gravity and borehole extensometry was set-up in the frame of an in-situ study carried out by the "Research Group for the Impact and Safety of Underground Works" (GISOS, France). Equipments were set-up well before the final collapse, giving a unique opportunity to analyze a great deal of information prior to and during the collapse process which has been successfully achieved on February the 13th, 2009 by controlling the cavity internal pressure. In this work, we present the results of data recorded by a network of 3 broadband seismometers, 2 accelerometers, 2 tilt-meters and a continuously gravity meter. We relate the variations of the brine pumping rate with the evolutions of the induced geophysical signals and finally we propose a first mechanical model for describing the controlled collapse. Beyond the studied case, extrapolation of the results obtained might contribute to the understanding of uncontrolled cavity collapses, such as pit-craters or calderas at volcanoes.

  4. Inversion Algorithms for Geophysical Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-16

    ktdud* Sccumy Oass/Kjoon) Inversion Algorithms for Geophysical Problems (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lanzano, Paolo 13 «. TYPE OF REPORT Final 13b...spectral density. 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 13 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED D SAME AS RPT n OTIC USERS 22a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Research Laboratory ’^^ SSZ ’.Washington. DC 20375-5000 NRLrMemorandum Report-6138 Inversion Algorithms for Geophysical Problems p. LANZANO Space

  5. Marine Geophysics: a Navy Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    post-docs are now the current leaders in marine geology and geophysics, not only in the United States but also in Britain, France, and Australia ...to make it fun both for themselves and for others was the keystone of the success of the marine geology and geophysics program at Scripps. They, with...G. G. Shor, Jr., R. W. Raitt, and M. Henry. 1977. Seismic refraction and reflection studies of crustal structure of the eastern Sunda and western

  6. Improved extraction of hydrologic information from geophysical data through coupled hydrogeophysical inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Hinnell, A.C.; Ferre, T.P.A.; Vrugt, J.A.; Huisman, J.A.; Moysey, S.; Rings, J.; Kowalsky, M.B.

    2009-11-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of multiple measurement types, including indirect (geophysical) methods, to constrain hydrologic interpretations. To date, most examples integrating geophysical measurements in hydrology have followed a three-step, uncoupled inverse approach. This approach begins with independent geophysical inversion to infer the spatial and/or temporal distribution of a geophysical property (e.g. electrical conductivity). The geophysical property is then converted to a hydrologic property (e.g. water content) through a petrophysical relation. The inferred hydrologic property is then used either independently or together with direct hydrologic observations to constrain a hydrologic inversion. We present an alternative approach, coupled inversion, which relies on direct coupling of hydrologic models and geophysical models during inversion. We compare the abilities of coupled and uncoupled inversion using a synthetic example where surface-based electrical conductivity surveys are used to monitor one-dimensional infiltration and redistribution.

  7. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  8. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  9. Ninety Years of International Cooperation in Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2009-05-01

    , climate dynamics, and in geodetic, hydrological, meteorological, oceanographic, seismological, and volcanological research. IUGG also places particular emphasis on the scientific problems of economically less-developed countries by sponsoring activities relevant to their scientific needs (e.g. Geosciences in Africa, Water Resources, Health and Well-Being etc.) The American Geophysical Union was established as the U.S. National Committee for IUGG in 1919 and today has become a distinguished union of individual geoscientists around the world. Several regional geoscience societies also evolved during the last several decades, most prominent being the European Geosciences Union and the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society. These, and some other national and regional geophysical societies, together with IUGG play a strong part in the international cooperation and promotion of geophysical sciences. At the same time the "geosciences" space is getting crowded, and there is a lot of overlap. International linkages between IUGG, AGU, EGU and other geophysical societies as well as their linkage with International Scientific Unions, that comprise the GeoUnions, are going to become more and more important. Working together is going to be more fruitful than territorial disputes. But what mechanisms can be used to encourage relationships between the international, national and regional geophysical and geoscientific bodies? We will discuss some possibilities on how to come together, to develop and to implement joint programs, research meeting, open forums, and policy statements.

  10. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  11. State monitoring activities related to Pfiesteria-like organisms.

    PubMed

    Magnien, R E

    2001-10-01

    In response to potential threats to human health and fish populations, six states along the east coast of the United States initiated monitoring programs related to Pfiesteria-like organisms in 1998. These actions were taken in the wake of toxic outbreaks of Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder in Maryland during 1997 and previous outbreaks in North Carolina. The monitoring programs have two major purposes. The first, rapid response, is to ensure public safety by responding immediately to conditions that may indicate the presence of Pfiesteria or related organisms in a toxic state. The second, comprehensive assessment, is to provide a more complete understanding of where Pfiesteria-like organisms may become a threat, to understand what factors may stimulate their growth and toxicity, and to evaluate the impacts of these organisms upon fish and other aquatic life. In states where human health studies are being conducted, the data from both types of monitoring are used to provide information on environmental exposure. The three elements included in each monitoring program are identification of Pfiesteria-like organisms, water quality measurements, and assessments of fish health. Identification of Pfiesteria-like organisms is a particularly difficult element of the monitoring programs, as these small species cannot be definitively identified using light microscopy; newly applied molecular techniques, however, are starting to provide alternatives to traditional methods. State monitoring programs also offer many opportunities for collaborations with research initiatives targeting both environmental and human health issues related to Pfiesteria-like organisms.

  12. State monitoring activities related to Pfiesteria-like organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Magnien, R E

    2001-01-01

    In response to potential threats to human health and fish populations, six states along the east coast of the United States initiated monitoring programs related to Pfiesteria-like organisms in 1998. These actions were taken in the wake of toxic outbreaks of Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder in Maryland during 1997 and previous outbreaks in North Carolina. The monitoring programs have two major purposes. The first, rapid response, is to ensure public safety by responding immediately to conditions that may indicate the presence of Pfiesteria or related organisms in a toxic state. The second, comprehensive assessment, is to provide a more complete understanding of where Pfiesteria-like organisms may become a threat, to understand what factors may stimulate their growth and toxicity, and to evaluate the impacts of these organisms upon fish and other aquatic life. In states where human health studies are being conducted, the data from both types of monitoring are used to provide information on environmental exposure. The three elements included in each monitoring program are identification of Pfiesteria-like organisms, water quality measurements, and assessments of fish health. Identification of Pfiesteria-like organisms is a particularly difficult element of the monitoring programs, as these small species cannot be definitively identified using light microscopy; newly applied molecular techniques, however, are starting to provide alternatives to traditional methods. State monitoring programs also offer many opportunities for collaborations with research initiatives targeting both environmental and human health issues related to Pfiesteria-like organisms. PMID:11677180

  13. Solar-geophysical data number 479, July 1984. Part 1: (Prompt reports). Data for June 1984, May 1984 and later data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, H. E. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Solar and geophysical data for May and June 1984 are reported. Topics include: detailed index for 1983/1984; data for June 1984 (solar activity indices, solar flares, solar radio emission, mean solar magnetic field, boulder geomagnetic substorm log); data for May 1984 (solar active regions, sudden ionospheric disturbances, solar radio spectral observations, cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, geomagnetic indices, radio propagation indices); and late data (geomagnetic indices March and April 1984 sudden commencements/solar flare effects, cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, and solar active regions).

  14. Solar-geophysical data number 499, March 1986. Part 1: (Prompt reports). Data for February 1986, January 1986 and late data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, H. E. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Solar-Geophysical Data Number 499, March 1986, Part 1 (Prompt Reports); Data for February 1986, January 1986 and Late Data, contains the following: Detailed index for 1985 to 1986; Data for February 1986--(IUWDS alert periods (Advance and worldwide), Solar activity indices, Solar flares, Solar radio emission, Vostok inferred interplanetary magnetic field polarity, Stanford mean solar magnetic field); data for January 1986--(Solar active regions, Sudden ionospheric disturbances, Solar radio spectral observations, Cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, Geomagnetic indices, Radio propagation indices); Late data-(Solar active regions, Solar radio spectral observations Culgoora, Cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, Calcium plage data).

  15. Geophysics applications in critical zone science: emerging topics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachepsky, Y. A.; Martinez, G.; Guber, A.; Walthall, C. L.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-12-01

    and ecological variables are bound to vary with support and spacing. The mismatch between supports of soil measurement and geophysical footprints has been acknowledged but not resolved. Search is under way for metrics to compress dense geophysical data to be analyzed jointly with the sparser ecological information in space and time. Segmentation methods are needed that are specific to the data generated in critical zone geophysics. The geophysical data presentation will remain an art to some extent, and therefore interaction between form and content in this presentation is of interest. Currently modeling abandons the role of consumer of the structural information about the flow and transport domain, and becomes an organic part of the retrieval process. Much more is done in aquifer modeling than in modeling of variably saturated domains. Model abstraction and multimodeling can provide the functional evaluation of the retrieval components, such as segmentation, and results. The gap remains between the rich information content of the geophysical data and complexity of models in which the retrieval results are used. Field critical zone research is hardly possible without the input from geophysics. It is critical to achieve a tighter coupling of geophysical tools with other tools used in diagnostics, monitoring, and prediction of critical zone processes.

  16. Karst characterization in a semi-arid region using gravity, seismic, and resistivity geophysical techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, Kevin Scott

    2013-10-01

    We proposed to customize emerging in situ geophysical monitoring technology to generate time-series data during sporadic rain events in a semi-arid region. Electrodes were to be connected to wireless \

  17. The geology and geophysics of the Oslo rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruder, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The regional geology and geophysical characteristics of the Oslo graben are reviewed. The graben is part of a Permian age failed continental rift. Alkali olivine, tholefitic, and monzonitic intrusives as well as basaltic lavas outline the extent of the graben. Geophysical evidence indicates that rifting activity covered a much greater area in Skagerrak Sea as well as the Paleozoic time, possibly including the northern Skagerrak Sea as well as the Oslo graben itself. Much of the surficial geologic characteristics in the southern part of the rift have since been eroded or covered by sedimentation. Geophysical data reveal a gravity maximum along the strike of the Oslo graben, local emplacements of magnetic material throughout the Skagerrak and the graben, and a slight mantle upward beneath the rift zone. Petrologic and geophysical maps which depict regional structure are included in the text. An extensive bibliography of pertinent literature published in English between 1960 and 1980 is also provided.

  18. Monitoring seismic wave speed by an active seismic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, K.; Kawakata, H.; Doi, I.; Okubo, M.; Saiga, A.

    2012-12-01

    Decreases in elastic wave speed around cracked zones prior to faulting in rock fracture experiments have been reported (e.g., Yukutake, 1989; Yoshimitsu et al., 2009). These decreases in wave speed have been considered to be associated with crack and fault growth based on non-destructive observation using X-ray CT scan (Kawakata et al., 1999). Meanwhile, there were some reports on the decreases in seismic wave speed along paths that cross the hypocentral area in periods including some large earthquakes. Uchida et al. (2002) analyzed seismic waveform with explosive sources before and after the 1998 northern Iwate prefecture earthquake, and they showed that the decrease in seismic wave speed approximately 0.1-0.9 % by the earthquake occurrence. Justin et al. (2007) reported the reduction in seismic wave speed accompanied with the 2003 Tokachi oki earthquake around the rupture area by using the four repeating earthquakes that occurred before and after the 2003 Tokachi oki earthquake. However, seismograms of explosive sources or repeating earthquakes are hard to be frequently recorded, which makes the time intervals of estimated seismic wave speed be too long to distinguish preseismic changes from coseismic and post seismic changes. In order to monitor crustal structures and detecting the variation of rock properties in the crust, a kind of active seismic source systems ACROSS (Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal System) has been developed(e.g., Kunitomo and Kumazawa, 2004). We used the controlled seismic source ACROSS, which installed at the Tono mine, Gifu prefecture, central Japan and has been routinely operated by Tono Geoscience center of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), automatically. Frequency modulated seismic waves are continuously radiated from approximately 10-20 Hz by eccentric rotation of the source. In order to investigate the stability of ACROSS signals, we used seismograms recorded at the 110m depth of Shobasama observing site, which is

  19. The Expanding Marketplace for Applied Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, N.; Sirles, P.

    2012-12-01

    While the image of geophysics for the proverbial "layman" often seems limited to volcanoes and earthquakes, and to the geoscientist this image enlarges to include oil or minerals exploration and whole earth studies, there has been a steady increase in the application of geophysics into the realm of "daily life", such as real estate deals, highway infrastructure, and flood protection. This expansion of applications can be attributed to the improved economics from advances in equipment and interpretation. Traditional geophysical methods that at one time often only fit within the budgets of oil, gas, and minerals exploration programs can now be economically applied to much smaller scale needs like contaminant mapping, landfill delineation, and levee investigations. A real-world, economic example of this expanding marketplace is our company, which began very small and was aimed almost exclusively at the minerals exploration market. Most of our growth has been in the last 10 years, when we have expanded to five offices and a staff with almost 40 geoscientist degrees (21 in geophysics); much of this growth has been in the non-oil, non-minerals arenas. While much of our work still includes minerals exploration, other projects this year include wind-farm foundation studies, cavity detection above underground nuclear tests, landfill studies, acid mine drainage problems, and leaks in evaporation ponds. A methodology example of this expanding market is the induced polarization (IP) survey, once primarily used for minerals exploration, particularly large porphyry copper deposits, but now efficient enough to also use in environmental studies. The IP method has been particularly useful in delineating and characterizing old, poorly documented landfills, and recent research suggests it may also be useful in monitoring the accelerated biodegradation processes used in some cases to rehabilitate the sites. Compared to temperature monitoring systems, IP may be more useful in providing

  20. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawai’i and Maui

    SciTech Connect

    Fercho, Steven; Owens, Lara; Walsh, Patrick; Drakos, Peter; Martini, Brigette; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Burton M.

    2015-08-01

    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical exploration surveys were conducted to provide evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai’i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-bourne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults, while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth which may represent a potentially young source of heat. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ. This survey generally did not detect CO2 levels above background, with the exception of a weak anomalous flux signal over one young cinder cone. The general lack of observed CO2 flux signals on the HSWRZ is likely due to a combination of lower magmatic CO2 fluxes and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes which mix with the magmatic signal. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals, however aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwater here. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2 flux indicative of upflow of magmatic fluids here is likely due to effective “scrubbing” by high groundwater and a mature hydrothermal system. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values were sampled at Maui from several shallow

  1. Embedded Ultrasonic Transducers for Active and Passive Concrete Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Niederleithinger, Ernst; Wolf, Julia; Mielentz, Frank; Wiggenhauser, Herbert; Pirskawetz, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Recently developed new transducers for ultrasonic transmission, which can be embedded right into concrete, are now used for non-destructive permanent monitoring of concrete. They can be installed during construction or thereafter. Large volumes of concrete can be monitored for changes of material properties by a limited number of transducers. The transducer design, the main properties as well as installation procedures are presented. It is shown that compressional waves with a central frequency of 62 kHz are mainly generated around the transducer’s axis. The transducer can be used as a transmitter or receiver. Application examples demonstrate that the transducers can be used to monitor concrete conditions parameters (stress, temperature, …) as well as damages in an early state or the detection of acoustic events (e.g., crack opening). Besides application in civil engineering our setups can also be used for model studies in geosciences. PMID:25923928

  2. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  3. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Woolsey; Tom McGee; Carol Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2006-06-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort was made to locate and retain the services of a suitable vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) following the storms and the loss of the contracted vessel

  4. Well casing-based geophysical sensor apparatus, system and method

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.

    2010-03-09

    A geophysical sensor apparatus, system, and method for use in, for example, oil well operations, and in particular using a network of sensors emplaced along and outside oil well casings to monitor critical parameters in an oil reservoir and provide geophysical data remote from the wells. Centralizers are affixed to the well casings and the sensors are located in the protective spheres afforded by the centralizers to keep from being damaged during casing emplacement. In this manner, geophysical data may be detected of a sub-surface volume, e.g. an oil reservoir, and transmitted for analysis. Preferably, data from multiple sensor types, such as ERT and seismic data are combined to provide real time knowledge of the reservoir and processes such as primary and secondary oil recovery.

  5. SAGE celebrates 25 years of learning geophysics by doing geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiracek, G.R.; Baldridge, W.S.; Sussman, A.J.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L.W.; Ferguson, J.F.; Gilpin, B.E.; McPhee, D.K.; Pellerin, L.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing world demand and record-high costs for energy and mineral resources, along with the attendant environmental and climate concerns, have escalated the need for trained geophysicists to unprecedented levels. This is not only a national need; it's a critical global need. As Earth scientists and educators we must seriously ask if our geophysics pipeline can adequately address this crisis. One program that has helped to answer this question in the affirmative for 25 years is SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience). SAGE continues to develop with new faculty, new collaborations, and additional ways to support student participation during and after SAGE. ?? 2008 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities. Methods Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2)™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video. Results All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025). The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P < 0.01 for both). The ActivPAL™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the cycling exercises (P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion As a number of false positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the

  7. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  8. Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  9. Object Storage for Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.; Readey, J.

    2015-12-01

    Object storage systems (such as Amazon S3 or Ceph) have been shown to be cost-effective and highly scalable for data repositories in the Petabyte range and larger. However traditionally data storage used for geophysical software systems has centered on file-based systems and libraries such as NetCDF and HDF5. In this session we'll discuss the advantages and challenges of moving to an object store-based model for geophysical data. We'll review a proposed model for a geophysical data service that provides an API-compatible library for traditional NetCDF and HDF5 applications while providing high scalability and performance. One further advantage of this approach is that any dataset or dataset selection can be referenced as a URI. By using versioning, the data the URI references can be guaranteed to be unmodified, thus enabling reproducibility of referenced data.

  10. Continental crust: a geophysical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book develops an integrated and balanced picture of present knowledge of the continental crust. Crust and lithosphere are first defined, and the formation of crusts as a general planetary phenomenon is described. The background and methods of geophysical studies of the earth's crust and the collection of related geophysical parameters are examined. Creep and friction experiments and the various methods of radiometric age dating are addressed, and geophysical and geological investigations of the crustal structure in various age provinces of the continents are studied. Specific tectonic structures such as rifts, continental margins, and geothermal areas are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to give a comprehensive view of the evolution of the continental crust and to collect and develop arguments for crustal accretion and recycling. 647 references.

  11. Verification and Improvement of ERS-1/2 Altimeter Geophysical Data Records for Global Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shum, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    This Final Technical Report summarizes the research work conducted under NASA's Physical Oceanography Program entitled, Verification And Improvement Of ERS-112 Altimeter Geophysical Data Recorders For Global Change Studies, for the time period from January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2000. This report also provides a summary of the investigation from July 1, 1997 - June 30, 2000. The primary objectives of this investigation include verification and improvement of the ERS-1 and ERS-2 radar altimeter geophysical data records for distribution of the data to the ESA-approved U.S. ERS-1/-2 investigators for global climate change studies. Specifically, the investigation is to verify and improve the ERS geophysical data record products by calibrating the instrument and assessing accuracy for the ERS-1/-2 orbital, geophysical, media, and instrument corrections. The purpose is to ensure that the consistency of constants, standards and algorithms with TOPEX/POSEIDON radar altimeter for global climate change studies such as the monitoring and interpretation of long-term sea level change. This investigation has provided the current best precise orbits, with the radial orbit accuracy for ERS-1 (Phases C-G) and ERS-2 estimated at the 3-5 cm rms level, an 30-fold improvement compared to the 1993 accuracy. We have finalized the production and verification of the value-added ERS-1 mission (Phases A, B, C, D, E, F, and G), in collaboration with JPL PODAAC and the University of Texas. Orbit and data verification and improvement of algorithms led to the best data product available to-date. ERS-2 altimeter data have been improved and we have been active on Envisat (2001 launch) GDR algorithm review and improvement. The data improvement of ERS-1 and ERS-2 led to improvement in the global mean sea surface, marine gravity anomaly and bathymetry models, and a study of Antarctica mass balance, which was published in Science in 1998.

  12. Monitoring of acoustic emission activity using thin wafer piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Blaine; Zagrai, Andrei; Meisner, Daniel; Momeni, Sepand

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) is a well-known technique for monitoring onset and propagation of material damage. The technique has demonstrated utility in assessment of metallic and composite materials in applications ranging from civil structures to aerospace vehicles. While over the course of few decades AE hardware has changed dramatically with the sensors experiencing little changes. A traditional acoustic emission sensor solution utilizes a thickness resonance of the internal piezoelectric element which, coupled with internal amplification circuit, results in relatively large sensor footprint. Thin wafer piezoelectric sensors are small and unobtrusive, but they have seen limited AE applications due to low signal-to-noise ratio and other operation difficulties. In this contribution, issues and possible solutions pertaining to the utility of thin wafer piezoelectrics as AE sensors are discussed. Results of AE monitoring of fatigue damage using thin wafer piezoelectric and conventional AE sensors are presented.

  13. Energy monitoring based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Human behavior is the most important factor in order to manage energy usage. Nowadays, smart house technology offers a better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. However, human behaviors will contribute to the efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior atb the workplace. Then, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy in efficient ways based on human behaviours. This scenario will lead to the positive impact in order to achieve the energy saving in the building and support the green environment.

  14. A mobile system for active otpical pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunesson, A.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.; Uneus, L.; Wendt, W.; Fredriksson, K.

    1986-01-01

    The remote monitoring of atmospheric pollutants can now be performed in several ways. Laser radar techniques have proven their ability to reveal the spatial distribution of different species or particles. Classical optical techniques can also be used, but yield the average concentration over a given path and hence no range resolution. One such technique is Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy, DOAS. Such schemes can be used to monitor paths that a preliminary lidar investigation has shown to be of interest. Having previously had access to a mobile lidar system, a new system has been completed. The construction builds on experience from using the other system and it is meant to be more of a mobile optical laboratory than just a lidar system. A complete system description is given along with some preliminary usage. Future uses are contemplated.

  15. Cable condition monitoring research activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Zigler, G.L.; Bustard, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is currently conducting long-term aging research on representative samples of nuclear power plant cables. The objectives of the program are to determine the suitability of these cables for extended life (beyond 40 year design basis) and to assess various cable condition monitoring techniques for predicting remaining cable life. The cables are being aged for long times at relatively mild exposure conditions with various condition monitoring techniques to be employed during the aging process. Following the aging process, the cables will be exposed to a sequential accident profile consisting of high dose rate irradiation followed by a simulated design basis loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) steam exposure. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Active subjects of passive monitoring: responses to a passive monitoring system in low-income independent living

    PubMed Central

    BERRIDGE, CLARA

    2016-01-01

    Passive monitoring technology is beginning to be reimbursed by third-party payers in the United States of America. Given the low voluntary uptake of these technologies on the market, it is important to understand the concerns and perspectives of users, former users and non-users. In this paper, the range of ways older adults relate to passive monitoring in low-income independent-living residences is presented. This includes experiences of adoption, non-adoption, discontinuation and creative ‘misuse’. The analysis of interviews reveals three key insights. First, assumptions built into the technology about how older adults live present a problem for many users who experience unwanted disruptions and threats to their behavioural autonomy. Second, resident response is varied and challenges the dominant image of residents as passive subjects of a passive monitoring system. Third, the priorities of older adults (e.g. safety, autonomy, privacy, control, contact) are more diverse and multi-faceted than those of the housing organisation staff and family members (e.g. safety, efficiency) who drive the passive monitoring intervention. The tension between needs, desires and the daily lives of older adults and the technological solutions offered to them is made visible by their active responses, including resistance to them. This exposes the active and meaningful qualities of older adults’ decisions and practices. PMID:28239211

  17. Active subjects of passive monitoring: responses to a passive monitoring system in low-income independent living.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Clara

    2017-03-01

    Passive monitoring technology is beginning to be reimbursed by third-party payers in the United States of America. Given the low voluntary uptake of these technologies on the market, it is important to understand the concerns and perspectives of users, former users and non-users. In this paper, the range of ways older adults relate to passive monitoring in low-income independent-living residences is presented. This includes experiences of adoption, non-adoption, discontinuation and creative 'misuse'. The analysis of interviews reveals three key insights. First, assumptions built into the technology about how older adults live present a problem for many users who experience unwanted disruptions and threats to their behavioural autonomy. Second, resident response is varied and challenges the dominant image of residents as passive subjects of a passive monitoring system. Third, the priorities of older adults (e.g. safety, autonomy, privacy, control, contact) are more diverse and multi-faceted than those of the housing organisation staff and family members (e.g. safety, efficiency) who drive the passive monitoring intervention. The tension between needs, desires and the daily lives of older adults and the technological solutions offered to them is made visible by their active responses, including resistance to them. This exposes the active and meaningful qualities of older adults' decisions and practices.

  18. FRET-Based Optical Assay for Monitoring Riboswitch Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-09

    including small organic molecules, peptides, and aminoglycosides among others. 10 The advantage of such engineered riboswitches is that they offer a way...Laboratory, Dayton, OH. ‡ USAMRMC, Fort Detrick, MD. Biomacromolecules 2009, 10 , 1055–1060 1055 10.1021/bm801117f CCC: $40.75  2009 American Chemical...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION

  19. Activity Monitors Help Users Get Optimum Sun Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Goddard scientist Shahid Aslam was investigating alternative methods for measuring extreme ultraviolet radiation on the Solar Dynamics Observatory when he hit upon semiconductors that measured wavelengths pertinent to human health. As a result, he and a partner established College Park, Maryland-based Sensor Sensor LLC and developed UVA+B SunFriend, a wrist monitor that lets people know when they've received their optimal amounts of sunlight for the day.

  20. Geophysical Investigation of Oldoinyo Lengai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber, S. E.; Webb, S. J.; Dirks, P. H.

    2006-12-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai, which means "Mountain of God" in Maasai, is a 2886 m high stratovolcano situated in Northern Tanzania, next to one of the large fault scarps that defines the western edge of the East African Rift Valley. Lengai is the only volcano in the world that erupts natrocarbonatite lava and has been in a state of near-eruption since 1983. A large amount of work has been done in terms of the geology and petrology of this unique volcano, but very little has been done in terms of geophysics. A research team from the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa will be conducting a gravity and differential GPS survey on Lengai during December 2006 and January 2007. Seismic monitoring of the volcano will also take place for the duration of the survey using vertical 1 Hz geophones. A gravity profile collected over the volcano by the British Schools Exploring Society in 2004 shows a negative anomaly of approximately 185 mGals. This is after a terrain correction is applied to the data using 1:50000 digitized maps and a vertical prism formula. A single seismometer, with a frequency of 1Hz and then 0.033 Hz, was set up on the volcano in 2001 and 2002 by a graduate student from the University of Washington. A few local volcanotectonic (VT) events were recorded; however the research team was unable to conclude whether the events were from Lengai or the nearby rift. A sustained non-harmonic tremor signal with a fairly broad spectral peak was also observed, but no very long-period (VLP) signals. The gravity and DGPS data collected during the 2006/2007 survey will be processed and used as a baseline for future measurements on the volcano. The data will also be modeled in an attempt to determine the size and position of the magma chamber. These gravity data will be compared with the profile collected in 2004 in an attempt to see whether there have been any large subsurface mass changes over the past two years, or the extent of weathering. Recorded seismicity will be used

  1. Integrated Software Framework for Geophysical Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubak, G. D.; Morozov, I. B.

    2005-12-01

    An integrated software framework for geophysical data processing was designed by extending a seismic processing system developed previously. Unlike other systems, the new processing monitor is essentially content-agnostic, supports structured multicomponent seismic data streams, multidimensional data objects, and employs a unique backpropagation execution logic. This results in an unusual flexibility of processing, allowing the system to handle nearly any geophysical data. The core package includes nearly 190 tools for seismic, travel-time, and potential-field processing, interfaces to popular graphics and other packages (such as Seismic Unix and GMT). The system also offers an extensive processing environment, including: 1) a modern and feature-rich Graphical User Interface allowing submission of processing jobs and interaction with them during run time, 2) parallel processing capabilities, including load distribution on Beowulf clusters or local area networks; 3) web service operation allowing submission of complex processing jobs to shared remote servers; 4) automated software update service for code distribution to multiple systems, 5) automated online documentation, and 6) software development utilities. The core package was used in several areas of seismology (shallow, reflection, crustal wide-angle, and teleseismic) and in 3D potential-field processing. As a first example of its application, the new web service component (http://seisweb.usask.ca/SIA/ws.php).was used to build a library of processing examples, ranging from simple (UTM coordinate transformations or calculation of great-arc distances) to more complex (such as synthetic seismic modeling).

  2. Cluster analysis applied to multiparameter geophysical dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troiano, A.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    Multi-parameter acquisition is a common geophysical field practice nowadays. Regularly seismic velocity and attenuation, gravity and electromagnetic dataset are acquired in a certain area, to obtain a complete characterization of the some investigate feature of the subsoil. Such a richness of information is often underestimated, although an integration of the analysis could provide a notable improving in the imaging of the investigated structures, mostly because the handling of distinct parameters and their joint inversion still presents several and severe problems. Post-inversion statistical techniques represent a promising approach to these questions, providing a quick, simple and elegant way to obtain this advantageous but complex integration. We present an approach based on the partition of the analyzed multi parameter dataset in a number of different classes, identified as localized regions of high correlation. These classes, or 'Cluster', are structured in such a way that the observations pertaining to a certain group are more similar to each other than the observations belonging to a different one, according to an optimal logical criterion. Regions of the subsoil sharing the same physical characteristic are so identified, without a-priori or empirical relationship linking the distinct measured parameters. The retrieved imaging results highly affordable in a statistical sense, specifically due to this lack of external hypothesis that are, instead, indispensable in a full joint inversion, were works, as matter of fact, just a real constrain for the inversion process, not seldom of relative consistence. We apply our procedure to a certain number of experimental dataset, related to several structures at very different scales presents in the Campanian district (southern Italy). These structures goes from the shallows evidence of the active fault zone originating the M 7.9 Irpinia earthquake to the main feature characterizing the Campi Flegrei Caldera and the Mt

  3. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    et al., 1999; Reeder et al., 2004; Reinhardt et al., 2006; Reich et al., 2003; Ron et al., 2003; Segal et al., 2003; Sternberg and Lass, 2007; Sternberg et al., 1999; Verri et al., 2004; Weiner et al., 1993; Weinstein-Evron et al., 1991, 2003; Weiss et al., 2007; Witten et al., 1994), and (3) future [2010 -]. The past stage with several archaeoseismic reviews and very limited application of geophysical methods was replaced by the present stage with the violent employment of numerous geophysical techniques (first of all, high-precise magnetic survey and GPR). It is supposed that the future stage will be characterized by extensive development of multidiscipline physical-archaeological databases (Eppelbaum et al., 2009b), utilization of supercomputers for 4D monitoring and ancient sites reconstruction (Foster et al., 2001; Pelfer et al., 2004) as well as wide application of geophysical surveys using remote operated vehicles at low altitudes (Eppelbaum, 2008a). REFERENCES Batey, R.A., 1987. Subsurface Interface Radar at Sepphoris, Israel 1985. Journal of Field Archaeology, 14 (1), 1-8. Bauman, P., Parker, D., Coren, A., Freund, R., and Reeder, P., 2005. Archaeological Reconnaissance at Tel Yavne, Israel: 2-D Electrical Imaging and Low Altitude Aerial Photography. CSEG Recorder, No. 6, 28-33. Ben-Dor, E., Portugali, J., Kochavi, M., Shimoni, M., and Vinitzky, L., 1999. Airborne thermal video radiometry and excavation planning at Tel Leviah, Golan Heights, Israel. Journal of Field Archaeology, 26 (2), 117-127. Ben-Menahem, A., 1979. Earthquake catalogue for the Middle East (92 B.C. - 1980 A.D.). Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, 21 (84), 245-310. Ben-Yosef, E., Tauxe, L., Ronb, H., Agnon, A., Avner, U., Najjar, M., and Levy, T.E., 2008. A new approach for geomagnetic archaeointensity research: insights on ancient metallurgy in the Southern Levant. Journal of Archaeological Science, 25, 2863-2879. Berkovitch, A.L., Eppelbaum, L.V., and Basson, U., 2000

  4. 30 CFR 280.29 - Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 280.29 Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 280.29 Section 280.29 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. Geophysical survey as a basis for regeneration of waste dump Halde 10, Zwickau, Saxony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobr, Miroslav; Linhart, Ivan

    1994-02-01

    About 90 years ago a natural depression in the vicinity of the town of Zwickau was filled with waste left after floatation of coal exploited in the area. Later on the locality became a dumping site for municipal and industrial waste from the town of Zwickau. Waste was disposed for years without any records, and at the present time the town faces an uneasy task of securing a harmless and controlled operation of the waste dump in accordance with environmental laws now in effect in Germany. A project has been launched sponsored by the ENMOTEC GmbH, company. Tübingen, subsidiaries Freiberg and Zwickau. At the initial stages of the project an important role was played by geophysical methods applied in mapping the tectonic structure of the dumping area including other desirable geological information, mapping the extent, distribution and thickness of floatation coal layers within the mound, and mapping the disposed refuse itself. The following geoelectric methods were applied: resistivity profiling, VLF and VES. They proved to be effective tools of investigation in the specific conditions of an operating dump. Results of these measurements are presented in graphic form in schematic situation of tectonic faults and lithological boundary-lines and in a geological profile of the dump. On the basis of geophysical results monitoring boreholes were placed in the vicinity of the dump. Layers of floatation coal and of municipal and industrial waste were delineated. Another aim of the geophysical survey was to find out whether there were any active processes going on in the disposed coal refuse. A temperature survey was carried out over the dumping area in a network of points at two depth levels, 0.5 and 1 m under the surface. Localitions of anomalous temperatures with a relative increase of over 20°C and maximum values of over 40°C at 1 m depth were mapped. At the final stage of the geophysical survey logging measurements were conducted in 10 cased monitoring boreholes in the

  6. Active monitoring as cognitive control of grinders design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flizikowski, Jozef B.; Mrozinski, Adam; Tomporowski, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    A general monitoring methodology applicable to plastics recyclates grinding processes development for energy engineering, has been presented in this work. The method includes two beings: mathematical aiding an invention and working of a novelty. The common set is composed of characteristics, structure, relationships of knowledge about states and transformations, effectiveness and progress of the devices and machinery engineering, e.g. breaking up in the energy-materials recycling process. This innovations theory is identified by the valuation, estimation, testing and creative archiving the elaborated character and structure of the invention and grinders construction development.

  7. Physical Activity Monitoring in Extremely Obese Adolescents from the Teen-LABS Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Renee M.; Inge, Thomas H.; Jenkins, Todd M; King, Wendy; Oruc, Vedran; Douglas, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The accuracy of physical activity (PA) monitors to discriminate between PA, sedentary behavior, and non-wear in extremely obese (EO) adolescents is unknown. Methods Twenty-five subjects (9 male/16 female; age=16.5±2.0 y; BMI=51±8 kg/m2) wore three activity monitors (StepWatch [SAM], Actical [AC], Actiheart [AH]) during a 400 meter walk test (400MWT), two standardized PA bouts of varying duration, and one sedentary bout. Results For the 400MWT, percent error between observed and monitor recorded steps was 5.5±7.1% and 82.1±38.6% for the SAM and AC steps, respectively (observed vs. SAM steps: −17.2±22.2 steps; observed vs. AC steps: −264.5±124.8 steps). All activity monitors were able to differentiate between PA and sedentary bouts but only SAM steps and AH heart rate were significantly different between sedentary behavior and non-wear (p<0.001). For all monitors, sedentary behavior was characterized by bouts of zero steps/counts punctuated by intermittent activity steps/counts; non-wear was represented almost exclusively by zero steps/counts. Conclusion Of all monitors tested, the SAM was most accurate in terms of counting steps and differentiating levels of PA, and thus, most appropriate for EO adolescents. The ability to accurately characterize PA intensity in EO adolescents critically depends on activity monitor selection. PMID:25205688

  8. Seasonal Response and Characterization of a Scree Slope and Active Debris Flow Catchment Using Multiple Geophysical Techniques: The case of the Meretschibach Catchment, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fankhauser, Kerstin; Guzman, Daisy R. Lucas; Oggier, Nicole; Maurer, Hansruedi; Springman, Sarah M.

    2015-04-01

    Various types of mass movements cause extensive natural hazards in populated mountain regions. They need to be quantified, and possibly predicted, for implementing effective mitigation and protection measures. The Meretschibach catchment in the Valais area, Switzerland, is a source region for such events. Various forms of instabilities occur on the steep slopes. They manifest themselves in form of smaller rock falls and rock slides on the open scree slopes. Moreover, large sediment volumes of channelized stream deposits can evolve into debris flows, with a substantial run-out along the Meretschibach. Geophysical methods, such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) have been proven to be powerful tools for characterizing mass movements and slope instabilities. They complement other remote sensing techniques and in-situ geotechnical experiments. Ground-based and helicopter-borne GPR measurements were carried out at the Meretschibach test site, to determine the depth to the bedrock. The results indicate that the bedrock is generally shallow, ranging from a few centimetres to about 5 metres vertically below the surface. A particularly interesting aspect of the GPR investigations was the observation that bedrock depth could be resolved by both, ground-based and helicopter-borne GPR data. Ground-based GPR surveying proved to be extremely challenging on the steep slopes, and some areas were even inaccessible due to safety concerns. It is therefore encouraging for future projects that helicopter-borne GPR acquisition offers a promising alternative. The spatial distribution of the soil moisture content and the temporal variations were determined with repeated ERT measurements. The resulting tomograms allowed a conductive soil layer and more resistive bedrock to be distinguished clearly. The ERT results were in good agreement with in-situ geotechnical measurements in a nearby test pit, and the depth of the soil-bedrock interface was

  9. Geophysical applications of satellite altimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sandwell, D.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Publications related to geophysical applications of Seasat and Geosat altimetry are reviewed for the period 1987-1990. Problems discussed include geoid and gravity errors, regional geoid heights and gravity anomalies, local gravity field/flexure, plate tectonics, and gridded geoid heights/gravity anomalies. 99 refs.

  10. BROADBAND DIGITAL GEOPHYSICAL TELEMETRY SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seeley, Robert L.; Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1984-01-01

    A system has been developed to simultaneously sample and transmit digital data from five remote geophysical data receiver stations to a control station that processes, displays, and stores the data. A microprocessor in each remote station receives commands from the control station over a single telemetry channel.

  11. Monitoring Activity of Taking Medicine by Incorporating RFID and Video Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hasanuzzaman, Faiz M.; Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, YingLi; Liu, Qingshan; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new framework to monitor medication intake for elderly individuals by incorporating a video camera and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) sensors. The proposed framework can provide a key function for monitoring activities of daily living (ADLs) of elderly people at their own home. In an assistive environment, RFID tags are applied on medicine bottles located in a medicine cabinet so that each medicine bottle will have a unique ID. The description of the medicine data for each tag is manually input to a database. RFID readers will detect if any of these bottles are taken away from the medicine cabinet and identify the tag attached on the medicine bottle. A video camera is installed to continue monitoring the activity of taking medicine by integrating face detection and tracking, mouth detection, background subtraction, and activity detection. The preliminary results demonstrate that 100% detection accuracy for identifying medicine bottles and promising results for monitoring activity of taking medicine. PMID:23914344

  12. Active Ground Optical Remote Sensing for Improved Monitoring of Seedling Stress in Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active ground optical remote sensing (AGORS) devices mounted on overhead irrigation booms could help to improve seedling quality by autonomously monitoring seedling stress. In contrast to traditionally used passive optical sensors, AGORS devices operate independently of ambient light conditions and ...

  13. Mikhnevo: from seismic station no. 1 to a modern geophysical observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adushkin, V. V.; Ovchinnikov, V. M.; Sanina, I. A.; Riznichenko, O. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The Mikhnevo seismic station was founded in accordance with directive no. 1134 RS of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union of February 6, 1954. The station, installed south of Moscow, began its operations on monitoring nuclear tests in the United States and England in 1954. For dozens of years this station was the leading experimental base for elaborating new technical solutions and methods for monitoring nuclear explosions, equipped with modern seismological instruments. At present, the focus of activities has been moved from military applications to fundamental geophysical research. The station preserves its leading position in seismological observations due to the development of national high-performance digital instruments and creation of the small-aperture seismic array, the only one in the central part of European Russia, which is capable of recording weak seismic events with M L ≥ 1.5 within a distance of 100 km.

  14. Nanosensor system for monitoring brain activity and drowsiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.; Harbaugh, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Detection of drowsiness in drivers to avoid on-road collisions and accidents is one of the most important applications that can be implemented to avert loss of life and property caused by accidents. A statistical report indicates that drowsy driving is equally harmful as driving under influence of alcohol. This report also indicates that drowsy driving is the third most influencing factor for accidents and 30% of the commercial vehicle accidents are caused because of drowsy driving. With a motivation to avoid accidents caused by drowsy driving, this paper proposes a technique of correlating EEG and EOG signals to detect drowsiness. Feature extracts of EEG and blink variability from EOG is correlated to detect the sleepiness/drowsiness of a driver. Moreover, to implement a more pragmatic approach towards continuous monitoring, a wireless real time monitoring approach has been incorporated using textile based nanosensors. Thereby, acquired bio potential signals are transmitted through GSM communication module to the receiver continuously. In addition to this, all the incorporated electronics are equipped in a flexible headband which can be worn by the driver. With this flexible headband approach, any intrusiveness that may be experienced by other cumbersome hardware is effectively mitigated. With the continuous transmission of data from the head band, the signals are processed on the receiver side to determine the condition of the driver. Early warning of driver's drowsiness will be displayed in the dashboard of the vehicle as well as alertness voice and sound alarm will be sent via the vehicle radio.

  15. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  20. Probes to monitor activity of the paracaspase MALT1.

    PubMed

    Hachmann, Janna; Edgington-Mitchell, Laura E; Poreba, Marcin; Sanman, Laura E; Drag, Marcin; Bogyo, Matthew; Salvesen, Guy S

    2015-01-22

    The human paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1) plays a central role in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling as both a protease and scaffolding protein. Knocking out MALT1 leads to impaired NF-κB signaling and failure to mount an effective immune response. However, it is unclear to which degree it is the scaffolding function versus the proteolytic activity of MALT1 that is essential. Previous work involving a MALT1 inhibitor with low selectivity suggests that the enzymatic function plays an important role in different cell lines. To help elucidate this proteolytic role of MALT1, we have designed activity-based probes that inhibit its proteolytic activity. The probes selectively label active enzyme and can be used to inhibit MALT1 and trace its activity profile, helping to create a better picture of the significance of the proteolytic function of MALT1.

  1. A portable multi-channel wireless NIRS device for muscle activity real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pengfei; Guo, Weichao; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a relative new technology in monitoring muscle oxygenation and hemo-dynamics. This paper presents a portable multi-channel wireless NIRS device for real-time monitoring of muscle activity. The NIRS sensor is designed miniaturized and modularized, to make multi-site monitoring convenient. Wireless communication is applied to data transmission avoiding of cumbersome wires and the whole system is highly integrated. Special care is taken to eliminate motion artifact when designing the NIRS sensor and attaching it to human skin. Besides, the system is designed with high sampling rate so as to monitor rapid oxygenation changes during muscle activities. Dark noise and long-term drift tests have been carried out, and the result indicates the device has a good performance of accuracy and stability. In vivo experiments including arterial occlusion and isometric voluntary forearm muscle contraction were performed, demonstrating the system has the ability to monitor muscle oxygenation parameters effectively even in exercise.

  2. Monitoring the Activation of the DNA Damage Response Pathway in a 3D Spheroid Model.

    PubMed

    Mondesert, Odile; Frongia, Céline; Clayton, Olivia; Boizeau, Marie-Laure; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the DNA-Damage Response (DDR) activated pathway in multicellular tumor spheroid models is an important challenge as these 3D models have demonstrated their major relevance in pharmacological evaluation. Herein we present DDR-Act-FP, a fluorescent biosensor that allows detection of DDR activation through monitoring of the p21 promoter p53-dependent activation. We show that cells expressing the DDR-Act-FP biosensor efficiently report activation of the DDR pathway after DNA damage and its pharmacological manipulation using ATM kinase inhibitors. We also report the successful use of this assay to screen a small compound library in order to identify activators of the DDR response. Finally, using multicellular spheroids expressing the DDR-Act-FP we demonstrate that DDR activation and its pharmacological manipulation with inhibitory and activatory compounds can be efficiently monitored in live 3D spheroid model. This study paves the way for the development of innovative screening and preclinical evaluation assays.

  3. Application of geophysics to acid mine drainage investigations. Volume 2. Site investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Custis, K.

    1994-09-01

    The report describes geophysical field investigations undertaken to evaluate the utility of surface geophysical techniques in detecting and monitoring groundwater pollution from mine waste in the Western United States. The document addresses results of investigations at Spenceville Copper Mine, Leviathan Sulfur Mine, Iron Mountain Copper Mine, and Walker Copper Mine. Methods used in the field investigations included conventional D.C. resistivity, electromagnetic, self potential, and magnetic. It was found that the source and extent of acid mine drainage can be identified, known groundwater flow paths correlate well with geophysical anomalies, subsurface layering of mine waste piles can be mapped with some geophysical methods, and leakage from waste impoundments is detectable by some surface geophysical methods. The document includes maps, charts, and tables.

  4. Seismic activity monitoring in the Izvorul Muntelui dam region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borleanu, Felix; Otilia Placinta, Anca; Popa, Mihaela; Adelin Moldovan, Iren; Popescu, Emilia

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes occurrences near the artificial water reservoirs are caused by stress variation due to the weight of water, weakness of fractures or faults and increasing of pore pressure in crustal rocks. In the present study we aim to investigate how Izvorul Muntelui dam, located in the Eastern Carpathians influences local seismicity. For this purpose we selected from the seismic bulletins computed within National Data Center of National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania, crustal events occurred between 984 and 2015 in a range of 0.3 deg around the artificial lake. Subsequently to improve the seismic monitoring of the region we applied a cross-correlation detector on the continuous recordings of Bicaz (BIZ) seismic stations. Besides the tectonic events we detected sources within this region that periodically generate artificial evens. We couldn't emphasize the existence of a direct correlation between the water level variations and natural seismicity of the investigated area.

  5. Fluorescence-Based Sensor for Monitoring Activation of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.

    2012-01-01

    This sensor unit is designed to determine the level of activation of lunar dust or simulant particles using a fluorescent technique. Activation of the surface of a lunar soil sample (for instance, through grinding) should produce a freshly fractured surface. When these reactive surfaces interact with oxygen and water, they produce hydroxyl radicals. These radicals will react with a terephthalate diluted in the aqueous medium to form 2-hydroxyterephthalate. The fluorescence produced by 2-hydroxyterephthalate provides qualitative proof of the activation of the sample. Using a calibration curve produced by synthesized 2-hydroxyterephthalate, the amount of hydroxyl radicals produced as a function of sample concentration can also be determined.

  6. Monitoring the activity of the Be star OT Geminorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano Ferro, A.; Sareyan, J. P.; Avila, J. J.; Gonzalez, F.; Dumont, M.; Geos

    1998-02-01

    Observations obtained in 1995-1996 of the Be star OT Geminorum are reported and show that in october 1995 the star reached a very active phase with large variations around a bright plateau, a phase of activity we have also distinguished in previous observations dating from 1960. The time scales involved are discussed and suggest that the violent variations of the activity propagate very quickly on the whole surface of the star or on a huge portion of it. No likely pulsation periods were found. The assumption that the detected activity is due to the effects of an hypothetical companion leads to conclude that such companion could not be detected by the present interferometric techniques. Partly based on observations obtained at the La Luz Observatory of the University of Guanajuato, Mexico.

  7. Geophysical Institute. Biennial report, 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The 1993-1994 Geophysical Institute Biennial Report was published in November 1995 by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It contains an overview of the Geophysical Institute, the Director`s Note, and research presentations concerning the following subjects: Scientific Predictions, Space Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, Snow, Ice and Permafrost, Tectonics and Sedimentation, Seismology, Volcanology, Remote Sensing, and other projects.

  8. Monitoring Brain Activity with Protein Voltage and Calcium Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Storace, Douglas A.; Braubach, Oliver R.; Jin, Lei; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Sung, Uhna

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the roles of different cell types in the behaviors generated by neural circuits requires protein indicators that report neural activity with high spatio-temporal resolution. Genetically encoded fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensors, which optically report the electrical activity in distinct cell populations, are, in principle, ideal candidates. Here we demonstrate that the FP voltage sensor ArcLight reports odor-evoked electrical activity in the in vivo mammalian olfactory bulb in single trials using both wide-field and 2-photon imaging. ArcLight resolved fast odorant-responses in individual glomeruli, and distributed odorant responses across a population of glomeruli. Comparisons between ArcLight and the protein calcium sensors GCaMP3 and GCaMP6f revealed that ArcLight had faster temporal kinetics that more clearly distinguished activity elicited by individual odorant inspirations. In contrast, the signals from both GCaMPs were a saturating integral of activity that returned relatively slowly to the baseline. ArcLight enables optical electrophysiology of mammalian neuronal population activity in vivo. PMID:25970202

  9. Computerized cognitive training restores neural activity within the reality monitoring network in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Luks, Tracy L; Fisher, Melissa; Simpson, Gregory V; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2012-02-23

    Schizophrenia patients suffer from severe cognitive deficits, such as impaired reality monitoring. Reality monitoring is the ability to distinguish the source of internal experiences from outside reality. During reality monitoring tasks, schizophrenia patients make errors identifying "I made it up" items, and even during accurate performance, they show abnormally low activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region that supports self-referential cognition. We administered 80 hr of computerized training of cognitive processes to schizophrenia patients and found improvement in reality monitoring that correlated with increased mPFC activity. In contrast, patients in a computer games control condition did not show any behavioral or neural improvements. Notably, recovery in mPFC activity after training was associated with improved social functioning 6 months later. These findings demonstrate that a serious behavioral deficit in schizophrenia, and its underlying neural dysfunction, can be improved by well-designed computerized cognitive training, resulting in better quality of life.

  10. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  11. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works

  12. PREFACE: Padjadjaran Earth Dialogues: International Symposium on Geophysical Issues, PEDISGI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosandi, Y.; Urbassek, H. M.; Yamanaka, H.

    2016-01-01

    This issue of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science contains selected papers presented at the Padjadjaran Earth Dialogues: International Symposium on Geophysical Issues, PEDISGI. The meeting was held from June 8 to 10, 2015, at the Bale-Sawala of Universitas Padjadjaran in Jatinangor, Indonesia. The PEDISGI is a symposium to accommodate communication between researchers, in particular geophysicists and related scientists, and to enable sharing of knowledge and research findings concerning local and global geophysical issues. The symposium was attended by 126 participants and 64 contributors from Indonesian universities and the neighbouring countries in four categories, viz. Theoretical and Computational Geophysics, Environmental Geophysics, Geophysical Explorations, and Geophysical Instrumentations and Methods. The symposium was accompanied by a dialog, discussing a chosen topic regarding environmental and geological problems of relevance for the Indonesian archipelago and the surrounding regions. For this first event the topic was ''The formation of Bandung-Basin between myths and facts: Exemplary cultural, geological and geophysical study on the evolution of the earth surface'', presented by invited speakers and local experts. This activity was aimed at extending our knowledge on this particular subject, which may have global impact. This topic was augmented by theoretical background lectures on the earth's surface formation, presented by the invited speakers of the symposium. The meeting would not have been successful without the assistance of the local organizing committee. We want to specially thank Irwan A. Dharmawan for managing the programme, Anggie Susilawati and Mia U. Hasanah for the conference administration, and Dini Fitriani for financial management. We also thank the National Geographic Indonesia for its support via the Business to Business Collaboration Program. The conference photograph can be viewed in the PDF.

  13. Monitoring of low-energy seismic activity in Elbrus volcanic area with the use of underground seismic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevsky, V.; Sobisevitch, A.

    2012-04-01

    Results of experiment with underground seismic array for studying low-energy seismic activity in the Elbrus volcanic area are presented. Linear seismic array of 2.5 km aperture is created in the tunnel of Baksan neutrino observatory. Horizontal tunnel of 4.3 km length is drilled in the mount Andyrchi at a distance of 20 km from Elbrus volcano. Array includes 6 three-component seismic sensors with 24-byte recorders installed with 500 m interval one from another along the tunnel. Underground seismic array is the new instrument of geophysical observatory organized for studies of geophysical processes in the Elbrus volcanic area. The observatory equipped with modern geophysical instruments including broadband tri-axial seismometers, quartz tilt-meters, magnetic variometers, geo-acoustic sensors, hi-precision distributed thermal sensors and gravimeters. The initial analysis of seismic signals recorded by seismic array allows us to detect low-energy seismic activity in the Elbrus volcanic area beginning from the distance of 3-5 km (the faults in a vicinity of mount Andyrchi) up to 15-25 km (area of Elbrus volcano). The regional micro-earthquakes with magnitude 1-2 at the distances 50-100 km was also recorded. 2.5 km aperture of the underground linear seismic array make it possible to determine with high accuracy hypocenters of local seismic events associated with geodynamic of volcanic magmatic structures and to realize seismo-emission tomography of the active zones of Elbrus volcano.

  14. Subsidence monitoring network: an Italian example aimed at a sustainable hydrocarbon E&P activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacome, M. C.; Miandro, R.; Vettorel, M.; Roncari, G.

    2015-11-01

    According to the Italian law in order to start-up any new hydrocarbon exploitation activity, an Environmental Impact Assessment study has to be presented, including a monitoring plan, addressed to foresee, measure and analyze in real time any possible impact of the project on the coastal areas and on those ones in the close inland located. The occurrence of subsidence, that could partly be related to hydrocarbon production, both on-shore and off-shore, can generate great concern in those areas where its occurrence may have impacts on the local environment. ENI, following the international scientific community recommendations on the matter, since the beginning of 90's years, implemented a cutting-edge monitoring network, with the aim to prevent, mitigate and control geodynamics phenomena generated in the activity areas, with a particular attention to conservation and protection of environmental and territorial equilibrium, taking care of what is known as "sustainable development". The current ENI implemented monitoring surveys can be divided as: - Shallow monitoring: spirit levelling surveys, continuous GPS surveys in permanent stations, SAR surveys, assestimeter subsurface compaction monitoring, ground water level monitoring, LiDAR surveys, bathymetrical surveys. - Deep monitoring: reservoir deep compaction trough radioactive markers, reservoir static (bottom hole) pressure monitoring. All the information, gathered through the monitoring network, allow: 1. to verify if the produced subsidence is evolving accordingly with the simulated forecast. 2. to provide data to revise and adjust the prediction compaction models 3. to put in place the remedial actions if the impact exceeds the threshold magnitude originally agreed among the involved parties. ENI monitoring plan to measure and monitor the subsidence process, during field production and also after the field closure, is therefore intended to support a sustainable field development and an acceptable exploitation

  15. Surveying and Geophysical Measurements with Inertial Rotation Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    measuring the annuial wobble and Chandler wobble with 0.1%~ resolution appears feasible. Otfier GeopbvsieMl Aflnlicationg meauremenimof tilt plus Verti’-al... wobble might be feasible by monitoring azimuth and astronomic latitude in geophysical observatories. FORM DD 𔃻JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF I NOV S IS...earth’s Pole of’ rotation wobbles , nutatcs, preee ,sma-.rnd wamdes(2 andtee oin aeostral by optical astrometry, lunar and artificial satellite laser

  16. Smolt Monitoring Activities at Little Goose Dam; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, Ann

    1997-07-01

    The juvenile fish facility at Little Goose Dam is operated seasonally to collect and bypass downstream migrating smolts and keep them from passing through the turbine blades. Fish are diverted from turbines by traveling screens as they sound in the forebay to pass the dam. A small percentage of the passing fish are sampled on a daily basis to provide information on fish condition, species composition, migration timing, and size distribution. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife personnel perform daily fish sampling and data collection. Physical operation of the facility is the responsibility of the US Army Corps of Engineers. Data is reported to the Fish Passage Center daily by means of electronic data transfer. Funding for this project was provided through the Smolt Monitoring Program administered by the Fish Passage Center. Overall, the number of fish collected and sampled in 1996 was a reduction from the previous years of operation. The 1996 migration season was characterized by higher than average flows and greater spill frequency at the dam. It was the first year that coho salmon were obtained in the sample. The predominant species collected was steelhead with hatchery fish outnumbering wild fish by a ratio of 8:1. An increased emphasis was placed on gas bubble trauma examination and a routine, consistent effort was implemented using a protocol established by the Fish Passage Center. The objective of the gas bubble trauma (GBT) examinations was to document the relative incidence of symptoms throughout the migration season.

  17. Near surface geophysical techniques on subsoil contamination: laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; Giampaolo, Valeria; Rizzo, Enzo

    2016-04-01

    Hydrocarbons contamination of soil and groundwater has become a serious environmental problem, because of the increasing number of accidental spills caused by human activities. The starting point of any studies is the reconstruction of the conceptual site model. To make valid predictions about the flow pathways following by hydrocarbons compound is necessary to make a correct reconstruction of their characteristics and the environment in which they move. Near-surface geophysical methods, based on the study of electrical and electromagnetic properties, are proved to be very useful in mapping spatial distribution of the organic contaminants in the subsurface. It is well known, in fact, that electrical properties of the porous media are significantly influenced by hydrocarbons because, when contaminants enter the rock matrix, surface reaction occur between the contaminant and the soil grain surface. The main aim of this work is to investigate the capability of near-surface geophysical methods in mapping and monitoring spatial distribution of contaminants in a controlled setting. A laboratory experiment has been performed at the Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA (Marsico Nuovo, PZ) where a box-sand has been contaminated by diesel. The used contaminant is a LNAPL, added to the sand through a drilled pipe. Contaminant behaviour and its migration paths have been monitored for one year by Electrical Resistivity measurements. In details, a Cross Borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography techniques were used to characterize the contamination dynamics after a controlled hydrocarbon spillage occurring in the vadose zone. The approach with cross-borehole resistivity imaging provide a great advantage compared to more conventional surface electrical resistivity tomography, due to the high resolution at high depth (obviously depending on the depth of the well instrumented for the acquisition). This method has been shown to provide good information on the distribution of

  18. A review of market monitoring activities at U.S. independent system operators

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Goldman, Charles; Bartholomew, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Policymakers have increasingly recognized the structural impediments to effective competition in electricity markets, which has resulted in a renewed emphasis on the need for careful market design and market monitoring in wholesale and retail electricity markets. In this study, we review the market monitoring activities of four Independent System Operators in the United States, focusing on such topics as the organization of an independent market monitoring unit (MMU), the role and value of external market monitors, performance metrics and indices to aid in market analysis, issues associated with access to confidential market data, and market mitigation and investigation authority. There is consensus across the four ISOs that market monitoring must be organizationally independent from market participants and that ISOs should have authority to apply some degree of corrective actions on the market, though scope and implementation differ across the ISOs. Likewise, current practices regarding access to confidential market data by state energy regulators varies somewhat by ISO. Drawing on our interviews and research, we present five examples that illustrate the impact and potential contribution of ISO market monitoring activities to enhance functioning of wholesale electricity markets. We also discuss several key policy and implementation issues that Western state policymakers and regulators should consider as market monitoring activities evolve in the West.

  19. Global Geophysical Fluids Center of IERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.; Wilson, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Global Geophysical Fluids Center (GGFC) and its seven Special Bureaus (SB, for Atmosphere, Oceans, Tides, Hydrology, Mantle, Core and Gravity/Geocenter) were establishes by the International Earth Rotation Service in 1998, to support global geodynamic research. Mass transports in the geophysical fluids of the Earth system will cause observable geodynamic effects on a broad time scale.These include (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, and new exciting data will be available by space gravity, altimetry, SAR, and magnetic missions. In this sense the precise space geodetic techniques have become effective means of remote sensing of global mass transports. The GGFC and its SBs have the responsibility of supporting, facilitating, and providing services to the worldwide research community in the related research areas. We compute, analyze, compare, archive, and disseminate the time series of the angular momenta and the related torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift for all geophysical fluids, based on global observational data, and/or products from state-of-the-art models some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. This paper reviews our activities, reports the status, and looks forward into the future.

  20. Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Activation and Monitoring of Memory Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giammattei, Jeannette; Arndt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the lateralization of memory errors suggests that the right hemisphere's tendency to produce more memory errors than the left hemisphere reflects hemispheric differences in semantic activation. However, all prior research that has examined the lateralization of memory errors has used self-paced recognition judgments. Because…

  1. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  2. Monitoring activity in neural circuits with genetically encoded indicators

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Gerard J.; Liang, Ruqiang; Tian, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in genetically encoded indicators of neural activity (GINAs) have greatly advanced the field of systems neuroscience. As they are encoded by DNA, GINAs can be targeted to genetically defined cellular populations. Combined with fluorescence microscopy, most notably multi-photon imaging, GINAs allow chronic simultaneous optical recordings from large populations of neurons or glial cells in awake, behaving mammals, particularly rodents. This large-scale recording of neural activity at multiple temporal and spatial scales has greatly advanced our understanding of the dynamics of neural circuitry underlying behavior—a critical first step toward understanding the complexities of brain function, such as sensorimotor integration and learning. Here, we summarize the recent development and applications of the major classes of GINAs. In particular, we take an in-depth look at the design of available GINA families with a particular focus on genetically encoded calcium indicators (GCaMPs), sensors probing synaptic activity, and genetically encoded voltage indicators. Using the family of the GCaMP as an example, we review established sensor optimization pipelines. We also discuss practical considerations for end users of GINAs about experimental methods including approaches for gene delivery, imaging system requirements, and data analysis techniques. With the growing toolbox of GINAs and with new microscopy techniques pushing beyond their current limits, the age of light can finally achieve the goal of broad and dense sampling of neuronal activity across time and brain structures to obtain a dynamic picture of brain function. PMID:25538558

  3. Monitoring and Modelling of Soil-Plant Interactions: the Joint Use of ERT, Sap Flow and Eddy Covariance to Define the Volume of Orange Tree Active Root Zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassiani, G.; Boaga, J.; Vanella, D.; Perri, M. T.; Consoli, S.

    2014-12-01

    Mass and energy exchanges between soil, plants and atmosphere are key factors controlling a number of environmental processes involving hydrology, biota and climate. The understanding of these exchanges also play a critical role for practical purposes such as precision agriculture. In this contribution we present a methodology based on coupling innovative data collection and models. In particular we propose the use of hydro-geophysical monitoring via 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) in conjunction with measurements of plant transpiration via sap flow and evapotranspiration from Eddy Correlation (EC). This abundance of data are to be fed in spatially distributed soil models in order to comprehend the distribution of active roots. We conducted experiments in an orange orchard in Eastern Sicily (Italy). We installed a 3D electrical tomography apparatus consisting of 4 instrumented micro boreholes placed at the corners of a square (about 1.3 m in side) surrounding an orange tree. During the monitoring, we collected repeated ERT and TDR soil moisture measurements, soil water sampling, sap flow measurements from the orange tree and EC data. Irrigation, precipitation, sap flow and ET data are available for a long period of time allowing knowledge of the long term forcing conditions on the system. This wealth of information was used to calibrate a 1D Richards' equation model representing the dynamics of the volume monitored via 3D ERT. Information on the soil hydraulic properties was collected from laboratory experiments as well as by time-lapse ERT monitoring of irrigation a few months after the main experiment, when the orange tree had been cut. The results of the calibrated modeling exercise allow the quantification of the soil volume interested by root water uptake. This volume is much smaller (an area less than 2 square meters, 40 cm thick) than generally believed and assumed in the design of classical drip irrigation schemes.

  4. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.

    2013-05-01

    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  5. Smith heads Reviews of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On January 1, Jim Smith began his term as editor-in-chief of Reviews of Geophysics. As editor-in-chief, he leads the board of editors in enhancing the journal's role as an integrating force in the geophysical sciences by providing timely overviews of current research and its trends. Smith is already beginning to fulfill the journal's role of providing review papers on topics of broad interest to Union members as well as the occasional definitive review paper on selected topics of narrower focus. Smith will lead the editorial board until December 31, 2000. Michael Coffey, Tommy Dickey, James Horwitz, Roelof Snieder, and Thomas Torgersen have been appointed as editors to serve with Smith. At least one more editor will be named to round out the disciplinary expertise on the board.

  6. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmentier, E. Marc

    2002-01-01

    We have carried out several studies that explore explanations for the role of chemical density variations in Moon s evolution. Meaningful models for the evolution of the Moon must explain a number of important magmatic characteristics. Volcanic activity subsequent to the formation of its anorthositic crust was dominated by the eruption of mare basalt. 1) The main phase of mare volcanism began approx. 500 Myr after the crystallization of the anorthositic crust and continued for approx. l Gyr. 2) The picitic glasses, considered to be representative of mare basalt least affected by low pressure, near-surface fractionation, were generated by melting, at 400-600 km depth, of a source containing components that, on the basis of the magma ocean hypothesis, should have crystallized at much shallower depth during fractionation of the anorthositic crust. 3) Mare basalts occur primarily in one region of the Moon. Recent topographic data demonstrate that the earlier idea that mare basalt flooded areas of low elevation is not correct. Large areas of very low elevation do not contain mare basalt. The hemispheric asymmetry of mare basalt distribution on the lunar surface must be explained in some other way. 4) A region of the surface roughly correlating with that containing mare basalts also is thought to contain high subsurface concentrations of KREEP which was excavated during the formation of large impact basins. This so-called Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) is responsible for the Imbrium basin-centered thorium anomaly mapped by Lunar Prospector.

  7. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  8. Ebola active monitoring system for travelers returning from West Africa—Georgia, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Parham, Mary; Edison, Laura; Soetebier, Karl; Feldpausch, Amanda; Kunkes, Audrey; Smith, Wendy; Guffey, Taylor; Fetherolf, Romana; Sanlis, Kathryn; Gabel, Julie; Cowell, Alex; Drenzek, Cherie

    2015-04-10

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa has so far produced approximately 25,000 cases, more than 40 times the number in any previously documented Ebola outbreak. Because of the risk for imported disease from infected travelers, in October 2014 CDC recommended that all travelers to the United States from Ebola-affected countries receive enhanced entry screening and postarrival active monitoring for Ebola signs or symptoms until 21 days after their departure from an Ebola-affected country. The state of Georgia began its active monitoring program on October 25, 2014. The Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) modified its existing, web-based electronic notifiable disease reporting system to create an Ebola Active Monitoring System (EAMS). DPH staff members developed EAMS from conceptualization to implementation in 6 days. In accordance with CDC recommendations, "low (but not zero) risk" travelers are required to report their daily health status to DPH, and the EAMS dashboard enables DPH epidemiologists to track symptoms and compliance with active monitoring. Through March 31, 2015, DPH monitored 1,070 travelers, and 699 (65%) used their EAMS traveler login instead of telephone or e-mail to report their health status. Medical evaluations were performed on 30 travelers, of whom three were tested for Ebola. EAMS has enabled two epidemiologists to monitor approximately 100 travelers daily, and to rapidly respond to travelers reporting signs and symptoms of potential Ebola virus infection. Similar electronic tracking systems might be useful for other jurisdictions.

  9. New sensitizers and rapid monitoring of their photodynamic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Posypanova, Anna M.; Volkova, Anna I.

    1996-04-01

    At present, there are lots and lots of chemical compounds that are, to a certain extent, photodynamically active. Therefore, the task of carrying out the expressive screening of such compounds has been raised sharply enough. The primary screening in vitro of compounds, with the help of biological liquids, is notable for quickness and cheapness at the same time, it is possible to determine the comparative characteristics of compounds by their photodynamical activity. Decomposition of albumins of a mixture of photosensitizer and biological liquid when irradiating with light is the basis of this method. Efficiency of decomposition of components of biological liquids is determined using biochemical reactions (e.g., those for determining the total albumins or blood hemoglobin). Subsequently, with a sufficient efficiency of a photosensitizer, it will be possible to carry out a study in vivo, with the purpose of establishing accumulation of preparations in tumor.

  10. Monitoring Monitoring Evolving Activity at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico, 2000-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-DelPozzo, A.; Aceves, F.; Bonifaz, R.; Humberto, S.

    2001-12-01

    After 6 years of small eruptions, activity at Mexico's 5,452m high Popocatepetl Volcano in central Mexico, peaked in the December 2000-January 2001 eruptions. Precursors included an important increase in seismicity as well as in magmatic components of spring water and small scale deformation which resulted in growth of a new crater dome from January 16 on. Evacuation of the towns nearest the volcano over Christmas was decided because of the possibility of pyroclastic flows. During the previous years, crater dome growth, contraction and explosive clearing has dominated the activity. The January 22 eruption produced an eruption column approximately 17km high with associated pyroclastic flows. Ejecta was composed of both basic and evolved scoria and pumice and dome lithics. A large proportion of the juvenile material was intermediate between these 2 endmenbers (59-63percent SiO2 and 3.5 to 5.5 MgO) consistent with a small basic pulse entering a more evolved larger batch of magma. The January eruption left a large pit which has been partially infilled by another crater dome this August 2001.

  11. Phosphate-Modified Nucleotides for Monitoring Enzyme Activity.

    PubMed

    Ermert, Susanne; Marx, Andreas; Hacker, Stephan M

    2017-04-01

    Nucleotides modified at the terminal phosphate position have been proven to be interesting entities to study the activity of a variety of different protein classes. In this chapter, we present various types of modifications that were attached as reporter molecules to the phosphate chain of nucleotides and briefly describe the chemical reactions that are frequently used to synthesize them. Furthermore, we discuss a variety of applications of these molecules. Kinase activity, for instance, was studied by transfer of a phosphate modified with a reporter group to the target proteins. This allows not only studying the activity of kinases, but also identifying their target proteins. Moreover, kinases can also be directly labeled with a reporter at a conserved lysine using acyl-phosphate probes. Another important application for phosphate-modified nucleotides is the study of RNA and DNA polymerases. In this context, single-molecule sequencing is made possible using detection in zero-mode waveguides, nanopores or by a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based mechanism between the polymerase and a fluorophore-labeled nucleotide. Additionally, fluorogenic nucleotides that utilize an intramolecular interaction between a fluorophore and the nucleobase or an intramolecular FRET effect have been successfully developed to study a variety of different enzymes. Finally, also some novel techniques applying electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based detection of nucleotide cleavage or the detection of the cleavage of fluorophosphates are discussed. Taken together, nucleotides modified at the terminal phosphate position have been applied to study the activity of a large diversity of proteins and are valuable tools to enhance the knowledge of biological systems.

  12. GEOPHYSICS: Atmosphere Drives Earth's Tipsiness.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R A

    2000-08-04

    For more than a century, geophysicists who track Earth's rotation have sensed a rhythmic unsteadiness about the planet, an ever-so-slight wobbling whose source remained frustratingly mysterious. But researchers have been homing in on the roots of the so-called Chandler wobble, and now a report in the 1 August issue of Geophysical Research Letters fingers the shifting pressures of the deep sea and ultimately the fickle winds of the atmosphere.

  13. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  14. A transgenic zebrafish model for monitoring glucocorticoid receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Randall G.; Poshusta, Tanya L.; Skuster, Kimberly J.; Berg, MaKayla R.; Gardner, Samantha L.; Clark, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulation resulting from glucocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid response element interactions is a hallmark feature of stress response signaling. Imbalanced glucocorticoid production and glucocorticoid receptor activity have been linked to socio-economically crippling neuropsychiatric disorders, and accordingly there is a need to develop in vivo models to help understand disease progression and management. Therefore, we developed the transgenic SR4G zebrafish reporter line with six glucocorticoid response elements used to promote expression of a short half-life green fluorescent protein following glucocorticoid receptor activation. Herein, we document the ability of this reporter line to respond to both chronic and acute exogenous glucocorticoid treatment. The green fluorescent protein expression in response to transgene activation was high in a variety of tissues including the brain, and provided single cell resolution in the effected regions. The specificity of these responses is demonstrated using the partial agonist mifepristone and mutation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Importantly, the reporter line also modeled the temporal dynamics of endogenous stress response signaling, including the increased production of the glucocorticoid cortisol following hyperosmotic stress and the fluctuations of basal cortisol concentrations with the circadian rhythm. Taken together, these results characterize our newly developed reporter line for elucidating environmental or genetic modifiers of stress response signaling, which may provide insights to the neuronal mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder. PMID:24679220

  15. An Integral, Multidisciplinary and Global Geophysical Field Experience for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, O.; Carrillo, D. J.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The udergraduate program of Geophysical Engineering at the School of Engineering, of the Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), went through an update process that concluded in 2006. As part of the program, the student takes three geophysical prospecting courses (gravity and magnetics, electric, electromagnetics, and seismic methods). The older program required a three-week field experience for each course in order to gradute. The new program considers only one extended field experience. This work stresses the importance of international academic exchange, where undergraduate students could participate, such as the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE), and interaction with research programs, such as the MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE). Also, we propose a scheeme for this activity based on those examples; both of them have in common real geophysical problems, from which students could benefit. Our proposal covers academic and logistic aspects to be taken into account, enhancing the relevance of interaction between other academic institutions, industry, and UNAM, in order to obtain a broader view of geophysics.

  16. Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.

    2009-05-15

    AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.

  17. GPR survey, as one of the best geophysical methods for social and industrial needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, Anatolii

    2016-04-01

    activity. Monitoring of such hazards as landslides, underground erosion, variation in ground water level can help prevent dangerous processes with destructive consequences, which can result in peoples' injuries and even death. Moreover, GPR can be used in other spheres of life, where investigation of hidden (under or behind conductive for electromagnetic wave material) objects is needed: rescue operations (finding of people after natural and human-made disasters under snow, under debris of building material); military purpose (security systems, identification of people presence through walls, doors, ground etc.). Author work on algorithms (first of all for VIY GPRs (http://viy.ua/)), which will help more precisely find objects of interest on radarograms and even solve inverse problem of geophysics. According to information in that article, geophysical methods can be widely used to solve great variety of tasks and help to investigate humans' past (researches of cultural heritage) and provide information to create safe and comfortable future (preventing of natural hazards and better planning of construction).

  18. SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience): Learning Geophysics by Doing Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Gilpin, B. E.; Pellerin, L.

    2005-12-01

    SAGE, a field-based educational program in applied geophysical methods has been an REU site for 16 years and completed its 23rd year of operation in July 2005. SAGE teaches the major geophysical exploration methods (including seismics, gravity, magnetics, and electromagnetics) and applies them to the solution of specific local and regional geologic problems. These include delineating buried hazardous material; mapping archaeological sites; and studying the structure, tectonics, and water resources of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico. Nearly 600 graduates, undergraduates, and professionals have attended SAGE since 1983. Since 1990 REU students have numbered 219 coming from dozens of different campuses. There have been 124 underrepresented REU students including 100 women, 14 Hispanics, 7 Native Americans, and 3 African Americans. Tracking of former REU students has revealed that 81% have gone on to graduate school. Keys to the success of SAGE are hands-on immersion in geophysics for one month and a partnership between academia, industry, and a federal laboratory. Successful approaches at SAGE include: 1) application of the latest equipment by all students; 2) continued updating of equipment, computers, and software by organizing universities and industry affiliates; 3) close ties with industry who provide supplemental instruction, furnish new equipment and software, and alert students to the current industry trends and job opportunities; 4) two-team, student data analysis structure that simultaneously addresses specific geophysical techniques and their integration; and 5) oral and written reports patterned after professional meetings and journals. An eight member, 'blue ribbon' advisory panel from academia, industry, and the federal government has been set up to maintain the vitality of SAGE by addressing such issues as funding, new faculty, organization, and vision. SAGE is open to students from any university (or organization) with backgrounds including

  19. 30 CFR 580.29 - Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 580.29 Section 580.29 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... environmental effects of my activity? We will evaluate the potential of proposed prospecting or...

  20. 30 CFR 580.29 - Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 580.29 Section 580.29 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... environmental effects of my activity? We will evaluate the potential of proposed prospecting or...

  1. 30 CFR 580.29 - Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 580.29 Section 580.29 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... environmental effects of my activity? We will evaluate the potential of proposed prospecting or...

  2. Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Yoram

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to increase water savings and show better ecological control of natural vegetation by developing hydrogeological-geophysical methods for characterizing the permeability and content of water in soil. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) tool was developed and used as the surface geophysical method for monitoring water content. Initial results using the tool suggest that surface GPR is a viable technique for obtaining precision volumetric water content profile estimates, and that laboratory-derived petrophysical relationships could be applied to field-scale GPR data. A field-scale bacterial transport study was conducted within an uncontaminated sandy Pleistocene aquifer to evaluate the importance of heterogeneity in controlling the transport of bacteria. Geochemical, hydrological, geological, and geophysical data were collected to characterize the site prior to and after chemical and bacterial injection experiments. Study results shows that, even within the fairly uniform shallow marine deposits of the narrow channel focus area, heterogeneity existed that influenced the chemical tracer transport over lateral distances of a few meters and vertical distances of less than a half meter. The interpretation of data suggest that the incorporation of geophysical data with limited hydrological data may provide valuable information about the stratigraphy, log conductivity values, and the spatial correlation structure of log conductivity, which have traditionally been obtainable only by performing extensive and intrusive hydrological sampling.

  3. Geophysical Investigations of Archaeological Resources in Southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda Ringe Pace; Gail Heath; Clark Scott; Carlan McDaniel

    2005-10-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory and other locations across southern Idaho, geophysical tools are being used to discover, map, and evaluate archaeological sites. A variety of settings are being explored to expand the library of geophysical signatures relevant to archaeology in the region. Current targets of interest include: prehistoric archaeological features in open areas as well as lava tube caves, historical structures and activity areas, and emigrant travel paths. We draw from a comprehensive, state of the art geophysical instrumentation pool to support this work. Equipment and facilities include ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic and magnetic sensors, multiple resistivity instruments, advanced positioning instrumentation, state of the art processing and data analysis software, and laboratory facilities for controlled experiments.

  4. Magneto-impedance sensor for quasi-noncontact monitoring of breathing, pulse rate and activity status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corodeanu, S.; Chiriac, H.; Radulescu, L.; Lupu, N.

    2014-05-01

    Results on the development and testing of a novel magnetic sensor based on the detection of the magneto-impedance variation due to changes in the permeability of an amorphous wire are reported. The proposed application is the quasi-noncontact monitoring of the breathing frequency and heart rate for diagnosing sleep disorders. Patient discomfort is significantly decreased by transversally placing the sensitive element onto the surface of a flexible mattress in order to detect its deformation associated with cardiorespiratory activity and body movements. The developed sensor has a great application potential in monitoring the vital signs during sleep, with special advantages for children sleep monitoring.

  5. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G.; Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F.

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  6. The role of Geophysics for a sustainable environment: potentials, challenges and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buske, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    The increasing worldwide demand for energy including the exploration of new resources are provoking prompt activities to guarantee a safe accomplishment together with a conscientious protection of the environment. Within this framework geophysical technologies play a key role for the profound assessment and characterization of the subsurface, which hosts most of the corresponding targets of human interest. These technologies (active- and passive-source seismology, electromagnetics, etc.) are expected to deliver a reliable and highly-resolved image of the subsurface including its structural inventory and the related rock-physical parameters on a broad scale and depending on the used inversion methodology. In particular in terms of energy and resources, i.e. the exploration and partly the storage and disposal of end-products, the existing geophysical imaging techniques are well suited for both, the over-the-years well established oil/gas industry as well as for newer emerging industry branches, e.g. geothermal energy. On the other hand the related problems, e.g. induced earthquakes, are currently stimulating various research areas and the development of new technologies for a better understanding and prediction of the inherent processes and a more reliable risk assessment. This applies in equally the same manner to natural phenomena, including but not limited to natural earthquakes, vulcanoes, landslides, etc. This presentation will summarize the key issues as well as the possibilities and potentials of existing geophysical monitoring and prediction approaches within this framework. Furthermore, some of the current challenges will be addressed, e.g. the required steps towards an improvement of image quality and resolution along with an increased computational efficiency of these methodologies. Finally, also the limitations of state-of-the-art technologies will be discussed with an assortment of successful and failed case studies that demonstrate the potential

  7. A Geophysical Atlas for Interpretation of Satellite-derived Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr. (Editor); Frey, H. V. (Editor); Davis, W. M.; Greenberg, A. P.; Hutchinson, M. K.; Langel, R. A.; Lowrey, B. E.; Marsh, J. G.; Mead, G. D.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A compilation of maps of global geophysical and geological data plotted on a common scale and projection is presented. The maps include satellite gravity, magnetic, seismic, volcanic, tectonic activity, and mantle velocity anomaly data. The Bibliographic references for all maps are included.

  8. Geophysics and cosmogony of solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzjmenko, G. I.; Smirnov, V. A.

    2003-04-01

    The attention to primary importance of geophysics in formation of modern representations about planets of Solar system is inverted. [ Kuzjmenko G.I. Deep Processes in the Earth's Interior. Geophys. J. 2001. Vol. 20, pp 813 -831; Kuzjmenko G.I., Smirnov V.A. Minor Bodys and Cosmogony of a Solar System. CAMMAC 2002. Intern. Conf. September 23 - 29, Vinnitsia, 2002, pp 35 -36]. The analysis rocket given about electromagnetic properties of Solar system has helped utilization Generalized Statistical-Wavemechanical Equations (GSWE), which special case is the quantum equation of Schrödinger. From GSWE the decision not only old problems of Solar system, but also prediction of presence of a belt of small bodies of Kuiper's and features of absent-minded substance in Solar system follows. The modern geophysical data on properties of the Earth with use GSWE result not only in the description of the electromagnetic characteristics of planets, but open existence dark mattery, which properties now are actively studied [Kuzjmenko G.I., Zelinsky I.P. Generalized Statistical-Wavemechanical Equations (GSWE) and its Applications. Proc. of 16-th IMACS World Congress 2000. Lausanne, Switzerland, August 21-25, 2000. CD File 416 -1].

  9. Progress in geophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Allan R.

    Geophysical fluid dynamics deals with the motions and physics of the atmosphere, oceans and interior of the earth and other planets: the winds, the swirls, the currents that occur on myriads of scales from millimeter to climatological. Explanations of natural phenomena, basic processes and abstractions are sought. The rotation of the earth, the buoyancy of its fluids and the tendency towards large-scale turbulence characterize these flows. But geophysical fluid dynamics is importantly a part of modern fluid dynamics which is contributing to the development of nonlinear mechanics generally. Some general insights are emerging for nonlinear systems which must be regarded as partly deterministic and partly random or which are complex and aperiodic. Contributions from geophysical fluid dynamics come from its methodology, from the experience of examples, and from the perspective provided by its unique scale. Contributions have been made to turbulent, chaotic and coherently structured nonlinear process research. Turbulent vortices larger than man himself naturally invite detailed investigation and deterministic physical studies. Examples are storms in the atmosphere and large ring vortices spun off by the Gulf Stream current in mid-ocean. The statistics of these events determine critical aspects of the general circulations. Fluid dynamicists generally now know that it is often relevant or necessary to study local dynamical processes of typical eddies even though only the average properties of the flow are of interest; progress in understanding the turbulent boundary layer in pipes involves the study of millimeter-scale vortices. Weather-related studies were seminal to the construction of the new scientific field of chaos. Coherent vortices abound of which the Great Red Spot of Jupiter is a spectacular example. Geophysical fluid dynamicists have been among forefront researchers in exploiting the steadily increasing speed and capacity of modern computers. Supercomputers

  10. Monitoring Criminal Activity through Invisible Fluorescent "Peptide Coding" Taggants.

    PubMed

    Gooch, James; Goh, Hilary; Daniel, Barbara; Abbate, Vincenzo; Frascione, Nunzianda

    2016-04-19

    Complementing the demand for effective crime reduction measures are the increasing availability of commercial forensic "taggants", which may be used to physically mark an object in order to make it uniquely identifiable. This study explores the use of a novel "peptide coding" reagents to establish evidence of contact transfer during criminal activity. The reagent, containing a fluorophore dispersed within an oil-based medium, also includes a unique synthetic peptide sequence that acts as a traceable "code" to identify the origin of the taggant. The reagent is detectable through its fluorescent properties, which then allows the peptide to be recovered by swabbing and extracted for electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis via a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The performance of the reagent in variable conditions that mimic the limits of a real world use are investigated.

  11. Active System for Electromagnetic Perturbation Monitoring in Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoi, Adrian Marian; Helerea, Elena

    Nowadays electromagnetic environment is rapidly expanding in frequency domain and wireless services extend in terms of covered area. European electromagnetic compatibility regulations refer to limit values regarding emissions, as well as procedures for determining susceptibility of the vehicle. Approval procedure for a series of cars is based on determining emissions/immunity level for a few vehicles picked randomly from the entire series, supposing that entire vehicle series is compliant. During immunity assessment, the vehicle is not subjected to real perturbation sources, but exposed to electric/magnetic fields generated by laboratory equipment. Since current approach takes into account only partially real situation regarding perturbation sources, this paper proposes an active system for determining electromagnetic parameters of vehicle's environment, that implements a logical diagram for measurement, satisfying the imposed requirements. This new and original solution is useful for EMC assessment of hybrid and electrical vehicles.

  12. Individual differences in epistemic motivation and brain conflict monitoring activity.

    PubMed

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Czarnek, Gabriela; Wronka, Eligiusz; Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Bukowski, Marcin

    2014-06-06

    It is well documented that motivation toward closure (NFC), defined as a desire for a quick and unambiguous answer to a question and an aversion to uncertainty, is linked to more structured, rigid, and persistent cognitive styles. However, the neurocognitive correlates of NFC have never been tested. Thus, using event-related potentials, we examined the hypothesis that NFC is associated with the neurocognitive process for detecting discrepancies between response tendencies and higher level intentions. We found that greater NFC is associated with lower conflict-related anterior cingulate activity, suggesting lower sensitivity to cues for altering a habitual response pattern and lower sensitivity to committing errors. This study provides evidence that high NFC acts as a bulwark against anxiety-producing uncertainty and minimizes the experience of error.

  13. Structure and evolution of an active resurgent dome evidenced by geophysical investigations: The Yenkahe dome-Yasur volcano system (Siwi caldera, Vanuatu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Chaput, M.; Gailler, L.; Finizola, A.; Dumont, S.; Peltier, A.; Bachèlery, P.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Byrdina, S.; Menny, P.; Colonge, J.; Douillet, G. A.; Letort, J.; Letourneur, L.; Merle, O.; Di Gangi, F.; Nakedau, D.; Garaebiti, E.

    2016-08-01

    In this contribution, we focus on one of the most active resurgences on Earth, that of the Yenkahe dome in the Siwi caldera (Tanna Island, Vanuatu), which is associated with the persistently active Yasur volcano. Gravity and magnetic surveys have been carried out over the past few years in the area, as well as electrical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), time domain electro-magnetics (TDEM) and self-potential (SP). These investigations were completed by thermometry, CO2 soil gas measurements, field observations and sampling. This multi-method approach allows geological structures within the caldera to be identified, as well as associated hydrothermal features. The global structure of the caldera is deduced from gravity data, which shows the caldera rim as a high density structure. Large lava fields, emplaced before and after the onset of resurgence, are evidenced by combined gravity, magnetic and resistivity signals. In the middle of the caldera, the Yenkahe dome apparently results from a combination of volcanic and tectonic events, showing that lava extrusion and resurgence have been operating simultaneously or alternately during the Siwi caldera post-collapse history. There is a clear distinction between the western and eastern parts of the dome. The western part is older and records the growth of an initial volcanic cone and the formation of a small caldera. This small caldera (paleo-Yasur caldera), partially filled with lava flows, is the present-day focus of volcanic activity and associated fluid circulation and alteration. The eastern part of the dome is presumably younger, and is characterized by intense, extensive hydrothermal alteration and activity. Its northern part is covered by lava flow piles and exhibits a shallow hydrothermal zone in ERT. The southern part has hydrothermal alteration and activity extending at least down to the base of the resurgent dome. This part of the dome is built up of low cohesion rock and is thus

  14. Terrestrial hydrological Research and Geophysics: Quo Vadis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Huisman, J. A.; van der Kruk, J.; Bogena, H.; Pohlmeier, A.; Koestel, J.; Lambot, S.; Vanderborght, J.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical methods may play an important role in managing our terrestrial environment and in maintaining ecosystem functioning and services. Especially, the application and further development of hydrogeophysical methods seem very promising to maintain and protect soil and groundwater quality. Hydrogeophysical methods may help to improve our control on storage, filter and buffer functions of soils and groundwater systems. Moreover, methods are needed that will help us to bridge the gap between the scale of measurements and observations and the scale at which management of terrestrial systems takes place. In this presentation several examples will be presented showing how hydrogeophysical research can contribute in meeting these challenges. Recent progress in the field of magnetic resonance imaging, electrical resistivity tomography and spectral induced polarisation to investigate flow and transport processes in soils will be presented. In the field of high frequency hydrogeophysics, advanced full-waveform forward and inverse modelling procedures have been developed for ground penetrating radar technology, which are now routinely used for high-resolution, real-time mapping of surface soil moisture at the field scale. Integrated inversion and data fusion strategies, where both geophysical and hydrological models are coupled, further extend information retrieval capabilities also in real-time, and permits advanced interpretation of time-lapse data for hydrological process identification, water dynamics monitoring and soil hydraulic properties determination. Advances in wireless and sensor technologies are increasing the feasibility of using distributed sensor networks for observing soil water and hydrological processes at the intermediate scale, bridging the gap between ground-based sensors and remote sensing platforms.

  15. Interplay Between the Equatorial Geophysical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, R.

    2006-11-01

    r_sridharanspl@yahoo.com With the sun as the main driving force, the Equatorial Ionosphere- thermosphere system supp