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Sample records for active germinal centers

  1. Speckled-like Pattern in the Germinal Center (SLIP-GC), a Nuclear GTPase Expressed in Activation-induced Deaminase-expressing Lymphomas and Germinal Center B Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Kathleen; Brar, Sukhdev; Ray, Madhumita; Pisitkun, Prapaporn; Bolland, Silvia; Verkoczy, Laurent; Diaz, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    We identified a novel GTPase, SLIP-GC, with expression limited to a few tissues, in particular germinal center B cells. It lacks homology to any known proteins, indicating that it may belong to a novel family of GTPases. SLIP-GC is expressed in germinal center B cells and in lymphomas derived from germinal center B cells such as large diffuse B cell lymphomas. In cell lines, SLIP-GC is expressed in lymphomas that express activation-induced deaminase (AID) and that likely undergo somatic hypermutation. SLIP-GC is a nuclear protein, and it localizes to replication factories. Reduction of SLIP-GC levels in the Burkitt lymphoma cell line Raji and in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines resulted in an increase in DNA breaks and apoptosis that was AID-dependent, as simultaneous reduction of AID abrogated the deleterious effects of SLIP-GC reduction. These results strongly suggest that SLIP-GC is a replication-related protein in germinal center B cells whose reduction is toxic to cells through an AID-dependent mechanism. PMID:19734146

  2. Germinal Centers without T Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Vinuesa, Carola García; Cook, Matthew C.; Ball, Jennifer; Drew, Marion; Sunners, Yvonne; Cascalho, Marilia; Wabl, Matthias; Klaus, Gerry G.B.; MacLennan, Ian C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Germinal centers are critical for affinity maturation of antibody (Ab) responses. This process allows the production of high-efficiency neutralizing Ab that protects against virus infection and bacterial exotoxins. In germinal centers, responding B cells selectively mutate the genes that encode their receptors for antigen. This process can change Ab affinity and specificity. The mutated cells that produce high-affinity Ab are selected to become Ab-forming or memory B cells, whereas cells that have lost affinity or acquired autoreactivity are eliminated. Normally, T cells are critical for germinal center formation and subsequent B cell selection. Both processes involve engagement of CD40 on B cells by T cells. This report describes how high-affinity B cells can be induced to form large germinal centers in response to (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl (NP)-Ficoll in the absence of T cells or signaling through CD40 or CD28. This requires extensive cross-linking of the B cell receptors, and a frequency of antigen-specific B cells of at least 1 in 1,000. These germinal centers abort dramatically at the time when mutated high-affinity B cells are normally selected by T cells. Thus, there is a fail-safe mechanism against autoreactivity, even in the event of thymus-independent germinal center formation. PMID:10662794

  3. YY1 Is Required for Germinal Center B Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Vuyyuru, Raja; Jha, Vibha; Hodewadekar, Suchita; Manser, Tim; Atchison, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    YY1 has been implicated as a master regulator of germinal center B cell development as YY1 binding sites are frequently present in promoters of germinal center-expressed genes. YY1 is known to be important for other stages of B cell development including the pro-B and pre-B cells stages. To determine if YY1 plays a critical role in germinal center development, we evaluated YY1 expression during B cell development, and used a YY1 conditional knock-out approach for deletion of YY1 in germinal center B cells (CRE driven by the immunoglobulin heavy chain γ1 switch region promoter; γ1-CRE). We found that YY1 is most highly expressed in germinal center B cells and is increased 3 fold in splenic B cells activated by treatment with anti-IgM and anti-CD40. In addition, deletion of the yy1 gene by action of γ1-CRE recombinase resulted in significant loss of GC cells in both un-immunized and immunized contexts with corresponding loss of serum IgG1. Our results show a crucial role for YY1 in the germinal center reaction. PMID:27167731

  4. LLT1 and CD161 Expression in Human Germinal Centers Promotes B Cell Activation and CXCR4 Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Llibre, Alba; López-Macías, Constantino; Marafioti, Teresa; Mehta, Hema; Partridge, Amy; Kanzig, Carina; Rivellese, Felice; Galson, Jacob D.; Walker, Lucy J.; Milne, Paul; Phillips, Rodney E.; Kelly, Dominic F.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are microanatomical structures critical for the development of high-affinity Abs and B cell memory. They are organized into two zones, light and dark, with coordinated roles, controlled by local signaling. The innate lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1) is known to be expressed on B cells, but its functional role in the GC reaction has not been explored. In this study, we report high expression of LLT1 on GC-associated B cells, early plasmablasts, and GC-derived lymphomas. LLT1 expression was readily induced via BCR, CD40, and CpG stimulation on B cells. Unexpectedly, we found high expression of the LLT1 ligand, CD161, on follicular dendritic cells. Triggering of LLT1 supported B cell activation, CD83 upregulation, and CXCR4 downregulation. Overall, these data suggest that LLT1–CD161 interactions play a novel and important role in B cell maturation within the GC in humans. PMID:26829983

  5. Visualizing Antibody Affinity Maturation in Germinal Centers

    PubMed Central

    Tas, Jeroen M.J.; Mesin, Luka; Pasqual, Giulia; Targ, Sasha; Jacobsen, Johanne T.; Mano, Yasuko M.; Chen, Casie S.; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Browne, Edward P.; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Victora, Gabriel D.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies somatically mutate to attain high affinity in germinal centers (GCs). There, competition between B cell clones and among somatic mutants of each clone drives an increase in average affinity across the population. The extent to which higher-affinity cells eliminating competitors restricts clonal diversity is unknown. By combining multiphoton microscopy and sequencing, we show that tens to hundreds of distinct B cell clones seed each GC, and that GCs lose clonal diversity at widely disparate rates. Furthermore, efficient affinity maturation can occur in the absence of homogenizing selection, ensuring that many clones can mature in parallel within the same GC. Our findings have implications for development of vaccines in which antibodies with non-immunodominant specificities must be elicited, as is the case for HIV-1 and influenza. PMID:26912368

  6. Germinal center B cells and mixed leukocyte reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Monfalcone, A.P.; Kosco, M.H.; Szakal, A.K.; Tew, J.G. )

    1989-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine if germinal center (GC) B cells are sufficiently activated to stimulate mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR). Percoll density fractionation and a panning technique with peanut agglutinin (PNA) were used to isolate GC B cells from the lymph nodes of immune mice. The GC B cells were treated with mitomycin C or irradiation and used to stimulate allogeneic or syngeneic splenic T cells in the MLR. Controls included high-density (HD) B cells prepared from spleens of the same mice and HD B cells activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dextran sulfate. GC B cells bound high amount sof PNA (i.e., PNAhi). Similarly, the LPS-dextran sulfate-activated B cells were PNAhi. Treatment with neuraminidase rendered the PNAlo HD B cells PNAhi. GC B cells and the LPS-dextran sulfate-activated HD B cells stimulated a potent MLR, while the untreated HD B cells did not. However, following neuraminidase treatment, the resulting PNAhi HD B cell population was able to induce an MLR. The PNA marker appeared to be an indicator of stimulatory activity, but incubating the cells with PNA to bind the cell surface ligand did not interfere with the MLR. GC B cells were also capable of stimulating a syngeneic MLR in most experiments although this was not consistently obtained. It appears that germinal centers represent a unique in vivo microenvironment that provides the necessary signals for B cells to become highly effective antigen-presenting cells.

  7. Synergistic Anti-Tumor Activity of EZH2 Inhibitors and Glucocorticoid Receptor Agonists in Models of Germinal Center Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Christine R.; Wigle, Tim J.; Iwanowicz, Dorothy; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Porter-Scott, Margaret; Smith, Jesse J.; Moyer, Mikel P.; Copeland, Robert A.; Pollock, Roy M.; Kuntz, Kevin W.; Raimondi, Alejandra; Keilhack, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are treated today with a cocktail of drugs referred to as CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxyldaunorubicin, Oncovin, and Prednisone). Subsets of patients with NHL of germinal center origin bear oncogenic mutations in the EZH2 histone methyltransferase. Clinical testing of the EZH2 inhibitor EPZ-6438 has recently begun in patients. We report here that combining EPZ-6438 with CHOP in preclinical cell culture and mouse models results in dramatic synergy for cell killing in EZH2 mutant germinal center NHL cells. Surprisingly, we observe that much of this synergy is due to Prednisolone – a glucocorticoid receptor agonist (GRag) component of CHOP. Dramatic synergy was observed when EPZ-6438 is combined with Prednisolone alone, and a similar effect was observed with Dexamethasone, another GRag. Remarkably, the anti-proliferative effect of the EPZ-6438+GRag combination extends beyond EZH2 mutant-bearing cells to more generally impact germinal center NHL. These preclinical data reveal an unanticipated biological intersection between GR-mediated gene regulation and EZH2-mediated chromatin remodeling. The data also suggest the possibility of a significant and practical benefit of combining EZH2 inhibitors and GRag that warrants further investigation in a clinical setting. PMID:25493630

  8. The germinal center antibody response in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    DeFranco, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    The germinal center response is the delayed but sustained phase of the antibody response that is responsible for producing high-affinity antibodies of the IgG, IgA and/or IgE isotypes. B cells in the germinal center undergo re-iterative cycles of somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin gene variable regions, clonal expansion, and Darwinian selection for cells expressing higher-affinity antibody variants. Alternatively, selected B cells can terminally differentiate into long-lived plasma cells or into a broad diversity of mutated memory B cells; the former secrete the improved antibodies to fight an infection and to provide continuing protection from re-infection, whereas the latter may jumpstart immune responses to subsequent infections with related but distinct infecting agents. Our understanding of the molecules involved in the germinal center reaction has been informed by studies of human immunodeficiency patients with selective defects in the production of antibodies. Recent studies have begun to reveal how innate immune recognition via Toll-like receptors can enhance the magnitude and selective properties of the germinal center, leading to more effective control of infection by a subset of viruses. Just as early insights into the nature of the germinal center found application in the development of the highly successful conjugate vaccines, more recent insights may find application in the current efforts to develop new generations of vaccines, including vaccines that can induce broadly protective neutralizing antibodies against influenza virus or HIV-1. PMID:27303636

  9. Cytokine-Independent Detection of Antigen-Specific Germinal Center T Follicular Helper Cells in Immunized Nonhuman Primates Using a Live Cell Activation-Induced Marker Technique.

    PubMed

    Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Reiss, Samantha M; Carnathan, Diane G; Wu, Jennifer E; Kendric, Kayla; Torrents de la Peña, Alba; Kasturi, Sudhir Pai; Dan, Jennifer M; Bothwell, Marcella; Sanders, Rogier W; Pulendran, Bali; Silvestri, Guido; Crotty, Shane

    2016-08-01

    A range of current candidate AIDS vaccine regimens are focused on generating protective HIV-neutralizing Ab responses. Many of these efforts rely on the rhesus macaque animal model. Understanding how protective Ab responses develop and how to increase their efficacy are both major knowledge gaps. Germinal centers (GCs) are the engines of Ab affinity maturation. GC T follicular helper (Tfh) CD4 T cells are required for GCs. Studying vaccine-specific GC Tfh cells after protein immunizations has been challenging, as Ag-specific GC Tfh cells are difficult to identify by conventional intracellular cytokine staining. Cytokine production by GC Tfh cells may be intrinsically limited in comparison with other Th effector cells, as the biological role of a GC Tfh cell is to provide help to individual B cells within the GC, rather than secreting large amounts of cytokines bathing a tissue. To test this idea, we developed a cytokine-independent method to identify Ag-specific GC Tfh cells. RNA sequencing was performed using TCR-stimulated GC Tfh cells to identify candidate markers. Validation experiments determined CD25 (IL-2Rα) and OX40 to be highly upregulated activation-induced markers (AIM) on the surface of GC Tfh cells after stimulation. In comparison with intracellular cytokine staining, the AIM assay identified >10-fold more Ag-specific GC Tfh cells in HIV Env protein-immunized macaques (BG505 SOSIP). CD4 T cells in blood were also studied. In summary, AIM demonstrates that Ag-specific GC Tfh cells are intrinsically stingy producers of cytokines, which is likely an essential part of their biological function. PMID:27335502

  10. Germinal center selection and the antibody response to influenza

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Gabriel D.; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    In this minireview, we discuss basic aspects of germinal center biology in the context of immunity to influenza infection, and speculate on how the simultaneous evolutionary races of virus and antibody may impact our efforts to design a universal influenza vaccine. PMID:26496601

  11. Adhesion of Human B Cells to Germinal Centers in Vitro Involves VLA-4 and INCAM-110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Arnold S.; Munro, J. Michael; Rice, G. Edgar; Bevilacqua, Michael P.; Morimoto, Chikao; McIntyre, Bradley W.; Rhynhart, Kurt; Pober, Jordan S.; Nadler, Lee M.

    1990-08-01

    Human B lymphocytes localize and differentiate within the microenvironment of lymphoid germinal centers. A frozen section binding assay was developed for the identification of those molecules involved in the adhesive interactions between B cells and lymphoid follicles. Activated human B cells and B cell lines were found to selectively adhere to germinal centers. The VLA-4 molecule on the lymphocyte and the adhesion molecule INCAM-110, expressed on follicular dendritic cells, supported this interaction. This cellular interaction model can be used for the study of how B cells differentiate.

  12. IL-6 contributes to an immune tolerance checkpoint in post germinal center B cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi; Wang, Ying-Hua; Diamond, Betty

    2012-02-01

    The generation of a B cell repertoire involves producing and subsequently purging autoreactive B cells. Receptor editing, clonal deletion and anergy are key mechanisms of central B cell tolerance. Somatic mutation of antigen-activated B cells within the germinal center produces a second wave of autoreactivity; but the regulatory mechanisms that operate at this phase of B cell activation are poorly understood. We recently identified a post germinal center tolerance checkpoint, where receptor editing is re-induced to extinguish autoreactivity that is generated by somatic hypermutation. Re-induction of the recombinase genes RAG1 and RAG2 in antigen-activated B cells requires antigen to engage the B cell receptor and IL-7 to signal through the IL-7 receptor. We demonstrate that this process requires IL-6 to upregulate IL-7 receptor expression on post germinal center B cells. Diminishing IL-6 by blocking antibody or haplo-insufficiency leads to reduced expression of the IL-7 receptor and RAG and increased titers of anti-DNA antibodies following immunization with a peptide mimetope of DNA. The dependence on IL-6 to initiate receptor editing is B cell intrinsic. Interestingly, estradiol decreases IL-6 expression thereby increasing the anti-DNA response. Our data reveal a novel regulatory cascade to control post germinal center B cell autoreactivity.

  13. B cell responses to a peptide epitope. VII. Antigen-dependent modulation of the germinal center reaction.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A; Nayak, B P; Rao, K V

    1998-12-01

    Germinal center responses to two analogous peptides, PS1CT3 and G32CT3, that differ in sequence only at one position within the B cell epitopic region were examined. In comparison with peptide PS1CT3, peptide G32CT3 elicited a poor germinal center response. By demonstrating equal facility of immune complexes with IgM and IgG Ab isotypes to seed germinal centers, we excluded differences in isotype profiles of early primary anti-PS1CT3 and anti-G32CT3 Ig as the probable cause. Quantitative differences in germinal center responses to the two peptides were also not due to either qualitative/quantitative differences in T cell priming or variation in the frequency of the early Ag-activated B cells induced. Rather, they resulted from qualitative differences in the nature of B cells primed. Analysis of early primary anti-PS1CT3 and anti-G32CT3 IgMs revealed that the latter population was of a distinctly lower affinity, implying the existence of an Ag affinity threshold that restricts germinal center recruitment of G32CT3-specific B cells. The impediment in anti-G32CT3 germinal center initiation could be overcome by making available an excess of Ag-activated Th cells at the time of immunization. This resulted in the appearance of a higher affinity population of G32CT3-specific B cells that, presumably, are now capable of seeding germinal centers. These data suggest that the strength of a germinal center reaction generated is Ag dependent. At least one regulatory parameter represents the quality of B cells that are initially primed.

  14. Activation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Transcription Factor X Box-Binding Protein-1 Occurs in a Subset of Normal Germinal-Center B Cells and in Aggressive B-Cell Lymphomas with Prognostic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Balague, Olga; Mozos, Ana; Martinez, Daniel; Hernandez, Luis; Colomo, Lluis; Mate, Jose Luis; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Lin, Oscar; Campo, Elias; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Martinez, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    X box-binding protein 1 (Xbp-1) is a transcription factor that is required for the terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes into plasma cells. The Xbp-1 gene is activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress signals, which generate a 50-kDa nuclear protein that acts as a potent transactivator and regulates the expression of genes related to the unfolded protein response. Activated Xbp-1 is essential for cell survival in plasma-cell tumors but its role in B-cell lymphomas is unknown. We analyzed the expression of activated Xbp-1 in reactive lymphoid tissues, 411 lymphomas and plasma-cell neoplasms, and 24 B-cell lines. In reactive tissues, Xbp-1 was only found in nuclear extracts. Nuclear expression of Xbp-1 was observed in occasional reactive plasma cells and in a subpopulation of Irf-4+/Bcl-6−/Pax-5− B cells in the light zones of reactive germinal centers, probably representing cells committed to plasma-cell differentiation. None of the low-grade lymphomas showed evidence of Xbp-1 activation; however, Xbp-1 activation was found in 28% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, independent of germinal or postgerminal center phenotype, as well as in 48% of plasmablastic lymphomas and 69% of plasma-cell neoplasms. Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with nuclear Xbp-1 expression had a significantly worse response to therapy and shorter overall survival compared with negative tumors. These findings suggest that Xbp-1 activation may play a role in the pathogenesis of aggressive B-cell lymphomas. PMID:19389935

  15. Epstein-Barr virus infection in vitro can rescue germinal center B cells with inactivated immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Chaganti, Sridhar; Bell, Andrew I; Pastor, Noelia Begue; Milner, Anne E; Drayson, Mark; Gordon, John; Rickinson, Alan B

    2005-12-15

    Immunoglobulin genotyping of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease has suggested that such lesions often arise from atypical post-germinal center B cells, in some cases carrying functionally inactivated immunoglobulin genes. To investigate whether EBV can rescue cells that are failed products of the somatic hypermutation process occurring in germinal centers (GCs), we isolated GC cells from tonsillar cell suspensions and exposed them to EBV in vitro. Screening more than 100 EBV-transformed cell lines of GC origin identified 6 lines lacking surface immunoglobulin, a phenotype never seen among lines derived from circulating naive or memory B cells. Furthermore, 3 of the 6 surface immunoglobulin-negative GC lines carried inactivating mutations in the immunoglobulin H (IgH) variable gene sequence. The ability of EBV to rescue aberrant products of the germinal center reaction in vitro strengthens the probability that a parallel activity contributes to EBV's lymphomagenic potential in vivo.

  16. Ex vivo engineered immune organoids for controlled germinal center reactions

    PubMed Central

    Purwada, Alberto; Jaiswal, Manish K.; Ahn, Haelee; Nojima, Takuya; Kitamura, Daisuke; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Cerchietti, Leandro; Singh, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Ex vivo engineered three-dimensional organotypic cultures have enabled the real-time study and control of biological functioning of mammalian tissues. Organs of broad interest where its architectural, cellular, and molecular complexity has prevented progress in ex vivo engineering are the secondary immune organs. Ex vivo immune organs can enable mechanistic understanding of the immune system and more importantly, accelerate the translation of immunotherapies as well as a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that lead to their malignant transformation into a variety of B and T cell malignancies. However, till date, no modular ex vivo immune organ has been developed with an ability to control the rate of immune reaction through tunable design parameter. Here we describe a B cell follicle organoid made of nanocomposite biomaterials, which recapitulates the anatomical microenvironment of a lymphoid tissue that provides the basis to induce an accelerated germinal center (GC) reaction by continuously providing extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell–cell signals to naïve B cells. Compared to existing co-cultures, immune organoids provide a control over primary B cell proliferation with ~100-fold higher and rapid differentiation to the GC phenotype with robust antibody class switching. PMID:26072995

  17. Transcriptional analysis of the B cell germinal center reaction

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ulf; Tu, Yuhai; Stolovitzky, Gustavo A.; Keller, Jeffrey L.; Haddad, Joseph; Miljkovic, Vladan; Cattoretti, Giorgio; Califano, Andrea; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo

    2003-01-01

    The germinal center (GC) reaction is crucial for T cell-dependent immune responses and is targeted by B cell lymphomagenesis. Here we analyzed the transcriptional changes that occur in B cells during GC transit (naïve B cells → centroblasts → centrocytes → memory B cells) by gene expression profiling. Naïve B cells, characterized by the expression of cell cycle-inhibitory and antiapoptotic genes, become centroblasts by inducing an atypical proliferation program lacking c-Myc expression, switching to a proapoptotic program, and down-regulating cytokine, chemokine, and adhesion receptors. The transition from GC to memory cells is characterized by a return to a phenotype similar to that of naïve cells except for an apoptotic program primed for both death and survival and for changes in the expression of cell surface receptors including IL-2 receptor β. These results provide insights into the dynamics of the GC reaction and represent the basis for the analysis of B cell malignancies. PMID:12604779

  18. Molecular fine-tuning of affinity maturation in germinal centers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yee Ling; Rada, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-affinity antibodies in response to infection is an iterative process in which B cells cycle between proliferation/somatic hypermutation and antigen-driven selection. These processes occur within specific regions of the secondary lymphoid structures known as germinal centers (GCs) and the environmental and signaling cues provided by these regions guide the GC reactions that drive B cell maturation and antibody production, ultimately determining B cell fate. In this issue of the JCI, Nakagawa and colleagues examine the role of miR-155, a microRNA that is required for GC development and the production of high-affinity antibodies. They show that miR-155 is highly expressed in positively selected B cells and promotes survival of these cells by orienting the Myc transcription program toward survival rather than apoptosis through the inhibition of the transcriptional regulator JARID2. These findings illustrate the fine balance between apoptosis and proliferation that is required for the development of high-affinity antibodies.

  19. Aminopeptidase activity from germinated jojoba cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R; Storey, R

    1985-11-01

    One major and two minor aminopeptidase activities from germinated jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) cotyledon extracts were separated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatofocusing. None of the activities were inhibited by 1,10 phenanthroline.The major aminopeptidase, purified 260-fold, showed a pH optimum of 6.9 with leucine-p-nitroanilide as substrate, a molecular weight estimated at 14,200 by electrophoretic analysis, and an isoelectric point of 4.5 according to the chromatofocusing pattern. Activity was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, slightly stimulated by 1,10 phenanthroline and 2-mercaptoethanol, and not influenced by Mg(2+) or diethyl pyrocarbonate. Inhibition by p-chloromercuribenzoate was prevented by the presence of cysteine in the assay. Leucine-p-nitroanilide and leucine-beta-naphthylamide were the most rapidly hydrolyzed of 11 carboxy-terminal end blocked synthetic substrates tested. No activity on endopeptidase or carboxypeptidase specific substrates was detected. The major aminopeptidase showed activity on a saline soluble, jojoba seed protein preparation and we suggest a possible physiological role for the enzyme in the concerted degradation of globulin reserve proteins during cotyledon senescence.

  20. NFκB expression is a feature of both activated B-cell-like and germinal center B-cell-like subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Odqvist, Lina; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Sánchez-Pacheco, Roxana E; Young, Ken H; Martín-Sánchez, Esperanza; Cereceda, Laura; Sánchez-Verde, Lydia; Pajares, Raquel; Mollejo, Manuela; Fresno, Manuel F; Mazorra, Francisco; Ruíz-Marcellán, Carmen; Sánchez-Beato, Margarita; Piris, Miguel A

    2014-10-01

    The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) transcription factor family is considered to have a key role in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) pathogenesis and is associated with a specific molecular subtype, the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype. We evaluated the expression of NFκB by immunohistochemistry in a large series of DLBCL cases. The five different NFκB family members (NFκB1, NFκB2, RELA, RELB, and REL) showed a heterogeneous expression pattern with the vast majority of cases being positive for at least one factor. Two independent series of tumor samples were classified into germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) or ABC subtypes using different approaches, immunohistochemistry, or gene expression profiling, and the expression of NFκB family members was assessed. Notably, no significant differences regarding the expression of the different NFκB members were detected between the two subtypes, suggesting that NFκB signaling is a prominent feature not only in the ABC subtype, but also in the GCB tumors. Of the five transcription factors, only REL expression had a significant clinical impact on R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, identifying a subgroup of patients with superior clinical outcome.

  1. Software tool for 3D extraction of germinal centers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Germinal Centers (GC) are short-lived micro-anatomical structures, within lymphoid organs, where affinity maturation is initiated. Theoretical modeling of the dynamics of the GC reaction including follicular CD4+ T helper and the recently described follicular regulatory CD4+ T cell populations, predicts that the intensity and life span of such reactions is driven by both types of T cells, yet controlled primarily by follicular regulatory CD4+ T cells. In order to calibrate GC models, it is necessary to properly analyze the kinetics of GC sizes. Presently, the estimation of spleen GC volumes relies upon confocal microscopy images from 20-30 slices spanning a depth of ~ 20 - 50 μm, whose GC areas are analyzed, slice-by-slice, for subsequent 3D reconstruction and quantification. The quantity of data to be analyzed from such images taken for kinetics experiments is usually prohibitively large to extract semi-manually with existing software. As a result, the entire procedure is highly time-consuming, and inaccurate, thereby motivating the need for a new software tool that can automatically identify and calculate the 3D spot volumes from GC multidimensional images. Results We have developed pyBioImage, an open source cross platform image analysis software application, written in python with C extensions that is specifically tailored to the needs of immunologic research involving 4D imaging of GCs. The software provides 1) support for importing many multi-image formats, 2) basic image processing and analysis, and 3) the ExtractGC module, that allows for automatic analysis and visualization of extracted GC volumes from multidimensional confocal microscopy images. We present concrete examples of different microscopy image data sets of GC that have been used in experimental and theoretical studies of mouse model GC dynamics. Conclusions The pyBioImage software framework seeks to be a general purpose image application for immunological research based on 4D imaging

  2. Looping around Bcl6 in Germinal Center to Sharpen B Cell Immunity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gangqing; Zhao, Keji

    2016-09-20

    We are beginning to understand the function of 3D genome architecture in the immune system. In this issue, Bunting et al. (2016) reported massive multi-layer genome reorganization from naive B cells to germinal center B cells, centered on a locus control region of Bcl6. PMID:27653595

  3. Preferential localization of IgG memory B cells adjacent to contracted germinal centers

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Yuichi; Kometani, Kohei; Hamadate, Megumi; Moriyama, Saya; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Tomura, Michio; Luche, Hervé; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Casellas, Rafael; Kanagawa, Osami; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    It has long been presumed that after leaving the germinal centers (GCs), memory B cells colonize the marginal zone or join the recirculating pool. Here we demonstrate the preferential localization of nitrophenol-chicken γ-globulin-induced CD38+IgG1+ memory B cells adjacent to contracted GCs in the spleen. The memory B cells in this region proliferated after secondary immunization, a response that was abolished by depletion of CD4+ T cells. We also found that these IgG1+ memory B cells could present antigen on their surface, and that this activity was required for their activation. These results implicate this peri-GC region as an important site for survival and reactivation of memory B cells. PMID:20547847

  4. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling by follicular dendritic cells is pivotal for germinal center onset and affinity maturation.

    PubMed

    Garin, Alexandre; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Contie, Mathias; Figge, Marc Thilo; Buatois, Vanessa; Gunzer, Matthias; Toellner, Kai-Michael; Elson, Greg; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie H

    2010-07-23

    Germinal centers (GCs) are specialized microenvironments where antigen-activated B cells undergo proliferation, immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination, somatic hypermutation (SHM), and affinity maturation. Within GCs, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are key players in driving these events via direct interaction with GC B cells. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that FDCs express and upregulate Toll-like-receptor (TLR) 4 in situ during germinal center reactions, confirm that their maturation is driven by TLR4, and associate the role of FDC-expressed TLR4 with quantitative and qualitative affects of GC biology. In iterative cycles of predictions by in silico modeling subsequently verified by in vivo experiments, we demonstrated that TLR4 signaling modulates FDC activation, strongly impacting SHM and generation of Ig class-switched high-affinity plasma and memory B cells. Thus, our data place TLR4 in the heart of adaptive humoral immunity, providing further insight into mechanisms driving GCs arising in both health and disease.

  5. T helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    After immunization, activated splenic T cells proliferate in periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (PALS) and subsequently migrate to the lymphoid follicle where they enter nascent germinal centers. Analysis of TCR V(D)J gene rearrangements indicates extensive emigration, frequently involving more than a single white pulp region. These migrants constitute a unique set of T helper cells that express antigen- specific alpha beta TCR, CD3, and CD4, but little or no Thy-1, a differentiation antigen present on the great majority of peripheral murine T lymphocytes. The origin of CD4+ Thy-1 follicular T cells appears to be the Thy+ population in the PALS, as both sets commonly share identical V(D)J rearrangements. PMID:9064325

  6. An analysis of B cell selection mechanisms in germinal centers.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Hermann, Michael E; Maini, Philip K; Iber, Dagmar

    2006-09-01

    Affinity maturation of antibodies during immune responses is achieved by multiple rounds of somatic hypermutation and subsequent preferential selection of those B cells that express B cell receptors with improved binding characteristics for the antigen. The mechanism underlying B cell selection has not yet been defined. By employing an agent-based model, we show that for physiologically reasonable parameter values affinity maturation can be driven by competition for neither binding sites nor antigen--even in the presence of competing secreted antibodies. Within the tested mechanisms, only clonal competition for T cell help or a refractory time for the interaction of centrocytes with follicular dendritic cells is found to enable affinity maturation while generating the experimentally observed germinal centre characteristics and tolerating large variations in the initial antigen density. PMID:16707510

  7. Polyanhydride Nanovaccines Induce Germinal Center B Cell Formation and Sustained Serum Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    Vela Ramirez, Julia E; Tygrett, Lorraine T; Hao, Jihua; Habte, Habtom H; Cho, Michael W; Greenspan, Neil S; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2016-06-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle-based subunit vaccines have shown promising characteristics by enhancing antigen presentation and inducing protective immune responses when compared with soluble protein. Specifically, polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) have been shown to successfully encapsulate and release antigens, activate B and T cells, and induce both antibody- and cell-mediated immunity towards a variety of immunogens. One of the characteristics of strong thymus-dependent antibody responses is the formation of germinal centers (GC) and the generation of GC B cells, which is part of the T helper cell driven cellular response. In order to further understand the role of nanovaccines in the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, their ability to induce germinal center B cell formation and isotype switching and the effects thereof on serum antibody responses were investigated in these studies. Polyanhydride nanovaccines based on 1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane and 1,8-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane were used to subcutaneously administer a viral antigen. GC B cell formation and serum antibody responses induced by the nanovaccines were compared to that induced by alum-based vaccine formulations. It was demonstrated that a single dose of polyanhydride nanovaccines resulted in the formation of robust GCs and serum antibody in comparison to that induced by the alum-based formulation. This was attributed to the sustained release of antigen provided by the nanovaccines. When administered in a multiple dose regimen, the highest post-immunization titer and GC B cell number was enhanced, and the immune response induced by the nanovaccines was further sustained. These studies provide foundational information on the mechanism of action of polyanhydride nanovaccines. PMID:27319223

  8. Two-photon microscopy for imaging germinal centers and T follicular helper cells.

    PubMed

    Clatworthy, Menna R

    2015-01-01

    One of the principle features of immune cells is their dynamic nature. Lymphocytes circulate in the blood between secondary lymphoid organs and tissues in an effort to maximize the likelihood of a rapid and appropriate immune response to invading pathogens and tissue damage. Conventional experimental techniques such as histology and flow cytometry have greatly increased our understanding of immune cells, but in the last decade, two-photon microscopy has revolutionized our ability to interrogate the dynamic behavior of immune cells, a facet so critical to their function. Two-photon microscopy relies on the excitation of fluorophores by simultaneous application of two photons of longer wavelength light. This allows a greater depth of imaging with minimal photodamage. Thus, living tissues can be imaged, including immune cells in lymph nodes. This technique has been used to interrogate the events occurring in a germinal center response and the interactions between cells in the germinal center, including T follicular helper cells (Tfh), germinal center B cells, and follicular dendritic cells (FDC). Herein, a method is described by which the interactions between Tfh and B cells within a germinal center in a popliteal lymph node can be imaged in a live mouse. PMID:25836302

  9. Reaction of germinal centers in the T-cell-independent response to the bacterial polysaccharide alpha(1-->6)dextran.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, D; Wells, S M; Stall, A M; Kabat, E A

    1994-01-01

    Primary immunization of BALB/c mice with alpha(1-->6)dextran (DEX), a native bacterial polysaccharide, induces an unexpected pattern of splenic B-cell responses. After a peak of antibody-secreting B-cell response at day 4, deposition of dextran-anti-dextran immune complexes, as revealed by staining with both dextran and antibodies to dextran, occurs and persists in splenic follicles until at least the fourth week after immunization. Antigen-specific B cells appear and proliferate in such follicles, leading by day 11 to development of DEX-specific germinal centers as characterized by the presence of distinct regions of DEX+ peanut agglutinin-positive (PNA+) cells. At this time, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis also reveals the appearance of a distinct population of DEX+ PNA+ splenic B cells. In contrast, DEX+ PNA- cells, characterized by intense cytoplasmic staining, are present outside of splenic follicles, peak at day 4 to day 5, and persist until at least day 28. The frequency of these cells correlates with DEX-specific antibody-secreting cells, as detected by the ELISA-spot assay. Thus, in addition to the expected plasma cellular response, the typical T-cell-independent type II antigen, DEX, surprisingly also elicits the formation of antigen-specific germinal centers. These observations raise fundamental questions about the roles of germinal centers in T-cell-independent immune responses. Images PMID:7511812

  10. Critical roles of mTOR Complex 1 and 2 for T follicular helper cell differentiation and germinal center responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jialong; Lin, Xingguang; Pan, Yun; Wang, Jinli; Chen, Pengcheng; Huang, Hongxiang; Xue, Hai-Hui; Gao, Jimin; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play critical roles for germinal center responses and effective humoral immunity. We report here that mTOR in CD4 T cells is essential for Tfh differentiation. In Mtorf/f-Cd4Cre mice, both constitutive and inducible Tfh differentiation is severely impaired, leading to defective germinal center B cell formation and antibody production. Moreover, both mTORC1 and mTORC2 contribute to Tfh and GC B cell development but may do so via distinct mechanisms. mTORC1 mainly promotes CD4 T cell proliferation to reach the cell divisions necessary for Tfh differentiation, while Rictor/mTORC2 regulates Tfh differentiation by promoting Akt activation and TCF1 expression without grossly influencing T cell proliferation. Together, our results reveal crucial but distinct roles for mTORC1 and mTORC2 in CD4 T cells during Tfh differentiation and germinal center responses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17936.001 PMID:27690224

  11. Downregulation of FOXP1 is required during germinal center B-cell function

    PubMed Central

    Sagardoy, Ainara; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I.; Roa, Sergio; Bunting, Karen L.; Aznar, María Angela; Elemento, Olivier; Shaknovich, Rita; Fontán, Lorena; Fresquet, Vicente; Perez-Roger, Ignacio; Robles, Eloy F.; De Smedt, Linde; Sagaert, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    B-cell maturation and germinal center (GC) formation are dependent on the interplay between BCL6 and other transcriptional regulators. FOXP1 is a transcription factor that regulates early B-cell development, but whether it plays a role in mature B cells is unknown. Analysis of human tonsillar B-cell subpopulations revealed that FOXP1 shows the opposite expression pattern to BCL6, suggesting that FOXP1 regulates the transition from resting follicular B cell to activated GC B cell. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip and gene expression assays on B cells indicated that FOXP1 acts as a transcriptional activator and repressor of genes involved in the GC reaction, half of which are also BCL6 targets. To study FOXP1 function in vivo, we developed transgenic mice expressing human FOXP1 in lymphoid cells. These mice exhibited irregular formation of splenic GCs, showing a modest increase in naïve and marginal-zone B cells and a significant decrease in GC B cells. Furthermore, aberrant expression of FOXP1 impaired transcription of noncoding γ1 germline transcripts and inhibited efficient class switching to the immunoglobulin G1 isotype. These studies show that FOXP1 is physiologically downregulated in GC B cells and that aberrant expression of FOXP1 impairs mechanisms triggered by B-cell activation, potentially contributing to B-cell lymphomagenesis. PMID:23580662

  12. The IgH 3′ regulatory region controls somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells

    PubMed Central

    Rouaud, Pauline; Vincent-Fabert, Christelle; Saintamand, Alexis; Fiancette, Rémi; Marquet, Marie; Robert, Isabelle; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo; Pinaud, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Interactions with cognate antigens recruit activated B cells into germinal centers where they undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) in V(D)J exons for the generation of high-affinity antibodies. The contribution of IgH transcriptional enhancers in SHM is unclear. The Eμ enhancer upstream of Cμ has a marginal role, whereas the influence of the IgH 3′ regulatory region (3′RR) enhancers (hs3a, hs1,2, hs3b, and hs4) is controversial. To clarify the latter issue, we analyzed mice lacking the whole 30-kb extent of the IgH 3′RR. We show that SHM in VH rearranged regions is almost totally abrogated in 3′RR-deficient mice, whereas the simultaneous Ig heavy chain transcription rate is only partially reduced. In contrast, SHM in κ light chain genes remains unaltered, acquitting for any global SHM defect in our model. Beyond class switch recombination, the IgH 3′RR is a central element that controls heavy chain accessibility to activation-induced deaminase modifications including SHM. PMID:23825188

  13. Deletion of Rb1 induces both hyperproliferation and cell death in murine germinal center B cells.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiwen; O'Neal, Julie; Wilson, William C; Mahajan, Nitin; Luo, Jun; Wang, Yinan; Su, Mack Y; Lu, Lan; Skeath, James B; Bhattacharya, Deepta; Tomasson, Michael H

    2016-03-01

    The retinoblastoma gene (RB1) has been implicated as a tumor suppressor in multiple myeloma (MM), yet its role remains unclear because in the majority of cases with 13q14 deletions, un-mutated RB1 remains expressed from the retained allele. To explore the role of Rb1 in MM, we examined the functional consequences of single- and double-copy Rb1 loss in germinal center B cells, the cells of origin of MM. We generated mice without Rb1 function in germinal center B cells by crossing Rb1(Flox/Flox) with C-γ-1-Cre (Cγ1) mice expressing the Cre recombinase in class-switched B cells in a p107(-/-) background to prevent p107 from compensating for Rb1 loss (Cγ1-Rb1(F/F)-p107(-/-)). All mice developed normally, but B cells with two copies of Rb1 deleted (Cγ1-Rb1(F/F)-p107(-/-)) exhibited increased proliferation and cell death compared with Cγ1-Rb1(+/+)-p107(-/-) controls ex vivo. In vivo, Cγ1-Rb1(F/F)-p107(-/-) mice had a lower percentage of splenic B220+ cells and reduced numbers of bone marrow antigen-specific secreting cells compared with control mice. Our data indicate that Rb1 loss induces both cell proliferation and death in germinal center B cells. Because no B-cell malignancies developed after 1 year of observation, our data also suggest that Rb1 loss is not sufficient to transform post-germinal center B cells and that additional, specific mutations are likely required to cooperate with Rb1 loss to induce malignant transformation.

  14. Detachment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from germinal centers by blocking complement receptor type 2.

    PubMed

    Kacani, L; Prodinger, W M; Sprinzl, G M; Schwendinger, M G; Spruth, M; Stoiber, H; Döpper, S; Steinhuber, S; Steindl, F; Dierich, M P

    2000-09-01

    After the transition from the acute to the chronic phase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, complement mediates long-term storage of virions in germinal centers (GC) of lymphoid tissue. The contribution of particular complement receptors (CRs) to virus trapping in GC was studied on tonsillar specimens from HIV-infected individuals. CR2 (CD21) was identified as the main binding site for HIV in GC. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) blocking the CR2-C3d interaction were shown to detach 62 to 77% of HIV type 1 from tonsillar cells of an individual in the presymptomatic stage. Although they did so at a lower efficiency, these antibodies were able to remove HIV from tonsillar cells of patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy, suggesting that the C3d-CR2 interaction remains a primary entrapment mechanism in treated patients as well. In contrast, removal of HIV was not observed with MAb blocking CR1 or CR3. Thus, targeting CR2 may facilitate new approaches toward a reduction of residual virus in GC.

  15. Detachment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from germinal centers by blocking complement receptor type 2.

    PubMed

    Kacani, L; Prodinger, W M; Sprinzl, G M; Schwendinger, M G; Spruth, M; Stoiber, H; Döpper, S; Steinhuber, S; Steindl, F; Dierich, M P

    2000-09-01

    After the transition from the acute to the chronic phase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, complement mediates long-term storage of virions in germinal centers (GC) of lymphoid tissue. The contribution of particular complement receptors (CRs) to virus trapping in GC was studied on tonsillar specimens from HIV-infected individuals. CR2 (CD21) was identified as the main binding site for HIV in GC. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) blocking the CR2-C3d interaction were shown to detach 62 to 77% of HIV type 1 from tonsillar cells of an individual in the presymptomatic stage. Although they did so at a lower efficiency, these antibodies were able to remove HIV from tonsillar cells of patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy, suggesting that the C3d-CR2 interaction remains a primary entrapment mechanism in treated patients as well. In contrast, removal of HIV was not observed with MAb blocking CR1 or CR3. Thus, targeting CR2 may facilitate new approaches toward a reduction of residual virus in GC. PMID:10933708

  16. Disruption of KMT2D perturbs germinal center B cell development and promotes lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiyuan; Dominguez-Sola, David; Hussein, Shafinaz; Lee, Ji-Eun; Holmes, Antony B; Bansal, Mukesh; Vlasevska, Sofija; Mo, Tongwei; Tang, Hongyan; Basso, Katia; Ge, Kai; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Pasqualucci, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the KMT2D (or MLL2) methyltransferase are highly recurrent and occur early during tumorigenesis in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). However, the functional consequences of these mutations and their role in lymphomagenesis are unknown. Here we show that FL- and DLBCL-associated KMT2D mutations impair KMT2D enzymatic activity, leading to diminished global H3K4 methylation in germinal-center (GC) B cells and DLBCL cells. Conditional deletion of Kmt2d early during B cell development, but not after initiation of the GC reaction, results in an increase in GC B cells and enhances B cell proliferation in mice. Moreover, genetic ablation of Kmt2d in mice overexpressing Bcl2 increases the incidence of GC-derived lymphomas resembling human tumors. These findings suggest that KMT2D acts as a tumor suppressor gene whose early loss facilitates lymphomagenesis by remodeling the epigenetic landscape of the cancer precursor cells. Eradication of KMT2D-deficient cells may thus represent a rational therapeutic approach for targeting early tumorigenic events. PMID:26366712

  17. AID-targeting and hypermutation of non-immunoglobulin genes does not correlate with proximity to immunoglobulin genes in germinal center B cells.

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Hillary Selle; Reisbig, Tara; Schatz, David G

    2012-01-01

    Upon activation, B cells divide, form a germinal center, and express the activation induced deaminase (AID), an enzyme that triggers somatic hypermutation of the variable regions of immunoglobulin (Ig) loci. Recent evidence indicates that at least 25% of expressed genes in germinal center B cells are mutated or deaminated by AID. One of the most deaminated genes, c-Myc, frequently appears as a translocation partner with the Ig heavy chain gene (Igh) in mouse plasmacytomas and human Burkitt's lymphomas. This indicates that the two genes or their double-strand break ends come into close proximity at a biologically relevant frequency. However, the proximity of c-Myc and Igh has never been measured in germinal center B cells, where many such translocations are thought to occur. We hypothesized that in germinal center B cells, not only is c-Myc near Igh, but other mutating non-Ig genes are deaminated by AID because they are near Ig genes, the primary targets of AID. We tested this "collateral damage" model using 3D-fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) to measure the distance from non-Ig genes to Ig genes in germinal center B cells. We also made mice transgenic for human MYC and measured expression and mutation of the transgenes. We found that there is no correlation between proximity to Ig genes and levels of AID targeting or gene mutation, and that c-Myc was not closer to Igh than were other non-Ig genes. In addition, the human MYC transgenes did not accumulate mutations and were not deaminated by AID. We conclude that proximity to Ig loci is unlikely to be a major determinant of AID targeting or mutation of non-Ig genes, and that the MYC transgenes are either missing important regulatory elements that allow mutation or are unable to mutate because their new nuclear position is not conducive to AID deamination.

  18. Expression, regulation, and function of B cell-expressed CD154 in germinal centers.

    PubMed

    Grammer, A C; McFarland, R D; Heaney, J; Darnell, B F; Lipsky, P E

    1999-10-15

    Activated B cells and T cells express CD154/CD40 ligand in vitro. The in vivo expression and function of B cell CD154 remain unclear and therefore were examined. Tonsillar B and T cells expressed CD154 at a similar density both in situ and immediately ex vivo, whereas a significantly higher percentage of the former expressed CD154. CD154-expressing B cells were most frequent in the CD38positiveIgD+ pre-germinal center (GC)/GC founder, CD38positive GC and CD38-IgD- memory populations, and were also found in the CD38-IgD+ naive and CD38brightIgD+ plasmablast subsets, but not in the CD38brightIgD- plasma cell subset. B cell expression of CD154 was induced by engaging surface Ig or CD40 by signals that predominantly involved activation of AP-1/NF-AT and NF-kappaB, respectively. The functional importance of CD154-mediated homotypic B cell interactions in vivo was indicated by the finding that mAb to CD154 inhibited differentiation of CD38positiveIgD- GC B cells to CD38-IgD- memory cells. In addition, mAb to CD154 inhibited proliferation induced by engaging sIg or CD40, indicating the role of up-regulation of this molecule in facilitating B cell responsiveness. Of note, CD154 itself not only functioned as a ligand but also as a direct signaling molecule as anti-CD154-conjugated Sepharose beads costimulated B cell responses induced by engaging surface Ig. These results indicate that CD154 is expressed by human B cells in vivo and plays an important role in mediating B cell responses.

  19. Conclusions from Two Model Concepts on Germinal Center Dynamics and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Beyer, Tilo

    2002-01-01

    Germinal centers (GC) are an essential part of the humoral immune response. They develop a clear structure during maturation: Centroblasts and centrocytes are separated into two zones, the dark and the light zone. The mechanisms leading to this specific morphology as well as the reason for zone-depletion during a later phase of the GC reaction have not clearly been revealed in experiment. We discuss and weigh possible mechanisms of dark and light zone development in the framework of two mathematical models. In a comparative approach we formulate constraints on typical lymphocyte velocities in GCs which are characteristic for the different proposed mechanisms. PMID:15144017

  20. Regulation of germinal center responses, memory B cells and plasma cell formation-an update.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Lynn M; Tarlinton, David M

    2016-04-01

    Progress in understanding humoral immunity has been accelerated by the powerful experimental approaches of genetics, genomics and imaging. Excellent reviews of these advances appeared in 2015 in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the discovery of B cell and T cell lineages in the chicken. Here we provide a contemporary model of B cell differentiation, highlighting recent publications illuminating germinal center (GC), memory B cell and antibody-secreting plasma cell biology. The important contributions of CD4T cells to antibody responses have been thoroughly reviewed elsewhere.

  1. B cell-intrinsic TLR7 signaling is essential for the development of spontaneous germinal centers.

    PubMed

    Soni, Chetna; Wong, Eric B; Domeier, Phillip P; Khan, Tahsin N; Satoh, Takashi; Akira, Shizuo; Rahman, Ziaur S M

    2014-11-01

    Spontaneous germinal center (Spt-GC) B cells and follicular helper T cells generate high-affinity autoantibodies that are involved in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. TLRs play a pivotal role in systemic lupus erythematosus pathogenesis. Although previous studies focused on the B cell-intrinsic role of TLR-MyD88 signaling on immune activation, autoantibody repertoire, and systemic inflammation, the mechanisms by which TLRs control the formation of Spt-GCs remain unclear. Using nonautoimmune C57BL/6 (B6) mice deficient in MyD88, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, or TLR9, we identified B cell-intrinsic TLR7 signaling as a prerequisite to Spt-GC formation without the confounding effects of autoimmune susceptibility genes and the overexpression of TLRs. TLR7 deficiency also rendered autoimmune B6.Sle1b mice unable to form Spt-GCs, leading to markedly decreased autoantibodies. Conversely, B6.yaa and B6.Sle1b.yaa mice expressing an extra copy of TLR7 and B6.Sle1b mice treated with a TLR7 agonist had increased Spt-GCs and follicular helper T cells. Further, TLR7/MyD88 deficiency led to compromised B cell proliferation and survival after B cell stimulation both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, TLR9 inhibited Spt-GC development. Our findings demonstrate an absolute requirement for TLR7 and a negative regulatory function for TLR9 in Spt-GC formation under nonautoimmune and autoimmune conditions. Our data suggest that, under nonautoimmune conditions, Spt-GCs initiated by TLR7 produce protective Abs. However, in the presence of autoimmune susceptibility genes, TLR7-dependent Spt-GCs produce pathogenic autoantibodies. Thus, a single copy of TLR7 in B cells is the minimal requirement for breaking the GC-tolerance checkpoint.

  2. Phytochemical composition and anticancer activity of germinated wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed germination is a natural method to increase bioactive components that have beneficial effects on human health. Germinated wheat flour samples of a hard red wheat cultivar (Rampart) were prepared after germination of three and five days and investigated for phytochemical composition and anticanc...

  3. The effects of heat activation on Bacillus spore germination, with nutrients or under high pressure, with or without various germination proteins.

    PubMed

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E; Doona, Christopher J; Setlow, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75 °C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the L-asparagine-glucose-fructose-K(+) mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation.

  4. The Effects of Heat Activation on Bacillus Spore Germination, with Nutrients or under High Pressure, with or without Various Germination Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E.; Doona, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75°C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the l-asparagine–glucose–fructose–K+ mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation. PMID:25681191

  5. Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodden, Lee; Pease, Phil; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Rosen, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center (GSFC V0 DAAC) is being developed to enhance and improve scientific research and productivity by consolidating access to remote sensor earth science data in the pre-EOS time frame. In cooperation with scientists from the science labs at GSFC, other NASA facilities, universities, and other government agencies, the DAAC will support data acquisition, validation, archive and distribution. The DAAC is being developed in response to EOSDIS Project Functional Requirements as well as from requirements originating from individual science projects such as SeaWiFS, Meteor3/TOMS2, AVHRR Pathfinder, TOVS Pathfinder, and UARS. The GSFC V0 DAAC has begun operational support for the AVHRR Pathfinder (as of April, 1993), TOVS Pathfinder (as of July, 1993) and the UARS (September, 1993) Projects, and is preparing to provide operational support for SeaWiFS (August, 1994) data. The GSFC V0 DAAC has also incorporated the existing data, services, and functionality of the DAAC/Climate, DAAC/Land, and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) Systems.

  6. Regulated selection of germinal-center cells into the memory B cell compartment.

    PubMed

    Shinnakasu, Ryo; Inoue, Takeshi; Kometani, Kohei; Moriyama, Saya; Adachi, Yu; Nakayama, Manabu; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Fukuyama, Hidehiro; Okada, Takaharu; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2016-07-01

    Despite the importance of memory B cells in protection from reinfection, how such memory cells are selected and generated during germinal-center (GC) reactions remains unclear. We found here that light-zone (LZ) GC B cells with B cell antigen receptors (BCRs) of lower affinity were prone to enter the memory B cell pool. Mechanistically, cells in this memory-prone fraction had higher expression of the transcriptional repressor Bach2 than that of their counterparts with BCRs of higher affinity. Haploinsufficiency of Bach2 resulted in reduced generation of memory B cells, independently of suppression of the gene encoding the transcription factor Blimp-1. Bach2 expression in GC cells was inversely correlated with the strength of help provided by T cells. Thus, we propose an instructive model in which weak help from T cells maintains relatively high expression of Bach2, which predisposes GC cells to enter the memory pool.

  7. Follicular dendritic cells help establish follicle identity and promote B cell retention in germinal centers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Cho, Bryan; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Xu, Ying; Green, Jesse A; An, Jinping; Cyster, Jason G

    2011-11-21

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) retain and display opsonized antigens in primary follicles and germinal centers (GCs). However, their roles beyond antigen presentation have been incompletely defined. In this study, we tested the impact of selective FDC ablation on short-term follicle and GC function. Within 2 d of FDC ablation, primary follicles lost their homogeneity and became disorganized bands of cells around T zones. These B cell areas retained CXCL13-expressing stromal cells but often exhibited inappropriate ER-TR7 and CCL21 expression. Ablation of GC FDCs led to the disappearance of GCs. When B cell death was prevented using a Bcl2 transgene, FDC ablation led to splenic GC B cell dispersal. Mesenteric lymph node GCs were more resistant but became dispersed when sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-2 was also removed. These experiments indicate that FDCs help maintain primary follicles as a B cell exclusive niche and define a critical role for FDCs in cell retention within GCs.

  8. Cutting Edge: Redox Signaling Hypersensitivity Distinguishes Human Germinal Center B Cells.

    PubMed

    Polikowsky, Hannah G; Wogsland, Cara E; Diggins, Kirsten E; Huse, Kanutte; Irish, Jonathan M

    2015-08-15

    Differences in the quality of BCR signaling control key steps of B cell maturation and differentiation. Endogenously produced H2O2 is thought to fine tune the level of BCR signaling by reversibly inhibiting phosphatases. However, relatively little is known about how B cells at different stages sense and respond to such redox cues. In this study, we used phospho-specific flow cytometry and high-dimensional mass cytometry (CyTOF) to compare BCR signaling responses in mature human tonsillar B cells undergoing germinal center (GC) reactions. GC B cells, in contrast to mature naive B cells, memory B cells, and plasmablasts, were hypersensitive to a range of H2O2 concentrations and responded by phosphorylating SYK and other membrane-proximal BCR effectors in the absence of BCR engagement. These findings reveal that stage-specific redox responses distinguish human GC B cells.

  9. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias towards the plasma cell (PC) fate,...

  10. Differential expression of a novel protein kinase in human B lymphocytes. Preferential localization in the germinal center.

    PubMed

    Katz, P; Whalen, G; Kehrl, J H

    1994-06-17

    B lymphocytes which reside in the germinal center region of lymphoid follicles are functionally and phenotypically distinct from the surrounding mantle zone B cells. We have isolated cDNA clones for several genes that are differentially expressed between these two populations of B lymphocytes. One such gene, BL44, is preferentially expressed in germinal center B cells. The nucleotide sequence of a 2,874-base pair BL44 cDNA was determined and a 2,451-bp open reading frame found that encodes for a 97-kDa serine/threonine protein kinase referred to as GC kinase. It has an NH2-terminal catalytic domain most similar to that of the Drosophila NinaC protein and the yeast STE20 protein. GC kinase mRNA transcripts are not unique to germinal center B cells and are found in several other tissues, including brain, lung, and placenta. The GC kinase protein was immunoprecipitated from transfected COS cells and from the Burkitt cell line RAMOS. GC kinase immunoprecipitated from transfected COS cells phosphorylated the substrates casein and myelin basic protein. In addition, a 97-kDa phosphoprotein likely to be GC kinase itself was detected. GC kinase may participate in an important signal transduction pathway in germinal center B cells.

  11. Copper suppresses abscisic acid catabolism and catalase activity, and inhibits seed germination of rice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Nenghui; Li, Haoxuan; Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xu, Weifeng; Jing, Yu; Peng, Xinxiang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plants, a slight excess of Cu in soil can be harmful to plants. Unfortunately, Cu contamination is a growing problem all over the world due to human activities, and poses a soil stress to plant development. As one of the most important biological processes, seed germination is sensitive to Cu stress. However, little is known about the mechanism of Cu-induced inhibition of seed germination. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between Cu and ABA which is the predominant regulator of seed germination. Cu at a concentration of 30 µM effectively inhibited germination of rice caryopsis. ABA content in germinating seeds under copper stress was also higher than that under control conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that Cu treatment reduced the expression of OsABA8ox2, a key gene of ABA catabolism in rice seeds. In addition, both malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were increased by Cu stress in the germinating seeds. Antioxidant enzyme assays revealed that only catalase activity was reduced by excess Cu, which was consistent with the mRNA profile of OsCATa during seed germination under Cu stress. Together, our results demonstrate that suppression of ABA catabolism and catalase (CAT) activity by excess Cu leads to the inhibition of seed germination of rice.

  12. Visitors Center activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronaut Katherine Hire and LEGO-Master Model Builders assisted children from Mississippi, Louisiana and Mississippi in the building of a 12-foot tall Space Shuttle made entirely from tiny LEGO bricks at the John C. Stennis Space Center Visitors Center in South Mississippi. The shuttle was part of an exhibit titled ' Travel in Space' World Show which depicts the history of flight and space travel from the Wright brothers to future generations of space vehicles. For more information concerning hours of operation or Visitors Center educational programs, call 1-800-237-1821 in Mississippi and Louisiana or (601) 688-2370.

  13. Visitors Center activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    More than 2,000 children and adults from Mississippi, Louisiana and Alabama recently build a 12-foot tall Space Shuttle made entirely from tiny LEGO bricks at the John C. Stennis Space Center Visitors Center in South Mississippi. The shuttle was part of an exhibit titled 'Travel in Space' World Show which depicts the history of flight and space travel from the Wright brothers to future generations of space vehicles. For more information concerning hours of operation or Visitors Center educational programs, call 1-800-237-1821 in Mississippi and Louisiana or (601) 688-2370.

  14. Assessment of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of raw and germinating Ceiba pentandra (kapok) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ravi Kiran, Chekuboyina; Rao, Dadi Bhaskara; Sirisha, Nagala; Rao, Tamanam Raghava

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine the significance of germination on phytochemical constituents and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities of Ceiba pentandra seed extracts. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of raw and germinating seeds of Ceiba pentandra were estimated by different methods. The levels of phytochemical constituents were influenced by germination and increased except alkaloids and tannins, which were decreased significantly during germination. Among non-enzymatic antioxidants like DPPH, FRAP, reducing assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity all showed improved activity compared with non-germinating seeds. This may be due to various reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were generated as by-products of metabolism during germination. This group of ROS included superoxide radicals (O2), hydrogen peroxide radicals (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The formation of these oxygen radicals resulted in the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides by radical chain oxidation via phospholipids peroxy radicals within membranes. Therefore, it was hypothesized that this could be related to the increase of antioxidant activity in large unilamellar vesicles observed in germinated seeds. The implication of this study is that the Ceiba pentandra seeds as natural antioxidant agents and put forward the possibility of employing for therapeutic potential. PMID:26442618

  15. Effects of germination on the nutritional properties, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ge; Xu, Zhicun; Gao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Xianxiao; Zou, Yanping; Yang, Tiankui

    2015-05-01

    Germination is considered to be an effective process for improving the nutritional quality and functionality of cereals. In this study, changes of nutritional ingredients, antinutritional components, chemical composition, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat seeds over 72 h of germination were investigated, and the reasons for these changes are discussed. With the prolonged germination time, the contents of crude protein, reducing sugar, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins increased significantly, while the levels of crude fat, phytic acid, and the activity of trypsin inhibitor decreased. Phenolic compounds, such as rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, chlorogenic acid, trans-3-hydroxycinnamic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid increased significantly during the germination process, which may be due to the activation of phenylalanine ammonialyase. The improvement of flavonoids led to significant enhancement of the antioxidant activities of germinated buckwheat. Germinated buckwheat had better nutritional value and antioxidant activities than ungerminated buckwheat, and it represented an excellent natural source of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, especially rutin and C-glycosylflavones. Therefore, germinated buckwheat could be used as a promising functional food for health promotion.

  16. Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity in canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Yu, Lilei; Wang, Xinkun; Gu, Zhenxin; Beta, Trust

    2016-03-01

    Canaryseed is an important cereal crop in western Canada. The changes of the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, phenolic acid profiles (free and bound) of canaryseed during germination were investigated in the present study. The growth properties also were investigated. Fresh weight, shoot length and root length increased, whereas dry mass of canaryseed decreased during germination. A 22.3% loss of dry matter was observed at 120h of germination. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of free and bound extracts showed a general trend of germinated seeds>raw seeds>soaked seeds. Free, bound and total phenolic content significantly increased 1042%, 120% and 741% at the end of germination as compared to raw seeds (p<0.05). DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of canaryseed. There were high correlations between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. TPC and ORAC values showed the highest correlation (r=0.9984). Six phenolic acids in free phenolic extracts and seven phenolic acids in bound phenolic extracts were detected, respectively. Bound ferulic acid, the dominant phenolic acid in canaryseed, significantly increased during germination (p<0.05). Study showed that germination provided a new approach to further develop canaryseed as a functional food for human consumption.

  17. Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity in canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Yu, Lilei; Wang, Xinkun; Gu, Zhenxin; Beta, Trust

    2016-03-01

    Canaryseed is an important cereal crop in western Canada. The changes of the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, phenolic acid profiles (free and bound) of canaryseed during germination were investigated in the present study. The growth properties also were investigated. Fresh weight, shoot length and root length increased, whereas dry mass of canaryseed decreased during germination. A 22.3% loss of dry matter was observed at 120h of germination. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of free and bound extracts showed a general trend of germinated seeds>raw seeds>soaked seeds. Free, bound and total phenolic content significantly increased 1042%, 120% and 741% at the end of germination as compared to raw seeds (p<0.05). DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of canaryseed. There were high correlations between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. TPC and ORAC values showed the highest correlation (r=0.9984). Six phenolic acids in free phenolic extracts and seven phenolic acids in bound phenolic extracts were detected, respectively. Bound ferulic acid, the dominant phenolic acid in canaryseed, significantly increased during germination (p<0.05). Study showed that germination provided a new approach to further develop canaryseed as a functional food for human consumption. PMID:26471599

  18. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Samac, D; Storey, R

    1981-12-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling.Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination.

  19. Regulation of the germinal center gene program by interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 8/IFN consensus sequence-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Melchers, Mark; Wang, Hongsheng; Torrey, Ted A.; Slota, Rebecca; Qi, Chen-Feng; Kim, Ji Young; Lugar, Patricia; Kong, Hee Jeong; Farrington, Lila; van der Zouwen, Boris; Zhou, Jeff X.; Lougaris, Vassilios; Lipsky, Peter E.; Grammer, Amrie C.; Morse, Herbert C.

    2006-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) consensus sequence-binding protein/IFN regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is a transcription factor that regulates the differentiation and function of macrophages, granulocytes, and dendritic cells through activation or repression of target genes. Although IRF8 is also expressed in lymphocytes, its roles in B cell and T cell maturation or function are ill defined, and few transcriptional targets are known. Gene expression profiling of human tonsillar B cells and mouse B cell lymphomas showed that IRF8 transcripts were expressed at highest levels in centroblasts, either from secondary lymphoid tissue or transformed cells. In addition, staining for IRF8 was most intense in tonsillar germinal center (GC) dark-zone centroblasts. To discover B cell genes regulated by IRF8, we transfected purified primary tonsillar B cells with enhanced green fluorescent protein–tagged IRF8, generated small interfering RNA knockdowns of IRF8 expression in a mouse B cell lymphoma cell line, and examined the effects of a null mutation of IRF8 on B cells. Each approach identified activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) and BCL6 as targets of transcriptional activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated in vivo occupancy of 5′ sequences of both genes by IRF8 protein. These results suggest previously unappreciated roles for IRF8 in the transcriptional regulation of B cell GC reactions that include direct regulation of AICDA and BCL6. PMID:16380510

  20. Regulation of the germinal center gene program by interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 8/IFN consensus sequence-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Melchers, Mark; Wang, Hongsheng; Torrey, Ted A; Slota, Rebecca; Qi, Chen-Feng; Kim, Ji Young; Lugar, Patricia; Kong, Hee Jeong; Farrington, Lila; van der Zouwen, Boris; Zhou, Jeff X; Lougaris, Vassilios; Lipsky, Peter E; Grammer, Amrie C; Morse, Herbert C

    2006-01-23

    Interferon (IFN) consensus sequence-binding protein/IFN regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is a transcription factor that regulates the differentiation and function of macrophages, granulocytes, and dendritic cells through activation or repression of target genes. Although IRF8 is also expressed in lymphocytes, its roles in B cell and T cell maturation or function are ill defined, and few transcriptional targets are known. Gene expression profiling of human tonsillar B cells and mouse B cell lymphomas showed that IRF8 transcripts were expressed at highest levels in centroblasts, either from secondary lymphoid tissue or transformed cells. In addition, staining for IRF8 was most intense in tonsillar germinal center (GC) dark-zone centroblasts. To discover B cell genes regulated by IRF8, we transfected purified primary tonsillar B cells with enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged IRF8, generated small interfering RNA knockdowns of IRF8 expression in a mouse B cell lymphoma cell line, and examined the effects of a null mutation of IRF8 on B cells. Each approach identified activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) and BCL6 as targets of transcriptional activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated in vivo occupancy of 5' sequences of both genes by IRF8 protein. These results suggest previously unappreciated roles for IRF8 in the transcriptional regulation of B cell GC reactions that include direct regulation of AICDA and BCL6.

  1. Macronutrients, Phytochemicals, and Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Sprout Germinated with or without Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yeming; Chang, Sam K C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the macronutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activities of yellow soybean sprout (YSS) and green soybean sprout (GSS) with different germination days. YSS and GSS were obtained by sprouting soybean in darkness or with light exposure at 21 °C. Lipid, protein, carbohydrate, and ash contents were analyzed before and after soybean germination. Phytochemicals (total phenolic compounds, saponin, and isoflavone) were also determined. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were determined to examine the antioxidant activities of soybean sprout. Results showed YSS had a higher yield than GSS. Based on dry mass composition, 7-d germination of GSS decreased 14% protein, 37% lipid, 22% carbohydrate, and 16% ash, whereas 7-d germination of YSS decreased 6% protein and 47% lipid. Carbohydrate did not change and ash significantly increased for the 7-d germinated YSS. Lipid was greatly metabolized in germination, which explained why the protein relative percentage in dried soybean sprout was higher than that in the corresponding soybean. Total phenolic compounds and saponin (mg/g soybean sprout, dry basis) had the same accumulation trend in soybean sprout with the increases in germination days. Aglycone isoflavones (genistein, glycitein, and daidzein) and daidzin showed an increased trend, whereas malonylgenistin and malonylglycitin showed a decreased trend with germination days for both GSS and YSS. The change in other isoflavones did not show definite trends. GSS had 20% more antioxidant activities than YSS (7-d germinated soybean sprout). The increases in ORAC antioxidant activity suggest eating GSS may be more beneficial than GSS for promoting human health.

  2. Massive parallel IGHV gene sequencing reveals a germinal center pathway in origins of human multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Graeme; Weston-Bell, Nicola J; Bryant, Dean; Seckinger, Anja; Hose, Dirk; Zojer, Niklas; Sahota, Surinder S

    2015-05-30

    Human multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by accumulation of malignant terminally differentiated plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM), raising the question when during maturation neoplastic transformation begins. Immunoglobulin IGHV genes carry imprints of clonal tumor history, delineating somatic hypermutation (SHM) events that generally occur in the germinal center (GC). Here, we examine MM-derived IGHV genes using massive parallel deep sequencing, comparing them with profiles in normal BM PCs. In 4/4 presentation IgG MM, monoclonal tumor-derived IGHV sequences revealed significant evidence for intraclonal variation (ICV) in mutation patterns. IGHV sequences of 2/2 normal PC IgG populations revealed dominant oligoclonal expansions, each expansion also displaying mutational ICV. Clonal expansions in MM and in normal BM PCs reveal common IGHV features. In such MM, the data fit a model of tumor origins in which neoplastic transformation is initiated in a GC B-cell committed to terminal differentiation but still targeted by on-going SHM. Strikingly, the data parallel IGHV clonal sequences in some monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) known to display on-going SHM imprints. Since MGUS generally precedes MM, these data suggest origins of MGUS and MM with IGHV gene mutational ICV from the same GC B-cell, arising via a distinctive pathway.

  3. Early depletion of proliferating B cells of germinal center in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Casimiro, Danilo R; Schleif, William A; Chen, Minchun; Citron, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Burns, Janine; Liang, Xiaoping; Fu, Tong-Ming; Handt, Larry; Emini, Emilio A; Shiver, John W

    2007-05-10

    Lack of virus specific antibody response is commonly observed in both HIV-1-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys with rapid disease progression. However, the mechanisms underlying this important observation still remain unclear. In a titration study of a SIVmac239 viral stock, three out of six animals with viral inoculation rapidly progressed to AIDS within 5 months. Unexpectedly, there was no obvious depletion of CD4(+) T cells in both peripheral and lymph node (LN) compartments in these animals. Instead, progressive depletion of proliferating B cells and disruption of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network in germinal centers (GC) was evident in the samples collected at as early as 20 days after viral challenge. This coincided with undetectable, or weak and transient, virus-specific antibody responses over the course of infection. In situ hybridization of SIV RNA in the LN samples revealed a high frequency of SIV productively infected cells and large amounts of accumulated viral RNA in the GCs in these animals. Early severe depletion of GC proliferating B cells and disruption of the FDC network may thus result in an inability to mount a virus-specific antibody response in rapid progressors, which has been shown to contribute to accelerated disease progression of SIV infection.

  4. Germinal center B cells govern their own fate via antibody feedback

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; George, Laura A.; Figge, Marc Thilo; Khan, Mahmood; Goodall, Margaret; Young, Stephen P.; Reynolds, Adam; Falciani, Francesco; Waisman, Ari; Notley, Clare A.; Ehrenstein, Michael R.; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Affinity maturation of B cells in germinal centers (GCs) is a process of evolution, involving random mutation of immunoglobulin genes followed by natural selection by T cells. Only B cells that have acquired antigen are able to interact with T cells. Antigen acquisition is dependent on the interaction of B cells with immune complexes inside GCs. It is not clear how efficient selection of B cells is maintained while their affinity matures. Here we show that the B cells’ own secreted products, antibodies, regulate GC selection by limiting antigen access. By manipulating the GC response with monoclonal antibodies of defined affinities, we show that antibodies in GCs are in affinity-dependent equilibrium with antibodies produced outside and that restriction of antigen access influences B cell selection, seen as variations in apoptosis, plasma cell output, T cell interaction, and antibody affinity. Feedback through antibodies produced by GC-derived plasma cells can explain how GCs maintain an adequate directional selection pressure over a large range of affinities throughout the course of an immune response, accelerating the emergence of B cells of highest affinities. Furthermore, this mechanism may explain how spatially separated GCs communicate and how the GC reaction terminates. PMID:23420879

  5. Early depletion of proliferating B cells of germinal center in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhiqiang . E-mail: zhiqiang_zhang@merck.com; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Schleif, William A.; Chen, Minchun; Citron, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Burns, Janine; Liang, Xiaoping; Fu, Tong-Ming; Handt, Larry; Emini, Emilio A.; Shiver, John W.

    2007-05-10

    Lack of virus specific antibody response is commonly observed in both HIV-1-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys with rapid disease progression. However, the mechanisms underlying this important observation still remain unclear. In a titration study of a SIVmac239 viral stock, three out of six animals with viral inoculation rapidly progressed to AIDS within 5 months. Unexpectedly, there was no obvious depletion of CD4{sup +} T cells in both peripheral and lymph node (LN) compartments in these animals. Instead, progressive depletion of proliferating B cells and disruption of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network in germinal centers (GC) was evident in the samples collected at as early as 20 days after viral challenge. This coincided with undetectable, or weak and transient, virus-specific antibody responses over the course of infection. In situ hybridization of SIV RNA in the LN samples revealed a high frequency of SIV productively infected cells and large amounts of accumulated viral RNA in the GCs in these animals. Early severe depletion of GC proliferating B cells and disruption of the FDC network may thus result in an inability to mount a virus-specific antibody response in rapid progressors, which has been shown to contribute to accelerated disease progression of SIV infection.

  6. TSC1 Promotes B Cell Maturation but Is Dispensable for Germinal Center Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxia; Carico, Zachary; Hopper, Kristen; Shin, Jinwook; Deng, Xuming; Qiu, Yirong; Unniraman, Shyam; Kelsoe, Garnett; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1), a tumor suppressor that acts by inhibiting mTOR signaling, plays an important role in the immune system. We report here that TSC1 differentially regulates mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2/Akt signaling in B cells. TSC1 deficiency results in the accumulation of transitional-1 (T1) B cells and progressive losses of B cells as they mature beyond the T1 stage. Moreover, TSC1KO mice exhibit a mild defect in the serum antibody responses or rate of Ig class-switch recombination after immunization with a T-cell-dependent antigen. In contrast to a previous report, we demonstrate that both constitutive Peyer’s patch germinal centers (GCs) and immunization-induced splenic GCs are unimpaired in TSC1-deficient (TSC1KO) mice and that the ratio of GC B cells to total B cells is comparable in WT and TSC1KO mice. Together, our data demonstrate that TSC1 plays important roles for B cell development, but it is dispensable for GC formation and serum antibody responses. PMID:26000908

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid B cells from Multiple Sclerosis patients are subject to normal germinal center selection

    PubMed Central

    Harp, Christopher; Lee, Jane; Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Cameron, Elizabeth; Olsen, Gregory; Frohman, Elliot; Racke, Michael; Monson, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Previous findings from our laboratory demonstrated that some clonally expanded cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) B cells from MS patients exhibit diminished mutation targeting patterns in comparison to typical B cells selected in the context of germinal centers (GCs). In order to determine whether the overall CSF B cell repertoires adhered to mutation patterns typical of GC-selected B cells, we analyzed the immunoglobulin repertoires from CSF B cells of 8 MS patients for mutation characteristics typical of GC-derived B cells. Mutation targeting was preserved. Thus, clonal expansion of some CSF B cells may occur independently of GC, but the CSF B cell pool is governed by typical GC selection. Interestingly, the heavy chain CDR3’s of CSF B cells from MS patients had a net acidic charge, similar to GC-derived B cells, but a tendency towards longer CDR3’s, consistent with autoreactive B cells. How these findings may support current hypotheses regarding the origin of CSF B cells is discussed. PMID:17169437

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid B cells from multiple sclerosis patients are subject to normal germinal center selection.

    PubMed

    Harp, Christopher; Lee, Jane; Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Cameron, Elizabeth; Olsen, Gregory; Frohman, Elliot; Racke, Michael; Monson, Nancy

    2007-02-01

    Previous findings from our laboratory demonstrated that some clonally expanded cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) B cells from MS patients exhibit diminished mutation targeting patterns in comparison to typical B cells selected in the context of germinal centers (GCs). In order to determine whether the overall CSF B cell repertoires adhered to mutation patterns typical of GC-selected B cells, we analyzed the immunoglobulin repertoires from CSF B cells of 8 MS patients for mutation characteristics typical of GC-derived B cells. Mutation targeting was preserved. Thus, clonal expansion of some CSF B cells may occur independently of GC, but the CSF B cell pool is governed by typical GC selection. Interestingly, the heavy chain CDR3's of CSF B cells from MS patients had a net acidic charge, similar to GC-derived B cells, but a tendency towards longer CDR3's, consistent with autoreactive B cells. How these findings may support current hypotheses regarding the origin of CSF B cells is discussed. PMID:17169437

  9. Papillary Thyroid Cancer in a Child with Progressive Transformation of Germinal Centers

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Suresh; DeNardo, Bradley; Stachurski, Dariusz; Greene Welch, Jennifer; Groblewski, Jan C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the presentation and management of a child with Progressive Transformation of Germinal Centers (PTGC), an uncommon condition characterized by significant persistent lymphadenopathy, who developed papillary thyroid carcinoma and to explore and review potential links between PTGC and neoplastic processes in the head and neck. Methods. Case presentation and literature review are used. Results. A 10-year-old female presented with a right parotid mass and cervical lymphadenopathy. Multiple biopsies revealed PTGC without malignancy. Two years later, she developed fatigue and weight gain, and a thyroid nodule was found. Fine needle aspiration was strongly suggestive of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection without surgical management of the longstanding right lateral neck lymphadenopathy. Final pathology confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma. She was treated with radioactive iodine therapy postoperatively and remains free of disease at three years of follow-up. Conclusions. PTGC is considered a benign condition but has previously been associated with Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma (NLPHL). This is the first reported case of papillary thyroid cancer in a child with preexisting cervical PTGC and no defined risk factors for thyroid malignancy. No link has been established with thyroid carcinoma, but patients with PTGC may have a defect in immune surveillance that predisposes them to malignancy. PMID:27069706

  10. Modulation of Igβ is essential for the B cell selection in germinal center

    PubMed Central

    Todo, Kagefumi; Koga, Orie; Nishikawa, Miwako; Hikida, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    The positive and negative selection of antigen-reactive B cells take place in the germinal center (GC) during an immune responses. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying these selection machineries, including the involvement of antigen receptor signaling molecules, remain to be elucidated. We found that expression levels of Igα and Igβ, which are the essential components of B cell antigen-receptor complex, were differentially regulated in GC B cells and that the expression of Igβ was more prominently down-regulated in a portion of GC B cells. The suppression of Igβ down-regulation reduced the number of GL7+GC B cells and the affinity maturation in T-dependent responses was markedly impaired. In addition, the disease phenotypes in autoimmune-prone mice were ameliorated by blocking of Igβ down-regulation. These results suggest that Igβ down-regulation is involved in the normal positive selection in GC and the accumulation of autoreactive B cells in autoimmune-prone mice. PMID:25980548

  11. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex regulates germinal center formation by repressing Blimp-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jinwook; Jeon, Shin; Choi, Seungjin; Park, Kyungsoo; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2015-02-17

    Germinal center (GC) reaction is crucial in adaptive immune responses. The formation of GC is coordinated by the expression of specific genes including Blimp-1 and Bcl-6. Although gene expression is critically influenced by the status of chromatin structure, little is known about the role of chromatin remodeling factors for regulation of GC formation. Here, we show that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is required for GC reactions. Mice lacking Srg3/mBaf155, a core component of the SWI/SNF complex, showed impaired differentiation of GC B and follicular helper T cells in response to T cell-dependent antigen challenge. The SWI/SNF complex regulates chromatin structure at the Blimp-1 locus and represses its expression by interacting cooperatively with Bcl-6 and corepressors. The defect in GC reactions in mice lacking Srg3 was due to the derepression of Blimp-1 as supported by genetic studies with Blimp-1-ablated mice. Hence, our study identifies the SWI/SNF complex as a key mediator in GC reactions by modulating Bcl-6-dependent Blimp-1 repression.

  12. B cell IFN-γ receptor signaling promotes autoimmune germinal centers via cell-intrinsic induction of BCL-6

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Shaun W.; Jacobs, Holly M.; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Dam, Elizabeth M.; Scharping, Nicole E.; Kolhatkar, Nikita S.; Hou, Baidong; Buckner, Jane H.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated germinal center (GC) responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although both type 1 and type 2 interferons (IFNs) are involved in lupus pathogenesis, their respective impacts on the establishment of autoimmune GCs has not been addressed. In this study, using a chimeric model of B cell-driven autoimmunity, we demonstrate that B cell type 1 IFN receptor signals accelerate, but are not required for, lupus development. In contrast, B cells functioning as antigen-presenting cells initiate CD4+ T cell activation and IFN-γ production, and strikingly, B cell–intrinsic deletion of the IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR) abrogates autoimmune GCs, class-switched autoantibodies (auto-Abs), and systemic autoimmunity. Mechanistically, although IFN-γR signals increase B cell T-bet expression, B cell–intrinsic deletion of T-bet exerts an isolated impact on class-switch recombination to pathogenic auto-Ab subclasses without impacting GC development. Rather, in both mouse and human B cells, IFN-γ synergized with B cell receptor, toll-like receptor, and/or CD40 activation signals to promote cell-intrinsic expression of the GC master transcription factor, B cell lymphoma 6 protein. Our combined findings identify a novel B cell–intrinsic mechanism whereby IFN signals promote lupus pathogenesis, implicating this pathway as a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:27069113

  13. Somatic mutation of EZH2 (Y641) in follicular and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of germinal center origin | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Morin et al. describe recurrent somatic mutations in EZH2, a polycomb group oncogene. The mutation, found in the SET domain of this gene encoding a histone methyltransferase, is found only in a subset of lymphoma samples. Specifically, EZH2 mutations are found in about 12% of follicular lymphomas (FL) and almost 23% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) of germinal center origin. This paper goes on to demonstrate that altered EZH2 proteins, corresponding to the most frequent mutations found in human lymphomas, have reduced activity using in vitro histone methylation assays.

  14. Inhibition of DNA polymerase λ and associated inflammatory activities of extracts from steamed germinated soybeans.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Yoshida, Hiromi

    2014-04-01

    During the screening of selective DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitors from more than 50 plant food materials, we found that the extract from steamed germinated soybeans (Glycine max L.) inhibited human pol λ activity. Among the three processed soybean samples tested (boiled soybeans, steamed soybeans, and steamed germinated soybeans), both the hot water extract and organic solvent extract from the steamed germinated soybeans had the strongest pol λ inhibition. We previously isolated two glucosyl compounds, a cerebroside (glucosyl ceramide, AS-1-4, compound ) and a steroidal glycoside (eleutheroside A, compound ), from dried soybean, and these compounds were prevalent in the extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans as pol inhibitors. The hot water and organic solvent extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans and compounds and selectively inhibited the activity of eukaryotic pol λ in vitro but did not influence the activities of other eukaryotic pols, including those from the A-family (pol γ), B-family (pols α, δ, and ε), and Y-family (pols η, ι, and κ), and also showed no effect on the activity of pol β, which is of the same family (X) as pol λ. The tendency for in vitro pol λ inhibition by these extracts and compounds showed a positive correlation with the in vivo suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation in mouse ear. These results suggest that steamed germinated soybeans, especially the glucosyl compound components, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  15. Abnormal germinal center reactions in systemic lupus erythematosus demonstrated by blockade of CD154-CD40 interactions

    PubMed Central

    Grammer, Amrie C.; Slota, Rebecca; Fischer, Randy; Gur, Hanan; Girschick, Hermann; Yarboro, Cheryl; Illei, Gabor G.; Lipsky, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of CD154-CD40 interactions in the B cell overactivity exhibited by patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), CD19+ peripheral B cells were examined before and after treatment with humanized anti-CD154 mAb (BG9588, 5c8). Before treatment, SLE patients manifested activated B cells that expressed CD154, CD69, CD38, CD5, and CD27. Cells expressing CD38, CD5, or CD27 disappeared from the periphery during treatment with anti-CD154 mAb, and cells expressing CD69 and CD154 disappeared from the periphery during the post-treatment period. Before treatment, active-SLE patients had circulating CD38bright Ig-secreting cells that were not found in normal individuals. Disappearance of this plasma cell subset during treatment was associated with decreases in anti–double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) Ab levels, proteinuria, and SLE disease activity index. Consistent with this finding, peripheral B cells cultured in vitro spontaneously proliferated and secreted Ig in a manner that was inhibited by anti-CD154 mAb. Finally, the CD38+/++IgD+, CD38+++, and CD38+IgD– B cell subsets present in the peripheral blood also disappeared following treatment with humanized anti-CD154. Together, these results indicate that patients with active lupus nephritis exhibit abnormalities in the peripheral B cell compartment that are consistent with intensive germinal center activity, are driven via CD154-CD40 interactions, and may reflect or contribute to the propensity of these patients to produce autoantibodies. PMID:14617752

  16. Abnormal germinal center reactions in systemic lupus erythematosus demonstrated by blockade of CD154-CD40 interactions.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Amrie C; Slota, Rebecca; Fischer, Randy; Gur, Hanan; Girschick, Hermann; Yarboro, Cheryl; Illei, Gabor G; Lipsky, Peter E

    2003-11-01

    To determine the role of CD154-CD40 interactions in the B cell overactivity exhibited by patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), CD19+ peripheral B cells were examined before and after treatment with humanized anti-CD154 mAb (BG9588, 5c8). Before treatment, SLE patients manifested activated B cells that expressed CD154, CD69, CD38, CD5, and CD27. Cells expressing CD38, CD5, or CD27 disappeared from the periphery during treatment with anti-CD154 mAb, and cells expressing CD69 and CD154 disappeared from the periphery during the post-treatment period. Before treatment, active-SLE patients had circulating CD38 (bright) Ig-secreting cells that were not found in normal individuals. Disappearance of this plasma cell subset during treatment was associated with decreases in anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) Ab levels, proteinuria, and SLE disease activity index. Consistent with this finding, peripheral B cells cultured in vitro spontaneously proliferated and secreted Ig in a manner that was inhibited by anti-CD154 mAb. Finally, the CD38(+/++)IgD(+), CD38(+++), and CD38(+)IgD(-) B cell subsets present in the peripheral blood also disappeared following treatment with humanized anti-CD154. Together, these results indicate that patients with active lupus nephritis exhibit abnormalities in the peripheral B cell compartment that are consistent with intensive germinal center activity, are driven via CD154-CD40 interactions, and may reflect or contribute to the propensity of these patients to produce autoantibodies.

  17. Differential expression of APE1 and APE2 in germinal centers promotes error-prone repair and A:T mutations during somatic hypermutation

    PubMed Central

    Stavnezer, Janet; Linehan, Erin K.; Thompson, Mikayla R.; Habboub, Ghaith; Ucher, Anna J.; Kadungure, Tatenda; Tsuchimoto, Daisuke; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Schrader, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of antibody variable region genes is initiated in germinal center B cells during an immune response by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which converts cytosines to uracils. During accurate repair in nonmutating cells, uracil is excised by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), leaving abasic sites that are incised by AP endonuclease (APE) to create single-strand breaks, and the correct nucleotide is reinserted by DNA polymerase β. During SHM, for unknown reasons, repair is error prone. There are two APE homologs in mammals and, surprisingly, APE1, in contrast to its high expression in both resting and in vitro-activated splenic B cells, is expressed at very low levels in mouse germinal center B cells where SHM occurs, and APE1 haploinsufficiency has very little effect on SHM. In contrast, the less efficient homolog, APE2, is highly expressed and contributes not only to the frequency of mutations, but also to the generation of mutations at A:T base pair (bp), insertions, and deletions. In the absence of both UNG and APE2, mutations at A:T bp are dramatically reduced. Single-strand breaks generated by APE2 could provide entry points for exonuclease recruited by the mismatch repair proteins Msh2–Msh6, and the known association of APE2 with proliferating cell nuclear antigen could recruit translesion polymerases to create mutations at AID-induced lesions and also at A:T bp. Our data provide new insight into error-prone repair of AID-induced lesions, which we propose is facilitated by down-regulation of APE1 and up-regulation of APE2 expression in germinal center B cells. PMID:24927551

  18. Changes in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolates due to germination and enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-07-15

    Germination is an inexpensive process to improve the nutritional properties of legumes. The effect of germinating black bean seeds on the production of cotyledon protein hydrolysates (CPH) with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities was analyzed in this research. After simulated enzymatic digestion, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of CPH obtained from germinated black beans was lower than that observed for raw cotyledons. There were no significant differences among CPH cellular antioxidant activities (CAA), except for the high CAA of the 120 min hydrolysate obtained from one day germinated black bean cotyledons. The most significant changes due to germination and enzymatic hydrolysis were observed for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. The NO synthesis inhibition observed for raw CPH was reduced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion but for germinated samples the inhibition was doubled. Peptides derived from cell wall proteins produced during germination could be responsible of antiinflammatory activity. PMID:26948633

  19. Changes in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolates due to germination and enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-07-15

    Germination is an inexpensive process to improve the nutritional properties of legumes. The effect of germinating black bean seeds on the production of cotyledon protein hydrolysates (CPH) with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities was analyzed in this research. After simulated enzymatic digestion, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of CPH obtained from germinated black beans was lower than that observed for raw cotyledons. There were no significant differences among CPH cellular antioxidant activities (CAA), except for the high CAA of the 120 min hydrolysate obtained from one day germinated black bean cotyledons. The most significant changes due to germination and enzymatic hydrolysis were observed for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. The NO synthesis inhibition observed for raw CPH was reduced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion but for germinated samples the inhibition was doubled. Peptides derived from cell wall proteins produced during germination could be responsible of antiinflammatory activity.

  20. Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum extracts on germination and seedling growth of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Islam, A K M Mominul; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1) reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T 50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T 50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1). The I 50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1). Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds. PMID:25032234

  1. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds. PMID:25032234

  2. Age-related decrease in the proportion of germinal center B cells from mouse Peyer's patches is accompanied by an accumulation of somatic mutations in their immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, A; Gilmore, D; Milstein, C

    1994-11-01

    Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes and the generation of memory B cells seems to take place in germinal centers, which are chronically present in Peyer's patches. Age-associated changes in the germinal center B cell compartment of Peyer's patches and in the mutations of a kappa light chain transgene were analyzed in unimmunized mice. Somatic mutations accumulate in germinal center B cells slowly and continuously to reach an apparent plateau when the animals are around 5 months old. In contrast, the proportion of germinal center B cells reaches a maximum in very young mice (about 2 months old) and decreases progressively thereafter. These results suggest that the highly mutated B cells in older mice arise by the successive accumulation of mutations in memory cells. The data also show that the optimum time for the analysis of hypermutation of transgenes in Peyer's patches is when the mice are about 5 months old.

  3. Direct visualization of endogenous Salmonella-specific B cells reveals a marked delay in clonal expansion and germinal center development

    PubMed Central

    Nanton, Minelva R.; Lee, Seung-Joo; Atif, Shaikh M.; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Taylor, Justin J.; Bäumler, Andreas J.; Way, Sing Sing; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    CD4+ T cells and B cells are both essential for acquired immunity to Salmonella infection. It is well established that Salmonella inhibit host CD4+ T-cell responses, but a corresponding inhibitory effect on B cells is less well defined. Here, we utilize an antigen tetramer and pull-down enrichment strategy to directly visualize OVA-specific B cells in mice, as they respond to infection with Salmonella-OVA. Surprisingly, OVA-specific B-cell expansion and germinal center formation was not detected until bacteria were cleared from the host. Furthermore, Salmonella infection also actively inhibited both B- and T-cell responses to the same coinjected antigen but this did not require the presence of iNOS. The SPI2 locus has been shown to be responsible for inhibition of Salmonella-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, and an examination of SPI2-deficient bacteria demonstrated a recovery in B-cell expansion in infected mice. Together, these data suggest that Salmonella can simultaneously inhibit host B- and T-cell responses using SPI2-dependent mechanisms. PMID:25346524

  4. GNA13 loss in germinal center B cells leads to impaired apoptosis and promotes lymphoma in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Jane A.; Nugent, Adrienne; Rempel, Rachel E.; Moffitt, Andrea B.; Davis, Nicholas S.; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Shingleton, Jennifer R.; Zhang, Jenny; Love, Cassandra; Datta, Jyotishka; McKinney, Matthew E.; Tzeng, Tiffany J.; Wettschureck, Nina; Offermanns, Stefan; Walzer, Katelyn A.; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Rasheed, Suhail A. K.; Casey, Patrick J.; Lossos, Izidore S.

    2016-01-01

    GNA13 is the most frequently mutated gene in germinal center (GC)-derived B-cell lymphomas, including nearly a quarter of Burkitt lymphoma and GC-derived diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. These mutations occur in a pattern consistent with loss of function. We have modeled the GNA13-deficient state exclusively in GC B cells by crossing the Gna13 conditional knockout mouse strain with the GC-specific AID-Cre transgenic strain. AID-Cre+ GNA13-deficient mice demonstrate disordered GC architecture and dark zone/light zone distribution in vivo, and demonstrate altered migration behavior, decreased levels of filamentous actin, and attenuated RhoA activity in vitro. We also found that GNA13-deficient mice have increased numbers of GC B cells that display impaired caspase-mediated cell death and increased frequency of somatic hypermutation in the immunoglobulin VH locus. Lastly, GNA13 deficiency, combined with conditional MYC transgene expression in mouse GC B cells, promotes lymphomagenesis. Thus, GNA13 loss is associated with GC B-cell persistence, in which impaired apoptosis and ongoing somatic hypermutation may lead to an increased risk of lymphoma development. PMID:26989201

  5. Spleen-Specific Development of Germinal Centers in Rats Treated with Antithyroid Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Motoko; Fukui, Norio; Sakai, Kuniyoshi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Nagasaki, Shuji; Shibata, Seiji; Araki, Sei-ichi; Isobe, Mitsui; Hisada, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The antithyroid drugs (ATDs) methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) have been used for treatment of hyperthyroidism for more than several decades, despite the fact that they are associated with adverse drug reactions that are thought to be autoimmune mediated. We therefore examined histopathologic responses in the immune system in male and female rats given MMI (2, 20 and 200 mg/kg/day, p.o., in experiment 1; 200 mg/kg/day, p.o., in experiment 3) or PTU (25 and 250 mg/kg/day, p.o., in experiment 2; 200 mg/kg/day, p.o., in experiment 3) for two weeks. In experiments 1 and 2, highest doses of MMI and PTU induced histopathologic changes in the spleen consistent with those in experiment 3 without any changes in the other peripheral lymphoid organs and tissues. In experiment 3, histopathological evaluation of the spleen along with hematological and bone marrow examinations were performed. In both male and female rats, MMI or PTU induced histopathological changes in the spleen characterized by development of germinal centers and an increase in the number of IgG-positive plasma cells in the red pulp; these changes were most prevalent in the MMI-treated female rats. Total red and white blood cell counts were decreased in the MMI-treated male and female rats; lymphocytes and monocytes were lower in male and female rats, respectively. Bone marrow nucleated cells were significantly lower in the MMI-treated males. This is the first study to demonstrate that ATDs induce spleen specific B-cell reactions in rats PMID:24526810

  6. He-Ne laser-induced changes in germination, thermodynamic parameters, internal energy, enzyme activities and physiological attributes of wheat during germination and early growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Yasir; Perveen, Rashida; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ali, Qasim; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza

    2013-04-01

    Using low power continuous wave He-Ne laser irradiation of seeds, the germination characteristics, thermodynamic changes and enzyme activities as well as changes in morphological attributes were explored for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. S-24) cultivar. The changes in thermodynamic properties such as change in enthalpy (ΔH), entropy generation [(ΔSe)], entropy flux [(ΔSc)], entropy generation ratio [(ΔS)e/Δt], and entropy flux ratio [(ΔS)c/Δt] showed significant (P < 0.05) changes at an energy level of 500 mJ. The germination energy (GE), germination percentage (G%), germination index (GI) as well as α-amylase and protease activities was also found to be higher at 500 mJ, while the mean emergence time (MET) and time for 50% germination (E50) decreased for 300 mJ irradiance. The internal energy of the seeds increased significantly at all laser energy levels, but was highest for 500 mJ 72 h after sowing. The enzyme activities increased up to 24 h after sowing and then declined. The activities of α-amylase and protease were found to be positively correlated with the plant physiological attributes. These results indicate that low power continuous wave He-Ne laser (632 nm) treatment has considerable biological effects on seed metabolism during germination as well as on later vegetative growth.

  7. Mitochondrial Arginase Activity from Cotyledons of Developing and Germinating Seeds of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Kollöffel, C; van Dijke, H D

    1975-03-01

    Differential and sucrose density gradient centrifugation established that about 80% of the total arginase activity (EC 3.5.3.1) in cotyledons of germinating broad bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) was present in the mitochondrial fraction. The mitochondrial arginase activity was enhanced considerably by exposure to osmotic shock, by freezing and thawing, or by Triton X-100 treatment. About 10% of the total arginase activity was recovered from the 40,000g supernatant fraction. During seed maturation, arginase activity in the cotyledons decreased to about one-third of its maximal activity, while increasing over 10-fold during subsequent germination. The time courses of mitochondrial arginase, succinate oxidase, and succinate dehydrogenase activities differed considerably during germination.

  8. Relationships between antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of tartary buckwheat during germination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Hao, Tingfeng; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Relationships of changes between major non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacities of tartary buckwheat during germination were evaluated by means of correlation analysis and principal component analysis in this paper. The changes of antioxidant compounds, including vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, carotenoids, and chlorophyll, and antioxidant activities were detected. A good accumulation in the content of vitamin C (0.71 mg/g), total flavonoids (19.53 mg rutin/g), and rutin (11.34 mg/g) was found after 7-day germination, but germination decreased the vitamin E activity. Germination improved the activities of buckwheat extracts to scavenge DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide free radicals by 107, 144, and 88 %, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation and principal component analysis showed that the vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin contents were closely related positively with free radicals scavenging properties, indicating that the compounds which play a key role in the elevated antioxidant activities during germination consisted of vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin, but not vitamin E and quercetin.

  9. Relationships between antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of tartary buckwheat during germination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Hao, Tingfeng; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Relationships of changes between major non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacities of tartary buckwheat during germination were evaluated by means of correlation analysis and principal component analysis in this paper. The changes of antioxidant compounds, including vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, carotenoids, and chlorophyll, and antioxidant activities were detected. A good accumulation in the content of vitamin C (0.71 mg/g), total flavonoids (19.53 mg rutin/g), and rutin (11.34 mg/g) was found after 7-day germination, but germination decreased the vitamin E activity. Germination improved the activities of buckwheat extracts to scavenge DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide free radicals by 107, 144, and 88 %, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation and principal component analysis showed that the vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin contents were closely related positively with free radicals scavenging properties, indicating that the compounds which play a key role in the elevated antioxidant activities during germination consisted of vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin, but not vitamin E and quercetin. PMID:25829633

  10. Changes in nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity during germination of nonconventional legumes.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Díaz, María Felicia; Jiménez, Tania; Benítez, Vanesa; Herrera, Teresa; Cuadrado, Carmen; Martín-Pedrosa, Mercedes; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2013-08-28

    The present study describes the effects of germination on nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity in the nonconventional legumes Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean), Lablab purpureus (dolichos), and Stizolobium niveum (mucuna). Protease inhibitors and lectins were detected in raw legumes and were significantly decreased during the germination. Regarding total and individual inositol phosphates (IP5-IP3), important reductions of IP6 and high increases in the rest of inositol phosphates were also detected during this process. In addition, total phenols, catechins, and proanthocyanidins increased, accompanied by an overall rise of antioxidant activity (79.6 μmol of Trolox/g of DW in the case of mucuna). Germination has been shown to be a very effective process to reduce nonnutritional factors and increase bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of these nonconventional legumes. For this reason, they could be used as ingredients to obtain high-value legume flours for food formulation. PMID:23909570

  11. Effect of germination on lignan biosynthesis, and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Junhong; Guo, Xinbo; Brennan, Charles Stephen; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Chen, Gu; Liu, Rui Hai

    2016-08-15

    Flaxseed is one of the richest seed sources of lignan and other bioactive compounds. The present study characterized lignan biosynthesis and potential health benefits in flaxseeds during 10-day germination. The transcription levels of lignan biosynthesis, along with variation of bioactivities, including cellular antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of flaxseed sprouts during germination, were studied. The results showed that 8-day germination brought about a 6.3-fold increase in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside and 4.5-fold increase in secoisolariciresinol compared to ungerminated flaxseeds. The highest amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids were found in 10-day geminated flaxseed, namely a 5.6-fold and 55-fold increase compared to ungerminated flaxseed. Transcription analysis revealed that five key-encoding genes in the lignan biosynthetic pathway were up-regulated during germination. Furthermore, the highest antioxidant and antiproliferative activities were found on day 10. These findings suggest that germination for 8-10 days leads to optimal lignan production and potential health benefits if incorporated into the human diet. PMID:27006228

  12. Anti-Lipid IgG Antibodies Are Produced via Germinal Centers in a Murine Model Resembling Human Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Reséndiz-Mora, Albany; Donis-Maturano, Luis; Wong-Baeza, Isabel; Zárate-Neira, Luz; Yam-Puc, Juan Carlos; Calderón-Amador, Juana; Medina, Yolanda; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Anti-lipid IgG antibodies are produced in some mycobacterial infections and in certain autoimmune diseases [such as anti-phospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)]. However, few studies have addressed the B cell responses underlying the production of these immunoglobulins. Anti-lipid IgG antibodies are consistently found in a murine model resembling human lupus induced by chlorpromazine-stabilized non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements (NPA). NPA are transitory lipid associations found in the membranes of most cells; when NPA are stabilized they can become immunogenic and induce specific IgG antibodies, which appear to be involved in the development of the mouse model of lupus. Of note, anti-NPA antibodies are also detected in patients with SLE and leprosy. We used this model of lupus to investigate in vivo the cellular mechanisms that lead to the production of anti-lipid, class-switched IgG antibodies. In this murine lupus model, we found plasma cells (Gr1−, CD19−, CD138+) producing NPA-specific IgGs in the draining lymph nodes, the spleen, and the bone marrow. We also found a significant number of germinal center B cells (IgD−, CD19+, PNA+) specific for NPA in the draining lymph nodes and the spleen, and we identified in situ the presence of NPA in these germinal centers. By contrast, very few NPA-specific, extrafollicular reaction B cells (B220+, Blimp1+) were found. Moreover, when assessing the anti-NPA IgG antibodies produced during the experimental protocol, we found that the affinity of these antibodies progressively increased over time. Altogether, our data indicate that, in this murine model resembling human lupus, B cells produce anti-NPA IgG antibodies mainly via germinal centers. PMID:27746783

  13. Tumor Suppressor Interferon-Regulatory Factor 1 Counteracts the Germinal Center Reaction Driven by a Cancer-Associated Gammaherpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Mboko, Wadzanai P.; Olteanu, Horatiu; Ray, Avijit; Xin, Gang; Darrah, Eric J.; Kumar, Suresh N.; Kulinski, Joseph M.; Cui, Weiguo; Dittel, Bonnie N.; Gauld, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gammaherpesviruses are ubiquitous pathogens that are associated with the development of B cell lymphomas. Gammaherpesviruses employ multiple mechanisms to transiently stimulate a broad, polyclonal germinal center reaction, an inherently mutagenic stage of B cell differentiation that is thought to be the primary target of malignant transformation in virus-driven lymphomagenesis. We found that this gammaherpesvirus-driven germinal center expansion was exaggerated and lost its transient nature in the absence of interferon-regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), a transcription factor with antiviral and tumor suppressor functions. Uncontrolled and persistent expansion of germinal center B cells led to pathological changes in the spleens of chronically infected IRF-1-deficient animals. Additionally, we found decreased IRF-1 expression in cases of human posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, a malignant condition associated with gammaherpesvirus infection. The results of our study define an unappreciated role for IRF-1 in B cell biology and provide insight into the potential mechanism of gammaherpesvirus-driven lymphomagenesis. IMPORTANCE Gammaherpesviruses establish lifelong infection in most adults and are associated with B cell lymphomas. While the infection is asymptomatic in many hosts, it is critical to identify individuals who may be at an increased risk of virus-induced cancer. Such identification is currently impossible, as the host risk factors that predispose individuals toward viral lymphomagenesis are poorly understood. The current study identifies interferon-regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) to be one of such candidate host factors. Specifically, we found that IRF-1 enforces long-term suppression of an inherently mutagenic stage of B cell differentiation that gammaherpesviruses are thought to target for transformation. Correspondingly, in the absence of IRF-1, chronic gammaherpesvirus infection induced pathological changes in the spleens of infected animals

  14. Cytochrome C oxidase activity in germinating Phaseolus vulgaris l. seeds: Effects of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Caughey, W.S. ); Sowa, S.; Roos, E.E.

    1989-04-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is a key bioenergetic enzyme required for seed germination. The enzyme was isolated from 2-day germinating beans and biochemically compared to its bovine heart counterpart. Carbon monoxide, which binds to the heme a{sub 3} site of cytochrome c oxidase, we used to probe O{sub 2} utilization activity in isolated enzyme, mitochondrial particles, and whole seeds. Bean seeds under 80% CO/20% O{sub 2} exhibited 46% growth inhibition as determined by root length. Reversible, dose-dependent partial inhibition of bean seed mitochondrial respiration was observed in the presence of CO; heart mitochondria had a more sensitive, less reversible response. Effects of CO on bean and bovine heart enzyme were similar. The close correlation of CO effects observed on seedling growth, mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome oxidase activity indicate an important role for this enzyme during the early stages of seed germination.

  15. [Dynamic of lectin activity during germination of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, N V

    2006-01-01

    PHA quantity and activity dynamics during early germination of bean seed were investigated. Electrophoretic characteristics, subunits composition and carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectin extracted from white kidney bean cv. Bilozerna were studied. It was shown that investigated lectin consisted of 2 subunits E and L with molecular weight 34 and 36 kDa, respectively, analogously to purified PHA ("Serva", Germany), and specifically bound N-acetyl-D-galactosamin and galactose. During germination both quantity and activity of PHA were dramatically decreasing in embryonic axes and in cotyledons, possibly, as a result of the lectin release from seeds to the environment. It is very likely that one of the defence mechanisms of germinating seeds is related with the releasing of lectins that are able to bind components of the bacterial cell wall and to inhibit their growth.

  16. Germinal Center B Cell and T Follicular Helper Cell Responses to Viral Vector and Protein-in-Adjuvant Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Hart, Matthew; Chui, Cecilia; Ajuogu, Augustine; Brian, Iona J; de Cassan, Simone C; Borrow, Persephone; Draper, Simon J; Douglas, Alexander D

    2016-08-15

    There is great interest in the development of Ab-inducing subunit vaccines targeting infections, including HIV, malaria, and Ebola. We previously reported that adenovirus vectored vaccines are potent in priming Ab responses, but uncertainty remains regarding the optimal approach for induction of humoral immune responses. In this study, using OVA as a model Ag, we assessed the magnitude of the primary and anamnestic Ag-specific IgG responses of mice to four clinically relevant vaccine formulations: replication-deficient adenovirus; modified vaccinia Ankara (a poxvirus); protein with alum; and protein in the squalene oil-in-water adjuvant Addavax. We then used flow cytometric assays capable of measuring total and Ag-specific germinal center (GC) B cell and follicular Th cell responses to compare the induction of these responses by the different formulations. We report that adenovirus vectored vaccines induce Ag insert-specific GC B cell and Ab responses of a magnitude comparable to those induced by a potent protein/squalene oil-in-water formulation whereas-despite a robust overall GC response-the insert-specific GC B cell and Ab responses induced by modified vaccinia Ankara were extremely weak. Ag-specific follicular Th cell responses to adenovirus vectored vaccines exceeded those induced by other platforms at day 7 after immunization. We found little evidence that innate immune activation by adenovirus may act as an adjuvant in such a manner that the humoral response to a recombinant protein may be enhanced by coadministering with an adenovirus lacking a transgene of interest. Overall, these studies provide further support for the use of replication-deficient adenoviruses to induce humoral responses. PMID:27412417

  17. Phenotypic and morphological properties of germinal center dark zone Cxcl12-expressing reticular cells (CRCs) 1,2

    PubMed Central

    Rodda, Lauren B.; Bannard, Oliver; Ludewig, Burkhard; Nagasawa, Takashi; Cyster, Jason G.

    2015-01-01

    The germinal center (GC) is divided into a dark zone (DZ) and a light zone (LZ). GC B cells must cycle between these zones to achieve efficient antibody affinity maturation. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are well characterized for their role in supporting B cell antigen encounter in primary follicles and in the GC LZ. However, the properties of stromal cells supporting B cells in the DZ are relatively unexplored. Recent work identified a novel stromal population of Cxcl12-expressing reticular cells (CRCs) in murine GC DZs. Here we report that CRCs have diverse morphologies, appearing in ‘open’ and ‘closed’ networks, with variable distribution in lymphoid tissue GCs. CRCs are also present in splenic and peripheral lymph node primary follicles. Real-time two-photon microscopy of Peyer’s patch GCs demonstrates B cells moving in close association with CRC processes. CRCs are gp38+ with low to undetectable expression of FDC markers, but CRC-like cells in the DZ are lineage marked, along with FDCs and FRCs, by CD21-Cre and Ccl19-Cre directed fluorescent reporters. In contrast to FDCs, CRCs do not demonstrate dependence on lymphotoxin or TNF for chemokine expression or network morphology. CRC distribution in the DZ does require CXCR4 signaling, which is necessary for GC B cells to access the DZ and likely to interact with CRC processes. Our findings establish CRCs as a major stromal cell type in the GC DZ and suggest CRCs support critical activities of GC B cells in the DZ niche through Cxcl12 expression and direct cell-cell interactions. PMID:26453751

  18. Oil-in-Water Emulsion MF59 Increases Germinal Center B Cell Differentiation and Persistence in Response to Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lofano, Giuseppe; Mancini, Francesca; Salvatore, Giulia; Cantisani, Rocco; Monaci, Elisabetta; Carrisi, Corrado; Tavarini, Simona; Sammicheli, Chiara; Rossi Paccani, Silvia; Soldaini, Elisabetta; Laera, Donatello; Finco, Oretta; Nuti, Sandra; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio; Bagnoli, Fabio; Bertholet, Sylvie

    2015-08-15

    Induction of persistent protective immune responses is a key attribute of a successful vaccine formulation. MF59 adjuvant, an oil-in-water emulsion used in human vaccines, is known to induce persistent high-affinity functional Ab titers and memory B cells, but how it really shapes the Ag-specific B cell compartment is poorly documented. In this study, we characterized the Ab- and Ag-specific B cell compartment in wild-type mice immunized with HlaH35L, a Staphylococcus aureus Ag known to induce measurable functional Ab responses, formulated with MF59 or aluminum salts, focusing on germinal centers (GC) in secondary lymphoid organs. Taking advantage of single-cell flow cytometry analyses, HlaH35L-specific B cells were characterized for the expression of CD38 and GL-7, markers of memory and GC, respectively, and for CD80 and CD73 activation markers. We demonstrated that immunization with MF59-, but not aluminum salt-adjuvanted HlaH35L, induced expanded Ag-specific CD73(+)CD80(-) GC B cells in proximal- and distal-draining lymph nodes, and promoted the persistence of GC B cells, detected up to 4 mo after immunization. In addition to increasing GC B cells, MF59-adjuvanted HlaH35L also increased the frequency of T follicular helper cells. This work extends previous knowledge regarding adaptive immune responses to MF59-adjuvanted vaccines, and, to our knowledge, for the first time an adjuvant used in human licensed products is shown to promote strong and persistent Ag-specific GC responses that might benefit the rational design of new vaccination strategies. PMID:26170383

  19. Oil-in-Water Emulsion MF59 Increases Germinal Center B Cell Differentiation and Persistence in Response to Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lofano, Giuseppe; Mancini, Francesca; Salvatore, Giulia; Cantisani, Rocco; Monaci, Elisabetta; Carrisi, Corrado; Tavarini, Simona; Sammicheli, Chiara; Rossi Paccani, Silvia; Soldaini, Elisabetta; Laera, Donatello; Finco, Oretta; Nuti, Sandra; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio; Bagnoli, Fabio; Bertholet, Sylvie

    2015-08-15

    Induction of persistent protective immune responses is a key attribute of a successful vaccine formulation. MF59 adjuvant, an oil-in-water emulsion used in human vaccines, is known to induce persistent high-affinity functional Ab titers and memory B cells, but how it really shapes the Ag-specific B cell compartment is poorly documented. In this study, we characterized the Ab- and Ag-specific B cell compartment in wild-type mice immunized with HlaH35L, a Staphylococcus aureus Ag known to induce measurable functional Ab responses, formulated with MF59 or aluminum salts, focusing on germinal centers (GC) in secondary lymphoid organs. Taking advantage of single-cell flow cytometry analyses, HlaH35L-specific B cells were characterized for the expression of CD38 and GL-7, markers of memory and GC, respectively, and for CD80 and CD73 activation markers. We demonstrated that immunization with MF59-, but not aluminum salt-adjuvanted HlaH35L, induced expanded Ag-specific CD73(+)CD80(-) GC B cells in proximal- and distal-draining lymph nodes, and promoted the persistence of GC B cells, detected up to 4 mo after immunization. In addition to increasing GC B cells, MF59-adjuvanted HlaH35L also increased the frequency of T follicular helper cells. This work extends previous knowledge regarding adaptive immune responses to MF59-adjuvanted vaccines, and, to our knowledge, for the first time an adjuvant used in human licensed products is shown to promote strong and persistent Ag-specific GC responses that might benefit the rational design of new vaccination strategies.

  20. Germinal Center B Cell and T Follicular Helper Cell Responses to Viral Vector and Protein-in-Adjuvant Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuan; Hart, Matthew; Chui, Cecilia; Ajuogu, Augustine; Brian, Iona J.; de Cassan, Simone C.; Borrow, Persephone; Draper, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in the development of Ab-inducing subunit vaccines targeting infections, including HIV, malaria, and Ebola. We previously reported that adenovirus vectored vaccines are potent in priming Ab responses, but uncertainty remains regarding the optimal approach for induction of humoral immune responses. In this study, using OVA as a model Ag, we assessed the magnitude of the primary and anamnestic Ag–specific IgG responses of mice to four clinically relevant vaccine formulations: replication-deficient adenovirus; modified vaccinia Ankara (a poxvirus); protein with alum; and protein in the squalene oil-in-water adjuvant Addavax. We then used flow cytometric assays capable of measuring total and Ag-specific germinal center (GC) B cell and follicular Th cell responses to compare the induction of these responses by the different formulations. We report that adenovirus vectored vaccines induce Ag insert–specific GC B cell and Ab responses of a magnitude comparable to those induced by a potent protein/squalene oil-in-water formulation whereas—despite a robust overall GC response—the insert-specific GC B cell and Ab responses induced by modified vaccinia Ankara were extremely weak. Ag-specific follicular Th cell responses to adenovirus vectored vaccines exceeded those induced by other platforms at day 7 after immunization. We found little evidence that innate immune activation by adenovirus may act as an adjuvant in such a manner that the humoral response to a recombinant protein may be enhanced by coadministering with an adenovirus lacking a transgene of interest. Overall, these studies provide further support for the use of replication-deficient adenoviruses to induce humoral responses. PMID:27412417

  1. Development of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Glyoxysomal Membrane Redox Activities during Castor Bean Germination 1

    PubMed Central

    Alani, Ali A.; Luster, Douglas G.; Donaldson, Robert P.

    1990-01-01

    Redox activities, NADH:ferricyanide reductase, NAD(P)H:cytochrome reductases, and NADH:ascorbate free-radical reductase, are present in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and glyoxysomal membranes from the endosperm of germinating castor bean (Ricinus comminus L. var Hale). The development of these functions was followed in glyoxysomes and ER isolated on sucrose gradients from castor bean endosperm daily from 0 through 6 days of germination. On a per seed basis, glyoxysomal and ER protein, glyoxysomal and ER membrane redox enzyme activities, and glyoxylate cycle activities peaked at day 4 as did the ER membrane content of cytochrome P-450. NADH:ferricyanide reductase was present in glyoxysomes and ER isolated from dry seed. This activity increased only about twofold in glyoxysomes and threefold in ER during germination relative to the amount of protein in the respective fractions. The other reductases, NADH:cytochrome reductase and NADH:ascorbate free-radical reductase, increased about 10-fold in the ER relative to protein up to 4 to 5 days, then declined. NADPH:cytochrome reductase reached maximum activity relative to protein at day 2 in both organelles. The increases in redox activities during germination indicate that the membranes of the ER and glyoxysome are being enriched with redox proteins during their development. The development of redox functions in glyoxysomes was found to be coordinated with development of the glyoxylate cycle. Images Figure 6 PMID:16667925

  2. Effect of parboiling on phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of germinated red rice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhanqiang; Tang, Xiaozhi; Liu, Junfei; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shao, Yafang

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve functional properties and palatability of germinated red rice, this study investigated differences in phytochemicals and physicochemical properties of germinated red rice at 2, 5, 10, 15min of parboiling. Total free phenolic content and antioxidant activity of germinated red rice parboiled for 5 and 15min was higher than that of germinated red rice. Free p-coumaric acid increased from 0.20 to 0.67mg/100g with parboiling time increasing from 5 to 15min. Bound vanillic (0.17-0.27mg/100g) and p-coumaric acid (6.56-8.59mg/100g) had higher levels at 0, 2, or 5min. During 15min of parboiling, color difference (ΔE) increased from 0.58 to 9.09, heat enthalpy (ΔH) decreased from 4.69 to 1.94J/g, and internal structure of rice was destroyed. Overall, parboiling time of less than 5min was suitable to improve the quality of germinated red rice. PMID:27507477

  3. Acute SIV Infection in Sooty Mangabey Monkeys Is Characterized by Rapid Virus Clearance from Lymph Nodes and Absence of Productive Infection in Germinal Centers

    PubMed Central

    Martinot, Amanda J.; Meythaler, Mareike; Pozzi, Lu-Ann; Dalecki Boisvert, Karen; Knight, Heather; Walsh, Dennis; Westmoreland, Susan; Anderson, Daniel C.; Kaur, Amitinder; O’Neil, Shawn P.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphoid tissue immunopathology is a characteristic feature of chronic HIV/SIV infection in AIDS-susceptible species, but is absent in SIV-infected natural hosts. To investigate factors contributing to this difference, we compared germinal center development and SIV RNA distribution in peripheral lymph nodes during primary SIV infection of the natural host sooty mangabey and the non-natural host pig-tailed macaque. Although SIV-infected cells were detected in the lymph node of both species at two weeks post infection, they were confined to the lymph node paracortex in immune-competent mangabeys but were seen in both the paracortex and the germinal center of SIV-infected macaques. By six weeks post infection, SIV-infected cells were no longer detected in the lymph node of sooty mangabeys. The difference in localization and rate of disappearance of SIV-infected cells between the two species was associated with trapping of cell-free virus on follicular dendritic cells and higher numbers of germinal center CD4+ T lymphocytes in macaques post SIV infection. Our data suggests that fundamental differences in the germinal center microenvironment prevent productive SIV infection within the lymph node germinal centers of natural hosts contributing to sustained immune competency. PMID:23472105

  4. Effect of Aspergillus oryzae-challenged germination on soybean isoflavone content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hee Young; Seo, Dae Bang; Shin, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Sang-Jun

    2012-03-21

    Application of microbial stress to soybean during germination induces the accumulation of phytoalexins, which have many health benefits. In this study, the effects of stress induced by Aspergillus oryzae on the phytochemical composition of germinating soybeans were investigated, and their radical scavenging activity was compared with those of ungerminated (US) and germinated (GS) soybeans. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of coumestrol, a soybean phytoalexin, against hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in HepG2 cells. A. oryzae exposure significantly decreased the total isoflavone content and induced coumestrol and glyceollin I. A. oryzae-challenged germinated soybeans exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 0.55 mg/mL) as compared to US and GS. Coumestrol exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging activity than daidzein and genistein. Furthermore, coumestrol significantly prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation and inhibited decreases in cell viability, intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These results indicate that using food-grade A. oryzae to elicit the biosynthesis of phytoalexins alters the secondary metabolite profiles of the soybeans and offers enhanced bioactivity of soybean as a functional food ingredient. PMID:22409158

  5. Effect of Aspergillus oryzae-challenged germination on soybean isoflavone content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hee Young; Seo, Dae Bang; Shin, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Sang-Jun

    2012-03-21

    Application of microbial stress to soybean during germination induces the accumulation of phytoalexins, which have many health benefits. In this study, the effects of stress induced by Aspergillus oryzae on the phytochemical composition of germinating soybeans were investigated, and their radical scavenging activity was compared with those of ungerminated (US) and germinated (GS) soybeans. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of coumestrol, a soybean phytoalexin, against hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in HepG2 cells. A. oryzae exposure significantly decreased the total isoflavone content and induced coumestrol and glyceollin I. A. oryzae-challenged germinated soybeans exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 0.55 mg/mL) as compared to US and GS. Coumestrol exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging activity than daidzein and genistein. Furthermore, coumestrol significantly prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation and inhibited decreases in cell viability, intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These results indicate that using food-grade A. oryzae to elicit the biosynthesis of phytoalexins alters the secondary metabolite profiles of the soybeans and offers enhanced bioactivity of soybean as a functional food ingredient.

  6. Identification of Germinal Center B Cells in Blood from HIV-infected Drug-naive Individuals in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Béniguel, Lydie; Bégaud, Evelyne; Cognasse, Fabrice; Gabrié, Philippe; Mbolidi, Christophe D.; Sabido, Odile; Marovich, Mary A.; deFontaine, Christiane; Frésard, Anne; Lucht, Frédéric; Genin, Christian; Garraud, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    To better understand the pathophysiology of B cell populations—the precursors of antibody secreting cells—during chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we examined the phenotype of circulating B cells in newly diagnosed Africans. We found that all African individuals displayed low levels of naive B cells and of memory-type CD27+ B cells, and high levels of differentiated B cells. On the other hand, HIV-infected African patients had a population of germinal center B cells (i.e. CD20+, sIgM-, sIgD+, CD77+, CD138±), which are generally restricted to lymph nodes and do not circulate unless the lymph node architecture is altered. The first observations could be linked to the tropical environment whereas the presence of germinal center B cells may be attributable to chronic exposure to HIV as it is not observed in HIV-negative African controls and HAART treated HIV-infected Europeans. It may impact the management of HIV infection in countries with limited access to HIV drugs and urges consideration for implementation of therapeutic vaccines. PMID:15154608

  7. PU.1 Expression in T Follicular Helper Cells Limits CD40L-Dependent Germinal Center B Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Awe, Olufolakemi; Hufford, Matthew M; Wu, Hao; Pham, Duy; Chang, Hua-Chen; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Dent, Alexander L; Kaplan, Mark H

    2015-10-15

    PU.1 is an ETS family transcription factor that is important for the development of multiple hematopoietic cell lineages. Previous work demonstrated a critical role for PU.1 in promoting Th9 development and in limiting Th2 cytokine production. Whether PU.1 has functions in other Th lineages is not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of ectopic expression of PU.1 in CD4(+) T cells and observed decreased expression of genes involved with the function of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, including Il21 and Tnfsf5 (encoding CD40L). T cells from conditional mutant mice that lack expression of PU.1 in T cells (Sfpi1(lck-/-)) demonstrated increased production of CD40L and IL-21 in vitro. Following adjuvant-dependent or adjuvant-independent immunization, we observed that Sfpi1(lck-/-) mice had increased numbers of Tfh cells, increased germinal center B cells (GCB cells), and increased Ab production in vivo. This correlated with increased expression of IL-21 and CD40L in Tfh cells from Sfpi1(lck-/-) mice compared with control mice. Finally, although blockade of IL-21 did not affect GCB cells in Sfpi1(lck-/-) mice, anti-CD40L treatment of immunized Sfpi1(lck-/-) mice decreased GCB cell numbers and Ag-specific Ig concentrations. Together, these data indicate an inhibitory role for PU.1 in the function of Tfh cells, germinal centers, and Tfh-dependent humoral immunity.

  8. Increasing the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents by optimizing the germination conditions of amaranth seeds.

    PubMed

    Perales-Sánchez, Janitzio X K; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; Gómez-Favela, Mario A; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith O; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the germination conditions of amaranth seeds that would maximize the antioxidant activity (AoxA), total phenolic (TPC), and flavonoid (TFC) contents. To optimize the germination bioprocess, response surface methodology was applied over three response variables (AoxA, TPC, TFC). A central composite rotable experimental design with two factors [germination temperature (GT), 20-45 ºC; germination time (Gt), 14-120 h] in five levels was used; 13 treatments were generated. The amaranth seeds were soaked in distilled water (25 °C/6 h) before germination. The sprouts from each treatment were dried (50 °C/8 h), cooled, and ground to obtain germinated amaranth flours (GAF). The best combination of germination bioprocess variables for producing optimized GAF with the highest AoxA [21.56 mmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g sample, dw], TPC [247.63 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g sample, dw], and TFC [81.39 mg catechin equivalent (CAE)/100 g sample, dw] was GT = 30 ºC/Gt = 78 h. The germination bioprocess increased AoxA, TPC, and TFC in 300-470, 829, and 213%, respectively. The germination is an effective strategy to increase the TPC and TFC of amaranth seeds for enhancing functionality with improved antioxidant activity.

  9. Germinal centre protein HGAL promotes lymphoid hyperplasia and amyloidosis via BCR-mediated Syk activation

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Natkunam, Yasodha; Lu, Xiaoqing; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Gonzalez-Herrero, Ines; Flores, Teresa; Garcia, Juan Luis; McNamara, George; Kunder, Christian; Zhao, Shuchun; Segura, Victor; Fontan, Lorena; Martínez-Climent, Jose A.; García-Criado, Francisco Javier; Theis, Jason D.; Dogan, Ahmet; Campos-Sánchez, Elena; Green, Michael R.; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Lossos, Izidore S.

    2012-01-01

    The human germinal centre associated lymphoma (HGAL) gene is specifically expressed in germinal centre B-lymphocytes and germinal centre-derived B-cell lymphomas, but its function is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that HGAL directly binds Syk in B-cells, increases its kinase activity upon B-cell receptor stimulation and leads to enhanced activation of Syk downstream effectors. To further investigate these findings in vivo, HGAL transgenic mice were generated. Starting from 12 months of age these mice developed polyclonal B-cell lymphoid hyperplasia, hypergammaglobulinemia and systemic reactive AA amyloidosis, leading to shortened survival. The lymphoid hyperplasia in the HGAL transgenic mice are likely attributable to enhanced B-cell receptor signalling as shown by increased Syk phosphorylation, ex vivo B-cell proliferation and increased RhoA activation. Overall, our study shows for the first time that the germinal centre protein HGAL regulates B-cell receptor signalling in B-lymphocytes which, without appropriate control, may lead to B-cell lymphoproliferation. PMID:23299888

  10. A Germination Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity that involves using sponge seedlings to demonstrate the germination process without the usual waiting period. Discusses epigeous versus hypogeous germination, and cotyledon number and biodiversity. (JRH)

  11. Selective inhibition of Erwinia amylovora by the herbicidally-active Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF) produced by Pseudomonas bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF) produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6, and identified as 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine, specifically inhibits the germination of a wide range of grassy weeds. The present study was undertaken to determine if GAF has antimicrobial activity in addition to it...

  12. Changes in metabolome and in enzyme activities during germination of Trichoderma atroviride conidia.

    PubMed

    Kaliňák, Michal; Simkovič, Martin; Zemla, Peter; Matata, Matej; Molnár, Tomáš; Liptaj, Tibor; Varečka, L'udovít; Hudecová, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the metabolic changes during germination of Trichoderma atroviride conidia along with selected marker enzyme activities. The increase in proteinogenic amino acid concentrations together with the increase in glutamate dehydrogenase activity suggests a requirement for nitrogen metabolism. Even though the activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes also increased, detected organic acid pools did not change, which predisposes this pathway to energy production and supply of intermediates for further metabolism. The concentrations of many metabolites, including the main osmolytes mannitol and betaine, also increased during the formation of germ tubes. The activities of H(+)-ATPase and GDPase, the only marker enzymes that did not have detectable activity in non-germinated conidia, were shown with germ tubes.

  13. The Appearance of New Active Forms of Trypsin Inhibitor in Germinating Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Lorensen, E; Prevosto, R; Wilson, K A

    1981-07-01

    Ungerminated seeds of mung bean contain a single major species (F) of trypsin inhibitor with five minor species (A-E) separable on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose. During germination the level of trypsin inhibitory activity decreases from 1.8 units/grams dry weight in ungerminated cotyledons to 1.2 units/grams in cotyledons from seeds germinated 5 days. This decrease is accompanied by major changes in the distribution of inhibitory activity among the inhibitor species. By 48 hours of germination, inhibitor F has largely disappeared with an accompanying rapid increase in inhibitor C. Similarly, though less rapidly, inhibitor E decreases while inhibitor A increases. A similar sequence of changes is found in vitro when purified inhibitor F is incubated with extracts from seeds germinated 96 hours. The combined in vivo and in vitro data suggest a conversion sequence of: F --> E --> C --> A. The in vitro conversion is inhibited by phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride but not by iodoacetamide, indicating that at least the initial phases of inhibitor conversion are not catalyzed by the mung bean vicilin peptidohydrolase.

  14. Effects of phthalate ester treatment on seed germination and antioxidant enzyme activities of Phaseolus radiatus L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenli; Zhang, Chongbang; Liu, Shuyuan

    2014-05-01

    Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate on seed germination rate and antioxidant enzymes activities of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) were investigated. Results showed that under the treatment with 10 mg/kg of phthalate esters (PAEs), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase and catalase (CAT) activities were higher than those of the control (p > 0.05). But SOD and CAT activities decreased with the PAEs concentrations and the treatment duration, and were significantly lower than those of the control (p < 0.05). Effect of PAEs stress on SOD activity in germinating seeds of mung bean displayed a significant dose-effect relationship.

  15. Stimulation of Phenolics, Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities During Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Ha, K-S; Jo, S-H; Mannam, V; Kwon, Y-I; Apostolidis, E

    2016-06-01

    The rationale of this study was to enhance the nutritional quality of dry barley seeds. In this study we are evaluating the effect of germination on barley seeds relevant to total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity (in terms of DPPH free-radical scavenging) and the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Barley seeds were germinated for 18.5, 24, 30, 48, and 67 h and then extracted in water. The total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities changed with germination time. More specifically, within the first 48 h of germination the total phenolic content increased from 1.1 mg/g fresh weight (0 h) to 3.4 mg/g fresh weight (48 h) and then slightly reduced by 67 h. Similarly, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was significantly increased from an IC50 128.82 mg/mL (0 h) to an IC50 18.88 mg/mL (48 h) and then slightly reduced by 67 h. Significant maltase inhibitory activity was observed only with 48 h-germinated extract. Antioxidant activities increased continuously from an IC50 15.72 mg/mL at 0 h to and IC50 5.72 mg/mL after 48 h of germination. Based on our observations, barley seed germination was over after 48 h. During the progress of germination phenolic compounds are becoming available and are more easily extracted. After 48 h, lignification is initiated resulting to the decreased total phenolic content and observed antioxidant and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition activities. The above results indicate the positive effect of germination in barley seeds for enhanced antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

  16. BCL6 interacting corepressor contributes to germinal center T follicular helper cell formation and B cell helper function

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jessica A.; Tubo, Noah J.; Gearhart, Micah D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Jenkins, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (GC-Tfh) cells help B cells become long-lived plasma cells and memory cells. The transcriptional repressor BCL6 plays a key role in GC-Tfh formation by inhibiting the expression of genes that promote differentiation into other lineages. We determined whether BCOR, a component of a Polycomb repressive complex that interacts with the BCL6 BTB domain, influences GC-Tfh differentiation. T cell-targeted BCOR deficiency led to a substantial loss of peptide:MHCII-specific GC-Tfh cells following Listeria monocytogenes infection and a 2-fold decrease following immunization with a peptide in CFA. The reduction in GC-Tfh cells was associated with diminished plasma cell and GC B cell formation. Thus, T cell-expressed BCOR is critical for optimal GC-Tfh differentiation and humoral immunity. PMID:25964495

  17. Dynamic changes in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in oats (Avena nuda L.) during steeping and germination.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian Guo; Tian, Cheng Rui; Hu, Qing Ping; Luo, Ji Yang; Wang, Xiang Dong; Tian, Xiang Dong

    2009-11-11

    Samples from naked oat were steeped and germinated under controlled conditions in an incubator. Changes of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were investigated in oats during steeping and germination. Results revealed that phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of oats varied with the difference in steeping and germination stages. Compared with raw grains, short-term steeping treatment did not show significant effects (p > 0.05) on phenolic content. Germination can significantly result in the decrease in bound phenolic and the increase in free and total phenolics. Main phenolic acids and avenanthramides were isolated and quantified by HPLC analysis. During steeping, phenolic acids decreased (p < 0.05); avenanthramide N-(3',4'-dihydroxy)-(E)-cinnamoyl-5-hydroxyanthranilic acid first decreased and then increased (p < 0.05), while avenanthramides N-(4'-hydroxy)-(E)-cinnamoyl-5-hydroxyanthranilic acid and N-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy)-(E)-cinnamoyl-5-hydroxyanthranilic acid did not change significantly (p > 0.05). During germination, gallic and caffeic acids first increased (p < 0.05) and then decreased, whereas p-coumaric and ferulic acids and avenanthramides increased (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, avenanthramides did not change significantly (p > 0.05) during the last stage of germination. Oat extracts exhibited increasing high antioxidant activity with the steeping and germination going on, which may explain that antioxidant activity correlated (p < 0.01) significantly with the content of phenolic compounds.

  18. Chcanges in Germinability and Activities of Polyphenol Oxidase and Peroxidase in Seeds of Pentaclethramacrophylla During Lowtemperature Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udosen, I. R.; Nkang, A. E.; Sam, S. M.

    2012-07-01

    Activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) were investigated in seeds of Pentaclethramacrophylla during low temperature treatment. The seeds from the small-sized fruits (variety A) and those of the big-sized fruits (variety B) showed high germination, with maximum germination values ranging between 60 ñ 90%. Low temperature treatment did not significantly (P< 0.5) affect maximum germination values. Activities of POD and PPO increased initially (2-4 days) but declined with prolonged (6ñ8 days) low temperature treatment.

  19. Factors influencing diamine oxidase activity and γ-aminobutyric acid content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Chen, Hui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2011-11-01

    Factors (germination time, spectra, temperature, pH, and chemical inhibitors) influencing diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) activity and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination were investigated in this study. DAO activity significantly increased in germinating seeds but varied with different organs. The enzyme activity was higher in shoot than that in cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radicle. When seeds were germinated in the dark, DAO activity was 2.35-, 2.00-, 2.36-, 4.40-, and 1.67-fold of that under white, red, blue, green, and yellow spectra, respectively. The optimum germination temperature and pH value for increasing DAO activity were 30 °C and 3.0, respectively. The DAO activity was inhibited significantly by aminoguanidine and sodium ethylenediamine tetracetate, while it was activated by CuCl(2) and CaCl(2). Germinating at an appropriate temperature and pH, 30% of GABA formation was supplied by DAO. Calcium was related to the regulation of DAO activity and GABA accumulation. PMID:21942768

  20. Factors influencing diamine oxidase activity and γ-aminobutyric acid content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Chen, Hui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2011-11-01

    Factors (germination time, spectra, temperature, pH, and chemical inhibitors) influencing diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) activity and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination were investigated in this study. DAO activity significantly increased in germinating seeds but varied with different organs. The enzyme activity was higher in shoot than that in cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radicle. When seeds were germinated in the dark, DAO activity was 2.35-, 2.00-, 2.36-, 4.40-, and 1.67-fold of that under white, red, blue, green, and yellow spectra, respectively. The optimum germination temperature and pH value for increasing DAO activity were 30 °C and 3.0, respectively. The DAO activity was inhibited significantly by aminoguanidine and sodium ethylenediamine tetracetate, while it was activated by CuCl(2) and CaCl(2). Germinating at an appropriate temperature and pH, 30% of GABA formation was supplied by DAO. Calcium was related to the regulation of DAO activity and GABA accumulation.

  1. Analysis of antioxidant enzyme activity during germination of alfalfa under salt and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Bin; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kim, Ki-Yong; Deng, Xi-Ping; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2009-07-01

    To understand the adaptability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to environmental stresses, we analyzed the activity of several antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT), in alfalfa shoots and roots subjected to salt and drought stresses during germination. The germination rate of six alfalfa cultivars was comparatively studied under 200 mM NaCl or 35% PEG treatment. Alfalfa Xinmu No. 1 and Northstar varieties were selected as stress-tolerant and -sensitive cultivars, respectively, and were used for further characterization. After NaCl or PEG treatment, Xinmu No. 1 showed enhanced seedling growth, compared with Northstar. Xinmu No. 1 also exhibited low levels of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and lipid peroxidation, compared with Northstar. In addition, Xinmu No. 1 showed higher enzymatic activity of SOD, APX, CAT, and POD in its shoots and roots than Northstar. These results seem to indicate that Xinmu No. 1 cultivar's tolerance to salt or drought stresses during germination is associated with enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes. This study highlights the importance of antioxidant enzymes in the establishment of alfalfa seedlings under drought and salinity conditions typical of desertification.

  2. Antioxidant activity associated with lipid and phenolic mobilization during seed germination of Pangium edule Reinw.

    PubMed

    Andarwulan, N; Fardiaz, D; Wattimena, G A; Shetty, K

    1999-08-01

    Seeds of the tropical tree Pangium edule Reinw. are widely eaten in Southeast Asia after some treatment or processing. Fermented seeds are a specialty in Indonesia and have been used as spices. Because the tree is wild and has not been cultivated commercially, the physiology of germinated seeds of this tree for food uses is not known. This study reports some biochemical changes during seed germination associated with antioxidant activity and the mobilization of lipids and phenolics. Lipid content decreased, whereas the dominant fatty acids did not change significantly. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C(18:1(n-9))) and linoleic acid (C(18:2(n-6))). During germination, oleic acid decreased while linoleic acid increased proportionally. The hypocotyl synthesized chlorophyll and the tocol composition also changed substantially. The antioxidant activity of phenolic extract increased in proportion to the total phenolics. Guaiacol peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, selected enzymes association with phenolic metabolism, showed that the increased activities coincided with increased total phenolics and free proline. PMID:10552624

  3. Membrane permeability and the loss of germination factor from Neurospora crassa at low water activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlang, G.; Horowitz, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    Neurospora crassa conidia incubating in buffer at low water activities release a germination-essential component as well as 260-nm absorbing and ninhydrin-positive materials, regardless of whether an electrolyte or nonelectrolyte is used to reduce water activity. Chloroform and antibiotics known to increase cell-membrane permeability have a similar effect. This suggests that membrane damage occurs in media of low water activity and that an increase in permeability is responsible for the release of cellular components. The damage caused in media of low water activity is nonlethal in most cases, and the conidia recover when transferred to nutrient medium.

  4. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity and triacylglycerol synthesis in germinating castor seed cotyledons.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaohua; Chen, Grace Q; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; McKeon, Thomas A

    2006-03-01

    The central importance of storage lipid breakdown in providing carbon and energy during seed germination has been demonstrated by isolating the genes encoding the enzymes involved in FA beta-oxidation. In contrast, little is known about the ability of germinating seeds to synthesize TAG. We report that castor cotyledons are capable of TAG synthesis. The rate of incorporation of ricinoleic acid into TAG reached a peak at 7 d after imbibition (DAI) (1.14 nmol/h/mg) and decreased rapidly thereafter, but was sustained at 20 DAI in cotyledons and true leaves. The castor DAG acyltransferase (RcDGAT) mRNA and protein were expressed throughout seed germination at levels considerably enhanced from that in the dormant seed, thus indicating new expression. Significant degradation of the RcDGAT protein was observed after 7 DAI. The DGAT activity was found to be predominantly a function of the level of the intact RcDGAT protein, with the rate of TAG synthesis decreasing as degradation of the RcDGAT protein proceeded. A possible mechanism for the degradation of the RcDGAT protein is discussed. The induction of DGAT mRNA and protein, the capacity for TAG synthesis in vitro and in tissue slices, and the differing TAG composition of dormant seed TAG vs. cotyledonary TAG provide strong circumstantial evidence for active TAG synthesis by cotyledons. However, we have not yet determined the physiological significance of this capability.

  5. LKB1 inhibition of NF-κB in B cells prevents T follicular helper cell differentiation and germinal center formation

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Nicole C; Waters, Lynnea R; Fowler, Jessica A; Lin, Mark; Cunningham, Cameron R; Brooks, David G; Rehg, Jerold E; Morse, Herbert C; Teitell, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    T-cell-dependent antigenic stimulation drives the differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells, but how B cells regulate this process is unclear. We show that LKB1 expression in B cells maintains B-cell quiescence and prevents the premature formation of germinal centers (GCs). Lkb1-deficient B cells (BKO) undergo spontaneous B-cell activation and secretion of multiple inflammatory cytokines, which leads to splenomegaly caused by an unexpected expansion of T cells. Within this cytokine response, increased IL-6 production results from heightened activation of NF-κB, which is suppressed by active LKB1. Secreted IL-6 drives T-cell activation and IL-21 production, promoting T follicular helper (TFH) cell differentiation and expansion to support a ∽100-fold increase in steady-state GC B cells. Blockade of IL-6 secretion by BKO B cells inhibits IL-21 expression, a known inducer of TFH-cell differentiation and expansion. Together, these data reveal cell intrinsic and surprising cell extrinsic roles for LKB1 in B cells that control TFH-cell differentiation and GC formation, and place LKB1 as a central regulator of T-cell-dependent humoral immunity. PMID:25916856

  6. LKB1 inhibition of NF-κB in B cells prevents T follicular helper cell differentiation and germinal center formation.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Nicole C; Waters, Lynnea R; Fowler, Jessica A; Lin, Mark; Cunningham, Cameron R; Brooks, David G; Rehg, Jerold E; Morse, Herbert C; Teitell, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    T-cell-dependent antigenic stimulation drives the differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells, but how B cells regulate this process is unclear. We show that LKB1 expression in B cells maintains B-cell quiescence and prevents the premature formation of germinal centers (GCs). Lkb1-deficient B cells (BKO) undergo spontaneous B-cell activation and secretion of multiple inflammatory cytokines, which leads to splenomegaly caused by an unexpected expansion of T cells. Within this cytokine response, increased IL-6 production results from heightened activation of NF-κB, which is suppressed by active LKB1. Secreted IL-6 drives T-cell activation and IL-21 production, promoting T follicular helper (TFH ) cell differentiation and expansion to support a ~100-fold increase in steady-state GC B cells. Blockade of IL-6 secretion by BKO B cells inhibits IL-21 expression, a known inducer of TFH -cell differentiation and expansion. Together, these data reveal cell intrinsic and surprising cell extrinsic roles for LKB1 in B cells that control TFH -cell differentiation and GC formation, and place LKB1 as a central regulator of T-cell-dependent humoral immunity. PMID:25916856

  7. Characteristics and Development of Leucine Transport Activity in the Scutellum of Germinating Barley Grain 1

    PubMed Central

    Sopanen, Tuomas; Uuskallio, Marjukka; Nyman, Seija; Mikola, Juhani

    1980-01-01

    Scutella separated from grains of Himalaya barley after germination for 3 days rapidly took up l-leucine from aerated incubation media; with 1 millimolar leucine the rate varied between 4 and 14 micromoles per gram per hour and the pH optimum was at 3.5 to 5, both depending on buffer composition and prewashing time. The rate of the uptake increased with increasing concentration of leucine in a complex manner, which could be interpreted as multiphasic kinetics with apparent Km values of 3.4 and 15.5 millimolar below and above 3 millimolar leucine, respectively. The uptake took place against a concentration difference (highest estimated ratio 270: 1) and was strongly inhibited by dinitrophenol. Uptake was apparently due to active transport requiring metabolic energy. The development of the uptake activity during germination was studied using Pirkka barley. A low activity was present in the scutella of ungerminated grains. It began to increase after 6 hours imbibition, and the increase was biphasic, the major changes occurring during days 0 to 3 and 4 to 6. The total increase was about 20-fold. The regulation of the development was studied by allowing separated embryos to germinate on agar gel. The increase of uptake activity was strongly inhibited by inhibitors of RNA or protein synthesis. Increase did not require the presence of the embryo proper, and was not affected by gibberellic or abscisic acid. Removal of the endosperm greatly accelerated the increase of uptake activity, and the presence of 5 or 20 millimolar glutamine counteracted the removal of the endosperm. The results suggest that the availability of glutamine or amino acids in general in the endosperm may regulate the development or the activity of the transport system. PMID:16661169

  8. Characterization of water distribution and activities of enzymes during germination in magnetically-exposed maize (Zea mays L) seeds.

    PubMed

    Vashisth, Ananta; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2010-10-01

    Magnetic seed treatment is one of the physical pre-sowing seed treatments to enhance the performance of crop plants. In our earlier experiment, we found significant increase in germination and vigour characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds subjected to magnetic fields. Among various combinations of magnetic field (MF) strength and duration, best results were obtained with MF of 100 mT for 2 h and 200 mT for 1 h exposure. The quicker germination in magnetically-exposed seeds might be due to greater activities of germination related enzymes, early hydration of membranes as well as greater molecular mobility of bulk and hydration water fractions. Thus, in the present study, changes in water uptake during imbibition and its distribution and activities of germinating enzymes during germination were investigated in maize seeds exposed to static magnetic fields of 100 and 200 mT for 2 and 1 h respectively by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The magnetically-exposed seed showed higher water uptake in phase II and III than unexposed seed. The longitudinal relaxation time T1 of seed water showed significantly higher values and hence greater molecular mobility of cellular water in magnetically-exposed seeds as compared to unexposed. Component analysis of T2 relaxation times revealed the early appearance of hydration water with least mobility and higher values of relaxation times of cytoplasmic bulk water and hydration water in magnetically-exposed over unexposed seeds. Activities of alpha-amylase, dehydorgenase and protease during germination were higher in magnetically-exposed seeds as compared to unexposed. The quicker germination in magnetically-exposed seeds might be due to greater activities of germination related enzymes, early hydration of membranes as well as greater molecular mobility of bulk and hydration water fractions. PMID:21280569

  9. The induction of enzyme activity in the endosperm of germinating castor-bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Marriott, K M; Northcote, D H

    1975-10-01

    Endosperm extracts were prepared at various times during germination from intact castor-bean seeds and from seeds from which the embryos had been removed. The sterilized seeds were incubated either on solid water agar or on agar containing 0.3 mM-gibberellic acid. 2. Isocitrate lyase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase had very low activities in the mature seeds, but increased 44-fold and 27-fold respectively during germination. In contrast, the extracts of mature seeds had considerable acid and alkaline lipase activity and this only increased two- to three-fold during the incubation period. 3. Incubation of the seeds with gibberellic acid accelerated the rate of appearance of isocitrate lyase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. It also increased the total activity attained. However, the application of hormone had, in comparison, little effect on the development of lipase activity. 4. The removal of the embryo had little influence on the development of enzyme activity in the endosperm tissue; only with isocitrate lyase was a decrease in activity observed in the absence of the embryo.

  10. Dynamic changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate decarboxylase activity in oats (Avena nuda L.) during steeping and germination.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian Guo; Hu, Qing Ping; Duan, Jiang Lian; Tian, Cheng Rui

    2010-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and provides beneficial effects for human and other animals health. To accumulate GABA, samples from two different naked oat cultivars, Baiyan II and Bayou I, were steeped and germinated in an incubator. The content of GABA and glutamic acid as well as the activity of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in oats during steeping and germination were investigated with an amino acid automatic analyzer. Compared with raw groats, an increase in GABA content of oat groats during steeping and germination was continuously observed for two oat cultivars. The activity of GAD increased greatly at the end of steeping and the second stage of germination for Baiyan II and Bayou I, respectively. Glutamic acid content of treated oat groats was significantly lower than that in raw groats until the later period of germination. GABA was correlated (p<0.01) significantly and positively with the glutamic acid rather than GAD activity in the current study. The results indicates that steeping and germination process under highly controlled conditions can effectively accumulate the GABA in oat groats for Baiyan II and Bayou I, which would greatly facilitate production of nutraceuticals or food ingredients that enable consumers to gain greater access to the health benefits of oats. However, more assays need to be further performed with more oat cultivars.

  11. Murine germinal center B cells require functional Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 signaling for IgG1 class-switch recombination

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Mattias N. D.; Andersson, Karin M. E.; Wasén, Caroline; Nurkkala-Karlsson, Merja; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Brisslert, Mikael; Bemark, Mats; Bokarewa, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    Switched antibody classes are important for efficient immune responses. Aberrant antibody production to otherwise harmless antigens may result in autoimmunity. The protein kinase fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (Flt3) has an important role during early B-cell development, but the role of Flt3 in peripheral B cells has not been assessed before. Herein we describe a previously unappreciated role for Flt3 in IgG1 class-switch recombination (CSR) and production. We show that Flt3 is reexpressed on B-cell lymphoma 6+ germinal center B cells in vivo and following LPS activation of peripheral B cells in vitro. Absence of Flt3 signaling in Flt3 ligand-deficient mice results in impaired IgG1 CSR and accumulation of IgM-secreting plasma cells. On activated B cells, Flt3 is coexpressed and functions in synergy with the common-gamma chain receptor family. B cells from Flt3 ligand-deficient mice have impaired IL-4R signaling, with reduced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 6, and demonstrate a failure to initiate CSR to IgG1 with low expression of γ1 germ-line transcripts, resulting in impaired IgG1 production. Thus, functional synergy between Flt3 and IL-4R signaling is critical for Stat-mediated regulation of sterile γ1 germ-line transcripts and CSR to IgG1. PMID:26627255

  12. Magnetic-based purification of untouched mouse germinal center B cells for ex vivo manipulation and biochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cato, Matthew H; Yau, Irene W; Rickert, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Detailed biochemical analysis of unmanipulated germinal center (Gc) B cells has not been achieved. previously, we designed and used a simple, economical and new magnetic bead separation scheme for the purification of ‘untouched’ mature Gc and non-Gc B cells from the spleens of immunized mice and reported the first biochemical assessment of the signaling cascades that contribute to cyclin D stability and Gc B cell proliferation. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the method we used, which involves preparing single-cell suspension from the spleens of immunized mice, followed by labeling of nontarget cells with biotinylated antibodies specific for cD43, cD11c and IgD (for Gc enrichment) or Gl7 (for non-Gc enrichment); these steps are followed by cell depletion using standard magnetic bead technology. this protocol can yield Gc and non-Gc B cells with purities exceeding 90%. the sorting process can be carried out in ~1 h and provides a population of Gc B cells of sufficient purity and quantity to allow ex vivo manipulation, including biochemical and genetic analysis as well as cell culture. PMID:21720310

  13. Detection of ectopic B-cell follicles with germinal centers in the meninges of patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Barbara; Rosicarelli, Barbara; Magliozzi, Roberta; Stigliano, Egidio; Aloisi, Francesca

    2004-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by synthesis of oligoclonal immunoglobulins and the presence of B-cell clonal expansions in the central nervous system (CNS). Because ectopic lymphoid tissue generated at sites of chronic inflammation is thought to be important in sustaining immunopathological processes, we have investigated whether structures resembling lymphoid follicles could be identified in the CNS of MS patients. Sections from post-mortem MS brains and spinal cords were screened using immunohistochemistry for the presence of CD20+ B-cells, CD3+ T-cells, CD138+ plasma cells and CD21+, CD35+ follicular dendritic cells, and for the expression of lymphoid chemokines (CXCL 13, CCL21) and peripheral node addressin (PNAd). Lymphoid follicle-like structures containing B-cells, T-cells and plasma cells, and a network of follicular dendritic cells producing CXCL13 were observed in the cerebral meninges of 2 out of 3 patients with secondary progressive MS, but not in relapsing remitting and primary progressive MS. We also show that proliferating B-cells are present in intrameningeal follicles, a finding which is suggestive of germinal center formation. No follicle-like structures were detected in parenchymal lesions. The formation of ectopic lymphoid follicies in the meninges of patients with MS could represent a critical step in maintaining humoral autoimmunity and in disease exacerbation.

  14. Fast, continuous recirculation of germinal center B cell populations enhances robustness of immune response towards varying pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or-Guil, Michal

    2009-03-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are dynamic microstructures that form in lymphatic tissues during immune responses. There, B cells undergo rapid proliferation and mutation of their B cell receptors (BCRs). Selection of B cells bearing BCRs that bind to the pathogen causing the immune response ultimately leads to BCRs that, when secreted as antibodies, form a new, effective, and pathogen specific antibody repertoire. However, the details of this evolutionary process are poorly understood, since currently available experimental techniques do not allow for direct observation of the prevailing mechanisms [Or-Guil et al., Imm.Rev. 2007]. Based on optimality considerations, we put forward the assumption that GCs are not isolated entities where evolutionary processes occur independently, but interconnected structures which allow for continuous exchange of B cells. We show that this architecture leads to a system whose response is much more robust towards different antigen variants than a set of independently working GCs could ever be. We test this hypothesis by generating our own experimental data (time course of 3-D volume distribution of GCs, analysis of high-throughput BCR sequences), and show that available data is consistent with the outlined hypothesis.

  15. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    PubMed Central

    He, Jin-Shu; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Xiangying, Deng; Zuan, Lim Yok; Jones, Leigh Ann; Ramakrishna, Lakshmi; de Vries, Victor C.; Dolpady, Jayashree; Aina, Hoi; Joseph, Sabrina; Narayanan, Sriram; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Puthia, Manoj; Wong, Glenn; Xiong, Huizhong; Poidinger, Michael; Urban, Joseph F.; Lafaille, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE+ B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias toward the plasma cell (PC) fate, and dependence on sequential switching for the production of high-affinity IgE. We show here that IgE+ GC B cells are unfit to undergo the conventional GC differentiation program due to impaired B cell receptor function and increased apoptosis. IgE+ GC cells fail to populate the GC light zone and are unable to contribute to the memory and long-lived PC compartments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that direct and sequential switching are linked to distinct B cell differentiation fates: direct switching generates IgE+ GC cells, whereas sequential switching gives rise to IgE+ PCs. We propose a comprehensive model for the generation and memory of IgE responses. PMID:24218137

  16. Distinct Differentiation Programs Triggered by IL-6 and LPS in Teleost IgM(+) B Cells in The Absence of Germinal Centers.

    PubMed

    Abós, Beatriz; Wang, Tiehui; Castro, Rosario; Granja, Aitor G; Leal, Esther; Havixbeck, Jeffrey; Luque, Alfonso; Barreda, Daniel R; Secombes, Chris J; Tafalla, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Although originally identified as a B cell differentiation factor, it is now known that mammalian interleukin-6 (IL-6) only regulates B cells committed to plasma cells in response to T-dependent (TD) antigens within germinal centers (GCs). Even though adaptive immunity is present in teleost fish, these species lack lymph nodes and GCs. Thus, the aim of the present study was to establish the role of trout IL-6 on B cells, comparing its effects to those induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We demonstrate that the effects of teleost IL-6 on naïve spleen B cells include proliferation, activation of NF-κB, increased IgM secretion, up-regulation of Blimp1 transcription and decreased MHC-II surface expression that point to trout IL-6 as a differentiation factor for IgM antibody-secreting cells (ASCs). However, LPS induced the secretion of IgM without up-regulating Blimp1, driving the cells towards an intermediate activation state in which antigen presenting mechanisms are elicited together with antibody secretion and expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Our results reveal that, in trout, IL-6 is a differentiation factor for B cells, stimulating IgM responses in the absence of follicular structures, and suggest that it was after follicular structures appeared that this cytokine evolved to modulate TD responses within the GC. PMID:27481356

  17. Distinct Differentiation Programs Triggered by IL-6 and LPS in Teleost IgM+ B Cells in The Absence of Germinal Centers

    PubMed Central

    Abós, Beatriz; Wang, Tiehui; Castro, Rosario; Granja, Aitor G.; Leal, Esther; Havixbeck, Jeffrey; Luque, Alfonso; Barreda, Daniel R.; Secombes, Chris J.; Tafalla, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Although originally identified as a B cell differentiation factor, it is now known that mammalian interleukin-6 (IL-6) only regulates B cells committed to plasma cells in response to T-dependent (TD) antigens within germinal centers (GCs). Even though adaptive immunity is present in teleost fish, these species lack lymph nodes and GCs. Thus, the aim of the present study was to establish the role of trout IL-6 on B cells, comparing its effects to those induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We demonstrate that the effects of teleost IL-6 on naïve spleen B cells include proliferation, activation of NF-κB, increased IgM secretion, up-regulation of Blimp1 transcription and decreased MHC-II surface expression that point to trout IL-6 as a differentiation factor for IgM antibody-secreting cells (ASCs). However, LPS induced the secretion of IgM without up-regulating Blimp1, driving the cells towards an intermediate activation state in which antigen presenting mechanisms are elicited together with antibody secretion and expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Our results reveal that, in trout, IL-6 is a differentiation factor for B cells, stimulating IgM responses in the absence of follicular structures, and suggest that it was after follicular structures appeared that this cytokine evolved to modulate TD responses within the GC. PMID:27481356

  18. Toxic effects of nanoparticles on bioluminescence activity, seed germination, and gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Kong, In Chul

    2014-04-01

    The potential environmental toxicities of several metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs; CuO, TiO2, NiO, Fe2O3, ZnO, and Co3O4) were evaluated in the context of bioluminescence activity, seed germination, and bacterial gene mutation. The bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., each kind of NP exhibited a different level of toxicity in each of the bioassays. However, with a few exceptions, CuO and ZnO NPs had most toxic for germination of Lactuca seed (EC50 0.46 mg CuO/l) and bioluminescence (EC50 1.05 mg ZnO/l). Three NPs (Co3O4, TiO2, and Fe2O3) among all tested concentrations (max. 1,000 mg/l) showed no inhibitory effects on the tested organisms, except for Co3O4 NPs on bioluminescence activity (EC50 62.04 mg/l). The sensitivity of Lactuca seeds was greater than that of Raphanus seeds (EC50 0.46 mg CuO/l versus 26.84 mg CuO /l ). The ranking of metal toxicity levels on bioluminescence was in the order of ZnO > CuO > Co3O4 > NiO > Fe2O3, TiO2, while CuO > ZnO > NiO > Co3O4, Fe2O3, TiO2 on germination. No revertant mutagenic ratio (greater than 2.0) of Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 was observed under any tested condition. These findings demonstrate that several bioassays, as opposed to any single one, are needed for the accurate assessment of NP toxicity on ecosystems. PMID:24297479

  19. Toxic effects of nanoparticles on bioluminescence activity, seed germination, and gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Kong, In Chul

    2014-04-01

    The potential environmental toxicities of several metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs; CuO, TiO2, NiO, Fe2O3, ZnO, and Co3O4) were evaluated in the context of bioluminescence activity, seed germination, and bacterial gene mutation. The bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., each kind of NP exhibited a different level of toxicity in each of the bioassays. However, with a few exceptions, CuO and ZnO NPs had most toxic for germination of Lactuca seed (EC50 0.46 mg CuO/l) and bioluminescence (EC50 1.05 mg ZnO/l). Three NPs (Co3O4, TiO2, and Fe2O3) among all tested concentrations (max. 1,000 mg/l) showed no inhibitory effects on the tested organisms, except for Co3O4 NPs on bioluminescence activity (EC50 62.04 mg/l). The sensitivity of Lactuca seeds was greater than that of Raphanus seeds (EC50 0.46 mg CuO/l versus 26.84 mg CuO /l ). The ranking of metal toxicity levels on bioluminescence was in the order of ZnO > CuO > Co3O4 > NiO > Fe2O3, TiO2, while CuO > ZnO > NiO > Co3O4, Fe2O3, TiO2 on germination. No revertant mutagenic ratio (greater than 2.0) of Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 was observed under any tested condition. These findings demonstrate that several bioassays, as opposed to any single one, are needed for the accurate assessment of NP toxicity on ecosystems.

  20. Phase II Study of Dose-Adjusted EPOCH-Rituximab in Untreated Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma with Analysis of Germinal Center and Post-Germinal Center Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Wyndham H.; Dunleavy, Kieron; Pittaluga, Stefania; Hegde, Upendra; Grant, Nicole; Steinberg, Seth M.; Raffeld, Mark; Gutierrez, Martin; Chabner, Bruce A.; Staudt, Louis; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Janik, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess the clinical outcome and the influence of biomarkers associated with apoptosis inhibition (Bcl-2), tumor proliferation (MIB-1) and cellular differentiation on the outcome with dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) infusional therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and analysis of germinal center B-cell (GCB) and post-GCB subtypes by immunohistochemistry. Patients and Methods Phase II study of 72 patients with untreated de novo DLBCL who were at least 18 years of age and stage II or higher. Radiation consolidation was not permitted. Results Patients had a median age of 50 (range: 19-85) years and 40% had a high-intermediate or high International Prognostic Index (IPI). At five-years, progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 79% and 80%, respectively, with a median potential follow-up of 54 months. PFS was 91%, 90%, 67% and 47%, and OS was 100%, 90%, 74% and 37%, for 0-1, 2, 3 and 4-5 IPI factors, respectively, at five-years. The Bcl-2 and MIB-1 biomarkers were not associated with PFS or OS. Based on DA-EPOCH historical controls, rituximab only benefited Bcl-2 positive tumors. Bcl-6 expression was associated with higher PFS whereas GCB exhibited a marginally significant higher PFS compared to post-GCB DLBCL. Conclusion DA-EPOCH-R outcome was not affected by tumor proliferation and rituximab appeared to overcome the adverse effect of Bcl-2. Bcl-6 may identify a biological program associated with a superior outcome. Overall, DA-EPOCH-R shows promising outcome in low and intermediate IPI groups. A molecular model of treatment outcome with rituximab and chemotherapy is presented. PMID:18378569

  1. [Fernbank Science Center Environmental Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Lewis

    This document is a compilation of environmental activities related directly to the environment in Georgia. A description of the physiographic characteristics of Georgia is presented upon which the activities that follow are based. These activities include soil, stream and forest investigations; meteorology activities; and plant and animal studies.…

  2. STAT3 Signaling in B Cells Is Critical for Germinal Center Maintenance and Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Murine Models of Lupus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chuanlin; Chen, Xingguo; Dascani, Paul; Hu, Xiaoling; Bolli, Roberto; Zhang, Huang-Ge; Mcleish, Kenneth R; Yan, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Ab maturation as well as memory B and plasma cell differentiation occur primarily in the germinal centers (GCs). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may develop as a result of enhanced GC activity. Previous studies have shown that the dysregulated STAT3 pathway is linked to lupus pathogenesis. However, the exact role of STAT3 in regulating SLE disease progression has not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that STAT3 signaling in B cells is essential for GC formation and maintenance as well as Ab response. Increased cell apoptosis and downregulated Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 antiapoptotic gene expression were found in STAT3-deficient GC B cells. The follicular helper T cell response positively correlated with GC B cells and was significantly decreased in immunized B cell STAT3-deficient mice. STAT3 deficiency also led to the defect of plasma cell differentiation. Furthermore, STAT3 deficiency in autoreactive B cells resulted in decreased autoantibody production. Results obtained from B cell STAT3-deficient B6.MRL/lpr mice suggest that STAT3 signaling significantly contributes to SLE pathogenesis by regulation of GC reactivity, autoantibody production, and kidney pathology. Our findings provide new insights into the role of STAT3 signaling in the maintenance of GC formation and GC B cell differentiation and identify STAT3 as a novel target for treatment of SLE. PMID:27183592

  3. Antigen targeting reveals splenic CD169+ macrophages as promoters of germinal center B‐cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Veninga, Henrike; Borg, Ellen G. F.; Vreeman, Kyle; Taylor, Philip R.; Kalay, Hakan; van Kooyk, Yvette; Kraal, Georg; Martinez‐Pomares, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Ag delivery to specific APCs is an attractive approach in developing strategies for vaccination. CD169+ macrophages in the marginal zone of the spleen represent a suitable target for delivery of Ag because of their strategic location, which is optimal for the capture of blood‐borne Ag and their close proximity to B cells and T cells in the white pulp. Here we show that Ag targeting to CD169+ macrophages in mice resulted in strong, isotype‐switched, high‐affinity Ab production and the preferential induction and long‐term persistence of Ag‐specific GC B cells and follicular Th cells. In agreement with these observations, CD169+ macrophages retained intact Ag, induced cognate activation of B cells, and increased expression of costimulatory molecules upon activation. In addition, macrophages were required for the production of cytokines that promote B‐cell responses. Our results identify CD169+ macrophages as promoters of high‐affinity humoral immune responses and emphasize the value of CD169 as target for Ag delivery to improve vaccine responses. PMID:25487358

  4. Subfamily-Specific Fluorescent Probes for Cysteine Proteases Display Dynamic Protease Activities during Seed Germination1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haibin; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Oeljeklaus, Julian; Misas-Villamil, Johana C.; Wang, Zheming; Shindo, Takayuki; Bogyo, Matthew; Kaiser, Markus; van der Hoorn, Renier A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine proteases are an important class of enzymes implicated in both developmental and defense-related programmed cell death and other biological processes in plants. Because there are dozens of cysteine proteases that are posttranslationally regulated by processing, environmental conditions, and inhibitors, new methodologies are required to study these pivotal enzymes individually. Here, we introduce fluorescence activity-based probes that specifically target three distinct cysteine protease subfamilies: aleurain-like proteases, cathepsin B-like proteases, and vacuolar processing enzymes. We applied protease activity profiling with these new probes on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protease knockout lines and agroinfiltrated leaves to identify the probe targets and on other plant species to demonstrate their broad applicability. These probes revealed that most commercially available protease inhibitors target unexpected proteases in plants. When applied on germinating seeds, these probes reveal dynamic activities of aleurain-like proteases, cathepsin B-like proteases, and vacuolar processing enzymes, coinciding with the remobilization of seed storage proteins. PMID:26048883

  5. Kaiso is a key regulator of spleen germinal center formation by repressing Bcl6 expression in splenocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, Dong-In; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Kyeong; An, Haemin; Kim, Min-Young; Hur, Man-Wook

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •Knockout of Kaiso results in concordant high expression of Bcl6 and c-Myc in spleen. •Kaiso binds the Bcl6 promoter and represses Bcl6 transcription by recruiting NCoR. •Upregulated Bcl6 increases splenocyte proliferation and causes large diffused GC. •Cell cycle-inhibition genes such as Cdkn1b and Cdkn1a are repressed by Bcl6. -- Abstract: Kaiso was previously described as a methylated DNA-binding protein and a transcription repressor interacting with the corepressor protein complex NCoR. In the current study, we show that generation-3 Kaiso knockout mice show a phenotype of splenomegaly and large diffused germinal centers (GC). In the spleens of Kaiso knockout mice, Bcl6 (a transcriptional repressor that plays a critical role in GC development in spleen) and c-Myc were highly expressed, while the cell cycle arrest genes p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a were downregulated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and transcription assays suggested that Kaiso represses Bcl6 expression, and in Kaiso knockout mice, derepressed Bcl6 increased cell proliferation by suppressing p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a, while upregulating the oncogene c-Myc. Further evidence for Kaiso regulation of splenomegaly was provided by B lymphocyte Ramos cells, in which ectopic KAISO repressed BCL6 and c-MYC expression, while concomitantly increasing the expression of the cell cycle arrestors p21, p27 and Gadd45a. In summary, derepressed Bcl6 expression may be responsible for increases in GC cell proliferation and splenomegaly of Kaiso knockout mice.

  6. Persistent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Drives Differentiation, Aberrant Accumulation, and Latent Infection of Germinal Center Follicular T Helper Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Malam, Naomi; Aye, Pyone P.; Alvarez, Xavier; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT CD4+ follicular T helper (Tfh) cells play a prominent role in humoral immune responses, but the mechanisms of their accumulation and infection in AIDS remain unclear. Here we found that germinal center (GC) Tfh cells, defined here as CXCR5+ PD-1HIGH CD4+ T cells, do not express the HIV coreceptor CCR5 yet serve as a latent reservoir in GCs. With disease progression, an expansion of GC Tfh cells is accompanied by increases in dysfunctional CD8+ T cells. In contrast, Tfh precursor (CXCR5− CD4+ T) cells in lymph nodes do express CCR5 and differentiate into GC Tfh cells following interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-21 stimulation, and viral DNA is detectable in fully differentiated GC Tfh cells ex vivo. This suggests that SIV-infected GC Tfh cells may be derived from Tfh precursor cell subsets that become infected in marginal zones and then migrate into GCs as fully mature GC Tfh cells that serve as persistent virus reservoirs. These findings suggest that viral persistence in lymph nodes drives compensatory differentiation, aberrant accumulation, and latent infection of GC Tfh cells, resulting in marked impairment of humoral immune responses. IMPORTANCE Generation of antibodies that can effectively eliminate viruses requires interactions of B cells with highly specialized T cells in GCs of lymphoid tissues called follicular T helper cells. Here we show that in simian immunodeficiency virus infection, these cells are initially infected in a precursor stage that leads to alterations in their homing, accumulation, and function that may be responsible for the inability of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients to generate effective antibody responses. PMID:26608323

  7. Complexity of the human memory B-cell compartment is determined by the versatility of clonal diversification in germinal centers.

    PubMed

    Budeus, Bettina; Schweigle de Reynoso, Stefanie; Przekopowitz, Martina; Hoffmann, Daniel; Seifert, Marc; Küppers, Ralf

    2015-09-22

    Our knowledge about the clonal composition and intraclonal diversity of the human memory B-cell compartment and the relationship between memory B-cell subsets is still limited, although these are central issues for our understanding of adaptive immunity. We performed a deep sequencing analysis of rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain genes from biological replicates, covering more than 100,000 memory B lymphocytes from two healthy adults. We reveal a highly similar B-cell receptor repertoire among the four main human IgM(+) and IgG(+) memory B-cell subsets. Strikingly, in both donors, 45% of sequences could be assigned to expanded clones, demonstrating that the human memory B-cell compartment is characterized by many, often very large, B-cell clones. Twenty percent of the clones consisted of class switched and IgM(+)(IgD(+)) members, a feature that correlated significantly with clone size. Hence, we provide strong evidence that the vast majority of Ig mutated B cells--including IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells--are post-germinal center (GC) memory B cells. Clone members showed high intraclonal sequence diversity and high intraclonal versatility in Ig class and IgG subclass composition, with particular patterns of memory B-cell clone generation in GC reactions. In conclusion, GC produce amazingly large, complex, and diverse memory B-cell clones, equipping the human immune system with a versatile and highly diverse compartment of IgM(+)(IgD(+)) and class-switched memory B cells.

  8. Complexity of the human memory B-cell compartment is determined by the versatility of clonal diversification in germinal centers.

    PubMed

    Budeus, Bettina; Schweigle de Reynoso, Stefanie; Przekopowitz, Martina; Hoffmann, Daniel; Seifert, Marc; Küppers, Ralf

    2015-09-22

    Our knowledge about the clonal composition and intraclonal diversity of the human memory B-cell compartment and the relationship between memory B-cell subsets is still limited, although these are central issues for our understanding of adaptive immunity. We performed a deep sequencing analysis of rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain genes from biological replicates, covering more than 100,000 memory B lymphocytes from two healthy adults. We reveal a highly similar B-cell receptor repertoire among the four main human IgM(+) and IgG(+) memory B-cell subsets. Strikingly, in both donors, 45% of sequences could be assigned to expanded clones, demonstrating that the human memory B-cell compartment is characterized by many, often very large, B-cell clones. Twenty percent of the clones consisted of class switched and IgM(+)(IgD(+)) members, a feature that correlated significantly with clone size. Hence, we provide strong evidence that the vast majority of Ig mutated B cells--including IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells--are post-germinal center (GC) memory B cells. Clone members showed high intraclonal sequence diversity and high intraclonal versatility in Ig class and IgG subclass composition, with particular patterns of memory B-cell clone generation in GC reactions. In conclusion, GC produce amazingly large, complex, and diverse memory B-cell clones, equipping the human immune system with a versatile and highly diverse compartment of IgM(+)(IgD(+)) and class-switched memory B cells. PMID:26324941

  9. Germinal center formation, immunoglobulin class switching, and autoantibody production driven by "non alpha/beta" T cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The production of class-switched antibodies, particularly immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgE, occurs efficiently in T cell receptor (TCR) alpha-/- mice that are congenitally devoid of alpha/beta T cells. This finding runs counter to a wealth of data indicating that IgG1 and IgE synthesis are largely dependent on the collaboration between B and alpha/beta T cells. Furthermore, many of the antibodies synthesized in TCR alpha-/- mice are reactive to a similar spectrum of self-antigens as that targeted by autoantibodies characterizing human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE, too, is most commonly regarded as an alpha/beta T cell-mediated condition. To distinguish whether the development of autoantibodies in TCR alpha-/- mice is due to an intrinsic de-regulation of B cells, or to a heretofore poorly characterized collaboration between B and "non-alpha/beta T" cells, the phenotype has been reconstituted by transfer of various populations of B and non-alpha/beta T cells including cloned gamma/delta T cells derived from TCR alpha-/- mice, to severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The results establish that the reproducible production of IgG1 (including autoantibodies) is a product of non-alpha/beta T cell help that can be provided by gamma/delta T cells. This type of B-T collaboration sustains the production of germinal centers, lymphoid follicles that ordinarily are anatomical signatures of alpha/beta T-B cell collaboration. Thus, non-alpha/beta T cell help may drive Ig synthesis and autoreactivity under various circumstances, especially in cases of alpha/beta T cell immunodeficiency. PMID:8642336

  10. Germinal Center T Follicular Helper Cells Are Highly Permissive to HIV-1 and Alter Their Phenotype during Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Stephanie L; Pham, Michael N; Folkvord, Joy M; Arends, Tessa; Miller, Shannon M; Miles, Brodie; Meditz, Amie L; McCarter, Martin; Levy, David N; Connick, Elizabeth

    2016-03-15

    HIV-1 replication is concentrated within CD4(+) T cells in B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues during asymptomatic disease. Limited data suggest that a subset of T follicular helper cells (TFH) within germinal centers (GC) is highly permissive to HIV-1. Whether GC TFH are the major HIV-1 virus-producing cells in vivo has not been established. In this study, we investigated TFH permissivity to HIV-1 ex vivo by spinoculating and culturing tonsil cells with HIV-1 GFP reporter viruses. Using flow cytometry, higher percentages of GC TFH (CXCR5(high)PD-1(high)) and CXCR5(+)programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)(low) cells were GFP(+) than non-GC TFH (CXCR5(+)PD-1(intermediate)) or extrafollicular (EF) (CXCR5(-)) cells. When sorted prior to spinoculation, however, GC TFH were substantially more permissive than CXCR5(+)PD-1(low) or EF cells, suggesting that many GC TFH transition to a CXCR5(+)PD-1(low) phenotype during productive infection. In situ hybridization on inguinal lymph node sections from untreated HIV-1-infected individuals without AIDS revealed higher frequencies of HIV-1 RNA(+) cells in GC than non-GC regions of follicle or EF regions. Superinfection of HIV-1-infected individuals' lymph node cells with GFP reporter virus confirmed the permissivity of follicular cells ex vivo. Lymph node immunostaining revealed 96% of CXCR5(+)CD4(+) cells were located in follicles. Within sorted lymph node cells from four HIV-infected individuals, CXCR5(+) subsets harbored 11-66-fold more HIV-1 RNA than CXCR5(-) subsets, as determined by RT PCR. Thus, GC TFH are highly permissive to HIV-1, but downregulate PD-1 and, to a lesser extent, CXCR5 during HIV-1 replication. These data further implicate GC TFH as the major HIV-1-producing cells in chronic asymptomatic HIV-1 infection. PMID:26873986

  11. CD40 and B cell antigen receptor dual triggering of resting B lymphocytes turns on a partial germinal center phenotype

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Phenotypic alterations occur when resting human B lymphocytes become germinal center (GC) cells. These include the induction of surface CD38, CD95 (FAS/APO-1), and carboxy-peptidase-M (CPM), a recently described GC marker. However, the factors that govern the in vivo induction of these surface molecules on B cells remain unknown. Here, we purified resting (CD38-) human B lymphocytes from tonsils in an attempt to establish culture conditions resulting in the induction of these three GC markers. We show that interferon (IFN) alpha or IFN- gamma, as well as antibodies against the B cell antigen receptor (BCR), could induce CD38 on resting B lymphocytes, a phenomenon further enhanced by CD40 stimulation. Concomitantly, CD95 was upregulated by CD40 ligation and, to a lesser extent, by IFN-gamma. By contrast, CPM expression could be upregulated only through BCR triggering. This CPM induction was specifically enhanced by CD19 or CD40 ligation. CD40 + BCR stimulation of resting B cells with CD40 ligand-transfected fibroblastic cells in the presence of cross-linked anti-BCR monoclonal antibodies resulted in the coexpression of CD38, CD95, and CPM. As GC cells, these cells also expressed CD71, CD80 (B7.1), and CD86 (B7.2), but not CD24. However, CD10+ or CD44- B cells could not be detected in these culture conditions, suggesting that yet other signals are required for the induction of these GC markers. Consistent with a GC phenotype, CD40 + BCR-stimulated cells exhibited reduced viability when cultured for 20 h in the absence of stimulus. These results first demonstrate that cotriggering of resting B cells through BCR and CD40 induces both phenotypic and functional GC features. They also show that IFN and CD19 triggering of resting B cells specifically modulate the expression of GC markers. PMID:8551247

  12. A novel Ca2+-activated protease from germinating Vigna radiata seeds and its role in storage protein mobilization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadaf; Verma, Giti; Sharma, Samir

    2010-07-15

    Calcium (Ca(2+))-dependent/activated proteases make decisive cleavages in proteins, affecting their further degradation/activation. Few such Ca(2+)-dependent proteases have been reported from plants, and none during germination-related events. Seeds are woken up from their quiescent state upon imbibition of water. The subsequent process of germination is strongly influenced by hormones (mainly gibberellins) and light, with both resulting in change in intracellular Ca(2+). We have investigated the effect of Ca(2+) on protease activity in extracts prepared from dry Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczec seeds and cotyledons 4, 24, 48 and 72h post-imbibition. Ca(2+)-activated protease activity is present at a very low level in dry seeds, rises with imbibition and peaks 24h post-imbibition. Subsequently, the activity rapidly declines, even as total protease activity continues to rise. Calcium activation of proteolysis was reversed by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylene glycol-bis (2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), 1,10, phenanthroline, chlorpromazine and by beta-mercaptoethanol in a concentration-dependent manner. Protease activity was also inhibited by para chloro mercuribenzoate (pCMB) and l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino) butane (E 64), while phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and pepstatin did not effect Ca(2+) activation. The protease could be separated from the calmodulin fraction by size-exclusion chromatography, while retaining its ability for Ca(2+) activation, excluding the possibility of activation through calmodulin-based pathways. The presence of a Ca(2+)-activated protease in the cotyledons suggests its role in a predetermined program of germination involving elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels during germination. This protease could be an important enzyme interfacing cytoplasmic signaling events and initiation of storage protein mobilization during seed germination.

  13. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  14. The Hydrologic Cycle Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Danny M.; Goodman, H. Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Huntsville, Alabama supports the acquisition, production, archival and dissemination of data relevant to the study of the global hydrologic cycle. This paper describes the Hydrologic Cycle DAAC, surveys its principle data holdings, addresses future growth, and gives information for accessing the data sets.

  15. Antioxidant activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in germinating seeds of transgenic soybean expressing OsHGGT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yul Ho; Lee, Yu Young; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Man Soo; Jeong, Kwang Ho; Lee, Seuk Ki; Seo, Min Jung; Yun, Hong Tai; Lee, Choon Ki; Kim, Wook Han; Lee, Sang Chul; Park, Soon Ki; Park, Hyang Mi

    2011-01-26

    Tocochromanols are potent lipid-soluble antioxidants and essential nutrients for human health. Genetic engineering techniques were used to develop soybeans with enhanced vitamin E levels, including tocotrienols, which are not found in soybean. The gene encoding rice homogentisate geranylgeranyl transferase (HGGT) was overexpressed in soybeans using seed-specific and constitutive promoters. The association between abundance of vitamin E isomers and antioxidant activity was investigated during seed germination. With the exception of β-tocotrienol, all vitamin E isomers were detected in germinating seeds expressing OsHGGT. The antioxidant properties of germinating seed extracts were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Compared with intact wild-type seeds, transgenic seeds showed increases in radical scavenging of 5.4-17 and 23.2-35.3% in the DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Furthermore, the lipid peroxidation levels were 2.0-4.5-fold lower in germinating seeds from transgenic lines than in wild-type seeds. Therefore, it appears that the antioxidant potential of transgenic oil-producing plants such as soybean, sunflower, and corn may be enhanced by overexpressing OsHGGT during seed germination.

  16. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans.

  17. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans. PMID:24941231

  18. BCL2 Translocation Defines a Unique Tumor Subset within the Germinal Center B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javeed; Sanger, Warren G.; Horsman, Douglas E.; Rosenwald, Andreas; Pickering, Diane L.; Dave, Bhavana; Dave, Sandeep; Xiao, Li; Cao, Kajia; Zhu, Quiming; Sherman, Simon; Hans, Christine P.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Greiner, Timothy C.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Ott, German; Müller-Hermelink, H. Konrad; Delabie, Jan; Braziel, Rita M.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Campo, Elias; Lynch, James C.; Connors, Joseph M.; Vose, Julie M.; Armitage, James O.; Grogan, Thomas M.; Staudt, Louis M.; Chan, Wing C.

    2004-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has revealed prognostically important subgroups: germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL, activated B cell-like (ABC) DLBCL, and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. The t(14;18)(q32;q21) has been reported previously to define a unique subset within the GCB-DLBCL. We evaluated for the translocation in 141 cases of DLBCL that were successfully gene expression profiled. Using a dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization assay, we detected the t(14;18) in 17% of DLBCLs and in 34% of the GCB subgroup which contained the vast majority of positive cases. In addition, 12 t(14;18)-positive cases detected by polymerase chain reaction assays on additional samples were added to the fluorescence in situ hybridization-positive cases for subsequent analysis. Immunohistochemical data indicated that BCL2, BCL6, and CD10 protein were preferentially expressed in the t(14;18)-positive cases as compared to t(14;18)-negative cases. Within the GCB subgroup, the expression of BCL2 and CD10, but not BCL6, differed significantly between cases with or without the t(14;18): 88% versus 24% for BCL2 and 72% versus 32% for CD10, respectively. In the GCB-DLBCL subgroup, a heterogeneous group of genes is overexpressed in the t(14;18)-positive subset, among which BCL2 is a significant discriminator. Interestingly, the t(14;18)-negative subset is dominated by overexpression of cell cycle-associated genes, indicating that these tumors are significantly more proliferative, suggesting distinctive pathogenetic mechanisms. However, despite this higher proliferative activity, there was no significant difference in overall or failure-free survival between the t(14;18)-positive and -negative subsets within the GCB subgroup. PMID:15215171

  19. Agriculture--Agriculture Science--Seed Germination. Kit No. 51. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Samuel

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on seed germination are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  20. Critical evaluation of changes in the ratio of insoluble bound to soluble phenolics on antioxidant activity of lentils during germination.

    PubMed

    Yeo, JuDong; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2015-01-21

    A new indicator, the ratio of insoluble bound phenolics (IBPs) to soluble phenolics (SPs), is suggested as an effective means to monitor changes in the antioxidant activity of lentils during germination. This indicator may be used to monitor other process-induced changes in antioxidant potential of food phenolics in other foods. The antioxidant activity of SPs, IBPs, and total value, the sum of both free and esterified phenolics, of germinated CDC Richlea lentil variety was evaluated for 4 days. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging ability were employed to record antioxidant activities. An incremental increase in IBPs was found in TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, whereas SPs showed a declining trend in TFC, DPPH, and ABTS, except TPC during 4 days of germination. The ratio of IBPs to SPs increased using most methods, and this may be possibly due to the changes of phenolic compound formation from soluble into insoluble bound form during germination process. The ratio can be used as a novel method for monitoring process-induced changes in the antioxidant activity of foods.

  1. Differential activity of Striga hermonthica seed germination stimulants and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching factors in rice and their contribution to underground communication.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Catarina; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Jamil, Muhammad; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Verstappen, Francel; Amini, Maryam; Lauressergues, Dominique; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2014-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) trigger germination of parasitic plant seeds and hyphal branching of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. There is extensive structural variation in SLs and plants usually produce blends of different SLs. The structural variation among natural SLs has been shown to impact their biological activity as hyphal branching and parasitic plant seed germination stimulants. In this study, rice root exudates were fractioned by HPLC. The resulting fractions were analyzed by MRM-LC-MS to investigate the presence of SLs and tested using bioassays to assess their Striga hermonthica seed germination and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching stimulatory activities. A substantial number of active fractions were revealed often with very different effect on seed germination and hyphal branching. Fractions containing (-)-orobanchol and ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol contributed little to the induction of S. hermonthica seed germination but strongly stimulated AM fungal hyphal branching. Three SLs in one fraction, putative methoxy-5-deoxystrigol isomers, had moderate seed germination and hyphal branching inducing activity. Two fractions contained strong germination stimulants but displayed only modest hyphal branching activity. We provide evidence that these stimulants are likely SLs although no SL-representative masses could be detected using MRM-LC-MS. Our results show that seed germination and hyphal branching are induced to very different extents by the various SLs (or other stimulants) present in rice root exudates. We propose that the development of rice varieties with different SL composition is a promising strategy to reduce parasitic plant infestation while maintaining symbiosis with AM fungi.

  2. Potential impacts of CO2 leakage from the CCS sites on seed germination and soil microbial enzyme activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenmei, H.; Yoo, G.; Kim, Y.; Moonis, M.

    2015-12-01

    To ensure the safety of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, it is essential to assess the impacts of potential CO2 leakage on the soil and ecosystem. The changes in soil environment due to the CO2 leakage might have an enormous effect on the plant growth. As a preliminary study, we conducted a research focusing on the germination process because it is known to be especially sensitive to the environmental change. The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of high soil CO2 concentration on the germination of different species. A laboratory experiment was designed to investigate the effect of high soil CO2 concentration on germination rate and soil physicochemical/microbial parameters. Cabbage, corn, bean, and wheat were selected for this study. The concentrations of the injected CO2 treatments were 10%, 30%, 60% and 100%, and the actual soil CO2 concentration ranged from 3.6% to 53.2%. Two types of controls were employed: the one connected with ambient air tank and the other connected with nothing. The final germination rates of four crops were not different between the controls and 10% treatment, but the delay of germination was observed in cabbage, corn, and bean. At 30% treatment, the germination rates of cabbage, corn and bean were 38%, while that of wheat was 78%. No seed was germinated at 60% and 100% treatments. After the incubation, soil pH decreased from 6.0 in the controls to 5.6 in the 100% treatment. The contents of soil total C and total N were not different among treatments. Activities of microbial fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis were not different among treatments for all plants. Five kinds of soil extracellular enzyme activities were not affected by the CO2 treatments. Our results suggest that: 1) Soil CO2 concentration at 3-4% did not inhibit germination of four crops. 2) Wheat is most resistant to high soil CO2 concentration in this study. 3) Soil microbial parameters were more tolerant during the short term injection.

  3. Center for Radiation Research. 1990 technical activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kuyatt, C.E.

    1991-02-01

    The report summarizes research projects, measurement method development, calibration and testing and data evaluation activities that were carried out during Fiscal Year 1990 in the NIST Center for Radiation Research. These activities fall in the areas of radiometric physics, radiation sources and instrumentation, and ionizing radiation.

  4. Immunosuppressive property within the Streptococcus pneumoniae cell wall that inhibits generation of T follicular helper, germinal center, and plasma cell response to a coimmunized heterologous protein.

    PubMed

    Saumyaa; Arjunaraja, Swadhinya; Pujanauski, Lindsey; Colino, Jesus; Torres, Raul M; Snapper, Clifford M

    2013-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that intact, inactivated Streptococcus pneumoniae (unencapsulated strain R36A) inhibits IgG responses to a number of coimmunized soluble antigens (Ags). In this study, we investigated the mechanism of this inhibition and whether other extracellular bacteria exhibited similar effects. No inhibition was observed if R36A was given 24 h before or after immunization with soluble chicken ovalbumin (cOVA), indicating that R36A acts transiently during the initiation of the immune response. Using transgenic cOVA-specific CD4(+) T cells, we observed that R36A had no significant effect on T-cell activation (24 h) or generation of regulatory T cells (day 7) and only a modest effect on T-cell proliferation (48 to 96 h) in response to cOVA. However, R36A mediated a significant reduction in the formation of Ag-specific splenic germinal center T follicular helper (GC Tfh) and GC B cells and antibody-secreting cells in the spleen and bone marrow in response to cOVA or cOVA conjugated to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl hapten (NP-cOVA). Of note, the inhibitory effect of intact R36A on the IgG anti-cOVA response could be reproduced using R36A-derived cell walls. In contrast to R36A, neither inactivated, unencapsulated, intact Neisseria meningitidis nor Streptococcus agalactiae inhibited the OVA-specific IgG response. These results suggest a novel immunosuppressive property within the cell wall of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  5. Osteopontin in Spontaneous Germinal Centers Inhibits Apoptotic Cell Engulfment and Promotes Anti-Nuclear Antibody Production in Lupus-Prone Mice.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Yuji; Ito, Koyu; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Nagata, Shigekazu; Minato, Nagahiro; Hattori, Masakazu

    2016-09-15

    Disposal of apoptotic cells is important for tissue homeostasis. Defects in this process in immune tissues may lead to breakdown of self-tolerance against intracellular molecules, including nuclear components. Development of diverse anti-nuclear Abs (ANAs) is a hallmark of lupus, which may arise, in part, due to impaired apoptotic cell clearance. In this work, we demonstrate that spontaneous germinal centers (GCs) in lupus-prone mice contain significantly elevated levels of unengulfed apoptotic cells, which are otherwise swiftly engulfed by tingible body macrophages. We indicate that osteopontin (OPN) secreted by CD153(+) senescence-associated T cells, which selectively accumulate in the GCs of lupus-prone mice, interferes with phagocytosis of apoptotic cells specifically captured via MFG-E8. OPN induced diffuse and prolonged Rac1 activation in phagocytes via integrin αvβ3 and inhibited the dissolution of phagocytic actin cup, causing defective apoptotic cell engulfment. In wild-type B6 mice, administration of TLR7 ligand also caused spontaneous GC reactions with increasing unengulfed apoptotic cells and ANA production, whereas B6 mice deficient for Spp1 encoding OPN showed less apoptotic cells and developed significantly reduced ANAs in response to TLR7 ligand. Our results suggest that OPN secreted by follicular CD153(+) senescence-associated T cells in GCs promotes a continuous supply of intracellular autoantigens via apoptotic cells, thus playing a key role in the progression of the autoreactive GC reaction and leading to pathogenic autoantibody production in lupus-prone mice. PMID:27534552

  6. Spore Germination and Carbon Metabolism in Fusarium solani V. Changes in Anaerobic Metabolism and Related Enzyme Activities during Development 1

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Vincent W.; Cochrane, Jean C.

    1966-01-01

    Macroconidia of Fusarium solani f. phascoli have no detectable capacity to respire glucose anaerobically; germinated spores and mycelium, on the other hand, ferment glucose, although slowly. Extracts of ungerminated spores contain hexokinase, phosphohexoisomerase, phosphofructokinase, aldolase, triose phosphate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, phosphoglyceric kinase, enolase, phosphoglyceric mutase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate decarboxylase. It follows, therefore, that the appearance of fermentative capacity during spore germination cannot be ascribed to the de novo synthesis of any of these enzymes. During germination and mycelial development the specific activity of all of the enzymes named except phosphohexoisomerase and aldolase increases 2- to 8-fold. Specific activity of all of the enzymes is substantially higher than the fermentative capacity of intact cells, i.e., none is limiting to anaerobic respiration. The enzymatic assay data are consistent with a conclusion reached earlier on the basis of studies of aerobic glucose metabolism, that the process of germination involves an acceleration of pre-existing metabolic systems rather than an appearance of new pathways. PMID:16656324

  7. A comparative study of water distribution, free radical production and activation of antioxidative metabolism in germinating pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Wojtyla, Łukasz; Garnczarska, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Tomasz; Bednarski, Waldemar; Ratajczak, Lech; Jurga, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between hydration of the embryo axes and cotyledons and the resumption of the oxidative metabolism in both organs of germinating seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Piast). Nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy and imaging were used to study temporal and spatial water uptake and distribution in pea seeds. The observations revealed that water penetrates into the seed through the hilum, micropyle and embryo axes, and cotyledons hydrate to different extents. Thus, inhomogeneous water distribution may influence the resumption of oxidative metabolism. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements showed that seed germination was accompanied by the generation of free radicals with g(1) and g(2) values of 2.0032 and 2.0052, respectively. The values of spectroscopic splitting coefficients suggest that they are quinone radicals. The highest content of free radicals was observed in embryo axes immediately after emergence of the radicle. Glutathione content decreased during the entire germination period in both embryo axes and cotyledons. A different profile was observed for ascorbate, with significant increases in embryo axes, coinciding with radicle protrusion. Electrophoretic analysis showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) were present in dry seeds and were activated later during germination, especially in embryo axes. The presence of all antioxidative enzymes as well as low molecular antioxidants in dry seeds allowed the antioxidative machinery to be active as soon as the enzymes were reactivated by seed imbibition. The observed changes in free radical levels, antioxidant contents and enzymatic activities in embryo axes and cotyledons appear to be more closely related to metabolic and developmental processes

  8. In vitro germination characteristics of maize pollen to detect biological activity of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Pfahler, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    In vitro pollen germination in maize was evaluated as a method of assessing the mutagenic and physiological effects of environmental pollutants on higher organisms. The extent of mutations was effectively determined by testing sporophytes homozygous for the mutated allele. Physiological effects were effectively determined when chemical agents were added directly into the in vitro medium. Exposure of pollen grains during in vitro germination to ultraviolet radiation in the range 280-320 nm produced little or no change in the germination or rupture percentage but a sharp decrease in pollen tube growth after 1 hr.

  9. Developmental changes in the activity of messenger RNA isolated from germinating castor bean endosperm.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L M; Lord, J M

    1979-10-01

    The capacity of polyadenylated RNA from developing castor bean endosperm to program protein synthesis in a wheat germ cell-free translational system has been examined. Although the use of micrococcal nuclease-treated wheat germ extracts demonstrated a low but significant content of translatable mRNA in dry seeds, a large scale increase in total translational capacity was observed during germination. The cellular content of translatable mRNA peaked on the 4th day of germination and subsequently declined. It is concluded that protein synthesis in castor bean endosperm cells during germination is directed by newly transcribed mRNA.

  10. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Andriotis, Vasilios M. E.; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D.; Svensson, Birte; Smith, Alison M.; Field, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Starch is a major energy store in plants. It provides most of the calories in the human diet and, as a bulk commodity, it is used across broad industry sectors. Starch synthesis and degradation are not fully understood, owing to challenging biochemistry at the liquid/solid interface and relatively limited knowledge about the nature and control of starch degradation in plants. Increased societal and commercial demand for enhanced yield and quality in starch crops requires a better understanding of starch metabolism as a whole. Here we review recent advances in understanding the roles of carbohydrate-active enzymes in starch degradation in cereal grains through complementary chemical and molecular genetics. These approaches have allowed us to start dissecting aspects of starch degradation and the interplay with cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolysis during germination. With a view to improving and diversifying the properties and uses of cereal grains, it is possible that starch degradation may be amenable to manipulation through genetic or chemical intervention at the level of cell wall metabolism, rather than simply in the starch degradation pathway per se. PMID:26862201

  11. Synthesis and Posttranslational Activation of Sulfhydryl-Endopeptidase in Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, W; Minamikawa, T

    1989-01-01

    A sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was purified as a 33 kilodalton (kD) mass polypeptide from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum made against the purified enzyme showed that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was synthesized only in the cotyledons during germination and that the amount of the enzyme increased until 4 days after imbibition and decreased thereafter. Next, an RNA fraction was prepared from cotyledons of 3 day old seedlings and translated in a wheat germ system. The synthesis of a 45 kD polypeptide was shown by the analysis of its translation products by immunoprecipitation with the antiserum to the endopeptidase and gel electrophoresis. When the RNA fraction was translated in the presence of canine microsomal membranes, a smaller polypeptide, having a 43 kD molecular mass, was detected as the translation product. When membrane-bound polysomes, but not free polysomes, prepared from cotyledons were used for translation in the wheat germ system, both the 43 and 45 kD polypeptides were synthesized. By incubation of a crude enzyme extract from cotyledons at 5 +/- 1 degrees C at neutral pH, the 43 kD polypeptide was sequentially cleaved to the 33 kD polypeptide via 39 and 36 kD intermediate polypeptides. The endopeptidase was activated simultaneously with the processing. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the 33 kD polypeptide was the fully activated form of the enzyme, whereas little or no activity was detected in other forms. From the present results, we postulate that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase is first synthesized as the 45 kD precursor with a 2 kD signal peptide being cleaved, and that the 43 kD polypeptide is further cleaved to give the 33kD mature enzyme.

  12. Synthesis and Posttranslational Activation of Sulfhydryl-Endopeptidase in Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Minamikawa, Takao

    1989-01-01

    A sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was purified as a 33 kilodalton (kD) mass polypeptide from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum made against the purified enzyme showed that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was synthesized only in the cotyledons during germination and that the amount of the enzyme increased until 4 days after imbibition and decreased thereafter. Next, an RNA fraction was prepared from cotyledons of 3 day old seedlings and translated in a wheat germ system. The synthesis of a 45 kD polypeptide was shown by the analysis of its translation products by immunoprecipitation with the antiserum to the endopeptidase and gel electrophoresis. When the RNA fraction was translated in the presence of canine microsomal membranes, a smaller polypeptide, having a 43 kD molecular mass, was detected as the translation product. When membrane-bound polysomes, but not free polysomes, prepared from cotyledons were used for translation in the wheat germ system, both the 43 and 45 kD polypeptides were synthesized. By incubation of a crude enzyme extract from cotyledons at 5 ± 1°C at neutral pH, the 43 kD polypeptide was sequentially cleaved to the 33 kD polypeptide via 39 and 36 kD intermediate polypeptides. The endopeptidase was activated simultaneously with the processing. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the 33 kD polypeptide was the fully activated form of the enzyme, whereas little or no activity was detected in other forms. From the present results, we postulate that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase is first synthesized as the 45 kD precursor with a 2 kD signal peptide being cleaved, and that the 43 kD polypeptide is further cleaved to give the 33kD mature enzyme. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16666526

  13. Effect of water activity and temperature on the germination and growth of Aspergillus tamarii isolated from "Maldive fish".

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Shazla; Mo, Li; Flint, Steve; Palmer, Jon; Fletcher, Graham C

    2012-11-15

    Germination times and radial growth rates of cyclopiazonic acid producing strains of Aspergillus tamarii isolated from a smoked dried fish product were studied over water activities (a(w)) ranging from 0.99 to 0.79 at 25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C on two laboratory media. The a(w) of the media was controlled by either NaCl or a mixture of glucose and fructose. The optimum germination and growth were observed at temperatures between 30°C and 35°C. Germination was favored at the highest a(w) of 0.99 under all conditions. Growth however was dependent on the media and temperature with a lower optimum a(w) of 0.95 for NaCl media and 0.95 to 0.92 a(w) on media containing glucose/fructose. The minimum a(w) for growth was often higher than for germination while both parameters were influenced by temperature and media type. Germination on NaCl media was prevented at a(w) values below 0.82 at 25°C and 30°C, 0.85 at 35°C and 40°C. However, growth did not occur at a(w) <0.85 at 25-35°C. At those temperatures on glucose/fructose media, growth was observed at the lowest a(w) tested (0.79). On both media, the restrictive effect of lowered water activity was more pronounced at 40°C than at 25-35°C. Delays in germination increased and growth rates decreased with marginal a(w) and temperature conditions. The fungi displayed better tolerance on glucose/fructose media than on NaCl media on which it was partly inhibited by the NaCl. The information obtained here could be used to develop strategies for the control of this xerophilic fungus on smoked dried fish and other tropical foods on which it predominates. PMID:23177051

  14. A subpopulation of high IL-21-producing CD4(+) T cells in Peyer's Patches is induced by the microbiota and regulates germinal centers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leigh; Ho, Wen Qi; Ying, Sze; Ramakrishna, Lakshmi; Srinivasan, Kandhadayar G; Yurieva, Marina; Ng, Wan Pei; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Hamadee, Nur H; Joseph, Sabrina; Dolpady, Jayashree; Atarashi, Koji; Honda, Kenya; Zolezzi, Francesca; Poidinger, Michael; Lafaille, Juan J; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    The production of IL-21 by T follicular helper (Tfh) cells is vital in driving the germinal centre reaction and high affinity antibody formation. However, the degree of Tfh cell heterogeneity and function is not fully understood. We used a novel IL-21eGFP reporter mouse strain to analyze the diversity and role of Tfh cells. Through the analysis of GFP expression in lymphoid organs of IL-21eGFP mice, we identified a subpopulation of GFP(+), high IL-21 producing Tfh cells present only in Peyer's Patches. GFP(+)Tfh cells were found to be polyclonal and related to GFP(-)Tfh cells of Peyer's Patches in TCR repertoire composition and overall gene expression. Studies on the mechanisms of induction of GFP(+)Tfh cells demonstrated that they required the intestinal microbiota and a diverse repertoire of CD4(+) T cells and B cells. Importantly, ablation of GFP(+) cells resulted in a reduced frequency of Peyer's Patches IgG1 and germinal center B cells in addition to small but significant shifts in gut microbiome composition. Our work highlights the diversity among IL-21 producing CD4(+) Tfh cells, and the interrelationship between the intestinal bacteria and Tfh cell responses in the gut. PMID:27499025

  15. A subpopulation of high IL-21-producing CD4+ T cells in Peyer’s Patches is induced by the microbiota and regulates germinal centers

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Leigh; Ho, Wen Qi; Ying, Sze; Ramakrishna, Lakshmi; Srinivasan, Kandhadayar G.; Yurieva, Marina; Ng, Wan Pei; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Hamadee, Nur H.; Joseph, Sabrina; Dolpady, Jayashree; Atarashi, Koji; Honda, Kenya; Zolezzi, Francesca; Poidinger, Michael; Lafaille, Juan J.; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    The production of IL-21 by T follicular helper (Tfh) cells is vital in driving the germinal centre reaction and high affinity antibody formation. However, the degree of Tfh cell heterogeneity and function is not fully understood. We used a novel IL-21eGFP reporter mouse strain to analyze the diversity and role of Tfh cells. Through the analysis of GFP expression in lymphoid organs of IL-21eGFP mice, we identified a subpopulation of GFP+, high IL-21 producing Tfh cells present only in Peyer’s Patches. GFP+Tfh cells were found to be polyclonal and related to GFP−Tfh cells of Peyer’s Patches in TCR repertoire composition and overall gene expression. Studies on the mechanisms of induction of GFP+Tfh cells demonstrated that they required the intestinal microbiota and a diverse repertoire of CD4+ T cells and B cells. Importantly, ablation of GFP+ cells resulted in a reduced frequency of Peyer’s Patches IgG1 and germinal center B cells in addition to small but significant shifts in gut microbiome composition. Our work highlights the diversity among IL-21 producing CD4+ Tfh cells, and the interrelationship between the intestinal bacteria and Tfh cell responses in the gut. PMID:27499025

  16. Changes in Soluble RNA and Ribonuclease Activity During Germination of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Vold, Barbara S.; Sypherd, Paul S.

    1968-01-01

    Gross changes in protein and nucleic acid were studied in germinating wheat seeds. The nucleic acid fraction was separated on columns of methylated albumin-keiselguhr. It was found that more than 50% of the transfer RNA was lost from the embryo in the first 10 to 15 hours of germination. This was followed by a period of rapid resynthesis of transfer RNA, to the normal level at about 20 hours. The decline and increase in transfer RNA was accompanied by a change in the ratios of certain amino acid acceptor species. Evidence is also presented that an embryo ribonuclease is lost during the first 10 to 15 hours, followed by the appearance of a second seedling ribonuclease between 15 and 30 hours of germination. PMID:5700016

  17. Effect of illumination on the content of melatonin, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity during germination of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Liébana, Rosa; Herrera, Teresa; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Sanchez-Puelles, Carlos; Benítez, Vanesa; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the effects of two different illumination conditions during germination (12 h light/12 h dark vs 24 h dark) in lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the content of melatonin and phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant activity. Germination led to relative increase in melatonin content and significant antioxidant activity, while the content of phenolic compounds decreased. The highest melatonin content was obtained after 6 days of germination under 24 h dark for both legumes. These germinated legume seeds with improved levels of melatonin might play a protective role against free radicals. Thus, considering the potent antioxidant activity of melatonin, these sprouts can be consumed as direct foods and be offered as preventive food strategies in combating chronic diseases through the diet.

  18. Effect of illumination on the content of melatonin, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity during germination of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Liébana, Rosa; Herrera, Teresa; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Sanchez-Puelles, Carlos; Benítez, Vanesa; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the effects of two different illumination conditions during germination (12 h light/12 h dark vs 24 h dark) in lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the content of melatonin and phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant activity. Germination led to relative increase in melatonin content and significant antioxidant activity, while the content of phenolic compounds decreased. The highest melatonin content was obtained after 6 days of germination under 24 h dark for both legumes. These germinated legume seeds with improved levels of melatonin might play a protective role against free radicals. Thus, considering the potent antioxidant activity of melatonin, these sprouts can be consumed as direct foods and be offered as preventive food strategies in combating chronic diseases through the diet. PMID:25310717

  19. Quality evaluation of physical properties, antinutritional factors, and antioxidant activity of bread fortified with germinated horse gram (Dolichus uniflorus) flour.

    PubMed

    Moktan, Karishma; Ojha, Pravin

    2016-09-01

    Horse gram was germinated at 90% RH at 25°C for 72 h after 24 h soaking and then grinded to pass through 150 μm mesh size screens. The germination of horse gram result in increased protein, fiber, total polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity of horse gram flour whereas fat, ash, carbohydrate, iron, calcium, tannin, phytate, and oxalate were reduced due to germination. Bread was prepared by the incorporation of (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) germinated horse gram flour (GHF) by a straight dough method. The loaf volume and specific volume decreased with an increased use of percentage of GHF. The sensory evaluation revealed that the incorporation of GHF up to 6% was acceptable. The protein (% db), fiber (% db), ash (% db), iron (mg/100 g), calcium (mg/100 g), tannin (mg/g), phytate (mg/g), oxalate (mg/g), total polyphenol content (GAE/g), and antioxidant activity (DPPH % inhibition) was found to be 9.08 ± 0.01, 1.23 ± 0.15, 1.36 ± 0.11, 4.07 ± 0.03, 128 ± 0.26, 2.06 ± 0.15, 2.46 ± 0.15, 0.7 ± 0.1, 12.44 ± 0.40, and 31.13 ± 0.25, respectively, in 6% GHF incorporated bread. The research concludes that 6% GHF incorporation in bread enhance the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties. PMID:27625781

  20. Selective utilization of Toll-like receptor and MyD88 signaling in B cells for enhancement of the anti-viral germinal center response

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Baidong; Saudan, Philippe; Ott, Gary; Wheeler, Matthew L.; Ji, Ming; Kuzmich, Lili; Lee, Linda M.; Coffman, Robert L.; Bachmann, Martin F.; DeFranco, Anthony L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The contribution of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling to T cell-dependent (TD) antibody responses was assessed by using mice lacking the TLR signaling adaptor MyD88 in individual cell types. When a soluble TLR9 ligand was used as adjuvant for a protein antigen, MyD88 was required in dendritic cells but not in B cells to enhance the TD antibody response, regardless of the inherent immunogenicity of the antigen. In contrast, a TLR9 ligand contained within a virus-like particle substantially augmented the TD germinal center IgG antibody response, and this augmentation required B cell MyD88. The ability of B cells to discriminate between antigens based the physical form of a TLR ligand likely reflects an adaptation to facilitate strong anti-viral antibody responses. PMID:21353603

  1. Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin's disease represent the outgrowth of a dominant tumor clone derived from (crippled) germinal center B cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In Hodgkin's disease (HD), the Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells represent only a minute population in the diseased tissue. The investigation of lineage derivation and clonal origin of these cells has yielded conflicting results. We have analyzed HRS cells micromanipulated from infiltrated tissue sections of 10 primary HD patients for rearranged V genes, extending a previous study. Clonally related rearrangements were found in nine cases, indicating that HRS cells represent a dominant clone of B lineage-derived cells in at least a large fraction of cases of HD. Rearranged VH genes from HRS cells carried a high load of somatic mutation, indicating that HRS cells are derived from germinal center (GC) cells or their progeny. Stop codons in some in-frame V gene rearrangements suggest that the HRS cell precursors reside inside GCs, have acquired crippling mutations that prevent antigenic selection, but escape apoptosis through some transforming event. PMID:8879220

  2. MicroRNA profiles of t(14;18)–negative follicular lymphoma support a late germinal center B-cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Leich, Ellen; Zamo, Alberto; Horn, Heike; Haralambieva, Eugenia; Puppe, Bernhard; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Chan, Wing-Chung; Braziel, Rita M.; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Delabie, Jan; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Staudt, Louis M.; Mueller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Calaminici, Mariarita; Campo, Elias; Ott, German; Hernández, Luis

    2011-01-01

    A total of 90% of follicular lymphomas (FLs) harbor the translocation t(14;18) leading to deregulated BCL2 expression. Conversely, 10% of FLs lack the t(14;18), and the majority of these FLs do not express BCL2. The molecular features of t(14;18)–negative FLs remain largely unknown. We performed microRNA expression analysis in 32 FL grades 1 to 3A, including 17 t(14;18)–positive FLs, 9 t(14;18)–negative FLs without BCL2 expression, and 6 t(14;18)–negative FLs with BCL2 expression. MicroRNA profiles were correlated with corresponding mRNA expression patterns, and potential targets were investigated by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry in an independent validation series of 83 FLs. Statistical analysis identified 17 microRNAs that were differentially expressed between t(14;18)–positive FLs and t(14;18)–negative FLs. The down-regulation of miR-16, miR-26a, miR-101, miR-29c, and miR138 in the t(14;18)-negative FL subset was associated with profound mRNA expression changes of potential target genes involving cell cycle control, apoptosis, and B-cell differentiation. miR-16 target CHEK1 showed increased expression in t(14;18)-negative FLs, whereas TCL1A expression was reduced, in line with a partial loss of the germinal center B-cell phenotype in this FL subset. In conclusion, t(14;18)–negative FL have distinct microRNA profiles that are associated with an increased proliferative capacity and a “late” germinal center B-cell phenotype. PMID:21960592

  3. Catawba Science Center solar activities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    Two demonstration solar water heaters were built. One was to be used at the Science Center and the other with traveling programs. This was completed and both units are being used for these programs which continue. We were able to build a library of 99 solar energy books and booklets that are available to the public for reference. We also conducted programs for 683 students of all ages. The culminating activity was the planned Energy Awareness Festival. This was held on September 26, 1981 and attracted 450 area citizens. We offered free exhibit space and hosted 17 exhibitors.

  4. Impact of Melatonin Enrichment during Germination of Legumes on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Herrera, Teresa; Liébana, Rosa; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Sanchez-Puelles, Carlos; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2015-09-16

    This study assesses the impact of melatonin enriched watering on the germination of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The melatonin levels in lentil and bean sprouts measured by HPLC-MS/MS were more important than those found in other legumes and sprouts, being higher in lentil (1090 ng/g) than in kidney bean (529 ng/g) sprouts. This alternative germination promoted a significant increase of the development of radicles in comparison with the traditional germination. The decreases in the phenolic load were less accentuated than previously observed (lentil sprouts displayed 394 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of dry weight (DW)), probably due to the protective effect of melatonin. The antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbing capacity assay) increased in these sprouts, reaching 85 and 56 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g DW in lentils and beans, respectively. Hence, the melatonin-enriched foods exhibited potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant functions that may be used as a nutritional strategy to alleviate and prevent chronic and age-related diseases.

  5. Impact of Melatonin Enrichment during Germination of Legumes on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Herrera, Teresa; Liébana, Rosa; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Sanchez-Puelles, Carlos; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2015-09-16

    This study assesses the impact of melatonin enriched watering on the germination of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The melatonin levels in lentil and bean sprouts measured by HPLC-MS/MS were more important than those found in other legumes and sprouts, being higher in lentil (1090 ng/g) than in kidney bean (529 ng/g) sprouts. This alternative germination promoted a significant increase of the development of radicles in comparison with the traditional germination. The decreases in the phenolic load were less accentuated than previously observed (lentil sprouts displayed 394 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of dry weight (DW)), probably due to the protective effect of melatonin. The antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbing capacity assay) increased in these sprouts, reaching 85 and 56 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g DW in lentils and beans, respectively. Hence, the melatonin-enriched foods exhibited potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant functions that may be used as a nutritional strategy to alleviate and prevent chronic and age-related diseases. PMID:26307852

  6. Effects of properties of metal-contaminated soils on bacterial bioluminescence activity, seed germination, and root and shoot growth.

    PubMed

    Kang, Il-Mo; Kong, In Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of several factors (metal contents and soil properties) on bacterial bioluminescence activity, seed germination and root/shoot growth of Lactuca in metal-contaminated soils. Each bioassay showed different sensitivities to extractants of soil samples. Average sensitivities of the bioassay were in the following order: root growth > bioluminescence ≥ shoot growth ≥ seed germination. Both total and weak acid-extracted metal contents showed no observable correlations with the activity of any bioassays (r(2) < 0.279). However, reasonable correlations were observed between the bioluminescence activity and organics (r(2) = 0.7198) as well as between root growth and CEC (r(2) = 0.6676). Effects of soils were difficult to generalize since they were dependent on many factors, such as soil properties, metal contents, and the organism used in each test. Nonetheless, these results indicated that a battery of bioassays is an effective strategy for assessment of contaminated soils. Furthermore, specific soil factors were shown to more influence on soil toxicity, depending on the type of bioassay.

  7. Very late relapse in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma represents clonally related disease and is marked by germinal center cell features.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Daphne; Glas, Annuska M; Boerrigter, Lucie; Hermus, Marie-Christine; Dalesio, Otilia; Willemse, Els; Nederlof, Petra M; Kersten, Marie José

    2003-07-01

    Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) rarely show relapse after 4 years of complete remission (CR). In this study, we addressed the following questions: (1) Does late-relapsing DLBCL represent clonally related disease or a second malignancy; and (2) is there a characteristic biologic background? In 10 of 13 DLBCL patients with relapse after 4 to 17 years, a clonal relationship was established based on identical IgH-sequences and/or identical bcl2-IgH translocation. Most (77%) showed features of germinal center (GC) cells, as defined by expression of CD10, bcl-2, and bcl-6 protein and ongoing immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (VH) hypermutation. A GC phenotype was seen in 8 (20%) of 38 control patients matched for age, stage, and (extra)nodal localization with relapse within 2.5 years (P =.005). In conclusion, we have found evidence that late-relapsing DLBCL represents truly clonally related disease episodes in most cases and that this clinical behavior may be related to the biologic features of GC cells. PMID:12649152

  8. A Stochastic Model of the Germinal Center Integrating Local Antigen Competition, Individualistic T-B Interactions, and B Cell Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Shih, Chang-Ming; Qi, Hai; Lan, Yue-Heng

    2016-08-15

    The germinal center (GC) reaction underlies productive humoral immunity by orchestrating competition-based affinity maturation to produce plasma cells and memory B cells. T cells are limiting in this process. How B cells integrate signals from T cells and BCRs to make fate decisions while subjected to a cyclic selection process is not clear. In this article, we present a spatiotemporally resolved stochastic model that describes cell behaviors as rate-limited stochastic reactions. We hypothesize a signal integrator protein integrates follicular helper T (Tfh)- and Ag-derived signals to drive different B cell fates in a probabilistic manner and a dedicated module of Tfh interaction promoting factors control the efficiency of contact-dependent Tfh help delivery to B cells. Without assuming deterministic affinity-based decisions or temporal event sequence, this model recapitulates GC characteristics, highlights the importance of efficient T cell help delivery during individual contacts with B cells and intercellular positive feedback for affinity maturation, reveals the possibility that antagonism between BCR signaling and T cell help accelerates affinity maturation, and suggests that the dichotomy between affinity and magnitude of GC reaction can be avoided by tuning the efficiency of contact-dependent help delivery during reiterative T-B interactions. PMID:27421481

  9. Early B-cell-specific inactivation of ATM synergizes with ectopic CyclinD1 expression to promote pre-germinal center B-cell lymphomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Lee, B J; Li, C; Dubois, R L; Hobeika, E; Bhagat, G; Zha, S

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase is a master regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM is frequently inactivated in human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including ~50% of mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) characterized by ectopic expression of CyclinD1. Here we report that early and robust deletion of ATM in precursor/progenitor B cells causes cell autonomous, clonal mature B-cell lymphomas of both pre- and post-germinal center (GC) origins. Unexpectedly, naive B-cell-specific deletion of ATM is not sufficient to induce lymphomas in mice, highlighting the important tumor suppressor function of ATM in immature B cells. Although EμCyclinD1 is not sufficient to induce lymphomas, EμCyclinD1 accelerates the kinetics and increases the incidence of clonal lymphomas in ATM-deficient B-cells and skews the lymphomas toward pre-GC-derived small lymphocytic neoplasms, sharing morphological features of human MCL. This is in part due to CyclinD1-driven expansion of ATM-deficient naive B cells with genomic instability, which promotes the deletions of additional tumor suppressor genes (i.e. Trp53, Mll2, Rb1 and Cdkn2a). Together these findings define a synergistic function of ATM and CyclinD1 in pre-GC B-cell proliferation and lymphomagenesis and provide a prototypic animal model to study the pathogenesis of human MCL. PMID:25676421

  10. Photophysiology of turion germination in Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden VIII. Calcium dependence and β-amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Appenroth, K J; Komusiewicz, J; Hertel, W; Augsten, H

    1991-12-01

    Red-light-induced germination (via phytochrome) of turions of Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden, strain SJ, showed an absolute requirement for exogenously applied calcium (Appenroth et al. 1990b, Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen 186, 209-219). With calcium step-up experiments (from 0.9 μM to 1 mM Ca(2+)) the influence of Ca(2+) on the escape from far-red-light reversibility was investigated. Delaying the time of Ca(2+) application after the red light pulse resulted in an increased reversibility. This confirmed that the calcium-requiring phase is within the phytochrome-dependent period. Ten days after a red light pulse was applied the activity of β-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) was increased about tenfold. The starting point was similar in the germination and enzymatic responses, but half-maximal response times according to the Mitscherlich function (2.5 d and 6.9 d, respectively) and times of saturation (about 6 d and 9 d, respectively) were different. Increase of β-amylase activity was completely inhibited by irradiation with far-red light (demonstrating phytochrome as the photoreceptor), as well as by inhibitors of translation (cycloheximide, puromycin) and transcription (cordycepin). Once formed, the active enzyme protein was stable for at least 4 d after cycloheximide application. After application of cordycepin a small amount of translation activity was detected until complete inhibition was reached after 2 d. This phytochrome-modulated, de-novo synthesis of β-amylase was only slightly dependent on exogenous Ca(2+). Therefore, it can be concluded that the phytochrome-mediated signal-transduction chain branches either in its reversible part or as a consequence of diversity of the primary phytochrome reaction. PMID:24186578

  11. Changes in proteolytic enzyme activities and transformation of nitrogenous compounds in the germinating seeds of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Pusztai, A; Duncan, I

    1971-12-01

    Hydrolytic activity towards synthetic substrates and denatured proteins was measured in the extracts of the seeds of kidney bean at various stages of germination up to 16 days.Of the peptide hydrolases, chymotrypsin-type activity was stable for the first 7 days, then rapidly increased towards the end; leucine aminopeptidase activity decreased to a minimum (8th day) then slowly increased again; trypsin-type activity remained constant throughout.Proteolytic and autodigesting activities showed an optimum between pH 5.0 and 5.5. Both activities decreased slowly first, then rose to a sharp maximum at the 8th day. The haemoglobin-digesting activity after a minimum increased again at the 14th day. The autodigesting activity had an additional maximum.Concomitant with these changes, non-protein nitrogen increased twofold by the 5th day, remained constant up to the 12th day and then increased again. Protein content on the other hand decreased first, had a maximum at the 9th day after which it steadily decreased again. The amounts of albumins and globulins changed independently of each other: albumins decreased continuously with the exception of a steady period (5-9th days), while globulins were more stable except for a sharp minimum (6-7th days) and a steady decrease after the 13th day.

  12. Toxic effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) on seed germination and growth and DPPH-scavenging activity in Brassica rapa var. turnip.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Maryam Mehmood; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Mohammad; Mahmood, Tariq

    2014-04-01

    Toxicity of heavy metal is a wide spread environmental problem affecting all life forms including plants. In the present study the toxic effects of heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) on seed germination rate (%), germination index (G-index) and growth (mm) of Brassica rapa var. turnip have been investigated. The seeds were soaked either in distilled water (control) or in aqueous solutions of Cd, Cr and Pb (1 g/l, 2.5 g/l and 5 g/l) at 4°C in dark for 24 hours. Prior to inoculation onto MS0 medium, the soaked seeds were either washed with sterile distilled water or inoculated without washing on solidified MS0 medium at 25 ± 2°C with 16/8-hour photoperiod in a growth chamber to germinate in vitro. Such stress conditions revealed that by increasing the concentration of heavy metals, the germination rate (%), G-index value and growth (mm) decreased significantly, suggesting their toxic effect on B. rapa var. turnip. This study further revealed that experiment with seed washing resulted in less toxicity of selected heavy metals on germination and growth of B. rapa var. turnip, as compared to experiment without washing. However, the resulting toxicity order of the selected heavy metals remained the same (Cd > Cr > Pb). Significant decrease has been observed in seed viability and germination potential and finally heavy metals completely ceased further growth and development of plants. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity revealed that significantly higher activity was observed in control plants without heavy metals treatment. Furthermore, the Cd-treated plants showed decreased antioxidant activity. Cr and Pb were less toxic as compared to Cd (control > Pb > Cr > Cd). This study revealed that selected heavy metals not only affected plant development but also disturbed plant metabolic pathways.

  13. Promotion of Testa Rupture during Garden Cress Germination Involves Seed Compartment-Specific Expression and Activity of Pectin Methylesterases1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Scheler, Claudia; Weitbrecht, Karin; Pearce, Simon P.; Hampstead, Anthony; Büttner-Mainik, Annette; Lee, Kieran J.D.; Voegele, Antje; Oracz, Krystyna; Dekkers, Bas J.W.; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wood, Andrew T.A.; Bentsink, Leónie; King, John R.; Knox, J. Paul; Holdsworth, Michael J.; Müller, Kerstin; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Pectin methylesterase (PME) controls the methylesterification status of pectins and thereby determines the biophysical properties of plant cell walls, which are important for tissue growth and weakening processes. We demonstrate here that tissue-specific and spatiotemporal alterations in cell wall pectin methylesterification occur during the germination of garden cress (Lepidium sativum). These cell wall changes are associated with characteristic expression patterns of PME genes and resultant enzyme activities in the key seed compartments CAP (micropylar endosperm) and RAD (radicle plus lower hypocotyl). Transcriptome and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis as well as PME enzyme activity measurements of separated seed compartments, including CAP and RAD, revealed distinct phases during germination. These were associated with hormonal and compartment-specific regulation of PME group 1, PME group 2, and PME inhibitor transcript expression and total PME activity. The regulatory patterns indicated a role for PME activity in testa rupture (TR). Consistent with a role for cell wall pectin methylesterification in TR, treatment of seeds with PME resulted in enhanced testa permeability and promoted TR. Mathematical modeling of transcript expression changes in germinating garden cress and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds suggested that group 2 PMEs make a major contribution to the overall PME activity rather than acting as PME inhibitors. It is concluded that regulated changes in the degree of pectin methylesterification through CAP- and RAD-specific PME and PME inhibitor expression play a crucial role during Brassicaceae seed germination. PMID:25429110

  14. Green synthesis of nano zinc oxide and evaluation of its impact on germination and metabolic activity of Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajey; Singh, N B; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Singh, Himani; Yadav, Vijaya; Singh, S C

    2016-09-10

    In the present study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were rapidly synthesized at room temperature by treating zinc acetate dihydrate with the flower extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive). The formation of ZnO NPs was primarily confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectrum in the range of 250-700nm. XRD analysis and DLS particle size analyzer revealed the size of ZnO NPs. The FTIR spectrum revealed the presence of phytochemicals in the flower extract mediated ZnO NPs. Moreover, the morphology of the ZnO NPs was determined using SEM. Seeds of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) were separately treated with different concentrations of synthesized ZnO NPs and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) salt suspensions (common zinc supplement). The effect of these treatments on seed germination, seedling vigor, chlorophyll, protein and sugar contents as well as on the activities of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme were studied. Leaves of plants treated with 6.1mM concentration of ZnO NPs recorded maximum reflectance while it was minimum in plants treated with 1.2mM concentration of NPs. The effect of synthesized ZnO NPs on seedling vigor, pigment, protein and sugar content was found affirmative at lower concentrations contrary to control and ZnSO4 salt. The inhibitory effect at higher concentration of NPs indicated importance in the precise application of NPs, in Zn deficient system, where plant response varies with concentration. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on Elaeagnus angustifolia mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs and their effects on germination and physiological activity of tomato. PMID:27422354

  15. Green synthesis of nano zinc oxide and evaluation of its impact on germination and metabolic activity of Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajey; Singh, N B; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Singh, Himani; Yadav, Vijaya; Singh, S C

    2016-09-10

    In the present study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were rapidly synthesized at room temperature by treating zinc acetate dihydrate with the flower extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive). The formation of ZnO NPs was primarily confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectrum in the range of 250-700nm. XRD analysis and DLS particle size analyzer revealed the size of ZnO NPs. The FTIR spectrum revealed the presence of phytochemicals in the flower extract mediated ZnO NPs. Moreover, the morphology of the ZnO NPs was determined using SEM. Seeds of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) were separately treated with different concentrations of synthesized ZnO NPs and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) salt suspensions (common zinc supplement). The effect of these treatments on seed germination, seedling vigor, chlorophyll, protein and sugar contents as well as on the activities of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme were studied. Leaves of plants treated with 6.1mM concentration of ZnO NPs recorded maximum reflectance while it was minimum in plants treated with 1.2mM concentration of NPs. The effect of synthesized ZnO NPs on seedling vigor, pigment, protein and sugar content was found affirmative at lower concentrations contrary to control and ZnSO4 salt. The inhibitory effect at higher concentration of NPs indicated importance in the precise application of NPs, in Zn deficient system, where plant response varies with concentration. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on Elaeagnus angustifolia mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs and their effects on germination and physiological activity of tomato.

  16. Activities of the Center for Space Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction (CSC) at the University of Colorado at Boulder is one of eight University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in 1988. The mission of the center is to conduct research into space technology and to directly contribute to space engineering education. The center reports to the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and resides in the College of Engineering and Applied Science. The college has a long and successful track record of cultivating multi-disciplinary research and education programs. The Center for Space Construction is prominent evidence of this record. At the inception of CSC, the center was primarily founded on the need for research on in-space construction of large space systems like space stations and interplanetary space vehicles. The scope of CSC's research has now evolved to include the design and construction of all spacecraft, large and small. Within this broadened scope, our research projects seek to impact the underlying technological basis for such spacecraft as remote sensing satellites, communication satellites, and other special purpose spacecraft, as well as the technological basis for large space platforms. The center's research focuses on three areas: spacecraft structures, spacecraft operations and control, and regolith and surface systems. In the area of spacecraft structures, our current emphasis is on concepts and modeling of deployable structures, analysis of inflatable structures, structural damage detection algorithms, and composite materials for lightweight structures. In the area of spacecraft operations and control, we are continuing our previous efforts in process control of in-orbit structural assembly. In addition, we have begun two new efforts in formal approach to spacecraft flight software systems design and adaptive attitude control systems. In the area of regolith and surface systems, we are continuing the work of characterizing the physical properties of lunar

  17. Primary sacral non-germinal center type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with MYC translocation: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Asami; Sugimoto, Kei-Ji; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Imai, Hidenori; Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Ota, Yasunori; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    An 85-year-old man presented with pain and numbness in the left buttock, and physical examination revealed an approximately 7 cm mass extending from the first to the third sacral vertebrae; biopsy of the mass led to the diagnosis of CD10-negative, BCL6-weakly positive, MUM1-positive, non-germinal center (non-GC) type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Furthermore, serological testing showed negative results for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed a MYC translocation. Radiographs showed no remarkable osteolytic bone destruction, and the patient was staged with Stage IAE. After 8 cycles of rituximab therapy and 6 cycles of CHOP therapy, complete remission has been maintained until now, approximately 1 year after the treatment. Primary sacral lymphoma is very rare, with only 6 reported cases, including the present one. A review of the reported cases revealed that the disease predominantly affects elderly men, is usually non-GC-type DLBCL and stage IAE, measures approximately 2-7 cm in diameter in general, and does not show early recurrence after chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. There is no report in the literature yet of primary sacral DLBCL with MYC translocation, and this is the first case report. On the other hand, 35 cases of CD10-negative DLBCL with MYC translocation, including the present one, have been reported, and a review of the reported cases showed that the disease predominantly affects Asians, middle-aged or elderly men, shows positivity for either BCL6 or MUM1 and negativity for EBV, and has a high international prognostic index and poor prognosis.

  18. Induction of Th1-Biased T Follicular Helper (Tfh) Cells in Lymphoid Tissues during Chronic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Defines Functionally Distinct Germinal Center Tfh Cells.

    PubMed

    Velu, Vijayakumar; Mylvaganam, Geetha Hanna; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Hong, Jung Joo; Iyer, Smita S; Gumber, Sanjeev; Ibegbu, Chris C; Villinger, Francois; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-09-01

    Chronic HIV infection is associated with accumulation of germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the lymphoid tissue. The GC Tfh cells can be heterogeneous based on the expression of chemokine receptors associated with T helper lineages, such as CXCR3 (Th1), CCR4 (Th2), and CCR6 (Th17). However, the heterogeneous nature of GC Tfh cells in the lymphoid tissue and its association with viral persistence and Ab production during chronic SIV/HIV infection are not known. To address this, we characterized the expression of CXCR3, CCR4, and CCR6 on GC Tfh cells in lymph nodes following SIVmac251 infection in rhesus macaques. In SIV-naive rhesus macaques, only a small fraction of GC Tfh cells expressed CXCR3, CCR4, and CCR6. However, during chronic SIV infection, the majority of GC Tfh cells expressed CXCR3, whereas the proportion of CCR4(+) cells did not change, and CCR6(+) cells decreased. CXCR3(+), but not CXCR3(-), GC Tfh cells produced IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine) and IL-21 (Tfh cytokine), whereas both subsets expressed CD40L following stimulation. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated an accumulation of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells within the hyperplastic follicles during chronic SIV infection. CXCR3(+) GC Tfh cells also expressed higher levels of ICOS, CCR5, and α4β7 and contained more copies of SIV DNA compared with CXCR3(-) GC Tfh cells. However, CXCR3(+) and CXCR3(-) GC Tfh cells delivered help to B cells in vitro for production of IgG. These data demonstrate that chronic SIV infection promotes expansion of Th1-biased GC Tfh cells, which are phenotypically and functionally distinct from conventional GC Tfh cells and contribute to hypergammaglobulinemia and viral reservoirs. PMID:27481845

  19. The t(14;18) is associated with germinal center-derived diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and is a strong predictor of outcome.

    PubMed

    Barrans, Sharon L; Evans, Paul A S; O'Connor, Sheila J M; Kendall, S Jane; Owen, Roger G; Haynes, Andrew P; Morgan, Gareth J; Jack, Andrew S

    2003-06-01

    The t(14;18) is present in a significant proportion of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), however, the prognostic effect of the translocation and the relationship with transformed follicular lymphoma remains controversial. To clarify these uncertainties, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine the incidence of the t(14;18) in nodal DLBCL, and this was correlated with BCL2 expression, germinal center (GC) immunophenotype, and patient outcome. FISH was performed on paraffin-extracted nuclei from 137 de novo nodal DLBCLs. Eighteen of 137 de novo DLBCLs were t(14;18) positive. The t(14;18) was most commonly associated with the subset of DLBCLs that expressed a GC phenotype, defined as CD10+, BCL6+ (GC-type DLBCL): positive in 14 of 47 (30%) cases, compared with 4 of 89 (5%) in the non-GC group (Pearson's chi(2) = 28.4; P < 0.0001). All cases with a translocation expressed BCL2 protein, however, 40 expressed BCL2 protein without a t(14;18). GC-type DLBCL patients with a t(14;18) had a significantly worse survival compared with GC-type DLBCL patients without the translocation (2-year survivals were 29 and 63%, respectively; P = 0.006). Of the cases without the translocation, BCL2 protein expression did not affect survival. In contrast, in the non-GC group of DLBCLs, BCL2 protein expression reduced the 2-year overall survival from 64% in the BCL2-negative group to 38%, with a median survival of 15.0 months (P = 0.02). In conclusion, the t(14;18) is common in DLBCLs, particularly in GC-type DLBCLs, where the presence of the translocation has a poor prognostic effect. BCL2 protein expression defines a group of non-GC DLBCL patients with a poor prognosis. PMID:12796378

  20. Germinal center phenotype and bcl-2 expression combined with the International Prognostic Index improves patient risk stratification in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Barrans, Sharon L; Carter, Ian; Owen, Roger G; Davies, Faith E; Patmore, Russell D; Haynes, Andrew P; Morgan, Gareth J; Jack, Andrew S

    2002-02-15

    The International Prognostic Index (IPI) identifies poor- and good-risk patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL); however, the majority of patients have an intermediate IPI, with an uncertain prognosis. To determine whether cellular factors can be combined with the IPI to more accurately predict outcome, we have analyzed 177 presentation nodal DLBCLs for the expression of bcl-2 and a germinal center (GC) phenotype (defined by expression of bcl-6 and CD10). P53 gene band shifts were detected using single-stranded conformational polymorphism polymerase chain reaction analysis of exons 5-9 and were correlated with protein expression. In a Cox regression analysis, IPI (R = 0.22, P <.0001) and bcl-2 (R = 0.14, P =.0001) were independent poor prognostic factors and a GC phenotype predicted a favorable outcome (R = -0.025, P =.02). Neither p53 expression nor band shifts had a significant effect on survival. Using the IPI alone, 8% of patients were identified as high risk. Expression of bcl-2 in the intermediate IPI group identified a further 28% of patients with an overall survival comparable to the high IPI group. In the intermediate IPI, bcl-2(-) group, the presence of a GC phenotype improved overall survival to levels approaching the IPI low group. Following this analysis only 15% of patients failed to be assigned to a favorable- or poor-risk group. Sequential addition of bcl-2 expression and GC phenotype into the IPI significantly improves risk stratification in DLBCL. For the 36% of high-risk patients with a 2-year overall survival of 19%, alternative treatment strategies should be considered in future trials. PMID:11830458

  1. Effects of protein kinase C activators on germinal vesicle breakdown and polar body emission of mouse oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bornslaeger, E.A.; Poueymirou, W.T.; Mattei, P.; Schultz, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase is instrumental in maintaining meiotic arrest of mouse oocytes. To assess whether protein phosphorylation mediated by calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) might also inhibit the resumption of meiosis, oocytes were treated with activators of this enzyme. The active phorbol esters 12-O-tetra-decanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 4..beta..-phorbol, 12,13-didecanoate (4..beta..-PDD) inhibited germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), as did a more natural activator of protein kinase, C, sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (diC/sub 8/). An inactive phorbol ester, 4a-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4..cap alpha..-PDD), did not inhibit GVBD. TPA did not inhibit the maturation-associated decrease in oocyte cAMP. Microinjected heat-stable protein inhibitor of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase failed to induce GVBD in the presence of TPA. Both TPA and diC/sub 8/ partially inhibited specific changes in oocyte phosphoprotein metabolism that are tightly correlated with resumption of meiosis; these agents also induced the apparent phosphorylation of specific oocyte proteins. These results suggest that protein kinase C activators may inhibit resumption of meiosis by acting distal to a decrease in cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, but prior to changes in oocyte phosphoprotein metabolism that are presumably required for resumption of meiosis.

  2. Analysis of expression and inhibitory activity of a TrcC-6 phytocystatin present in developing and germinating seeds of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.).

    PubMed

    Simińska, Joanna; Orzechowski, Sławomir; Bielawski, Wiesław

    2015-11-01

    Storage proteins of cereal seeds are processed during accumulation and degraded during germination primarily by cysteine proteinases. One of the mechanisms controlling the activity of these enzymes is the synthesis of specific inhibitors named phytocystatins. Here we present the complete gene sequence of a triticale ( × Triticosecale Wittm.) phytocystatin, TrcC-6, which encodes a 152-amino acid protein with a putative 25-amino acid signal peptide. This protein has a calculated molecular mass of 16.2 kDa, and was assigned to phylogenetic group B of phytocystatins. Because TrcC-6 transcripts are present in triticale seeds, we hypothesized that this phytocystatin regulates storage protein accumulation and degradation. Therefore, changes in gene expression during the entire period of seed development and germination were examined. TrcC-6 transcripts and TrcC-6 protein levels increased during the maturation of seeds and remained high during the first hours of germination. This enabled us to conclude that TrcC-6 likely regulates seed germination by the regulation of storage protein hydrolysis. For the analysis of TrcC-6 inhibitory activity, recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified. Recombinant TrcC-6 proved to be a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteinases. It inhibited the in vitro activity of papain (EC 3.4.22.2) and ficin (EC 3.4.22.3). Furthermore, native PAGE analysis revealed that recombinant TrcC-6 inhibits the activity of endogenous cysteine proteinases present in germinating seeds of triticale. Based on these results, TrcC-6 is likely one of the important factors that regulate cysteine proteinase activity during the accumulation and mobilization of storage proteins.

  3. Analysis of expression and inhibitory activity of a TrcC-6 phytocystatin present in developing and germinating seeds of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.).

    PubMed

    Simińska, Joanna; Orzechowski, Sławomir; Bielawski, Wiesław

    2015-11-01

    Storage proteins of cereal seeds are processed during accumulation and degraded during germination primarily by cysteine proteinases. One of the mechanisms controlling the activity of these enzymes is the synthesis of specific inhibitors named phytocystatins. Here we present the complete gene sequence of a triticale ( × Triticosecale Wittm.) phytocystatin, TrcC-6, which encodes a 152-amino acid protein with a putative 25-amino acid signal peptide. This protein has a calculated molecular mass of 16.2 kDa, and was assigned to phylogenetic group B of phytocystatins. Because TrcC-6 transcripts are present in triticale seeds, we hypothesized that this phytocystatin regulates storage protein accumulation and degradation. Therefore, changes in gene expression during the entire period of seed development and germination were examined. TrcC-6 transcripts and TrcC-6 protein levels increased during the maturation of seeds and remained high during the first hours of germination. This enabled us to conclude that TrcC-6 likely regulates seed germination by the regulation of storage protein hydrolysis. For the analysis of TrcC-6 inhibitory activity, recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified. Recombinant TrcC-6 proved to be a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteinases. It inhibited the in vitro activity of papain (EC 3.4.22.2) and ficin (EC 3.4.22.3). Furthermore, native PAGE analysis revealed that recombinant TrcC-6 inhibits the activity of endogenous cysteine proteinases present in germinating seeds of triticale. Based on these results, TrcC-6 is likely one of the important factors that regulate cysteine proteinase activity during the accumulation and mobilization of storage proteins. PMID:26298807

  4. Telerobotic activities at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center telerobotic efforts span three major thrusts: (1) sustaining and expanding the capability of the Shuttle manipulator; (2) developing and integrating the multiple telerobotic system of the Space Station; and (3) fostering and applying research in all areas of telerobotics technology within the government, private, and academic sectors.

  5. Chemical trends in the activation energies of DX centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, O.; Kawai, H.; Mori, Y.; Kaneko, K.

    1984-12-01

    The activation energies of DX centers in AlGaAs doped with six different impurities (S, Se, Te, Si, Ge, and Sn) are measured by deep level transient spectroscopy. Remarkable trends are established, in which the activation energies of DX centers with group IV impurities become shallower as the mass number of the impurity increases, while those with group VI impurities remain constant.

  6. Marketing backgrounds and activities of community mental health center CEOs.

    PubMed

    Whyte, E G; Smith, M; Reidenbach, E N; Sharpe, T R

    1989-01-01

    More than 300 directors of community mental health centers responded to a survey concerning their marketing training and the marketing activities in which their centers had been engaged. Formal marketing training was found to be in the backgrounds of few of the respondents. The majority had not been engaged in a listing of marketing activities.

  7. 29 CFR 525.23 - Work activities centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work activities centers. 525.23 Section 525.23 Labor... OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.23 Work activities centers. Nothing in these regulations shall be interpreted to prevent an employer from maintaining or establishing...

  8. 29 CFR 525.23 - Work activities centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work activities centers. 525.23 Section 525.23 Labor... OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.23 Work activities centers. Nothing in these regulations shall be interpreted to prevent an employer from maintaining or establishing...

  9. 29 CFR 525.23 - Work activities centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work activities centers. 525.23 Section 525.23 Labor... OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.23 Work activities centers. Nothing in these regulations shall be interpreted to prevent an employer from maintaining or establishing...

  10. Adult Basic Learning in an Activity Center: A Demonstration Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Adult Education Program, San Jose, CA.

    Escuela Amistad, an activity center in San Jose, California, is now operating at capacity, five months after its origin. Average daily attendance has been 125 adult students, 18-65, most of whom are females of Mexican-American background. Activities and services provided by the center are: instruction in English as a second language, home…

  11. Endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase activities during germination of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Berger, S; Menudier, A; Julien, R; Karamanos, Y

    1995-06-01

    Endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (ENGase, EC 3.2.1.96) and peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase (PNGase, EC 3.5.1.52) activities were monitored during germination and postgerminative development in Raphanus sativus. The PNGase activity was found in dry seeds and its level was constant during germination and postgermination. The ENGase activity was first detected about 18 hr after the start of imbibition (HAI) and displayed a maximum level at 36 HAI. After 36 HAI the production of both enzymes was constant until days 4-5. Both enzymes displayed substrate specificities corresponding to the potential glycoprotein substrates found in plants. They are in agreement (i) with the hypothesis that ENGase and PNGase are at the origin of the production of 'unconjugated N-glycans' and (ii) with the possibility that protein activity could be regulated by the removal of N-glycans.

  12. Identification of embryo proteins associated with seed germination and seedling establishment in germinating rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Lu, Zhuang; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the mechanism of seed germination is still poorly understood. In the present study, rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Peiai 64S) seeds were sampled individually when they reached different germination stages, quiescent, germinated sensu stricto, germinated completely and seedling, and were used to study the changes in the embryo proteome. A total of 88 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance during germination in water, and the results showed an activation of metabolic processes. Cell division, cell wall synthesis, and secondary metabolism were activated at late seed germination and during preparation for subsequent seedling establishment. Cycloheximide (CHX) at 70μM inhibited seedling establishment without an apparent negative effect on seed germination, while CHX at 500μM completely blocked seed germination. We used this observation to identify the potentially important proteins involved in seed germination (coleoptile protrusion) and seedling establishment (coleoptile and radicle protrusion). Twenty-six protein spots, mainly associated with sugar/polysaccharide metabolism and energy production, showed a significant difference in abundance during seed germination. Forty-nine protein spots, mainly involved in cell wall biosynthesis, proteolysis as well as cell defense and rescue, were required for seedling establishment. The results help improve our understanding of the key events (proteins) involved in germination and seedling development.

  13. Identification of embryo proteins associated with seed germination and seedling establishment in germinating rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Lu, Zhuang; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the mechanism of seed germination is still poorly understood. In the present study, rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Peiai 64S) seeds were sampled individually when they reached different germination stages, quiescent, germinated sensu stricto, germinated completely and seedling, and were used to study the changes in the embryo proteome. A total of 88 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance during germination in water, and the results showed an activation of metabolic processes. Cell division, cell wall synthesis, and secondary metabolism were activated at late seed germination and during preparation for subsequent seedling establishment. Cycloheximide (CHX) at 70μM inhibited seedling establishment without an apparent negative effect on seed germination, while CHX at 500μM completely blocked seed germination. We used this observation to identify the potentially important proteins involved in seed germination (coleoptile protrusion) and seedling establishment (coleoptile and radicle protrusion). Twenty-six protein spots, mainly associated with sugar/polysaccharide metabolism and energy production, showed a significant difference in abundance during seed germination. Forty-nine protein spots, mainly involved in cell wall biosynthesis, proteolysis as well as cell defense and rescue, were required for seedling establishment. The results help improve our understanding of the key events (proteins) involved in germination and seedling development. PMID:27085178

  14. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua; Luo, Fengxia

    2012-10-01

    Two assays were conducted to investigate the changes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) phosphatases (phytase [Phy] and acid phosphatase [AcPh]) and the degradation of its substrates (inositol phosphate esters) during seed germination. The 1st assay was to establish the optimal germination conditions of faba bean and azuki bean to improve the endogenous phosphatases and increase the hydrolysis of phytate and, in the second assay, to determine the different lower phosphate esters of myo-inositol produced during the germination process. In the 1st assay, seeds were soaked for 12 and 24 h and germinated for 3 and 5 d with and without the addition of gibberellic acid (GA(3) ). In the second assay, seeds were soaked for 12 h and germinated for 1, 3, and 5 d with GA(3) . Phy (up to 3625 and 1340 U/kg) and AcPh (up to 9456 and 2740 U/g) activities, and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) (8.23 and 7.46 mg/g), inositol pentaphosphate (IP5) (0.55 and 0.82 mg/g), and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4) (0.26 and 0.01 mg/g) were detected in ungerminated faba bean and azuki bean, respectively. The germination process caused a significant increase of Phy and AcPh activities in faba bean (up to 147% and 210%) and azuki bean (up to 211% and 596%) and a reduction in the phytate phosphorus content (up to 81% and 63%, respectively). Phytate phosphorus content was affected only by soaking time in the case of faba bean. Finally, during the course of germination, IP6 and IP5 were rapidly degraded in faba bean (88% and 39%) and azuki bean (55% and 56%), and IP4 was only a short-living intermediate, which was increased during hydrolysis and degraded to inositol triphosphate. In this manner we could obtain a low-phytate, endogenous phosphatase-rich ingredient for enhancing human nutrition. PMID:22938099

  15. Effects of fluoride on germination, early growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of legume plant species Prosopis juliflora.

    PubMed

    Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-03-01

    Prosopis juliflora (Mimosoideae) is a fast growing and drought resistant tree of semi-arid region of India where fluoride (F) toxicity is a common problem. In the present investigations this species was fluoride tested to check their capacity as bioindicator plant and its efficiency to accumulate. To achieve this aim, P. juliflora seedlings grown in hydroponic culture containing different concentrations of F were analyzed for germination percentage together with some biochemical parameters viz, antioxidant enzyme activities, total chlorophyll and accumulation of F in different plant parts. After 15 days of treatment, root growth (r = -0.928, p < 0.01), shoot growth (r = -0.976, p < 0.01), vigor index (r = -0.984, p < 0.01) were in decreasing trend with increasing concentration of NaF. Both catalase (3.2 folds) and peroxidase (2.7 folds) enzymes activity increased with increase in F concentration. Plant accumulated larger portion of the F in the roots (1024.63 microg g(-1) d.wt.) followed by shoot (492.30 microg g(-1) d.wt.). As P. juliflora did not show any morphological changes (marginal and tip chlorosis of leaf portions, necrosis and together these features are referred to as leaf "tip-burn") therefore, this species may be used as suitable bioindicator species for potentially F affected areas. Further, higher accumulation of F in roots indicates that P. juliflora is a suitable species for the removal of F in phytoremediation purposes.

  16. CFD Modeling Activities at the NASA Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA Stennis Space Center's Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling activities is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of NASA Stennis Space Center; 2) Role of Computational Modeling at NASA-SSC; 3) Computational Modeling Tools and Resources; and 4) CFD Modeling Applications.

  17. Synergistic effect of oridonin and a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor on the non-germinal center B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Qing, Kai; Jin, Zhen; Fu, Wanbin; Wang, Wenfang; Liu, Zhao; Li, Xiaoyang; Xu, Zizhen; Li, Junmin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the synergistic antitumor effect of oridonin and the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 on the non-germinal center B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (non-GCB DLBCL) both in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanism may be multifunctional, involving apoptosis, AKT/mTOR and NF-kB inactivation, and ROS-mediated DNA damage response. Our findings pave the way for a new potential treatment option for non-GCB DLBCL with the combination of oridonin and NVP-BEZ235. PMID:27554093

  18. NASA Glenn Research Center Battery Activities Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon and GRC's involvement in their development. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  19. Genotoxicity testing of 3,4,5-trimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, a compound from plant-derived smoke with germination inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Light, Marnie E; Anthonissen, Roel; Maes, Annemarie; Verschaeve, Luc; Pošta, Martin; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-01-15

    Plant-derived smoke and certain smoke compounds improve seed germination and enhance seedling growth of many species. Thus, smoke-infused water and the active smoke-derived compounds have the potential to be used in different agricultural and horticultural applications. However, despite these interesting and potentially practical properties, it should also be ascertained whether such compounds may pose a health risk, particularly if they are to be used in the production of food or fodder crops. Amongst some of the aspects that would be important to understand are any possible genotoxic properties that the compounds may possess due to potential carry-over effects. Here, we report on a genotoxicity study of 3,4,5-trimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, a compound from plant-derived smoke previously shown to have germination inhibitory activity. Using two in vitro tests, namely the bacterial VITOTOX® test (with/without S9 metabolic activation) and the cytome assay on human C3A cells, no genotoxicity or toxicity was found. Furthermore, these results support a previous study where a related smoke-derived compound with germination promoting properties was investigated.

  20. Development of Mitochondrial Activities in Pea Cotyledons during and following Germination of the Axis 1

    PubMed Central

    Morohashi, Yukio; Bewley, J. Derek

    1980-01-01

    Development of mitochondrial activities in pea cotyledons during early times after the start of imbibition occurred in two phases. In the first phase (0 to 8 hours after the start of imbibition), succinate or NADH oxidation increased rapidly, while malate or α-ketoglutarate oxidation remained low. The latter activities developed only 8 to 12 hours after the start of imbibition (the second phase). Development in the first phase was induced by water uptake, but some development occurred even when the cotyledons were fully imbibed. The presence of the axis was required for the second phase of the development. It is suggested that mitochondrial development in the second phase is brought about by activation of the electron transfer path at a site between the oxidation of endogenous NADH and the reduction of ubiquinone. PMID:16661396

  1. IRF8 is associated with germinal center B-cell-like type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and exceptionally involved in translocation t(14;16)(q32.33;q24.1).

    PubMed

    Tinguely, Marianne; Thies, Svenja; Frigerio, Simona; Reineke, Tanja; Korol, Dimitri; Zimmermann, Dieter R

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin loci represent frequent oncogenic events in B-cell lymphoma development. Although IRF8 (ICSBP-1) protein expression has been demonstrated in germinal center B-cells and related lymphomas in a single report, the IRF8 gene was not described as an immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) translocation partner. In a discovery-driven approach we searched for new translocation partners of IGH in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by long distance inverse polymerase chain reaction (LDI-PCR) and Sanger sequencing. A t(14;16)(q32.33;q24.1) IGH/IRF8 was detected in a CD5+de novo DLBCL, confirmed by translocation specific PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. No further IRF8 aberration could be identified either by LDI-PCR in an additional five CD5+DLBCLs or by FISH on 78 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies. Subsequent screening for IRF8 by immunohistochemistry revealed IRF8 expression in 18/78 (23%), correlating with a germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) type of DLBCL. This hitherto unknown translocation t(14;16)(q32.33;q24.1) is likely to represent the initiator of a multistep lymphomagenesis in a CD5+de novo DLBCL. PMID:23573829

  2. Animal-Centered Learning Activities in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Lust, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To assess the contribution of animal-centered activities to students achieving learning outcomes in a veterinary therapeutics course. Design Qualitative methods were used to assess the outcome of using “hands-on” animal interactions as tools of engagement in the course. Reflective commentary on animal-centered activities was collected and analyzed. Assessment Animal-centered learning activities are effective tools for engaging students and facilitating their understanding and application of veterinary therapeutic knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Analysis of qualitative data revealed themes of professional caring and caring behaviors as a direct result of animal-centered activities. Elements of empathy, caring, compassion, and self-awareness were strong undercurrents in student's comments. Conclusions Animal-centered learning activities provide an innovative learning environment for the application of veterinary pharmacy knowledge, skills, and attitudes directly to animal patients. The use of animals in the course is a successful active-learning technique to engage pharmacy students and assist them in developing caring attitudes and behaviors beneficial to future health care providers. PMID:17149415

  3. Seed germination, phenology, and antiedematogenic activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) H. B. K.

    PubMed Central

    Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Oliveira, Ricardo Luiz Barros; Mendes, Sandra Santos; Silva, Paulo de Albuquerque; Antoniolli, Ângelo Roberto; Vilar, Jeane Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2002-01-01

    Background Peperomia pellucida is popularly known as coraçãozinho in the Brazilian northeast and is used in the treatment of abscesses, furuncles, and conjunctivitis. Our work aimed to determine the term of the development stages and the species cycle in the four seasons of the year (complete development, beginning of bloom, complete bloom, and seed set), verifying the plant's therapeutic profile during the four distinct development phases in order to detect differences in its potency. Pharmacological tests were performed to observe the anti-inflammatory activity. Results Phenological observations were accessed for a 12 month-period, from the Brazilian summer of 1999/2000 to fall 2000. On average the plantules' emergence occurred 15 days after seeding. All plantules grew in a similar manner up to 25 days after transplantation in all seasons. Starting on the 25th day, we observed faster growth during spring, with plants reaching a height of about 60 cm after 100 days of transplantation, unlike other seasons, in which plants reached heights of 40, 40, and 35 cm during winter, summer, and fall, respectively. The P. pellucida aqueous extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity during phenophases 1 and 2 of winter and spring. Depending on the plant's phenophase there was variation in the potency of edema inhibition. Conclusion P. pellucida has a phenological cycle of approximately 100 days. It is recommended that the P. pellucida aqueous extract is used as an antiedematogenic only during phenophases 1 and 2 of winter and spring. PMID:12019026

  4. Regioselective and stereospecific hydroxylation of GR24 by Sorghum bicolor and evaluation of germination inducing activities of hydroxylated GR24 stereoisomers toward seeds of Striga species.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kotomi; Ishiwa, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Hitomi; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2015-09-15

    Bioconversion of GR24, the most widely used synthetic strigolactone (SL), by hydroponically grown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and biological activities of hydroxylated GR24 stereoisomers were studied. Analysis of extracts and exudates of sorghum roots previously fed with a racemic and diastereomeric mixture of GR24, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), confirmed uptake of GR24 and suggested its conversion to mono-hydroxylated products. Two major GR24 metabolites, 7-hydroxy-GR24 and 8-hydroxy-GR24, were identified in the root extracts and exudates by direct comparison of chromatographic behavior with a series of synthetic mono-hydroxylated GR24 analogues. Separate feeding experiments with each of the GR24 stereoisomers revealed that the hydroxylated products were derived from 2'-epi-GR24, an evidence of sterical recognition of the GR24 molecule by sorghum. Trans-4-hydroxy-GR24 isomers derived from all GR24 stereoisomers were detected in the exudates as minor metabolites. The synthetic hydroxy-GR24 isomers induced germination of Striga hermonthica in decreasing order of C-8>C-7>C-6>C-5>C-4. In contrast the stereoisomers having the same configuration of orobanchol, irrespective of position of hydroxylation, induced germination of Striga gesnerioides. The results confirm previous reports on structural requirements of SLs and ascribe a critical role to hydroxylation, but not to the position of the hydroxyl group in the AB part of the molecule, in induction of S. gesnerioides seed germination.

  5. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    PubMed

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  6. Reexamining the Germination Phenotypes of Several Clostridium difficile Strains Suggests Another Role for the CspC Germinant Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Disha; Francis, Michael B.; Ding, Xicheng; McAllister, Kathleen N.; Shrestha, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile spore germination is essential for colonization and disease. The signals that initiate C. difficile spore germination are a combination of taurocholic acid (a bile acid) and glycine. Interestingly, the chenodeoxycholic acid class (CDCA) bile acids competitively inhibit taurocholic acid-mediated germination, suggesting that compounds that inhibit spore germination could be developed into drugs that prophylactically prevent C. difficile infection or reduce recurring disease. However, a recent report called into question the utility of such a strategy to prevent infection by describing C. difficile strains that germinated in the apparent absence of bile acids or germinated in the presence of the CDCA inhibitor. Because the mechanisms of C. difficile spore germination are beginning to be elucidated, the mechanism of germination in these particular strains could yield important information on how C. difficile spores initiate germination. Therefore, we quantified the interaction of these strains with taurocholic acid and CDCA, the rates of spore germination, the release of DPA from the spore core, and the abundance of the germinant receptor complex (CspC, CspB, and SleC). We found that strains previously observed to germinate in the absence of taurocholic acid correspond to more potent 50% effective concentrations (EC50 values; the concentrations that achieve a half-maximum germination rate) of the germinant and are still inhibited by CDCA, possibly explaining the previous observations. By comparing the germination kinetics and the abundance of proteins in the germinant receptor complex, we revised our original model for CspC-mediated activation of spore germination and propose that CspC may activate spore germination and then inhibit downstream processes. IMPORTANCE Clostridium difficile forms metabolically dormant spores that persist in the health care environment. In susceptible hosts, C. difficile spores germinate in response to certain

  7. [Malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas forming from the germinal-center cells of the lymphoid follicles in baboons from a high-risk stock].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, L A; Bukaeva, I A; Lapin, B A

    1990-01-01

    Histological, cytochemical and ultrastructural investigation of immunologically typed B-cell non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphomas (NHL) of primates (model system on baboons) revealed 15 cases of malignant lymphomas originating from germinal centre cells of lymph nodes follicles. By the tumour cell type centroblastic (CB), centroblastic/centrocytic (CB/CC) and centrocytic (CB), malignant lymphomas were distinguished (according to Kiel classification). In case of CB NHL, tumours, as a rule, are of nodular type. Tumours, in which centrocytic infiltration predominates, are characterized by diffuse type of growth in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. Generalized process affects mainly lymph nodes and to considerably lower degree involves spleen and nonlymphoid parenchymatous organs.

  8. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Akitoshi Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  9. Community Information and Services Centers: Concepts for Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Cleve

    An experimental program based on a study by the Department of Housing and Urban Development was activated to deliver services to urban residents via automated communications technology. Designed to contribute to improvement in the quality of life, the program of a Community Information and Services Center (CISC) included: outreach programs, i.e.,…

  10. AN OFF-CENTERED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IN NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V.

    2014-11-20

    NGC 3115 is an S0 galaxy that has always been considered to have a pure absorption-line spectrum. Some recent studies have detected a compact radio-emitting nucleus in this object, coinciding with the photometric center and with a candidate for the X-ray nucleus. This is evidence of the existence of a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the galaxy, although no emission line has ever been observed. We report the detection of an emission-line spectrum of a type 1 AGN in NGC 3115, with an Hα luminosity of L {sub Hα} = (4.2 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}. Our analysis revealed that this AGN is located at a projected distance of ∼0.''29 ± 0.''05 (corresponding to ∼14.3 ± 2.5 pc) from the stellar bulge center, which is coincident with the kinematic center of this object's stellar velocity map. The black hole corresponding to the observed off-centered AGN may form a binary system with a black hole located at the stellar bulge center. However, it is also possible that the displaced black hole is the merged remnant of the binary system coalescence, after the ''kick'' caused by the asymmetric emission of gravitational waves. We propose that certain features in the stellar velocity dispersion map are the result of perturbations caused by the off-centered AGN.

  11. Langley Research Center contributions in advancing active control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Newsom, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of active control technology to reduce aeroelastic response of aircraft structures offers a potential for significant payoffs in terms of aerodynamic efficiency and weight savings. Some of the contributions of the Langley Research Center in advancing active control technology are described. Contributions are categorized into the development of appropriate analysis tools, control law synthesis methodology, and experimental investigations aimed at verifying both analysis and synthesis methodology.

  12. Antioxidant activity of white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice (in vivo and in vitro) and the effects on lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Abdul Kadir, Khairul-Kamilah; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina

    2013-11-15

    Antioxidant activity of different rice extract and the effect on the levels of antioxidant enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin E, lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemia rabbits were investigated. Germinated brown rice (GBR) has the highest antioxidant activity compared to white rice (WR) and brown rice (BR). All rice grains increased the activity of SOD and GPx. However, vitamin E levels increased only in the groups that received the BR and GBR diets. The reduction of lipid peroxidation levels and activity of hepatic enzymes (alanine transferase, ALT and aspartate transaminase, AST) were only significantly observed in the GBR group. In conclusion, GBR supplementation has the greatest impact on increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and vitamin E level and on reducing lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolaemia rabbit, thereby preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, GBR diet can also reduce the level of hepatic enzymes. PMID:23790918

  13. High Salinity Alters the Germination Behavior of Bacillus subtilis Spores with Nutrient and Nonnutrient Germinants

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Katja; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The effect of high NaCl concentrations on nutrient and nonnutrient germination of Bacillus subtilis spores was systematically investigated. Under all conditions, increasing NaCl concentrations caused increasing, albeit reversible, inhibition of germination. High salinity delayed and increased the heterogeneity of germination initiation, slowed the germination kinetics of individual spores and the whole spore population, and decreased the overall germination efficiency, as observed by a variety of different analytical techniques. Germination triggered by nutrients which interact with different germinant receptors (GRs) was affected differently by NaCl, suggesting that GRs are targets of NaCl inhibition. However, NaCl also inhibited GR-independent germination, suggesting that there is at least one additional target for NaCl inhibition. Strikingly, a portion of the spore population could initiate germination with l-alanine even at NaCl concentrations near saturation (∼5.4 M), suggesting that spores lack a salt-sensing system preventing them from germinating in a hostile high-salinity environment. Spores that initiated germination at very high NaCl concentrations excreted their large depot of Ca2+-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and lost their heat resistance, but they remained in a phase-gray state in the phase-contrast microscope, suggesting that there was incomplete germination. However, some metabolic activity could be detected at up to 4.8 M NaCl. Overall, high salinity seems to exert complex effects on spore germination and outgrowth whose detailed elucidation in future investigations could give valuable insights on these processes in general. PMID:24317076

  14. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  15. Activity in the Mission Control Center during Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Two individuals are examining a seismic reading in the Mission Control Center's Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) Room during the Apollo 14 S-IVB impact on the moon. Dr. Maurice Ewing (left) is the Director of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory at Columbia University. David Lammlein, a Columbia graduate student, is on the right (17609); Partial view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center at the time the Apollo 14 S-IVB stage impacted on the lunar surface. The flight director's console in in the foregroune. Eugene F. Kranz, Chief of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Flight Control Division, is in the right foreground. Seated at the console is Glynn S. Lunney, Head of the Flight Directors Office, Flight Control Division. Facing the camera is Gerald D. Griffin, Flight Director of the Third (Gold) team (17610).

  16. A germin-like protein gene (CchGLP) of Capsicum chinense Jacq. is induced during incompatible interactions and displays Mn-superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    León-Galván, Fabiola; de Jesús Joaquín-Ramos, Ahuizolt; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; González-Chavira, Mario M; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalía V; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-González, Ramón Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    A germin-like gene (CchGLP) cloned from geminivirus-resistant pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. Line BG-3821) was characterized and the enzymatic activity of the expressed protein analyzed. The predicted protein consists of 203 amino acids, similar to other germin-like proteins. A highly conserved cupin domain and typical germin boxes, one of them containing three histidines and one glutamate, are also present in CchGLP. A signal peptide was predicted in the first 18 N-terminal amino acids, as well as one putative N-glycosylation site from residues 44-47. CchGLP was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein displayed manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Molecular analysis showed that CchGLP is present in one copy in the C. chinense Jacq. genome and was induced in plants by ethylene (Et) and salicylic acid (SA) but not jasmonic acid (JA) applications in the absence of pathogens. Meanwhile, incompatible interactions with either Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) or Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) caused local and systemic CchGLP induction in these geminivirus-resistant plants, but not in a susceptible accession. Compatible interactions with PHYVV, PepGMV and oomycete Phytophthora capsici did not induce CchGLP expression. Thus, these results indicate that CchGLP encodes a Mn-SOD, which is induced in the C. chinense geminivirus-resistant line BG-3821, likely using SA and Et signaling pathways during incompatible interactions with geminiviruses PepGMV and PHYVV.

  17. A Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) of Capsicum chinense Jacq. Is Induced during Incompatible Interactions and Displays Mn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    PubMed Central

    León-Galván, Fabiola; de Jesús Joaquín-Ramos, Ahuizolt; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; González-Chavira, Mario M.; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalía V.; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-González, Ramón Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    A germin-like gene (CchGLP) cloned from geminivirus-resistant pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. Line BG-3821) was characterized and the enzymatic activity of the expressed protein analyzed. The predicted protein consists of 203 amino acids, similar to other germin-like proteins. A highly conserved cupin domain and typical germin boxes, one of them containing three histidines and one glutamate, are also present in CchGLP. A signal peptide was predicted in the first 18 N-terminal amino acids, as well as one putative N-glycosylation site from residues 44–47. CchGLP was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein displayed manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Molecular analysis showed that CchGLP is present in one copy in the C. chinense Jacq. genome and was induced in plants by ethylene (Et) and salicylic acid (SA) but not jasmonic acid (JA) applications in the absence of pathogens. Meanwhile, incompatible interactions with either Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) or Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) caused local and systemic CchGLP induction in these geminivirus-resistant plants, but not in a susceptible accession. Compatible interactions with PHYVV, PepGMV and oomycete Phytophthora capsici did not induce CchGLP expression. Thus, these results indicate that CchGLP encodes a Mn-SOD, which is induced in the C. chinense geminivirus-resistant line BG-3821, likely using SA and Et signaling pathways during incompatible interactions with geminiviruses PepGMV and PHYVV. PMID:22174599

  18. Climate Change Adaptation Science Activities at NASA Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Lulla, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC), located in the southeast metropolitan region of Houston, TX is the prime NASA center for human spaceflight operations and astronaut training, but it also houses the unique collection of returned extraterrestrial samples, including lunar samples from the Apollo missions. The Center's location adjacent to Clear Lake and the Clear Creek watershed, an estuary of Galveston Bay, puts it at direct annual risk from hurricanes, but also from a number of other climate-related hazards including drought, floods, sea level rise, heat waves, and high wind events all assigned Threat Levels of 2 or 3 in the most recent NASA Center Disaster/Risk Matrix produced by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigator Working Group. Based on prior CASI workshops at other NASA centers, it is recognized that JSC is highly vulnerable to climate-change related hazards and has a need for adaptation strategies. We will present an overview of prior CASI-related work at JSC, including publication of a climate change and adaptation informational data brochure, and a Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Risks Workshop that was held at JSC in early March 2012. Major outcomes of that workshop that form a basis for work going forward are 1) a realization that JSC is embedded in a regional environmental and social context, and that potential climate change effects and adaptation strategies will not, and should not, be constrained by the Center fence line; 2) a desire to coordinate data collection and adaptation planning activities with interested stakeholders to form a regional climate change adaptation center that could facilitate interaction with CASI; 3) recognition that there is a wide array of basic data (remotely sensed, in situ, GIS/mapping, and historical) available through JSC and other stakeholders, but this data is not yet centrally accessible for planning purposes.

  19. Vehicle Engineering Development Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.; Champion, Robert H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    New initiatives in the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center include an emphasis on Vehicle Engineering to enhance the strong commitment to the Directorate's projects in the development of flight hardware and flight demonstrators for the advancement of space transportation technology. This emphasis can be seen in the activities of a newly formed organization in the Transportation Directorate, The Vehicle Subsystems Engineering Group. The functions and type of activities that this group works on are described. The current projects of this group are outlined including a brief description of the status and type of work that the group is performing. A summary section is included to describe future activities.

  20. Inactivation, aggregation, secondary and tertiary structural changes of germin-like protein in Satsuma mandarine with high polyphenol oxidase activity induced by ultrasonic processing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nana; Cheng, Xi; Hu, Wanfeng; Pan, Siyi

    2015-02-01

    The inhibition of Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in plants has been widely researched for their important roles in browning reaction. A newly found germin-like protein (GLP) with high PPO activity in Satsuma mandarine was inactivated by low-frequency high-intensity ultrasonic (20 kHz) processing. The effects of ultrasound on PPO activity and structure of GLP were investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), circular dichroism (CD) spectral measurement and fluorescence spectral measurement. The lowest PPO activity achieved was 27.4% following ultrasonication for 30 min at 400 W. DLS analysis showed ultrasound caused both aggregation and dissociation of GLP particles. TEM images also demonstrated protein aggregation phenomena. CD spectra exhibited a certain number of loss in α-helix structure content. Fluorescence spectra showed remarkable increase in fluorescence intensity with tiny blue-shift following ultrasonication. In conclusion, ultrasound applied in this study induced structural changes of GLP and eventually inactivated PPO activity.

  1. The role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling components and the Ste12 transcription factor in germination and pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Schamber, Astrid; Leroch, Michaela; Diwo, Janine; Mendgen, Kurt; Hahn, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In all fungi studied so far, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades serve as central signalling complexes that are involved in various aspects of growth, stress response and infection. In this work, putative components of the yeast Fus3/Kss1-type MAP kinase cascade and the putative downstream transcription factor Ste12 were analysed in the grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea. Deletion mutants of the MAP triple kinase Ste11, the MAP kinase kinase Ste7 and the MAP kinase adaptor protein Ste50 all resulted in phenotypes similar to that of the previously described BMP1 MAP kinase mutant, namely defects in germination, delayed vegetative growth, reduced size of conidia, lack of sclerotia formation and loss of pathogenicity. Mutants lacking Ste12 showed normal germination, but delayed infection as a result of low penetration efficiency. Two differently spliced ste12 transcripts were detected, and both were able to complement the ste12 mutant, except for a defect in sclerotium formation, which was only corrected by the full-sized transcript. Overexpression of the smaller ste12 transcript resulted in delayed germination and strongly reduced infection. Bc-Gas2, a homologue of Magnaporthe grisea Gas2 that is required for appressorial function, was found to be non-essential for growth and infection, but its expression was under the control of both Bmp1 and Ste12. In summary, the role and regulatory connections of the Fus3/Kss1-type MAP kinase cascade in B. cinerea revealed both common and unique properties compared with those of other plant pathogenic fungi, and provide evidence for a regulatory link between the BMP1 MAP kinase cascade and Ste12. PMID:20078780

  2. Loss of Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Alters Seed Metabolism Impairing Seed Maturation and Post-Germination Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sew, Yun Shin; Ströher, Elke; Fenske, Ricarda; Millar, A Harvey

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37) has multiple roles; the most commonly described is its catalysis of the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The roles of mMDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development and germination were investigated in mMDH1 and mMDH2 double knockout plants. A significant proportion of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds were nonviable and developed only to torpedo-shaped embryos, indicative of arrested seed embryo growth during embryogenesis. The viable mmdh1mmdh2 seeds had an impaired maturation process that led to slow germination rates as well as retarded post-germination growth, shorter root length, and decreased root biomass. During seed development, mmdh1mmdh2 showed a paler green phenotype than the wild type and exhibited deficiencies in reserve accumulation and reduced final seed biomass. The respiration rate of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds was significantly elevated throughout their maturation, consistent with the previously reported higher respiration rate in mmdh1mmdh2 leaves. Mutant seeds showed a consistently higher content of free amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, alanine, serine, glycine, proline, and threonine), differences in sugar and sugar phosphate levels, and lower content of 2-oxoglutarate. Seed-aging assays showed that quiescent mmdh1mmdh2 seeds lost viability more than 3 times faster than wild-type seeds. Together, these data show the important role of mMDH in the earliest phases of the life cycle of Arabidopsis.

  3. Loss of Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Alters Seed Metabolism Impairing Seed Maturation and Post-Germination Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sew, Yun Shin; Ströher, Elke; Fenske, Ricarda; Millar, A Harvey

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37) has multiple roles; the most commonly described is its catalysis of the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The roles of mMDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development and germination were investigated in mMDH1 and mMDH2 double knockout plants. A significant proportion of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds were nonviable and developed only to torpedo-shaped embryos, indicative of arrested seed embryo growth during embryogenesis. The viable mmdh1mmdh2 seeds had an impaired maturation process that led to slow germination rates as well as retarded post-germination growth, shorter root length, and decreased root biomass. During seed development, mmdh1mmdh2 showed a paler green phenotype than the wild type and exhibited deficiencies in reserve accumulation and reduced final seed biomass. The respiration rate of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds was significantly elevated throughout their maturation, consistent with the previously reported higher respiration rate in mmdh1mmdh2 leaves. Mutant seeds showed a consistently higher content of free amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, alanine, serine, glycine, proline, and threonine), differences in sugar and sugar phosphate levels, and lower content of 2-oxoglutarate. Seed-aging assays showed that quiescent mmdh1mmdh2 seeds lost viability more than 3 times faster than wild-type seeds. Together, these data show the important role of mMDH in the earliest phases of the life cycle of Arabidopsis. PMID:27208265

  4. Corrosion Activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    This report documents summer faculty fellow efforts in the corrosion test bed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. During the summer of 2002 efforts were concentrated on three activities: a short course on corrosion control for KSC personnel, evaluation of commercial wash additives used for corrosion control on Army aircraft, and improvements in the testing of a new cathodic protection system under development at KSC.

  5. The Role of Water in Germination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicak, Charles J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment which focuses on the importance of water in germination and seedling emergence. Discusses the activity's design, expected results, and possible application. Offers suggestions for extending the experiment. (ML)

  6. Temperature Regulation of Germination in Crimson Clover Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Te May

    1975-01-01

    Seeds of Dixie crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum cv. Dixie) completed germination in 36 hours at 20 C. At 10 C germination was delayed by 24 hours. At 30 C only 20% germinated and the rest remained viable for a long time but not germinable. Different patterns of adenylate energy state and zymograms of acid phosphatase and esterase were observed from seeds grown under the three temperatures for 24 hours. Varied specific activities of protease, α-amylase, ATPase, RNase, acid phosphatase, glutamine synthetase, and fumarase were also found. Protein-synthesizing ability was proportional to temperature. These data indicate that temperature regulates seed germination at multiple sites. PMID:16659391

  7. NASA Stennis Space Center Test Technology Branch Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solano, Wanda M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of NASA Stennis Space Center's Test Technology Laboratory and briefly describes the variety of engine test technology activities and developmental project initiatives. Theoretical rocket exhaust plume modeling, acoustic monitoring and analysis, hand held fire imaging, heat flux radiometry, thermal imaging and exhaust plume spectroscopy are all examples of current and past test activities that are briefly described. In addition, recent efforts and visions focused on accomodating second, third, and fourth generation flight vehicle engine test requirements are discussed.

  8. In vitro induction/inhibition of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in frog (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis) oocytes by endocrine active compounds.

    PubMed

    Ghodageri, Manjunath G; Katti, Pancharatna

    2013-04-01

    Oocyte maturation is transformation of oocytes into a fertilizable egg. This study examined the effects of four classes of chemicals: 1) acephate (organophosphate); 2) atrazine (herbicide); 3) cypermethrin and fenvalerate (synthetic pyrethroids); and 4) carbaryl (carbamate) on in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis oocytes. Follicles were isolated and defolliculated from surgically removed ovaries of E. cyanophlyctis and exposed to either progesterone (1 μM/mL) or graded concentrations (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 μg/mL) of test chemicals. GVBD was evident by the presence of a white spot in the animal pole as well as the absence of germinal vesicles in sectioned heat-fixed oocytes. Percent GVBD was scored every 4 hours until 24 hours. Progesterone induced 77-84% GVBD, compared to 29-33% in controls, at 24 hours. Acephate induced 46-67% GVBD, whereas atrazine elicited 58-77% of GVBD. In cypermethrin or carbaryl- or fenvalerate-exposed oocytes, GVBD was limited to 22-28, 17-29 and 18-24%, respectively. The study infers that some chemical contaminants in the aquatic system may interfere with GVBD in amphibians. Because oocyte maturation is a prerequisite for the production of fertilizable eggs, any alteration in this process potentially impairs the fecundity of females.

  9. Caffeine enhances micturition through neuronal activation in micturition centers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Sam; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwan, Lakkyong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jin, Jun-Jang; Chung, Jun-Young; Kim, Khae-Hawn

    2014-12-01

    Caffeine may promote incontinence through its diuretic effect, particularly in individuals with underlying detrusor overactivity, in addition to increasing muscle contraction of the bladder smooth muscle. Caffeine may also affect bladder function via central micturition centers, including the medial preoptic area, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and pontine micturition center. However, the biochemical mechanisms of caffeine in central micturition centers affecting bladder function remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of caffeine on the central micturition reflex were investigated by measuring the degree of neuronal activation, and by quantifying nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in rats. Following caffeine administration for 14 days, a urodynamic study was performed to assess the changes to bladder function. Subsequently, immunohistochemical staining to identify the expression of c‑Fos and NGF in the central micturition areas was performed. Ingestion of caffeine increased bladder smooth muscle contraction pressure and time as determined by cystometry. Expression levels of c‑Fos and NGF in all central micturition areas were significantly increased following the administration of caffeine. The effects on contraction pressure and time were the most potent and expression levels of c‑Fos and NGF were greatest at the lowest dose of caffeine. These results suggest that caffeine facilitates bladder instability through enhancing neuronal activation in the central micturition areas.

  10. Meiosis, egg activation, and nuclear envelope breakdown are differentially reliant on Ca2+, whereas germinal vesicle breakdown is Ca2+ independent in the mouse oocyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombes, R. M.; Simerly, C.; Borisy, G. G.; Schatten, G.

    1992-01-01

    During early development, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is not only essential for fertilization, but has also been implicated during other meiotic and mitotic events, such as germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). In this study, the roles of intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ were examined during meiotic maturation and reinitiation at parthenogenetic activation and during first mitosis in a single species using the same methodologies. Cumulus-free metaphase II mouse oocytes immediately resumed anaphase upon the induction of a large, transient Ca2+ elevation. This resumption of meiosis and associated events, such as cortical granule discharge, were not sensitive to extracellular Ca2+ removal, but were blocked by intracellular Ca2+ chelators. In contrast, meiosis I was dependent on external Ca2+; in its absence, the formation and function of the first meiotic spindle was delayed, the first polar body did not form and an interphase-like state was induced. GVBD was not dependent on external Ca2+ and showed no associated Ca2+ changes. NEBD at first mitosis in fertilized eggs, on the other hand, was frequently, but not always associated with a brief Ca2+ transient and was dependent on Ca2+ mobilization. We conclude that GVBD is Ca2+ independent, but that the dependence of NEBD on Ca2+ suggests regulation by more than one pathway. As cells develop from Ca(2+)-independent germinal vesicle oocytes to internal Ca(2+)-dependent pronuclear eggs, internal Ca2+ pools increase by approximately fourfold.

  11. Land processes distributed active archive center product lifecycle plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daucsavage, John C.; Bennett, Stacie D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Data System Program worked together to establish, develop, and operate the Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) to provide stewardship for NASA’s land processes science data. These data are critical science assets that serve the land processes science community with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. A fundamental LP DAAC objective is to enable permanent preservation of these data and information products. The LP DAAC accomplishes this by bridging data producers and permanent archival resources while providing intermediate archive services for data and information products.

  12. Data Information for Global Change Studies: NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers and Cooperating Data Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). ESE is a long-term global change research program designed to improve our understanding of the Earth's interrelated processes involving the atmosphere, oceans, land surfaces, and polar regions. Data from EOS instruments and other Earth science measurement systems are useful in understanding the causes and processes of global climate change and the consequences of human activities. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) provides a structure for data management and user services for products derived from EOS satellite instruments and other NASA Earth science data. Within the EOSDIS framework, the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) have been established to provide expertise in one or more Earth science disciplines. The DAACs and cooperating data centers provide data and information services to support the global change research community. Much of the development of the DAACs has been in anticipation of the enormous amount of data expected from EOS instruments to be launched within the next two decades. Terra, the EOS flagship launched in December 1999, is the first of a series of EOS satellites to carry several instruments with multispectral capabilities. Some data products from these instruments are now available from several of the DAACs. These and other data products can be ordered through the EOS Data Gateway (EDG) and DAAC-specific online ordering systems.

  13. GHRC: NASAs Hazardous Weather Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Bugbee, Kaylin

    2016-01-01

    The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC; ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov) is one of NASA's twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers responsible for providing access to NASA's Earth science data to users worldwide. Each of NASA's twelve DAACs focuses on a specific science discipline within Earth science, provides data stewardship services and supports its research community's needs. Established in 1991 as the Marshall Space Flight Center DAAC and renamed GHRC in 1997, the data center's original mission focused on the global hydrologic cycle. However, over the years, data holdings, tools and expertise of GHRC have gradually shifted. In 2014, a User Working Group (UWG) was established to review GHRC capabilities and provide recommendations to make GHRC more responsive to the research community's evolving needs. The UWG recommended an update to the GHRC mission, as well as a strategic plan to move in the new direction. After a careful and detailed analysis of GHRC's capabilities, research community needs and the existing data landscape, a new mission statement for GHRC has been crafted: to provide a comprehensive active archive of both data and knowledge augmentation services with a focus on hazardous weather, its governing dynamical and physical processes, and associated applications. Within this broad mandate, GHRC will focus on lightning, tropical cyclones and storm-induced hazards through integrated collections of satellite, airborne, and in-situ data sets. The new mission was adopted at the recent 2015 UWG meeting. GHRC will retain its current name until such time as it has built substantial data holdings aligned with the new mission.

  14. 75 FR 49946 - National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension With Change... Response System. The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC... Intelligence Center, Fifth Floor, 319 Washington Street, Johnstown, PA 15901. Written comments and...

  15. [Activities of Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Joe

    2002-01-01

    The final report of NASA funded activities at Iowa State University (ISU) for the period between 1/96 and 1/99 includes two main areas of activity. The first is the development and delivery of an x-ray simulation package suitable for evaluating the impact of parameters affects the inspectability of an assembly of parts. The second area was the development of images processing tools to remove reconstruction artifacts in x-ray laminagraphy images. The x-ray simulation portion of this work was done by J. Gray and the x-ray laminagraphy work was done by J. Basart. The report is divided into two sections covering the two activities respectively. In addition to this work reported the funding also covered NASA's membership in the NSF University/Industrial Cooperative Research Center.

  16. Oxygen Activation at Mononuclear Nonheme Iron Centers: A Superoxo Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anusree; Cranswick, Matthew A.; Chakraborti, Mrinmoy; Paine, Tapan K.; Fujisawa, Kiyoshi; Münck, Eckard; Que, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Dioxygen activation by iron enzymes is responsible for many metabolically important transformations in biology. Often a high-valent iron-oxo oxidant is proposed to form upon dioxygen activation at a mononuclear nonheme iron center, presumably via intervening iron-superoxo and iron-peroxo species. While iron(IV)-oxo intermediates have been trapped and characterized in enzymes and models, less is known of the putative iron(III)-superoxo species. Utilizing a synthetic model for the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent monoiron enzymes, [(TpiPr2)FeII(O2CC(O)CH3)], we have obtained indirect evidence for the formation of the putative iron(III)-superoxo species, which can undergo one-electron reduction, hydrogen-atom transfer, or conversion to an iron(IV)-oxo species, depending on the reaction conditions. These results demonstrate the various roles the iron(III)-superoxo species can play in the course of dioxygen activation at a nonheme iron center. PMID:20380464

  17. Gene activity during germination of spores of the fern, Onoclea sensibilis. Cell-free translation analysis of mRNA of spores and the effect of alpha-amanitin on spore germination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, V.

    1992-01-01

    Poly(A)-RNA fractions of dormant, dark-imbibed (non-germinating) and photoinduced (germinating) spores of Onoclea sensibilis were poor templates in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate protein synthesizing system, but the translational efficiency of poly(A)+RNA was considerably higher than that of unfractionated RNA. Poly(A)+RNA isolated from photoinduced spores had a consistently higher translational efficiency than poly(A)+RNA from dark-imbibed spores. Analysis of the translation products by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed no qualitative differences in the mRNA populations of dormant, dark-imbibed, and photoinduced spores. However, poly(A)+RNA from dark-imbibed spores appeared to encode in vitro fewer detectable polypeptides at a reduced intensity than photoinduced spores. A DNA clone encoding the large subunit of maize ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase hybridized at strong to moderate intensity to RNA isolated from dark-imbibed spores, indicating the absence of mRNA degradation. Although alpha-amanitin did not inhibit the germination of spores, the drug prevented the elongation of the rhizoid and protonemal initial with a concomitant effect on the synthesis of poly(A)+RNA. These results are consistent with the view that some form of translational control involving stored mRNA operates during dark-imbibition and photoinduced germination of spores.

  18. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a set of eight Regional Application Centers (RACs) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies. By utilizing the thermal energy that is normally wasted when electricity is produced at central generating stations, Combined Heat and Power installations can save substantial amounts of energy compared to more traditional technologies. In addition, the location of CHP facilities at or near the point of consumption greatly reduces or eliminates electric transmission and distribution losses. The regional nature of the RACs allows each one to design and provide services that are most relevant to the specific economic and market conditions in its particular geographic area. Between them, the eight RACs provide services to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Through the end of the federal 2009 fiscal year (FY 2009), the primary focus of the RACs was on providing CHP-related information to targeted markets, encouraging the creation and adoption of public policies and incentives favorable to CHP, and providing CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. Beginning with the 2010 fiscal year, the focus of the regional centers broadened to include district energy and waste heat recovery and these entities became formally known as Clean Energy Application Centers, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort to establish metrics to quantify the RACs accomplishments. That effort began with the development of a detailed logic model describing RAC operations and outcomes, which provided a basis for identifying important activities and accomplishments to track. A data collection spreadsheet soliciting information on those activities for FY 2008 and all previous years of RAC operations was developed and sent to the RACs in the summer of 2008. This

  19. Antituberculosis activity of the molecular libraries screening center network library.

    PubMed

    Maddry, Joseph A; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Goldman, Robert C; Hobrath, Judith V; Kwong, Cecil D; Maddox, Clinton; Rasmussen, Lynn; Reynolds, Robert C; Secrist, John A; Sosa, Melinda I; White, E Lucile; Zhang, Wei

    2009-09-01

    There is an urgent need for the discovery and development of new antitubercular agents that target novel biochemical pathways and treat drug-resistant forms of the disease. One approach to addressing this need is through high-throughput screening of drug-like small molecule libraries against the whole bacterium in order to identify a variety of new, active scaffolds that will stimulate additional biological research and drug discovery. Through the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network, the NIAID Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition and Coordinating Facility tested a 215,110-compound library against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. A medicinal chemistry survey of the results from the screening campaign is reported herein.

  20. [Research activities in Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Centers].

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Hotta, Hak

    2013-01-01

    Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Center was established in Institute of Tropical Disease (ITD), Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2007 under the program of ''Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases'' supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and then it has been under the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) since 2010. Japanese researchers have been stationed at ITD, conducting joint researches on influenza, viral hepatitis, dengue and infectious diarrhea. Also, another Japanese researcher has been stationed at Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, carrying out joint researches on'' Identification of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) substances and development of HCV and dengue vaccines'' in collaboration with University of Indonesia and Airlangga University through the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) since 2009. In this article, we briefly introduce the background history of Kobe University Research Center in Indonesia, and discuss the research themes and outcomes of J-GRID and SATREPS activities.

  1. Editors and author resource centers actively used by attendees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    At the 2011 Fall Meeting, as in previous years, the Editors Resource Center located on the second floor of Moscone West was buzzing with activity: editors talking with other editors, collaborating with associate editors, speaking with authors, and meeting with students. In addition, several editors took part in "Meet the Editor" informal sessions, a new feature introduced for the 2011 meeting to strengthen the partnership between authors and editors. The map "Where are you from?" (see photo), outside the Editors Resource Center, drew the attention of many attendees who were eager to place their colored dots on the map. The Author Resource Center, located in the AGU Marketplace, became a hub for AGU veteran authors and potential authors alike. Staff were there to answer both editorial and technical questions, especially the most frequent one: What happens after my paper is accepted? The running slideshow that described all aspects of the AGU publications program sparked a myriad of questions, which AGU staff were happy to answer.

  2. Architecture and evolution of Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Bodden, Lee; Rosen, Wayne; Sherman, Mark; Pease, Phil

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been developed to enhance Earth Science research by improved access to remote sensor earth science data. Building and operating an archive, even one of a moderate size (a few Terabytes), is a challenging task. One of the critical components of this system is Unitree, the Hierarchical File Storage Management System. Unitree, selected two years ago as the best available solution, requires constant system administrative support. It is not always suitable as an archive and distribution data center, and has moderate performance. The Data Archive and Distribution System (DADS) software developed to monitor, manage, and automate the ingestion, archive, and distribution functions turned out to be more challenging than anticipated. Having the software and tools is not sufficient to succeed. Human interaction within the system must be fully understood to improve efficiency to improve efficiency and ensure that the right tools are developed. One of the lessons learned is that the operability, reliability, and performance aspects should be thoroughly addressed in the initial design. However, the GSFC DAAC has demonstrated that it is capable of distributing over 40 GB per day. A backup system to archive a second copy of all data ingested is under development. This backup system will be used not only for disaster recovery but will also replace the main archive when it is unavailable during maintenance or hardware replacement. The GSFC DAAC has put a strong emphasis on quality at all level of its organization. A Quality team has also been formed to identify quality issues and to propose improvements. The DAAC has conducted numerous tests to benchmark the performance of the system. These tests proved to be extremely useful in identifying bottlenecks and deficiencies in operational procedures.

  3. Requirements for In Vitro Germination of Paenibacillus larvae Spores

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Israel; Phui, Andy; Elekonich, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), a disease affecting honey bee larvae. First- and second-instar larvae become infected when they ingest food contaminated with P. larvae spores. The spores then germinate into vegetative cells that proliferate in the midgut of the honey bee. Although AFB affects honey bees only in the larval stage, P. larvae spores can be distributed throughout the hive. Because spore germination is critical for AFB establishment, we analyzed the requirements for P. larvae spore germination in vitro. We found that P. larvae spores germinated only in response to l-tyrosine plus uric acid under physiologic pH and temperature conditions. This suggests that the simultaneous presence of these signals is necessary for spore germination in vivo. Furthermore, the germination profiles of environmentally derived spores were identical to those of spores from a biochemically typed strain. Because l-tyrosine and uric acid are the only required germinants in vitro, we screened amino acid and purine analogs for their ability to act as antagonists of P. larvae spore germination. Indole and phenol, the side chains of tyrosine and tryptophan, strongly inhibited P. larvae spore germination. Methylation of the N-1 (but not the C-3) position of indole eliminated its ability to inhibit germination. Identification of the activators and inhibitors of P. larvae spore germination provides a basis for developing new tools to control AFB. PMID:23264573

  4. Space weather activities at NOAA s Space Environment Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunches, J.

    The NOAA Space Environment Center is the focal point for real-time space weather monitoring and prediction in the United States . The Space Weather Operations (SWO) division staffs a 24-hour/day operations center, through which both in-situ and remotely sensed data and imagery flow. These diverse data streams are analyzed continuously, and that information is applied to both predictions and specifications of various aspects of the space environment. These include the behavior of the geomagnetic field, the character of the ionosphere, and the strength of the near-earth radiation environment. Models are brought to bear in each of thes e areas, as SEC has an active research-to-operations transition effort. The Rapid Prototyping Center is the venue through which pertinent models and data must pass to be brought into the operational arena. The model outputs are then made available both internally and externally. SEC is a member of the International Space Environment Service (ISES), a partnership currently consisting of eleven nations. The mission of the ISES is to encourage and facilitate near-real-time international monitoring and prediction of the space environment by: the rapid exchange of space environment information; the standardization of the methodology for space environment observations and data reduction; the uniform publication of observations and statistics; and the application of standardized space environment products and services to assist users in reducing the impact of space weather on activities of human interest. An overview of the operational attributes of the SEC, and the function of the ISES, will be presented. Additional issues related to space weather customers, new data streams to be available in the near-term, and how these new data and imagery will be integrated int o operations will be discussed.

  5. The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golon, Danielle K.

    2016-10-03

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) operates as a partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey and is 1 of 12 DAACs within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The LP DAAC ingests, archives, processes, and distributes NASA Earth science remote sensing data. These data are provided to the public at no charge. Data distributed by the LP DAAC provide information about Earth’s surface from daily to yearly intervals and at 15 to 5,600 meter spatial resolution. Data provided by the LP DAAC can be used to study changes in agriculture, vegetation, ecosystems, elevation, and much more. The LP DAAC provides several ways to access, process, and interact with these data. In addition, the LP DAAC is actively archiving new datasets to provide users with a variety of data to study the Earth.

  6. Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    2004-01-01

    Nanotube activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization as well as applications of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A parametric study of the pulsed laser ablation process is recently completed to monitor the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Enhancement of production is achieved by rastering the graphite target and by increasing the target surface temperature with a cw laser. In-situ diagnostics during production included time resolved passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from the plume. The improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymer/nanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large Surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs. Comparison with existing technologies and possible future improvements in the SWCNT materials sill be presented.

  7. Carbon Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    2006-01-01

    Research activities on carbon nanotubes at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization and their applications for human space flight. In-situ diagnostics during nanotube production by laser oven process include collection of spatial and temporal data of passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from C2, C3 and Nickel atoms in the plume. Details of the results from the "parametric study" of the pulsed laser ablation process indicate the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymednanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs.

  8. Responses of Nigella sativa L. to Zinc Excess: Focus on Germination, Growth, Yield and Yield Components, Lipid and Terpene Metabolism, and Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Marichali, Ahmed; Dallali, Sana; Ouerghemmi, Saloua; Sebei, Houcine; Casabianca, Hervé; Hosni, Karim

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the responses of Nigella sativa L. to elevated zinc concentrations was assessed in pot experiments. Zn excess supply did not affect the germination but drastically reduced radicle elongation. A concentration-dependent reduction in all growth parameters, yield, and yield components was observed. With the increasing Zn concentrations, total lipid contents decreased and changes in fatty composition toward the production of saturated ones were underscored. Despite the reduction in the seeds essential oil yield, a redirection of the terpene metabolism toward the synthesis of oxygenated compounds has been evidenced. A significant increase in the total phenols and flavonoids contents concomitant with improved antioxidant activities has also been found. Collectively, these results highlight the possible use of N. sativa L. in phytoremediation applications, on the one hand, and that Zn excess could represent an excellent alternative to improve the nutritional attributes of this important species, on the other hand.

  9. Responses of Nigella sativa L. to Zinc Excess: Focus on Germination, Growth, Yield and Yield Components, Lipid and Terpene Metabolism, and Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Marichali, Ahmed; Dallali, Sana; Ouerghemmi, Saloua; Sebei, Houcine; Casabianca, Hervé; Hosni, Karim

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the responses of Nigella sativa L. to elevated zinc concentrations was assessed in pot experiments. Zn excess supply did not affect the germination but drastically reduced radicle elongation. A concentration-dependent reduction in all growth parameters, yield, and yield components was observed. With the increasing Zn concentrations, total lipid contents decreased and changes in fatty composition toward the production of saturated ones were underscored. Despite the reduction in the seeds essential oil yield, a redirection of the terpene metabolism toward the synthesis of oxygenated compounds has been evidenced. A significant increase in the total phenols and flavonoids contents concomitant with improved antioxidant activities has also been found. Collectively, these results highlight the possible use of N. sativa L. in phytoremediation applications, on the one hand, and that Zn excess could represent an excellent alternative to improve the nutritional attributes of this important species, on the other hand. PMID:26853463

  10. Cyperus rotundus extract inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity from animal and plants as well as inhibits germination and seedling growth in wheat and tomato.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi; Gupta, Rajendra

    2007-05-30

    Cyperus rotundus (nutgrass) is the world's worst invasive weed through tubers. Its success in dominating natural habitats depends on its ability to prevent herbivory, and to kill or suppress other plants growing in its vicinity. The present study was done to investigate whether chemicals in nutgrass target neuronal and non-neuronal acetylcholinesterases to affect surrounding animals and plants respectively. Methanolic extract of tubers of nutgrass strongly inhibited activity of AChE from electric eel, wheat and tomato. It also inhibited seed germination and seedling growth in wheat and tomato. Our results suggest that inhibitor of AChE in nutgrass possibly acts as agent of plant's war against (a) herbivore animals, and (b) other plants trying to grow in the same habitat. An antiAChE from nutgrass has been purified by employing chromatography and crystallization. The structural determination of the purified inhibitor is in progress.

  11. An olive pollen protein with allergenic activity, Ole e 10, defines a novel family of carbohydrate-binding modules and is potentially implicated in pollen germination

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    CBMs (carbohydrate-binding modules) are the most common non-catalytic modules associated with enzymes active in plant cell-wall hydrolysis. They have been frequently identified by amino acid sequence alignments, but only a few have been experimentally established to have a carbohydrate-binding activity. A small olive pollen protein, Ole e 10 (10 kDa), has been described as a major inducer of type I allergy in humans. In the present study, the ability of Ole e 10 to bind several polysaccharides has been analysed by affinity gel electrophoresis, which demonstrated that the protein bound 1,3-β-glucans preferentially. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies confirmed binding to laminarin, at a protein/ligand ratio of 1:1. The interaction of Ole e 10 with laminarin induced a conformational change in the protein, as detected by CD and fluorescence analyses, and an increase of 3.6 °C in the thermal denaturation temperature of Ole e 10 in the presence of the glycan. These results, and the absence of alignment of the sequence of Ole e 10 with that of any classified CBM, indicate that this pollen protein defines a novel family of CBMs, which we propose to name CBM43. Immunolocalization of Ole e 10 in mature and germinating pollen by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated the co-localization of Ole e 10 and callose (1,3-β-glucan) in the growing pollen tube, suggesting a role for this protein in the metabolism of carbohydrates and in pollen tube wall re-formation during germination. PMID:15882149

  12. Germination conditions affect physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-01-01

    Germinated brown rice has been reported to be nutritious due to increased free gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The physicochemical properties of brown rice (BR) and glutinous brown rice (GNBR) after germination as affected by different steeping times (24, 36, 48, and 72 h depending on the rice variety) and pHs of steeping water (3, 5, 7, and as-is) were determined and compared to those of the nongerminated one (control). As the steeping time increased or pH of steeping water decreased, germinated brown rice flours (GBRF) from both BR and GNBR had greater reducing sugar, free GABA and alpha-amylase activity; while the total starch and viscosity were lower than their respective controls. GBRFs from both BR and GNBR prepared after 24-h steeping time at pH 3 contained a high content of free GABA at 32.70 and 30.69 mg/100 g flour, respectively. The peak viscosity of GBRF obtained from both BR and GNBR (7.42 to 228.22 and 4.42 to 58.67 RVU, respectively) was significantly lower than that of their controls (255.46 and 190.17 RVU, respectively). The principal component analysis indicated that the important variables for discriminating among GBRFs, explained by the first 2 components at 89.82% of total explained variance, were the pasting profiles, alpha-amylase activity, and free GABA. PMID:20492098

  13. An essential role for the intra-oocyte MAPK activity in the NSN-to-SN transition of germinal vesicle chromatin configuration in porcine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ming-Ju; Zhu, Shuai; Li, You-Wei; Lin, Juan; Gong, Shuai; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Chen, Fei; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms for the transition from non-surrounded nucleolus (NSN) to surrounded nucleolus (SN) chromatin configuration during oocyte growth/maturation are unclear. By manipulating enzyme activities and measuring important molecules using small-follicle pig oocytes with a high proportion of NSN configuration and an extended germinal vesicle stage in vitro, this study has the first time up-to-date established the essential role for intra-oocyte mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the NSN-to-SN transition. Within the oocyte in 1–2 mm follicles, a cAMP decline activates MAPK, which prevents the NSN-to-SN transition by activating nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) while inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC). In cumulus cells of 1–2 mm follicles, a lower level of estradiol and oocyte-derived paracrine factor (ODPF) reduces natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) while enhancing FSH and cAMP actions. FSH elevates cAMP levels, which decreases NPR2 while activating MAPK. MAPK closes the gap junctions, which, together with the NPR2 decrease, reduces cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) delivery leading to the cAMP decline within oocytes. In 3–6 mm follicles, a higher level of estradiol and ODPF and a FSH shortage initiate a reversion of the above events leading to MAPK inactivation and NSN-to-SN transition within oocytes. PMID:27009903

  14. Growing up Active: A Study into Physical Activity in Long Day Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashmore, Aaron W.; Jones, Sandra C.

    2008-01-01

    The child care center is an ideal setting in which to implement strategies to promote physical activity and healthy weight, but there is a paucity of empirical evidence on factors that influence physical activity in these settings. The current study gathered initial qualitative data to explore these factors. Child care workers from five long day…

  15. Activity File of Learning Center and Classroom Multi-Cultural Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverside Unified School District, CA.

    The cards in this file are representative samples of the types of activities developed by teachers involved in a Title I funded learning center of multi-cultural classroom activities for elementary school students. The five cultures that are stuoied are those of blacks, Asian Americans, native Americans, Mexican Americans, and Anglos. A…

  16. Development of Secondary Archive System at Goddard Space Flight Center Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Mark; Kodis, John; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Wacker, Chris; Woytek, Joanne; Lynnes, Chris

    1996-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been developed to support existing and pre Earth Observing System (EOS) Earth science datasets, facilitate the scientific research, and test EOS data and information system (EOSDIS) concepts. To ensure that no data is ever lost, each product received at GSFC DAAC is archived on two different media, VHS and digital linear tape (DLT). The first copy is made on VHS tape and is under the control of UniTree. The second and third copies are made to DLT and VHS media under a custom built software package named 'Archer'. While Archer provides only a subset of the functions available with commercial software like UniTree, it supports migration between near-line and off-line media and offers much greater performance and flexibility to satisfy the specific needs of a data center. Archer is specifically designed to maximize total system throughput, rather than focusing on the turn-around time for individual files. The commercial off the shelf software (COTS) hierarchical storage management (HSM) products evaluated were mainly concerned with transparent, interactive, file access to the end-user, rather than a batch-orientated, optimizable (based on known data file characteristics) data archive and retrieval system. This is critical to the distribution requirements of the GSFC DAAC where orders for 5000 or more files at a time are received. Archer has the ability to queue many thousands of file requests and to sort these requests into internal processing schedules that optimize overall throughput. Specifically, mount and dismount, tape load and unload cycles, and tape motion are minimized. This feature did not seem to be available in many COTS pacages. Archer also uses a generic tar tape format that allows tapes to be read by many different systems rather than the proprietary format found in most COTS packages. This paper discusses some of the specific requirements at GSFC DAAC, the

  17. Global gene expression changes of in vitro stimulated human transformed germinal centre B cells as surrogate for oncogenic pathway activation in individual aggressive B cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are a group of lymphomas derived from germinal centre B cells which display a heterogeneous pattern of oncogenic pathway activation. We postulate that specific immune response associated signalling, affecting gene transcription networks, may be associated with the activation of different oncogenic pathways in aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Methodology The B cell receptor (BCR), CD40, B-cell activating factor (BAFF)-receptors and Interleukin (IL) 21 receptor and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) were stimulated in human transformed germinal centre B cells by treatment with anti IgM F(ab)2-fragments, CD40L, BAFF, IL21 and LPS respectively. The changes in gene expression following the activation of Jak/STAT, NF-кB, MAPK, Ca2+ and PI3K signalling triggered by these stimuli was assessed using microarray analysis. The expression of top 100 genes which had a change in gene expression following stimulation was investigated in gene expression profiles of patients with Aggressive non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Results αIgM stimulation led to the largest number of changes in gene expression, affecting overall 6596 genes. While CD40L stimulation changed the expression of 1194 genes and IL21 stimulation affected 902 genes, only 283 and 129 genes were modulated by lipopolysaccharide or BAFF receptor stimulation, respectively. Interestingly, genes associated with a Burkitt-like phenotype, such as MYC, BCL6 or LEF1, were affected by αIgM. Unique and shared gene expression was delineated. NHL-patients were sorted according to their similarity in the expression of TOP100 affected genes to stimulated transformed germinal centre B cells The αIgM gene module discriminated individual DLBCL in a similar manner to CD40L or IL21 gene modules. DLBCLs with low module activation often carry chromosomal MYC aberrations. DLBCLs with high module activation show strong expression of genes involved in cell-cell communication, immune responses

  18. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  19. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  20. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions. PMID:26948011

  1. Immune and inflammatory responses in TNF alpha-deficient mice: a critical requirement for TNF alpha in the formation of primary B cell follicles, follicular dendritic cell networks and germinal centers, and in the maturation of the humoral immune response

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the role of TNF alpha in the development of in vivo immune response we have generated TNF alpha-deficient mice by gene targeting. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and fertile, develop lymph nodes and Peyer's patches and show no apparent phenotypic abnormalities, indicating that TNF alpha is not required for normal mouse development. In the absence of TNF alpha mice readily succumb to L. monocytogenes infections and show reduced contact hypersensitivity responses. Furthermore, TNF alpha knockout mice are resistant to the systemic toxicity of LPS upon D-galactosamine sensitization, yet they remain sensitive to high doses of LPS alone. Most interestingly, TNF alpha knockout mice completely lack splenic primary B cell follicles and cannot form organized follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks and germinal centers. However, despite the absence of B cell follicles, Ig class-switching can still occur, yet deregulated humoral immune responses against either thymus-dependent (TD) or thymus-independent (TI) antigens are observed. Complementation of TNF alpha functioning by the expression of either human or murine TNF alpha transgenes is sufficient to reconstitute these defects, establishing a physiological role for TNF alpha in regulating the development and organization of splenic follicular architecture and in the maturation of the humoral immune response. PMID:8879212

  2. Center of mass detection via an active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Minch, Brad (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Fossum, Eric (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An imaging system for identifying the location of the center of mass (COM) in an image. In one aspect, an imaging system includes a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in a matrix. A center of mass circuit coupled to the photosensitive elements includes a resistive network and a normalization circuit including at least one bipolar transistor. The center of mass circuit identifies a center of mass location in the matrix and includes: a row circuit, where the row circuit identifies a center of mass row value in each row of the matrix and identifies a row intensity for each row; a horizontal circuit, where the horizontal circuit identifies a center of mass horizontal value; and a vertical circuit, where the vertical circuit identifies a center of mass vertical value. The horizontal and vertical center of mass values indicate the coordinates of the center of mass location for the image.

  3. Center of mass detection via an active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Minch, Brad (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrara (Inventor); Fossum, Eric (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An imaging system for identifying the location of the center of mass (COM) in an image. In one aspect, an imaging system includes a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in a matrix. A center of mass circuit coupled to the photosensitive elements includes a resistive network and a normalization circuit including at least one bipolar transistor. The center of mass circuit identifies a center of mass location in the matrix and includes: a row circuit, where the row circuit identifies a center of mass row value in each row of the matrix and identifies a row intensity for each row; a horizontal circuit, where the horizontal circuit identifies a center of mass horizontal value; and a vertical circuit, where the vertical circuit identifies a center of mass vertical value. The horizontal and vertical center of mass values indicate the coordinates of the center of mass location for the image.

  4. Center of mass detection via an active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Minch, Brad (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Fossum, Eric (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An imaging system for identifying the location of the center of mass (COM) in an image. In one aspect, an imaging system includes a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in a matrix. A center of mass circuit coupled to the photosensitive elements includes a resistive network and a normalization circuit including at least one bipolar transistor. The center of mass circuit identifies a center of mass location in the matrix and includes: a row circuit, where the row circuit identifies a center of mass row value in each row of the matrix and identifies a row intensity for each row; a horizontal circuit, where the horizontal circuit identifies a center of mass horizontal value; and a vertical circuit, where the vertical circuit identifies a center of mass vertical value. The horizontal and vertical center of mass values indicate the coordinates of the center of mass location for the image.

  5. Activities of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    This annual report includes the research activities and the technical developments carried out at the Tandem Accelerator Center in University of Tsukuba for the period from April 1992 to March 1993. New experimental investigations were made on (1) nuclear spectroscopy was initiated by a new (gamma) ray spectrometer; (2) polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions; (3) the application of energetic heavy ions to solid state physics; (4) the behavior of self interstitial atoms and its migration mechanism in Mo metal; (5) the studies on electronic conduction of metal oxides and bronzes by NMR; (6) Moessbauer studies on Fe-Cr alloy and the RBS analysis of YBCO superconductor films; and (7) a new field was challenged on the micro cluster physics. Nuclear collective motion and the relativistic mean-field theory is also included in this report.

  6. Coherent Lidar Activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong

    2007-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has been developing and using coherent lidar systems for many years. The current projects at LaRC are the Global Wind Observing Sounder (GWOS) mission preparation, the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP), the Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) compact, rugged Doppler wind lidar project, the Autonomous precision Landing and Hazard detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project for lunar landing, and the Skywalker project to find and use thermals to extend UAV flight time. These five projects encompass coherent lidar technology development; characterization, validation, and calibration facilities; compact, rugged packaging; computer simulation; trade studies; data acquisition, processing, and display development; system demonstration; and space mission design. This paper will further discuss these activities at LaRC.

  7. Center-of-pressure movements during equine-assisted activities.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Hilary M; Kaiser, Leeann J; de Pue, Bonnie; Kaiser, Lana

    2011-01-01

    We compared anteroposterior and mediolateral range of motion and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) on the horse's back between riders without disabilities and riders with cerebral palsy. An electronic pressure mat was used to track COP movements beneath the saddle in 4 riders without disabilities and 4 riders with cerebral palsy. Comparisons between rider groups were made using the Mann-Whitney test (p < .05). The two rider groups differed significantly in anteroposterior range of COP motion, mediolateral range of COP motion, and mediolateral COP velocity. Anteroposterior COP velocity did not differ between groups. The results suggest that measurements of COP range of motion and velocity are potentially useful for monitoring changes in balance as an indicator of core stability during equine-assisted activities.

  8. Antituberculosis Activity of the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network Library

    PubMed Central

    MADDRY, JOSEPH A.; ANANTHAN, SUBRAMANIAM; GOLDMAN, ROBERT C.; HOBRATH, JUDITH V.; KWONG, CECIL D.; MADDOX, CLINTON; RASMUSSEN, LYNN; REYNOLDS, ROBERT C.; SECRIST, JOHN A.; SOSA, MELINDA I.; WHITE, E. LUCILE; ZHANG, WEI

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY There is an urgent need for the discovery and development of new antitubercular agents that target novel biochemical pathways and treat drug-resistant forms of the disease. One approach to addressing this need is through high-throughput screening of drug-like small molecule libraries against the whole bacterium in order to identify a variety of new, active scaffolds that will stimulate additional biological research and drug discovery. Through the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network, the NIAID Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition and Coordinating Facility tested a 215,110-compound library against M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv. A medicinal chemistry survey of the results from the screening campaign is reported herein. PMID:19783214

  9. Enzyme activities associated with oxidative stress in Metarhizium anisopliae during germination, mycelial growth, and conidiation and in response to near-UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Charles D; Rangel, Drauzio; Braga, Gilberto U L; Flint, Stephan; Kwon, Sun-Il; Messias, Claudio L; Roberts, Donald W; Anderson, Anne J

    2004-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae isolates have a wide insect host range, but an impediment to their commercial use as a biocontrol agent of above-ground insects is the high susceptibility of spores to the near-UV present in solar irradiation. To understand stress responses in M. anisopliae, we initiated studies of enzymes that protect against oxidative stress in two strains selected because their spores differed in sensitivity to UV-B. Spores of the more near-UV resistant strain in M. anisopliae 324 displayed different isozyme profiles for catalase-peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase when compared with the less resistant strain 2575. A transient loss in activity of catalase-peroxidase and glutathione reductase was observed during germination of the spores, whereas the intensity of isozymes displaying superoxide dismutase did not change as the mycelium developed. Isozyme composition for catalase-peroxidases and glutathione reductase in germlings changed with growth phase. UV-B exposure from lamps reduced the activity of isozymes displaying catalase-peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in 2575 more than in 324. The major effect of solar UV-A plus UV-B also was a reduction in catalase-peroxidases isozyme level, a finding confirmed by measurement of catalase specific activity. Impaired growth of M. anisopliae after near-UV exposure may be related to reduced abilities to handle oxidative stress. PMID:15052320

  10. Overview of Active Flow Control at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, L. G.; Joslin, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper summarizes Active Flow Control projects currently underway at the NASA Langley Research Center. Technology development is being pursued within a multidisciplinary, cooperative approach, involving the classical disciplines of fluid mechanics, structural mechanics, material science, acoustics, and stability and control theory. Complementing the companion papers in this session, the present paper will focus on projects that have the goal of extending the state-of-the-art in the measurement, prediction, and control of unsteady, nonlinear aerodynamics. Toward this goal, innovative actuators, micro and macro sensors, and control strategies are considered for high payoff flow control applications. The target payoffs are outlined within each section below. Validation of the approaches range from bench-top experiments to wind-tunnel experiments to flight tests. Obtaining correlations for future actuator and sensor designs are implicit in the discussion. The products of the demonstration projects and design tool development from the fundamental NASA R&D level technology will then be transferred to the Applied Research components within NASA, DOD, and US Industry. Keywords: active flow control, separation control, MEMS, review

  11. A Dual Function α-Dioxygenase-Peroxidase and NAD+ Oxidoreductase Active Enzyme from Germinating Pea Rationalizing α-Oxidation of Fatty Acids in Plants12

    PubMed Central

    Saffert, Alexander; Hartmann-Schreier, Jenny; Schön, Astrid; Schreier, Peter

    2000-01-01

    An enzyme with fatty acid α-oxidation activity (49 nkat mg−1; substrate: lauric acid) was purified from germinating pea (Pisum sativum) by a five-step procedure to apparent homogeneity. The purified protein was found to be a 230-kD oligomer with two dominant subunits, i.e. a 50-kD subunit with NAD+ oxidoreductase activity and a 70-kD subunit, homolog to a pathogen-induced oxygenase, which in turn shows significant homology to animal cyclooxygenase. On-line liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry revealed rapid α-oxidation of palmitic acid incubated at 0°C with the purified α-oxidation enzyme, leading to (R)-2-hydroperoxypalmitic acid as the major product together with (R)-2-hydroxypalmitic acid, 1-pentadecanal, and pentadecanoic acid. Inherent peroxidase activity of the 70-kD fraction decreased the amount of the (R)-2-hydroperoxy product rapidly and increased the level of (R)-2-hydroxypalmitic acid. Incubations at room temperature accelerated the decline toward the chain-shortened aldehyde. With the identification of the dual function α-dioxygenase-peroxidase (70-kD unit) and the related NAD+ oxidoreductase (50-kD unit) we provided novel data to rationalize all steps of the classical scheme of α-oxidation in plants. PMID:10938370

  12. [Abscisic acid level, activities of proteinases and trypsin inhibitory proteins in the germinating seeds of common beans under conditions of water stress].

    PubMed

    Domash, V I; Protsko, R F; Vasiuk, V A; Shumikhin, S V; Ermolitskaia, L V; Sharpio, T P

    2006-01-01

    Specific features of changes in the contents of free and bound abscisic acid (ABA) and activities of neutral and alkaline proteinases and trypsin inhibitory proteins were determined in the embryonic axis and cotyledons of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after drying. The changes in ABA content, observed following the loss of 5% seed weight, were regarded as an adaptive reaction to stress, whereas the corresponding changes after the loss of 10% seed weight, as a result of pathological disturbance of ABA metabolism. Both drying modes had a negative effect on the state of the proteinase-inhibitory system, as was apparent from the disruption of the regular inverse correlation between the activities of proteinases and serine proteinase inhibitory proteins. Comparison of the dynamics of these characteristics with the buildup of water stress demonstrated an inverse correlation between the content of free ABA and the activity of the proteinases studied. This suggests a potential inhibitory effect of this hormone on the function of the hydrolases in question in the germinating seed.

  13. Inhibition of raffinose oligosaccharide breakdown delays germination of pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Blöchl, Andreas; Peterbauer, Thomas; Richter, Andreas

    2007-08-01

    Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) are almost ubiquitous in seeds and have been hypothesized to constitute an important energy source during germination. To test this hypothesis we applied a specific alpha-galactosidase inhibitor (1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, DGJ) to germinating pea seeds, resulting in a complete blocking of RFO breakdown. The germination rates of DGJ-treated seeds dropped drastically to about 25% of controls two days after imbibition. Similarly, the activities of the key enzymes in the galactose salvage pathway galactokinase, UDP-galactose pyrophosphorylase and UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase, were also significantly lower in seeds treated with the inhibitor. The inhibitory effect on germination could be relieved by galactose but only partially by sucrose, indicating that galactose, in addition to providing easily available energy for growth, may also be an important component of the sugar signaling pathway during germination. Taken together our study, for the first time, provides clear evidence that RFOs play an important role for early germination.

  14. Constraints on Galactic Center Activity: A Search for Enhanced Galactic Center Lithium and Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D. A.; Turner, B. E.; Hobbs, L. M.

    1998-12-01

    The abundances of lithium and boron provide important information about big bang nucleosynthesis, Galactic chemical evolution, stellar evolution, and cosmic-ray spallation reactions. We conducted the first search for the ground-state hyperfine-structure transitions of Li I (2S1/2; F = 2-1 803 MHz) and B I (2P1/2; F = 2-1 732 MHz). We used the 43 m NRAO radio telescope to search for enhanced Galactic center (GC) Li and B expected from models of Galactic activity. We did not detect Li I or B I and obtained upper limits of N(Li I) < 1.9 × 1016 cm-2, (Li/H) < 3.9 × 10-8, N(B I) < 2.2 × 1018 cm-2, and (B/H) < 9.2 × 10-6 for the dense 20 km s-1 Sgr A molecular cloud where our largest sources of uncertainties are Li I/Li, B I/B, and N(H). Our observations imply (Li/H)GC < 22 (Li/H)disk, (Li/H)GC < 39 (Li/H)disk-spallation, (B/H)GC < 1.2 × 104 (B/H)disk, (B/H)GC < 1.5 × 104 (B/H)disk-spallation. For a simple model combining mass loss from AGB stars (only for Li), spallation reactions, and SN ν-nucleosynthesis, we estimate (Li/H)GC = 1.3 × 10-8 (13 times enhancement) and (B/H)GC = 7.4 × 10-9 (10 times enhancement). If Li is primarily produced via spallation reactions from a cosmic-ray proton flux φp(t) with the same energy and trapping as in the disk, then [\\smallint φp(t)dt]GC < 13[\\smallint φp(t)dt]disk. Comparing our results to AGN models, we conclude that the GC has not had an extended period of AGN activity containing a large cosmic-ray flux (LCR <= 1044 ergs s-1 for 108 yr), a large low-energy cosmic-ray flux (less than 100 times the disk flux), or a large γ-ray flux (Lγ < 1042 ergs s-1 for 109 yr). Furthermore, since any Galactic deuterium production will significantly enhance the abundances of Li and B, our results imply that there are no sources of D in the GC or Galaxy. Therefore, all the Galactic D originated from the infall of primordial matter with the current D/H reduced by astration and mixing.

  15. Shedding of the germinal angiotensin I-converting enzyme (gACE) involves a serine protease and is activated by epididymal fluid.

    PubMed

    Thimon, Véronique; Métayer, Sonia; Belghazi, Maya; Dacheux, Françoise; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Gatti, Jean-Luc

    2005-11-01

    The present report describes how the soluble germinal angiotensin I-converting enzyme (gACE) appears in the epididymal fluid, where it has been identified in some laboratory rodents and domestic ungulates. We showed that this gACE results from an active proteolytic process that releases the enzyme's extracellular domain from sperm in a precise spatiotemporal location during epididymal transit and that this process involves serine protease activity. Using polyclonal antibodies against the C-terminal intracellular sequence of ACE, a fragment of approximately 10 kDa was detected on the sperm extract only in the epididymal region, where the gACE release occurs. The fluid enzyme was purified, and the cleavage site was determined by mass spectrometry to be between Arg622 and Leu623 of the mature sheep gACE sequence (equivalent to Arg627 and Arg1203 of the human mature gACE and somatic ACE sequences, respectively). Thereafter, the C-terminal Arg was removed, leaving Ala621 as a C-terminal. Using an in vitro assay, gACE cleavage from sperm was strongly increased by the presence of epididymal fluid from the release zone, and this increase was inhibited specifically by the serine protease-inhibitor AEBSF but not by para-aminobenzamidine. None of the other inhibitors tested, such as metallo- or cystein-protease inhibitors, had a similar effect on release. It was also found that this process did not involve changes in gACE phosphorylation. PMID:15987822

  16. Fuel Cell Activities at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fuel cells have a long history in space applications and may have potential application in aeronautics as well. A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that directly transforms the chemical energy of a fuel and oxidant into electrical energy. Alkaline fuel cells have been the mainstay of the U.S. space program, providing power for the Apollo missions and the Space Shuttle. However, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells offer potential benefits over alkaline systems and are currently under development for the next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Furthermore, primary and regenerative systems utilizing PEM technology are also being considered for future space applications such as surface power and planetary aircraft. In addition to these applications, the NASA Glenn Research Center is currently studying the feasibility of the use of both PEM and solid oxide fuel cells for low- or zero-emission electric aircraft propulsion. These types of systems have potential applications for high altitude environmental aircraft, general aviation and commercial aircraft, and high attitude airships. NASA Glenn has a unique set of capabilities and expertise essential to the successful development of advanced fuel cell power systems for space and aeronautics applications. NASA Glenn's role in past fuel cell development programs as well as current activities to meet these new challenges will be presented

  17. [Requests for active euthanasia: which reality in an oncology center.].

    PubMed

    Chvetzoff, G; Perret, M; Thevenet, G; Arbiol, E; Gobet, S; Saltel, P

    2009-09-01

    Euthanasia is a controversial issue in today's society. In countries where euthanasia is legal, it is mainly associated with people with cancer. We retrospectively studied the frequency and basis of patients' requests for active euthanasia in the oncology setting.MethodsRecurrent requests for euthanasia made by the patients of Leon-Berard cancer center (Lyon, France) between 2001 and 2003 were recorded by questioning the physicians and nurse supervisors in charge or by collecting information from the minutes of multidisciplinary palliative care meetings. We also collected information on the general health status of the patients, their motives and their evolution over time, as well as responses from caregivers.ResultsWe identified 16 requests for euthanasia. These involved 8 men, 7 women and 1 child (median age, 56 years), corresponding to 1% of the total deaths recorded during the period. In 2 cases, the request had come from the family only. The most frequent motives were psychological distress (38%), desire for self-autonomy (31%) and pain (31%). Half of the patients, particularly those striving for autonomy, persisted with their request until death, whereas 2 of 3 requests motivated by physical or psychological distress were not maintained. Sedation was administered to 3 patients in response to recurrent requests.ConclusionRequests for euthanasia in cancer patients are rare but may occur. Sometimes suffering is not relieved by palliative care and the request is maintained. Dealing with these patients puts caregivers in a difficult situation.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  20. THE GALACTIC CENTER: NOT AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    An, Deokkeun; Ramirez, Solange V.; Sellgren, Kris

    2013-06-01

    We present 10 {mu}m-35 {mu}m Spitzer spectra of the interstellar medium in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), the central 210 pc Multiplication-Sign 60 pc of the Galactic center (GC). We present maps of the CMZ in ionic and H{sub 2} emission, covering a more extensive area than earlier spectroscopic surveys in this region. The radial velocities and intensities of ionic lines and H{sub 2} suggest that most of the H{sub 2} 0-0 S(0) emission comes from gas along the line-of-sight, as found by previous work. We compare diagnostic line ratios measured in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey to our data. Previous work shows that forbidden line ratios can distinguish star-forming galaxies from low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our GC line ratios agree with star-forming galaxies and not with LINERs or AGNs.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-03-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  2. Raffinose and stachyose metabolism are not required for efficient soybean seed germination.

    PubMed

    Dierking, Emily C; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2009-08-15

    Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which include raffinose and stachyose, are thought to be an important source of energy during seed germination. In contrast to their potential for promoting germination, RFOs represent anti-nutritional units for monogastric animals when consumed as a component of feed. The exact role for RFOs during soybean seed development and germination has not been experimentally determined; but it has been hypothesized that RFOs are required for successful germination. Previously, inhibition of RFO breakdown during imbibition and germination was shown to significantly delay germination in pea seeds. The objective of this study was to compare the germination potential for soybean seeds with either wild-type (WT) or low RFO levels and to examine the role of RFO breakdown in germination of soybean seeds. There was no significant difference in germination between normal and low RFO soybean seeds when imbibed/germinated in water. Similar to the situation in pea, soybean seeds of wild-type carbohydrate composition experienced a delay in germination when treated with a chemical inhibitor of alpha-galactosidase activity (1-deoxygalactonojirimycin or DGJ) during imbibition. However, low RFO soybean seed germination was not significantly delayed or reduced when treated with DGJ. In contrast to the situation in pea, the inhibitor-induced germination delay in wild-type soybean seeds was not partially overcome by the addition of galactose or sucrose. We conclude that RFOs are not an essential source of energy during soybean seed germination.

  3. Effects of high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma and micro DBD plasma on seed germination, growth development and physiological activities in spinach.

    PubMed

    Ji, Sang-Hye; Choi, Ki-Hong; Pengkit, Anchalee; Im, Jun Sup; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Yeunsoo; Hong, Eun Jeong; Jung, Sun Kyung; Choi, Eun-Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we analyzed seed germination, seedling growth, and physiological aspects after treatment with high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma and micro DBD plasma in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), a green leafy vegetable known to have low germination rate. Both germination and dry weight of seedlings increased after high voltage pulse shots were applied to spinach seeds. However seeds treated with many shots (10 shots) showed a decrease in germination rate and seedling growth. Seeds treated with air DBD plasma exhibited slightly higher germination and subsequent seedling growth than those treated with N2 plasma. Seed surface was degenerated after treated with high voltage pulsed plasma and micro DBD plasma but no significant difference in the degree of degeneration was observed among micro DBD plasma treatment time. Level of GA3 hormone and mRNA expression of an amylolytic enzyme-related gene in seeds were elevated 1 day after treatment with high voltage pulsed plasma. The relative amount of chlorophyll and total polyphenols in spinach seedlings grown from seeds treated with air DBD plasma was increased in 30 s, 1 min, and 3 min treatments. Taken together, our results suggest a possibility that plasma can enhance seed germination by triggering biochemical processes in seeds. PMID:26944552

  4. Effects of high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma and micro DBD plasma on seed germination, growth development and physiological activities in spinach.

    PubMed

    Ji, Sang-Hye; Choi, Ki-Hong; Pengkit, Anchalee; Im, Jun Sup; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Yeunsoo; Hong, Eun Jeong; Jung, Sun Kyung; Choi, Eun-Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we analyzed seed germination, seedling growth, and physiological aspects after treatment with high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma and micro DBD plasma in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), a green leafy vegetable known to have low germination rate. Both germination and dry weight of seedlings increased after high voltage pulse shots were applied to spinach seeds. However seeds treated with many shots (10 shots) showed a decrease in germination rate and seedling growth. Seeds treated with air DBD plasma exhibited slightly higher germination and subsequent seedling growth than those treated with N2 plasma. Seed surface was degenerated after treated with high voltage pulsed plasma and micro DBD plasma but no significant difference in the degree of degeneration was observed among micro DBD plasma treatment time. Level of GA3 hormone and mRNA expression of an amylolytic enzyme-related gene in seeds were elevated 1 day after treatment with high voltage pulsed plasma. The relative amount of chlorophyll and total polyphenols in spinach seedlings grown from seeds treated with air DBD plasma was increased in 30 s, 1 min, and 3 min treatments. Taken together, our results suggest a possibility that plasma can enhance seed germination by triggering biochemical processes in seeds.

  5. Effect of sonic stimulation on Bacillus endospore germination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si Li; Wu, Wen Jie; Yung, Pun To

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of sonic stimulation on Bacillus endospore germination. Germinating endospores in a microtiter plate were exposed to audible sound wave generated by an array of piezoelectric transducers. In situ germination kinetics was measured by terbium-dipicolinate fluorescence assay, optical density measurement and phase contrast microscopy. Fluorescence results revealed that sonic stimulation (5 kHz at 90 dB) promoted the germination speed by 43.7% ± 11.3% and final germination level by 61.7% ± 11.9% of Bacillus atrophaeus. This acoustic energy absorbed by endospores is postulated to change membrane permeability and increase enzyme activities; thereby, expediting the germination process. This also raises the likelihood of dormant endospores undergoing germination because of a rapid release of unidentified chemical mediators for quorum sensing. On the other hand, acoustic effect was not observed in B. subtilis endospores. This may be attributed to the different spore aspect ratio, 1.43 ± 0.05 for B. atrophaeus and 2.02 ± 0.08 for B. subtilis, which results in a difference in specific absorption rates towards audible sound waves. Our results demonstrate the modulation of endospore germination by an external field to shed light on germination mechanism and cell-wave interaction. PMID:26607285

  6. Mapping Interactions between Germinants and Clostridium difficile Spores ▿

    PubMed Central

    Howerton, Amber; Ramirez, Norma; Abel-Santos, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Germination of Clostridium difficile spores is the first required step in establishing C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Taurocholate (a bile salt) and glycine (an amino acid) have been shown to be important germinants of C. difficile spores. In the present study, we tested a series of glycine and taurocholate analogs for the ability to induce or inhibit C. difficile spore germination. Testing of glycine analogs revealed that both the carboxy and amino groups are important epitopes for recognition and that the glycine binding site can accommodate compounds with more widely separated termini. The C. difficile germination machinery also recognizes other hydrophobic amino acids. In general, linear alkyl side chains are better activators of spore germination than their branched analogs. However, l-phenylalanine and l-arginine are also good germinants and are probably recognized by distinct binding sites. Testing of taurocholate analogs revealed that the 12-hydroxyl group of taurocholate is necessary, but not sufficient, to activate spore germination. In contrast, the 6- and 7-hydroxyl groups are required for inhibition of C. difficile spore germination. Similarly, C. difficile spores are able to detect taurocholate analogs with shorter, but not longer, alkyl amino sulfonic acid side chains. Furthermore, the sulfonic acid group can be partially substituted with other acidic groups. Finally, a taurocholate analog with an m-aminobenzenesulfonic acid side chain is a strong inhibitor of C. difficile spore germination. In conclusion, C. difficile spores recognize both amino acids and taurocholate through multiple interactions that are required to bind the germinants and/or activate the germination machinery. PMID:20971909

  7. Seed Dormancy and Germination

    PubMed Central

    Bentsink, Leónie; Koornneef, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Seed dormancy allows seeds to overcome periods that are unfavourable for seedling established and is therefore important for plant ecology and agriculture. Several processes are known to be involved in the induction of dormancy and in the switch from the dormant to the germinating state. The role of plant hormones, the different tissues and genes involved, including newly identified genes in dormancy and germination are described in this chapter, as well as the use transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analyses to study these mechanistically not well understood processes. PMID:22303244

  8. 77 FR 70211 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Call Center Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activities (Call Center Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB Review AGENCY....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: VBA Call Center Satisfaction Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900-0744. Type of... VA call centers will provide VBA with three key benefits to: (1) Identify what is most important...

  9. 34 CFR 426.7 - What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.7 Section 426.7 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM General § 426.7 What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary supports model Agriculture Action Centers that provide improved access...

  10. 34 CFR 426.7 - What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.7 Section 426.7 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM General § 426.7 What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary supports model Agriculture Action Centers that provide improved access...

  11. 34 CFR 426.7 - What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.7 Section 426.7 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM General § 426.7 What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary supports model Agriculture Action Centers that provide improved access...

  12. Activities and Products at IVS combination center at BKG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, S.; Lösler, M.

    2013-08-01

    The IVS combination center is primarily responsible to provide rapid EOP products based on observation campaigns twice a week and a long-term EOP series which is updated four times a year. Besides EOP products, methods and analysis of combined station coordinates and source positions are evolving and new products are developed in order to expand the range of combined VLBI products. Within the last year the combination center continuously worked on several improvements and refinements of the combination procedure: outlier test have been improved, the detection of unsuitable sessions in order to improve the stability of the results, the modeling of station coordinates of the reference frame generation and the data presentation on the combination centers website. Besides the routine combination of 24h VLBI sessions, several other projects have been developed, e.g. the preparation of the latest VLBI reference frame (VTRF) including the calculation of station height variations and baseline lengths generation derived by the combination of station coordinates. The combination center is furthermore intensely working on the combination of source coordinates and on providing user friendly online analysis tools on the combination centers website in order to meet the user requirements.

  13. Activities, accomplishments and research progress of the Center for Theoretical Geoplasma Physics, Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tom

    1992-02-01

    This annual report contains a detailed description of the activities, accomplishments, and research progress of the MIT Center for Theoretical Geoplasma Physics established under the University Research Initiative Program by AFOSR. During this second phase of the program, the Center has made definite strides toward the goals prescribed in the renewal proposal. The Center now has a staff of twenty-five (25) faculty, research scientists, postdoctoral, graduate and undergraduate students and visiting scientists. Members of the Center published forty-eight (48) scientific papers and five (5) books and proceedings, delivered forty (40) invited lectures and fifty-one (51) contributed papers. We have initiated a number of new research activities to complement our other ongoing research programs. Some of our research efforts have already been utilized by Dr. J. R. Jasperse's group at the Geophysics Directorate of the Phillips Laboratory in practical space technology applications relevant to the missions of the Air Force. In addition to the Phillips Laboratory, the Center has interacted with numerous research organizations and universities. The research publications are generally the direct product of such interactions.

  14. Interaction of microwaves and germinating seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The preliminary investigation measured the internal metabolic process by ATP production. Leakage of ions and organic material from germinating seeds indicated that membranes are a target of microwaves and heat. Electron photo-micrographs showed an increase in damage to membranes as heat and microwave treatments were increased. The second phase of this investigation was concerned with determining some of the biological activity at the initiation of germination of wheat seed, Triticum aestivum L., using a resonating microwave cavity oscillating at 9.3 GHz as a probe. Direct current conductivity measurements were also made on the seeds as a means of confirming the observations made with the microwave cavity.

  15. Germination of Candida albicans induced by proline.

    PubMed Central

    Dabrowa, N; Taxer, S S; Howard, D H

    1976-01-01

    Blastospores of Candida albicans germinated in proline-biotin-buffer medium incubated at 37 C. Certain other amino acids in the glatamate, asparate, and pyruvate families also fostered germinaton but generally to a lesser extent than did proline. L-Cysteine, D-proline, and certain structural analogues of L-proline inhibited proline-stimualted germination. The concentration of phosphate and glucose was crucial to amino acid-stimulated germination of C. albicans. Clinical isolates and stock cultures varied in their response to the germ tube-inducing activity of proline or other amino acids. The proline-buffer medium cannot be used in a diagnostic test for production of germ tubes by isolates of yeasts. PMID:5375

  16. A method to differentiate summer-dormant from summer-active tall fescue and orchardgrass accessions at germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summer-dormant, cool-season perennial grasses are being used in place of traditional, summer-active cultivars for high quality winter forage. One reason for this change is the ability of cultivars with summer-dormant attributes to tolerate increasing annual temperature, decreasing precipitation, an...

  17. STS-26 simulation activities in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Overall view of JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR) during Flight Day 1 of STS-26 integrated simulations in progress between MCC and JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5 fixed-base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS).

  18. STS-26 simulation activities in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR), astronauts John O. Creighton (right) and L. Blaine Hammond review their notes while serving as spacecraft communicators (CAPCOMs) for STS-26 simulations in progress between MCC and JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5 fixed-base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS).

  19. STS-26 simulation activities in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR), flight directors (FDs) Lee Briscoe (left) and Charles W. Shaw, seated at FD console, view front visual display monitors during STS-26 simulations in progress between MCC and JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5 fixed-base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS).

  20. Physical activity in the EPIC-Italy centers.

    PubMed

    Salvini, Simonetta; Saieva, Calogero; Ciardullo, Anna Vittoria; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Veglia, Fabrizio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition offers the opportunity to explore patterns of physical activity in a large series of healthy adults enrolled in the different local cohorts of the Italian section of the European EPIC project. Physical activity is considered one of the means by which chronic disease could be prevented. Subjects in the EPIC study completed a life-style questionnaire, with a section dedicated to the assessment of physical activity at work and during leisure time. Time spent in the various activities was transformed into an index of physical activity (physical activity level, PAL) and an activity index that includes intense activity (PAL; intense activity included). Quintiles of these indexes were computed in order to observe the distribution of subject characteristics according to levels of physical activity. In general, the population was characterized by low levels of physical activity at work, with more than 50% of the sample reporting sedentary occupations. During leisure time, only a small percentage of subjects compensated for the inactivity at work by engaging in energy-consuming activities. In particular, organized fitness activities were reported by a small percentage of people, whereas walking was the most common sort of physical activity. Specific types of activity seemed to characterize subjects in the different areas of the country, reflecting local traditions or specific living situations. Detailed information about physical activity habits, together with a description of other characteristics, could help in designing physical activity promotion programs in different Italian populations and age groups.

  1. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  2. Physical Activity in Child-Care Centers: Do Teachers Hold the Key to the Playground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Kristen A.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Sherman, Susan N.

    2012-01-01

    Many (56%) US children aged 3-5 years are in center-based childcare and are not obtaining recommended levels of physical activity. In order to determine what child-care teachers/providers perceived as benefits and barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers, we conducted nine focus groups and 13 one-on-one interviews with 49…

  3. 34 CFR 350.22 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and Training Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.22 What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and Training... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities must a Rehabilitation Research...

  4. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.32 What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering...

  5. 34 CFR 350.22 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and Training Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.22 What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and...

  6. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.32 What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering...

  7. The Significance of Hydrogen Sulfide for Arabidopsis Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Baudouin, Emmanuel; Poilevey, Aurélie; Hewage, Nishodi Indiketi; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this study, we investigated the possible functions of H2S in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination. NaHS treatments delayed seed germination in a dose-dependent manner and were ineffective in releasing seed dormancy. Interestingly, endogenous H2S content was enhanced in germinating seeds. This increase was correlated with higher activity of three enzymes (L-cysteine desulfhydrase, D-cysteine desulfhydrase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase) known as sources of H2S in plants. The H2S scavenger hypotaurine and the D/L cysteine desulfhydrase inhibitor propargylglycine significantly delayed seed germination. We analyzed the germinative capacity of des1 seeds mutated in Arabidopsis cytosolic L-cysteine desulfhydrase. Although the mutant seeds do not exhibit germination-evoked H2S formation, they retained similar germination capacity as the wild-type seeds. In addition, des1 seeds responded similarly to temperature and were as sensitive to ABA as wild type seeds. Taken together, these data suggest that, although its metabolism is stimulated upon seed imbibition, H2S plays, if any, a marginal role in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination under standard conditions. PMID:27446159

  8. The Significance of Hydrogen Sulfide for Arabidopsis Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Emmanuel; Poilevey, Aurélie; Hewage, Nishodi Indiketi; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this study, we investigated the possible functions of H2S in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination. NaHS treatments delayed seed germination in a dose-dependent manner and were ineffective in releasing seed dormancy. Interestingly, endogenous H2S content was enhanced in germinating seeds. This increase was correlated with higher activity of three enzymes (L-cysteine desulfhydrase, D-cysteine desulfhydrase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase) known as sources of H2S in plants. The H2S scavenger hypotaurine and the D/L cysteine desulfhydrase inhibitor propargylglycine significantly delayed seed germination. We analyzed the germinative capacity of des1 seeds mutated in Arabidopsis cytosolic L-cysteine desulfhydrase. Although the mutant seeds do not exhibit germination-evoked H2S formation, they retained similar germination capacity as the wild-type seeds. In addition, des1 seeds responded similarly to temperature and were as sensitive to ABA as wild type seeds. Taken together, these data suggest that, although its metabolism is stimulated upon seed imbibition, H2S plays, if any, a marginal role in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination under standard conditions.

  9. Aerospace Battery Activities at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has "pioneered" rechargeable secondary battery design, test, infusion and in-orbit battery management among NASA installations. Nickel cadmium batteries of various designs and sizes have been infused for LEO, GEO and Libration Point spacecraft. Nickel-Hydrogen batteries have currently been baselined for the majority of our missions. Li-Ion batteries from ABSL, JSB, SaFT and Lithion have been designed and tested for aerospace application.

  10. Activities in Aeroelasticity at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Boyd, III; Noll, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of recently-completed research and presents status reports of current research being performed within the Aeroelasticity Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center. Within the paper this research is classified as experimental, analytical, and theoretical aeroelastic research. The paper also describes the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, its features, capabilities, a new open-architecture data acquisition system, ongoing facility modifications, and the subsequent calibration of the facility.

  11. STS-26 simulation activities in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR), flight controller Granvil A. Pennington, leaning on console, listens to communications during the STS-26 integrated simulations in progress between MCC and JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5 fixed-base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). MCC FCR visual displays are seen in background. Five veteran astronauts were in the FB-SMS rehearsing their roles for the scheduled June 1988 flight aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103.

  12. Learning by Doing: Engaging Students through Learner-Centered Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Karl L.; Csapo, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    With a shift of focus from teaching to learning in higher education, teachers often look for strategies to involve students actively in the learning process, especially since numerous studies have demonstrated that a student's active involvement in the learning process enhances learning. Active learning has resulted in positive learning outcomes.…

  13. Recent Activities of Tsukuba Correlator/Analysis Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokado, K.; Kurihara, S.; Kawabata, R.; Nozawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) has been a member of IVS and taken charge of a Network Station and an IVS Correlator since 1998. In addition, GSI became an IVS Operational Analysis Center in January 2010.The Tsukuba Correlator takes charge of correlation work for approximately 100 IVS-INT02 (INT2) sessions and 10 Japanese domestic sessions every year. In 2011, the number of INT2 sessions dramatically increased, because INT2 sessions were observed twice a day during the weekend from April 2011 to January 2012 due to the change in position of the Tsukuba 32-m antenna by the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku. The role of the Tsukuba VLBI Analysis Center is to produce ultra-rapid dUT1 measurements, sessions with the goal of obtaining a dUT1 solution within 30 minutes after the end of the observation session. The data processing system at the Tsukuba Correlator and Analysis Center was dramatically improved to achieve rapid data processing. It enabled us to shorten the data processing time to one-sixth and to process the IVS VLBI data in near real-time. In 2011, we processed the ultra-rapid dUT1 measurements with the Onsala or Wettzell stations from INT2 sessions or IVS 24-hour sessions, such as R1, RD or T2 sessions. The most successful sessions for ultra-rapid dUT1 measurement was the CONT11 sessions which were a campaign of 15 days of continuous VLBI sessions. During these sessions, we succeeded in estimating continuous dUT1 solutions in near real-time for 15 days.

  14. Evolution of nutrient ingredients in tartary buckwheat seeds during germination.

    PubMed

    Yiming, Zhou; Hong, Wang; Linlin, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhou; Wen, Tang; Xinli, Song

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of nutrient components and the antioxidative activity of seed sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn) were investigated in the course of germination. Results showed that the contents of total flavonoids increased with germination time and leveled off after the third germination day with the changing trend of rutin and quercetin opposite to each other. The decrease of total protein and total sugar contents in the germinated seeds was accompanied respectively by an increase of amino acid and reducing sugar contents. The contents of vitamin C (Vc) and B1(V(B1)) exhibited a minimum with no appreciable changes found for vitamin B(2) (V(B2)) and B(6) (V(B6)). The contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and B all exhibited a maximum on the fifth germination day. The contents of fatty acids had no regular changing trend with germination time. The free radical-scavenging activities of the seeds increased with germination time and were caused by an increase in their antioxidative activity.

  15. Evolution of nutrient ingredients in tartary buckwheat seeds during germination.

    PubMed

    Yiming, Zhou; Hong, Wang; Linlin, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhou; Wen, Tang; Xinli, Song

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of nutrient components and the antioxidative activity of seed sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn) were investigated in the course of germination. Results showed that the contents of total flavonoids increased with germination time and leveled off after the third germination day with the changing trend of rutin and quercetin opposite to each other. The decrease of total protein and total sugar contents in the germinated seeds was accompanied respectively by an increase of amino acid and reducing sugar contents. The contents of vitamin C (Vc) and B1(V(B1)) exhibited a minimum with no appreciable changes found for vitamin B(2) (V(B2)) and B(6) (V(B6)). The contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and B all exhibited a maximum on the fifth germination day. The contents of fatty acids had no regular changing trend with germination time. The free radical-scavenging activities of the seeds increased with germination time and were caused by an increase in their antioxidative activity. PMID:25976817

  16. Recent activities of the Priroda State Remote Sensing Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, J.L.; Bond, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    At present the Priroda State Remote Sensing Center is the largest entity in the USSR responsible for the receipt and processing of space imagery. Besides the aforementioned consulting and training functions, Priroda, upon user request: a) processes multispectral, band-specific, and other remote sensing imagery and supplies a broad range of primary and derivative information in the form of image copies [prints and transparencies] and digital products; and b) cooperates with other GUGK bodies in the compilation of thematic map series on diverse topics. -from Authors

  17. Activities of the Structures Division, Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Lewis Research Center, Structures Division's 1990 Annual Report is to give a brief, but comprehensive, review of the technical accomplishments of the Division during the past calendar year. The report is organized topically to match the Center's Strategic Plan. Over the years, the Structures Division has developed the technology base necessary for improving the future of aeronautical and space propulsion systems. In the future, propulsion systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance. Achieving these goals is complex and challenging. Our approach has been to work cooperatively with both industry and universities to develop the technology necessary for state-of-the-art advancement in aeronautical and space propulsion systems. The Structures Division consists of four branches: Structural Mechanics, Fatigue and Fracture, Structural Dynamics, and Structural Integrity. This publication describes the work of the four branches by three topic areas of Research: (1) Basic Discipline; (2) Aeropropulsion; and (3) Space Propulsion. Each topic area is further divided into the following: (1) Materials; (2) Structural Mechanics; (3) Life Prediction; (4) Instruments, Controls, and Testing Techniques; and (5) Mechanisms. The publication covers 78 separate topics with a bibliography containing 159 citations. We hope you will find the publication interesting as well as useful.

  18. Recent Activities on the Embrace Space Weather Regional Warning Center: the New Space Weather Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dal Lago, Alisson; Mendes, Odim; Batista, Inez S.; SantAnna, Nilson; Gatto, Rubens; Takahashi, Hisao; Costa, D. Joaquim; Banik Padua, Marcelo; Campos Velho, Haroldo

    2016-07-01

    On August 2007 the National Institute for Space Research started a task force to develop and operate a space weather program, which is known by the acronyms Embrace that stands for the Portuguese statement "Estudo e Monitoramento BRAasileiro de Clima Espacial" Program (Brazilian Space Weather Study and Monitoring program). The mission of the Embrace/INPE program is to monitor the Solar-Terrestrial environment, the magnetosphere, the upper atmosphere and the ground induced currents to prevent effects on technological and economic activities. The Embrace/INPE system monitors the physical parameters of the Sun-Earth environment, such as Active Regions (AR) in the Sun and solar radiation by using radio telescope, Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) information by satellite and ground-based cosmic ray monitoring, geomagnetic activity by the magnetometer network, and ionospheric disturbance by ionospheric sounders and using data collected by four GPS receiver network, geomagnetic activity by a magnetometer network, and provides a forecasting for Total Electronic Content (TEC) - 24 hours ahead - using a version of the SUPIM model which assimilates the two latter data using nudging approach. Most of these physical parameters are daily published on the Brazilian space weather program web portal, related to the entire network sensors available. Regarding outreach, it has being published a daily bulletin in Portuguese and English with the status of the space weather environment on the Sun, the Interplanetary Medium and close to the Earth. Since December 2011, all these activities are carried out at the Embrace Headquarter, a building located at the INPE's main campus. Recently, a comprehensive data bank and an interface layer are under commissioning to allow an easy and direct access to all the space weather data collected by Embrace through the Embrace web Portal. The information being released encompasses data from: (a) the Embrace Digisonde Network (Embrace DigiNet) that monitors

  19. Diversity of organotrophic bacteria, activity of dehydrogenases and urease as well as seed germination and root growth Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba under the influence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lipińska, Aneta; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds with highly toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties, which adversely affect the basic biological parameters of the soil, including the count of microorganisms, and the enzymatic activity. In addition to disturbances to the biological activity of the soil, PAHs may also exhibit toxic effects on plants. In view of the above, the study involved testing aimed at the determination of the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a form of naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene on the count, colony development (CD) index, ecophysiological (EP) diversity index of organotrophic bacteria, and the activity of soil dehydrogenases and soil urease. Moreover, an attempt was made to determine the soil's resistance based on the activity of the above-listed enzymes, and the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on seed germination and root growth was assessed by Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum, and Sinapis alba. In addition, the species of bacteria found in a soil subjected to strong pressure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were isolated. The experiment was performed in a laboratory on samples of loamy sand. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were introduced into the soil in an amount of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg kg(-1) of soil dry matter. Germination and growth of cress (L. sativum), white mustard (S. alba), and sweet sorghum (S. saccharatum) were determined using Phytotoxkit tests. It was found that the tested PAHs increased the average colony counts of organotrophic soil bacteria; pyrene did so to the greatest extent (2.2-fold relative to non-contaminated soil), phenanthrene to the smallest extent (1.4-fold relative to non-contaminated soil). None of the PAHs changed the value of the bacterial colony development (CD) index, while anthracene and pyrene increased the value of the eco-physiological (EP) diversity indicator. PAHs lowered the activity of the tested enzymes. The activity of

  20. Diversity of organotrophic bacteria, activity of dehydrogenases and urease as well as seed germination and root growth Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba under the influence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lipińska, Aneta; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds with highly toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties, which adversely affect the basic biological parameters of the soil, including the count of microorganisms, and the enzymatic activity. In addition to disturbances to the biological activity of the soil, PAHs may also exhibit toxic effects on plants. In view of the above, the study involved testing aimed at the determination of the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a form of naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene on the count, colony development (CD) index, ecophysiological (EP) diversity index of organotrophic bacteria, and the activity of soil dehydrogenases and soil urease. Moreover, an attempt was made to determine the soil's resistance based on the activity of the above-listed enzymes, and the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on seed germination and root growth was assessed by Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum, and Sinapis alba. In addition, the species of bacteria found in a soil subjected to strong pressure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were isolated. The experiment was performed in a laboratory on samples of loamy sand. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were introduced into the soil in an amount of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg kg(-1) of soil dry matter. Germination and growth of cress (L. sativum), white mustard (S. alba), and sweet sorghum (S. saccharatum) were determined using Phytotoxkit tests. It was found that the tested PAHs increased the average colony counts of organotrophic soil bacteria; pyrene did so to the greatest extent (2.2-fold relative to non-contaminated soil), phenanthrene to the smallest extent (1.4-fold relative to non-contaminated soil). None of the PAHs changed the value of the bacterial colony development (CD) index, while anthracene and pyrene increased the value of the eco-physiological (EP) diversity indicator. PAHs lowered the activity of the tested enzymes. The activity of

  1. [History and activities of the Rescue Coordination Center].

    PubMed

    Hausman, A

    1983-01-01

    The founder and first director of the C.C.R. enumerates the principles that led to the conception and the achievement of the C.C.R. He reviews the principal rescue activities during these 25 years and mentions the development of supplementary activities on safety, ergonomics and respiratory protection during the last few years.

  2. [Activities of Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, Maryland University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is recognized as a world leader in the application of remote sensing and modeling aimed at improving knowledge of the Earth system. The Goddard Earth Sciences Directorate plays a central role in NASA's Earth Observing System and the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology (GEST) is organized as a cooperative agreement with the GSFC to promote excellence in the Earth sciences, and is a consortium of universities and corporations (University of Maryland Baltimore County, Howard University, Hampton University, Caelum Research Corporation and Northrop Grumman Corporation). The aim of this new program is to attract and introduce promising students in their first or second year of graduate studies to Oceanography and Earth system science career options through hands-on instrumentation research experiences on coastal processes at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility on the Eastern Shore of Virginia.

  3. Report on Advanced Life Support Activities at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant studies at Kennedy Space Center last year focused on selecting cultivars of lettuce, tomato, and pepper for further testing as crops for near-term space flight applications. Other testing continued with lettuce, onion, and radish plants grown at different combinations of light (PPF), temperature, and CO2 concentration. In addition, comparisons of mixed versus mono culture approaches for vegetable production were studied. Water processing testing focused on the development and testing of a rotating membrane bioreactor to increase oxygen diffusion levels for reducing total organic carbon levels and promoting nitrification. Other testing continued to study composting testing for food wastes (NRA grant) and the use of supplemental green light with red/blue LED lighting systems for plant production (NRC fellowship).

  4. Physiological role of germicidins in spore germination and hyphal elongation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yuu; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro

    2011-09-01

    Four germicidin homologs were isolated from a liquid culture of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). These were identified as germicidins A, B and C, and surugapyrone A (germicidin D). Absolute stereochemistry of the chiral center in germicidins A and C is determined to be S. All germicidins inhibited germination of S. coelicolor A3(2) spores above 1 μg ml(-1). S. coelicolor A3(2) spores collected from a single petri dish (9 cm i.d.) contained 5.4 μg of germicidin A (-2.7 × 10(-14) g per spore), which accounts for 2.3% of the spore extract, and contents of germicidins B, C and D were 0.2-0.8 μg. The activity of the spore extract corresponded well with the sum of the activity of each germicidin, which was estimated from the content and dose-response curve, which indicates that germicidins functions as self-germination inhibitors in S. coelicolor A3(2). Inhibitory action of germicidin A on spore germination was reversible and germicidin A inhibited not only spore germination but also hyphal elongation.

  5. Craving love? Enduring grief activates brain's reward center.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Wellisch, David K; Stanton, Annette L; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2008-08-15

    Complicated Grief (CG) occurs when an individual experiences prolonged, unabated grief. The neural mechanisms distinguishing CG from Noncomplicated Grief (NCG) are unclear, but hypothesized mechanisms include both pain-related activity (related to the social pain of loss) and reward-related activity (related to attachment behavior). Bereaved women (11 CG, 12 NCG) participated in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, during grief elicitation with idiographic stimuli. Analyses revealed that whereas both CG and NCG participants showed pain-related neural activity in response to reminders of the deceased, only those with CG showed reward-related activity in the nucleus accumbens (NA). This NA cluster was positively correlated with self-reported yearning, but not with time since death, participant age, or positive/negative affect. This study supports the hypothesis that attachment activates reward pathways. For those with CG, reminders of the deceased still activate neural reward activity, which may interfere with adapting to the loss in the present. PMID:18559294

  6. Recent and Future Stratospheric Balloon Activities at Esrange Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemi, Stig

    Esrange Space Center located in northern Sweden has during 45 years been a leading launch site for both sounding rockets and stratospheric balloons. We have a unique combination of maintaining both stratospheric balloons and sounding rockets launch operations. Most balloon flights are normally handled inside Scandinavia but since 2005 PersonNamesemi-circular flights are performed with recovery in northern Canada. The Swedish Government and Swedish National Space Board are now finaliz-ing an agreement with Russia for peaceful uPersonNamese of space, which will permit circumpolar balloon flights. Within this agreement we will soon be able to of-fer the science community long duration balloon flights with durations for PersonNameseveral weeks. The balloon operations at Esrange Space Center are yearly expanding. Both NASA and CNES have long term plans for balloon flights from northern Sweden. We have also received a request from JAXA for future balloon missions. To handle balloon campaigns with large numbers of payloads or build up for two different campaigns a new big assembly hall will be ready for use at the beginning of 2011. January 24 we made an historical balloon flight in a very cold stratosphere with a Zodiac metricconverterProductID402?000 m3402ü ınbsp;000 m3402 000 m3 balloon carrying a 750kg gondola with the German Mipas-B/Telis instrument. The balloon reached 34kms alti-tude after a carefully piloted ascent in temperature levels down to -89 degrees Centigrade. The scientists received unique data during the 13 hours and 30 minutes long sailing at different altitudes during slow descent. The payload was recovered in very good condition 80 kms from the border between country-regionFinland and Russia.

  7. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Songbo; Tan, Cong; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling). Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%), intron retention (32%-34%) and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21%) were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  8. Studies on the molecular mechanisms of seed germination.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Yang, Pingfang

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination that begins with imbibition and ends with radicle emergence is the first step for plant growth. Successful germination is not only crucial for seedling establishment but also important for crop yield. After being dispersed from mother plant, seed undergoes continuous desiccation in ecosystem and selects proper environment to trigger germination. Owing to the contribution of transcriptomic, proteomic, and molecular biological studies, molecular aspect of seed germination is elucidated well in Arabidopsis. Recently, more and more proteomic and genetic studies concerning cereal seed germination were performed on rice (Oryza sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which possess completely different seed structure and domestication background with Arabidopsis. In this review, both the common features and the distinct mechanisms of seed germination are compared among different plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. These features include morphological changes, cell and its related structure recovery, metabolic activation, hormone behavior, and transcription and translation activation. This review will provide more comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of seed germination.

  9. Studies on the molecular mechanisms of seed germination.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Yang, Pingfang

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination that begins with imbibition and ends with radicle emergence is the first step for plant growth. Successful germination is not only crucial for seedling establishment but also important for crop yield. After being dispersed from mother plant, seed undergoes continuous desiccation in ecosystem and selects proper environment to trigger germination. Owing to the contribution of transcriptomic, proteomic, and molecular biological studies, molecular aspect of seed germination is elucidated well in Arabidopsis. Recently, more and more proteomic and genetic studies concerning cereal seed germination were performed on rice (Oryza sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which possess completely different seed structure and domestication background with Arabidopsis. In this review, both the common features and the distinct mechanisms of seed germination are compared among different plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. These features include morphological changes, cell and its related structure recovery, metabolic activation, hormone behavior, and transcription and translation activation. This review will provide more comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of seed germination. PMID:25597791

  10. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Songbo; Tan, Cong; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling). Alternative 3’ splicing (34%-45%), intron retention (32%-34%) and alternative 5’ splicing (16%-21%) were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination. PMID:27031341

  11. A journey into the active center of nitrogenase.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogenase catalyzes the reduction of N2 to NH3, a key step in the global nitrogen cycle. This article describes our journey toward the definition of a complete molecular structure of the active site of nitrogenase, with an emphasis on the discovery of the interstitial carbide and the radical SAM-dependent insertion of this atom into the active FeMo cofactor site of nitrogenase.

  12. Physical Activity and Beverages in Home- and Center-Based Child Care Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Pooja S.; Garrison, Michelle M.; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and compare obesity prevention practices related to physical activity and beverages in home- and center-based child care programs. Methods: A telephone survey of licensed home- and center-based child care programs in Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Washington between October and December 2008. Results: Most programs…

  13. Report on the Activities of the Single Parent Resource Center, 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childcare Switchboard / Single Parent Resource Center, San Francisco, CA.

    This report provides a model for the provision of social services to single parents. The activities the center provides include drop-in support groups, workshops on single parent issues, a single parent magazine, individual counseling and community outreach. The report briefly specifies the goals of the center and the rationale behind its…

  14. Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

  15. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  16. Proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome is required for the meiotic resumption, germinal vesicle breakdown, and cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes matured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Joo; Nagyova, Eva; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Procházka, Radek; Sutovsky, Miriam; Park, Chang-Sik; Sutovsky, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The resumption of oocyte meiosis in mammals encompasses the landmark event of oocyte germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown (GVBD), accompanied by the modification of cell-to-cell communication and adhesion between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells. The concomitant cumulus expansion relies on microfilament-cytoskeletal remodeling and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. We hypothesized that this multifaceted remodeling event requires substrate-specific proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). We evaluated meiotic progression, cytoskeletal dynamics, and the production of cumulus ECM in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) cultured with or without 10-200 microM MG132, a specific proteasomal inhibitor, for the first 22 h of in vitro maturation, followed by 22 h of culture with or without MG132. Treatment with 10 microM MG132 arrested 28.4% of oocytes in GV stage (vs. 1.3% in control), 43.1% in prometaphase I, and 16.2% in metaphase I, whereas 83.7% of control ova reached metaphase II (0% of MG132 reached metaphase II). The proportion of GV-stage ova increased progressively to >90% with increased concentration of MG132 (20-200 microM). Furthermore, MG132 blocked the extrusion of the first polar body and degradation of F-actin-rich transzonal projections (TZP) interconnecting cumulus cells with the oocyte. The microfilament disruptor cytochalasin E (CE) prevented cumulus expansion but accelerated the breakdown of TZPs. Ova treated with a combination of 10 microM MG132 and 10 microM CE underwent GVBD, despite the inhibition of proteasomal activity. However, 90.0% of cumulus-free ova treated with 10 microM MG132 remained in GV stage, compared with 16.7% GV ova in control. Cumulus expansion, retention of hyaluronic acid, and the deposition of cumulus ECM relying on the covalent transfer of heavy chains of inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor (IalphaI) were also inhibited by MG132. Cumulus expansion in control COCs was accompanied by the degradation of ubiquitin

  17. Transmission research activities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    A joint research program, to advance the technology of rotorcraft transmissions, consists of analytical and experimental efforts to achieve the overall goals of reducing transmission weight and noise, while increasing life and reliability. Recent activities in the areas of transmission and related component research are highlighted. Current areas include specific technologies in support of military rotary wing aviation, gearing technology, transmission noise reduction studies, a recent interest in gearbox diagnostics, and advanced transmission system studies. Results of recent activities are presented along with near term research plans.

  18. Gene activity during germination of spores of the fern, Onoclea sensibilis: RNA and protein synthesis and the role of stored mRNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, V.

    1991-01-01

    Pattern of 3H-uridine incorporation into RNA of spores of Onoclea sensibilis imbibed in complete darkness (non-germinating conditions) and induced to germinate in red light was followed by oligo-dT cellulose chromatography, gel electrophoresis coupled with fluorography and autoradiography. In dark-imbibed spores, RNA synthesis was initiated about 24 h after sowing, with most of the label accumulating in the high mol. wt. poly(A) -RNA fraction. There was no incorporation of the label into poly(A) +RNA until 48 h after sowing. In contrast, photo-induced spores began to synthesize all fractions of RNA within 12 h after sowing and by 24 h, incorporation of 3H-uridine into RNA of irradiated spores was nearly 70-fold higher than that into dark-imbibed spores. Protein synthesis, as monitored by 3H-arginine incorporation into the acid-insoluble fraction and by autoradiography, was initiated in spores within 1-2 h after sowing under both conditions. Autoradiographic experiments also showed that onset of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm of the germinating spore is independent of the transport of newly synthesized nuclear RNA. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 35S-methionine-labelled proteins revealed a good correspondence between proteins synthesized in a cell-free translation system directed by poly(A) +RNA of dormant spores and those synthesized in vivo by dark-imbibed and photo-induced spores. These results indicate that stored mRNAs of O. sensibilis spores are functionally competent and provide templates for the synthesis of proteins during dark-imbibition and germination.

  19. Kidspiration[R] for Inquiry-Centered Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward L., Jr.; Baggett, Paige V.; Salyer, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Computer technology can be integrated into science inquiry activities to increase student motivation and enhance and expand scientific thinking. Fifth-grade students used the visual thinking tools in the Kidspiration[R] software program to generate and represent a web of hypotheses around the question, "What affects the distance a marble rolls?"…

  20. Robotics-Centered Outreach Activities: An Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-del-Solar, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, universities are making extensive efforts to attract prospective students to the fields of electrical, electronic, and computer engineering. Thus, outreach is becoming increasingly important, and activities with schoolchildren are being extensively carried out as part of this effort. In this context, robotics is a very attractive and…

  1. An Interdisciplinary, Computer-Centered Approach to Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misale, Judi M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted, interdisciplinary course in decision making developed to promote student participation and critical thinking. Students participate in 20 interactive exercises that utilize and illustrate psychological and economic concepts. Follow-up activities include receiving background information, group discussions, text…

  2. 77 FR 69604 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Educational Opportunity Centers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Educational Opportunity Centers Program (EOC... respondents, including through the use of information technology. Please note that written comments received in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection:...

  3. 77 FR 20887 - Proposed Information Collection (National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of Acquisition and Logistics (OAL), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA),...

  4. 77 FR 38398 - Agency Information Collection (National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey) Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... notice announces that the Office of Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs,...

  5. Classroom Activities: Simple Strategies to Incorporate Student-Centered Activities within Undergraduate Science Lectures

    PubMed Central

    Lom, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The traditional science lecture, where an instructor delivers a carefully crafted monolog to a large audience of students who passively receive the information, has been a popular mode of instruction for centuries. Recent evidence on the science of teaching and learning indicates that learner-centered, active teaching strategies can be more effective learning tools than traditional lectures. Yet most colleges and universities retain lectures as their central instructional method. This article highlights several simple collaborative teaching techniques that can be readily deployed within traditional lecture frameworks to promote active learning. Specifically, this article briefly introduces the techniques of: reader’s theatre, think-pair-share, roundtable, jigsaw, in-class quizzes, and minute papers. Each technique is broadly applicable well beyond neuroscience courses and easily modifiable to serve an instructor’s specific pedagogical goals. The benefits of each technique are described along with specific examples of how each technique might be deployed within a traditional lecture to create more active learning experiences. PMID:23494568

  6. UAS Related Activities at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Dryden Flight Research Center is completing its refurbishment and initial flights of one the pre-production Global Hawk aircraft it received from the U.S. Air Force. NASA Dryden has an agreement with the Global Hawk s manufacturer, Northrop Grumman, to partner in the refurbishment and flight operations of the vehicles. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has also partnered on the project and is assisting NASA with project management and pilot responsibilities for the aircraft. NASA and NOAA will be using the Global Hawks to conduct earth science research. The earth science community is increasing utilizing UAS of all sizes and capabilities to collect important data on a variety of issues including important global climate change issues. To pursue the data collection needs of the science community there is a growing demand for international collaboration with respect to operating UAS in global airspace. Operations of NASA s Ikhana aircraft continued this past year. The Ikhana is a modified Predator B UAS. A UAS dedicated to research at NASA Dryden is the X-48B blended wing body research aircraft. Flight tests with the 500- pound, remotely piloted test vehicle are now in a block 4 phase involving parameter identification and maneuvers to research the limits of the engine in stall situations. NASA s participation in the blended wing body research effort is focused on fundamental, advanced flight dynamics and structural design concepts within the Subsonic Fixed Wing project, part of the Fundamental Aeronautics program managed through NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. Potential benefits of the aircraft include increased volume for carrying capacity, efficient aerodynamics for reduced fuel burn and possibly significant reductions in noise due to propulsion integration options. NASA Dryden continues to support the UAS industry by facilitating access to three specially designated test areas on Edwards Air Force Base for the

  7. Beyond active learning: a case study of teaching practices in an occupation-centered curriculum.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Although occupation-centered curricula are highly promoted, the teaching processes that convey such designs remain unclear. This case study elucidated occupation-centered teaching practices. Interview and observational data were collected over 8 weeks, and analysis involved coding transcriptions, data matrices, concept maps, journaling, and writing. Participants augmented active learning strategies with strategies that linked course topics to the subject of occupation. The use of linking strategies suggested that: (a) course content was treated as two-tiered; (b) neither content nor instructional processes were inherently occupation-centered; and (c) subject-centered education strengthens social learning theories. Although curricula may appear occupation-centered based on a curriculum description and course content, ultimately "linking opportunities" in the classroom constitute an essential feature that demarcates a program as occupation-centered.

  8. A shotgun phosphoproteomics analysis of embryos in germinated maize seeds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tian-Cong; Meng, Ling-Bo; Yang, Chuan-Ping; Liu, Gui-Feng; Liu, Guan-Jun; Ma, Wei; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2008-11-01

    To better understand the role that reversible protein phosphorylation plays in seed germination, we initiated a phosphoproteomic investigation of embryos of germinated maize seeds. A total of 776 proteins including 39 kinases, 16 phosphatases, and 33 phosphoproteins containing 36 precise in vivo phosphorylation sites were identified. All the phosphorylation sites identified, with the exception of the phosphorylation site on HSP22, have not been reported previously (Lund et al. in J Biol Chem, 276, 29924-29929, 2001). Assayed with QRT-PCR, the transcripts of ten kinase genes were found to be dramatically up-regulated during seed germination and those of four phosphatase genes were up-regulated after germination, which indicated that reversible protein phosphorylation occurred and complex regulating networks were activated during this period. At least one-third of these phosphoproteins are key components involved in biological processes which relate to seed germination, such as DNA repair, gene transcription, RNA splicing and protein translation, suggesting that protein phosphorylation plays an important role in seed germination. As far as we know, this is the first phosphoproteomic study on a monocot and it will lay a solid foundation for further study of the molecular mechanisms of seed germination and seedling development.

  9. Thiamine binding and metabolism in germinating seeds of selected cereals and legumes.

    PubMed

    Gołda, Anna; Szyniarowski, Piotr; Ostrowska, Katarzyna; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapała-Kozik, Maria

    2004-03-01

    The basic characteristics of thiamine metabolism in germinating seeds of maize (Zea mays), oat (Avena sativa), faba bean (Vicia faba) and garden pea (Pisum sativum) are presented with a special emphasis of a possible thiamine storage function of seed thiamine-binding proteins (TBPs). Seeds were germinated for 6 d in the dark. Thiamine-binding activity in seeds decreased during germination by 50% in cereals and by 30% in legumes. The degradation of TBPs was also detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total thiamine content decreased rapidly to 20-40% of the initial value in cereal seeds during first 3 d of germination while in legume seeds thiamine content started changing from the fourth day and dropped by 50% at the sixth day. A composite pattern was found for the changes in thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) contribution to total thiamine during seed germination. A peak of the coenzyme percentage was usually detected at the second day of germination. Another gain of TPP was often seen toward the sixth day of germination. The activity of thiamine pyrophosphokinase (EC 2.7.6.2) was high in resting legume seeds and did not significantly change during germination. In contrast, the low activity of this thiamine-activating enzyme in cereal seeds progressively increased during germination. Thiamine phosphate synthase (EC 2.5.1.3) was also detected in seeds and was shown to contribute significantly to the balance of thiamine compounds during seed germination.

  10. City Kids and City Critters! Activities for Urban Explorers from the Houston Arboretum & Nature Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Janet Wier; Huelbig, Carole

    This guide contains activities from the Houston Arboretum and Nature Center programs for children ages 8 to 12 years. The multisensory activities help students improve their observational skills and utilize activity sheets, journals, and hands-on projects to involve them. Children observe, draw, and photograph animals in their natural settings and…

  11. PsMPK7, a stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Phytophthora sojae, is required for stress tolerance, reactive oxygenated species detoxification, cyst germination, sexual reproduction and infection of soybean.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Cao, Mingna; Ye, Wenwu; Li, Haiyang; Kong, Liang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    The sensing of stress signals and their transduction into appropriate responses are crucial for the adaptation, survival and infection of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Amongst evolutionarily conserved pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades function as key signal transducers that use phosphorylation to convey information. In this study, we identified a gene, designated PsMPK7, one of 14 predicted genes encoding MAPKs in Phytophthora sojae. PsMPK7 was highly transcribed in each tested stage, but was up-regulated in the zoospore, cyst and cyst germination stages. Silencing of PsMPK7 affected the growth of germinated cysts, oospore production and the pathogenicity of soybean. PsMPK7 transcription was induced by stresses from sorbitol, NaCl and hydrogen peroxide. Transformants in which PsMPK7 expression was silenced (PsMPK7-silenced) were significantly more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stress. Aniline blue and diaminobenzidine staining revealed that the silenced lines did not suppress the host reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, indicating that either the inoculated plants activated stronger defence responses to the transformants and/or the PsMPK7-silenced transformants failed to overcome plant defences. In addition, extracellular secretion of laccase decreased in the silenced lines. Overall, our results indicate that the PsMPK7 gene encodes a stress-associated MAPK in P. sojae that is important not only for responses to various stresses, but also for ROS detoxification, cyst germination, sexual oospore production and infection of soybean. PMID:24889742

  12. PsMPK7, a stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Phytophthora sojae, is required for stress tolerance, reactive oxygenated species detoxification, cyst germination, sexual reproduction and infection of soybean.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Cao, Mingna; Ye, Wenwu; Li, Haiyang; Kong, Liang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    The sensing of stress signals and their transduction into appropriate responses are crucial for the adaptation, survival and infection of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Amongst evolutionarily conserved pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades function as key signal transducers that use phosphorylation to convey information. In this study, we identified a gene, designated PsMPK7, one of 14 predicted genes encoding MAPKs in Phytophthora sojae. PsMPK7 was highly transcribed in each tested stage, but was up-regulated in the zoospore, cyst and cyst germination stages. Silencing of PsMPK7 affected the growth of germinated cysts, oospore production and the pathogenicity of soybean. PsMPK7 transcription was induced by stresses from sorbitol, NaCl and hydrogen peroxide. Transformants in which PsMPK7 expression was silenced (PsMPK7-silenced) were significantly more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stress. Aniline blue and diaminobenzidine staining revealed that the silenced lines did not suppress the host reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, indicating that either the inoculated plants activated stronger defence responses to the transformants and/or the PsMPK7-silenced transformants failed to overcome plant defences. In addition, extracellular secretion of laccase decreased in the silenced lines. Overall, our results indicate that the PsMPK7 gene encodes a stress-associated MAPK in P. sojae that is important not only for responses to various stresses, but also for ROS detoxification, cyst germination, sexual oospore production and infection of soybean.

  13. In vitro propagation by asymbiotic seed germination and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity studies of tissue culture raised plants of three medicinally important species of dendrobium.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shu-Fung; Nalawade, Satish Manohar; Mulabagal, Vanisree; Matthew, Susan; Chen, Chung-Li; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng

    2004-05-01

    A simple and efficient plant propagation system has been developed by asymbiotic germination of seeds in three medicinally important Dendrobium species, namely, Dendrobium tosaense, Dendrobium moniliforme, and Dendrobium linawianum. Plants obtained from natural habitats were grown in the greenhouse. The flowers were hand pollinated. Seeds of the capsules derived after 12 weeks of hand-pollination germinated asymbiotically (50-74%) on half strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium with 3% sucrose and solidified with 0.9% Difco agar. Active growth in the germinated seedlings was achieved by re-culturing on full strength MS basal medium supplemented with 8% banana homogenate, 8% potato homogenate, 8% coconut water, 1.5% sucrose and 0.9% Difco agar. Healthy plantlets, transferred to plastic trays containing moss or moss and tree fern, successfully acclimatized (84-100%) in the greenhouse. A marked varied response was observed in the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts of in vitro propagated plants, on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical using a UV spectrophotometer assay. Methanolic extracts were prepared by dissolving the powdered plant material, obtained from six months old in vitro propagated plants, each about 5 g, in boiling methanol. The percentage of scavenging effect of D. tosaense extract was 95.9% at 0.4 mg/ml concentration, whereas D. monoliforme, and D. linawianum extracts scavenged 83.4% and 92.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml. All the extracts scavenged DPPH radical significantly in a concentration dependent manner. PMID:15133256

  14. Attitudinal Effects of a Student-Centered Active Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Allen, Deedee

    2005-06-01

    The importance of attitudes toward science has risen from widely accepted assumptions that achievement and attitude are positively interdependent and that affective variables are as important as cognitive variables in molding student learning. This report examines the effect on student attitudes toward learning chemistry in an active learning environment that has incorporated elements believed to positively influence student attitudes toward science including cooperative learning, hands-on activities, real-world applications, and engaging technology. These elements were considered for synergetic effects and not as individual contributors to the overall results. Two different sections of the same general chemistry course participated. The lecture setting was used as the control. Residualized gain scores were used to compare net changes in student attitudes. Data were analyzed for possible differences in gain for different academic majors. Anxiety in chemistry was monitored for the two class settings in three areas, learning in chemistry, chemistry evaluation, and chemical handling. Qualitative student feedback was also collected and is summarized in this report on the attitudinal aspects of instruction.

  15. Constraint based scheduling for the Goddard Space Flight Center distributed Active Archive Center's data archive and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, Nick, Jr.; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Bodden, Lee; Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Beane, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been operational since October 1, 1993. Its mission is to support the Earth Observing System (EOS) by providing rapid access to EOS data and analysis products, and to test Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) design concepts. One of the challenges is to ensure quick and easy retrieval of any data archived within the DAAC's Data Archive and Distributed System (DADS). Over the 15-year life of EOS project, an estimated several Petabytes (10(exp 15)) of data will be permanently stored. Accessing that amount of information is a formidable task that will require innovative approaches. As a precursor of the full EOS system, the GSFC DAAC with a few Terabits of storage, has implemented a prototype of a constraint-based task and resource scheduler to improve the performance of the DADS. This Honeywell Task and Resource Scheduler (HTRS), developed by Honeywell Technology Center in cooperation the Information Science and Technology Branch/935, the Code X Operations Technology Program, and the GSFC DAAC, makes better use of limited resources, prevents backlog of data, provides information about resources bottlenecks and performance characteristics. The prototype which is developed concurrently with the GSFC Version 0 (V0) DADS, models DADS activities such as ingestion and distribution with priority, precedence, resource requirements (disk and network bandwidth) and temporal constraints. HTRS supports schedule updates, insertions, and retrieval of task information via an Application Program Interface (API). The prototype has demonstrated with a few examples, the substantial advantages of using HTRS over scheduling algorithms such as a First In First Out (FIFO) queue. The kernel scheduling engine for HTRS, called Kronos, has been successfully applied to several other domains such as space shuttle mission scheduling, demand flow manufacturing, and avionics communications

  16. Centering perspectives on Black women, hair politics, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Versey, H Shellae

    2014-05-01

    As researchers categorize issues facing Black women's health, obesity and physical exercise continue to be significant topics of debate. General interventions targeted toward Black women to address obesity and increase physical exercise have been largely ineffective. In this article, I situate the current public health discourse on obesity and related interventions within a sociocultural context of body appearance, with a specific focus on hair. Why do some African American women feel such strong ties to their hair that they will avoid exercise? What can be done to understand this phenomenon and address alternatives that may make both hair maintenance and regular exercise feasible? I map a theoretical argument for why hair matters for some women, and discuss how physical activity intervention strategies might be improved by considering such complexities.

  17. [Automation of immunohematologic testing activities at French blood transfusion centers].

    PubMed

    Muller, A; Girard, M

    1983-11-01

    In May 1982, a questionnaire was sent to all of the 170 French Blood Transfusion Services (BTS), on behalf of the French Society of Blood Transfusion. The purpose was to determine the types of automated equipment used for immunohematological controls, the way in which they are used and the result of automation and computerization in daily laboratory operations. We received 135 replies (80%). A generalized conclusion can be drawn from the collected information. 50% of the respondents are neither automated nor computerized. 30% are both automated and computerized. 10% are automated but not computerized and 8% are not automated but are computerized. In the field of automated serology there is an increased tendency to complete the ABO/Rh testing by Cc D Ee and Kell phenotyping. The use of computers allows the current test determination to be compared with previous donation data. However, no fully automated equipment, which can conduct antibody screening, exists, cost effectively, in small or average BTS. In France, there has been a significant increase in automation between 1970 and 1980 but only the most important BTS have carried out automation at the same time as computerization. The smaller BTS have usually become automated without becoming computerized. In 1978, Codabar was first used. This has been one of the principal advances of the last 10 years, allowing all the users of automation to start moving towards complete computerization. This advance was assisted by the use of prepackaged software. This questionnaire also determined that the current emphasis is now to computerize administrative and management activities before laboratory activities. This survey has been conducted during a turning point of the automation of French BTS. It shows that they are, on the whole, satisfied with their automation. As far as the safety and the efficiency of the service are concerned, it is only fair to consider that the main purposes of the automation have been achieved. But

  18. Coevolution between human's anticancer activities and functional foods from crop origin center in the world.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Jia-Zhen; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death around the world. Anticancer activities from many functional food sources have been reported in years, but correlation between cancer prevalence and types of food with anticancer activities from crop origin center in the world as well as food source with human migration are unclear. Hunger from food shortage is the cause of early human evolution from Africa to Asia and later into Eurasia. The richest functional foods are found in crop origin centers, housing about 70% in the world populations. Crop origin centers have lower cancer incidence and mortality in the world, especially Central Asia, Middle East, Southwest China, India and Ethiopia. Asia and Africa with the richest anticancer crops is not only the most important evolution base of humans and origin center of anticancer functional crop, but also is the lowest mortality and incidence of cancers in the world. Cancer prevention of early human migrations was associated with functional foods from crop origin centers, especially Asia with four centers and one subcenter of crop origin, accounting for 58% of the world population. These results reveal that coevolution between human's anticancer activities associated with functional foods for crop origin centers, especially in Asia and Africa. PMID:25824728

  19. Loss of Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Alters Seed Metabolism Impairing Seed Maturation and Post-Germination Growth in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37) has multiple roles; the most commonly described is its catalysis of the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The roles of mMDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development and germination were investigated in mMDH1 and mMDH2 double knockout plants. A significant proportion of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds were nonviable and developed only to torpedo-shaped embryos, indicative of arrested seed embryo growth during embryogenesis. The viable mmdh1mmdh2 seeds had an impaired maturation process that led to slow germination rates as well as retarded post-germination growth, shorter root length, and decreased root biomass. During seed development, mmdh1mmdh2 showed a paler green phenotype than the wild type and exhibited deficiencies in reserve accumulation and reduced final seed biomass. The respiration rate of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds was significantly elevated throughout their maturation, consistent with the previously reported higher respiration rate in mmdh1mmdh2 leaves. Mutant seeds showed a consistently higher content of free amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, alanine, serine, glycine, proline, and threonine), differences in sugar and sugar phosphate levels, and lower content of 2-oxoglutarate. Seed-aging assays showed that quiescent mmdh1mmdh2 seeds lost viability more than 3 times faster than wild-type seeds. Together, these data show the important role of mMDH in the earliest phases of the life cycle of Arabidopsis. PMID:27208265

  20. Social inequalities in body weight and physical activity: exploring the role of fitness centers.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-03-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions ofexclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this relation. Using publicly available data and guided by Bourdieu's theory of habitus, we classified fitness centers in Calgary, Canada, on three dimensions of exclusivity (economic, social, and appearance). We found that, although some highly exclusive centers exist, most demonstrated low exclusivity based on our dimensions. An overall contribution of centers to inequalities appears to be limited; however, caution is warranted in light of cutbacks to municipal budgets that can have an impact on publicly funded facilities.

  1. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

  2. Primary centers and secondary concentrations of tectonic activity through time in the western hemisphere of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Franklin, B.J.; Tanaka, K.L.; Lias, J.; Peer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Five main stages of radial and concentric structures formed around Tharsis from the Noachian through the Amazonian as determined by geologic mapping of 24,452 structures within the stratigraphic framework of Mars and by testing their radial and concentric orientations. Tectonic activity peaked in the Noachian (stage 1) around the largest center, Claritas, an elongate center extending more than 20?? in latitude and defined by about half of the total grabens which are concentrated in the Syria Planum, Thaumasia, and Tempe Terra regions. During the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian (stage 2), extensional structures formed along the length of present-day Valles Marineris and in Thaumasia (with a secondary concentration near Warrego Vallis) radial to a region just to the south of the central margin of Valles Marineris. Early Hesperian (stage 3) radial grabens in Pavonis, Syria, Ulysses, and Tempe Terra and somewhat concentric wrinkle ridges in Lunae and Solis Plana and in Thaumasia, Sirenum, Memnonia, and Amazonis are centered northwest of Syria with secondary centers at Thaumasia, Tempe Terra, Ulysses Fossae, and western Valles Marineris. Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian (stage 4) structures around Alba Patera, the northeast trending alignment of Tharsis Montes, and Olympus Mons appears centered on Alba Patera. Stage 5 structures (Middle-Late Amazonian) represent the last pulse of Tharsis-related activity and are found around the large shield volcanoes and are centered near Pavonis Mons. Tectonic activity around Tharsis began in the Noachian and generally decreased through geologic time to the Amazonian. Statistically significant radial distributions of structures formed during each stage, centered at different locations within the higher elevations of Tharsis. Secondary centers of radial structures during many of the stages appear related to previously identified local magmatic centers that formed at different times and locations throughout Tharsis. Copyright 2001 by

  3. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W. |

    1994-01-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

  4. Learner-Centered Activities from the DVD-Format "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Yun

    This paper demonstrates how Taiwanese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) college teachers and students collaborate and negotiate to design various learner-centered activities based on the Chinese film, "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." These activities are intended to enhance students' listening and speaking abilities. The paper demonstrates eight…

  5. Active-Learning versus Teacher-Centered Instruction for Learning Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of "acids and bases". Sample: The sample of this study was…

  6. Activities. A Collection of Things to Do at the Environmental Learning Center, Isabella, Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Learning Center, Isabella, Minn.

    A collection of activities used successfully at the Environmental Learning Center in Isabella, Minnesota, are contained in this guide. Areas of study are perception and communication, mapping, weather, snow, soil, aquatics, trees, and animals. Within these areas is a number of related activities, each to be adapted to the appropriate grade level.…

  7. SPECIAL ACTIVITIES SUPPLEMENTAL TO AND RELATED TO THE ART PROGRAM AT DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary City Public School System, IN.

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE DEALING WITH VARIOUS SUBJECT AREAS WAS PREPARED FOR POSSIBLE STUDY ACTIVITIES THAT WOULD USE THE LEARNING RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT THE DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER IN GARY, INDIANA. ACTIVITIES GUIDES ARE PRESENTED FOR (1) ART ACTITIVIES RELATED TO DESIGN, COLOR, LANDSCAPE REPRESENTATION, PAPER CONSTRUCTION, DRAWING, PRINT…

  8. A Work Sampling Study of Provider Activities in School-Based Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavis, Brian; Pearson, Rachel; Stewart, Gail; Keefe, Carole

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe provider activities in a convenience sample of School-Based Health Centers (SBHCs). The goal was to determine the relative proportion of time that clinic staff engaged in various patient care and non-patient care activities. Methods: All provider staff at 4 urban SBHCs participated in this…

  9. 7 CFR 201.63 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination. 201.63 Section 201.63 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.63 Germination. The following tolerances are applicable to the percentage of germination and also to the sum of the germination plus the hard seed when 400 or more seeds are tested....

  10. 7 CFR 201.63 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Germination. 201.63 Section 201.63 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.63 Germination. The following tolerances are applicable to the percentage of germination and also to the sum of the germination plus the hard seed when 400 or more seeds are tested....

  11. 7 CFR 201.63 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Germination. 201.63 Section 201.63 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.63 Germination. The following tolerances are applicable to the percentage of germination and also to the sum of the germination plus the hard seed when 400 or more seeds are tested....

  12. 7 CFR 201.63 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Germination. 201.63 Section 201.63 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.63 Germination. The following tolerances are applicable to the percentage of germination and also to the sum of the germination plus the hard seed when 400 or more seeds are tested....

  13. 7 CFR 201.63 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Germination. 201.63 Section 201.63 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.63 Germination. The following tolerances are applicable to the percentage of germination and also to the sum of the germination plus the hard seed when 400 or more seeds are tested....

  14. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  15. Oxidative signaling in seed germination and dormancy

    PubMed Central

    El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

    2008-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a key role in various events of seed life. In orthodox seeds, ROS are produced from embryogenesis to germination, i.e., in metabolically active cells, but also in quiescent dry tissues during after ripening and storage, owing various mechanisms depending on the seed moisture content. Although ROS have been up to now widely considered as detrimental to seeds, recent advances in plant physiology signaling pathways has lead to reconsider their role. ROS accumulation can therefore be also beneficial for seed germination and seedling growth by regulating cellular growth, ensuring a protection against pathogens or controlling the cell redox status. ROS probably also act as a positive signal in seed dormancy release. They interact with abscisic acid and gibberellins transduction pathway and are likely to control numerous transcription factors and properties of specific protein through their carbonylation. PMID:19513212

  16. Effects of germination on the nutritive value and bioactive compounds of brown rice breads.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Caceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Rosell, Cristina M; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-15

    The effect of germination conditions on the nutritional benefits of germinated brown rice flour (GBR) bread has been determined. The proximate composition, phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, glucose and starch content, as well as the most relevant bioactive compounds (GABA, γ-oryzanol and total phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of breads prepared with GBR at different germination conditions was determined. When comparing different germination times (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h), germination for 48 h provides GBR bread with nutritionally superior quality on the basis of its higher content of protein, lipids and bioactive compounds (GABA and polyphenols), increased antioxidant activity and reduced phytic acid content and glycaemic index, although a slight decrease in in vitro protein digestibility was detected. Overall, germination seems to be a natural and sustainable way to improving the nutritional quality of gluten-free rice breads.

  17. Influence of germination time of brown rice in relation to flour and gluten free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Rosell, Cristina M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of germination time on physicochemical characteristics of brown rice flour and its effect on gluten free bread qualities have been investigated. Germination was carried out at 28 °C and 100 % RH for 12, 24 and 48 h; brown rice and soaked brown rice was also analyzed. Significant changes on hydration and pasting properties of brown rice flour were found during germination. The starch degradation by enzyme activity could be evidenced with the decrease in viscosity and water binding capacity (WBC). No significant effect in specific volume, humidity and water activity of the gluten free bread was found as germination time increase, but a significant softness of the crumb was obtained. However, at 48 h of germination, the intense action of α amylase could result in excessive liquefaction and dextrinisation, causing inferior bread quality. Overall, germinated rice flour showed appropriate functionality for being used as raw ingredient in gluten free breadmaking. PMID:26396405

  18. Effects of germination on the nutritive value and bioactive compounds of brown rice breads.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Caceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Rosell, Cristina M; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-15

    The effect of germination conditions on the nutritional benefits of germinated brown rice flour (GBR) bread has been determined. The proximate composition, phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, glucose and starch content, as well as the most relevant bioactive compounds (GABA, γ-oryzanol and total phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of breads prepared with GBR at different germination conditions was determined. When comparing different germination times (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h), germination for 48 h provides GBR bread with nutritionally superior quality on the basis of its higher content of protein, lipids and bioactive compounds (GABA and polyphenols), increased antioxidant activity and reduced phytic acid content and glycaemic index, although a slight decrease in in vitro protein digestibility was detected. Overall, germination seems to be a natural and sustainable way to improving the nutritional quality of gluten-free rice breads. PMID:25466026

  19. Influence of germination time of brown rice in relation to flour and gluten free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Rosell, Cristina M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of germination time on physicochemical characteristics of brown rice flour and its effect on gluten free bread qualities have been investigated. Germination was carried out at 28 °C and 100 % RH for 12, 24 and 48 h; brown rice and soaked brown rice was also analyzed. Significant changes on hydration and pasting properties of brown rice flour were found during germination. The starch degradation by enzyme activity could be evidenced with the decrease in viscosity and water binding capacity (WBC). No significant effect in specific volume, humidity and water activity of the gluten free bread was found as germination time increase, but a significant softness of the crumb was obtained. However, at 48 h of germination, the intense action of α amylase could result in excessive liquefaction and dextrinisation, causing inferior bread quality. Overall, germinated rice flour showed appropriate functionality for being used as raw ingredient in gluten free breadmaking.

  20. Study of spin centers in nanocrystalline titanium dioxide with a high degree of photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinova, E. A.; Gayvoronskiy, V. Ya.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2010-08-15

    Electron spin resonance spectroscopy is used to study the effects of illumination and changes in temperature on spin centers in nanocrystalline anatase powders synthesized by sol-gel methods with various complexing agents. A correlation between the concentration of oxygen radicals at the surface and the rate of photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds in the presence of TiO{sub 2} is observed. It is shown that the concentration of centers active in the electron spin resonance spectra can be used for monitoring the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}.

  1. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up-regulated by both GA and seed

  2. DISCOVERY OF THE RECOMBINING PLASMA IN THE SOUTH OF THE GALACTIC CENTER: A RELIC OF THE PAST GALACTIC CENTER ACTIVITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, S.; Nobukawa, M.; Uchida, H.; Tanaka, T.; Tsuru, T. G.; Koyama, K.; Murakami, H.; Uchiyama, H.

    2013-08-10

    We report Suzaku results for soft X-ray emission to the south of the Galactic center (GC). The emission (hereafter {sup G}C South{sup )} has an angular size of {approx}42' Multiplication-Sign 16' centered at (l, b) {approx} (0. Degree-Sign 0, - 1. Degree-Sign 4) and is located in the largely extended Galactic ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). The X-ray spectrum of GC South exhibits emission lines from highly ionized atoms. Although the X-ray spectrum of the GRXE can be well fitted with a plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), that of GC South cannot be fitted with a plasma in CIE, leaving hump-like residuals at {approx}2.5 and 3.5 keV, which are attributable to the radiative recombination continua of the K-shells of Si and S, respectively. In fact, GC South spectrum is well fitted with a recombination-dominant plasma model; the electron temperature is 0.46 keV while atoms are highly ionized (kT = 1.6 keV) in the initial epoch, and the plasma is now in a recombining phase at a relaxation scale (plasma density Multiplication-Sign elapsed time) of 5.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} s cm{sup -3}. The absorption column density of GC South is consistent with that toward the GC region. Thus, GC South is likely to be located in the GC region ({approx}8 kpc distance). The size of the plasma, the mean density, and the thermal energy are estimated to be {approx}97 pc Multiplication-Sign 37 pc, 0.16 cm{sup -3}, and 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg, respectively. We discuss possible origins of the recombination-dominant plasma as a relic of past activity in the GC region.

  3. Brassinosteroids promote Arabidopsis pollen germination and growth.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Frank; Schmalzl, Christina; Englhart, Maria; Bircheneder, Martin; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2014-09-01

    Pollen tubes are among the fastest tip-growing plant cells and represent an excellent experimental system for studying the dynamics and spatiotemporal control of polarized cell growth. However, investigating pollen tube tip growth in the model plant Arabidopsis remains difficult because in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth rates are highly variable and largely different from those observed in pistils, most likely due to growth-promoting properties of the female reproductive tract. We found that in vitro grown Arabidopsis pollen respond to brassinosteroid (BR) in a dose-dependent manner. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth increased nine- and fivefold, respectively, when media were supplemented with 10 µM epibrassinolide (epiBL), resulting in growth kinetics more similar to growth in vivo. Expression analyses show that the promoter of one of the key enzymes in BR biosynthesis, CYP90A1/CPD, is highly active in the cells of the reproductive tract that form the pathway for pollen tubes from the stigma to the ovules. Pollen tubes grew significantly shorter through the reproductive tract of a cyp90a1 mutant compared to the wild type, or to a BR perception mutant. Our results show that epiBL promotes pollen germination and tube growth in vitro and suggest that the cells of the reproductive tract provide BR compounds to stimulate pollen tube growth.

  4. Integration of telencephalic Wnt and hedgehog signaling center activities by Foxg1.

    PubMed

    Danesin, Catherine; Peres, João N; Johansson, Marie; Snowden, Victoria; Cording, Amy; Papalopulu, Nancy; Houart, Corinne

    2009-04-01

    The forebrain is patterned along the dorsoventral (DV) axis by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). However, previous studies have suggested the presence of an Shh-independent mechanism. Our study identifies Wnt/beta-catenin-activated from the telencephalic roof-as an Shh-independent pathway that is essential for telencephalic pallial (dorsal) specification during neurulation. We demonstrate that the transcription factor Foxg1 coordinates the activity of two signaling centers: Foxg1 is a key downstream effector of the Shh pathway during induction of subpallial (ventral) identity, and it inhibits Wnt/beta-catenin signaling through direct transcriptional repression of Wnt ligands. This inhibition restricts the dorsal Wnt signaling center to the roof plate and consequently limits pallial identities. Concomitantly to these roles, Foxg1 controls the formation of the compartment boundary between telencephalon and basal diencephalon. Altogether, these findings identify a key direct target of Foxg1, and uncover a simple molecular mechanism by which Foxg1 integrates two opposing signaling centers.

  5. Introductory Astronomy Student-Centered Active Learning at The George Washington University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    The Physics Department at the George Washington University has been successfully using student-centered active learning (SCALE-UP) in physics classes since 2008. In Fall 2011, we began implementing introductory (non-majors) astronomy classes taught in the student-centered active learning mode. Class time is devoted to engaging in hands-on activities and laboratories, and tackling thought-provoking questions and problems. Students work together in small groups to gain a deeper understanding of the material. Multiple instructors circulate to answer questions and engage students in additional contemplation of the material. Research has shown that students who are engaged in this manner have an increased conceptual understanding and are better able to solve problems. This talk will describe our methods, our successes and the associated challenges of integrating active learning into courses entitled “Stars, Planets and Life” and “Introduction to the Cosmos.”

  6. Research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martello, N.

    1985-01-01

    Various research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division are described. Contributions to the Space Administration's goals in the life sciences include descriptions of research in operational medicine, cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, gravitational biology, and life sciences flight experiments.

  7. Nature of methane activation over oxide centers. Annual report, September 1987-September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.; Agarwal, S.K.; Migone, R.A.

    1988-10-01

    The oxidative coupling of methane was studied over alkali-promoted antimony oxide and lead-magnesia catalysts. Reaction studies were used in conjunction with bulk and surface characterization of the catalysts to attempt to characterize the active centers. It was found that both acidity and availability of strong oxidizing sites can influence the selectivities of the various products of the reaction.

  8. Students´ Perspectives on eLearning Activities in Person-Centered, Blended Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselberger, David; Motsching, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Blended or hybrid learning has become a frequent practice in higher education. In this article our primary research interest was to find out how students perceived eLearning activities in blended learning courses based on the person-centered paradigm. Through analyzing the content of a series of semi-structured interviews we found out that…

  9. Nutrition and Physical Activity Practices in Childcare Centers versus Family Childcare Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Page, Monica; Sanders, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Obesity rates among preschool-aged children have doubled in the past 10 years, and 60% of these children spend the majority of their day in childcare facilities. Few studies have examined the quality of nutrition and physical activity practices in childcare centers as compared to family childcare homes. The purpose of this study is to determine if…

  10. 34 CFR 350.22 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and Training Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and Training Center conduct? 350.22 Section 350.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 34 CFR 350.22 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and Training Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and Training Center conduct? 350.22 Section 350.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 34 CFR 350.22 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and Training Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and Training Center conduct? 350.22 Section 350.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 34 CFR 656.3 - What activities define a comprehensive or undergraduate National Resource Center?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What activities define a comprehensive or undergraduate National Resource Center? 656.3 Section 656.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL RESOURCE...

  14. 34 CFR 656.3 - What activities define a comprehensive or undergraduate National Resource Center?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities define a comprehensive or undergraduate National Resource Center? 656.3 Section 656.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL RESOURCE...

  15. 34 CFR 656.3 - What activities define a comprehensive or undergraduate National Resource Center?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities define a comprehensive or undergraduate National Resource Center? 656.3 Section 656.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL RESOURCE...

  16. Can Physical Education and Physical Activity Outcomes Be Developed Simultaneously Using a Game-Centered Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Andrew; Christensen, Erin; Eather, Narelle; Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John; Keay, Jeanne; Lubans, David

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a pilot intervention using a game-centered approach for improvement of physical activity (PA) and physical education (PE) outcomes simultaneously, and if this had an impact on enjoyment of PE. A group-randomized controlled trial with a 7-week wait-list control group was conducted…

  17. Individual Information-Centered Approach for Handling Physical Activity Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Minsoo; Rowe, David A.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Robinson, Terrance S.; Mahar, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate individual information (II)-centered methods for handling missing data, using data samples of 118 middle-aged adults and 91 older adults equipped with Yamax SW-200 pedometers and Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. We used a semisimulation approach to create six data sets: three physical activity outcome…

  18. Thermal Technology Development Activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center - 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Dan

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of thermal technology development activities carried out at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center during 2001. Specific topics covered include: two-phase systems (heat pipes, capillary pumped loops, vapor compression systems and phase change materials), variable emittance systems, advanced coatings, high conductivity materials and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thermal coatings. The application of these activities to specific space missions is also discussed.

  19. Paris Observatory Analysis Center (OPAR): Report on Activities, January - December 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Sebastien; Barache, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We report on activities of the Paris Observatory VLBI Analysis Center (OPAR) for calendar year 2012 concerning the development of operational tasks, the development of our Web site, and various other activities: monitoring of the Earth's free core nutation, measuring of the post-seismic displacements of some stations, and the analysis of the recent IVS R&D sessions, including observations of quasars close to the Sun.

  20. Phytotoxic effects of Sicyos deppei (Cucurbitaceae) in germinating tomato seeds.

    PubMed

    Lara-Núñez, Aurora; Sánchez-Nieto, Sobeida; Luisa Anaya, Ana; Cruz-Ortega, Rocio

    2009-06-01

    The phytotoxic effect of allelochemicals is referred to as allelochemical stress and it is considered a biotic stress. Sicyos deppei G. Don (Cucurbitaceae) is an allelopathic weed that causes phytotoxicity in Lycopersicon esculentum, delaying seed germination and severely inhibiting radicle growth. This paper reports in in vitro conditions, the effects of the aqueous leachate of S. deppei-throughout tomato germination times-on (1) the dynamics of starch and sugars metabolism, (2) activity and expression of the cell wall enzymes involved in endosperm weakening that allows the protrusion of the radicle, and (3) whether abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in this altered metabolic processes. Results showed that S. deppei leachate on tomato seed germination mainly caused: (1) delay in starch degradation as well as in sucrose hydrolysis; (2) lower activity of sucrose phosphate synthase, cell wall invertase, and alpha-amylase; being sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene expression down-regulated, and the last two up regulated; (3) also, lower activity of endo beta-mannanase, beta-1,3 glucanase, alpha-galactosidase, and exo-polygalacturonase with altered gene expression; and (4) higher content of ABA during all times of germination. The phytotoxic effect of S. deppei aqueous leachate is because of the sum of many metabolic processes affected during tomato seed germination that finally is evidenced by a strong inhibition of radicle growth.

  1. Amino Acids Content in Germinating Seeds and Seedlings from Castanea sativa L.

    PubMed

    Desmaison, A M; Tixier, M

    1986-06-01

    During germination the chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) var ecotype 33 accumulates a large amount of asparagine in the cotyledons. This compound also accumulates in the growing axis:shoots and roots. In the cotyledons, gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) represents a major amino compound during germination and early seedling growth. In young seedlings, 35 days old, arginine predominates over the other soluble amino acids, particularly in roots. Five enzymic activities involved in arginine and GABA have been measured in the storage organ of the seed: arginase and ornithine carbamyltransferase decrease during germination indicating the slowing down of the urea cycle. In contrast, ornithine aminotransferase increases. Glutamate decarboxylase is particularly active about 21 days after imbibition and GABA aminotransferase activity decreases during germination. These two activities are in good agreement with the likely transport of GABA from cotyledons to growing axis. Asparagine, arginine, and GABA are the three amino compounds obviously involved in the mobilization of nitrogen reserves in the germinating chestnut seeds Castanea sativa.

  2. Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics: Report on Activities (UCLA/MIT), 2009-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Carter

    2011-04-18

    The final 'phaseout' year of the CMPD ended July 2010; a no cost extension was requested until May 2011 in order to enable the MIT subcontract funds to be fully utilized. Research progress over this time included verification and validation activities for the BOUT and BOUT++ code, studies of spontaneous reconnection in the VTF facility at MIT, and studies of the interaction between Alfven waves and drift waves in LAPD. The CMPD also hosted the 6th plasma physics winter school in 2010 (jointly with the NSF frontier center the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, significant funding came from NSF for this most recent iteration of the Winter School).

  3. Introductory Astronomy Student-Centered Active Learning at the George Washington University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, B. E.

    2014-07-01

    The Physics Department at the George Washington University has been successfully using student-centered active learning (SCALE-UP) in physics classes since 2008. Recently (since fall 2011), we have been developing and implementing introductory (non-majors) astronomy classes taught in the student-centered active learning mode. Class time is devoted to engaging in hands-on activities and laboratories and tackling questions and problems in a workbook. Students work in small groups, and multiple instructors circulate to answer questions and engage students in the material. Research has shown that students who are engaged in this manner have an increased conceptual understanding of the material. In developing our “Stars, Planets and Life” course into an interactive class, we encountered many challenges, but there have also been positive outcomes. Improvements to this class are ongoing, and in fall of 2013 we will begin full implementation of SCALE-UP in our “Introduction to the Cosmos” course.

  4. Germination of Spores of Bacillus Species: What We Know and Do Not Know

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus species can remain in their dormant and resistant states for years, but exposure to agents such as specific nutrients can cause spores' return to life within minutes in the process of germination. This process requires a number of spore-specific proteins, most of which are in or associated with the inner spore membrane (IM). These proteins include the (i) germinant receptors (GRs) that respond to nutrient germinants, (ii) GerD protein, which is essential for GR-dependent germination, (iii) SpoVA proteins that form a channel in spores' IM through which the spore core's huge depot of dipicolinic acid is released during germination, and (iv) cortex-lytic enzymes (CLEs) that degrade the large peptidoglycan cortex layer, allowing the spore core to take up much water and swell, thus completing spore germination. While much has been learned about nutrient germination, major questions remain unanswered, including the following. (i) How do nutrient germinants penetrate through spores' outer layers to access GRs in the IM? (ii) What happens during the highly variable and often long lag period between the exposure of spores to nutrient germinants and the commitment of spores to germinate? (iii) What do GRs and GerD do, and how do these proteins interact? (iv) What is the structure of the SpoVA channel in spores' IM, and how is this channel gated? (v) What is the precise state of the spore IM, which has a number of novel properties even though its lipid composition is very similar to that of growing cells? (vi) How is CLE activity regulated such that these enzymes act only when germination has been initiated? (vii) And finally, how does the germination of spores of clostridia compare with that of spores of bacilli? PMID:24488313

  5. Activities in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) During the STS-42 IML-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured are activities in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  6. Design of an experiment to study optically-active centers in diamond nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ankit; Tiwari, Kunal; Sharma, Suresh

    2012-03-01

    The silicon-vacancy (SiV) and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) complexes in diamond nanoparticles (NPs) are optically active centers, which produce single photon events. These centers may be formed when a silicon atom from the silicon substrate often used in CVD growth or nitrogen from impurities in the feed gas ends up next to a vacancy in the diamond lattice. Because of their stability and high quantum efficiency, SiV and NV centers in diamond NPs are attractive for applications in quantum computing, optics, biotechnology, and medicine. We briefly review our recently published results on diamond NPs, describe the design of an experimental system for carrying out in-situ optical spectroscopy and time-correlation measurements, and show preliminary photoluminescence data.

  7. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds.

  8. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds. PMID:27097439

  9. Leveraging a high resolution microfluidic assay reveals insights into pathogenic fungal spore germination.

    PubMed

    Barkal, Layla J; Walsh, Naomi M; Botts, Michael R; Beebe, David J; Hull, Christina M

    2016-05-16

    Germination of spores into actively growing cells is a process essential for survival and pathogenesis of many microbes. Molecular mechanisms governing germination, however, are poorly understood in part because few tools exist for evaluating and interrogating the process. Here, we introduce an assay that leverages developments in microfluidic technology and image processing to quantitatively measure germination with unprecedented resolution, assessing both individual cells and the population as a whole. Using spores from Cryptococcus neoformans, a leading cause of fatal fungal disease in humans, we developed a platform to evaluate spores as they undergo morphological changes during differentiation into vegetatively growing yeast. The assay uses pipet-accessible microdevices that can be arrayed for efficient testing of diverse microenvironmental variables, including temperature and nutrients. We discovered that temperature influences germination rate, a carbon source alone is sufficient to induce germination, and the addition of a nitrogen source sustains it. Using this information, we optimized the assay for use with fungal growth inhibitors to pinpoint stages of germination inhibition. Unexpectedly, the clinical antifungal drugs amphotericin B and fluconazole did not significantly alter the process or timing of the transition from spore to yeast, indicating that vegetative growth and germination are distinct processes in C. neoformans. Finally, we used the high temporal resolution of the assay to determine the precise defect in a slow-germination mutant. Combining advances in microfluidics with a robust fungal molecular genetic system allowed us to identify and alter key temporal, morphological, and molecular events that occur during fungal germination. PMID:27026574

  10. Effects of Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacteria and of Cell Extracts on Germination of Euonymus americanus L. Seeds.

    PubMed

    Howard, Gary T; Elliott, Larry P

    1988-01-01

    In past attempts, the experimental germination of the seeds of Euonymus americanus L. in vitro has had little success. However, treatment of seeds with ruminal fluid containing viable microflora has been successful in stimulating germination. In the presence of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium, Clostridium cellobioparum ATCC 15832, seeds of E. americanus were stimulated to germinate. Subsequent studies were designed to determine whether the bacterium synthesized a cellulolytic enzyme responsible for initiating germination. The cell-free endocellulase from C. cellobioparum induced germination of the seeds. To support the hypothesis that the endocellulase from C. cellobioparum was responsible for triggering germination, a 1,4-beta-d-glucan glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.4) from Penicillum funiculosum was used to treat the seeds. In addition, no germination was obtained from seeds treated with a commercial exocellulase enzyme. Also, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 was found to initiate germination of E. americanus seeds. Thus, cellulase activity is indicated in the degradation of the testa of the seed, allowing imbibition and germination.

  11. Earth Science Data Archive and Access at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    The Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), as an integral part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), is the official source of data for several important earth remote sensing missions. These include the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) launched in August 1997, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) launched in November 1997, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) scheduled for launch in mid 1999 as part of the EOS AM-1 instrumentation package. The data generated from these missions supports a host of users in the hydrological, land biosphere and oceanographic research and applications communities. The volume and nature of the data present unique challenges to an Earth science data archive and distribution system such as the DAAC. The DAAC system receives, archives and distributes a large number of standard data products on a daily basis, including data files that have been reprocessed with updated calibration data or improved analytical algorithms. A World Wide Web interface is provided allowing interactive data selection and automatic data subscriptions as distribution options. The DAAC also creates customized and value-added data products, which allow additional user flexibility and reduced data volume. Another significant part of our overall mission is to provide ancillary data support services and archive support for worldwide field campaigns designed to validate the results from the various satellite-derived measurements. In addition to direct data services, accompanying documentation, WWW links to related resources, support for EOSDIS data formats, and informed response to inquiries are routinely provided to users. The current GDAAC WWW search and order system is being restructured to provide users with a simplified, hierarchical access to data. Data Browsers have been developed for several data sets to aid users in ordering data. These Browsers allow users to specify

  12. A study of the effects of micro-gravity on seed germination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Lynn Suzanne; Mckibben, Mark; Brain, David A.; Johnson, Theodore C.; Dannenberg, Konrad K.

    1992-01-01

    This study will identify characteristics of seed germination dependent upon gravity. To accomplish this objective, four different seed types will be germinated in space and then be compared to a control group germinated on Earth. Both the experimental and control groups will be analyzed on the cellular level for the size of cells, structural anomalies, and gravitational effects. The experiment will be conducted in a Get Away Special Canister (GAS Can no. 608) owned by the U.S. Space and Rocket Center and designed for students. The GAS Can will remain in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle with minimal astronaut interaction.

  13. Insights on activation enthalpy for non-Schmid slip in body-centered cubic metals

    DOE PAGES

    Hale, Lucas M.; Lim, Hojun; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Battaile, Corbett C.; Weinberger, Christopher R.

    2014-12-18

    We use insights gained from atomistic simulation to develop an activation enthalpy model for dislocation slip in body-centered cubic iron. Furthermore, using a classical potential that predicts dislocation core stabilities consistent with ab initio predictions, we quantify the non-Schmid stress-dependent effects of slip. The kink-pair activation enthalpy is evaluated and a model is identified as a function of the general stress state. Thus, our model enlarges the applicability of the classic Kocks activation enthalpy model to materials with non-Schmid behavior.

  14. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  15. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed.

  16. Photocontrol of the Germination of Onoclea Spores

    PubMed Central

    Towill, Leslie R.; Ikuma, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The changes in levels of metabolites during photoinduced germination of Onoclea sensibilis L. spores are described. Proteins and lipids, which constitute 25 and 20%, respectively, of the unimbibed spores on a dry weight basis, are hydrolyzed at the time of differentiation and elongation of the germling cells and may be utilized for these processes. Sucrose degradation, starch synthesis, and active respiration occur during dark imbibition, but these processes are accelerated by red or far red irradiation. Endogenous sucrose is the probable source of the carbon skeleton for starch synthesis. PMID:16659327

  17. Distinct mechanisms for DNA cleavage by myoglobin with a designed heme active center.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Du, Ke-Jie; Gao, Shu-Qin; He, Bo; Wen, Ge-Bo; Tan, Xiangshi; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Heme proteins perform diverse biological functions, of which myoglobin (Mb) is a representative protein. In this study, the O2 carrier Mb was shown to cleave double stranded DNA upon aerobic dithiothreitol-induced reduction, which is fine-tuned by an additional distal histidine, His29 or His43, engineered in the heme active center. Spectroscopic (UV-vis and EPR) and inhibition studies suggested that free radicals including singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical are responsible for efficient DNA cleavage via an oxidative cleavage mechanism. On the other hand, L29E Mb, with a distinct heme active center involving three water molecules in the met form, was found to exhibit an excellent DNA cleavage activity that was not depending on O2. Inhibition and ligation studies demonstrated for the first time that L29E Mb cleaves double stranded DNA into both the nicked circular and linear forms via a hydrolytic cleavage mechanism, which resembles native endonucleases. This study provides valuable insights into the distinct mechanisms for DNA cleavage by heme proteins, and lays down a base for creating artificial DNA endonucleases by rational design of heme proteins. Moreover, this study suggests that the diverse functions of heme proteins can be fine-tuned by rational design of the heme active center with a hydrogen-bonding network.

  18. Cytological and Proteomic Analyses of Osmunda cinnamomea Germinating Spores Reveal Characteristics of Fern Spore Germination and Rhizoid Tip Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Jinwei; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Zhengxiu; Chen, Sixue; Cao, Jian'guo; Liu, Guanjun; Wei, Xing; Wang, Tai; Yang, Chuanping; Dai, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    Fern spore is a good single-cell model for studying the sophisticated molecular networks in asymmetric cell division, differentiation, and polar growth. Osmunda cinnamomea L. var. asiatica is one of the oldest fern species with typical separate-growing trophophyll and sporophyll. The chlorophyllous spores generated from sporophyll can germinate without dormancy. In this study, the spore ultrastructure, antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as protein and gene expression patterns were analyzed in the course of spore germination at five typical stages (i.e. mature spores, rehydrated spores, double-celled spores, germinated spores, and spores with protonemal cells). Proteomic analysis revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, which were mainly involved in photosynthesis, reserve mobilization, energy supplying, protein synthesis and turnover, reactive oxygen species scavenging, signaling, and cell structure modulation. The presence of multiple proteoforms of 25 differentially expressed proteins implies that post-translational modification may play important roles in spore germination. The dynamic patterns of proteins and their encoding genes exhibited specific characteristics in the processes of cell division and rhizoid tip growth, which include heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolisms, de novo protein synthesis and active protein turnover, reactive oxygen species and hormone (brassinosteroid and ethylene) signaling, and vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton dynamic. In addition, the function skew of proteins in fern spores highlights the unique and common mechanisms when compared with evolutionarily divergent spermatophyte pollen. These findings provide an improved understanding of the typical single-celled asymmetric division and polar growth during fern spore germination. PMID:26091698

  19. Assessment of food, nutrition, and physical activity practices in Oklahoma child-care centers.

    PubMed

    Sisson, Susan B; Campbell, Janis E; May, Kellie B; Brittain, Danielle R; Monroe, Lisa A; Guss, Shannon H; Ladner, Jennifer L

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the obesogenic practices in all-day child-care centers caring for preschool-aged children. This study used a cross-sectional, self-reported survey mailed to centers across Oklahoma (n=314). Frequency of responses and χ(2) were calculated comparing region and star rating. Items where the majority of centers frequently report best practices include: daily fruits served (76%), daily nonfried vegetables served (71%), rarely/never served sugary drinks (92%), rarely/never used food to encourage good behaviors (88%), staff join children at table most of the time (81%), staff rarely eat different foods in view of children (69%), visible self-serve or request availability of water (93%), regular informal communication about healthy eating (86%), opportunities for outdoor play (95%), not withholding activity for punishment (91%), accessible play equipment (59% to 80% for different types of equipment), and minimization of extended sitting time (78%). Practices where centers can improve include increasing variety of vegetables (18%), reducing frequency of high-fat meats served (74% serve more than once per week), increasing high-fiber and whole-grain foods (35% offer daily), serving style of "seconds" (28% help kids determine whether they are still hungry), nonfood holiday celebrations (44% use nonfood treats), having toys and books that encourage healthy eating (27%) and physical activity (25%) in all rooms in the center, a standard nutrition (21%) and physical education (50%) curriculum, and following a written physical activity policy (43%). Practitioners can use these data to develop benchmarks and interventions, as this was the first study to assess statewide obesogenic practices in child care.

  20. 7 CFR 201.20 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Germination. 201.20 Section 201.20 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.20 Germination. The label shall show the percentage of germination for each kind or kind and variety or kind and type of kind and hybrid of agricultural seed...

  1. 7 CFR 201.6 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Germination. 201.6 Section 201.6 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.6 Germination. The complete record shall include the records of all laboratory tests for germination and hard seed for each lot of seed offered...

  2. 7 CFR 201.6 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Germination. 201.6 Section 201.6 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.6 Germination. The complete record shall include the records of all laboratory tests for germination and hard seed for each lot of seed offered...

  3. 7 CFR 201.6 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination. 201.6 Section 201.6 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.6 Germination. The complete record shall include the records of all laboratory tests for germination and hard seed for each lot of seed offered...

  4. 7 CFR 201.20 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Germination. 201.20 Section 201.20 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.20 Germination. The label shall show the percentage of germination each kind, or kind and variety, or kind and type, or kind and hybrid of agricultural seed...

  5. 7 CFR 201.20 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Germination. 201.20 Section 201.20 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.20 Germination. The label shall show the percentage of germination for each kind or kind and variety or kind and type of kind and hybrid of agricultural seed...

  6. 7 CFR 201.6 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Germination. 201.6 Section 201.6 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.6 Germination. The complete record shall include the records of all laboratory tests for germination and hard seed for each lot of seed offered...

  7. 7 CFR 201.20 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination. 201.20 Section 201.20 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.20 Germination. The label shall show the percentage of germination each kind, or kind and variety, or kind and type, or kind and hybrid of agricultural seed...

  8. 7 CFR 201.6 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Germination. 201.6 Section 201.6 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.6 Germination. The complete record shall include the records of all laboratory tests for germination and hard seed for each lot of seed offered...

  9. 7 CFR 201.20 - Germination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Germination. 201.20 Section 201.20 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.20 Germination. The label shall show the percentage of germination for each kind or kind and variety or kind and type of kind and hybrid of agricultural seed...

  10. In-situ resource utilization activities at the NASA Space Engineering Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes theoretical and experimental research activities at the NASA Space Engineering Research Center aimed at realizing significant cost savings in space missions through the use of locally available resources. The fundamental strategy involves idea generation, scientific screening, feasibility demonstrations, small-scale process plant design, extensive testing, scale-up to realistic production rates, associated controls, and 'packaging', while maintaining sufficient flexibility to respond to national needs in terms of specific applications. Aside from training, the principal activities at the Center include development of a quantitative figure-of-merit to quickly assess the overall mission impact of individual components that constantly change with advancing technologies, extensive tests on a single-cell test bed to produce oxygen from carbon dioxide, and the use of this spent stream to produce methane.

  11. Nutrient profile of porridge made from Eleusine coracana (L.) grains: effect of germination and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Subastri, Ariraman; Ramamurthy, Chitteti; Suyavaran, Arumugam; Mareeswaran, Ramachandran; Mandal, Priyanka; Rellegadla, Sandeep; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy

    2015-09-01

    Porridge (koozh) is one of the traditional foods made from Eleusine coracana L. grains (Finger millet). It is a soft food prepared from processed (germinated & fermented) finger millet flour (FMF). However, in the modern world of fast food, koozh is usually prepared from non-processed (non-germinated & non-fermented) FMF. Hence, present study was undertaken to evaluate the macro and micro nutrient contents in koozh prepared from germinated (fermented & non-fermented) and non-germinated (fermented & non-fermented) FMF. Highest protein, carbohydrate and glycoprotein contents were found in koozh prepared from germinated & non-fermented FMF. The free amino acid contents are higher in germinated & fermented condition when compare to other preparations. No significant change was observed in the calorific value of all preparations. There is no statistical difference in macro-nutrients & micro-nutrients minerals such as calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorous and zinc among all the preparations. However, copper content is higher in non-germinated condition, whereas selenium, silicon and sulphur are higher in germinated FMF when compared to others. Significant level of total phenol, total flavonoid and free radical scavenging activity was observed in all preparations, which increased further during fermentation. The present observations, lead us to conclude that koozh prepared from germinated & non-fermented FMF contains higher level of carbohydrate, protein and glycoprotein, however germinated & fermented koozh has increased aminoacids, phytochemicals and free radical scavenging activity. Hence it is suggested that the consumption of koozh made from germinated & fermented FMF may provide easily digestible and energetic nutrients for healthier life.

  12. Antigen-affinity controls pre-germinal centser B cell selection by promoting Mcl-1 induction through BAFF receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wensveen, Felix M.; Slinger, Erik; van Attekum, Martijn HA; Brink, Robert; Eldering, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Upon antigen encounter, the responsive B cell pool undergoes stringent selection which eliminates cells with low B cell receptor (BCR) affinity. Already before formation of the germinal center, activated B cells of low-affinity are negatively selected in a process that is molecularly not well understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism behind pre-GC affinity-mediated B cell selection. We applied affinity mutants of HEL antigen and found that rapidly after activation B cells become highly dependent on the cytokine BAFF. Moreover, expression of BAFF receptor CD268 is regulated in a BCR-affinity dependent fashion. High affinity responses via BAFF correlated with PI3K activation, which controlled expression of the pro-survival protein Mcl-1, and thereby increased survival. In the presence of excess BAFF, or in absence of the Mcl-1 antagonist Noxa, more low-affinity B cells survived the first two days after antigen encounter. This resulted in increased numbers of antigen-specific B cells of low affinity upon immunization and reduced the overall affinity of cells that contributed to the germinal center reaction. Our findings elucidate a crucial molecular pathway of B cell selection in the earliest phases of activation by identifying a novel link between BCR affinity and BAFF-R signaling towards Mcl-1. PMID:27762293

  13. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  14. The functions of the endosperm during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dawei; Duermeyer, Lisza; Leoveanu, Catalina; Nambara, Eiji

    2014-09-01

    In angiosperms, a double fertilization event initiates the development of two distinct structures, the embryo and endosperm. The endosperm plays an important role in supporting embryonic growth by supplying nutrients, protecting the embryo and controlling embryo growth by acting as a mechanical barrier during seed development and germination. Its structure and function in the mature dry seed is divergent and specialized among different plant species. A subset of endospermic tissues are composed of living cells even after seed maturation, and play an active role in the regulation of seed germination. Transcriptome analysis has provided new insights into the regulatory functions of the endosperm during seed germination. It is well known that the embryo secretes signals to the endosperm to induce the degradation of the seed reserve and to promote endosperm weakening during germination. Recent advances in seed biology have shown that the endosperm is capable of sensing environmental signals, and can produce and secrete signals to regulate the growth of the embryo. Thus, germination is a systemic response that involves bidirectional interactions between the embryo and endosperm.

  15. Person-Centered, Physical Activity for Patients with Low Back Pain: Piloting Service Delivery.

    PubMed

    Bloxham, Saul; Barter, Phil; Scragg, Slafka; Peers, Charles; Jane, Ben; Layden, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common and costly conditions in industrialized countries. Exercise therapy has been used to treat LBP, although typically using only one mode of exercise. This paper describes the method and initial findings of a person-centered, group physical activity programme which featured as part of a multidisciplinary approach to treating LBP. Six participants (aged 50.7 ± 17 years) completed a six-week physical activity programme lasting two hours per week. A multicomponent approach to physical activity was adopted which included aerobic fitness, core activation, muscular strength and endurance, Nordic Walking, flexibility and exercise gaming. In addition, participants were required to use diary sheets to record physical activity completed at home. Results revealed significant (p < 0.05) improvements in back strength (23%), aerobic fitness (23%), negative wellbeing (32%) and disability (16%). Person's Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05) relationships between improvement in perceived pain and aerobic fitness (r = 0.93). It was concluded that a person-centered, multicomponent approach to physical activity may be optimal for supporting patients who self-manage LBP. PMID:27417616

  16. Person-Centered, Physical Activity for Patients with Low Back Pain: Piloting Service Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bloxham, Saul; Barter, Phil; Scragg, Slafka; Peers, Charles; Jane, Ben; Layden, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common and costly conditions in industrialized countries. Exercise therapy has been used to treat LBP, although typically using only one mode of exercise. This paper describes the method and initial findings of a person-centered, group physical activity programme which featured as part of a multidisciplinary approach to treating LBP. Six participants (aged 50.7 ± 17 years) completed a six-week physical activity programme lasting two hours per week. A multicomponent approach to physical activity was adopted which included aerobic fitness, core activation, muscular strength and endurance, Nordic Walking, flexibility and exercise gaming. In addition, participants were required to use diary sheets to record physical activity completed at home. Results revealed significant (p < 0.05) improvements in back strength (23%), aerobic fitness (23%), negative wellbeing (32%) and disability (16%). Person’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05) relationships between improvement in perceived pain and aerobic fitness (r = 0.93). It was concluded that a person-centered, multicomponent approach to physical activity may be optimal for supporting patients who self-manage LBP. PMID:27417616

  17. [Effect of insulin on germination and ionic exchange in Raphanus sativus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Frasquet, M I; Viña, J; Frasquet, M; Ferriol, A; Alvarez de Laviada, T; Antón, V

    1978-06-01

    Hypoglycemic sulfamide BZ-55 activates or inhibits germination of Raphanus sativus, depending upon the dosis. Since this drug acts upon the glycemia by increasing the secretion and action of insulin, the influence of this hormone on germination and ionic changes (Na+-K+) between seeds and culture medium, were studied. Seeds were incubated during 72 h with different concentrations of insulin in 10 ml deionized water or in 10 ml 18 mM K+ (KCl) solutions at 37 degrees C in vapor saturated atmosphere. A solution of 0.125 IU insulin/ml in water increases the germination to 110% whereas 0.175 IU insulin/ml inhibits it to 40% against controls. Further increases in insulin concentration always inhibit germination. Similar results have been obtained with K+ containing media. Germination rate changes in a small concentration range suggest that insulin might affect an enzymatic activity in the seed.

  18. Features of the electronic structure of the active center of an HbS molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, D. Yu.; Korotin, Dm. M.; Anisimov, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Features of the electronic structure of the nonprotein part of the mutant form of the human hemoglobin molecule, HbS, are studied along with the magnetic state of the iron ion that is the "nucleus" of the active center of the molecule. It is found that the mutant form of the HbS molecule differs from a normal hemoglobin molecule by the distortion of the local environment of the iron ion, which changes the energy level splitting by a crystal field. As a result of ab initio calculations, the magnetic transition in the iron atom from the high-spin state to the low-spin state upon the addition of molecular oxygen to hemoglobin molecule is reproduced. It is established for the first time that a change in the crystal and electronic structure of the active center as a result of a mutation can lead to a substantial change in the energy of the bond between the active center of the hemoglobin molecule and an oxygen molecule.

  19. Communication between Thiamin Cofactors in the Escherichia coli Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex E1 Component Active Centers

    PubMed Central

    Nemeria, Natalia S.; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Mossad, Madouna; Tittmann, Kai; Furey, William; Jordan, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Kinetic, spectroscopic, and structural analysis tested the hypothesis that a chain of residues connecting the 4′-aminopyrimidine N1′ atoms of thiamin diphosphates (ThDPs) in the two active centers of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 component provides a signal transduction pathway. Substitution of the three acidic residues (Glu571, Glu235, and Glu237) and Arg606 resulted in impaired binding of the second ThDP, once the first active center was filled, suggesting a pathway for communication between the two ThDPs. 1) Steady-state kinetic and fluorescence quenching studies revealed that upon E571A, E235A, E237A, and R606A substitutions, ThDP binding in the second active center was affected. 2) Analysis of the kinetics of thiazolium C2 hydrogen/deuterium exchange of enzyme-bound ThDP suggests half-of-the-sites reactivity for the E1 component, with fast (activated site) and slow exchanging sites (dormant site). The E235A and E571A variants gave no evidence for the slow exchanging site, indicating that only one of two active sites is filled with ThDP. 3) Titration of the E235A and E237A variants with methyl acetylphosphonate monitored by circular dichroism suggested that only half of the active sites were filled with a covalent predecarboxylation intermediate analog. 4) Crystal structures of E235A and E571A in complex with ThDP revealed the structural basis for the spectroscopic and kinetic observations and showed that either substitution affects cofactor binding, despite the fact that Glu235 makes no direct contact with the cofactor. The role of the conserved Glu571 residue in both catalysis and cofactor orientation is revealed by the combined results for the first time. PMID:20106967

  20. Abscisic acid transporters cooperate to control seed germination

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joohyun; Yim, Sojeong; Choi, Hyunju; Kim, Areum; Lee, Keun Pyo; Lopez-Molina, Luis; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental process that has to be tightly controlled to avoid germination under unfavourable conditions. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential repressor of seed germination. In Arabidopsis, it has been shown that the endosperm, a single cell layer surrounding the embryo, synthesizes and continuously releases ABA towards the embryo. The mechanism of ABA transport from the endosperm to the embryo was hitherto unknown. Here we show that four AtABCG transporters act in concert to deliver ABA from the endosperm to the embryo: AtABCG25 and AtABCG31 export ABA from the endosperm, whereas AtABCG30 and AtABCG40 import ABA into the embryo. Thus, this work establishes that radicle extension and subsequent embryonic growth are suppressed by the coordinated activity of multiple ABA transporters expressed in different tissues. PMID:26334616

  1. Cryogenic wind-tunnel model technology development activities at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, C. P., Jr.; Bradshaw, J. F.; Rush, H. F., Jr.; Wallace, J. W.; Watkins, V. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current cryogenic wind-tunnel model technology development activities at the NASA Langley Research Center. These research and development activities are being conducted in support of the design and fabrication of models for the new National Transonic Facility (NTF). The scope and current status of major research and development work is described and where available, data are presented from various investigations conducted to date. In addition, design and fabrication experience for existing developmental models to be tested in the NTF is discussed.

  2. The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center report of its activities and accomplishments in Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, D.F.

    1994-03-01

    The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia National Laboratories is a resource provided by the US Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Program. Its major objectives are to accelerate the use of solar thermal systems through (a) direct technical assistance to users, (b) cooperative test, evaluation, and development efforts with private industry, and (c) educational outreach activities. This report outlines the major activities and accomplishments of the STDAC in Fiscal Year 1993. The report also contains a comprehensive list of persons who contacted the STDAC by telephone for information or technical consulting.

  3. Activities of the Japanese space weather forecast center at Communications Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Watari, Shinichi; Tomita, Fumihiko

    2002-12-01

    The International Space Environment Service (ISES) is an international organization for space weather forecasts and belongs to the International Union of Radio Science (URSI). There are eleven ISES forecast centers in the world, and Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) runs the Japanese one. We make forecasts on the space environment and deliver them over the phones and through the Internet. Our forecasts could be useful for human activities in space. Currently solar activity is near maximum phase of the solar cycle 23. We report the several large disturbances of space environment occurred in 2001, during which low-latitude auroras were observed several times in Japan. PMID:12793730

  4. Activities of the Japanese space weather forecast center at Communications Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Watari, Shinichi; Tomita, Fumihiko

    2002-12-01

    The International Space Environment Service (ISES) is an international organization for space weather forecasts and belongs to the International Union of Radio Science (URSI). There are eleven ISES forecast centers in the world, and Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) runs the Japanese one. We make forecasts on the space environment and deliver them over the phones and through the Internet. Our forecasts could be useful for human activities in space. Currently solar activity is near maximum phase of the solar cycle 23. We report the several large disturbances of space environment occurred in 2001, during which low-latitude auroras were observed several times in Japan.

  5. KDD Services at the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Mack, Robert; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) processes, stores and distributes earth science data from a variety of remote sensing satellites. End users of the data range from instrument scientists to global change and climate researchers to federal agencies and foreign governments. Many of these users apply data mining techniques to large volumes of data (up to 1 TB) received from the GES DAAC. However, rapid advances in processing power are enabling increases in data processing that are outpacing tape drive performance and network capacity. As a result, the proportion of data that can be distributed to users continues to decrease. As mitigation, we are migrating more data mining and mining preparation activities into the data center in order to reduce the data volume that needs to be distributed and to offer the users a more useful and manageable product. This migration of activities faces a number of technical and human-factor challenges. As data reduction and mining algorithms are normally quite specific to the user's research needs, the user's algorithm must be integrated virtually unchanged into the archive environment. Also, the archive itself is busy with everyday data archive and distribution activities and cannot be dedicated to, or even impacted by, the mining activities. Therefore, we schedule KDD 'campaigns' (similar to reprocessing campaigns), during which we schedule a wholesale retrieval of specific data products, offering users the opportunity to extract information from the data being retrieved during the campaign.

  6. Quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Kahle, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the standard procedures, policies, and field methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Washington Water Science Center staff for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, storage, and publication of groundwater data. This groundwater quality-assurance plan changes through time to accommodate new methods and requirements developed by the Washington Water Science Center and the USGS Office of Groundwater. The plan is based largely on requirements and guidelines provided by the USGS Office of Groundwater, or the USGS Water Mission Area. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. Because numerous policy memoranda have been issued by the Office of Groundwater since the previous groundwater quality assurance plan was written, this report is a substantial revision of the previous report, supplants it, and contains significant additional policies not covered in the previous report. This updated plan includes information related to the organization and responsibilities of USGS Washington Water Science Center staff, training, safety, project proposal development, project review procedures, data collection activities, data processing activities, report review procedures, and archiving of field data and interpretative information pertaining to groundwater flow models, borehole aquifer tests, and aquifer tests. Important updates from the previous groundwater quality assurance plan include: (1) procedures for documenting and archiving of groundwater flow models; (2) revisions to procedures and policies for the creation of sites in the Groundwater Site Inventory database; (3) adoption of new water-level forms to be used within the USGS Washington Water Science Center; (4) procedures for future creation of borehole geophysics, surface geophysics, and aquifer-test archives; and (5) use of the USGS Multi Optional Network Key Entry System software for entry of routine water-level data

  7. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 is involved in Arabidopsis pollen grain germination.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Christelle; Bouton, Sophie; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Fabrice, Tohnyui Ndinyanka; Mareck, Alain; Guénin, Stéphanie; Fournet, Françoise; Ringli, Christoph; Pelloux, Jérôme; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2015-02-01

    Germination of pollen grains is a crucial step in plant reproduction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the role of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 (PME48), an enzyme implicated in the remodeling of pectins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pollen. A combination of functional genomics, gene expression, in vivo and in vitro pollen germination, immunolabeling, and biochemical analyses was used on wild-type and Atpme48 mutant plants. We showed that AtPME48 is specifically expressed in the male gametophyte and is the second most expressed PME in dry and imbibed pollen grains. Pollen grains from homozygous mutant lines displayed a significant delay in imbibition and germination in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, numerous pollen grains showed two tips emerging instead of one in the wild type. Immunolabeling and Fourier transform infrared analyses showed that the degree of methylesterification of the homogalacturonan was higher in pme48-/- pollen grains. In contrast, the PME activity was lower in pme48-/-, partly due to a reduction of PME48 activity revealed by zymogram. Interestingly, the wild-type phenotype was restored in pme48-/- with the optimum germination medium supplemented with 2.5 mm calcium chloride, suggesting that in the wild-type pollen, the weakly methylesterified homogalacturonan is a source of Ca(2+) necessary for pollen germination. Although pollen-specific PMEs are traditionally associated with pollen tube elongation, this study provides strong evidence that PME48 impacts the mechanical properties of the intine wall during maturation of the pollen grain, which, in turn, influences pollen grain germination.

  8. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 is involved in Arabidopsis pollen grain germination.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Christelle; Bouton, Sophie; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Fabrice, Tohnyui Ndinyanka; Mareck, Alain; Guénin, Stéphanie; Fournet, Françoise; Ringli, Christoph; Pelloux, Jérôme; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2015-02-01

    Germination of pollen grains is a crucial step in plant reproduction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the role of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 (PME48), an enzyme implicated in the remodeling of pectins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pollen. A combination of functional genomics, gene expression, in vivo and in vitro pollen germination, immunolabeling, and biochemical analyses was used on wild-type and Atpme48 mutant plants. We showed that AtPME48 is specifically expressed in the male gametophyte and is the second most expressed PME in dry and imbibed pollen grains. Pollen grains from homozygous mutant lines displayed a significant delay in imbibition and germination in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, numerous pollen grains showed two tips emerging instead of one in the wild type. Immunolabeling and Fourier transform infrared analyses showed that the degree of methylesterification of the homogalacturonan was higher in pme48-/- pollen grains. In contrast, the PME activity was lower in pme48-/-, partly due to a reduction of PME48 activity revealed by zymogram. Interestingly, the wild-type phenotype was restored in pme48-/- with the optimum germination medium supplemented with 2.5 mm calcium chloride, suggesting that in the wild-type pollen, the weakly methylesterified homogalacturonan is a source of Ca(2+) necessary for pollen germination. Although pollen-specific PMEs are traditionally associated with pollen tube elongation, this study provides strong evidence that PME48 impacts the mechanical properties of the intine wall during maturation of the pollen grain, which, in turn, influences pollen grain germination. PMID:25524442

  9. Working together may be better: activation of reward centers during a cooperative maze task.

    PubMed

    Krill, Austen L; Platek, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Humans use theory of mind when predicting the thoughts and feelings and actions of others. There is accumulating evidence that cooperation with a computerized game correlates with a unique pattern of brain activation. To investigate the neural correlates of cooperation in real-time we conducted an fMRI hyperscanning study. We hypothesized that real-time cooperation to complete a maze task, using a blind-driving paradigm, would activate substrates implicated in theory of mind. We also hypothesized that cooperation would activate neural reward centers more than when participants completed the maze themselves. Of interest and in support of our hypothesis we found left caudate and putamen activation when participants worked together to complete the maze. This suggests that cooperation during task completion is inherently rewarding. This finding represents one of the first discoveries of a proximate neural mechanism for group based interactions in real-time, which indirectly supports the social brain hypothesis.

  10. Chaparral & Fire Ecology: Role of Fire in Seed Germination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Nancy L. C.; Keeley, Jon E.

    1991-01-01

    An activity that incorporates the concepts of plant structure and function and ecology is described. Students investigate the reasons why some California chaparral seeds germinate only after a fire has burned the surrounding chaparral. The procedure, discussion and analysis questions, expected results, potential problems, and additional activities…

  11. Early carbon mobilization and radicle protrusion in maize germination.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Linares, Luis; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina; Díaz-Pontones, David; Guzmán-Chávez, Fernando; Calzada-Alejo, Viridiana; Zurita-Villegas, Viridiana; Luna-Loaiza, Viridiana; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Bernal-Lugo, Irma; Sánchez-Nieto, Sobeida

    2012-07-01

    Considerable amounts of information is available on the complex carbohydrates that are mobilized and utilized by the seed to support early seedling development. These events occur after radicle has protruded from the seed. However, scarce information is available on the role of the endogenous soluble carbohydrates from the embryo in the first hours of germination. The present work analysed how the soluble carbohydrate reserves in isolated maize embryos are mobilized during 6-24 h of water imbibition, an interval that exclusively embraces the first two phases of the germination process. It was found that sucrose constitutes a very significant reserve in the scutellum and that it is efficiently consumed during the time in which the adjacent embryo axis is engaged in an active metabolism. Sucrose transporter was immunolocalized in the scutellum and in vascular elements. In parallel, a cell-wall invertase activity, which hydrolyses sucrose, developed in the embryo axis, which favoured higher glucose uptake. Sucrose and hexose transporters were active in the embryo tissues, together with the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, which was localized in all embryo regions involved in both nutrient transport and active cell elongation to support radicle extension. It is proposed that, during the initial maize germination phases, a net flow of sucrose takes place from the scutellum towards the embryo axis and regions that undergo elongation. During radicle extension, sucrose and hexose transporters, as well as H(+)-ATPase, become the fundamental proteins that orchestrate the transport of nutrients required for successful germination.

  12. Early carbon mobilization and radicle protrusion in maize germination

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Linares, Luis; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina; Díaz-Pontones, David; Guzmán-Chávez, Fernando; Calzada-Alejo, Viridiana; Zurita-Villegas, Viridiana; Luna-Loaiza, Viridiana; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Bernal-Lugo, Irma; Sánchez-Nieto, Sobeida

    2012-01-01

    Considerable amounts of information is available on the complex carbohydrates that are mobilized and utilized by the seed to support early seedling development. These events occur after radicle has protruded from the seed. However, scarce information is available on the role of the endogenous soluble carbohydrates from the embryo in the first hours of germination. The present work analysed how the soluble carbohydrate reserves in isolated maize embryos are mobilized during 6–24 h of water imbibition, an interval that exclusively embraces the first two phases of the germination process. It was found that sucrose constitutes a very significant reserve in the scutellum and that it is efficiently consumed during the time in which the adjacent embryo axis is engaged in an active metabolism. Sucrose transporter was immunolocalized in the scutellum and in vascular elements. In parallel, a cell-wall invertase activity, which hydrolyses sucrose, developed in the embryo axis, which favoured higher glucose uptake. Sucrose and hexose transporters were active in the embryo tissues, together with the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, which was localized in all embryo regions involved in both nutrient transport and active cell elongation to support radicle extension. It is proposed that, during the initial maize germination phases, a net flow of sucrose takes place from the scutellum towards the embryo axis and regions that undergo elongation. During radicle extension, sucrose and hexose transporters, as well as H+-ATPase, become the fundamental proteins that orchestrate the transport of nutrients required for successful germination. PMID:22611232

  13. Germination of cysts in acetabularia mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Koop, H U

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for the growth of uniformly reacting populations of cysts of Acetabularia mediterranea and for quantitative measurement of cyst germination have been developed. Cysts of A. mediterranea can be induced to germinated by exposure to the atmosphere. Germination rates are very low in young cysts. They increased during exposure to total darkness. This "maturation of cysts" is found to be completed after a period of 12-15 weeks. Germination rates of cysts that have passed the maturation period exceed 90 percent in continuous white light and 80 percent in darkness. Cysts germinate in less than two days in darkness and less than four days in light. The influence of temperature at a range of 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C on germination kinetics is studied in light and darkness. Germination is accelerated with increasing temperature up to 21 degrees C. At higher temperature germination is delayed in light but the time of germination remains constant in darknesss. Rates of germination are not altered by the influence of temperature in light while in darkness there is a dramatic decrease at temperatures higher than 21 degrees C. From these findings it is concluded that cyst germinationA. mediteranea does not need any light but is influenced by light dependent systems. The influence of light is strongest at elevated temperatures.

  14. Physical activity in child-care centers: do teachers hold the key to the playground?

    PubMed

    Copeland, Kristen A; Kendeigh, Cassandra A; Saelens, Brian E; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Sherman, Susan N

    2012-02-01

    Many (56%) US children aged 3-5 years are in center-based childcare and are not obtaining recommended levels of physical activity. In order to determine what child-care teachers/providers perceived as benefits and barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers, we conducted nine focus groups and 13 one-on-one interviews with 49 child-care teachers/providers in Cincinnati, OH. Participants noted physical and socio-emotional benefits of physical activity particular to preschoolers (e.g. gross motor skill development, self-confidence after mastery of new skills and improved mood, attention and napping after exercise) but also noted several barriers including their own personal attitudes (e.g. low self-efficacy) and preferences to avoid the outdoors (e.g. don't like hot/cold weather, getting dirty, chaos of playground). Because individual teachers determine daily schedules and ultimately make the decision whether to take the children outdoors, they serve as gatekeepers to the playground. Participants discussed a spectrum of roles on the playground, from facilitator to chaperone to physical activity inhibitor. These findings suggest that children could have very different gross motor experiences even within the same facility (with presumably the same environment and policies), based on the beliefs, creativity and level of engagement of their teacher. PMID:21804083

  15. Physical activity in child-care centers: do teachers hold the key to the playground?

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Kristen A.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Sherman, Susan N.

    2012-01-01

    Many (56%) US children aged 3–5 years are in center-based childcare and are not obtaining recommended levels of physical activity. In order to determine what child-care teachers/providers perceived as benefits and barriers to children’s physical activity in child-care centers, we conducted nine focus groups and 13 one-on-one interviews with 49 child-care teachers/providers in Cincinnati, OH. Participants noted physical and socio-emotional benefits of physical activity particular to preschoolers (e.g. gross motor skill development, self-confidence after mastery of new skills and improved mood, attention and napping after exercise) but also noted several barriers including their own personal attitudes (e.g. low self-efficacy) and preferences to avoid the outdoors (e.g. don’t like hot/cold weather, getting dirty, chaos of playground). Because individual teachers determine daily schedules and ultimately make the decision whether to take the children outdoors, they serve as gatekeepers to the playground. Participants discussed a spectrum of roles on the playground, from facilitator to chaperone to physical activity inhibitor. These findings suggest that children could have very different gross motor experiences even within the same facility (with presumably the same environment and policies), based on the beliefs, creativity and level of engagement of their teacher. PMID:21804083

  16. Water-containing hydrogen-bonding network in the active center of channelrhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shota; Kato, Hideaki E; Taniguchi, Reiya; Iwata, Tatsuya; Nureki, Osamu; Kandori, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    Channelrhodopsin (ChR) functions as a light-gated ion channel in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Passive transport of cations by ChR is fundamentally different from the active transport by light-driven ion pumps such as archaerhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin, and halorhodopsin. These microbial rhodopsins are important tools for optogenetics, where ChR is used to activate neurons by light, while the ion pumps are used for neural silencing. Ion-transport functions by these rhodopsins strongly depend on the specific hydrogen-bonding networks containing water near the retinal chromophore. In this work, we measured protein-bound water molecules in a chimeric ChR protein of ChR1 (helices A to E) and ChR2 (helices F and G) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using low-temperature FTIR spectroscopy at 77 K. We found that the active center of ChR possesses more water molecules (9 water vibrations) than those of other microbial (2-6 water vibrations) and animal (6-8 water vibrations) rhodopsins. We conclude that the protonated retinal Schiff base interacts with the counterion (Glu162) directly, without the intervening water molecule found in proton-pumping microbial rhodopsins. The present FTIR results and the recent X-ray structure of ChR reveal a unique hydrogen-bonding network around the active center of this light-gated ion channel. PMID:24512107

  17. Bioremediation of HCH-contaminated soil: elimination of inhibitory effects of the insecticide on radish and green gram seed germination.

    PubMed

    Bidlan, Rajkumar; Afsar, Mohammed; Manonmani, H K

    2004-08-01

    The effects of technical grade hexachlorocyclohexane (tech-HCH) on the germination of different seeds were tested. Two types of seeds, radish and green gram showed marked reduction in germination percentage and seeding vigour index. The abnormalities and reduction in germination increased with increasing concentration of tech-HCH. At 100 microg HCH level the germination of radish and green gram seeds was inhibited almost completely on moist filter paper and soil. Protease and amylase activities were reduced in seeds grown in soil spiked with tech-HCH. Bioremediation of HCH-spiked soils with a HCH-degrading microbial consortium helped in eliminating the toxic effects of tech-HCH towards seed germination. The degradation of 25 microg tech-HCH g(-1) soil was complete by 120 h. The seed germination and the activities of the assayed enzymes, amylase and protease, were same as before or better in bioremediated soils.

  18. Estimation of scavenging capacity of melatonin and other antioxidants: contribution and evaluation in germinated seeds.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Herrera, Teresa; Benítez, Vanesa; Arribas, Silvia M; López de Pablo, Angel L; Esteban, Rosa M; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2015-03-01

    Seven edible seeds for the levels of melatonin, phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacity were evaluated during germination process. Radical scavenging parameters were also studied in standard antioxidants to understand their antiradical actions. Germination brought about significant increases of total phenol compounds in all edible seeds, showing red cabbage, radish and broccoli the highest contents (21.6, 20.4 and 16.4 mg GAE/g DW, respectively). The concentration of melatonin is greatly variable in edible seeds, exhibiting significant increases during germination. The highest levels were found in red cabbage (857 pg/g DW) radish (536 pg/g DW) and broccoli (439 pg/g DW). The germinated seeds which had the highest levels of polyphenols and melatonin were those that showed the most relevant antiradical activities (>97%). This information is valuable for the incorporation of red cabbage, radish and broccoli germinated seeds into the diet to promote potential health benefits. PMID:25306336

  19. Basic Techniques to Assess Seed Germination Responses to Abiotic Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Piskurewicz, Urszula; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The model organism Arabidopsis thaliana has been extensively used to unmask the molecular genetic signaling pathways controlling seed germination in plants. In Arabidopsis, the normal seed to seedling developmental transition involves testa rupture soon followed by endosperm rupture, radicle elongation, root hair formation, cotyledon expansion, and greening. Here we detail a number of basic procedures to assess Arabidopsis seed germination in response to different light (red and far-red pulses), temperature (seed thermoinhibition), and water potential (osmotic stress) environmental conditions. We also discuss the role of the endosperm and how its germination-repressive activity can be monitored genetically by means of a seed coat bedding assay. Finally we detail how to evaluate germination responses to changes in gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels by manipulating pharmacologically the germination medium. PMID:26867624

  20. The effects of GA and ABA treatments on metabolite profile of germinating barley.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuqing; Cai, Shengguan; Ye, Lingzhen; Hu, Hongliang; Li, Chengdao; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Sugar degradation during grain germination is important for malt quality. In malting industry, gibberellin (GA) is frequently used for improvement of malting quality. In this study, the changes of metabolite profiles and starch-degrading enzymes during grain germination, and as affected by GA and abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated using two wild barley accessions XZ72 and XZ95. Totally fifty-two metabolites with known structures were detected and the change of metabolite during germination was time- and genotype dependent. Sugars and amino acids were the most dramatically changed compounds. Addition of GA enhanced the activities of starch-degrading enzymes, and increased most metabolites, especially sugars and amino acids, whereas ABA had the opposite effect. The effect varied with the barley accessions. The current study is the first attempt in investigating the effect of hormones on metabolite profiles in germinating barley grain, being helpful for identifying the factors affecting barley germination or malt quality. PMID:26304431

  1. Estimation of scavenging capacity of melatonin and other antioxidants: contribution and evaluation in germinated seeds.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Herrera, Teresa; Benítez, Vanesa; Arribas, Silvia M; López de Pablo, Angel L; Esteban, Rosa M; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2015-03-01

    Seven edible seeds for the levels of melatonin, phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacity were evaluated during germination process. Radical scavenging parameters were also studied in standard antioxidants to understand their antiradical actions. Germination brought about significant increases of total phenol compounds in all edible seeds, showing red cabbage, radish and broccoli the highest contents (21.6, 20.4 and 16.4 mg GAE/g DW, respectively). The concentration of melatonin is greatly variable in edible seeds, exhibiting significant increases during germination. The highest levels were found in red cabbage (857 pg/g DW) radish (536 pg/g DW) and broccoli (439 pg/g DW). The germinated seeds which had the highest levels of polyphenols and melatonin were those that showed the most relevant antiradical activities (>97%). This information is valuable for the incorporation of red cabbage, radish and broccoli germinated seeds into the diet to promote potential health benefits.

  2. Basic Techniques to Assess Seed Germination Responses to Abiotic Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Piskurewicz, Urszula; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The model organism Arabidopsis thaliana has been extensively used to unmask the molecular genetic signaling pathways controlling seed germination in plants. In Arabidopsis, the normal seed to seedling developmental transition involves testa rupture soon followed by endosperm rupture, radicle elongation, root hair formation, cotyledon expansion, and greening. Here we detail a number of basic procedures to assess Arabidopsis seed germination in response to different light (red and far-red pulses), temperature (seed thermoinhibition), and water potential (osmotic stress) environmental conditions. We also discuss the role of the endosperm and how its germination-repressive activity can be monitored genetically by means of a seed coat bedding assay. Finally we detail how to evaluate germination responses to changes in gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels by manipulating pharmacologically the germination medium.

  3. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Key Proteins and Phosphoproteins upon Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kun; Zhen, Shoumin; Cheng, Zhiwei; Cao, Hui; Ge, Pei; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP) spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser355 was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination. PMID:26635843

  4. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Key Proteins and Phosphoproteins upon Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Dong, Kun; Zhen, Shoumin; Cheng, Zhiwei; Cao, Hui; Ge, Pei; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP) spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser(355) was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination. PMID:26635843

  5. Evaluation design of New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    PubMed

    Breck, Andrew; Goodman, Ken; Dunn, Lillian; Stephens, Robert L; Dawkins, Nicola; Dixon, Beth; Jernigan, Jan; Kakietek, Jakub; Lesesne, Catherine; Lessard, Laura; Nonas, Cathy; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Osuji, Thearis A; Bronson, Bernice; Xu, Ye; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the multi-method cross-sectional design used to evaluate New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's regulations of nutrition, physical activity, and screen time for children aged 3 years or older in licensed group child care centers. The Center Evaluation Component collected data from a stratified random sample of 176 licensed group child care centers in New York City. Compliance with the regulations was measured through a review of center records, a facility inventory, and interviews of center directors, lead teachers, and food service staff. The Classroom Evaluation Component included an observational and biometric study of a sample of approximately 1,400 children aged 3 or 4 years attending 110 child care centers and was designed to complement the center component at the classroom and child level. The study methodology detailed in this paper may aid researchers in designing policy evaluation studies that can inform other jurisdictions considering similar policies. PMID:25321635

  6. Oxalate oxidases and differentiating surface structure in wheat: germins.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, B G

    2000-01-01

    Oxalate oxidases (OXOs) have been found to be concentrated in the surface tissues of wheat embryos and grains: germin is concentrated in root and leaf sheaths that surround germinated embryos; pseudogermin (OXO-psi) is concentrated in the epidermis and bracts that 'encircle' mature grains. Most strikingly, the epidermal accumulation of OXO-psi was found to presage the transition of a delicate 'skin', similar to the fragile epidermis of human skin, into the tough shell (the miller's 'beeswing') that is typical of mature wheat grains. A narrow range of oxalate concentration (1--2 mM) in the hydrated tissues of major crop cereals (barley, maize, oat, rice, rye and wheat) contrasted with wide variations in their OXO expression, e.g. cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive varieties of maize have similar oxalate contents but the former was found to contain approx. 20-fold more germin than did the latter. Well-known OXOs in sorghum, a minor cereal, and beet, a dicotyledon, were found to have little antigenic relatedness to the germins, but the beet enzyme did share some of the unique stability properties that are peculiar to the germin-like OXOs that are found only in the major crop cereals. Their concentration in surface structures of domesticated wheat suggests a biochemical role for germin-like OXOs: programmed cell death in surface tissues might be a constitutive as well as an adaptive form of differentiation that helps to produce refractory barriers against tissue invasion by predators. Incidental to the principal investigation, and using an OXO assay (oxalate-dependent release of CO(2)) that did not rely on detecting H(2)O(2), which is often fully degraded in cell extracts, it was found that OXO activity in soluble extracts of wheat was manifested only in standard solution assays if the extract was pretreated in a variety of ways, which included preincubation with pepsin or highly substituted glucuronogalactoarabinoxylans (cell-wall polysaccharides). PMID:10861243

  7. Activation and implementation of a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.F. III

    1989-01-01

    The Nevada Operations Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE/NV) has been assigned the primary responsibility for responding to a major radiological emergency. The initial response to any radiological emergency, however, will probably be conducted under the DOE regional radiological assistance plan (RAP). If the dimensions of the crisis demand federal assistance, the following sequence of events may be anticipated: (1) DOE regional RAP response, (2) activation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assistance Center (FRMAC) requested, (3) aerial measuring systems and DOE/NV advance party respond, (4) FRMAC activated, (5) FRMAC responds to state(s) and cognizant federal agency (CFA), and (6) management of FRMAC transferred to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The paper discusses activation channels, authorization, notification, deployment, and interfaces.

  8. Mitochondrial biogenesis in plants during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Law, Simon R; Narsai, Reena; Whelan, James

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria occupy a central role in the eukaryotic cell. In addition to being major sources of cellular energy, mitochondria are also involved in a diverse range of functions including signalling, the synthesis of many essential organic compounds and a role in programmed cell death. The active proliferation and differentiation of mitochondria is termed mitochondrial biogenesis and necessitates the coordinated communication of mitochondrial status within an integrated cellular network. Two models of mitochondrial biogenesis have been defined previously, the growth and division model and the maturation model. The former describes the growth and division of pre-existing mature organelles through a form of binary fission, while the latter describes the propagation of mitochondria from structurally and biochemically simple promitochondrial structures that upon appropriate stimuli, mature into fully functional mitochondria. In the last decade, a number of studies have utilised seed germination in plants as a platform for the examination of the processes occurring during mitochondrial biogenesis. These studies have revealed many new aspects of the tightly regulated procession of events that define mitochondrial biogenesis during this period of rapid development. A model for mitochondrial biogenesis that supports the maturation of mitochondria from promitochondrial structures has emerged, where mitochondrial signalling plays a crucial role in the early steps of seed germination. PMID:24727594

  9. Daily activity and light exposure levels for five species of lemurs at the Duke Lemur Center.

    PubMed

    Rea, Mark S; Figueiro, Mariana G; Jones, Geoffrey E; Glander, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Light is the primary synchronizer of all biological rhythms, yet little is known about the role of the 24-hour luminous environment on nonhuman primate circadian patterns, making it difficult to understand the photic niche of the ancestral primate. Here we present the first data on proximate light-dark exposure and activity-rest patterns in free-ranging nonhuman primates. Four individuals each of five species of lemurs at the Duke Lemur Center (Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta, Propithecus coquereli, Varecia rubra, and Varecia variegata variegata) were fitted with a Daysimeter-D pendant that contained light and accelerometer sensors. Our results reveal common as well as species-specific light exposure and behavior patterns. As expected, all five species were more active between sunrise and sunset. All five species demonstrated an anticipatory increase in their pre-sunrise activity that peaked at sunrise with all but V. rubra showing a reduction within an hour. All five species reduced activity during mid-day. Four of the five stayed active after sunset, but P. coquereli began reducing their activity about 2 hours before sunset. Other subtle differences in the recorded light exposure and activity patterns suggest species-specific photic niches and behaviors. The eventual application of the Daysimeter-D in the wild may help to better understand the adaptive evolution of ancestral primates.

  10. Clinical process analysis and activity-based costing at a heart center.

    PubMed

    Ridderstolpe, Lisa; Johansson, Andreas; Skau, Tommy; Rutberg, Hans; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC)/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial software package (QPR) containing two interrelated parts, "ProcessGuide and CostControl," was used. All processes at the Heart Center were mapped and graphically outlined. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, research, and education were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services. The construction of the ABC model in CostControl was time-consuming. However, after the ABC/management system was created, it opened the way for new possibilities including process and activity analysis, simulation, and price calculations. Cost analysis showed large variations in the cost obtained for individual patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We conclude that a process-based costing system is applicable and has the potential to be useful in hospital management. PMID:12118815

  11. Human Collagen Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Is Activated by Ligands for Its Iron Center.

    PubMed

    Vasta, James D; Raines, Ronald T

    2016-06-14

    Collagen is the most abundant protein in animals. The posttranslational hydroxylation of proline residues in collagen contributes greatly to its conformational stability. Deficient hydroxylation is associated with a variety of disease states, including scurvy. The hydroxylation of proline residues in collagen is catalyzed by an Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase (CP4H). CP4H has long been known to suffer oxidative inactivation during catalysis, and the cofactor ascorbate (vitamin C) is required to reactivate the enzyme by reducing its iron center from Fe(III) to Fe(II). Herein, we report on the discovery of the first synthetic activators of CP4H. Specifically, we find that 2,2'-bipyridine-4-carboxylate and 2,2'-bipyridine-5-carboxylate serve as ligands for the iron center in human CP4H that enhance the rate of ascorbate-dependent reactivation. This new mode of CP4H activation is available to other biheteroaryl compounds but does not necessarily extend to other prolyl 4-hydroxylases. As collagen is weakened in many indications, analogous activators of CP4H could have therapeutic benefits. PMID:27183028

  12. Clinical process analysis and activity-based costing at a heart center.

    PubMed

    Ridderstolpe, Lisa; Johansson, Andreas; Skau, Tommy; Rutberg, Hans; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC)/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial software package (QPR) containing two interrelated parts, "ProcessGuide and CostControl," was used. All processes at the Heart Center were mapped and graphically outlined. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, research, and education were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services. The construction of the ABC model in CostControl was time-consuming. However, after the ABC/management system was created, it opened the way for new possibilities including process and activity analysis, simulation, and price calculations. Cost analysis showed large variations in the cost obtained for individual patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We conclude that a process-based costing system is applicable and has the potential to be useful in hospital management.

  13. Spin state transition in the active center of the hemoglobin molecule: DFT + DMFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, D.; Korotin, Dm. M.; Anisimov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    An ab initio study of electronic and spin configurations of the iron ion in the active center of the human hemoglobin molecule is presented. With a combination of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method and the Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT) approach, the spin state transition description in the iron ion during the oxidation process is significantly improved in comparison with previous attempts. It was found that the origin of the iron ion local moment behavior both for the high-spin and for the low-spin states in the hemoglobin molecule is caused by the presence of a mixture of several atomic states with comparable statistical probability.

  14. JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) data availability, version 1-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) includes satellite data sets for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Parameters include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, and integrated water vapor. The JPL PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is the United States distribution site for Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  15. Contents of the JPL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) archive, version 2-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Elizabeth A. (Editor); Lassanyi, Ruby A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) includes satellite data sets for the ocean sciences and global change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Parameters include sea surface height, surface wind vector, sea surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, and surface pigment concentration. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and will be the United States distribution site for the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  16. Wind tunnel productivity status and improvement activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Lawrence E.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last three years, a major effort has been underway to re-engineering the way wind tunnel testing is accomplished at the NASA Langley Research Center. This effort began with the reorganization of the LaRC and the consolidation of the management of the wind tunnels in the Aerodynamics Division under one operations branch. This paper provides an overview of the re-engineering activities and gives the status of the improvements in the wind tunnel productivity and customer satisfaction that have resulted from the new ways of working.

  17. Galactic Center gamma-ray ``excess'' from an active past of the Galactic Centre?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Jovana; Dario Serpico, Pasquale; Zaharijaš, Gabrijela

    2014-10-01

    Several groups have recently claimed evidence for an unaccounted gamma-ray excess over the diffuse backgrounds at few GeV in the Fermi-LAT data in a region around the Galactic Center, consistent with a dark matter annihilation origin. We demonstrate that the main spectral and angular features of this excess can be reproduced if they are mostly due to inverse Compton emission from high-energy electrons injected in a burst event of ~ 1052÷1053 erg roughly Script O(106) years ago. We consider this example as a proof of principle that time-dependent phenomena need to be understood and accounted for—together with detailed diffuse foregrounds and unaccounted ``steady state'' astrophysical sources—before any robust inference can be made about dark matter signals at the Galactic Center. In addition, we point out that the timescale suggested by our study, which controls both the energy cutoff and the angular extension of the signal, intriguingly matches (together with the energy budget) what is indirectly inferred by other evidences suggesting a very active Galactic Center in the past, for instance related to intense star formation and accretion phenomena.

  18. Activities in the Payload Operations Control Center at MSFC During the IML-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photograph shows activities during the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) mission (STS-42) in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Members of the Fluid Experiment System (FES) group monitor the progress of their experiment through video at the POCC. The IML-1 mission was the first in a series of Shuttle flights dedicated to fundamental materials and life sciences research. The mission was to explore, in depth, the complex effects of weightlessness on living organisms and materials processing. The crew conducted experiments on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and the effects on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Low gravity materials processing experiments included crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury, iodine, and virus. The International space science research organizations that participated in this mission were: The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administion, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, the French National Center for Space Studies, the German Space Agency, and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. The POCC was the air/ground communication charnel used between astronauts aboard the Spacelab and scientists, researchers, and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. The facility made instantaneous video and audio communications possible for scientists on the ground to follow the progress and to send direct commands of their research almost as if they were in space with the crew.

  19. Activities in the Payload Operation Control Center at MSFC During the IML-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photograph shows activities during the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) mission (STS-42) in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The IML-1 mission was the first in a series of Shuttle flights dedicated to fundamental materials and life sciences research. The mission was to explore, in depth, the complex effects of weightlessness on living organisms and materials processing. The crew conducted experiments on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and the effects on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Low gravity materials processing experiments included crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury, iodine, and virus. The International space science research organizations that participated in this mission were: The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, the French National Center for Space Studies, the German Space Agency, and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. The POCC was the air/ground communication charnel used between the astronauts aboard the Spacelab and scientists, researchers, and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. The facility made instantaneous video and audio communications possible for scientists on the ground to follow the progress and to send direct commands of their research almost as if they were in space with the crew.

  20. Joint Spacelab-J (SL-J) Activities at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory, Spacelab-J (SL-J), flown aboard the STS-47 flight was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a manned Spacelab module. The mission conducted 24 materials science and 20 life science experiments, of which 35 were sponsored by NASDA, 7 by NASA, and two collaborative efforts. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, and frogs and frog eggs. Featured together in joint ground activities during the SL-J mission are NASA/NASDA personnel at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).