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Sample records for active glp-1 7-36

  1. GLP-1(7-36)amide binding in skeletal muscle membranes from streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L; Delgado, E; Vicent, D; Mérida, E; Alcántara, A I; Valverde, I

    1995-09-01

    A higher specific binding of GLP-1(7-36)amide is found in skeletal muscle plasma membranes from adult streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus model) and from neonatal STZ-treated rats (non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus model), as compared to that in normal controls; no apparent change in the affinity was observed, that indicating the presence in both diabetic models of an increased number of high affinity binding sites for the peptide. The maximal specific GLP-1(7-16)amide binding in the non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus model was found to be significantly higher than that in the insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus model. As GLP-1(7-36)amide exerts a glycogenic effect in the rat skeletal muscle, the present data suggest that the action of the peptide in the muscle glucose metabolism may be increased in states of insulin deficiency accompanied or not by insulin resistance. PMID:21153227

  2. Exendin-4 agonist and exendin(9-39)amide antagonist of the GLP-1(7-36)amide effects in liver and muscle.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, A I; Morales, M; Delgado, E; López-Delgado, M I; Clemente, F; Luque, M A; Malaisse, W J; Valverde, I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L

    1997-05-01

    The GLP-1 structurally related peptides exendin-4 and exendin(9-39)amide were found to act, in rat liver and skeletal muscle, as agonist and antagonist, respectively, of the GLP-1(7-36)amide effects on glucose metabolism. Thus, like GLP-1(7-36)amide, exendin-4 increased glycogen synthase a activity and glucose incorporation into glycogen in both tissues and also stimulated exogenous D-glucose utilization and oxidation in muscle. These effects of GLP-1(7-36)amide and exendin-4 were inhibited by exendin(9-39)amide. Our findings provide further support to the proposed use of GLP-1, or exendin-4, as a tool in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Thus, in addition to the well-known insulinotropic action of the peptides, they act both in liver and in muscle in a manner most suitable for restoration of glucose homeostasis, with emphasis on their positive effects upon glycogen synthesis in the two tissues and on the stimulation of exogenous glucose catabolism in muscle. PMID:9143346

  3. Comparative Effects of the Endogenous Agonist Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1)-(7-36) Amide and the Small-Molecule Ago-Allosteric Agent “Compound 2” at the GLP-1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Coopman, Karen; Huang, Yan; Johnston, Neil; Bradley, Sophie J.; Wilkinson, Graeme F.

    2010-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mediates antidiabetogenic effects through the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), which is targeted for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Small-molecule GLP-1R agonists have been sought due to difficulties with peptide therapeutics. Recently, 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-N-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline (compound 2) has been described as a GLP-1R allosteric modulator and agonist. Using human embryonic kidney-293 cells expressing human GLP-1Rs, we extended this work to consider the impact of compound 2 on G protein activation, Ca2+ signaling and receptor internalization and particularly to compare compound 2 and GLP-1 across a range of functional assays in intact cells. GLP-1 and compound 2 activated Gαs in cell membranes and increased cellular cAMP in intact cells, with compound 2 being a partial and almost full agonist, respectively. GLP-1 increased intracellular [Ca2+] by release from intracellular stores, which was mimicked by compound 2, with slower kinetics. In either intact cells or membranes, the orthosteric antagonist exendin-(9-39), inhibited GLP-1 cAMP generation but increased the efficacy of compound 2. GLP-1 internalized enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged GLP-1Rs, but the speed and magnitude evoked by compound 2 were less. Exendin-(9-39) inhibited internalization by GLP-1 and also surprisingly that by compound 2. Compound 2 displays GLP-1R agonism consistent with action at an allosteric site, although an orthosteric antagonist increased its efficacy on cAMP and blocked compound 2-mediated receptor internalization. Full assessment of the properties of compound 2 was potentially hampered by damaging effects that were particularly manifest in either longer term assays with intact cells or in acute assays with membranes. PMID:20507928

  4. Inositolphosphoglycans and diacyglycerol are possible mediators in the glycogenic effect of GLP-1(7-36)amide in BC3H-1 myocytes.

    PubMed

    Galera, C; Clemente, F; Alcantara, A; Trapote, M A; Perea, A; Lopez-Delgado, M I; Villanueva-Penacarrillo, M L; Valverde, I

    1996-03-01

    A potent glycogenic effect of GLP-1(7-36)amide has been found in rat hepatocytes and skeletal muscle, and specific receptors for this peptide, which do not seem to be associated with the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system, have been detected in these tissue membranes. On the other hand, inositolphosphoglycan molecules (IPGs) have been implicated as second messengers of the action of insulin. In this work, we have found, in differentiated BC3H-1 myocytes, specific binding of [125I]GLP-1(7-36)amide, and a stimulatory effect of the peptide on glycogen synthesis, confirming the findings in rat skeletal muscle. Also, GLP-1(7-36)amide modulates the cell content of radiolabelled glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) and increases the production of diacylglycerol (DAG), in the same manner as insulin acts, indicating hydrolysis of GPIs and an immediate and short-lived generation of IPGs. Thus, IPGs and DAG could be mediators in the glycogenic action of GLP-1(7-36)amide in skeletal muscle. PMID:8907253

  5. Pancreatic GLP-1 receptor activation is sufficient for incretin control of glucose metabolism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Benjamin J.; Li, Yazhou; Kwan, Edwin; Brown, Theodore J.; Gaisano, Herbert; Drucker, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) circulates at low levels and acts as an incretin hormone, potentiating glucose-dependent insulin secretion from islet β cells. GLP-1 also modulates gastric emptying and engages neural circuits in the portal region and CNS that contribute to GLP-1 receptor–dependent (GLP-1R–dependent) regulation of glucose homeostasis. To elucidate the importance of pancreatic GLP-1R signaling for glucose homeostasis, we generated transgenic mice that expressed the human GLP-1R in islets and pancreatic ductal cells (Pdx1-hGLP1R:Glp1r–/– mice). Transgene expression restored GLP-1R–dependent stimulation of cAMP and Akt phosphorylation in isolated islets, conferred GLP-1R–dependent stimulation of β cell proliferation, and was sufficient for restoration of GLP-1–stimulated insulin secretion in perifused islets. Systemic GLP-1R activation with the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 had no effect on food intake, hindbrain c-fos expression, or gastric emptying but improved glucose tolerance and stimulated insulin secretion in Pdx1-hGLP1R:Glp1r–/– mice. i.c.v. GLP-1R blockade with the antagonist exendin(9–39) impaired glucose tolerance in WT mice but had no effect in Pdx1-hGLP1R:Glp1r–/– mice. Nevertheless, transgenic expression of the pancreatic GLP-1R was sufficient to normalize both oral and i.p. glucose tolerance in Glp1r–/– mice. These findings illustrate that low levels of endogenous GLP-1 secreted from gut endocrine cells are capable of augmenting glucoregulatory activity via pancreatic GLP-1Rs independent of communication with neural pathways. PMID:22182839

  6. Analysis of Germline Stem Cell Differentiation Following Loss of GLP-1 Notch Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Paul M.; Schedl, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells generate the differentiated progeny cells of adult tissues. Stem cells in the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite germline are maintained within a proliferative zone of ∼230 cells, ∼20 cell diameters in length, through GLP-1 Notch signaling. The distal tip cell caps the germline and supplies GLP-1-activating ligand, and the distal-most germ cells that occupy this niche are likely self-renewing stem cells with active GLP-1 signaling. As germ cells are displaced from the niche, GLP-1 activity likely decreases, yet mitotically cycling germ cells are found throughout the proliferative zone prior to overt meiotic differentiation. Following loss of GLP-1 activity, it remains unclear whether stem cells undergo transit-amplifying (TA) divisions or more directly enter meiosis. To distinguish between these possibilities we employed a temperature-sensitive (ts) glp-1 mutant to manipulate GLP-1 activity. We characterized proliferative zone dynamics in glp-1(ts) mutants at permissive temperature and then analyzed the kinetics of meiotic entry of proliferative zone cells after loss of GLP-1. We found that entry of proliferative zone cells into meiosis following loss of GLP-1 activity is largely synchronous and independent of their distal-proximal position. Furthermore, the majority of cells complete only a single mitotic division before entering meiosis, independent of their distal-proximal position. We conclude that germ cells do not undergo TA divisions following loss of GLP-1 activity. We present a model for the dynamics of the proliferative zone that utilizes cell cycle rate and proliferative zone size and output and incorporates the more direct meiotic differentiation of germ cells following loss of GLP-1 activity. PMID:26158953

  7. GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion by PKC-dependent TRPM4 and TRPM5 activation

    PubMed Central

    Shigeto, Makoto; Ramracheya, Reshma; Tarasov, Andrei I.; Cha, Chae Young; Chibalina, Margarita V.; Hastoy, Benoit; Philippaert, Koenraad; Reinbothe, Thomas; Rorsman, Nils; Salehi, Albert; Sones, William R.; Vergari, Elisa; Weston, Cathryn; Gorelik, Julia; Katsura, Masashi; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Vennekens, Rudi; Zaccolo, Manuela; Galione, Antony; Johnson, Paul R.V.; Kaku, Kohei; Ladds, Graham; Rorsman, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Strategies aimed at mimicking or enhancing the action of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) therapeutically improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, it is not clear whether GLP-1 directly drives insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion in mouse and human islets. We found that GLP-1 enhances GSIS at a half-maximal effective concentration of 0.4 pM. Moreover, we determined that GLP-1 activates PLC, which increases submembrane diacylglycerol and thereby activates PKC, resulting in membrane depolarization and increased action potential firing and subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion. The depolarizing effect of GLP-1 on electrical activity was mimicked by the PKC activator PMA, occurred without activation of PKA, and persisted in the presence of PKA inhibitors, the KATP channel blocker tolbutamide, and the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker isradipine; however, depolarization was abolished by lowering extracellular Na+. The PKC-dependent effect of GLP-1 on membrane potential and electrical activity was mediated by activation of Na+-permeable TRPM4 and TRPM5 channels by mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ stores. Concordantly, GLP-1 effects were negligible in Trpm4 or Trpm5 KO islets. These data provide important insight into the therapeutic action of GLP-1 and suggest that circulating levels of this hormone directly stimulate insulin secretion by β cells. PMID:26571400

  8. Activation of GLP-1 Receptor Promotes Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jingru; Ma, Xue; Wang, Ning; Jia, Min; Bi, Long; Wang, Yunying; Li, Mingkai; Zhang, Huinan; Xue, Xiaoyan; Hou, Zheng; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Zhibin; He, Gonghao; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Summary Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in regulating bone remodeling, and GLP-1 receptor agonist shows a positive relationship with osteoblast activity. However, GLP-1 receptor is not found in osteoblast, and the mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonist on regulating bone remodeling is unclear. Here, we show that the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) promoted bone formation and increased bone mass and quality in a rat unloading-induced bone loss model. These functions were accompanied by an increase in osteoblast number and serum bone formation markers, while the adipocyte number was decreased. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor was detected in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), but not in osteoblast. Activation of GLP-1 receptor by Ex-4 promoted the osteogenic differentiation and inhibited BMSC adipogenic differentiation through regulating PKA/β-catenin and PKA/PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling. These findings reveal that GLP-1 receptor regulates BMSC osteogenic differentiation and provide a molecular basis for therapeutic potential of GLP-1 against osteoporosis. PMID:26947974

  9. Modulation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Potency by Endocannabinoid-like Lipids Represents a Novel Mode of Regulating GLP-1 Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Hong; Ho, Mei-Shang; Huang, Wei-Ting; Chou, Ying-Ting; King, Klim

    2015-06-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are in clinical trials for disorders including neurodegenerative diseases. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in many peripheral and neuronal tissues and is activated by circulating GLP-1. Other than food intake, little is known about factors regulating GLP-1 secretion. Given a normally basal circulating level of GLP-1, knowledge of mechanisms regulating GLP-1R signaling, which has diverse functions in extrapancreatic tissues, remains elusive. In this study, we found that the potency of GLP-1, not exendin 4, is specifically enhanced by the endocannabinoid-like lipids oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and 2-oleoylglycerol but not by stearoylethanolamide (SEA) or palmitoylethanolamide. 9.2 μM OEA enhances the potency of GLP-1 in stimulating cAMP production by 10-fold but does not affect its receptor binding affinity. OEA and 2-oleoylglycerol, but not SEA, bind to GLP-1 in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. OEA but not SEA promoted GLP-1(7-36) amide to trypsin inactivation in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. Susceptibility of GLP-1(7-36) amide to trypsin inactivation is increased 40-fold upon binding to OEA but not to SEA. Our findings indicate that OEA binds to GLP-1(7-36) amide and enhances the potency that may result from a conformational change of the peptide. In conclusion, modulating potency of GLP-1 by physiologically regulated endocannabinoid-like lipids allows GLP-1R signaling to be regulated spatiotemporally at a constant basal GLP-1 level. PMID:25903129

  10. GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and the Thyroid: C-Cell Effects in Mice Are Mediated via the GLP-1 Receptor and not Associated with RET Activation

    PubMed Central

    Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Gotfredsen, Carsten; Pilling, Andrew; Sjögren, Ingrid; Andersen, Søren; Andersen, Lene; Sietske de Boer, Anne; Manova, Katia; Barlas, Afsar; Vundavalli, Sushil; Nyborg, Niels C. Berg; Bjerre Knudsen, Lotte; Moelck, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Liraglutide and exenatide are glucagon-like peptide receptor (GLP-1R) agonists used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Both molecules have been associated with the development of thyroid C-cell tumors after lifetime exposure in rodents. Previously, it has been reported that these tumors are preceded by increased plasma calcitonin and C-cell hyperplasia. We can now document that the murine C-cell effects are mediated via GLP-1R. Thus, 13 wk of continuous exposure to GLP-1R agonists was associated with marked increases in plasma calcitonin and in the incidence of C-cell hyperplasia in wild-type mice. In contrast, similar effects were not seen in GLP-1R knockout mice. Human C-cell cancer is often caused by activating mutations in the rearranged-during-transfection (RET) protooncogene. We developed an immunohistochemical method to assess RET activation in tissues. Liraglutide dosing to mice was not found to activate RET. Further evaluation of the signaling pathways demonstrated that liraglutide increased ribosomal S6, but not MAPK kinase, phosphorylation. These observations are consistent with effects of GLP-1R agonists on rodent C cells being mediated via mammalian target of rapamycin activation in a RET- and MAPK-independent manner. PMID:22234463

  11. Berberine induces GLP-1 secretion through activation of bitter taste receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunli; Hao, Gang; Zhang, Quanying; Hua, Wenyan; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Wenjia; Zong, Shunlin; Huang, Ming; Wen, Xiaozhou

    2015-09-15

    Our previous studies revealed that berberine-mediated GLP-1 secretion was a possible mechanism for berberine exerting good effects on hyperglycemia. This study was designed to ascertain whether berberine-induced secretion of GLP-1 was related with activation of bitter taste receptors expressed in gastrointestinal tract. Western blotting results showed that TAS2R38, a subtype of bitter taste receptor, was expressed on human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells. GLP-1 secretion induced by berberine from NCI-H716 cells was inhibited by incubation with anti-TAS2R38 antibody. We further performed gene silencing using siRNA to knockdown TAS2R38 from NCI-H716 cells, which showed that siRNA knockdown of the TAS2R38 reduced berberine-mediated GLP-1 secretion. We adopted inhibitors of PLC and TRPM5 known to be involved in bitter taste transduction to investigate the underlying pathways mediated in berberine-induced GLP-1 secretion. It was found that PLC inhibitor U73122 inhibited berberine-induced GLP-1 release in NCI-H716 cells, while TRPM5 blocker quinine failed to attenuate berberine-induced secretion of GLP-1. The present results demonstrated that berberine stimulated GLP-1 secretion via activation of gut-expressed bitter taste receptors in a PLC-dependent manner. Because berberine was found to be a ligand of bitter taste receptor, the results of present study may provide an explanation for some bitter taste substance obtain hypoglycemic effect. PMID:26206195

  12. PPG neurons of the lower brain stem and their role in brain GLP-1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Stefan; Cork, Simon C

    2015-10-15

    Within the brain, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) affects central autonomic neurons, including those controlling the cardiovascular system, thermogenesis, and energy balance. Additionally, GLP-1 influences the mesolimbic reward system to modulate the rewarding properties of palatable food. GLP-1 is produced in the gut and by hindbrain preproglucagon (PPG) neurons, located mainly in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and medullary intermediate reticular nucleus. Transgenic mice expressing glucagon promoter-driven yellow fluorescent protein revealed that PPG neurons not only project to central autonomic control regions and mesolimbic reward centers, but also strongly innervate spinal autonomic neurons. Therefore, these brain stem PPG neurons could directly modulate sympathetic outflow through their spinal inputs to sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Electrical recordings from PPG neurons in vitro have revealed that they receive synaptic inputs from vagal afferents entering via the solitary tract. Vagal afferents convey satiation to the brain from signals like postprandial gastric distention or activation of peripheral GLP-1 receptors. CCK and leptin, short- and long-term satiety peptides, respectively, increased the electrical activity of PPG neurons, while ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, had no effect. These findings indicate that satiation is a main driver of PPG neuronal activation. They also show that PPG neurons are in a prime position to respond to both immediate and long-term indicators of energy and feeding status, enabling regulation of both energy balance and general autonomic homeostasis. This review discusses the question of whether PPG neurons, rather than gut-derived GLP-1, are providing the physiological substrate for the effects elicited by central nervous system GLP-1 receptor activation. PMID:26290108

  13. A Novel Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1)/Glucagon Hybrid Peptide with Triple-acting Agonist Activity at Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide, GLP-1, and Glucagon Receptors and Therapeutic Potential in High Fat-fed Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Victor A.; Bhat, Vikas K.; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon bind to related members of the same receptor superfamily and exert important effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and energy regulation. The present study assessed the biological actions and therapeutic utility of novel GIP/glucagon/GLP-1 hybrid peptides. Nine novel peptides were synthesized and exhibited complete DPP-IV resistance and enhanced in vitro insulin secretion. The most promising peptide, [dA2]GLP-1/GcG, stimulated cAMP production in GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon receptor-transfected cells. Acute administration of [dA2]GLP-1/GcG in combination with glucose significantly lowered plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin in normal and obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice. Furthermore, [dA2]GLP-1/GcG elicited a protracted glucose-lowering and insulinotropic effect in high fat-fed mice. Twice daily administration of [dA2]GLP-1/GcG for 21 days decreased body weight and nonfasting plasma glucose and increased circulating plasma insulin concentrations in high fat-fed mice. Furthermore, [dA2]GLP-1/GcG significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by day 21. Interestingly, locomotor activity was increased in [dA2]GLP-1/GcG mice, without appreciable changes in aspects of metabolic rate. Studies in knock-out mice confirmed the biological action of [dA2]GLP-1/GcG via multiple targets including GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon receptors. The data suggest significant promise for novel triple-acting hybrid peptides as therapeutic options for obesity and diabetes. PMID:24165127

  14. GPR119 Agonist AS1269574 Activates TRPA1 Cation Channels to Stimulate GLP-1 Secretion.

    PubMed

    Chepurny, Oleg G; Holz, George G; Roe, Michael W; Leech, Colin A

    2016-06-01

    GPR119 is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed on intestinal L cells that synthesize and secrete the blood glucose-lowering hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GPR119 agonists stimulate the release of GLP-1 from L cells, and for this reason there is interest in their potential use as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. AS1269574 is one such GPR119 agonist, and it is the prototype of a series of 2,4,6 trisubstituted pyrimidines that exert positive glucoregulatory actions in mice. Here we report the unexpected finding that AS1269574 stimulates GLP-1 release from the STC-1 intestinal cell line by directly promoting Ca(2+) influx through transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels. These GPR119-independent actions of AS1269574 are inhibited by TRPA1 channel blockers (AP-18, A967079, HC030031) and are not secondary to intracellular Ca(2+) release or cAMP production. Patch clamp studies reveal that AS1269574 activates an outwardly rectifying membrane current with properties expected of TRPA1 channels. However, the TRPA1 channel-mediated action of AS1269574 to increase intracellular free calcium concentration is not replicated by GPR119 agonists (AR231453, oleoylethanolamide) unrelated in structure to AS1269574. Using human embryonic kidney-293 cells expressing recombinant rat TRPA1 channels but not GPR119, direct TRPA1 channel activating properties of AS1269574 are validated. Because we find that AS1269574 also acts in a conventional GPR119-mediated manner to stimulate proglucagon gene promoter activity in the GLUTag intestinal L cell line, new findings reported here reveal the surprising capacity of AS1269574 to act as a dual agonist at two molecular targets (GPR119/TRPA1) important to the control of L-cell function and type 2 diabetes mellitus drug discovery research. PMID:27082897

  15. Activation of the GLP-1 Receptors in the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract Reduces Food Reward Behavior and Targets the Mesolimbic System

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Jennifer E.; Anderberg, Rozita H.; Göteson, Andreas; Gribble, Fiona M.; Reimann, Frank; Skibicka, Karolina P.

    2015-01-01

    The gut/brain peptide, glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1), suppresses food intake by acting on receptors located in key energy balance regulating CNS areas, the hypothalamus or the hindbrain. Moreover, GLP-1 can reduce reward derived from food and motivation to obtain food by acting on its mesolimbic receptors. Together these data suggest a neuroanatomical segregation between homeostatic and reward effects of GLP-1. Here we aim to challenge this view and hypothesize that GLP-1 can regulate food reward behavior by acting directly on the hindbrain, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Using two models of food reward, sucrose progressive ratio operant conditioning and conditioned place preference for food in rats, we show that intra-NTS microinjections of GLP-1 or Exendin-4, a stable analogue of GLP-1, inhibit food reward behavior. When the rats were given a choice between palatable food and chow, intra-NTS Exendin-4 treatment preferentially reduced intake of palatable food but not chow. However, chow intake and body weight were reduced by the NTS GLP-1R activation if chow was offered alone. The NTS GLP-1 activation did not alter general locomotor activity and did not induce nausea, measured by PICA. We further show that GLP-1 fibers are in close apposition to the NTS noradrenergic neurons, which were previously shown to provide a monosynaptic connection between the NTS and the mesolimbic system. Central GLP-1R activation also increased NTS expression of dopamine-β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in noradrenaline synthesis, indicating a biological link between these two systems. Moreover, NTS GLP-1R activation altered the expression of dopamine-related genes in the ventral tegmental area. These data reveal a food reward-suppressing role of the NTS GLP-1R and indicate that the neurobiological targets underlying food reward control are not limited to the mesolimbic system, instead they are distributed throughout the CNS. PMID:25793511

  16. Diverse signaling systems activated by the sweet taste receptor in human GLP-1-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Takeda, Shigeki; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Kojima, Itaru

    2014-08-25

    Sweet taste receptor regulates GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine L-cells. We investigated the signaling system activated by this receptor using Hutu-80 cells. We stimulated them with sucralose, saccharin, acesulfame K and glycyrrhizin. These sweeteners stimulated GLP-1 secretion, which was attenuated by lactisole. All these sweeteners elevated cytoplasmic cyclic AMP ([cAMP]c) whereas only sucralose and saccharin induced a monophasic increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]c). Removal of extracellular calcium or sodium and addition of a Gq/11 inhibitor greatly reduced the [Ca(2+)]c responses to two sweeteners. In contrast, acesulfame K induced rapid and sustained reduction of [Ca(2+)]c. In addition, glycyrrhizin first reduced [Ca(2+)]c which was followed by an elevation of [Ca(2+)]c. Reductions of [Ca(2+)]c induced by acesulfame K and glycyrrhizin were attenuated by a calmodulin inhibitor or by knockdown of the plasma membrane calcium pump. These results indicate that various sweet molecules act as biased agonists and evoke strikingly different patterns of intracellular signals. PMID:25017733

  17. The anorexic effect of Ex4/Fc through GLP-1 receptor activation in high-fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Ma, Duan; Li, Yiming; Hu, Renming; Peng, Yongde; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-08-01

    Exendin-4 (Ex4), a peptide initially found in the saliva of the Gila monster, can activate the signaling pathway of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) through the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). We previously reported that a chimera protein consisting of Ex4 and mouse IgG heavy chain constant regions (Ex4/Fc) can exert biological effects of GLP-1, such as improving glycemic control and ameliorating manifestations in diabetic mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether Ex4/Fc is effective in modulating energy homeostasis in mice. Our results showed that in vivo expression of Ex4/Fc by intramuscular injection of the plasmid encoding Ex4/Fc followed by local electroporation effectively decreased food intake in the mice on high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. In addition, the reduced energy intake was associated with the decreased excrements from the Ex4/Fc-treated HFD mice but not the Fc control mice. Remarkably, the Ex4/Fctreated HFD mice displayed significantly lower triglyceride (TG) levels when compared with the control mice. Interestingly, while the leptin levels were not changed, the circulating ghrelin levels were higher in Ex4/Fc mice than those in the Fc control mice. These results suggested that Ex4/Fc can improve energy metabolism and lipid metabolism through GLP-1R in mice under excessive nutrition conditions. PMID:24951724

  18. Degradation, receptor binding, insulin secreting and antihyperglycaemic actions of palmitate-derivatised native and Ala8-substituted GLP-1 analogues.

    PubMed

    Green, Brian D; Gault, Victor A; Mooney, Mark H; Irwin, Nigel; Harriott, Patrick; Greer, Brett; Bailey, Cliff J; O'Harte, Finbarr P M; Flatt, Peter R

    2004-02-01

    The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) is released in response to ingested nutrients and acts to promote glucose-dependent insulin secretion ensuring efficient postprandial glucose homeostasis. Unfortunately, the beneficial actions of GLP-1 which give this hormone many of the desirable properties of an antidiabetic drug are short lived due to degradation by dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV) and rapid clearance by renal filtration. In this study we have attempted to extend GLP-1 action through the attachment of palmitoyl moieties to the epsilon-amino group in the side chain of the Lys26 residue and to combine this modification with substitutions of the Ala8 residue, namely Val or amino-butyric acid (Abu). In contrast to native GLP-1, which was rapidly degraded, [Lys(pal)26]GLP-1, [Abu8, Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 and [Val8 Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 all exhibited profound stability during 12 h incubations with DPP IV and human plasma. Receptor binding affinity and the ability to increase cyclic AMP in the clonal beta-cell line BRIN-BD11 were decreased by 86- to 167-fold and 15- to 62-fold, respectively compared with native GLP-1. However, insulin secretory potency tested using BRIN-BD11 cells was similar, or in the case of [Val8,Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 enhanced. Furthermore, when administered in vivo together with glucose to diabetic (ob/ob) mice, [Lys(pal)26]GLP-1, [Abu8,Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 and [Val8,Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 did not demonstrate acute glucose-lowering or insulinotropic activity as observed with native GLP-1. These studies support the potential usefulness of fatty acid linked analogues of GLP-1 but indicate the importance of chain length for peptide kinetics and bioavailability. PMID:15101559

  19. Lipid derivatives activate GPR119 and trigger GLP-1 secretion in primary murine L-cells

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Catherine E.; Glass, Leslie L.; Diakogiannaki, Eleftheria; Pais, Ramona; Lenaghan, Carol; Smith, David M.; Wedin, Marianne; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Gribble, Fiona M.; Reimann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone derived from proglucagon, which is released from intestinal L-cells and increases insulin secretion in a glucose dependent manner. GPR119 is a lipid derivative receptor present in L-cells, believed to play a role in the detection of dietary fat. This study aimed to characterize the responses of primary murine L-cells to GPR119 agonism and assess the importance of GPR119 for the detection of ingested lipid. Methods GLP-1 secretion was measured from murine primary cell cultures stimulated with a panel of GPR119 ligands. Plasma GLP-1 levels were measured in mice lacking GPR119 in proglucagon-expressing cells and controls after lipid gavage. Intracellular cAMP responses to GPR119 agonists were measured in single primary L-cells using transgenic mice expressing a cAMP FRET sensor driven by the proglucagon promoter. Results L-cell specific knockout of GPR119 dramatically decreased plasma GLP-1 levels after a lipid gavage. GPR119 ligands triggered GLP-1 secretion in a GPR119 dependent manner in primary epithelial cultures from the colon, but were less effective in the upper small intestine. GPR119 agonists elevated cAMP in ∼70% of colonic L-cells and 50% of small intestinal L-cells. Conclusions/interpretation GPR119 ligands strongly enhanced GLP-1 release from colonic cultures, reflecting the high proportion of colonic L-cells that exhibited cAMP responses to GPR119 agonists. Less GPR119-dependence could be demonstrated in the upper small intestine. In vivo, GPR119 in L-cells plays a key role in oral lipid-triggered GLP-1 secretion. PMID:26144594

  20. Cyclic alpha-conotoxin peptidomimetic chimeras as potent GLP-1R agonists.

    PubMed

    Swedberg, Joakim E; Schroeder, Christina I; Mitchell, Justin M; Durek, Thomas; Fairlie, David P; Edmonds, David J; Griffith, David A; Ruggeri, Roger B; Derksen, David R; Loria, Paula M; Liras, Spiros; Price, David A; Craik, David J

    2015-10-20

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results from compromised pancreatic β-cell function, reduced insulin production, and lowered insulin sensitivity in target organs resulting in hyperglycemia. The GLP-1 hormone has two biologically active forms, GLP-1-(7-37) and GLP-1-(7-36)amide, which are equipotent at the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). These peptides are central both to normal glucose metabolism and dysregulation in T2DM. Several structurally modified GLP-1 analogues are now approved drugs, and a number of other analogues are in clinical trials. None of these compounds is orally bioavailable and all require parenteral delivery. Recently, a number of smaller peptidomimetics containing 11-12 natural and unnatural amino acids have been identified that have similar insulin regulating profiles as GLP-1. The α-conotoxins are a class of disulfide rich peptide venoms isolated from cone snails, and are known for their highly constrained structures and resistance to enzymatic degradation. In this study, we examined whether 11-residue peptidomimetics incorporated into α-conotoxin scaffolds, forming monocyclic or bicyclic compounds constrained by disulfide bonds and/or backbone cyclization, could activate the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). Several compounds showed potent (nanomolar) agonist activity at GLP-1R, as evaluated via cAMP signaling. In addition, HPLC retention times and in silico calculations suggested that mono- and bicyclic compounds had more favorable n-octanol/water partition coefficients according to the virtual partition coefficient model (vLogP), while maintaining a smaller radius of gyration compared to corresponding uncyclized peptidomimetics. Our findings suggest that cyclic peptidomimetics provide a potential avenue for future design of potent, compact ligands targeting GLP-1R and possessing improved physicochemical properties. PMID:26352676

  1. Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis by GLP-1

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Prashant; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Holz, George G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36)amide (GLP-1) is a secreted peptide that acts as a key determinant of blood glucose homeostasis by virtue of its abilities to slow gastric emptying, to enhance pancreatic insulin secretion, and to suppress pancreatic glucagon secretion. GLP-1 is secreted from L cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa in response to a meal, and the blood glucose-lowering action of GLP-1 is terminated due to its enzymatic degradation by dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). Released GLP-1 activates enteric and autonomic reflexes while also circulating as an incretin hormone to control endocrine pancreas function. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated directly or indirectly by blood glucose-lowering agents currently in use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These therapeutic agents include GLP-1R agonists (exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, and langlenatide) and DPP-IV inhibitors (sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, and alogliptin). Investigational agents for use in the treatment of T2DM include GPR119 and GPR40 receptor agonists that stimulate the release of GLP-1 from L cells. Summarized here is the role of GLP-1 to control blood glucose homeo-stasis, with special emphasis on the advantages and limitations of GLP-1-based therapeutics. PMID:24373234

  2. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Decreases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation through GLP-1-Dependent Monocytic Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsin Ying; Huang, Chun Yao; Shih, Chun Ming; Chang, Wei Hung; Tsai, Chein Sung; Lin, Feng Yen; Shih, Chun Che

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening situation affecting almost 10% of elders. There has been no effective medication for AAA other than surgical intervention. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been shown to have a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. Whether DPP-4 inhibitors may be beneficial in the treatment of AAA is unclear. We investigated the effects of DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on the angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused AAA formation in apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Mice with induced AAA were treated with placebo or 2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day sitagliptin. Ang II-infused apoE-/- mice exhibited a 55.6% incidence of AAA formation, but treatment with sitagliptin decreased AAA formation. Specifically, administered sitagliptin in Ang II-infused mice exhibited decreased expansion of the suprarenal aorta, reduced elastin lamina degradation of the aorta, and diminished vascular inflammation by macrophage infiltration. Treatment with sitagliptin decreased gelatinolytic activity and apoptotic cells in aorta tissues. Sitaglipitn, additionally, was associated with increased levels of plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In vitro studies, GLP-1 decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell migration, and MMP-2 as well as MMP-9 activity in Ang II-stimulated monocytic cells. The results conclude that oral administration of sitagliptin can prevent abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in Ang II-infused apoE-/-mice, at least in part, by increasing of GLP-1 activity, decreasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 production from macrophage infiltration. The results indicate that sitagliptin may have therapeutic potential in preventing the development of AAA. PMID:25876091

  3. Is GLP-1 a hormone: Whether and When?

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, David

    2016-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a product of proglucagon cleavage synthesized in L cells in the intestinal mucosa, α-cells in the pancreatic islet, and neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract. GLP-1 is essential for normal glucose tolerance and acts through a specific GLP-1 receptor that is expressed by islet β-cells as well as other cell types. Because plasma concentrations of GLP-1 increase following meal ingestion it has been generally presumed that GLP-1 acts as a hormone, communicating information from the intestine to the endocrine pancreas through the circulation. However, there are a number of problems with this model including low circulating concentrations of GLP-1 in plasma, limited changes after meal ingestion and rapid metabolism in the plasma. Moreover, antagonism of systemic GLP-1 action impairs insulin secretion in the fasting state, suggesting that the GLP-1r is active even when plasma GLP-1 levels are low and unchanging. Consistent with these observations, deletion of the GLP-1r from islet β-cells causes intolerance after IP or IV glucose, challenges that do not induce GLP-1 secretion. Taken together, these data support a model whereby GLP-1 acts through neural or paracrine mechanisms to regulate physiologic insulin secretion. In contrast, bariatric surgery seems to be a condition in which circulating GLP-1 could have an endocrine effect. Both gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy are associated with substantial increases in postprandial GLP-1 release and in these conditions interference with GLP-1r signaling has a significant impact on glucose regulation after eating. Thus, with either bariatric surgery or treatment with long-acting GLP-1r agonists, circulating peptide mediates insulinotropic activity. Overall, a case can be made that physiologic actions of GLP-1 are not hormonal, but that an endocrine mechanism of GLP-1r activation can be co-opted for therapeutics. PMID:27186356

  4. Effect of GLP-1 Receptor Activation on Offspring Kidney Health in a Rat Model of Maternal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Glastras, Sarah J; Chen, Hui; McGrath, Rachel T; Zaky, Amgad A; Gill, Anthony J; Pollock, Carol A; Saad, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease in offspring, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Exendin-4 (Exd-4) activates the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor thereby decreasing serum glucose levels and body weight. In addition, Exd-4 has been shown to reduce renal and cardiac complications in experimental models of T2D. We hypothesized that treatment with Exd-4 would ameliorate the detrimental effects of maternal and diet-induced obesity on renal characteristics in offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either normal or high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy and lactation, and their offspring were weaned to normal or HFD. The offspring were randomized to Exd-4 or placebo from weaning and their kidneys harvested at Week 9. We found that the kidneys of offspring from obese mothers, regardless of postnatal diet, had significantly increased markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. Exd-4 ameliorated the negative renal effects of maternal obesity and in particular, reduced renal inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. In conclusion, maternal obesity has persisting effects on renal structure in the offspring. GLP-1 analogues are potentially useful for protecting against the deleterious effects of maternal obesity on renal physiology in offspring. PMID:27004609

  5. Effect of GLP-1 Receptor Activation on Offspring Kidney Health in a Rat Model of Maternal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Glastras, Sarah J.; Chen, Hui; McGrath, Rachel T.; Zaky, Amgad A.; Gill, Anthony J.; Pollock, Carol A.; Saad, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease in offspring, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Exendin-4 (Exd-4) activates the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor thereby decreasing serum glucose levels and body weight. In addition, Exd-4 has been shown to reduce renal and cardiac complications in experimental models of T2D. We hypothesized that treatment with Exd-4 would ameliorate the detrimental effects of maternal and diet-induced obesity on renal characteristics in offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either normal or high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy and lactation, and their offspring were weaned to normal or HFD. The offspring were randomized to Exd-4 or placebo from weaning and their kidneys harvested at Week 9. We found that the kidneys of offspring from obese mothers, regardless of postnatal diet, had significantly increased markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. Exd-4 ameliorated the negative renal effects of maternal obesity and in particular, reduced renal inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. In conclusion, maternal obesity has persisting effects on renal structure in the offspring. GLP-1 analogues are potentially useful for protecting against the deleterious effects of maternal obesity on renal physiology in offspring. PMID:27004609

  6. Split Ssp DnaB mini-intein-mediated production of recombinant human glucagon-like peptide-1/7-36.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Aiqin; Jin, Wenbo; Zhao, Feng; Tang, Yanchun; Sun, Ziyong; Liu, Jian-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in the regulation of postprandial insulin release. Here, we used the split DnaB mini-intein system to produce recombinant human GLP-1/7-36 (rhGLP-1) in Escherichia coli. The C-terminal domain of DnaB mini-intein (IntC) was genetically fused at the N-terminus of rhGLP-1 to produce IntC-GLP-1. IntC-GLP-1 and N-terminal domain of DnaB mini-intein (IntN) protein were prepared in a denatured buffer of pH 8.0. IntC-GLP-1 was diluted 1:8 into the phosphate buffer of pH 6.6. IntN was added into the diluted solution of IntC-GLP-1 at the molar ratio of 1:2. Then, rhGLP-1 was released from IntC-GLP-1 via inducible C-terminal peptide-bond cleavage by shifting pH from 8.0 to 6.6 at 25 °C for 24-H incubation. Then, the supernatant was applied to a Ni-Sepharose column, and the pass through fraction was collected. About 5.34 mg of rhGLP-1 with the purity of 97% was obtained from 1 L of culture medium. Mass spectrometry showed the molecular weight of 3,300.45 Da, which was equal to the theoretical value of GLP-1/7-36. The glucose-lowering activity of rhGLP-1 was confirmed by the glucose tolerance test in mice. In conclusion, the reported method was an efficient strategy to produce rhGLP-1 without using enzyme or chemical reagents, which could also be used for other similar peptides. PMID:25066911

  7. Peptide binding at the GLP-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Mann, R; Nasr, N; Hadden, D; Sinfield, J; Abidi, F; Al-Sabah, S; de Maturana, R López; Treece-Birch, J; Willshaw, A; Donnelly, D

    2007-08-01

    The receptor for GLP-1 [glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide] is a member of the 'Family B' of GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) comprising an extracellular N-terminal domain containing six conserved cysteine residues (the N-domain) and a core domain (or J-domain) comprising the seven transmembrane helices and interconnecting loop regions. According to the two-domain model for peptide binding, the N-domain is primarily responsible for providing most of the peptide binding energy, whereas the core domain is responsible for binding the N-terminal region of the peptide agonists and transmitting the signal to the intracellular G-protein. Two interesting differences between the binding properties of two GLP-1 receptor agonists, GLP-1 and EX-4 (exendin-4), can be observed. First, while GLP-1 requires its full length to maintain high affinity, the eight N-terminal residues of EX-4 can be removed with little reduction in affinity. Secondly, EX-4 (but not GLP-1) can bind to the fully isolated N-domain of the receptor with an affinity matching that of the full-length receptor. In order to better understand these differences, we have studied the interaction between combinations of full-length or truncated ligands with full-length or truncated receptors. PMID:17635131

  8. Heterobivalent GLP-1/Glibenclamide for Targeting Pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nathaniel J.; Chung, Woo Jin; Weber, Craig; Ananthakrishnan, Kameswari; Anderson, Miranda; Patek, Renata; Zhang, Zhanyu; Limesand, Sean W.; Vagner, Josef; Lynch, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide (G)-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) linked cell signaling cascades are initiated upon binding of a specific agonist ligand to its cell surface receptor. Linking multiple heterologous ligands that simultaneously bind and potentially cross-link different receptors on the cell surface is a unique approach to modulate cell responses. Moreover, if the target receptors are pre-selected, based on analysis of cell specific expression of a receptor combination, then the linked binding elements may provide enhanced specificity of targeting to the cell type of interest; i.e., only to cells that express the complementary receptors. Two receptors whose expression is relatively specific, as a combination, to the insulin secreting β-cell of the pancreas, are the sulfonylurea-1 (SUR1) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors. A heterobivalent ligand was assembled of the active fragment of GLP-1 ([Phe12, Arg36] 7-36 GLP-1) and glibenclamide,a small organic ligand to the SUR1. The synthetic construct was labelled with Cy5 or Europium chelated in DTPA to evaluate binding to β-cell lines using fluorescence microscopy or time-resolved saturation and competition binding assays, respectively. Once the ligand binds to β-cells, it is rapidly capped and presumably removed from the cell surface via endocytosis. The bivalent ligand had an affinity ~3 fold higher than monomeric Europium labelled GLP-1, likely due to cooperative binding to the complimentary receptors on the βTC3 cells. The high affinity binding was lost in the presence of either unlabelled monomer demonstrating that interaction with both receptors is required for the enhanced binding at low concentrations. Importantly, bivalent enhancement was accomplished in a cell system with physiological levels of expression of the complementary receptors, indicating that this approach may be applicable for β-cell targeting in vivo. PMID:24259278

  9. Mosapride, a selective serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist, and alogliptin, a selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, exert synergic effects on plasma active GLP-1 levels and glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacologic stimulation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors increased plasma active glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels independent of feeding, and that pharmacologic stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors and pharmacologic inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 exerted synergic effects on plasma active GLP-1 levels and glucose tolerance in mice. PMID:26497774

  10. Miglitol administered before breakfast increased plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels after lunch in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with sitagliptin.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Kouichiro; Shibuya, Makoto; Masuda, Kiyomi; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2012-06-01

    We recently reported that the administration of miglitol alone just before breakfast improved postprandial hyperglycemia and increased active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels after lunch in men without diabetes. Miglitol and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, such as sitagliptin, enhance plasma active GLP-1 concentrations via different mechanisms; therefore, combined therapy with these agents was more effective than monotherapy. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of the administration of miglitol alone just before breakfast on the plasma glucose, serum insulin and glucagon, and plasma incretin levels in sitagliptin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. We measured the plasma glucose, serum insulin and glucagon, plasma active GLP-1, and total glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide levels before breakfast, at 120 min after breakfast, before lunch, and 60 and 120 min after lunch in patients with diabetes who are receiving sitagliptin. This trial was performed for the following 2 days on each subject (Day 1: no miglitol, Day 2: miglitol alone [50 mg] administered just before breakfast). The area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma glucose levels after lunch in the miglitol-treated group tended to be lower than that in the miglitol-untreated group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Miglitol alone administered at breakfast increased the AUC of the active plasma GLP-1 levels after lunch in sitagliptin-treated patients with diabetes. Our results suggest that the once-daily administration of miglitol as a "GLP-1 enhancer" in combination with sitagliptin was effective for the treatment for patients with diabetes. PMID:21898126

  11. Perspectives in GLP-1 Research: New Targets, New Receptors.

    PubMed

    Cantini, Giulia; Mannucci, Edoardo; Luconi, Michaela

    2016-06-01

    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) binds to and activates its G-protein-coupled-receptor GLP-1R to reduce glycaemia through the stimulation of insulin and suppression of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Recently, GLP-1 effects unrelated to glucose homeostasis have been discovered in myocardium, bone, adipose tissue, and other target organs, which appear to be mainly mediated by GLP-1R-independent pathways. Here, we summarize knowledge on GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RAs) as they relate to the improvement of glucose control, and focus on the most recently described effects, discussing the preclinical evidence of the involvement of alternative receptors and signalling mechanisms. It is now evident that the universe of GLP-1RAs is expanding further from the initial incretin effect, opening new unforeseen avenues for research and clinical applications. PMID:27091492

  12. Unraveling oxyntomodulin, GLP1's enigmatic brother

    PubMed Central

    Pocai, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a peptide secreted from the L cells of the gut following nutrient ingestion. OXM is a dual agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) and the glucagon receptor (GCGR) combining the effects of GLP1 and glucagon to act as a potentially more effective treatment for obesity than GLP1R agonists. Injections of OXM in humans cause a significant reduction in weight and appetite, as well as an increase in energy expenditure. Activation of GCGR is classically associated with an elevation in glucose levels, which would be deleterious in patients with T2DM, but the antidiabetic properties of GLP1R agonism would be expected to counteract this effect. Indeed, OXM administration improved glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Thus, dual agonists of the GCGR and GLP1R represent a new therapeutic approach for diabetes and obesity with the potential for enhanced weight loss and improvement in glycemic control beyond those of GLP1R agonists. PMID:23019069

  13. Activation of the GLP-1 receptor signalling pathway: a relevant strategy to repair a deficient beta-cell mass.

    PubMed

    Portha, Bernard; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Movassat, Jamileh

    2011-01-01

    Recent preclinical studies in rodent models of diabetes suggest that exogenous GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors have the ability to increase islet mass and preserve beta-cell function, by immediate reactivation of beta-cell glucose competence, as well as enhanced beta-cell proliferation and neogenesis and promotion of beta-cell survival. These effects have tremendous implication in the treatment of T2D because they directly address one of the basic defects in T2D, that is, beta-cell failure. In human diabetes, however, evidence that the GLP-1-based drugs alter the course of beta-cell function remains to be found. Several questions surrounding the risks and benefits of GLP-1-based therapy for the diabetic beta-cell mass are discussed in this review and require further investigation. PMID:21716694

  14. Activation of the GLP-1 Receptor Signalling Pathway: A Relevant Strategy to Repair a Deficient Beta-Cell Mass

    PubMed Central

    Portha, Bernard; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Movassat, Jamileh

    2011-01-01

    Recent preclinical studies in rodent models of diabetes suggest that exogenous GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors have the ability to increase islet mass and preserve beta-cell function, by immediate reactivation of beta-cell glucose competence, as well as enhanced beta-cell proliferation and neogenesis and promotion of beta-cell survival. These effects have tremendous implication in the treatment of T2D because they directly address one of the basic defects in T2D, that is, beta-cell failure. In human diabetes, however, evidence that the GLP-1-based drugs alter the course of beta-cell function remains to be found. Several questions surrounding the risks and benefits of GLP-1-based therapy for the diabetic beta-cell mass are discussed in this review and require further investigation. PMID:21716694

  15. A Novel TGR5 Activator WB403 Promotes GLP-1 Secretion and Preserves Pancreatic β-Cells in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tongtong; You, Panpan; Zhao, Yongliang; Yang, Yiqing; Wang, Xin; Luo, Jian; Chen, Yihua; Liu, Mingyao; Chen, Huaqing

    2015-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 is a membrane receptor for bile acids. Its agonism increases energy expenditure and controls blood glucose through secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 in enteroendocrine cells. In this study, we explored the therapeutic potential of WB403, a small compound activating TGR5 which was identified by combining TGR5 targeted luciferase assay and active GLP-1 assay, in treating type 2 diabetes. After confirmation of TGR5 and GLP-1 stimulating activities in various cell systems, WB403 was examined in oral glucose tolerance test, and tested on different mouse models of type 2 diabetes for glycemic control and pancreatic β-cell protection effect. As a result, WB403 exhibited a moderate TGR5 activation effect while promoting GLP-1 secretion efficiently. Interestingly, gallbladder filling effect, which was reported for some known TGR5 agonists, was not detected in this novel compound. In vivo results showed that WB403 significantly improved glucose tolerance and decreased fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose and HbA1c in type 2 diabetic mice. Further analysis revealed that WB403 increased pancreatic β-cells and restored the normal distribution pattern of α-cell and β-cell in islets. These findings demonstrated that TGR5 activator WB403 effectively promoted GLP-1 release, improved hyperglycemia and preserved the mass and function of pancreatic β-cells, whereas it did not show a significant side effect on gallbladder. It may represent a promising approach for future type 2 diabetes mellitus drug development. PMID:26208278

  16. Endogenous GLP1 and GLP1 analogue alter CNS responses to palatable food consumption.

    PubMed

    Ten Kulve, Jennifer S; Veltman, Dick J; van Bloemendaal, Liselotte; Groot, Paul F C; Ruhé, Henricus G; Barkhof, Frederik; Diamant, Michaela; Ijzerman, Richard G

    2016-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) affects appetite, supposedly mediated via the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we investigate whether modulation of CNS responses to palatable food consumption may be a mechanism by which GLP1 contributes to the central regulation of feeding. Using functional MRI, we determined the effects of endogenous GLP1 and treatment with the GLP1 analogue liraglutide on CNS activation to chocolate milk receipt. Study 1 included 20 healthy lean individuals and 20 obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Scans were performed on two occasions: during infusion of the GLP1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39 (blocking actions of endogenous GLP1) and during placebo infusion. Study 2 was a randomised, cross-over intervention study carried out in 20 T2DM patients, comparing treatment with liraglutide to insulin, after 10 days and 12 weeks. Compared with lean individuals, T2DM patients showed reduced activation to chocolate milk in right insula (P = 0.04). In lean individuals, blockade of endogenous GLP1 effects inhibited activation in bilateral insula (P ≤ 0.03). Treatment in T2DM with liraglutide, vs insulin, increased activation to chocolate milk in right insula and caudate nucleus after 10 days (P ≤ 0.03); however, these effects ceased to be significant after 12 weeks. Our findings in healthy lean individuals indicate that endogenous GLP1 is involved in the central regulation of feeding by affecting central responsiveness to palatable food consumption. In obese T2DM, treatment with liraglutide may improve the observed deficit in responsiveness to palatable food, which may contribute to the induction of weight loss observed during treatment. However, no long-term effects of liraglutide were observed. PMID:26769912

  17. Regulation of adipocyte formation by GLP-1/GLP-1R signaling.

    PubMed

    Challa, Tenagne Delessa; Beaton, Nigel; Arnold, Myrtha; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Langhans, Wolfgang; Wolfrum, Christian

    2012-02-24

    Increased nutrient intake leads to excessive adipose tissue accumulation, obesity, and the development of associated metabolic disorders. How the intestine signals to adipose tissue to adapt to increased nutrient intake, however, is still not completely understood. We show here, that the gut peptide GLP-1 or its long-lasting analog liraglutide, function as intestinally derived signals to induce adipocyte formation, both in vitro and in vivo. GLP-1 and liraglutide activate the GLP-1R, thereby promoting pre-adipocyte proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. This is achieved at least partly through activation of ERK, PKC, and AKT signaling pathways. In contrast, loss of GLP-1R expression causes reduction in adipogenesis, through induction of apoptosis in pre-adipocytes, by inhibition of the above mentioned pathways. Because GLP-1 and liraglutide are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, these findings implicate GLP-1 as a regulator of adipogenesis, which could be an alternate pathway leading to improved lipid homeostasis and controlled downstream insulin signaling. PMID:22207759

  18. GLP-1 and weight loss: unraveling the diverse neural circuitry.

    PubMed

    Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2016-05-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is currently one of the most promising biological systems for the development of effective obesity pharmacotherapies. Long-acting GLP-1 analogs potently reduce food intake and body weight, and recent discoveries reveal that peripheral administration of these drugs reduces food intake largely through humoral pathways involving direct action on brain GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Thus, it is of critical importance to understand the neural systems through which GLP-1 and long-acting GLP-1 analogs reduce food intake and body weight. In this review, we discuss several neural, physiological, cellular and molecular, as well as behavioral mechanisms through which peripheral and central GLP-1R signaling reduces feeding. Particular attention is devoted to discussion regarding the numerous neural substrates through which GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs act to reduce food intake and body weight, including various hypothalamic nuclei (arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, periventricular hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamic area), hindbrain nuclei (parabrachial nucleus, medial nucleus tractus solitarius), hippocampus (ventral subregion; vHP), and nuclei embedded within the mesolimbic reward circuitry [ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc)]. In some of these nuclei [VTA, NAc, and vHP], GLP-1R activation reduces food intake and body weight without concomitant nausea responses, suggesting that targeting these specific pathways may be of particular interest for future obesity pharmacotherapy. The widely distributed neural systems through which GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs act to reduce body weight highlight the complexity of the neural systems regulating energy balance, as well as the challenges for developing effective obesity pharmacotherapies that reduce feeding without producing parallel negative side effects. PMID:27030669

  19. Modulation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Potency by Endocannabinoid-like Lipids Represents a Novel Mode of Regulating GLP-1 Receptor Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu-Hong; Ho, Mei-Shang; Huang, Wei-Ting; Chou, Ying-Ting; King, Klim

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are in clinical trials for disorders including neurodegenerative diseases. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in many peripheral and neuronal tissues and is activated by circulating GLP-1. Other than food intake, little is known about factors regulating GLP-1 secretion. Given a normally basal circulating level of GLP-1, knowledge of mechanisms regulating GLP-1R signaling, which has diverse functions in extrapancreatic tissues, remains elusive. In this study, we found that the potency of GLP-1, not exendin 4, is specifically enhanced by the endocannabinoid-like lipids oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and 2-oleoylglycerol but not by stearoylethanolamide (SEA) or palmitoylethanolamide. 9.2 μm OEA enhances the potency of GLP-1 in stimulating cAMP production by 10-fold but does not affect its receptor binding affinity. OEA and 2-oleoylglycerol, but not SEA, bind to GLP-1 in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. OEA but not SEA promoted GLP-1(7–36) amide to trypsin inactivation in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. Susceptibility of GLP-1(7–36) amide to trypsin inactivation is increased 40-fold upon binding to OEA but not to SEA. Our findings indicate that OEA binds to GLP-1(7–36) amide and enhances the potency that may result from a conformational change of the peptide. In conclusion, modulating potency of GLP-1 by physiologically regulated endocannabinoid-like lipids allows GLP-1R signaling to be regulated spatiotemporally at a constant basal GLP-1 level. PMID:25903129

  20. Brain GLP-1 and insulin sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type 2 diabetes is often treated with a class of drugs referred to as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs. GLP-1 is a peptide secreted by the gut that acts through only one known receptor, the GLP-1 receptor. The primary function of GLP-1 is thought to be lowering of postprandial glucose levels....

  1. GLP-1 is both anxiogenic and antidepressant; divergent effects of acute and chronic GLP-1 on emotionality.

    PubMed

    Anderberg, Rozita H; Richard, Jennifer E; Hansson, Caroline; Nissbrandt, Hans; Bergquist, Filip; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2016-03-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), produced in the intestine and hindbrain, is known for its glucoregulatory and appetite suppressing effects. GLP-1 agonists are in clinical use for treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. GLP-1, however, may also affect brain areas associated with emotionality regulation. Here we aimed to characterize acute and chronic impact of GLP-1 on anxiety and depression-like behavior. Rats were subjected to anxiety and depression behavior tests following acute or chronic intracerebroventricular or intra-dorsal raphe (DR) application of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Serotonin or serotonin-related genes were also measured in the amygdala, DR and the hippocampus. We demonstrate that both GLP-1 and its long lasting analog, Exendin-4, induce anxiety-like behavior in three rodent tests of this behavior: black and white box, elevated plus maze and open field test when acutely administered intraperitoneally, into the lateral ventricle, or directly into the DR. Acute central GLP-1 receptor stimulation also altered serotonin signaling in the amygdala. In contrast, chronic central administration of Exendin-4 did not alter anxiety-like behavior but significantly reduced depression-like behavior in the forced swim test. Importantly, this positive effect of Exendin-4 was not due to significant body weight loss and reduced food intake, since rats pair-fed to Exendin-4 rats did not show altered mood. Collectively we show a striking impact of central GLP-1 on emotionality and the amygdala serotonin signaling that is divergent under acute versus chronic GLP-1 activation conditions. We also find a novel role for the DR GLP-1 receptors in regulation of behavior. These results may have direct relevance to the clinic, and indicate that Exendin-4 may be especially useful for obese patients manifesting with comorbid depression. PMID:26724568

  2. [Preparation and the biological effect of fusion protein GLP-1-exendin-4/ IgG4(Fc) fusion protein as long acting GLP-1 receptor agonist].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yun-cheng

    2015-12-01

    GLP-1 has a variety of anti-diabetic effects. However, native GLP-1 is not suitable for treatment of diabetes due to its short half-life (t½, 2-5 min). Exendin-4 is a polypeptide isolated from lizard saliva, which can bind to GLP-1 receptor, produce physiological effects similar to GLP-1, t½ up to 2.5 h, therefore, we developed a long-lasting GLP-1 receptor agonists and GLP-1-exendin-4 fusion IgG4 Fc [GLP-1-exendin-4/ IgG4(Fc)]. We constructed the eukaryotic expression vector of human GLP-1-exendin-4/IgG4(Fc)-pOptiVEC- TOPO by gene recombination technique and expressed the fusion protein human GLP-1-IgG4 (Fc) in CHO/DG44 cells. The fusion protein stimulated the INS-1 cells secretion of insulin, GLP-1, exendin-4 and fusion protein in CD1 mice pharmacokinetic experiments, as well as GLP-1, exendin-4 and fusion protein did anti-diabetic effect on streptozotocin induced mice. Results demonstrated that the GLP-1-exendin-4/IgG4(Fc) positive CHO/DG44 clones were chosen and the media from these positive clones. Western blotting showed that one protein band was found to match well with the predicted relative molecular mass of human GLP-1-exendin-4/IgG4(Fc). Insulin RIA showed that GLP-1-exendin-4/IgG4(Fc) dose-dependently stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Pharmacokinetic studies in CD1 mice showed that with intraperitoneal injection (ip), the fusion protein peaked at 30 min in circulation and maintained a plateau for 200 h. Natural biological half-life of exendin-4 was (1.39 ± 0.28) h, GLP-1 in vivo t½ 4 min, indicating that fusion protein has long-lasting effects on the modulation of glucose homeostasis. GLP-1-exendin-4/IgG4(Fc) was found to be effective in reducing the incidence of diabetes in multiple-low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice, longer duration of the biological activity of the fusion protein. The biological activity was significantly higher than that of GLP-1 and exendin-4. GLP-1-exendin-4/IgG4(Fc) has good anti-diabetic activity

  3. Extending residence time and stability of peptides by Protected Graft Copolymer (PGC) excipient: GLP-1 example

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Gerardo M.; Reichstetter, Sandra; Bolotin, Elijah M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine whether a Protected Graft Copolymer (PGC) containing fatty acid can be used as a stabilizing excipient for GLP-1 and whether PGC/GLP-1 given once a week can be an effective treatment for diabetes. Methods To create a PGC excipient, polylysine was grafted with methoxypolyethyleneglycol and fatty acid at the epsilon amino groups. We performed evaluation of 1) the binding of excipient to GLP-1, 2) the DPP IV sensitivity of GLP-1 formulated with PGC as the excipient, 3) the in vitro bio-activity of excipient-formulated GLP-1, 4) the in vivo pharmacokinetics of excipient-formulated GLP-1, and 5) the efficacy of the excipient-formulated GLP-1 in diabetic rats. Results We showed reproducible synthesis of PGC excipient, showed high affinity binding of PGC to GLP-1, slowed protease degradation of excipient-formulated GLP-1, and showed that excipient-formulated GLP-1 induced calcium influx in INS cells. Excipient-formulated GLP-1 stays in the blood for at least 4 days. When excipient-formulated GLP-1 was given subcutaneously once a week to diabetic ZDF rats, a significant reduction of HbA1c compared to control was observed. The reduction is similar to diabetic ZDF rats given exendin twice a day. Conclusions PGC can be an ideal in vivo stabilizing excipient for biologically labile peptides. PMID:21830140

  4. Inositolphosphoglycans possibly mediate the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide on rat liver and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Márquez, L; Trapote, M A; Luque, M A; Valverde, I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L

    1998-03-01

    Insulin-like effects of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) in rat liver, skeletal muscle and fat, and also the presence of GLP-1 receptors in these extrapancreatic tissues, have been documented. In skeletal muscle and liver, the action of GLP-1 is not associated with an activation of adenylate cyclase, and in cultured murine myocytes and hepatoma cell lines, it was found that GLP-1 provokes the generation of inositolphosphoglycan molecules (IPGs), which are considered second messengers of insulin action. In the present work, we document in isolated normal rat adipocytes and hepatocytes that GLP-1 exerts a rapid decrease of the radiolabelled glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs)--precursors of IPGs--in the same manner as insulin, indicating their hydrolysis and the immediate short-lived generation of IPGs. Thus, IPGs could be mediators in the GLP-1 actions in adipose tissue and liver, as well as in skeletal muscle, through GLP-1 receptors which are, at least functionally, different from that of the pancreatic B-cell. PMID:9580153

  5. Rice protein hydrolysates stimulate GLP-1 secretion, reduce GLP-1 degradation, and lower the glycemic response in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Hira, Tohru; Inoue, Daisuke; Harada, Yukikazu; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Mikio; Kadowaki, Motoni; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Rice has historically been consumed in Asia as a major source of carbohydrates, however, little is known regarding the functional roles of rice proteins as dietary factors. In the present study, we investigated whether peptides derived from rice proteins could stimulate GLP-1 secretion, which results in reducing glycemia via the incretin effect in normal rats. Hydrolysates were prepared from the protein fraction of rice endosperm or rice bran, and the effects of these hydrolysates on GLP-1 secretion were examined in a murine enteroendocrine cell line GLUTag. Plasma was collected after oral administration of the rice protein hydrolysates, under anesthesia, or during glucose tolerance tests in rats. In anesthetized rats, plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity was measured after ileal administration of the rice protein hydrolysates. GLP-1 secretion from GLUTag cells was potently stimulated by the rice protein hydrolysates, especially by the peptic digest of rice endosperm protein (REPH) and that of rice bran protein (RBPH). Oral administration of REPH or RBPH elevated plasma GLP-1 concentrations, which resulted in the reduction of glycemia under the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. In addition, the plasma DPP-IV activity was attenuated after ileal administration of REPH or RBPH, which resulted in a higher ratio of intact (active) GLP-1 to total GLP-1 in the plasma. These results demonstrate that rice proteins exert potent stimulatory effects on GLP-1 secretion, which could contribute to the reduction of postprandial glycemia. The inhibitory effect of these peptides on the plasma DPP-IV activity may potentiate the incretin effect of GLP-1. PMID:26107658

  6. GLP-1 and GLP-2 as Yin and Yang of Intestinal Lipoprotein Production

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Gustavo J.; Baker, Chris; Hsieh, Joanne; Farr, Sarah; Adeli, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2) are processed from the proglucagon polypeptide and secreted in equimolar amounts but have opposite effects on chylomicron (CM) production, with GLP-1 significantly reducing and GLP-2 increasing postprandial chylomicronemia. In the current study, we evaluated the apparent paradoxical roles of GLP-1 and GLP-2 under physiological conditions in the Syrian golden hamster, a model with close similarity to humans in terms of lipoprotein metabolism. A short (30-min) intravenous infusion of GLP-2 resulted in a marked increase in postprandial apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48) and triglyceride (TG) levels in the TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction, whereas GLP-1 infusion decreased lipid absorption and levels of TRL-TG and apoB48. GLP-1 and GLP-2 coinfusion resulted in net increased lipid absorption and an increase in TRL-TG and apoB48. However, prolonged (120-min) coinfusion of GLP-1 and GLP-2 decreased postprandial lipemia. Blocking dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity resulted in decreased postprandial lipemia. Interestingly, fructose-fed, insulin-resistant hamsters showed a more pronounced response, including possible hypersensitivity to GLP-2 or reduced sensitivity to GLP-1. In conclusion, under normal physiological conditions, the actions of GLP-2 predominate; however, when GLP-1 activity is sustained, the hypolipidemic action of GLP-1 predominates. Pharmacological inhibition of GLP-1 degradation tips the balance toward an inhibitory effect on intestinal production of atherogenic CM particles. PMID:23028139

  7. A bitter pill for type 2 diabetes? The activation of bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 can stimulate GLP-1 release from enteroendocrine L-cells

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hung; Hui, Hongxiang; Morvaridi, Susan; Cai, Jiena; Zhang, Sanqi; Tan, Jun; Wu, Vincent; Levin, Nancy; Knudsen, Beatrice; Goddard, William A.; Pandol, Stephen J.; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been found in many extra-oral locations like the gastrointestinal (GI) system, respiratory system, and brain, though its function at these locations is only beginning to be understood. To probe the receptor’s potential metabolic role, immunohistochemistry of human ileum tissues was performed, which showed that the receptor was co-localized with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in L-cells. In a previous study, we had modeled the structure of this receptor for its many taste-variant haplotypes (Tan et al. 2011), including the taster haplotype PAV. The structure of this haplotype was then used in a virtual ligand screening pipeline using a collection of ~2.5 million purchasable molecules from the ZINC database. Three compounds (Z7, Z3, Z1) were purchased from the top hits and tested along with PTU (known TAS2R38 agonist) in in vitro and in vivo assays. The dose-response study of the effect of PTU and Z7 on GLP-1 release using wild-type and TAS2R38 knockout HuTu-80 cells showed that the receptor TAS2R38 plays a major role in GLP-1 release due to these molecules. In vivo studies of PTU and the three compounds showed that they each increase GLP-1 release. PTU was also chemical linked to cellulose to slow its absorption and when tested in vivo, it showed an enhanced and prolonged GLP-1 release. These results suggest that the GI lumen location of TAS2R38 on the L-cell makes it a relatively safe drug target as systemic absorption is not needed for a TAS2R38 agonist drug to effect GLP-1 release. PMID:27208775

  8. A bitter pill for type 2 diabetes? The activation of bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 can stimulate GLP-1 release from enteroendocrine L-cells.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hung; Hui, Hongxiang; Morvaridi, Susan; Cai, Jiena; Zhang, Sanqi; Tan, Jun; Wu, Vincent; Levin, Nancy; Knudsen, Beatrice; Goddard, William A; Pandol, Stephen J; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-07-01

    The bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been found in many extra-oral locations like the gastrointestinal (GI) system, respiratory system, and brain, though its function at these locations is only beginning to be understood. To probe the receptor's potential metabolic role, immunohistochemistry of human ileum tissues was performed, which showed that the receptor was co-localized with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in L-cells. In a previous study, we had modeled the structure of this receptor for its many taste-variant haplotypes (Tan et al. 2011), including the taster haplotype PAV. The structure of this haplotype was then used in a virtual ligand screening pipeline using a collection of ∼2.5 million purchasable molecules from the ZINC database. Three compounds (Z7, Z3, Z1) were purchased from the top hits and tested along with PTU (known TAS2R38 agonist) in in vitro and in vivo assays. The dose-response study of the effect of PTU and Z7 on GLP-1 release using wild-type and TAS2R38 knockout HuTu-80 cells showed that the receptor TAS2R38 plays a major role in GLP-1 release due to these molecules. In vivo studies of PTU and the three compounds showed that they each increase GLP-1 release. PTU was also chemical linked to cellulose to slow its absorption and when tested in vivo, it showed an enhanced and prolonged GLP-1 release. These results suggest that the GI lumen location of TAS2R38 on the L-cell makes it a relatively safe drug target as systemic absorption is not needed for a TAS2R38 agonist drug to effect GLP-1 release. PMID:27208775

  9. Inositolphosphoglycans are possible mediators of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36)amide action in the liver.

    PubMed

    Trapote, M A; Clemente, F; Galera, C; Morales, M; Alcántara, A I; López-Delgado, M I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L; Valverde, I

    1996-02-01

    A potent glycogenic effect for GLP-1(7-36)amide has been found in rat hepatocytes and skeletal muscle, and the specific receptors detected for GLP-1(7-36)amide in these tissue membranes do not seem to be associated to adenylate cyclase. On the other hand, inositolphosphoglycan molecules (IPGs) have been implicated as second messengers in the action of insulin. In a human hepatoma cell line (HEP G-2), we have observed the presence of [125I]GLP-1(7-36)amide specific binding, and a stimulatory effect of the peptide upon glycogen synthesis, confirming the findings in isolated rat hepatocytes. Also, GLP-1(7-36)amide modulates the cell content of radiolabelled glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs), in the same manner as insulin, indicating hydrolysis of GPIs and an immediate and short-lived generation of IPGs. Thus, IPGs could be mediators in the GLP-1(7-36)amide glycogenic action in the liver. PMID:8778163

  10. Hippocampal GLP-1 Receptors Influence Food Intake, Meal Size, and Effort-Based Responding for Food through Volume Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ted M; Hahn, Joel D; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Lam, Ashley; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the small intestines and in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons. Activation of central GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) reduces feeding and body weight. The neural circuits mediating these effects are only partially understood. Here we investigate the inhibition of food intake and motivated responding for food in rats following GLP-1R activation in the ventral hippocampal formation (HPFv), a region only recently highlighted in food intake control. Increased HPFv GLP-1R activity following exendin-4 administration potently reduced food intake (both chow and Western diet) and body weight, whereas HPFv GLP-1R blockade increased food intake. These hypophagic effects were based on reduced meal size, and likely do not involve nausea as HPFv exendin-4 did not induce a conditioned flavor avoidance. HPFv GLP-1R activation also reduced effort-based responding for food under an operant progressive ratio reinforcement schedule, but did not affect food conditioned place preference expression. To investigate possible routes of HPFv GLP-1 signaling, immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of GLP-1 axon terminals in the HPFv, suggesting volume transmission as a mechanism of action. Consistent with this, the presence of active GLP-1 was detected in both the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the HPFv. The source of CSF GLP-1 may be NTS GLP-1-producing neurons, as, (1) ∼30% of NTS GLP-1 neurons colocalized with the retrograde tracer fluorogold (FG) following lateral ventricle FG injection, and (2) GLP-1-immunoreactive axon terminals were observed adjacent to the ventricular ependymal layer. Collectively these findings illuminate novel neuronal and behavioral mechanisms mediating food intake reduction by GLP-1. PMID:25035078

  11. Induction of Energy Expenditure by Sitagliptin Is Dependent on GLP-1 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Felicia; Keenan, Michael J; Raggio, Anne M; Ye, Xin; Hao, Zheng; Durham, Holiday; Geaghan, James; Jia, Weiping; Martin, Roy J; Ye, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Sitagliptin (SG) increases serum GLP-1 (Glucagon-like peptide-1) through inhibition of the hormone degradation. Resistant starch (RS) induces GLP-1 expression by stimulating L-cells in the intestine. Sitagliptin and resistant starch may have a synergistic interaction in the induction of GLP-1. This possibility was tested in current study in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Hyperglycemia was induced in the diet-induced obese mice by a signal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Sitagliptin (0.4g/100g diet) was tested in the mice (n = 55) with dietary RS (HAM-RS2) at three dosages (0, 15, or 28g/100g diet). Energy and glucose metabolism were monitored in the evaluation of synergistic activity, and GLP-1 activity was determined in the GLP-1 receptor knockout (KO) mice. In the wild type mice, body weight and adiposity were reduced by sitagliptin, which was enhanced by RS (28g). Serum GLP-1 was induced and energy expenditure was enhanced by sitagliptin. Fasting glucose, insulin, and leptin levels were decreased by sitagliptin. The sitagliptin effects were lost in the KO mice (n = 25) although induction of serum GLP-1 by sitagliptin was even stronger in KO mice. The data suggests that sitagliptin is able to reduce adiposity and insulin resistance through induction of energy expenditure. The effect of sitagliptin is partially enhanced by RS. GLP-1 receptor may regulate serum GLP-1 by facilitating the hormone clearance. PMID:25938560

  12. Pancreatic and extrapancreatic effects of GLP-1.

    PubMed

    Valverde, I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L; Malaisse, W J

    2002-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone which helps to regulate plasma glucose levels, is considered a potential agent for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus, because of its insulinotropic capacity and insulinomimetic actions. In normal conditions, the beta-cell secretory response to GLP-1 is modulated by the extracellular concentration of D-glucose; however, the recognition of D-glucose by the beta-cell is often impaired in type-2 diabetes, and this could impede the full GLP-1 insulinotropic action. Non-glucidic substrates, such as the dimethyl ester of succinic acid, restore the effect of GLP-1 in the isolated perfused rat pancreas of normal or diabetic rats, in the absence of any other exogenous nutrient; likewise, the dimethyl ester of succinic or L-glutamic acid, and the monomethyl ester of pyruvic acid, potentiate the in vivo beta-cell secretory response to GLP-1 in normal and diabetic rats. Therefore, it was proposed that nutrients susceptible to bypass the site-specific defects of the diabetic beta-cell, could be used to potentiate and/or prolong the insulinotropic action of antidiabetic agents such as GLP-1. In vitro, GLP-1 insulin-like effects on glucose metabolism have been documented in normal and diabetic rat liver, and in rat and human skeletal muscle. In rat and human adipocytes, GLP-1 is lipolytic and/or lipogenic, and also stimulates parameters involved in the glucose metabolism. In liver, muscle and fat, GLP-1 seems to act through specific receptors, apparently different--at least in liver and muscle--in structure or signaling pathway from the pancreatic one. It is proposed that an inositolphosphoglycan might be a second messenger of GLP-1 action in extrapancreatic tissues. PMID:12688638

  13. Conservation of glp-1 regulation and function in nematodes.

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, D; Kimble, J

    2001-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce) glp-1 gene encodes a Notch-like receptor. We have cloned glp-1 from C. briggsae (Cb) and C. remanei (Cr), two Caenorhabditis species that have diverged from C. elegans by roughly 20-40 million years. By sequence analysis, we find that the Cb-GLP-1 and Cr-GLP-1 proteins have retained the same motif architecture as Ce-GLP-1, including number of domains. In addition, two regions (CC-linker and regions flanking the ANK repeats) are as highly conserved as regions previously recognized as essential for signaling (e.g., ANK repeats). Phylogenetic analysis of glp-1 sequences suggests a C. briggsae/C. remanei clade with C. elegans as a sister taxon. Using RNAi to test biological functions, we find that Ce-glp-1, Cb-glp-1, and Cr-glp-1 are all required for proliferation of germline stem cells and for specifying blastomere fates in the embryo. In addition, certain biological roles of Cb-glp-1, e.g., in the vulva, have diverged from those of Ce-glp-1 and Cr-glp-1, suggesting a change in either regulation or function of the Cb-glp-1 gene during evolution. Finally, the regulation of glp-1 mRNA, previously analyzed for Ce-glp-1, is conserved in Cb-glp-1, and we identify conserved 3' UTR sequences that may serve as regulatory elements. PMID:11156985

  14. A Novel GLP1 Receptor Interacting Protein ATP6ap2 Regulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Feihan F; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Liu, Ying; Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinye Serena; Huang, Xinyi; Luu, Lemieux; Zhu, Dan; Gaisano, Herbert; Wheeler, Michael B

    2015-10-01

    GLP1 activates its receptor, GLP1R, to enhance insulin secretion. The activation and transduction of GLP1R requires complex interactions with a host of accessory proteins, most of which remain largely unknown. In this study, we used membrane-based split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid assays to identify novel GLP1R interactors in both mouse and human islets. Among these, ATP6ap2 (ATPase H(+)-transporting lysosomal accessory protein 2) was identified in both mouse and human islet screens. ATP6ap2 was shown to be abundant in islets including both alpha and beta cells. When GLP1R and ATP6ap2 were co-expressed in beta cells, GLP1R was shown to directly interact with ATP6ap2, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. In INS-1 cells, overexpression of ATP6ap2 did not affect insulin secretion; however, siRNA knockdown decreased both glucose-stimulated and GLP1-induced insulin secretion. Decreases in GLP1-induced insulin secretion were accompanied by attenuated GLP1 stimulated cAMP accumulation. Because ATP6ap2 is a subunit required for V-ATPase assembly of insulin granules, it has been reported to be involved in granule acidification. In accordance with this, we observed impaired insulin granule acidification upon ATP6ap2 knockdown but paradoxically increased proinsulin secretion. Importantly, as a GLP1R interactor, ATP6ap2 was required for GLP1-induced Ca(2+) influx, in part explaining decreased insulin secretion in ATP6ap2 knockdown cells. Taken together, our findings identify a group of proteins that interact with the GLP1R. We further show that one interactor, ATP6ap2, plays a novel dual role in beta cells, modulating both GLP1R signaling and insulin processing to affect insulin secretion. PMID:26272612

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Natural Putative Secretagogues of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1)

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Eamon P.; Wylie, Alastair R.; Elliott, Chris T.; Chevallier, Olivier P.; Grieve, David J.; Green, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an intestinal hormone with well-established glucose-lowering activity. The in vitro and in vivo actions of natural putative secretagogues of GLP-1 were investigated. The acute GLP-1 releasing activity of olive leaf extract (OLE), glutamine (GLN), alpha casein (ACAS), beta casein (BCAS) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) were assessed in STC-1 cells and C57BL/6 mice. All compounds except ACAS significantly increased acute in vitro GLP-1 secretion (66–386%; P<0.05–0.001). Oral gavage of OLE and GLN modestly increased plasma GLP-1 concentrations (48% and 41%, respectively), but did not lower glycaemic excursions. OLE and GLN are potent stimulators of GLP-1 secretion both in vitro and in vivo and chronic studies should assess their suitability as nutritional therapies for type 2 diabetes. PMID:21886907

  16. GLP-1 promotes mitochondrial metabolism in vascular smooth muscle cells by enhancing endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria coupling.

    PubMed

    Morales, Pablo E; Torres, Gloria; Sotomayor-Flores, Cristian; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Rivera-Mejías, Pablo; Paredes, Felipe; Chiong, Mario

    2014-03-28

    Incretin GLP-1 has important metabolic effects on several tissues, mainly through the regulation of glucose uptake and usage. One mechanism for increasing cell metabolism is modulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria communication, as it allows for a more efficient transfer of Ca(2+) into the mitochondria, thereby increasing activity. Control of glucose metabolism is essential for proper vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function. GLP-1 has been shown to produce varied metabolic actions, but whether it regulates glucose metabolism in VSMC remains unknown. In this report, we show that GLP-1 increases mitochondrial activity in the aortic cell line A7r5 by increasing ER-mitochondria coupling. GLP-1 increases intracellular glucose and diminishes glucose uptake without altering glycogen content. ATP, mitochondrial potential and oxygen consumption increase at 3h of GLP-1 treatment, paralleled by increased Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to the mitochondria. Furthermore, GLP-1 increases levels of Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), an ER-mitochondria tethering protein, via a PKA-dependent mechanism. Accordingly, PKA inhibition and Mfn2 down-regulation prevented mitochondrial Ca(2+) increases in GLP-1 treated cells. Inhibiting both Ca(2+) release from the ER and Ca(2+) entry into mitochondria as well as diminishing Mfn2 levels blunted the increase in mitochondrial activity in response to GLP-1. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that GLP-1 increases ER-mitochondria communication in VSMC, resulting in higher mitochondrial activity. PMID:24613839

  17. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose metabolism in human myocytes.

    PubMed

    Luque, M A; González, N; Márquez, L; Acitores, A; Redondo, A; Morales, M; Valverde, I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L

    2002-06-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to have insulin-like effects upon the metabolism of glucose in rat liver, muscle and fat, and on that of lipids in rat and human adipocytes. These actions seem to be exerted through specific receptors which, unlike that of the pancreas, are not - at least in liver and muscle - cAMP-associated. Here we have investigated the effect, its characteristics, and possible second messengers of GLP-1 on the glucose metabolism of human skeletal muscle, in tissue strips and primary cultured myocytes. In muscle strips, GLP-1, like insulin, stimulated glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthase a activity, and glucose oxidation and utilization, and inhibited glycogen phosphorylase a activity, all of this at physiological concentrations of the peptide. In cultured myotubes, GLP-1 exerted, from 10(-13) mol/l, a dose-related increase of the D-[U-(14)C]glucose incorporation into glycogen, with the same potency as insulin, together with an activation of glycogen synthase a; the effect of 10(-11) mol/l GLP-1 on both parameters was additive to that induced by the equimolar amount of insulin. Synthase a was still activated in cells after 2 days of exposure to GLP-1, as compared with myotubes maintained in the absence of peptide. In human muscle cells, exendin-4 and its truncated form 9-39 amide (Ex-9) are both agonists of the GLP-1 effect on glycogen synthesis and synthase a activity; but while neither GLP-1 nor exendin-4 affected the cellular cAMP content after 5-min incubation in the absence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxantine (IBMX), an increase was detected with Ex-9. GLP-1, exendin-4, Ex-9 and insulin all induced the prompt hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs). This work shows a potent stimulatory effect of GLP-1 on the glucose metabolism of human skeletal muscle, and supports the long-term therapeutic value of the peptide. Further evidence for a GLP-1 receptor in this tissue, different from that of the pancreas, is also illustrated

  18. Hindbrain GLP-1 receptor mediation of cisplatin-induced anorexia and nausea.

    PubMed

    De Jonghe, Bart C; Holland, Ruby A; Olivos, Diana R; Rupprecht, Laura E; Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    While chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are clinically controlled in the acute (<24 h) phase following treatment, the anorexia, nausea, fatigue, and other illness-type behaviors during the delayed phase (>24 h) of chemotherapy are largely uncontrolled. As the hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system contributes to energy balance and mediates aversive and stressful stimuli, here we examine the hypothesis that hindbrain GLP-1 signaling mediates aspects of chemotherapy-induced nausea and reductions in feeding behavior in rats. Specifically, hindbrain GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) blockade, via 4th intracerebroventricular (ICV) exendin-(9-39) injections, attenuates the anorexia, body weight reduction, and pica (nausea-induced ingestion of kaolin clay) elicited by cisplatin chemotherapy during the delayed phase (48 h) of chemotherapy-induced nausea. Additionally, the present data provide evidence that the central GLP-1-producing preproglucagon neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the caudal brainstem are activated by cisplatin during the delayed phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as cisplatin led to a significant increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in NTS GLP-1-immunoreactive neurons. These data support a growing body of literature suggesting that the central GLP-1 system may be a potential pharmaceutical target for adjunct anti-emetics used to treat the delayed-phase of nausea and emesis, anorexia, and body weight loss that accompany chemotherapy treatments. PMID:26522737

  19. CNS GLP-1 Regulation of Peripheral Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Darleen

    2008-01-01

    Current models hold that peripheral and CNS GLP-1 signaling operate as distinct systems whereby CNS GLP-1 regulates food intake and circulating GLP-1 regulates glucose homeostasis. There is accumulating evidence that the arcuate nucleus, an area of the CNS that regulates energy homeostasis, responds to hormones and nutrients to regulate glucose homeostasis as well. Recent data suggest that GLP-1 may be another signal acting on the arcuate to regulate glucose homeostasis challenging the conventional model of GLP-1 physiology. This review discusses the peripheral and central GLP-1 systems and presents a model whereby these systems are integrated in regulation of glucose homeostasis. PMID:18508100

  20. Neuroprotective effects of (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL in the MPTP Parkinson's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, YanFang; Chen, YiMei; Li, Lin; Hölscher, Christian

    2015-10-15

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone and a growth factor. GLP-1 mimetics are currently on the market as treatments for type 2 diabetes. They also have shown neuroprotective properties in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown protective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), and a first clinical trial in PD patients showed promising results. (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL is a new GLP-1 analogue which has a longer biological half-life than exendin-4. We previously showed that (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL has neuroprotective properties. Here we tested the drug in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. MPTP was injected (30mg/kg i.p.) along with (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL (25nmol/kg i.p.) once-daily for 8 days. (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL showed good effects in preventing the MPTP-induced motor impairment (Rotarod, open field locomotion, swim test), reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase levels (dopamine synthesis) in the substantia nigra, a reduction of activated caspase 3 levels, of TUNEL positive cell numbers, of the pro-apoptotic signaling molecule BAX and an increase in the growth signaling molecule Bcl-2. The results demonstrate that (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL shows promise as a novel treatment of PD. PMID:26187689

  1. Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 Is a Functional Part of the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Receptor Complex in Pancreatic β Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Robitaille, Mélanie; Showalter, Aaron D.; Huang, Xinyi; Liu, Ying; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Willard, Francis S.; Han, Junfeng; Froese, Sean; Wei, Li; Gaisano, Herbert Y.; Angers, Stéphane; Sloop, Kyle W.; Dai, Feihan F.; Wheeler, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that regulates glucose homeostasis. Because of their direct stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells, GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are now important therapeutic options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. To better understand the mechanisms that control the insulinotropic actions of GLP-1, affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) were employed to uncover potential proteins that functionally interact with the GLP-1R. AP-MS performed on Chinese hamster ovary cells or MIN6 β cells, both expressing the human GLP-1R, revealed 99 proteins potentially associated with the GLP-1R. Three novel GLP-1R interactors (PGRMC1, Rab5b, and Rab5c) were further validated through co-immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and immunofluorescence. Functional studies revealed that overexpression of PGRMC1, a novel cell surface receptor that associated with liganded GLP-1R, enhanced GLP-1-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) with the most robust effect. Knockdown of PGRMC1 in β cells decreased GIIS, indicative of positive interaction with GLP-1R. To gain insight mechanistically, we demonstrated that the cell surface PGRMC1 ligand P4-BSA increased GIIS, whereas its antagonist AG-205 decreased GIIS. It was then found that PGRMC1 increased GLP-1-induced cAMP accumulation. PGRMC1 activation and GIIS induced by P4-BSA could be blocked by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase/EPAC signaling or the EGF receptor–PI3K signal transduction pathway. These data reveal a dual mechanism for PGRMC1-increased GIIS mediated through cAMP and EGF receptor signaling. In conclusion, we identified several novel GLP-1R interacting proteins. PGRMC1 expressed on the cell surface of β cells was shown to interact with the activated GLP-1R to enhance the insulinotropic actions of GLP-1. PMID:25044020

  2. GLP1 protects cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis via Akt/GSK3b/b-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Ying; Zhu, Huazhang; Liang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaosong; Li, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Activation of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by saturated palmitic acids contributes to cardiac dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Beta-catenin (b-catenin) is a transcriptional regulator of several genes involved in survival/anti-apoptosis. However, its role in palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unclear. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) has been shown to exhibit potential cardioprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the role of b-catenin signalling in palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of GLP1 on palmitate-stressed cardiomyocytes. Exposure of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to palmitate increased the fatty acid transporter CD36-mediated intracellular lipid accumulation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, decreased accumulation and nuclear translocation of active b-catenin, and reduced expression of b-catenin target protein survivin and BCL2. These detrimental effects of palmitate were significantly attenuated by GLP1 co-treatment. However, the anti-apoptotic effects of GLP1 were markedly abolished when b-catenin was silenced with a specific short hairpin RNA. Furthermore, analysis of the upstream molecules and mechanisms responsible for GLP1-associated cardiac protection revealed that GLP1 restored the decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK3b) in palmitate-stimulated cardiomyocytes. In contrast, inhibition of Akt with an Akt-specific inhibitor MK2206 or blockade of GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) with a competitive antagonist exendin-(9–39) significantly abrogated the GLP1-mediated activation of GSK3b/b-catenin signalling, leading to increased apoptosis in palmitate-stressed cardiomyocytes. Collectively, our results demonstrated for the first time that the attenuated b-catenin signalling may contribute to palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while GLP1 can protect cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis through

  3. Liraglutide protects cardiac microvascular endothelial cells against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury through the suppression of the SR-Ca(2+)-XO-ROS axis via activation of the GLP-1R/PI3K/Akt/survivin pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Hao; Wu, Wenbo; Shi, Chen; Hu, Shunying; Yin, Tong; Ma, Qiang; Han, Tianwen; Zhang, Yingqian; Tian, Feng; Chen, Yundai

    2016-06-01

    Microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) oxidative damage resulting from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury is responsible for microcirculation perfusion disturbances and the progression of cardiac dysfunction. However, few strategies are available to reverse such pathologies. Here, we studied the effects and mechanisms of liraglutide on CEMCs oxidative damage, focusing in particular on calcium overload-triggered free radical injury signals and the GLP-1R/PI3K/Akt/survivin survival pathways. The results indicate that H/R increased IP3R expression but reduced SERCA2a expression, which rapidly raised intracellular Ca(2+) levels, subsequently leading to Ca(2+)-dependent xanthine oxidase (XO) activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the cellular apoptosis of CMECs. However, liraglutide pretreatment abrogated Ca(2+)-mediated oxidative apoptosis. Furthermore, liraglutide regulated the rate of IP3R/SERCA2a gene transcription and conserved SERCA2a-ATPase activity via the maintenance of ATP production under H/R, which drove excessive Ca(2+) reflux to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and inhibited Ca(2+) release from the SR, ultimately restoring Ca(2+) homeostasis. Furthermore, the regulatory role of liraglutide on Ca(2+) balance in conjunction with its up-regulation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase collectively scavenged the excess ROS under H/R. Moreover, we showed that liraglutide strengthened Akt phosphorylation and subsequently survivin expression. In addition, both the blockade of the GLP-1R/PI3K/Akt pathways and the siRNA-mediated knockdown of survivin abolished the protective effects of liraglutide on SR-Ca(2+) function and CMECs oxidative apoptosis. In summary, this study confirmed that H/R induced CMECs oxidative damage through the SR-Ca(2+)-XO-ROS injury signals and that liraglutide pretreatment may suppress such CMECs damage through the PI3K/Akt/survivin pathways. PMID:27038735

  4. Functional coupling of Cys-226 and Cys-296 in the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor indicates a disulfide bond that is close to the activation pocket.

    PubMed

    Mann, Rosalind J; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; de Maturana, Rakel López; Sinfield, John K; Donnelly, Dan

    2010-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane α-helical (7TM) integral membrane proteins that play a central role in both cell signaling and in the action of many pharmaceuticals. The crystal structures of several Family A GPCRs have shown the presence of a disulfide bond linking transmembrane helix 3 (TM3) to the second extracellular loop (ECL2), enabling ECL2 to stabilize and contribute to the ligand binding pocket. Family B GPCRs share no significant sequence identity with those in Family A but nevertheless share two conserved cysteines in topologically equivalent positions. Since there are no available crystal structures for the 7TM domain of any Family B GPCR, we used mutagenesis alongside pharmacological analysis to investigate the role of ECL2 and the conserved cysteine residues. We mutated Cys-226, at the extracellular end of TM3 of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor, to alanine and observed a 38-fold reduction in GLP-1 potency. Interestingly, this potency loss was restored by the additional substitution of Cys-296 in ECL2 to alanine. Alongside the complete conservation of these cysteine residues in Family B GPCRs, this functional coupling suggested the presence of a disulfide bond. Further mutagenesis demonstrated that the low potency observed at the C226A mutant, compared with the C226A-C296A double mutant, was the result of the bulky nature of the released Cys-296 side chain. Since this suggested that ECL2 was in close proximity to the agonist activation pocket, an alanine scan of ECL2 was carried out which confirmed the important role of this loop in agonist-induced receptor activation. PMID:20869417

  5. Myocardial regeneration in adriamycin cardiomyopathy by nuclear expression of GLP1 using ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuyuan; Chen, Jiaxi; Huang, Pintong; Meng, Xing-Li; Clayton, Sandra; Shen, Jin-Song; Grayburn, Paul A.

    2015-03-20

    Recently GLP-1 was found to have cardioprotective effects independent of those attributable to tight glycemic control. Methods and results: We employed ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) to deliver piggybac transposon plasmids encoding the GLP-1 gene with a nuclear localizing signal to rat hearts with adriamycin cardiomyopathy. After a single UTMD treatment, overexpression of transgenic GLP-1 was found in nuclei of rat heart cells with evidence that transfected cardiac cells had undergone proliferation. UTMD-GLP-1 gene therapy restored LV mass, fractional shortening index, and LV posterior wall diameter to nearly normal. Nuclear overexpression of GLP-1 by inducing phosphorylation of FoxO1-S256 and translocation of FoxO1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm significantly inactivated FoxO1 and activated the expression of cyclin D1 in nuclei of cardiac muscle cells. Reversal of adriamycin cardiomyopathy appeared to be mediated by dedifferentiation and proliferation of nuclear FoxO1-positive cardiac muscle cells with evidence of embryonic stem cell markers (OCT4, Nanog, SOX2 and c-kit), cardiac early differentiation markers (NKX2.5 and ISL-1) and cellular proliferation markers (BrdU and PHH3) after UTMD with GLP-1 gene therapy. Conclusions: Intranuclear myocardial delivery of the GLP-1gene can reverse established adriamycin cardiomyopathy by stimulating myocardial regeneration. - Highlights: • The activation of nuclear FoxO1 in cardiac muscle cells associated with adriamycin cardiomyopathy. • Myocardial nuclear GLP-1 stimulates myocardial regeneration and reverses adriamycin cardiomyopathy. • The process of myocardial regeneration associated with dedifferentiation and proliferation.

  6. GLP-1(32-36)amide Pentapeptide Increases Basal Energy Expenditure and Inhibits Weight Gain in Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Eva; Stanojevic, Violeta; McManus, Karen; Khatri, Ashok; Everill, Paul; Bachovchin, William W; Habener, Joel F

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity-related diabetes is increasing worldwide. Here we report the identification of a pentapeptide, GLP-1(32-36)amide (LVKGRamide), derived from the glucoincretin hormone GLP-1, that increases basal energy expenditure and curtails the development of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. The pentapeptide inhibited weight gain, reduced fat mass without change in energy intake, and increased basal energy expenditure independent of physical activity. Analyses of tissues from peptide-treated mice reveal increased expression of UCP-1 and UCP-3 in brown adipose tissue and increased UCP-3 and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in skeletal muscle, findings consistent with increased fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis. In palmitate-treated C2C12 skeletal myotubes, GLP-1(32-36)amide activated AMPK and inhibited acetyl-CoA carboxylase, suggesting activation of fat metabolism in response to energy depletion. By mass spectroscopy, the pentapeptide is rapidly formed from GLP-1(9-36)amide, the major form of GLP-1 in the circulation of mice. These findings suggest that the reported insulin-like actions of GLP-1 receptor agonists that occur independently of the GLP-1 receptor might be mediated by the pentapeptide, and the previously reported nonapeptide (FIAWLVKGRamide). We propose that by increasing basal energy expenditure, GLP-1(32-36)amide might be a useful treatment for human obesity and associated metabolic disorders. PMID:25858562

  7. GLP-1(32-36)amide Pentapeptide Increases Basal Energy Expenditure and Inhibits Weight Gain in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tomas, Eva; Stanojevic, Violeta; McManus, Karen; Khatri, Ashok; Everill, Paul; Bachovchin, William W.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity-related diabetes is increasing worldwide. Here we report the identification of a pentapeptide, GLP-1(32-36)amide (LVKGRamide), derived from the glucoincretin hormone GLP-1, that increases basal energy expenditure and curtails the development of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. The pentapeptide inhibited weight gain, reduced fat mass without change in energy intake, and increased basal energy expenditure independent of physical activity. Analyses of tissues from peptide-treated mice reveal increased expression of UCP-1 and UCP-3 in brown adipose tissue and increased UCP-3 and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in skeletal muscle, findings consistent with increased fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis. In palmitate-treated C2C12 skeletal myotubes, GLP-1(32-36)amide activated AMPK and inhibited acetyl-CoA carboxylase, suggesting activation of fat metabolism in response to energy depletion. By mass spectroscopy, the pentapeptide is rapidly formed from GLP-1(9-36)amide, the major form of GLP-1 in the circulation of mice. These findings suggest that the reported insulin-like actions of GLP-1 receptor agonists that occur independently of the GLP-1 receptor might be mediated by the pentapeptide, and the previously reported nonapeptide (FIAWLVKGRamide). We propose that by increasing basal energy expenditure, GLP-1(32-36)amide might be a useful treatment for human obesity and associated metabolic disorders. PMID:25858562

  8. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in the gastrointestinal tract of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Pirone, Andrea; Ding, Bao An; Giannessi, Elisabetta; Coli, Alessandra; Stornelli, Maria Rita; di Cossato, Margherita Marzoni Fecia; Piano, Ilaria; Lenzi, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The distribution of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was investigated in the gastrointestinal tract of the pheasant using immunohistochemistry. GLP-1 immunoreactive cells were common in the small intestine, in the proventriculus and in the pancreas. Immunostained cells were not seen in the crop, in the gizzard and in the large intestine. Double labelling demonstrated that GLP-1 and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were occasionally co-localized only in the duodenal villi. In contrast to what was previously described in the chicken and ostrich, we noted GLP-1 positive cells in the duodenum. These data were consistent with the presence of proglucagon mRNA in the chicken duodenum. Our findings indicate that GLP-1 might have an inhibitory effect on gastric and crop emptying and on acid secretion also in the pheasant. Moreover, the results of the present research regarding the initial region of the small intestine suggest a further direct mechanism of the GLP-1 release during the early digestion phase and an enhancement of its incretin role. PMID:22036174

  9. Removal of Duodenum Elicits GLP-1 Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Mezza, Teresa; Prioletta, Annamaria; Sorice, Gian Pio; Clemente, Gennaro; Sarno, Gerardo; Nuzzo, Gennaro; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Holst, Jens J.; Giaccari, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of removal of the duodenum on the complex interplay between incretins, insulin, and glucagon in nondiabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS For evaluation of hormonal secretion and insulin sensitivity, 10 overweight patients without type 2 diabetes (age 61 ± 19.3 years and BMI 27.9 ± 5.3 kg/m2) underwent a mixed-meal test and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp before and after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy for ampulloma. RESULTS All patients experienced a reduction in insulin (P = 0.002), C-peptide (P = 0.0002), and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) secretion (P = 0.0004), while both fasting and postprandial glucose levels increased (P = 0.0001); GLP-1 and glucagon responses to the mixed meal increased significantly after surgery (P = 0.02 and 0.031). While changes in GIP levels did not correlate with insulin, glucagon, and glucose levels, the increase in GLP-1 secretion was inversely related to the postsurgery decrease in insulin secretion (R2 = 0.56; P = 0.012) but not to the increased glucagon secretion, which correlated inversely with the reduction of insulin (R2 = 0.46; P = 0.03) and C-peptide (R2 = 0.37; P = 0.04). Given that the remaining pancreas presumably has preserved intraislet anatomy, insulin secretory capacity, and α- and β-cell interplay, our data suggest that the increased glucagon secretion is related to decreased systemic insulin. CONCLUSIONS Pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was associated with a decrease in GIP and a remarkable increase in GLP-1 levels, which was not translated into increased insulin secretion. Rather, the hypoinsulinemia may have caused an increase in glucagon secretion. PMID:23393218

  10. Presence and characterization of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) amide receptors in solubilized membranes of rat adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Valverde, I; Mérida, E; Delgado, E; Trapote, M A; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L

    1993-01-01

    Specific binding of [125I]glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide ([125I]GLP-1(7-36)amide) to solubilized rat adipose tissue membranes was found to be dependent on temperature, time, and membrane protein concentration and readily dissociated. GLP-1(1-36)amide, GLP-2, or glucagon (10(-6) M) did not compete with [125I]GLP-1(7-36)amide binding. Half-maximal binding was achieved with 8 x 10(-10) M unlabeled GLP-1(7-36)amide, and the Scatchard plot revealed the presence of high and low affinity binding sites with Kd values of approximately 0.6 and 20 nM, respectively. The binding capacity of [125I]GLP-1(7-36)amide was about 3 times higher than that of [125I]glucagon, while the high affinity Kd and the half-maximal binding of the two peptides were similar. The presence and abundance of GLP-1(7-36)amide receptors in fat tissue together with the previous findings that the peptide stimulates glycerol and cAMP production in rat adipocytes and stimulates fatty acid synthesis in explants of rat adipose tissue open the possibility that this insulinotropic intestinal peptide may also be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism in health and disease. PMID:8380388

  11. GLP-1 receptor stimulation of the lateral parabrachial nucleus reduces food intake: neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral evidence.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jennifer E; Farkas, Imre; Anesten, Fredrik; Anderberg, Rozita H; Dickson, Suzanne L; Gribble, Fiona M; Reimann, Frank; Jansson, John-Olov; Liposits, Zsolt; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2014-11-01

    The parabrachial nucleus (PBN) is a key nucleus for the regulation of feeding behavior. Inhibitory inputs from the hypothalamus to the PBN play a crucial role in the normal maintenance of feeding behavior, because their loss leads to starvation. Viscerosensory stimuli result in neuronal activation of the PBN. However, the origin and neurochemical identity of the excitatory neuronal input to the PBN remain largely unexplored. Here, we hypothesize that hindbrain glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) neurons provide excitatory inputs to the PBN, activation of which may lead to a reduction in feeding behavior. Our data, obtained from mice expressing the yellow fluorescent protein in GLP-1-producing neurons, revealed that hindbrain GLP-1-producing neurons project to the lateral PBN (lPBN). Stimulation of lPBN GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) reduced the intake of chow and palatable food and decreased body weight in rats. It also activated lPBN neurons, reflected by an increase in the number of c-Fos-positive cells in this region. Further support for an excitatory role of GLP-1 in the PBN is provided by electrophysiological studies showing a remarkable increase in firing of lPBN neurons after Exendin-4 application. We show that within the PBN, GLP-1R activation increased gene expression of 2 energy balance regulating peptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and IL-6. Moreover, nearly 70% of the lPBN GLP-1 fibers innervated lPBN CGRP neurons. Direct intra-lPBN CGRP application resulted in anorexia. Collectively, our molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral data provide evidence for a functional role of the GLP-1R for feeding control in the PBN. PMID:25116706

  12. Brain GLP-1 Signaling Regulates Femoral Artery Blood Flow and Insulin Sensitivity Through Hypothalamic PKC-δ

    PubMed Central

    Cabou, Cendrine; Vachoux, Christelle; Campistron, Gérard; Drucker, Daniel J.; Burcelin, Rémy

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut-brain hormone that regulates food intake, energy metabolism, and cardiovascular functions. In the brain, through a currently unknown molecular mechanism, it simultaneously reduces femoral artery blood flow and muscle glucose uptake. By analogy to pancreatic β-cells where GLP-1 activates protein kinase C (PKC) to stimulate insulin secretion, we postulated that PKC enzymes would be molecular targets of brain GLP-1 signaling that regulate metabolic and vascular function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used both genetic and pharmacological approaches to investigate the role of PKC isoforms in brain GLP-1 signaling in the conscious, free-moving mouse simultaneous with metabolic and vascular measurements. RESULTS In normal wild-type (WT) mouse brain, the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 selectively promotes translocation of PKC-δ (but not -βII, -α, or -ε) to the plasma membrane. This translocation is blocked in Glp1r−/− mice and in WT mice infused in the brain with exendin-9, an antagonist of the GLP-1R. This mechanism coordinates both blood flow in the femoral artery and whole-body insulin sensitivity. Consequently, in hyperglycemic, high-fat diet–fed diabetic mice, hypothalamic PKC-δ activity was increased and its pharmacological inhibition improved both insulin-sensitive metabolic and vascular phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS Our studies show that brain GLP-1 signaling activates hypothalamic glucose-dependent PKC-δ to regulate femoral artery blood flow and insulin sensitivity. This mechanism is attenuated during the development of experimental hyperglycemia and may contribute to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21810595

  13. Improving function and survival of pancreatic islets by endogenous production of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1).

    PubMed

    Wideman, Rhonda D; Yu, Irene L Y; Webber, Travis D; Verchere, C Bruce; Johnson, James D; Cheung, Anthony T; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2006-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that has received significant attention as a therapy for diabetes because of its ability to stimulate insulin biosynthesis and release and to promote growth and survival of insulin-producing beta cells. While GLP-1 is produced from the proglucagon precursor by means of prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 activity in enteroendocrine L cells, the same precursor is differentially processed by PC2 in pancreatic islet alpha cells to release glucagon, leaving GLP-1 trapped within a larger fragment with no known function. We hypothesized that we could induce GLP-1 production directly within pancreatic islets by means of delivery of PC1/3 and, further, that this intervention would improve the viability and function of islets. Here, we show that adenovirus-mediated expression of PC1/3 in alpha cells increases islet GLP-1 secretion, resulting in improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and enhanced survival in response to cytokine treatment. PC1/3 expression in alpha cells also improved performance after islet transplantation in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes, possibly by enhancing nuclear Pdx1 and insulin content of islet beta cells. These results demonstrate a unique strategy for liberating GLP-1 from directly within the target organ and highlight the potential for up-regulating islet GLP-1 production as a means of treating diabetes. PMID:16938896

  14. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Analogs: Recent Advances, New Possibilities, and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin that plays important physiological roles in glucose homeostasis. Produced from intestine upon food intake, it stimulates insulin secretion and keeps pancreatic β-cells healthy and proliferating. Because of these beneficial effects, it has attracted a great deal of attention in the past decade, and an entirely new line of diabetic therapeutics has emerged based on the peptide. In addition to the therapeutic applications, GLP-1 analogs have demonstrated a potential in molecular imaging of pancreatic β-cells; this may be useful in early detection of the disease and evaluation of therapeutic interventions, including islet transplantation. In this Perspective, we focus on GLP-1 analogs for their studies on improvement of biological activities, enhancement of metabolic stability, investigation of receptor interaction, and visualization of the pancreatic islets. PMID:25349901

  15. Peptidic exenatide and herbal catalpol mediate neuroprotection via the hippocampal GLP-1 receptor/β-endorphin pathway.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yu; Gong, Nian; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    Both peptidic agonist exenatide and herbal agonist catalpol of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) are neuroprotective. We have previously shown that activation of spinal GLP-1Rs expresses β-endorphin in microglia to produce antinociception. The aim of this study was to explore whether exenatide and catalpol exert neuroprotection via activation of the hippocampal GLP-1R/β-endorphin pathway. The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model was employed, and the GLP-1R immunofluorescence staining and β-endorphin measurement were assayed in the hippocampus and primary cultures of microglia, neurons and astrocytes. The immunoreactivity of GLP-1Rs on microglia in the hippocampus was upregulated after ischemia reperfusion. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of exenatide and catalpol produced neuroprotection in the rat transient ischemia/reperfusion model, reflected by a marked reduction in brain infarction size and a mild recovery in neurobehavioral deficits. In addition, i.c.v. injection of exenatide and catalpol significantly stimulated β-endorphin expression in the hippocampus and cultured primary microglia (but not primary neurons or astrocytes). Furthermore, exenatide and catalpol neuroprotection was completely blocked by i.c.v. injection of the GLP-1R orthosteric antagonist exendin (9-39), specific β-endorphin antiserum, and selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Our results indicate, for the first time, that the neuroprotective effects of catalpol and exenatide are GLP-1R-specific, and that these effects are mediated by β-endorphin expression probably in hippocampal microglia. We postulate that in contrast to the peripheral tissue, where the activation of GLP-1Rs in pancreas islet β-cells causes secretion of insulin to perform glucoregulation, it leads to β-endorphin expression in microglial cells to produce neuroprotection and analgesia in the central nervous system. PMID:26546042

  16. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Brighton, Cheryl A; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E; Glass, Leslie L; Schoonjans, Kristina; Holst, Jens J; Gribble, Fiona M; Reimann, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1-secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L-cells, we observed that taurodeoxycholate (TDCA) and taurolithocholate (TLCA) increased intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+). In primary intestinal cultures, TDCA was a more potent GLP-1 secretagogue than taurocholate (TCA) and TLCA, correlating with a stronger Ca(2+) response to TDCA. Using small-volume Ussing chambers optimized for measuring GLP-1 secretion, we found that both a GPBAR1 agonist and TDCA stimulated GLP-1 release better when applied from the basolateral than from the luminal direction and that luminal TDCA was ineffective when intestinal tissue was pretreated with an ASBT inhibitor. ASBT inhibition had no significant effect in nonpolarized primary cultures. Studies in the perfused rat gut confirmed that vascularly administered TDCA was more effective than luminal TDCA. Intestinal primary cultures and Ussing chamber-mounted tissues from GPBAR1-knockout mice did not secrete GLP-1 in response to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms. PMID:26280129

  17. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein–Coupled Bile Acid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Brighton, Cheryl A.; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E.; Glass, Leslie L.; Schoonjans, Kristina; Holst, Jens J.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein–coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1–secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L-cells, we observed that taurodeoxycholate (TDCA) and taurolithocholate (TLCA) increased intracellular cAMP and Ca2+. In primary intestinal cultures, TDCA was a more potent GLP-1 secretagogue than taurocholate (TCA) and TLCA, correlating with a stronger Ca2+ response to TDCA. Using small-volume Ussing chambers optimized for measuring GLP-1 secretion, we found that both a GPBAR1 agonist and TDCA stimulated GLP-1 release better when applied from the basolateral than from the luminal direction and that luminal TDCA was ineffective when intestinal tissue was pretreated with an ASBT inhibitor. ASBT inhibition had no significant effect in nonpolarized primary cultures. Studies in the perfused rat gut confirmed that vascularly administered TDCA was more effective than luminal TDCA. Intestinal primary cultures and Ussing chamber–mounted tissues from GPBAR1-knockout mice did not secrete GLP-1 in response to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms. PMID:26280129

  18. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs. PMID:25326839

  19. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs. PMID:25437461

  20. Role of GLP-1 in the Hypoglycemic Effects of Wild Bitter Gourd

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kan-Ni; Pai, Yi-Ping; Chin Hsu

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the role of GLP-1 in the hypoglycemic activity of wild bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L., BG). In vitro, the GLP-1 secretion in STC-1, a murine enteroendocrine cell line, was dose dependently stimulated by water extract (WE), its fractions (WEL, >3 kD and WES, <3 kD), and a bitter compounds-rich fraction of BG. These stimulations were partially inhibited by probenecid, a bitter taste receptor inhibitor, and by U-73122, a phospholipase Cβ2 inhibitor. These results suggested that the stimulation might involve, at least in part, certain bitter taste receptors and/or PLCβ2-signaling pathway. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids isolated from BG, 19-nor-cucurbita-5(10),6,8,22-(E),24-pentaen-3β-ol, and 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,24-diene-3β,23ξ-diol (karavilagenine E,) showed relative high efficacy in the stimulation. In vivo, mice fed BG diet showed higher insulinogenic index in an oral glucose tolerance test. A single oral dose of WE or WES pretreatment significantly improved intraperitoneal glucose tolerance. A single oral dose of WES significantly decreased glucose and increased insulin and GLP-1 in serum after 30 min. This acute hypoglycemic effect of WES was abolished by pretreatment with exendin-9, a GLP-1 receptor antagonist. Our data provide evidence that BG stimulates GLP-1 secretion which contributes, at least in part, to the antidiabetic activity of BG through an incretin effect. PMID:23589719

  1. Role of GLP-1 in the Hypoglycemic Effects of Wild Bitter Gourd.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting-Ni; Lu, Kan-Ni; Pai, Yi-Ping; Chin Hsu; Huang, Ching-Jang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the role of GLP-1 in the hypoglycemic activity of wild bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L., BG). In vitro, the GLP-1 secretion in STC-1, a murine enteroendocrine cell line, was dose dependently stimulated by water extract (WE), its fractions (WEL, >3 kD and WES, <3 kD), and a bitter compounds-rich fraction of BG. These stimulations were partially inhibited by probenecid, a bitter taste receptor inhibitor, and by U-73122, a phospholipase C β 2 inhibitor. These results suggested that the stimulation might involve, at least in part, certain bitter taste receptors and/or PLC β 2-signaling pathway. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids isolated from BG, 19-nor-cucurbita-5(10),6,8,22-(E),24-pentaen-3 β -ol, and 5 β ,19-epoxycucurbita-6,24-diene-3 β ,23 ξ -diol (karavilagenine E,) showed relative high efficacy in the stimulation. In vivo, mice fed BG diet showed higher insulinogenic index in an oral glucose tolerance test. A single oral dose of WE or WES pretreatment significantly improved intraperitoneal glucose tolerance. A single oral dose of WES significantly decreased glucose and increased insulin and GLP-1 in serum after 30 min. This acute hypoglycemic effect of WES was abolished by pretreatment with exendin-9, a GLP-1 receptor antagonist. Our data provide evidence that BG stimulates GLP-1 secretion which contributes, at least in part, to the antidiabetic activity of BG through an incretin effect. PMID:23589719

  2. Novel coumarin modified GLP-1 derivatives with enhanced plasma stability and prolonged in vivo glucose-lowering ability

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Sun, Lidan; Huang, Xun; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Chenyu; Qian, Hai; Huang, Wenlong

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The short biological half-life limits the therapeutic use of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and chemical modification to improve the interaction of peptides with serum albumin represents an effective strategy to develop long-acting peptide analogues. Coumarin, a natural product, is known to bind tightly to plasma proteins and possesses many biological activities. Therefore, we designed and synthesized a series of coumarin-modified GLP-1 derivatives, hypothesizing that conjugation with coumarin would retain the therapeutic effects and prolong the biological half-life of the conjugates. Experimental Approach Four cysteine-modified GLP-1 analogues (1–4) were prepared using Gly8-GLP-1(7–36)-NH2 peptide as a starting point. These analogues were conjugated with two coumarin maleimides to yield eight compounds (conjugates 6–13) for testing. Activation of human GLP-1 receptors, stability to enzymic inactivation in plasma and binding to human albumin were assessed in vitro. In vivo, effects on oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in rats and on blood glucose levels in db/db mice were studied. Key Results Most conjugates showed well preserved receptor activation efficacy, enhanced albumin-binding properties and improved in vitro plasma stability and conjugate 7 was selected to undergo further assessment. In rats, conjugate 7 had a longer circulating t1/2 than exendin-4 or liraglutide. A prolonged antidiabetic effect of conjugate 7 was observed after OGTT in rats and a prolonged hypoglycaemic effect in db/db mice. Conclusions and Implications Cysteine-specific coumarin conjugation with GLP-1 offers a useful approach to the development of long-acting incretin-based antidiabetic agents. Conjugate 7 is a promising long-lasting GLP-1 derivative deserving further investigation. PMID:25039358

  3. Altered expression of uncoupling protein 2 in GLP-1-producing cells after chronic high glucose exposure: implications for the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Francesca; Filippello, Agnese; Di Pino, Antonino; Barbagallo, Davide; Di Mauro, Stefania; Pappalardo, Alessandro; Rabuazzo, Agata Maria; Purrello, Michele; Purrello, Francesco; Piro, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut L-cell hormone that enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Several approaches that prevent GLP-1 degradation or activate the GLP-1 receptor are being used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In T2DM, GLP-1 secretion has been suggested to be impaired, and this defect appears to be a consequence rather than a cause of impaired glucose homeostasis. However, although defective GLP-1 secretion has been correlated with insulin resistance, little is known about the direct effects of chronic high glucose concentrations, which are typical in diabetes patients, on GLP-1-secreting cell function. In the present study, we demonstrate that glucotoxicity directly affects GLP-1 secretion in GLUTag cells chronically exposed to high glucose. Our results indicate that this abnormality is associated with a decrease in ATP production due to the elevated expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Furthermore, UCP2 inhibition using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the application of glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP(+)) channel blocker, reverse the GLP-1 secretion defect induced by chronic high-glucose treatment. These results show that glucotoxicity diminishes the secretory responsiveness of GLP-1-secreting cells to acute glucose stimulation. We conclude that the loss of the incretin effect, as observed in T2DM patients, could at least partially depend on hyperglycemia, which is typical in diabetes patients. Such an understanding may not only provide new insight into diabetes complications but also ultimately contribute to the identification of novel molecular targets within intestinal L-cells for controlling and improving endogenous GLP-1 secretion. PMID:26739488

  4. Nucleus accumbens GLP-1 receptors influence meal size and palatability.

    PubMed

    Dossat, Amanda M; Diaz, Ryan; Gallo, Lindsay; Panagos, Alyssa; Kay, Kristen; Williams, Diana L

    2013-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neuronal projection to the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) contributes to food intake control. To investigate the role of endogenous stimulation of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in NAcC, we examined the effects of the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-(9-39) (Ex9) on meal pattern and microstructure of ingestive behavior in rats. Intra-NAcC Ex9 treatment selectively increased meal size relative to vehicle in rats consuming 0.25 M sucrose solution or sweetened condensed milk. Microstructural analysis revealed effects of NAcC Ex9 on initial lick rate and the size and duration of licking bursts in rats consuming 0.1 or 0.25 M sucrose, suggesting that blockade of NAcC GLP-1R increases palatability. Because NAcC Ex9 did not affect licking for nonnutritive saccharin (0.1%), we suggest that the presence of nutrients in the gut may be required for endogenous stimulation of NAcC GLP-1R. Consistent with this, we also found that the meal size-suppressive effects of intragastric nutrient infusion were attenuated by NAcC delivery of Ex9 at a dose that had no effect when delivered alone. Analysis of licking patterns revealed that NAcC Ex9 did not reverse intragastric nutrient-induced suppression of burst number but rather blunted the effect of nutrient infusion on meal size primarily by increasing the size and duration of licking bursts. Together, our results suggest that NAcC Ex9 influences taste evaluation. We conclude that GLP-1 released in NAcC in response to gastrointestinal nutrients reduces the hedonic value of food. PMID:23612998

  5. Nucleus accumbens GLP-1 receptors influence meal size and palatability

    PubMed Central

    Dossat, Amanda M.; Diaz, Ryan; Gallo, Lindsay; Panagos, Alyssa; Kay, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neuronal projection to the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) contributes to food intake control. To investigate the role of endogenous stimulation of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in NAcC, we examined the effects of the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-(9–39) (Ex9) on meal pattern and microstructure of ingestive behavior in rats. Intra-NAcC Ex9 treatment selectively increased meal size relative to vehicle in rats consuming 0.25 M sucrose solution or sweetened condensed milk. Microstructural analysis revealed effects of NAcC Ex9 on initial lick rate and the size and duration of licking bursts in rats consuming 0.1 or 0.25 M sucrose, suggesting that blockade of NAcC GLP-1R increases palatability. Because NAcC Ex9 did not affect licking for nonnutritive saccharin (0.1%), we suggest that the presence of nutrients in the gut may be required for endogenous stimulation of NAcC GLP-1R. Consistent with this, we also found that the meal size-suppressive effects of intragastric nutrient infusion were attenuated by NAcC delivery of Ex9 at a dose that had no effect when delivered alone. Analysis of licking patterns revealed that NAcC Ex9 did not reverse intragastric nutrient-induced suppression of burst number but rather blunted the effect of nutrient infusion on meal size primarily by increasing the size and duration of licking bursts. Together, our results suggest that NAcC Ex9 influences taste evaluation. We conclude that GLP-1 released in NAcC in response to gastrointestinal nutrients reduces the hedonic value of food. PMID:23612998

  6. GLP-1 based therapeutics: simultaneously combating T2DM and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Heppner, Kristy M.; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances meal-related insulin secretion, which lowers blood glucose excursions. In addition to its incretin action, GLP-1 acts on the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the brain to suppress feeding. These combined actions of GLP-1R signaling cause improvements in glycemic control as well as weight loss in type II diabetes (T2DM) patients treated with GLP-1R agonists. This is a superior advantage of GLP-1R pharmaceuticals as many other drugs used to treat T2DM are weight neutral or actual cause weight gain. This review summarizes GLP-1R action on energy and glucose metabolism, the effectiveness of current GLP-1R agonists on weight loss in T2DM patients, as well as GLP-1R combination therapies. PMID:25852463

  7. Neurotensin Is Coexpressed, Coreleased, and Acts Together With GLP-1 and PYY in Enteroendocrine Control of Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Grunddal, Kaare V; Ratner, Cecilia F; Svendsen, Berit; Sommer, Felix; Engelstoft, Maja S; Madsen, Andreas N; Pedersen, Jens; Nøhr, Mark K; Egerod, Kristoffer L; Nawrocki, Andrea R; Kowalski, Timothy; Howard, Andrew D; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Offermanns, Stefan; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Holst, Jens J; Holst, Birgitte; Schwartz, Thue W

    2016-01-01

    The 2 gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are well known to be coexpressed, costored, and released together to coact in the control of key metabolic target organs. However, recently, it became clear that several other gut hormones can be coexpressed in the intestinal-specific lineage of enteroendocrine cells. Here, we focus on the anatomical and functional consequences of the coexpression of neurotensin with GLP-1 and PYY in the distal small intestine. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, laser capture, and triple staining demonstrated that GLP-1 cells in the crypts become increasingly multihormonal, ie, coexpressing PYY and neurotensin as they move up the villus. Proglucagon promoter and pertussis toxin receptor-driven cell ablation and reappearance studies indicated that although all the cells die, the GLP-1 cells reappear more quickly than PYY- and neurotensin-positive cells. High-resolution confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that neurotensin is stored in secretory granules distinct from GLP-1 and PYY storing granules. Nevertheless, the 3 peptides were cosecreted from both perfused small intestines and colonic crypt cultures in response to a series of metabolite, neuropeptide, and hormonal stimuli. Importantly, neurotensin acts synergistically, ie, more than additively together with GLP-1 and PYY to decrease palatable food intake and inhibit gastric emptying, but affects glucose homeostasis in a more complex manner. Thus, neurotensin is a major gut hormone deeply integrated with GLP-1 and PYY, which should be taken into account when exploiting the enteroendocrine regulation of metabolism pharmacologically. PMID:26469136

  8. Physician perceptions of GLP-1 receptor agonists in the UK.

    PubMed

    Matza, Louis S; Curtis, Sarah E; Jordan, Jessica B; Adetunji, Omolara; Martin, Sherry A; Boye, Kristina S

    2016-05-01

    Objectives Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have been used to treat type 2 diabetes for almost a decade, and new treatments in this class have recently been introduced. The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of GLP-1 receptor agonists among physicians who treat patients with type 2 diabetes in the UK. Methods A total of 670 physicians (226 diabetes specialists; 444 general practice [GP] physicians) completed a survey in 2014. Results Almost all physicians had prescribed GLP-1 receptor agonists (95.4% total sample; 99.1% specialists; 93.5% GP), most frequently to patients whose glucose levels are not adequately controlled with oral medications (85.9% of physicians) and obese/overweight patients (83.7%). Physicians' most common reasons for prescribing a GLP-1 receptor agonist were: associated with weight loss (65.8%), good efficacy (55.7%), less hypoglycemia risk than insulin (55.2%), not associated with weight gain (34.5%), and better efficacy than oral medications (32.7%). Factors that most commonly cause hesitation when prescribing this class were: not considered first line therapy according to guidelines (56.9%), injectable administration (44.6%), cost (36.7%), gastrointestinal side effects (33.4%), and risk of pancreatitis (26.7%). Almost all specialists (99.1%) believed they had sufficient knowledge to prescribe a GLP-1 receptor agonist, compared with 76.1% of GPs. Conclusions Results highlight the widespread use of GLP-1 receptor agonists for treatment of type 2 diabetes in the UK. However, almost a quarter of GPs reported that they do not have enough knowledge to prescribe GLP-1s, suggesting a need for increased dissemination of information to targeted groups of physicians. Study limitations were that the generalizability of the clinician sample is unknown; survey questions required clinicians to select answers from multiple response options rather than generating the responses themselves; and responses to this survey conducted

  9. GLP-1: broadening the incretin concept to involve gut motility.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Per M

    2009-08-01

    The incretin effect of the gut peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a combined result of inhibition of gastric emptying and stimulation of insulin secretion via an incretin mechanism. The temporal pattern of these events implicate that gastric emptying is primarily delayed, while later in the digestive process insulin is released for nutrient disposal. Since the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on gastric motility is very outspoken, we considered it of value to study its effects on gut motility. Animal experimentation in the rat clearly showed that not only gastric emptying, but also small bowel motility with the migrating myoelectric complex was profoundly inhibited by GLP-1 at low doses. Similar effects were seen with analogues of the peptide. Extending the studies to man supported our earliest data indicating that the migrating motor complex of the small intestine was affected, and even more noticeable, the summarized motility index inhibited. Further extension of our studies to patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) displayed similar results. This encouraged us to embark on a clinical pain-relief multi-centre study in IBS patients using a GLP-1 analogue, ROSE-010, with longer half-life than the native peptide. The outcome of the IBS study proved ROSE-010 to be superior to placebo with a pain-relief response rate of 24% for ROSE-010 compared to 12% for placebo. Taken together, the GLP-1 analogue ROSE-010 is believed to cause relaxation of the gut and can thereby relieve an acute pain attack of IBS, even though its precise mechanism is yet to be defined. PMID:19362109

  10. Theoretical Investigations into the Quantitative Mechanisms Underlying the Regulation of [cAMP]i, Membrane Excitability and [Ca(2+)]i during GLP-1 Stimulation in Pancreatic β Cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yukari

    2016-01-01

      Upon elevation of plasma glucose concentration, pancreatic β-cells generate bursts of action potentials to induce cyclic changes in [Ca(2+)]i regulating insulin release. Glucose-dependent insulin secretion is synergistically enhanced by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which increases [cAMP]i and activates protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). The insulinotropic effect of GLP-1 is mediated, at least in part, by modulating multiple ion channels/transporters at the plasma membrane and ER through PKA- and EPAC-dependent mechanisms, which increase membrane excitability and intracellular Ca(2+) release. However, because of complex interactions between multiple cellular factors involved in the GLP-1 effects, quantitative aspects of the molecular/ionic mechanisms have not yet been determined. We thus performed simulation studies and mathematical analysis to investigate how GLP-1 signals control [cAMP]i and subsequently modify the bursting activities and Ca(2+) dynamics. First, a GLP-1 receptor signal transduction model was developed and introduced to our β-cells model. Secondly, modulatory effects of PKA/Epac on ion channels/transporters were incorporated based on experimental studies. Increases in the frequency and duration of the bursting activity observed during GLP-1 stimulation were well reconstructed by our model, and lead potential analysis quantitatively determined the functional role of each ion channel/transporter in modifying the burst pattern. Finally, an IP3R model was developed to reproduce GLP-1-induced Ca(2+) transients/oscillations. Instantaneous equilibrium analysis and bifurcation analysis also elucidated the quantitative mechanisms involved in generating IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization. The results of this theoretical analysis of the effects of GLP-1 on membrane excitability/Ca(2+) dynamics are discussed in this review. PMID:26935088

  11. Effects of the glucagon-like polypeptide-1 analogue (Val8)GLP-1 on learning, progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the C57B/16 mouse brain.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Stephen F J; Hunter, Kerry; Hölscher, Christian

    2012-09-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has been identified as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Here, we tested the properties of the glucagon-like polypetide-1 (GLP-1) analogue (Val8)GLP-1, a drug originally developed as a treatment for T2DM at a range of doses (2.5 nmol; 25 nmol; 100 nmol; or 250 nmol/kg bw ip.) in an acute memory study in wild type C57B/l6 mice. We also tested (Val8)GLP-1 and the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin (9-39) in a chronic study (3 weeks at 25 nmol/kg bw ip. once-daily). We found that (Val8)GLP-1 crossed the blood brain barrier readily and that peripheral injection increased levels in the brain 30 min post-injection ip. but not 2h post-injection in rats. In the acute study, the low dose of 2.5 nmol/kg ip. enhanced motor activity in the open field task, while total distance travelled, exploratory behaviour and anxiety was not affected at any dose. Learning an object recognition task was not affected either. In the chronic study, no effect was observed in the open field assessment. The antagonist exendin (9-39) impaired object recognition learning and spatial learning in a water maze task, demonstrating the importance of GLP-1 signalling in memory formation. Locomotor activity was also affected in some cases. Blood sugar levels and insulin sensitivity was not affected in chronically treated mice. Neuronal stem cells and neurogenesis was enhanced by (Val8)GLP-1 in the dentate gyrus of wild type mice. The results demonstrate that (Val8)GLP-1 is safe in a range of doses, crosses the BBB and has potentially beneficial effects in the CNS by enhancing neurogenesis. PMID:22867941

  12. Effect of GLP-1 treatment on GLUT2 and GLUT4 expression in type 1 and type 2 rat diabetic models.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L; Puente, J; Redondo, A; Clemente, F; Valverde, I

    2001-07-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (G LP-1) is an incretin with glucose-dependent insulinotropic and insulin-independent antidiabetic properties that exerts insulin-like effects on glucose metabolism in rat liver, skeletal muscle, and fat. This study aimed to search for the effect of a prolonged treatment, 3 ds, with GLP-1 on glucotransporter GLUT2 expression in liver, and on that of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle and fat, in rats. Normal rats and streptozotocin-induced type 1 and type 2 diabetic models were used; diabetic rats were also treated with insulin for comparison. In normal rats, GLP-1 treatment reduced in the three tissues the corresponding glucotransporter protein level, without modifying their mRNA. In the type 2 diabetic model, GLP-1, like insulin, stimulated in liver and fat only the glucotransporter translational process, while in the muscle an effect at the GLUT4 transcriptional level was also observed. In the type 1 diabetic model, GLP-1 apparently exerted in the liver only a posttranslational effect on GLUT2 expression; in muscle and fat, while insulin was shown to have an action on GLUT4 at both transcriptional and translational levels, the effect of GLP-1 was restricted to glucotransporter translation. In normal and diabetic rats, exogenous GLP-1 controlled the glucotransporter expression in extrapancreatic tissues participating in the overall glucose homeostasis-liver, muscle, and fat-where the effect of the peptide seems to be exerted only at the translational and/or posttranslational level; in muscle and fat, the presence of insulin seems to be required for GLP-1 to activate the transcriptional process. The stimulating action of GLP-1 on GLUT2 and GLUT4 expression, mRNA or protein, could be a mechanism by which, at least in part, the peptide exerts its lowering effect on blood glucose. PMID:11720253

  13. Expression of BvGLP-1 encoding a germin-like protein from sugar beet in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to resistance against phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Katrin; Seyffarth, Monique; Desel, Christine; Thurau, Tim; Sherameti, Irena; Lou, Binggan; Oelmüller, Ralf; Cai, Daguang

    2010-04-01

    Nematode (Heterodera schachtii) resistance in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is controlled by a single dominant resistance gene, Hs1(pro-1). BvGLP-1 was cloned from resistant sugar beet. The BvGLP-1 messenger (m)RNA is highly upregulated in the resistant plants after nematode infection, suggesting its role in the Hs1(pro-1) mediated resistance. BvGLP-1 exhibits sequence homology to a set of plant germin-like proteins (GLP), from which several have proved to be functional in plant basal or defense resistance against fungal pathogens. To test whether BvGLP-1 is also involved in the plant-fungus interaction, we transferred BvGLP-1 into Arabidopsis and challenged the transgenic plants with the pathogenic fungi Verticillium longisporum and Rhizoctonia solani as well as with the beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The expression of BvGLP-1 in Arabidopsis elevated the H(2)O(2) content and conferred significant resistance to V. longisporum and R. solani but did not affect the beneficial interaction with P. indica in seedlings. Microscopic observations revealed a dramatic reduction in the amount of hyphae of the pathogenic fungi on the root surface as well as of fungal mycelium developed inside the roots of transgenic Arabidopsis compared with wild-type plants. Molecular analysis demonstrated that the BvGLP-1 expression in Arabidopsis constitutively activates the expression of a subset of plant defense-related proteins such as PR-1 to PR-4 and PDF1.2 but not PDF2.1 and PDF2.3. In contrast, the PDF2.1 mRNA level was downregulated. These data suggest an important role of BvGLP-1 in establishment of plant defense responses, which follow specific signaling routes that diverge from those induced by the beneficial fungus. PMID:20192832

  14. Expression and Characterization of a Potent Long-Acting GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Chen, Fang; Wan, Deyou; Liu, Yunhui; Yang, Li; Feng, Hongru; Cui, Xinling; Gao, Xin; Song, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Human GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) can produce a remarkable improvement in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, its clinical benefits are limited by its short half-life, which is less than 2 min because of its small size and rapid enzymatic inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV. We engineered GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc, a 68-kDa fusion protein linking a variant human GLP-1 (A8G/G26E/R36G) to a human IgG2σ constant heavy-chain. A stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell line was obtained using electroporation. Western blotting showed that the expressed protein was immunoreactive to both GLP-1 and IgG antibodies. GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 cells in a dose- and glucose-dependent manner and increased insulin mRNA expression. The half-life of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc in cynomolgus monkeys was approximately 57.1 ± 4.5 h. In the KKAy mouse model of diabetes, one intraperitoneal injection of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc (1 mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels for 5 days. A 4-week repeat-administration study identified sustained effects on blood glucose levels. Oral glucose tolerance tests conducted at the beginning and end of this 4-week period showed that GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc produced a stable glucose lowering effect. In addition, KKAy mice treated with GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc showed statistically significant weight loss from day 23. In conclusion, these properties of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc demonstrated that it represented a potential long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27232339

  15. Expression and Characterization of a Potent Long-Acting GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Chen, Fang; Wan, Deyou; Liu, Yunhui; Yang, Li; Feng, Hongru; Cui, Xinling; Gao, Xin; Song, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Human GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) can produce a remarkable improvement in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, its clinical benefits are limited by its short half-life, which is less than 2 min because of its small size and rapid enzymatic inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV. We engineered GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc, a 68-kDa fusion protein linking a variant human GLP-1 (A8G/G26E/R36G) to a human IgG2σ constant heavy-chain. A stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell line was obtained using electroporation. Western blotting showed that the expressed protein was immunoreactive to both GLP-1 and IgG antibodies. GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 cells in a dose- and glucose-dependent manner and increased insulin mRNA expression. The half-life of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc in cynomolgus monkeys was approximately 57.1 ± 4.5 h. In the KKAy mouse model of diabetes, one intraperitoneal injection of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc (1 mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels for 5 days. A 4-week repeat-administration study identified sustained effects on blood glucose levels. Oral glucose tolerance tests conducted at the beginning and end of this 4-week period showed that GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc produced a stable glucose lowering effect. In addition, KKAy mice treated with GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc showed statistically significant weight loss from day 23. In conclusion, these properties of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc demonstrated that it represented a potential long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27232339

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of GLP-1-Based Therapies beyond Glucose Control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sun; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone mainly secreted from intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. GLP-1 has beneficial effects for glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, delaying gastric emptying, decreasing plasma glucagon, reducing food intake, and stimulating glucose disposal. Therefore, GLP-1-based therapies such as GLP-1 receptor agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4, which is a GLP-1 inactivating enzyme, have been developed for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to glucose-lowering effects, emerging data suggests that GLP-1-based therapies also show anti-inflammatory effects in chronic inflammatory diseases including type 1 and 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetic nephropathy, asthma, and psoriasis. This review outlines the anti-inflammatory actions of GLP-1-based therapies on diseases associated with chronic inflammation in vivo and in vitro, and their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action. PMID:27110066

  17. GLP-1(28-36)amide, a Long Ignored Peptide Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bilan; Ji, Kaige; Peng, Anlin; Yang, Xin; Huang, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which has been extensively applied for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is an incretin hormone that regulates glucose homeostasis. GLP-1(28-36)amide, a C-terminal nonapeptide (FIAWLVKGRamide) of GLP-1, is a major product derived from the cleavage of GLP-1 by the neutral endopeptidase (NEP). GLP-1(28-36)amide has long been regarded as a metabolically inactive byproduct, however, recent findings reveal that GLP-1(28-36)amide plays multiple novel roles in ameliorating hepatic metabolism, protecting β cells, improving glucose disposal and inhibiting weight gain. Here, we summarize the latest progress on the effects of GLP-1(28-36)amide with a focus on its roles in regulating the Wnt and mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:25598850

  18. Inhibition of carbohydrate-mediated glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide secretion by circulating non-esterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, L; Norris, F; Morgan, L; Wright, J; Marks, V

    1999-04-01

    Two studies were performed to assess the entero-insular axis in simple obesity and the possible effect of variations in the level of circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) on one of the components of the entero-insular axis, glucagon-like peptide-1 [(7-36) amide]. In the first study, we compared the entero-pancreatic hormone response to oral carbohydrate in obese and lean women. Obese subjects demonstrated hyperinsulinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance but this was not associated with an increased secretion of either glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). These findings therefore provide no support for the hypothesis that overactivity of the entero-insular axis contributes to the hyperinsulinaemia seen in obesity. Indeed, the plasma GLP-1 response to carbohydrate was markedly attenuated in obese subjects, confirming previous observations. In the second study, in which carbohydrate-stimulated GLP-1 responses were again evaluated in obese and lean women, circulating NEFA levels were modulated using either heparin (to increase serum NEFA) or acipimox (to reduce serum NEFA). Treatment with acipimox resulted in complete suppression of NEFA levels and in a markedly higher GLP-1 response than the response to carbohydrate alone or to carbohydrate plus heparin. We suggest that higher fasting and postprandial NEFA levels in obesity may tonically inhibit nutrient-mediated GLP-1 secretion, and that this results in attenuation of the GLP-1 response to carbohydrate. However, although serum NEFA levels post-acipimox were similarly suppressed in both lean and obese subjects, the GLP-1 response was again significantly lower in obese subjects, suggesting the possibility of an intrinsic defect of GLP-1 secretion in obesity. The reduction of GLP-1 levels in obesity may be important both in relation to its insulinotropic effect and to its postulated role as a satiety factor. PMID:10087239

  19. Yhhu4488, a novel GPR40 agonist, promotes GLP-1 secretion and exerts anti-diabetic effect in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dan-yang; Li, De-wen; Ning, Meng-meng; Dang, Xiang-yu; Zhang, Li-na; Zeng, Li-min; Hu, You-hong; Leng, Ying

    2015-10-30

    G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is predominantly expressed in pancreatic β-cells and activated by long-chain fatty acids. GPR40 has drawn considerable interest as a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to its important role in enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Encouragingly, GPR40 is also proven to be highly expressed in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-producing enteroendocrine cells afterwards, which opens a potential role of GPR40 in enhancing GLP-1 secretion to exert additional anti-diabetic efficacy. In the present study, we discovered a novel GPR40 agonist, yhhu4488, which is structurally different from other reported GPR40 agonists. Yhhu4488 showed potent agonist activity with EC50 of 49.96 nM, 70.83 nM and 58.68 nM in HEK293 cells stably expressing human, rat and mouse GPR40, respectively. Yhhu4488 stimulated GLP-1 secretion from fetal rat intestinal cells (FRIC) via triggering endogenous calcium store mobilization and extracellular calcium influx. The effect of yhhu4488 on GLP-1 secretion was further confirmed in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Yhhu4488 exhibited satisfactory potency in in vivo studies. Single administration of yhhu4488 improved glucose tolerance in SD rats. Chronic administration of yhhu4488 effectively decreased fasting blood glucose level, improved β-cell function and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic ob/ob mice. Taken together, yhhu4488 is a novel GPR40 agonist that enhances GLP-1 secretion, improves metabolic control and β-cell function, suggesting its promising potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26417688

  20. Radiolabelled GLP-1 analogues for in vivo targeting of insulinomas

    PubMed Central

    Brom, Maarten; Joosten, Lieke; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C.

    2012-01-01

    For peptide receptor targeting usually internalizing agonists are selected. There is increasing evidence that non-internalizing receptor antagonists can be used for this purpose. We investigated whether the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) antagonist exendin(9-39) can be used for in vivo targeting of GLP-1R expressing tumours and compared the in vitro and in vivo characteristics to the GLP-1R agonists exendin-3 and exendin-4. The binding and internalization kinetics of labelled [Lys40(DTPA)]exendin-3, [Lys40(DTPA)]exendin-4 and [Lys40(DTPA)]exendin(9-39) were determined in vitro using INS-1 cells. The in vivo targeting properties of [Lys40(111In-DTPA)]exendin-3, [Lys40(111In-DTPA)]exendin-4 and [Lys40(111In-DTPA)]exendin(9-39) were examined in BALB/c nude mice with subcutaneous INS-1 tumours. natIn-labelled [Lys40(DTPA)]exendin-3, [Lys40(DTPA)]exendin-4 and [Lys40(DTPA)]exendin(9-39) exhibited similar IC50 values (13.5, 14.4 and 13.4 nM, respectively) and bound to 26 × 103, 41 × 103 and 37 × 103 receptors/cell, respectively. [Lys40(111In-DTPA)]exendin-3 and [Lys40(111In-DTPA)]exendin-4 showed rapid in vitro binding and internalization kinetics, whereas [Lys40(111In-DTPA)]exendin(9-39) showed lower binding and minimal internalization in vitro. In mice, high specific uptake of [Lys40(111In-DTPA)]exendin-3 (25.0 ± 6.0 %ID/g) in the tumour was observed at 0.5 h p.i. with similar uptake up to 4 h p.i.. [Lys40(111In-DTPA)]exendin-4 showed higher tumour uptake at 1 and 4 h p.i. (40.8 ± 7.0 and 41.9 ± 7.2 %ID/g, respectively). Remarkably, [Lys40(111In-DTPA)]exendin(9-39) showed only low specific uptake in the tumour at 0.5 h p.i. (3.2 ± 0.7 %ID/g), rapidly decreasing over time. In conclusion, the GLP-1R agonists [Lys40(DTPA)]exendin-3 and [Lys40(DTPA)]exendin-4 labelled with 111In could be useful for in vivo GLP-1R targeting, whereas [Lys40(DTPA)]exendin(9-39) is not suited for in vivo targeting of the GLP-1R. PMID:22434628

  1. Inflammation Meets Metabolic Disease: Gut Feeling Mediated by GLP-1

    PubMed Central

    Zietek, Tamara; Rath, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, cardiovascular, and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) share common features in their pathology. Metabolic disorders exhibit strong inflammatory underpinnings and vice versa, inflammation is associated with metabolic alterations. Next to cytokines and cellular stress pathways, such as the unfolded protein response (UPR), alterations in the enteroendocrine system are intersections of various pathologies. Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) have been studied extensively for their ability to regulate gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and insulin release by release of peptide hormones. In particular, the L-cell-derived incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has gained enormous attention due to its insulinotropic action and relevance in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Yet, accumulating data indicate a critical role for EEC and in particular for GLP-1 in metabolic adaptation and in orchestrating immune responses beyond blood glucose control. EEC sense the lamina propria and luminal environment, including the microbiota via receptors and transporters. Subsequently, mediating signals by secreting hormones and cytokines, EEC can be considered as integrators of metabolic and inflammatory signaling. This review focuses on L cell and GLP-1 functions in the context of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. The effects of incretin-based therapies on metabolism and immune system are discussed and the interrelation and common features of metabolic and immune-mediated disorders are highlighted. Moreover, it presents data on the impact of inflammation, in particular of IBD on EEC and discusses the potential role of the microbiota as link between nutrients, metabolism, immunity, and disease. PMID:27148273

  2. The peptide agonist-binding site of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor based on site-directed mutagenesis and knowledge-based modelling

    PubMed Central

    Dods, Rachel L.; Donnelly, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36)amide (GLP-1) plays a central role in regulating blood sugar levels and its receptor, GLP-1R, is a target for anti-diabetic agents such as the peptide agonist drugs exenatide and liraglutide. In order to understand the molecular nature of the peptide–receptor interaction, we used site-directed mutagenesis and pharmacological profiling to highlight nine sites as being important for peptide agonist binding and/or activation. Using a knowledge-based approach, we constructed a 3D model of agonist-bound GLP-1R, basing the conformation of the N-terminal region on that of the receptor-bound NMR structure of the related peptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating protein (PACAP21). The relative position of the extracellular to the transmembrane (TM) domain, as well as the molecular details of the agonist-binding site itself, were found to be different from the model that was published alongside the crystal structure of the TM domain of the glucagon receptor, but were nevertheless more compatible with published mutagenesis data. Furthermore, the NMR-determined structure of a high-potency cyclic conformationally-constrained 11-residue analogue of GLP-1 was also docked into the receptor-binding site. Despite having a different main chain conformation to that seen in the PACAP21 structure, four conserved residues (equivalent to His-7, Glu-9, Ser-14 and Asp-15 in GLP-1) could be structurally aligned and made similar interactions with the receptor as their equivalents in the GLP-1-docked model, suggesting the basis of a pharmacophore for GLP-1R peptide agonists. In this way, the model not only explains current mutagenesis and molecular pharmacological data but also provides a basis for further experimental design. PMID:26598711

  3. Developmental stimuli and stress factors affect expression of ClGLP1, an emerging allergen-related gene in Citrus limon.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Leonardo; Spadafora, Natasha Damiana; Iaria, Domenico; Chiappetta, Adriana; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-06-01

    Germins and germin-like proteins (GLPs) constitute an ubiquitous family of plant proteins that seem to be involved in many developmental and stress related processes. A novel GLP cDNA was isolated from Citrus limon and structural features and genomic organization were investigated by in silico and Southern blots analysis. In lemon, the ClGLP1 encodes a 24.38 kDa which possesses a conserved motif of plant GLPs proteins. A phylogetic analysis mapped ClGLP1 as belonging to the GER3 subfamily into the GLP1 group of large GLP family. ClGLP1 was differentially expressed in the various organs and was highest in mature fruit. Moreover, expression in the fruit was tissue- and stage-related as well as dependent on agricultural practice (organic vs conventional). ClGLP1 transcripts increased during the transition from the green (180 days after blooming) to the yellow (240 days after blooming) mature fruit and were strongly enhanced in yellow mature fruit from organic compared with conventional culture. A sudden and systemic increase in ClGLP1 expression level was observed in leaves injured by wounding, together with an increase of endogenous H2O2 amount. Notably, an enhancement of H202 was observed in fruit peel during transition from green to yellow fruit stage. All together our data showed that ClGLP1 expression can be modulated in relation to both developmental stimuli and culture practices; evidence is also provided that through an oxidase activity this gene could play a role in fruit maturation as well as in stress responses. PMID:24681751

  4. Intestinal Bile Acid Composition Modulates Prohormone Convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) Expression and Consequent GLP-1 Production in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kohkichi; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Sugizaki, Taichi; Irie, Jun-ichiro; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Besides an established medication for hypercholesterolemia, bile acid binding resins (BABRs) present antidiabetic effects. Although the mechanisms underlying these effects are still enigmatic, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) appears to be involved. In addition to a few reported mechanisms, we propose prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), an essential enzyme of GLP-1 production, as a potent molecule in the GLP-1 release induced by BABRs. In our study, the BABR colestimide leads to a bile acid-specific G protein-coupled receptor TGR5-dependent induction of PC1/3 gene expression. Here, we focused on the alteration of intestinal bile acid composition and consequent increase of total TGR5 agonistic activity to explain the TGR5 activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that nuclear factor of activated T cells mediates the TGR5-triggered PC1/3 gene expression. Altogether, our data indicate that the TGR5-dependent intestinal PC1/3 gene expression supports the BABR-stimulated GLP-1 release. We also propose a combination of BABR and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in the context of GLP-1-based antidiabetic therapy. PMID:26789236

  5. Increasing GLP-1 Circulating Levels by Bariatric Surgery or by GLP-1 Receptor Agonists Therapy: Why Are the Clinical Consequences so Different?

    PubMed Central

    Amouyal, Chloé; Andreelli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The “incretin effect” is used to describe the observation that more insulin is secreted after the oral administration of glucose compared to that after the intravenous administration of the same amount of glucose. During the absorption of meals, the gut is thought to regulate insulin secretion by secreting a specific factor that targets pancreatic beta cells. Additional research confirmed this hypothesis with the discovery of two hormones called incretins: gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). During meals, specific cells in the gut (L and K enteroendocrine cells) secrete incretins, causing an increase in the blood concentrations of, respectively, GLP-1 and GIP. Bariatric surgery is now proposed during the therapeutic management of type 2 diabetes in obese or overweight populations. It has been hypothesized that restoration of endogenous GLP-1 secretion after the surgery may contribute to the postsurgical resolution of diabetes. In 2005, the commercialization of GLP-1 receptor agonists gave the possibility to test this hypothesis. A few years later, it is now accepted that GLP-1 receptor agonists and bariatric surgery differently improve type 2 diabetes. These differences between endogenous and exogenous GLP-1 on glucose homeostasis emphasized the dual properties of GLP-1 as a peptide hormone and as a neurotransmitter. PMID:27382574

  6. Nutrient induced type 2 and chemical induced type 1 experimental diabetes differently modulate gastric GLP-1 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Olga; Broide, Efrat; Ben-Yehudah, Gilad; Cantrell, Dror; Shirin, Haim; Rapoport, Micha J

    2015-01-01

    T2DM patients demonstrate reduced GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression in their gastric glands. Whether induced T2DM and T1DM differently affect the gastric GLP-1R expression is not known. This study assessed extrapancreatic GLP-1R system in glandular stomach of rodents with different types of experimental diabetes. T2DM and T1DM were induced in Psammomys obesus (PO) by high-energy (HE) diet and by streptozotocin (STZ) in Sprague Dawly (SD) rats, respectively. GLP-1R expression was determined in glandular stomach by RT PCR and immunohistomorphological analysis. The mRNA expression and cellular association of the GLP-1R in principal glands were similar in control PO and SD rats. However, nutrient and chemical induced diabetes resulted in opposite alterations of glandular GLP-1R expression. Diabetic PO demonstrated increased GLP-1R mRNA expression, intensity of cellular GLP-1R immunostaining, and frequency of GLP-1R positive cells in the neck area of principal glands compared with controls. In contrast, SD diabetic rats demonstrated decreased GLP-1 mRNA, cellular GLP-1R immunoreactivity, and frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells in the neck area compared with controls. In conclusion, nutrient and chemical induced experimental diabetes result in distinct opposite alterations of GLP-1R expression in glandular stomach. These results suggest that induced T1DM and T2DM may differently modulate GLP-1R system in enteropancreatic axis. PMID:25893200

  7. EGO-1, a Putative RNA-Directed RNA Polymerase, Promotes Germline Proliferation in Parallel With GLP-1/Notch Signaling and Regulates the Spatial Organization of Nuclear Pore Complexes and Germline P Granules in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Vought, Valarie E.; Ohmachi, Mitsue; Lee, Min-Ho; Maine, Eleanor M.

    2005-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans EGO-1, a putative cellular RNA-directed RNA polymerase, promotes several aspects of germline development, including proliferation, meiosis, and gametogenesis, and ensures a robust response to RNA interference. In C. elegans, GLP-1/Notch signaling from the somatic gonad maintains a population of proliferating germ cells, while entry of germ cells into meiosis is triggered by the GLD-1 and GLD-2 pathways. GLP-1 signaling prevents germ cells from entering meiosis by inhibiting GLD-1 and GLD-2 activity. We originally identified the ego-1 gene on the basis of a genetic interaction with glp-1. Here, we investigate the role of ego-1 in germline proliferation. Our data indicate that EGO-1 does not positively regulate GLP-1 protein levels or GLP-1 signaling activity. Moreover, GLP-1 signaling does not positively regulate EGO-1 activity. EGO-1 does not inhibit expression of GLD-1 protein in the distal germline. Instead, EGO-1 acts in parallel with GLP-1 signaling to influence the proliferation vs. meiosis fate choice. Moreover, EGO-1 and GLD-1 act in parallel to ensure germline health. Finally, the size and distribution of nuclear pore complexes and perinuclear P granules are altered in the absence of EGO-1, effects that disrupt germ cell biology per se and probably limit germline growth. PMID:15911573

  8. EGO-1, a putative RNA-directed RNA polymerase, promotes germline proliferation in parallel with GLP-1/notch signaling and regulates the spatial organization of nuclear pore complexes and germline P granules in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Vought, Valarie E; Ohmachi, Mitsue; Lee, Min-Ho; Maine, Eleanor M

    2005-07-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans EGO-1, a putative cellular RNA-directed RNA polymerase, promotes several aspects of germline development, including proliferation, meiosis, and gametogenesis, and ensures a robust response to RNA interference. In C. elegans, GLP-1/Notch signaling from the somatic gonad maintains a population of proliferating germ cells, while entry of germ cells into meiosis is triggered by the GLD-1 and GLD-2 pathways. GLP-1 signaling prevents germ cells from entering meiosis by inhibiting GLD-1 and GLD-2 activity. We originally identified the ego-1 gene on the basis of a genetic interaction with glp-1. Here, we investigate the role of ego-1 in germline proliferation. Our data indicate that EGO-1 does not positively regulate GLP-1 protein levels or GLP-1 signaling activity. Moreover, GLP-1 signaling does not positively regulate EGO-1 activity. EGO-1 does not inhibit expression of GLD-1 protein in the distal germline. Instead, EGO-1 acts in parallel with GLP-1 signaling to influence the proliferation vs. meiosis fate choice. Moreover, EGO-1 and GLD-1 act in parallel to ensure germline health. Finally, the size and distribution of nuclear pore complexes and perinuclear P granules are altered in the absence of EGO-1, effects that disrupt germ cell biology per se and probably limit germline growth. PMID:15911573

  9. A novel dual GLP-1 and GIP incretin receptor agonist is neuroprotective in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease by reducing chronic inflammation in the brain.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lijun; Li, Dongfang; Feng, Peng; Li, Lin; Xue, Guo-Fang; Li, Guanglai; Hölscher, Christian

    2016-04-13

    The incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are growth factors. GLP-1 mimetics are on the market as treatments for type 2 diabetes. Both GLP-1 and GIP mimetics have shown neuroprotective properties in previous studies. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown protective effects in a clinical trial in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Novel GLP-1/GIP dual-agonist peptides have been developed to treat diabetes. Here, we report the neuroprotective effects of a novel dual agonist (DA-JC1) in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. MPTP was injected once daily (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for 7 days and the dual agonist was coinjected once daily (50 nmol/kg intraperitoneally). We found that the drug reduced most of the MPTP-induced motor impairments in the rotarod, open-field locomotion, and muscle strength test. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and striatum was reduced by MPTP and increased by DA-JC1. Synapse numbers (synaptophysin expression) were reduced in the substantia nigra and the striatum by MPTP and DA-JC1 reversed this effect. The activation of a chronic inflammation response by MPTP was considerably reduced by the dual agonist (DA) (astroglia and microglia activation). Therefore, dual agonists show promise as a novel treatment of PD. PMID:26918675

  10. The GLP-1 agonist, liraglutide, as a pharmacotherapy for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Crane, James; McGowan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    There is a global obesity epidemic that will continue to be a financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Tackling obesity through diet and exercise should always be the first intervention, but this has not proved to be effective for a large number of patients. Pharmacotherapeutic options have been limited and many previously available drugs have been withdrawn due to safety concerns. Currently, only bariatric surgery has the capability to induce both substantial and durable weight loss. This article briefly reviews the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity before focusing on the clinical trial evidence for the use of the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide as a weight loss agent and comparing its efficacy with other emerging drug therapies for obesity. PMID:26977279

  11. The GLP-1 agonist, liraglutide, as a pharmacotherapy for obesity.

    PubMed

    Crane, James; McGowan, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    There is a global obesity epidemic that will continue to be a financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Tackling obesity through diet and exercise should always be the first intervention, but this has not proved to be effective for a large number of patients. Pharmacotherapeutic options have been limited and many previously available drugs have been withdrawn due to safety concerns. Currently, only bariatric surgery has the capability to induce both substantial and durable weight loss. This article briefly reviews the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity before focusing on the clinical trial evidence for the use of the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide as a weight loss agent and comparing its efficacy with other emerging drug therapies for obesity. PMID:26977279

  12. Differences in acute anorectic effects of long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have both glucose- and weight-lowering effects. The brain is poised to mediate both of these actions since GLP-1Rs are present in key areas known to control weight and glucose. Although some research has been performed on the effects of ...

  13. GLP-1 increases microvascular recruitment but not glucose uptake in human and rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sjøberg, Kim A.; Holst, Jens J.; Rattigan, Stephen; Richter, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    The insulinotropic gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been proposed to have effects on vascular function and glucose disposal. However, whether GLP-1 is able to increase microvascular recruitment (MVR) in humans has not been investigated. GLP-1 was infused in the femoral artery in overnight-fasted, healthy young men. Microvascular recruitment was measured with real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound and leg glucose uptake by the leg balance technique with and without inhibition of the insulinotropic response of GLP-1 by coinfusion of octreotide. As a positive control, MVR and leg glucose uptake were measured during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Infusion of GLP-1 caused a rapid increase (P < 0.05) of 20 ± 12% (mean ± SE) in MVR in the vastus lateralis muscle of the infused leg after 5 min, and MVR further increased to 60 ± 8% above preinfusion levels by 60 min infusion. The effect was slightly slower but similar in magnitude in the noninfused contralateral leg, in which GLP-1 concentration was within the physiological range. Octreotide infusion did not prevent the GLP-1-induced increase in MVR. GLP-1 infusion did not increase leg glucose uptake with or without octreotide coinfusion. GLP-1 infusion in rats increased MVR by 28% (P < 0.05) but did not increase muscle glucose uptake. During the hyperinsulinemic clamp, MVR increased ∼40%, and leg glucose uptake increased 35-fold. It is concluded that GLP-1 in physiological concentrations causes a rapid insulin-independent increase in muscle MVR but does not affect muscle glucose uptake. PMID:24302010

  14. Exenatide exerts direct protective effects on endothelial cells through the AMPK/Akt/eNOS pathway in a GLP-1 receptor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rui; Ma, Shifeng; Wang, Chen; Ke, Jing; Yang, Jin; Li, Weihong; Liu, Ye; Hou, Wenfang; Feng, Xinheng; Wang, Guang; Hong, Tianpei

    2016-06-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may have direct favorable effects on cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the GLP-1 analog exenatide on improving coronary endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. The newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled and given either lifestyle intervention or lifestyle intervention plus exenatide treatment. After 12-wk treatment, coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR), an important indicator of coronary endothelial function, was improved significantly, and serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were remarkably decreased in the exenatide treatment group compared with the baseline and the control group. Notably, CFVR was correlated inversely with hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) and positively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, exendin-4 (a form of exenatide) significantly increased NO production, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, and GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) level in a dose-dependent manner. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) antagonist exendin (9-39) or GLP-1R siRNA, adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ-22536, AMPK inhibitor compound C, and PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 abolished the effects of exendin-4. Furthermore, exendin-4 reversed homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction by decreasing sICAM-1 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and upregulating NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. Likewise, exendin (9-39) diminished the protective effects of exendin-4 on the homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction. In conclusion, exenatide significantly improves coronary endothelial function in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The effect may be mediated through activation of AMPK/PI3K-Akt/eNOS pathway via a GLP-1R/cAMP-dependent mechanism. PMID:27072494

  15. 7 CFR 7.36 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation. 7.36 Section 7.36 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.36 Implementation. Unless specifically provided in...

  16. COUP-TFII Controls Mouse Pancreatic β-Cell Mass through GLP-1-β-Catenin Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Boutant, Marie; Ramos, Oscar Henrique Pereira; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Movassat, Jamileh; Ilias, Anissa; Vallois, David; Planchais, Julien; Pégorier, Jean-Paul; Schuit, Frans; Petit, Patrice X.; Bossard, Pascale; Maedler, Kathrin; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Background The control of the functional pancreatic β-cell mass serves the key homeostatic function of releasing the right amount of insulin to keep blood sugar in the normal range. It is not fully understood though how β-cell mass is determined. Methodology/Principal Findings Conditional chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII)-deficient mice were generated and crossed with mice expressing Cre under the control of pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (pdx1) gene promoter. Ablation of COUP-TFII in pancreas resulted in glucose intolerance. Beta-cell number was reduced at 1 day and 3 weeks postnatal. Together with a reduced number of insulin-containing cells in the ductal epithelium and normal β-cell proliferation and apoptosis, this suggests decreased β-cell differentiation in the neonatal period. By testing islets isolated from these mice and cultured β-cells with loss and gain of COUP-TFII function, we found that COUP-TFII induces the expression of the β-catenin gene and its target genes such as cyclin D1 and axin 2. Moreover, induction of these genes by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) via β-catenin was impaired in absence of COUP-TFII. The expression of two other target genes of GLP-1 signaling, GLP-1R and PDX-1 was significantly lower in mutant islets compared to control islets, possibly contributing to reduced β-cell mass. Finally, we demonstrated that COUP-TFII expression was activated by the Wnt signaling-associated transcription factor TCF7L2 (T-cell factor 7-like 2) in human islets and rat β-cells providing a feedback loop. Conclusions/Significance Our findings show that COUP-TFII is a novel component of the GLP-1 signaling cascade that increases β-cell number during the neonatal period. COUP-TFII is required for GLP-1 activation of the β-catenin-dependent pathway and its expression is under the control of TCF7L2. PMID:22292058

  17. GLP-1 Receptor Agonists: Nonglycemic Clinical Effects in Weight Loss and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Donna; Acosta, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Obective Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are indicated for treatment of type 2 diabetes since they mimic the actions of native GLP-1 on pancreatic islet cells, stimulating insulin release, while inhibiting glucagon release, in a glucose-dependent manner. The observation of weight loss has led to exploration of their potential as antiobesity agents, with liraglutide 3.0 mg day−1 approved for weight management in the US on December 23, 2014, and in the EU on March 23, 2015. This review examines the potential nonglycemic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify preclinical and clinical evidence on nonglycemic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Results GLP-1 receptors are distributed widely in a number of tissues in humans, and their effects are not limited to the well-recognized effects on glycemia. Nonglycemic effects include weight loss, which is perhaps the most widely recognized nonglycemic effect. In addition, effects on the cardiovascular, neurologic, and renal systems and on taste perception may occur independently of weight loss. Conclusions GLP-1 receptor agonists may provide other nonglycemic clinical effects besides weight loss. Understanding these effects is important for prescribers in using GLP-1 receptor agonists for diabetic patients, but also if approved for chronic weight management. PMID:25959380

  18. cAMP-independent effects of GLP-1 on β cells.

    PubMed

    Kolic, Jelena; MacDonald, Patrick E

    2015-12-01

    The ability of glucose to stimulate insulin secretion from the pancreatic islets of Langerhans is enhanced by the intestinal hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which is secreted from the gut in response to nutrient ingestion. This action, called the incretin effect, accounts for as much as half of the postprandial insulin response and is exploited therapeutically for diabetes treatment through the use of incretin mimetic drugs and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4, which degrades GLP-1. Despite a prominent role for incretin mimetics in diabetes treatment, several key questions remain about GLP-1-induced insulin secretion. Most studies have examined the effects of GLP-1 at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than those found in vivo; therefore, one might question the physiological (and perhaps even pharmacological) relevance of pathways identified in these studies and whether other important mechanisms might have been obscured. In this issue of the JCI, Shigeto and colleagues demonstrate that physiological GLP-1 does indeed amplify the insulin secretory response. Intriguingly, while much of this response is PKA dependent, as might be expected, the use of picomolar GLP-1 reveals a new and important mechanism that contributes to GLP-1-induced insulin secretion. PMID:26571393

  19. Aerosolized GLP-1 for treatment of diabetes mellitus and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Siekmeier, Rüdiger; Hofmann, Thomas; Scheuch, Gerhard; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a global burden and the prevalence of the disease, in particular diabetes mellitus type 2 is rapidly increasing worldwide. After introduction of insulin into clinical therapy about 90 years ago a major number of pharmaceuticals has been developed for treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. One of these, the incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), like insulin, needs subcutaneous administration causing inconvenience to patients. However, administration of GLP-1 plays also a role for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To improve patient convenience inhaled insulin (Exubera(®)) was developed and approved but failed market acceptance some years ago. Recently, another inhalative insulin (Afrezza(®)) received market approval and GLP-1 may serve as another candidate drug for inhalative administration. This review analyzes the current literature investigating alternative administration of GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs focusing on inhalation. Several formulations for inhalative administration of GLP-1 and analogs were investigated in animal studies, whereas there are only few clinical data. However, feasibility of GLP-1 inhalation has been shown and should be further investigated as such type of drug administration may serve for improvement of therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus or irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:25427821

  20. Novel fusion of GLP-1 with a domain antibody to serum albumin prolongs protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its mimetics reduce infarct size in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the short serum half-life of GLP-1 and its mimetics may limit their therapeutic use in acute myocardial ischemia. Domain antibodies to serum albumin (AlbudAbs) have been developed to extend the serum half-life of short lived therapeutic proteins, peptides and small molecules. In this study, we compared the effect of a long acting GLP-1 agonist, DPP-IV resistant GLP-1 (7–36, A8G) fused to an AlbudAb (GAlbudAb), with the effect of the GLP-1 mimetic, exendin-4 (short half-life GLP-1 agonist) on infarct size following acute myocardial I/R injury. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats (8-week-old) were treated with vehicle, GAlbudAb or exendin-4. Myocardial ischemia was induced 2 h following the final dose for GAlbudAb and 30 min post the final dose for exendin-4. In a subgroup of animals, the final dose of exendin-4 was administered (1 μg/kg, SC, bid for 2 days) 6 h prior to myocardial ischemia when plasma exendin-4 was at its minimum concentration (Cmin). Myocardial infarct size, area at risk and cardiac function were determined 24 h after myocardial I/R injury. Results GAlbudAb and exendin-4 significantly reduced myocardial infarct size by 28% and 23% respectively, compared to vehicle (both p < 0.01 vs. vehicle) after I/R injury. Moreover, both GAlbudAb and exendin-4 markedly improved post-ischemic cardiac contractile function. Body weight loss and reduced food intake consistent with the activation of GLP-1 receptors was observed in all treatment groups. However, exendin-4 failed to reduce infarct size when administered 6 h prior to myocardial ischemia, suggesting continuous activation of the GLP-1 receptors is needed for cardioprotection. Conclusions Cardioprotection provided by GAlbudAb, a long acting GLP-1 mimetic, following myocardial I/R injury was comparable in magnitude, but more sustained in

  1. GLP-1, the Gut-Brain, and Brain-Periphery Axes

    PubMed Central

    Cabou, Cendrine; Burcelin, Remy

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone which directly binds to the GLP-1 receptor located at the surface of the pancreatic β-cells to enhance glucose-induced insulin secretion. In addition to its pancreatic effects, GLP-1 can induce metabolic actions by interacting with its receptors expressed on nerve cells in the gut and the brain. GLP-1 can also be considered as a neuropeptide synthesized by neuronal cells in the brain stem that release the peptide directly into the hypothalamus. In this environment, GLP-1 is assumed to control numerous metabolic and cardiovascular functions such as insulin secretion, glucose production and utilization, and arterial blood flow. However, the exact roles of these two locations in the regulation of glucose homeostasis are not well understood. In this review, we highlight the latest experimental data supporting the role of the gut-brain and brain-periphery axes in the control of glucose homeostasis. We also focus our attention on the relevance of β-cell and brain cell targeting by gut GLP-1 for the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In addition to its action on β-cells, we find that understanding the physiological role of GLP-1 will help to develop GLP-1-based therapies to control glycemia in type 2 diabetes by triggering the gut-brain axis or the brain directly. This pleiotropic action of GLP-1 is an important concept that may help to explain the observation that, during their treatment, type 2 diabetic patients can be identified as 'responders' and 'non-responders'. PMID:22262078

  2. Density distribution of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2)-expressing and GLP-1-producing enteroendocrine L cells in human and rat lower intestine, and increased cell numbers after ingestion of fructo-oligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Izumi; Karaki, Shin-Ichiro; Tanaka, Ryo; Kuwahara, Atsukazu

    2011-02-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a multifunctional hormone in glucose metabolism and intestinal function released by enteroendocrine L-cells. The plasma concentration of GLP-1 is increased by indigestible carbohydrates and luminal infusion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). However, the triggers and modulators of the GLP-1 release remain unclear. We hypothesized that SCFAs produced by bacterial fermentation are involved in enteroendocrine cell proliferation and hormone release through free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2, also known as FFAR2 or GPR43) in the large intestine. Fructo-oligosaccharide (Fructo-OS), fermentable indigestible carbohydrate, was used as a source of SCFAs. Rats were fed an indigestible-carbohydrate-free diet (control) or a 5% Fructo-OS-containing diet for 28 days. FFA2-, GLP-1-, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-positive enteroendocrine cells were quantified immunohistochemically in the colon, cecum, and terminal ileum. The same analysis was performed in surgical specimens from human lower intestine. The coexpression of FFA2 with GLP-1 was investigated both in rats and humans. Fructo-OS supplementation in rats increased the densities of FFA2-positive enteroendocrine cells in rat proximal colon, by over two-fold, relative to control, in parallel with GLP-1-containing L-cells. The segmental distributions of these cells in human were similar to rats fed the control diet. The FFA2-positive enteroendocrine cells were GLP-1-containing L-cells, but not 5-HT-containing EC cells, in both human and rat colon and terminal ileum. Fermentable indigestible carbohydrate increases the number of FFA2-positive L-cells in the proximal colon. FFA2 activation by SCFAs might be an important trigger for produce and release GLP-1 by enteroendocrine L-cells in the lower intestine. PMID:21113792

  3. Sustained expression of GLP-1 receptor differentially modulates β-cell functions in diabetic and nondiabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Fumiyo; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Sasaki, Shugo; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Shimo, Naoki; Watada, Hirotaka; Kaneto, Hideaki; Gannon, Maureen; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2016-02-26

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been shown to play important roles in maintaining β-cell functions, such as insulin secretion and proliferation. While expression levels of GLP-1 receptor (Glp1r) are compromised in the islets of diabetic rodents, it remains unclear when and to what degree Glp1r mRNA levels are decreased during the progression of diabetes. In this study, we performed real-time PCR with the islets of db/db diabetic mice at different ages, and found that the expression levels of Glp1r were comparable to those of the islets of nondiabetic db/misty controls at the age of four weeks, and were significantly decreased at the age of eight and 12 weeks. To investigate whether restored expression of Glp1r affects the diabetic phenotypes, we generated the transgenic mouse model Pdx1(PB)-CreER(TM); CAG-CAT-Glp1r (βGlp1r) that allows for induction of Glp1r expression specifically in β cells. Whereas the expression of exogenous Glp1r had no measurable effect on glucose tolerance in nondiabetic βGlp1r;db/misty mice, βGlp1r;db/db mice exhibited higher glucose and lower insulin levels in blood on glucose challenge test than control db/db littermates. In contrast, four weeks of treatment with exendin-4 improved the glucose profiles and increased serum insulin levels in βGlp1r;db/db mice, to significantly higher levels than those in control db/db mice. These differential effects of exogenous Glp1r in nondiabetic and diabetic mice suggest that downregulation of Glp1r might be required to slow the progression of β-cell failure under diabetic conditions. PMID:26854076

  4. GLP-1 receptor is expressed in human stomach mucosa: analysis of its cellular association and distribution within gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Broide, Efrat; Bloch, Olga; Ben-Yehudah, Gilad; Cantrell, Dror; Shirin, Haim; Rapoport, Micha J

    2013-09-01

    The stomach is a target organ of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, the cellular expression and glandular distribution of its receptor (GLP-1R) in human gastric mucosa are not known. We determined the expression of GLP-1R in different regions of human stomach mucosa and its specific cellular association and distribution within gastric glands. Tissue samples from stomach body and antrum were obtained from 20 patients during routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy. mRNA encoding GLP-1R protein expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. Determination of cell types bearing GLP-1R, their localization, and their frequency in gastric glands in different gastric regions were estimated by immunohistochemical morphological analysis. Levels of GLP-1R mRNA were similar in body and antrum. GLP-1R immunoreactivity was found throughout the gastric mucosa in various types of glandular cells. The highest frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells was found in the neck area of the principal glands in cells morphologically identified as parietal cells. GLP-1R immunostaining was also found on enteroendocrine-like cells in the pyloric glands. This study provides the first description of GLP-1R expression in human gastric glands and its specific cellular association. Our data suggest that GLP-1 may act directly on the gastric mucosa to modulate its complex functions. PMID:23803499

  5. Targeting Incretins in Type 2 Diabetes: Role of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and DPP-4 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pratley, Richard E.; Gilbert, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been conceptualized in terms of the predominant defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. It is now recognized that abnormalities in other hormones also contribute to the development of hyperglycemia. For example, the incretin effect, mediated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), is attenuated in T2DM. Intravenous administration of GLP-1 ameliorates hyperglycemia in patients with T2DM, but an extremely short half-life limits its utility as a therapeutic agent. Strategies to leverage the beneficial effects of GLP-1 include GLP-1 receptor agonists or analogs or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors—agents that act by slowing the inactivation of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP. The GLP-1 agonist exenatide has been shown to improve HbA1c and decrease body weight. However, exenatide is limited by its relatively short pharmacologic half-life, various gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, and the development of antibodies. Studies of a long-acting exenatide formulation suggest that it has improved efficacy and also promotes weight loss. Another prospect is liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analog. In phase 2 studies, liraglutide lowered HbA1c by up to 1.7% and weight by approximately 3 kg, with apparently fewer GI side effects than exenatide. DPP-4 inhibitors such as sitagliptin and vildagliptin result in clinically significant reductions in HbA1c, and are weight neutral with few GI side effects. This review will provide an overview of current and emerging agents that augment the incretin system with a focus on the role of GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors. PMID:18795210

  6. Exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, interacts with proteins and their products of digestion to suppress food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Alfred; Anderson, G Harvey

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that dietary proteins suppress food intake partly through the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling pathway, and that this effect is mediated by products of protein digestion. The GLP-1 receptor agonist, Exendin-4 (Ex-4) (0.5 micro g/rat), was given intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats, and food intake was measured when Ex-4 was given alone or with preloads of intact whey and casein proteins, their hydrolysates and amino acid mixtures (0.5 g x 4 mL(-1) x rat(-1)). Both Ex-4 and the preloads suppressed food intake (P < 0.05), but the effect of Ex-4 on food intake was reduced when coadministered with the preloads (P < 0.05). Because the effect of Ex-4 was reduced by the protein hydrolysates and by the amino acid preloads, the results support a role for the end products of protein digestion and GLP-1 release in the suppression of food intake in response to protein ingestion. We concluded that the GLP-1 signaling pathway, activated by the release of products of protein digestion, is another mechanism accounting for the reduction of food intake after protein ingestion. PMID:12840201

  7. Effects of GLP-1 and Incretin-Based Therapies on Gastrointestinal Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Chinmay S.; Rayner, Christopher K.; Jones, Karen L.; Horowitz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone secreted predominantly by the distal small intestine and colon and released in response to enteral nutrient exposure. GLP-1-based therapies are now used widely in the management of type 2 diabetes and have the potential to be effective antiobesity agents. Although widely known as an incretin hormone, there is a growing body of evidence that GLP-1 also acts as an enterogastrone, with profound effects on the gastrointestinal motor system. Moreover, the effects of GLP-1 on gastrointestinal motility appear to be pivotal to its effect of reducing postprandial glycaemic excursions and may, potentially, represent the dominant mechanism. This review summarizes current knowledge of the enterogastrone properties of GLP-1, focusing on its effects on gut motility at physiological and pharmacological concentrations, and the motor actions of incretin-based therapies. While of potential importance, the inhibitory action of GLP-1 on gastric acid secretion is beyond the scope of this paper. PMID:21747825

  8. Autocrine selection of a GLP-1R G-protein biased agonist with potent antidiabetic effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongkai; Sturchler, Emmanuel; Zhu, Jiang; Nieto, Ainhoa; Cistrone, Philip A.; Xie, Jia; He, LinLing; Yea, Kyungmoo; Jones, Teresa; Turn, Rachel; Di Stefano, Peter S.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Dawson, Philip E.; McDonald, Patricia H.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have emerged as treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GLP-1R signals through G-protein-dependent, and G-protein-independent pathways by engaging the scaffold protein β-arrestin; preferential signalling of ligands through one or the other of these branches is known as ‘ligand bias'. Here we report the discovery of the potent and selective GLP-1R G-protein-biased agonist, P5. We identified P5 in a high-throughput autocrine-based screening of large combinatorial peptide libraries, and show that P5 promotes G-protein signalling comparable to GLP-1 and Exendin-4, but exhibited a significantly reduced β-arrestin response. Preclinical studies using different mouse models of T2DM demonstrate that P5 is a weak insulin secretagogue. Nevertheless, chronic treatment of diabetic mice with P5 increased adipogenesis, reduced adipose tissue inflammation as well as hepatic steatosis and was more effective at correcting hyperglycaemia and lowering haemoglobin A1c levels than Exendin-4, suggesting that GLP-1R G-protein-biased agonists may provide a novel therapeutic approach to T2DM. PMID:26621478

  9. Intragenic Dominant Suppressors of Glp-1, a Gene Essential for Cell-Signaling in Caenorhabditis Elegans, Support a Role for Cdc10/Sw16/Ankyrin Motifs in Glp-1 Function

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, J. L.; Currie, P. D.; Turk, C. M.; Maine, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    The glp-1 gene product mediates cell-cell interactions required for cell fate specification during development in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify genes that interact with glp-1, we screened for dominant suppressors of two temperature-sensitive glp-1 alleles and recovered 18 mutations that suppress both germline and embryonic glp-1 phenotypes. These dominant suppressors are tightly linked to glp-1 and do not bypass the requirement for a distal tip cell, which is thought to be the source of a signal that is received and transduced by the GLP-1 protein. Using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing, we found that at least 17 suppressors are second-site intragenic revertants. The suppressors, like the original glp-1(ts) mutations, are all located in the cdc10/SWI6/ankyrin domain of GLP-1. cdc10/SWI6/ankyrin motifs have been shown to mediate specific protein-protein interactions in other polypeptides. We propose that the glp-1(ts) mutations disrupt contact between GLP-1 and an as yet unidentified target protein(s) and that the dominant suppressor mutations restore appropriate protein-protein interactions. PMID:8307320

  10. Structural Determinants of Binding the Seven-transmembrane Domain of the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R).

    PubMed

    Yang, Dehua; de Graaf, Chris; Yang, Linlin; Song, Gaojie; Dai, Antao; Cai, Xiaoqing; Feng, Yang; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen; Hanson, Michael A; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Stevens, Raymond C; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2016-06-17

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) belongs to the secretin-like (class B) family of G protein-coupled receptors. Members of the class B family are distinguished by their large extracellular domain, which works cooperatively with the canonical seven-transmembrane (7TM) helical domain to signal in response to binding of various peptide hormones. We have combined structure-based site-specific mutational studies with molecular dynamics simulations of a full-length model of GLP-1R bound to multiple peptide ligand variants. Despite the high sequence similarity between GLP-1R and its closest structural homologue, the glucagon receptor (GCGR), nearly half of the 62 stably expressed mutants affected GLP-1R in a different manner than the corresponding mutants in GCGR. The molecular dynamics simulations of wild-type and mutant GLP-1R·ligand complexes provided molecular insights into GLP-1R-specific recognition mechanisms for the N terminus of GLP-1 by residues in the 7TM pocket and explained how glucagon-mimicking GLP-1 mutants restored binding affinity for (GCGR-mimicking) GLP-1R mutants. Structural analysis of the simulations suggested that peptide ligand binding mode variations in the 7TM binding pocket are facilitated by movement of the extracellular domain relative to the 7TM bundle. These differences in binding modes may account for the pharmacological differences between GLP-1 peptide variants. PMID:27059958

  11. Peptide complex containing GLP-1 exhibited long-acting properties in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuemin; Li, Ying; Li, Xin; Tang, Lida; Xu, Weiren; Gong, Min

    2011-09-01

    The multiple physiological characterizations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) make it a promising drug candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, in vivo, the half-life of GLP-1 is short, which is caused by the degradation of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and renal clearance. Thus, the stabilization of GLP-1 is critical for its utility in drug development. Peptides known as GLP-1 protectors are predicted to increase the half-life of GLP-1 in vivo. Protecting peptides are able to form stable complexes by non-covalent interactions with human GLP-1. In this study, the stability of the complex was investigated, and the physiological functions of the GLP-1/peptide 1 complex were compared to those of exenatide and liraglutide in animals. The results indicated that the GLP-1/peptide 1 complex remarkably raised the half-life of GLP-1 in vivo and showed better glucose tolerance and higher HbA(1c) reduction than exenatide and liraglutide in rodents. Based upon these results, it is suggested that the GLP-1/peptide 1 complex might be utilized as a possible potent anti-diabetic drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:21641071

  12. Molecular mechanisms redirecting the GLP-1 receptor signalling profile in pancreatic β-cells during type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Morgane; Mathieu, Julia; Dalle, Stéphane

    2016-05-01

    Treatments with β-cell preserving properties are essential for the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the new therapeutic avenues, developed over the last years, rely on the physiological role of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Sustained pharmacological levels of GLP-1 are achieved by subcutaneous administration of GLP-1 analogues, while transient and lower physiological levels of GLP-1 are attained following treatment with inhibitors of dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP4), an endoprotease which degrades the peptide. Both therapeutic classes display a sustained and durable hypoglycaemic action in patients with T2D. However, the GLP-1 incretin effect is known to be reduced in patients with T2D, and GLP-1 analogues and DPP4 inhibitors were shown to lose their effectiveness over time in some patients. The pathological mechanisms behind these observations can be either a decrease in GLP-1 secretion from intestinal L-cells and, as a consequence, a reduction in GLP-1 plasma concentrations, combined or not with a reduced action of GLP-1 in the β-cell, the so-called GLP-1 resistance. Much evidence for a GLP-1 resistance of the β-cell in subjects with T2D have emerged. Here, we review the potential roles of the genetic background, the hyperglycaemia, the hyperlipidaemia, the prostaglandin E receptor 3, the nuclear glucocorticoid receptor, the GLP-1R desensitization and internalisation processes, and the β-arrestin-1 expression levels on GLP-1 resistance in β-cells during T2D. PMID:26953712

  13. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Sophie R.; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M.; Parker, Helen; Zac-Varghese, Sagen; Bloom, Stephen R.; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Rutter, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in these cells. Method Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre) to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay. Results Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01) in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01) and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01) GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01). Conclusion AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27010458

  14. Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Matikainen, Niina; Björnson, Elias; Söderlund, Sanni; Borén, Christofer; Eliasson, Björn; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Bogl, Leonie H.; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Rivellese, Angela; Riccardi, Gabriele; Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Holst, Jens Juul; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Borén, Jan; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Context Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified. Objective To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after a fat-rich meal compared to the same responses after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to investigate possible relationships between incretin response and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) response to a fat-rich meal. Design Glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were measured after an OGTT and after a fat-rich meal in 65 healthy obese (BMI 26.5–40.2 kg/m2) male subjects. Triglycerides (TG), apoB48 and apoB100 in TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL1 and VLDL2) were measured after the fat-rich meal. Main Outcome Measures Postprandial responses (area under the curve, AUC) for glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2, GIP in plasma, and TG, apoB48 and apoB100 in plasma and TG-rich lipoproteins. Results The GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses after the fat-rich meal and after the OGTT correlated strongly (r = 0.73, p<0.0001; r = 0.46, p<0.001 and r = 0.69, p<0.001, respectively). Glucose and insulin AUCs were lower, but the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were significantly higher after the fat-rich meal than after the OGTT. The peak value for all hormones appeared at 120 minutes after the fat-rich meal, compared to 30 minutes after the OGTT. After the fat-rich meal, the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP correlated significantly with plasma TG- and apoB48 AUCs but the contribution was very modest. Conclusions In obese males, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses to a fat-rich meal are greater than following an OGTT. However, the most important explanatory variable for postprandial TG excursion was fasting triglycerides. The contribution of endogenous GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP to explaining the variance in postprandial TG excursion was minor. PMID:26752550

  15. A clinical review of GLP-1 receptor agonists: efficacy and safety in diabetes and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Prasad-Reddy, Lalita; Isaacs, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing at an astounding rate. Many of the agents used to treat type 2 diabetes have undesirable adverse effects of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists represent a unique approach to the treatment of diabetes, with benefits extending outside glucose control, including positive effects on weight, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and beta-cell function. They mimic the effects of the incretin hormone GLP-1, which is released from the intestine in response to food intake. Their effects include increasing insulin secretion, decreasing glucagon release, increasing satiety, and slowing gastric emptying. There are currently four approved GLP-1 receptor agonists in the United States: exenatide, liraglutide, albiglutide, and dulaglutide. A fifth agent, lixisenatide, is available in Europe. There are important pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and clinical differences of each agent. The most common adverse effects seen with GLP-1 therapy include nausea, vomiting, and injection-site reactions. Other warnings and precautions include pancreatitis and thyroid cell carcinomas. GLP-1 receptor agonists are an innovative and effective option to improve blood glucose control, with other potential benefits of preserving beta-cell function, weight loss, and increasing insulin sensitivity. Once-weekly formulations may also improve patient adherence. Overall, these are effective agents for patients with type 2 diabetes, who are either uncontrolled on metformin or intolerant to metformin. PMID:26213556

  16. Presence and dynamics of leptin, GLP-1, and PYY in human breast milk at early postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Schueler, Jessica; Alexander, Brenda; Hart, Ann Marie; Austin, Kathleen; Enette Larson-Meyer, D

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The presence of appetite hormones, namely glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin in breast milk may be important in infant feeding regulation and infant growth. This study evaluated whether concentrations of GLP-1, PYY, and leptin change across a single feeding (from fore- to hindmilk), and are associated with maternal and infant anthropometrics. Design and Methods: Thirteen postpartum women (mean ± SD: 25.6 ± 4.5 years, 72.0 ± 11.9 kg) provided fore- and hindmilk samples 4-5 weeks after delivery and underwent measurements of body weight and composition by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry. GLP-1, PYY, and leptin concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay, and milk fat content was determined by creamatocrit. Results: Concentration of GLP-1 and content of milk fat was higher in hindmilk than foremilk (P ≤ 0.05). PYY and leptin concentrations did not change between fore- and hindmilk. Both leptin concentration and milk fat content were correlated with indices of maternal adiposity, including body mass index (r = 0.65-0.85, P < 0.02), and fat mass (r = 0.65-0.84, P < 0.02). Hindmilk GLP-1 was correlated with infant weight gain from birth to 6 months (r = −0.67, P = 0.034). Conclusion: The presence of appetite hormones in breast milk may be important in infant appetite and growth regulation. PMID:23408760

  17. Ywhaz/14-3-3ζ Deletion Improves Glucose Tolerance Through a GLP-1-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lim, Gareth E; Piske, Micah; Lulo, James E; Ramshaw, Hayley S; Lopez, Angel F; Johnson, James D

    2016-07-01

    Multiple signaling pathways mediate the actions of metabolic hormones to control glucose homeostasis, but the proteins that coordinate such networks are poorly understood. We previously identified the molecular scaffold protein, 14-3-3ζ, as a critical regulator of in vitro β-cell survival and adipogenesis, but its metabolic roles in glucose homeostasis have not been studied in depth. Herein, we report that Ywhaz gene knockout mice (14-3-3ζKO) exhibited elevated fasting insulin levels while maintaining normal β-cell responsiveness to glucose when compared with wild-type littermate controls. In contrast with our observations after an ip glucose bolus, glucose tolerance was significantly improved in 14-3-3ζKO mice after an oral glucose gavage. This improvement in glucose tolerance was associated with significantly elevated fasting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. 14-3-3ζ knockdown in GLUTag L cells elevated GLP-1 synthesis and increased GLP-1 release. Systemic inhibition of the GLP-1 receptor attenuated the improvement in oral glucose tolerance that was seen in 14-3-3ζKO mice. When taken together these findings demonstrate novel roles of 14-3-3ζ in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and suggest that modulating 14-3-3ζ levels in intestinal L cells may have beneficial metabolic effects through GLP-1-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27167773

  18. GLP-1 Agonists and Blood Pressure: A Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Goud, Aditya; Zhong, Jixin; Peters, Matthew; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The presence of concomitant hypertension in diabetics is a major driver of excess cardiovascular risk. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1a) act on numerous pathways that intersect glycemic, weight, and blood pressure (BP) control. BP-lowering effects have been observed in mouse models of hypertension with a variety of GLP-1a. Acute administration of GLP-1a in humans has been shown to no effects and sometimes increased BP in humans. Chronic administration of GLP-1a, however, reduces clinic systolic BP (≈2 mmHg) at least when evaluated as a secondary end point in glycemia-lowering studies while simultaneously increasing heart rate. BP lowering has not been consistently observed in two recent double-blind controlled clinical trials evaluating ambulatory BP as the primary end point. While a number of mechanisms including vascular, myocardial, renal, and central nervous system pathways have been suggested in animal studies, these mechanistic pathways have not been sufficiently detailed in humans and it is unclear if the same pathways are operational. Further studies need to be conducted to unravel the full spectrum of effects of this drug class. An understanding of their effects on BP may help provide an explanation for the ability of GLP-1a to influence cardiovascular (CV) events in ongoing event-driven CV trials. PMID:26803771

  19. Effects of GLP-1 on Forearm Vasodilator Function and Glucose Disposal During Hyperinsulinemia in the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tesauro, Manfredi; Schinzari, Francesca; Adamo, Angelo; Rovella, Valentina; Martini, Francesca; Mores, Nadia; Barini, Angela; Pitocco, Dario; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Lauro, Davide; Campia, Umberto; Cardillo, Carmine

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have impaired insulin-induced enhancement of vasodilator responses. The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), beyond its effects on blood glucose, has beneficial actions on vascular function. This study, therefore, aimed to assess whether GLP-1 affects insulin-stimulated vasodilator reactivity in patients with the MetS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were assessed in MetS patients before and after the addition of GLP-1 to an intra-arterial infusion of saline (n = 5) or insulin (n = 5). The possible involvement of oxidative stress in the vascular effects of GLP-1 in this setting was investigated by infusion of vitamin C (n = 5). The receptor specificity of GLP-1 effect during hyperinsulinemia was assessed by infusing its metabolite GLP-1(9-36) (n = 5). The metabolic actions of GLP-1 were also tested by analyzing forearm glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemia (n = 5). RESULTS In MetS patients, GLP-1 enhanced endothelium-dependent and -independent responses to ACh and SNP, respectively, during hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001 for both), but not during saline (P > 0.05 for both). No changes in vasodilator reactivity to ACh and SNP were seen after GLP-1 was added to insulin and vitamin C (P > 0.05 for both) and after GLP-1(9-36) was given during hyperinsulinemia (P > 0.05 for both). Also, GLP-1 did not affect forearm glucose extraction and uptake during hyperinsulinemia (P > 0.05 for both). CONCLUSIONS In patients with the MetS, GLP-1 improves insulin-mediated enhancement of endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular reactivity. This effect may be influenced by vascular oxidative stress and is possibly exerted through a receptor-mediated mechanism. PMID:23069838

  20. Mechanisms of surgical control of type 2 diabetes: GLP-1 is the key factor-Maybe.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Marzieh; D'Alessio, David A

    2016-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity and diabetes. The 2 most commonly performed weight-loss procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy, improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes independent of weight loss. One of the early hypotheses raised to explain the immediate antidiabetic effect of RYGB was that rapid delivery of nutrients from the stomach pouch into the distal small intestine enhances enteroinsular signaling to promote insulin signaling. Given the tenfold increase in postmeal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response compared to unchanged integrated levels of postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide after RYGB, enhanced meal-induced insulin secretion after this procedure was thought to be the result of elevated glucose and GLP-1 levels. In this contribution to the larger point-counterpoint debate about the role of GLP-1 after bariatric surgery, most of the focus will be on RYGB. PMID:27568473

  1. GLP1- and GIP-producing cells rarely overlap and differ by bombesin receptor-2 expression and responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Berit; Pais, Ramona; Engelstoft, Maja S; Milev, Nikolay B; Richards, Paul; Christiansen, Charlotte B; Egerod, Kristoffer L; Jensen, Signe M; Habib, Abdella M; Gribble, Fiona M; Schwartz, Thue W; Reimann, Frank; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted from intestinal endocrine cells, the so-called L- and K-cells. The cells are derived from a common precursor and are highly related, and co-expression of the two hormones in so-called L/K-cells has been reported. To investigate the relationship between the GLP1- and GIP-producing cells more closely, we generated a transgenic mouse model expressing a fluorescent marker in GIP-positive cells. In combination with a mouse strain with fluorescent GLP1 cells, we were able to estimate the overlap between the two cell types. Furthermore, we used primary cultured intestinal cells and isolated perfused mouse intestine to measure the secretion of GIP and GLP1 in response to different stimuli. Overlapping GLP1 and GIP cells were rare (∼5%). KCl, glucose and forskolin+IBMX increased the secretion of both GLP1 and GIP, whereas bombesin/neuromedin C only stimulated GLP1 secretion. Expression analysis showed high expression of the bombesin 2 receptor in GLP1 positive cells, but no expression in GIP-positive cells. These data indicate both expressional and functional differences between the GLP1-producing 'L-cell' and the GIP-producing 'K-cell'. PMID:26483393

  2. Effects of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP on glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Svane, Maria S; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Nielsen, Signe; Jørgensen, Nils B; Dirksen, Carsten; Bendtsen, Flemming; Kristiansen, Viggo B; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Madsbad, Sten

    2016-04-01

    Exaggerated secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is important for postprandial glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), whereas the role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) remains to be resolved. We aimed to explore the relative importance of endogenously secreted GLP-1 and GIP on glucose tolerance and β-cell function after RYGB. We used DPP-4 inhibition to enhance concentrations of intact GIP and GLP-1 and the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39) (Ex-9) for specific blockage of GLP-1 actions. Twelve glucose-tolerant patients were studied after RYGB in a randomized, placebo-controlled, 4-day crossover study with standard mixed-meal tests and concurrent administration of placebo, oral sitagliptin, Ex-9 infusion, or combined Ex-9-sitagliptin. GLP-1 receptor antagonism increased glucose excursions, clearly attenuated β-cell function, and aggravated postprandial hyperglucagonemia compared with placebo, whereas sitagliptin had no effect despite two- to threefold increased concentrations of intact GLP-1 and GIP. Similarly, sitagliptin did not affect glucose tolerance or β-cell function during GLP-1R blockage. This study confirms the importance of GLP-1 for glucose tolerance after RYGB via increased insulin and attenuated glucagon secretion in the postprandial state, whereas amplification of the GIP signal (or other DPP-4-sensitive glucose-lowering mechanisms) did not appear to contribute to the improved glucose tolerance seen after RYGB. PMID:26786780

  3. A Novel Humanized GLP-1 Receptor Model Enables Both Affinity Purification and Cre-LoxP Deletion of the Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Lucy S.; Showalter, Aaron D.; Ali, Nosher; Dai, Feihan; Ma, Wenzhen; Coskun, Tamer; Ficorilli, James V.; Wheeler, Michael B.; Michael, M. Dodson; Sloop, Kyle W.

    2014-01-01

    Class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important regulators of endocrine physiology, and peptide-based therapeutics targeting some of these receptors have proven effective at treating disorders such as hypercalcemia, osteoporosis, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As next generation efforts attempt to develop novel non-peptide, orally available molecules for these GPCRs, new animal models expressing human receptor orthologs may be required because small molecule ligands make fewer receptor contacts, and thus, the impact of amino acid differences across species may be substantially greater. The objective of this report was to generate and characterize a new mouse model of the human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (hGLP-1R), a class B GPCR for which established peptide therapeutics exist for the treatment of T2DM. hGLP-1R knock-in mice express the receptor from the murine Glp-1r locus. Glucose tolerance tests and gastric emptying studies show hGLP-1R mice and their wild-type littermates display similar physiological responses for glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, and gastric transit, and treatment with the GLP-1R agonist, exendin-4, elicits similar responses in both groups. Further, ex vivo assays show insulin secretion from humanized islets is glucose-dependent and enhanced by GLP-1R agonists. To enable additional utility, the targeting construct of the knock-in line was engineered to contain both flanking LoxP sites and a C-terminal FLAG epitope. Anti-FLAG affinity purification shows strong expression of hGLP-1R in islets, lung, and stomach. We crossed the hGLP-1R line with Rosa26Cre mice and generated global Glp-1r−/− animals. Immunohistochemistry of pancreas from humanized and knock-out mice identified a human GLP-1R-specific antibody that detects the GLP-1R in human pancreas as well as in the pancreas of hGLP-1r knock-in mice. This new hGLP-1R model will allow tissue-specific deletion of the GLP-1R, purification of potential GLP-1R partner

  4. Insulin and GLP-1 infusions demonstrate the onset of adipose-specific insulin resistance in a large fasting mammal: potential glucogenic role for GLP-1.

    PubMed

    Viscarra, Jose A; Rodriguez, Ruben; Vazquez-Medina, Jose Pablo; Lee, Andrew; Tift, Michael S; Tavoni, Stephen K; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2013-08-01

    Prolonged food deprivation increases lipid oxidation and utilization, which may contribute to the onset of the insulin resistance associated with fasting. Because insulin resistance promotes the preservation of glucose and oxidation of fat, it has been suggested to be an adaptive response to food deprivation. However, fasting mammals exhibit hypoinsulinemia, suggesting that the insulin resistance-like conditions they experience may actually result from reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose/capacity to secrete insulin. To determine whether fasting results in insulin resistance or in pancreatic dysfunction, we infused early- and late-fasted seals (naturally adapted to prolonged fasting) with insulin (0.065 U/kg), and a separate group of late-fasted seals with low (10 pM/kg) or high (100 pM/kg) dosages of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) immediately following a glucose bolus (0.5g/kg), and measured the systemic and cellular responses. Because GLP-1 facilitates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, these infusions provide a method to assess pancreatic insulin-secreting capacity. Insulin infusions increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor and Akt in adipose and muscle of early and late fasted seals; however the timing of the signaling response was blunted in adipose of late fasted seals. Despite the dose-dependent increases in insulin and increased glucose clearance (high dose), both GLP-1 dosages produced increases in plasma cortisol and glucagon, which may have contributed to the glucogenic role of GLP-1. Results suggest that fasting induces adipose-specific insulin resistance in elephant seal pups, while maintaining skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, and therefore suggests that the onset of insulin resistance in fasting mammals is an evolved response to cope with prolonged food deprivation. PMID:23997935

  5. Combining GLP-1 receptor agonists with insulin: therapeutic rationales and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Holst, J J; Vilsbøll, T

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the emergent trend towards diagnosis in younger patients and the progressive nature of this disease, many more patients than before now require insulin to maintain glycaemic control. However, there is a degree of inertia among physicians and patients regarding the initiation and intensification of insulin therapy, in part due to concerns about the associated weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) increase insulin release and suppress glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, thus conferring glycaemic control with a low incidence of hypoglycaemia. GLP-1RAs also promote weight loss, and have beneficial effects on markers of β cell function, lipid levels, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk markers. However, the durability of their effectiveness is unknown and, compared with insulin, the antihyperglycaemic efficacy of GLP-1RAs is limited. The combination of a GLP-1RA and insulin might thus be highly effective for optimal glucose control, ameliorating the adverse effects typically associated with insulin. Data from clinical studies support the therapeutic potential of GLP-1RA-insulin combination therapy, typically showing beneficial effects on glycaemic control and body weight, with a low incidence of hypoglycaemia and, in established insulin therapy, facilitating reductions in insulin dose. In this review, the physiological and pharmacological rationale for using GLP-1RA and insulin therapies in combination is discussed, and data from clinical studies that have assessed the efficacy and safety of this treatment strategy are outlined. PMID:22646532

  6. High fat diet and GLP-1 drugs induce pancreatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Rodney; Xu, Lin; Stewart, Sharron; Zhang, Jun

    2014-04-15

    Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) drugs are currently used to treat type-2 diabetes. Safety concerns for increased risk of pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal metaplasia have accompanied these drugs. High fat diet (HFD) is a type-2 diabetes risk factor that may affect the response to GLP-1 drug treatment. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of diet and GLP-1 based drugs on the exocrine pancreas in mice. Experiments were designed in a mouse model of insulin resistance created by feeding a HFD or standard diet (STD) for 6weeks. The GLP-1 drugs, sitagliptin (SIT) and exenatide (EXE) were administered once daily for additional 6weeks in both mice fed HFD or STD. The results showed that body weight, blood glucose levels, and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, and KC) were significantly greater in HFD mice than in STD mice regardless of GLP-1 drug treatment. The semi-quantitative grading showed that pancreatic changes were significantly greater in EXE and SIT-treated mice compared to control and that HFD exacerbated spontaneous exocrine pancreatic changes seen in saline-treated mice on a standard diet. Exocrine pancreatic changes identified in this study included acinar cell injury (hypertrophy, autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy), vascular injury, interstitial edema and inflammation, fat necrosis, and duct changes. These findings support HFD as a risk factor to increased susceptibility/severity for acute pancreatitis and indicate that GLP-1 drugs cause pancreatic injury that can be exacerbated in a HFD environment. PMID:24534256

  7. High fat diet and GLP-1 drugs induce pancreatic injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, Rodney Xu, Lin; Stewart, Sharron; Zhang, Jun

    2014-04-15

    Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) drugs are currently used to treat type-2 diabetes. Safety concerns for increased risk of pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal metaplasia have accompanied these drugs. High fat diet (HFD) is a type-2 diabetes risk factor that may affect the response to GLP-1 drug treatment. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of diet and GLP-1 based drugs on the exocrine pancreas in mice. Experiments were designed in a mouse model of insulin resistance created by feeding a HFD or standard diet (STD) for 6 weeks. The GLP-1 drugs, sitagliptin (SIT) and exenatide (EXE) were administered once daily for additional 6 weeks in both mice fed HFD or STD. The results showed that body weight, blood glucose levels, and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, and KC) were significantly greater in HFD mice than in STD mice regardless of GLP-1 drug treatment. The semi-quantitative grading showed that pancreatic changes were significantly greater in EXE and SIT-treated mice compared to control and that HFD exacerbated spontaneous exocrine pancreatic changes seen in saline-treated mice on a standard diet. Exocrine pancreatic changes identified in this study included acinar cell injury (hypertrophy, autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy), vascular injury, interstitial edema and inflammation, fat necrosis, and duct changes. These findings support HFD as a risk factor to increased susceptibility/severity for acute pancreatitis and indicate that GLP-1 drugs cause pancreatic injury that can be exacerbated in a HFD environment.

  8. Aqueous Fraction of Beta vulgaris Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice due to Enhanced Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion, Mediated by Acetylcholine and GLP-1, and Elevated Glucose Uptake via Increased Membrane Bound GLUT4 Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Samad, Mehdi Bin; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Akhter, Farjana; Tasnim, Jinat; Hasan, S. M. Nageeb; Sayfe, Sania Sarker; Hannan, J. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study was designed to investigate the probable mechanisms of anti-hyperglycemic activity of B. Vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Aqueous fraction of B. Vulgaris extract was the only active fraction (50mg/kg). Plasma insulin level was found to be the highest at 30 mins after B. Vulgaris administration at a dose of 200mg/kg. B. Vulgaris treated mice were also assayed for plasma Acetylcholine, Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide (PACAP), Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Pancreatic Polypeptides (PP), and Somatostatin, along with the corresponding insulin levels. Plasma Acetylcholine and GLP-1 significantly increased in B. Vulgaris treated animals and were further studied. Pharmacological enhancers, inhibitors, and antagonists of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 were also administered to the test animals, and corresponding insulin levels were measured. These studies confirmed the role of acetylcholine and GLP-1 in enhanced insulin secretion (p<0.05). Principal signaling molecules were quantified in isolated mice islets for the respective pathways to elucidate their activities. Elevated concentrations of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 in B. Vulgaris treated mice were found to be sufficient to activate the respective pathways for insulin secretion (p<0.05). The amount of membrane bound GLUT1 and GLUT4 transporters were quantified and the subsequent glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis were assayed. We showed that levels of membrane bound GLUT4 transporters, glucose-6-phosphate in skeletal myocytes, activity of glycogen synthase, and level of glycogen deposited in the skeletal muscles all increased (p<0.05). Conclusion Findings of the present study clearly prove the role of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 in the Insulin secreting activity of B. Vulgaris. Increased glucose uptake in the skeletal muscles and subsequent glycogen synthesis may also play a part in

  9. Dual elimination of the glucagon and GLP-1 receptors in mice reveals plasticity in the incretin axis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Safina; Lamont, Benjamin J; Charron, Maureen J; Drucker, Daniel J

    2011-05-01

    Disordered glucagon secretion contributes to the symptoms of diabetes, and reduced glucagon action is known to improve glucose homeostasis. In mice, genetic deletion of the glucagon receptor (Gcgr) results in increased levels of the insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which may contribute to the alterations in glucose homeostasis observed in Gcgr-/- mice. Here, we assessed the contribution of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling to the phenotype of Gcgr-/- mice by generating Gcgr-/-Glp1r-/- mice. Although insulin sensitivity was similar in all genotypes, fasting glucose was increased in Gcgr-/-Glp1r-/- mice. Elimination of the Glp1r normalized gastric emptying and impaired intraperitoneal glucose tolerance in Gcgr-/- mice. Unexpectedly, deletion of Glp1r in Gcgr-/- mice did not alter the improved oral glucose tolerance and increased insulin secretion characteristic of that genotype. Although Gcgr-/-Glp1r-/- islets exhibited increased sensitivity to the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), mice lacking both Glp1r and the GIP receptor (Gipr) maintained preservation of the enteroinsular axis following reduction of Gcgr signaling. Moreover, Gcgr-/-Glp1r-/- islets expressed increased levels of the cholecystokinin A receptor (Cckar) and G protein-coupled receptor 119 (Gpr119) mRNA transcripts, and Gcgr-/-Glp1r-/- mice exhibited increased sensitivity to exogenous CCK and the GPR119 agonist AR231453. Our data reveal extensive functional plasticity in the enteroinsular axis via induction of compensatory mechanisms that control nutrient-dependent regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:21540554

  10. Unsaturated Glycoceramides as Molecular Carriers for Mucosal Drug Delivery of GLP-1

    PubMed Central

    te Welscher, Yvonne M.; Chinnapen, Daniel J.-F.; Kaoutzani, Lydia; Mrsny, Randall J.; Lencer, Wayne I.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The incretin hormone Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) requires delivery by injection for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we test if the properties of glycosphingolipid trafficking in epithelial cells can be applied to convert GLP-1 into a molecule suitable for mucosal absorption. GLP-1 was coupled to the extracellular oligosaccharide domain of GM1 species containing ceramides with different fatty acids and with minimal loss of incretin bioactivity. When applied to apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells in monolayer culture, only GLP-1 coupled to GM1-ceramides with short-or cis-unsaturated fatty acids trafficked efficiently across the cell to the basolateral membrane by transcytosis. In vivo studies showed mucosal absorption after nasal administration. The results substantiate our recently reported dependence on ceramide structure for trafficking the GM1 across polarized epithelial cells and support the idea that specific glycosphingolipids can be harnessed as molecular vehicles for mucosal delivery of therapeutic peptides. PMID:24370893

  11. Choosing between GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and DPP-4 Inhibitors: A Pharmacological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dominique Xavier; Evans, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the incretin therapies have provided a new treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The incretin therapies focus on the increasing levels of the two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). This results in increased glucose dependent insulin synthesis and release. GLP-1 receptor agonists such as liraglutide and exenatide exert an intrinsic biological effect on GLP-1 receptors directly stimulating the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells. DPP-4 inhibitors such as sitagliptin and linagliptin prevent the inactivation of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP through competitive inhibition of the DPP-4 enzyme. Both incretin therapies have good safety and tolerability profiles and interact minimally with a number of medications commonly prescribed in T2DM. This paper focuses on the pharmacological basis by which the incretin therapies function and how this knowledge can inform and benefit clinical decisions. Each individual incretin agent has benefits and pitfalls relating to aspects such as glycaemic and nonglycaemic efficacy, safety and tolerability, ease of administration, and cost. Overall, a personalized medicine approach has been found to be favourable, tailoring the incretin agent to benefit and suit patient's needs such as renal impairment (RI) or hepatic impairment (HI). PMID:23125920

  12. Geniposide acutely stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by regulating GLP-1 receptor/cAMP signaling and ion channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Ding, Yaqin; Zhong, Xiangqin; Guo, Qing; Wang, Hui; Gao, Jingying; Bai, Tao; Ren, Lele; Guo, Yangyan; Jiao, Xiangying; Liu, Yunfeng

    2016-07-15

    Geniposide, an iridoid glycoside, has antidiabetic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate whether geniposide has direct effects on insulin secretion from rat pancreatic islets. The results demonstrated that geniposide potentiated insulin secretion via activating the glucagon-like-1 receptor (GLP-1R) as well as the adenylyl cyclase (AC)/cAMP signaling pathway. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) suppressed the insulinotropic effect of geniposide. Geniposide also inhibited voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels, and this effect could be attenuated by inhibition of GLP-1R or PKA. Current-clamp recording showed that geniposide prolonged action potential duration. These results collectively imply that inhibition of Kv channels is linked to geniposide-potentiated insulin secretion by acting downstream of the GLP-1R/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Moreover, activation of Ca(2+) channels by geniposide was observed, indicating that the Ca(2+) channel is also an important player in the geniposide effects. Together, these findings provide new insight into the mechanism underlying geniposide-regulated insulin secretion. PMID:27126219

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and protective effects in cardiovascular disease: a new therapeutic approach for myocardial protection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a member of the proglucagon incretin family implicated in the control of appetite and satiety. GLP-1 has insulinotropic, insulinomimetic, and glucagonostatic effects, thereby exerting multiple complementary actions to lower blood glucose in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A major advantage over conventional insulin is the fact that the insulinotropic actions of GLP-1 are dependent upon ambient glucose concentration, mitigating the risks of hypoglycemia. Recently, the crucial role of GLP-1 in cardiovascular disease has been suggested in both preclinical and clinical studies. The experimental data indicate GLP-1 and its analogs to have direct effects on the cardiovascular system, in addition to their classic glucoregulatory actions. Clinically, beneficial effects of GLP-1 have also been demonstrated in patients with myocardial ischemia and heart failure. GLP-1 has recently been demonstrated to be a more effective alternative in treating myocardial injury. This paper provides a review on the current evidence supporting the use of GLP-1 in experimental animal models and human trials with the ischemic and non-ischemic heart and discusses their molecular mechanisms and potential as a new therapeutic approach. PMID:23777457

  14. Both stimulation of GLP-1 receptors and inhibition of glycogenolysis additively contribute to a protective effect of oral miglitol against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, Masamitsu; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Itta; Sumi, Shohei; Shiraki, Takeru; Yamaki, Takahiko; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Hattori, Arihiro; Aoyama, Takuma; Nishigaki, Kazuhiko; Takemura, Genzou; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We previously reported that pre-ischaemic i.v. miglitol reduces myocardial infarct size through the inhibition of glycogenolysis during ischaemia. Oral administration of miglitol has been reported to produce glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We hypothesized that p.o. administration of miglitol, an absorbable antidiabetic drug, reduces myocardial infarct size by stimulating GLP-1 receptors and inhibiting glycogenolysis in the myocardium. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of p.o. and i.v. administration of miglitol on myocardial infarct size were compared in a rabbit model of ischaemia induced by 30 min of coronary occlusion and 48 h of reperfusion. The levels of phospho(p)-PI3kinase and p-Akt were measured in cardiac tissue by use of Western blot analysis. RESULTS Both p.o. and i.v. administration of miglitol reduced the infarct size, and this effect was greater after p.o. than after i.v. administration under similar plasma miglitol concentrations. The reduction in infarct size induced by p.o. miglitol but not that induced by i.v. miglitol was partially inhibited by treatment with exendin(9-39), a GLP-1 receptor blocker. Both p.o. and i.v. miglitol improved ejection fraction and ±dP/dt after myocardial infarction. Miglitol administered p.o. but not i.v. up-regulated the myocardial expression of phospho(p)-PI3kinase and p-Akt following myocardial infarction; an effect that was inhibited by exendin(9-39). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Administration of miglitol p.o. reduces myocardial infarct size through stimulation of GLP-1 receptors and activation of PI3kinase-Akt pathway in addition to the inhibition of glycogenolysis. These findings may have clinical implications for the p.o. administration of miglitol for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus combined with coronary artery disease. PMID:21426318

  15. Gliptin and GLP-1 analog treatment improves survival and vascular inflammation/dysfunction in animals with lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Steven, Sebastian; Hausding, Michael; Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Mader, Michael; Mikhed, Yuliya; Stamm, Paul; Zinßius, Elena; Pfeffer, Amanda; Welschof, Philipp; Agdauletova, Saule; Sudowe, Stephan; Li, Huige; Oelze, Matthias; Schulz, Eberhard; Klein, Thomas; Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors are used to treat hyperglycemia by increasing the incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Previous studies showed anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of DPP-4 inhibitors. Here, we compared the effects of linagliptin versus sitagliptin and liraglutide on survival and vascular function in animal models of endotoxic shock by prophylactic therapy and treatment after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Gliptins were administered either orally or subcutaneously: linagliptin (5 mg/kg/day), sitagliptin (50 mg/kg/day) or liraglutide (200 µg/kg/day). Endotoxic shock was induced by LPS injection (mice 17.5-20 mg/kg i.p., rats 10 mg/kg/day). Linagliptin and liraglutide treatment or DPP-4 knockout improved the survival of endotoxemic mice, while sitagliptin was ineffective. Linagliptin, liraglutide and sitagliptin ameliorated LPS-induced hypotension and vascular dysfunction in endotoxemic rats, suppressed inflammatory parameters such as whole blood nitrosyl-iron hemoglobin (leukocyte-inducible nitric oxide synthase activity) or aortic mRNA expression of markers of inflammation as well as whole blood and aortic reactive oxygen species formation. Hemostasis (tail bleeding time, activated partial thromboplastin time) was impaired in endotoxemic rats and recovered under cotreatment with linagliptin and liraglutide. Finally, the beneficial effects of linagliptin on vascular function and inflammatory parameters in endotoxemic mice were impaired in AMP-activated kinase (alpha1) knockout mice. The improved survival of endotoxemic animals and other data shown here may warrant further clinical evaluation of these drugs in patients with septic shock beyond the potential improvement of inflammatory complications in diabetic individuals with special emphasis on the role of AMP-activated kinase (alpha1) in the DPP-4/GLP-1 cascade. PMID:25600227

  16. Simultaneous quantification of intracellular and secreted active and inactive glucagon-like peptide-1 from cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Amao, Michiko; Kitahara, Yoshiro; Tokunaga, Ayaka; Shimbo, Kazutaka; Eto, Yuzuru; Yamada, Naoyuki

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin peptide that regulates islet hormone secretion. During recent years, incretin-based therapies have been widely used for patients with type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 peptides undergo N- and C-terminal processing for gain or loss of functions. We developed a method to quantify picomolar quantities of intact GLP-1 peptides using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). By employing this label-free selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method, we were able to analyze secreted GLP-1(1-37), GLP-1(7-37), and GLP-1(7-36 amid from human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells after stimulation with nateglinide, glucose, and sucralose. The absolute total concentrations of secreted GLP-1 peptides at baseline and after stimulation with nateglinide, glucose, and sucralose were 167.3, 498.9, 238.3, and 143.1 pM, respectively. Meanwhile, the ratios of GLP-1(1-37), GLP-1(7-37), and GLP-1(7-36 amide) to total GLP-1 peptides were similar (6 ± 3, 26 ± 3, and 78 ± 5%, respectively). The SRM assay can analyze the concentrations of individual GLP-1 peptides and, therefore, is a tool to investigate the physiological roles of GLP-1 peptides. Furthermore, the molecular species secreted from NCI-H716 cells were unknown. Therefore, we performed a secretopeptidome analysis of supernatants collected from cultured NCI-H716 cells. Together with GLP-1 peptides, we detected neuroendocrine convertase 1, which regulates peptide hormones released from intestinal endocrine L-cells. PMID:25461479

  17. Efficient GLP-1 gene delivery using two-step transcription amplification plasmid system with a secretion signal peptide and arginine-grafted bioreducible polymer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Il; Lee, Minhyung; Kim, Sung Wan

    2012-01-30

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) encoding dual plasmid (pDNA) system (TSTA (SP-GLP-1)) which is composed of pβ-Gal4-p65 and pUAS-SP-GLP-1 was constructed to improve the production and secretion of expressed GLP-1 by combining the advantages of signal peptide (SP) and two-step transcription amplification (TSTA) system. Its potential for GLP-1 gene delivery system was investigated with employment of arginine-grafted bioreducible polymer (ABP) as a gene carrier. Their polyplexes have about 140nm-sizes and 20mV Zeta-potential values. ABP showed no cytotoxicity contrary to PEI25k. It was found in RT-PCR experiments that TSTA-SP pDNA systems showed increased GLP-1 gene transcription level in comparison with mono pDNA system (pβ-GLP-1). It was also observed in GLP-1 ELISA that GLP-1 secretion level of TSTA (SP-GLP-1) pDNA system was 2.7-3.4 times higher than those of pβ-GLP-1 and 1.5-1.7 times than TSTA (GLP-1). Additionally, 2.5-3.5 folds increased level of GLP-1 secretion was found in ABP gene carrier system in comparison with PEI25k. When transfection medium containing secreted GLP-1 was transferred to NIT-1 insulinoma cells, the highest secretion level of insulin was induced in ABP/TSTA (SP-GLP-1) polyplex medium-treated cells. Therefore, this novel system could be utilized as a safe and efficient GLP-1 gene delivery system for type 2 diabetes therapy. PMID:21945681

  18. GLP-1 responses are heritable and blunted in acquired obesity with high liver fat and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Matikainen, Niina; Bogl, Leonie H; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Holst, Jens J; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Impaired incretin response represents an early and uniform defect in type 2 diabetes, but the contributions of genes and the environment are poorly characterized. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 35 monozygotic (MZ) and 75 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (discordant and concordant for obesity) to determine the heritability of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the influence of acquired obesity to GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), and peptide YY (PYY) during OGTT or meal test. RESULTS The heritability of GLP-1 area under the curve was 67% (95% CI 45-80). Cotwins from weight-concordant MZ and DZ pairs and weight-discordant MZ pairs but concordant for liver fat content demonstrated similar glucose, insulin, and incretin profiles after the OGTT and meal tests. In contrast, higher insulin responses and blunted 60-min GLP-1 responses during the OGTT were observed in the heavier as compared with leaner MZ cotwins discordant for BMI, liver fat, and insulin sensitivity. Blunted GLP-1 response to OGTT was observed in heavier as compared with leaner DZ cotwins discordant for obesity and insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS Whereas the GLP-1 response to the OGTT is heritable, an acquired unhealthy pattern of obesity characterized by liver fat accumulation and insulin resistance is closely related to impaired GLP-1 response in young adults. PMID:23990519

  19. Incretin Receptor Null Mice Reveal Key Role of GLP-1 but Not GIP in Pancreatic Beta Cell Adaptation to Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Moffett, R. Charlotte; Vasu, Srividya; Thorens, Bernard; Drucker, Daniel J.; Flatt, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Islet adaptations to pregnancy were explored in C57BL6/J mice lacking functional receptors for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). Pregnant wild type mice and GIPRKO mice exhibited marked increases in islet and beta cell area, numbers of medium/large sized islets, with positive effects on Ki67/Tunel ratio favouring beta cell growth and enhanced pancreatic insulin content. Alpha cell area and glucagon content were unchanged but prohormone convertases PC2 and PC1/3 together with significant amounts of GLP-1 and GIP were detected in alpha cells. Knockout of GLP-1R abolished these islet adaptations and paradoxically decreased pancreatic insulin, GLP-1 and GIP. This was associated with abolition of normal pregnancy-induced increases in plasma GIP, L-cell numbers, and intestinal GIP and GLP-1 stores. These data indicate that GLP-1 but not GIP is a key mediator of beta cell mass expansion and related adaptations in pregnancy, triggered in part by generation of intra-islet GLP-1. PMID:24927416

  20. The evolving world of GLP-1 agonist therapies for type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Baynes, Kevin C. R.

    2010-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist drugs have attractions as a treatment for type 2 diabetes since they positively alter a number of key pathophysiological defects. These include increasing insulin release, reducing glucagon release, slowing gastric emptying and reducing food intake. In numerous clinical trials these agents have been shown to reduce DCCT-aligned HbA1c between 0.8% and 1.1% in patients with moderately controlled type 2 diabetes, whilst also being associated with some weight loss. Whilst medium-term safety and side-effect profiles are now well established, there are as yet no long-term studies on the safety of this group of drugs. The place of the GLP-1 agonists in the treatment paradigm for type 2 diabetes will evolve over the next decade. PMID:23148151

  1. Postprandial GLP-1 Secretion After Bariatric Surgery in Three Cases of Severe Obesity Related to Craniopharyngiomas.

    PubMed

    Bretault, Marion; Laroche, Suzanne; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Barsamian, Charles; Polak, Michel; Raffin-Sanson, Marie-Laure; Touraine, Philippe; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Czernichow, Sebastien; Carette, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are rare cerebral tumors associated with severe obesity after hypothalamic surgery. A meta-analysis showed significant weight loss at 1 year after bariatric surgery in these patients even though more modest than in common causes of obesity. We hypothesized that this discrepancy could be partly explained by differences in GLP-1 secretion after surgery since patients with craniopharyngioma present a significantly higher degree of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinism than common obese control. We report three cases of bariatric surgery in patients presenting with hypothalamique obesity related to craniopharyngiomas. At 18 months, the mean weight loss was 20 kg with expected insulin resistance decrease. Before surgery, standardized test meal shows abolition of postprandial GLP-1 secretion in all patients with a progressive restoration in the patients with gastric bypass (GBP) surgery. PMID:26922186

  2. GLP-1 receptor antagonist as a potential probe for pancreatic {beta}-cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Eri; Toyoda, Kentaro; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Masashi; Temma, Takashi; Hirao, Konomu; Nagakawa, Kenji; Saji, Hideo; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2009-11-20

    We examined exendin(9-39), an antagonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R), as a potential probe for imaging of pancreatic {beta}-cells. To evaluate in vitro receptor specificity, binding assay was performed using dispersed mouse islet cells. Binding assay showed competitive inhibition of [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) binding by non-radioactive exendin(9-39). To assess in vivo selectivity, the biodistribution was evaluated by intravenous administration of [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) to mice. Radioactivity of harvested pancreas reached highest levels at 60 and 120 min among organs examined except lung. Pre-administration of excess non-radioactive exendin(9-39) remarkably and specifically blocked the radioactivity of pancreas. After [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) injection into transgenic mice with pancreatic {beta}-cells expressing GFP, fluorescent and radioactive signals of sections of pancreas were evaluated with an image analyzer. Imaging analysis showed that the fluorescent GFP signals and the radioactive signals were correspondingly located. Thus, the GLP-1R antagonist exendin(9-39) may serve as a useful probe for pancreatic {beta}-cell imaging.

  3. Blockade of cannabinoid 1 receptor improves GLP-1R mediated insulin secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Kim, Wook; Rouse, Michael; Egan, Josephine M

    2016-03-01

    The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1) is an important regulator of energy metabolism. Reports of in vivo and in vitro studies give conflicting results regarding its role in insulin secretion, possibly due to circulatory factors, such as incretins. We hypothesized that this receptor may be a regulator of the entero-insular axis. We found that despite lower food consumption and lower body weight postprandial GLP-1 plasma concentrations were increased in CB1(-/-) mice compared to CB1(+/+) mice administered a standard diet or high fat/sugar diet. Upon exogenous GLP-1 treatment, CB1(-/-) mice had increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In mouse insulinoma cells, cannabinoids reduced GLP-1R-mediated intracellular cAMP accumulation and subsequent insulin secretion. Importantly, such effects were also evident in human islets, and were prevented by pharmacologic blockade of CB1. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel mechanism in which endocannabinoids are negative modulators of incretin-mediated insulin secretion. PMID:26724516

  4. Appetite-related peptides in childhood and adolescence: role of ghrelin, PYY, and GLP-1.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy; Lee, SoJung

    2015-11-01

    During childhood and adolescence, a number of factors, including age, puberty, sex, race, and body composition, may contribute to differences in satiety, food intake, and appetite-related peptides. These peptides include the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and anorexigenic gut peptides peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). For example, lower fasting ghrelin levels, lower postprandial ghrelin suppression, and blunted PYY and GLP-1 responses to food intake could contribute to a dysregulation of appetite in already obese children and adolescents. Whereas, changes in these peptides observed during puberty could facilitate growth. A greater understanding of the major moderating factors of appetite-related peptides in the pediatric population is essential to improve interpretation of study findings and for effective tailoring of strategies targeting appetite control to individuals. While more studies are needed, there is some evidence to suggest that exercise-based lifestyle interventions could be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve appetite-peptide profiles in overweight and obese children and adolescents. The aim of this review is (i) to discuss the potential moderating factors of ghrelin, PYY, and GLP-1, including age and puberty, sex, race and body composition; and (ii) to examine the effects of exercise interventions on these appetite-related gut peptides in children and adolescents. PMID:26466085

  5. [Extrapancreatic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists: an open window towards new treatment goals in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Salvador, Javier; Andrada, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    The wide ubiquity of GLP-1 receptors in the body has stimulated the search for different extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 and its receptor agonists. Thus, severe cardioprotective effects directed on myocardial ischaemia and dysfunction as well as diverse antiaterogenic actions have been reported. Also, native and GLP-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated significant beneficial effects on liver steatosis and fibrosis and on neuronal protection in experimental models of Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease as well as on cerebral ischaemia. Recent evidences suggest that these drugs may also be useful for prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Good results have also been reported in psoriasis. Despite we still need confirmation that these promising effects can be applied to clinical practice, they offer new interesting perspectives for treatment of type 2 diabetes associated complications and give to GLP-1 receptor agonists an even more integral position in diabetes therapy. PMID:25437463

  6. New physiological effects of the incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP.

    PubMed

    Asmar, Meena

    2011-02-01

    With approximately 400 million people worldwide today being obese, we are facing a major public health problem due to the increasing prevalence of the related comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease. To date, pharmacological treatment of obesity has been largely unsuccessful, only achieving modest and short-lasting reductions in body weight and with adverse effects. Scientific interest in recent years has concentrated on both the secretion and function of the incretin hormones, GLP-1 and GIP, and their suitability as new target drugs. The potential of GLP-1 to reduce gastric emptying, appetite and food intake makes it an attractive tool in the fight against obesity and several companies are developing weight lowering drugs based on GLP-1. Currently, it is not known whether the inhibiting effects of GLP-1 on gastric emptying, appetite and food intake are directly mediated by GLP-1, or if the effects are secondary to the robust insulin responses, and thereby amylin responses, elicited by GLP-1. The first study aimed to further elucidate the mechanisms of these effects in order to strengthen the development of anti-diabetic drugs with potential weight lowering capabilities. We found that GLP-1 mediates its effect on gastrointestinal motility, appetite, food intake and glucagon secretion directly and thereby in an amylin-independent fashion. In vitro and animal studies indicate that GIP exerts direct effects on adipose tissue and lipid metabolism, promoting fat deposition. Due to its therapeutic potential in obesity treatment, a rapidly increasing number of functional studies are investigating effects of acute and chronic loss of GIP signaling in glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, the physiological significance of GIP as a regulator of lipid metabolism in humans remains unclear. In the second study, we investigated the effects of GIP on the removal rate of plasma TAG and FFA concentrations, which were increased after either a

  7. Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Modulates OVA-Induced Airway Inflammation and Mucus Secretion Involving a Protein Kinase A (PKA)-Dependent Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) Signaling Pathway in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tao; Wu, Xiao-ling; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease, featured with mucus hyper-secretion in the airway. Recent studies found that glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs, including liraglutide and exenatide, possessed a potent anti-inflammatory property through a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent signaling pathway. Therefore, the aim of current study was to investigate the value of GLP-1 analog therapy liraglutide in airway inflammation and mucus secretion in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma, and its underlying molecular mechanism. In our study, BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged by OVA to induce chronic asthma. Pathological alterations, the number of cells and the content of inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and mucus secretion were observed and measured. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of E-selectin and MUC5AC were analyzed by qPCR and Western blotting. Then, the phosphorylation of PKA and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 were also measured by Western blotting. Further, NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity was detected by ELISA. OVA-induced airway inflammation, airway mucus hyper-secretion, the up-regulation of E-selectin and MUC5AC were remarkably inhibited by GLP-1 in mice (all p < 0.01). Then, we also found that OVA-reduced phosphorylation of PKA, and OVA-enhanced NF-κB p65 activation and NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity were markedly improved by GLP-1 (all p < 0.01). Furthermore, our data also figured out that these effects of GLP-1 were largely abrogated by the PKA inhibitor H-89 (all p < 0.01). Taken together, our results suggest that OVA-induced asthma were potently ameliorated by GLP-1 possibly through a PKA-dependent inactivation of NF-κB in mice, indicating that GLP-1 analogs may be considered an effective and safe drug for the potential treatment of asthma in the future. PMID:26343632

  8. Chylomicron formation and secretion is required for lipid-stimulated release of incretins GLP-1 and GIP.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wendell J; Yang, Qing; Yang, Li; Lee, Dana; D'Alessio, David; Tso, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretins produced in the intestine that play a central role in glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Circulating concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP are low and can be difficult to assay in rodents. These studies utilized the novel intestinal lymph fistula model we have established to investigate the mechanism of lipid-stimulated incretin secretion. Peak concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP following an enteral lipid stimulus (Liposyn) were significantly higher in intestinal lymph than portal venous plasma. To determine whether lipid-stimulated incretin secretion was related to chylomicron formation Pluronic L-81 (L-81), a surfactant inhibiting chylomicron synthesis, was given concurrently with Liposyn. The presence of L-81 almost completely abolished the increase in lymph triglyceride seen with Liposyn alone (P < 0.001). Inhibition of chylomicron formation with L-81 reduced GLP-1 secretion into lymph compared to Liposyn stimulation alone (P = 0.034). The effect of L-81 relative to Liposyn alone had an even greater effect on GIP secretion, which was completely abolished (P = 0.004). These findings of a dramatic effect of L-81 on lymph levels of GLP-1 and GIP support a strong link between intestinal lipid absorption and incretin secretion. The relative difference in the effect of L-81 on the two incretins provides further support that nutrient-stimulation of GIP and GLP-1 is via distinct mechanisms. PMID:22297815

  9. Type 2 diabetes-induced neuronal pathology in the piriform cortex of the rat is reversed by the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4

    PubMed Central

    Lietzau, Grazyna; Nyström, Thomas; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Darsalia, Vladimer; Patrone, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients often present olfactory dysfunction. However, the histopathological basis behind this has not been previously shown. Since the piriform cortex plays a crucial role in olfaction, we hypothesize that pathological changes in this brain area can occur in T2D patients along aging. Thus, we determined potential neuropathology in the piriform cortex of T2D rats, along aging. Furthermore, we determined the potential therapeutic role of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist exendin-4 to counteract the identified T2D-induced neuropathology. Young-adult and middle-aged T2D Goto-Kakizaki rats were compared to age-matched Wistars. Additional Goto-Kakizaki rats were treated for six weeks with exendin-4/vehicle before sacrifice. Potential T2D-induced neuropathology was assessed by quantifying NeuN-positive neurons and Calbindin-D28k-positive interneurons by immunohistochemistry and stereology methods. We also quantitatively measured Calbindin-D28k neuronal morphology and JNK phosphorylation-mediated cellular stress. PI3K/AKT signalling was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and potential apoptosis by TUNEL. We show T2D-induced neuronal pathology in the piriform cortex along aging, characterized by atypical nuclear NeuN staining and increased JNK phosphorylation, without apoptosis. We also demonstrate the specific vulnerability of Calbindin-D28k interneurons. Finally, chronic treatment with exendin-4 substantially reversed the identified neuronal pathology in correlation with decreased JNK and increased AKT phosphorylation. Our results reveal the histopathological basis to explain T2D olfactory dysfunction. We also show that the identified T2D-neuropathology can be counteracted by GLP-1R activation supporting recent research promoting the use of GLP-1R agonists against brain diseases. Whether the identified neuropathology could represent an early hallmark of cognitive decline in T2D remains to be determined. PMID:26744321

  10. Engineering a long-acting, potent GLP-1 analog for microstructure-based transdermal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng-Yu; Zou, Huafei; Chao, Elizabeth; Sherwood, Lance; Nunez, Vanessa; Keeney, Michael; Ghartey-Tagoe, Esi; Ding, Zhongli; Quirino, Herlinda; Luo, Xiaozhou; Welzel, Gus; Chen, Guohua; Singh, Parminder; Woods, Ashley K.; Schultz, Peter G.; Shen, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    Antidiabetic treatments aiming to reduce body weight are currently gaining increased interest. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist administered twice daily via s.c. injection, improves glycemic control, often with associated weight reduction. To further improve the therapeutic efficacy of exendin-4, we have developed a novel peptide engineering strategy that incorporates a serum protein binding motif onto a covalent side-chain staple and applied to the peptide to enhance its helicity and, as a consequence, its potency and serum half-life. We demonstrated that one of the resulting peptides, E6, has significantly improved half-life and glucose tolerance in an oral glucose tolerance test in rodents. Chronic treatment of E6 significantly decreased body weight and fasting blood glucose, improved lipid metabolism, and also reduced hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. Moreover, the high potency of E6 allowed us to administer this peptide using a dissolvable microstructure-based transdermal delivery system. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in guinea pigs showed that a single 5-min application of a microstructure system containing E6 significantly improved glucose tolerance for 96 h. This delivery strategy may offer an effective and patient-friendly alternative to currently marketed GLP-1 injectables and can likely be extended to other peptide hormones. PMID:27035989

  11. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk. PMID:26088812

  12. Dual melanocortin-4 receptor and GLP-1 receptor agonism amplifies metabolic benefits in diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Finan, Brian; Fischer, Katrin; Tom, Robby Zachariah; Legutko, Beata; Sehrer, Laura; Heine, Daniela; Grassl, Niklas; Meyer, Carola W; Henderson, Bart; Hofmann, Susanna M; Tschöp, Matthias H; Van der Ploeg, Lex HT; Müller, Timo D

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of simultaneous agonism at the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) for the treatment of obesity and diabetes in rodents. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were chronically treated with either the long-acting GLP-1R agonist liraglutide, the MC4R agonist RM-493 or a combination of RM-493 and liraglutide. Co-treatment of DIO mice with RM-493 and liraglutide improves body weight loss and enhances glycemic control and cholesterol metabolism beyond what can be achieved with either mono-therapy. The superior metabolic efficacy of this combination therapy is attributed to the anorectic and glycemic actions of both drugs, along with the ability of RM-493 to increase energy expenditure. Interestingly, compared to mice treated with liraglutide alone, hypothalamic Glp-1r expression was higher in mice treated with the combination therapy after both acute and chronic treatment. Further, RM-493 enhanced hypothalamic Mc4r expression. Hence, co-dosing with MC4R and GLP-1R agonists increases expression of each receptor, indicative of minimized receptor desensitization. Together, these findings suggest potential opportunities for employing combination treatments that comprise parallel MC4R and GLP-1R agonism for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:25652173

  13. Oral hypoglycaemic effect of GLP-1 and DPP4 inhibitor based nanocomposites in a diabetic animal model.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Neha; Araújo, Francisca; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Gomes, Maria João; Airavaara, Mikko; Kauppinen, Esko I; Raula, Janne; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Sarmento, Bruno; Santos, Hélder A

    2016-06-28

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone, is used for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment because of its ability to stimulate insulin secretion and release in a glucose-dependent manner. Despite of its potent insulinotropic effect, oral GLP-1 delivery is greatly limited by its instability in the gastrointestinal tract, poor absorption efficiency and rapid degradation by dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP4) enzyme leading to a short half-life (~2min). Thus, a multistage dual-drug delivery nanosystem was developed to deliver GLP-1 and DPP4 inhibitor simultaneously. The system comprised of chitosan-modified porous silicon (CSUn) nanoparticles, which were coated by an enteric polymer, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate MF, using aerosol flow reactor technology. A non-obese T2DM rat model induced by co-administration of nicotinamide and streptozotocin was used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of the nanosystem. The oral administration of H-CSUn nanoparticles resulted in 32% reduction in blood glucose levels and ~6.0-fold enhancement in pancreatic insulin content, as compared to the GLP-1+DPP4 inhibitor solution. Overall, these results present a promising system for oral co-delivery of GLP-1 and DPP4 inhibitor that could be further evaluated in a chronic diabetic study. PMID:27091697

  14. Systems-Level G Protein-Coupled Receptor Therapy Across a Neurodegenerative Continuum by the GLP-1 Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Jonathan; Etienne, Harmonie; Idriss, Sherif; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    With our increasing appreciation of the true complexity of diseases and pathophysiologies, it is clear that this knowledge needs to inform the future development of pharmacotherapeutics. For many disorders, the disease mechanism itself is a complex process spanning multiple signaling networks, tissues, and organ systems. Identifying the precise nature and locations of the pathophysiology is crucial for the creation of systemically effective drugs. Diseases once considered constrained to a limited range of organ systems, e.g., central neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Huntington’ disease (HD), the role of multiple central and peripheral organ systems in the etiology of such diseases is now widely accepted. With this knowledge, it is increasingly clear that these seemingly distinct neurodegenerative disorders (AD, PD, and HD) possess multiple pathophysiological similarities thereby demonstrating an inter-related continuum of disease-related molecular alterations. With this systems-level appreciation of neurodegenerative diseases, it is now imperative to consider that pharmacotherapeutics should be developed specifically to address the systemic imbalances that create the disorders. Identification of potential systems-level signaling axes may facilitate the generation of therapeutic agents with synergistic remedial activity across multiple tissues, organ systems, and even diseases. Here, we discuss the potentially therapeutic systems-level interaction of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) ligand–receptor axis with multiple aspects of the AD, PD, and HD neurodegenerative continuum. PMID:25225492

  15. The effect of gum chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration in fasted, healthy, non-obese men.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianping; Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Yuxiu; Zheng, Jia; Li, Wenhui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Zhixin

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration by having volunteers to chew sugarless gum. Our intention was to explore the neural mechanisms regulating the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1). After fasting for 12 h, 12 healthy male, non-obese volunteers (18 < BMI < 30), were asked to chew sugarless gum at a frequency of 80 times every 2 min for a total of 30 min. Blood samples were collected before the start of chewing and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min after the start of chewing. Satiety and hunger were evaluated on a scale from 0 to 100 at each time point. Compared with the control group, the test group's satiety was increased at 15, 25, and 30 min (p = 0.043, p = 0.014 and p = 0.018, respectively) after they began chewing sugarless gum 80 times every 2 min. The blood GLP-1 level of the test group at 30 min was 49.6 ± 20.3 pmol/l, significantly higher than that of the control group (38.9 ± 20.9 pmol/l; p = 0.031). There was no significant difference in the test group's GLP-1 concentration at each time point. In the control group, compared to baseline, the GLP-1 concentrations at 15, 25, and 30 min were significantly decreased (p = 0.042, p = 0.0214 and p = 0.012, respectively). No significant differences in the blood concentration of glucose, insulin and GIP or hunger were observed between groups. Our study suggests that fasting sugarless gum chewing can increase satiety and reduce the decrease in GLP-1 concentration. PMID:25758865

  16. A missense variant in GLP1R gene is associated with the glycaemic response to treatment with gliptins.

    PubMed

    Javorský, M; Gotthardová, I; Klimčáková, L; Kvapil, M; Židzik, J; Schroner, Z; Doubravová, P; Gala, I; Dravecká, I; Tkáč, I

    2016-09-01

    Gliptins act by increasing endogenous incretin levels. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor (GIPR) are their indirect drug targets. Variants of GLP1R and GIPR have previously been associated with the incretin effect. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine associations of the GLP1R and GIPR gene variants with the glycaemic response to gliptins. A total of 140 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes were followed-up 6 months after initiation of gliptin treatment. GLP1R rs6923761 (Gly168Ser) and GIPR rs10423928 genotyping was performed using real-time PCR, with subsequent high-resolution melting analysis. The main study outcome was reduction in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) after treatment. GLP1R Gly168Ser variant was significantly associated with reduction in HbA1c in an additive model (β = -0.33, p = 0.011). The mean reduction in HbA1c in Ser/Ser homozygotes was significantly lower compared with Gly-allele carriers [0.12 ± 0.23% vs. 0.80 ± 0.09% (1.3 ± 2.5 mmol/mol vs. 8.7 ± 1.0 mmol/mol); p = 0.008]. In conclusion, GLP1R missense variant was associated with a reduced response to gliptin treatment. The genotype-related effect size of ∼0.7% (8 mmol/mol) is equal to an average effect of gliptin treatment and makes this variant a candidate for use in precision medicine. PMID:27160388

  17. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-based therapy upregulates LXR-ABCA1/ABCG1 cascade in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Ahmed M; Hamdy, Nadia M; El-Mesallamy, Hala O; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z

    2015-12-25

    A promising treatment for obesity involves the use of therapeutic agents that increase the level of the glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) which reduces appetite and food intake. Native GLP-1 is rapidly metabolized by the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme and, as such, GLP-1 mimetics or DPP-4 inhibitors represent promising treatment approaches. Interestingly, obese patient receiving such medications showed improved lipid profiles and cholesterol homeostasis, however the mechanism(s) involved are not known. Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including ABCA1 and ABCG1, play essential roles in reverse cholesterol transport and in high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. These transporters are under the transcriptional regulation of liver X receptor alpha (LXR-α). We hypothesize that GLP-1 mimetics and/or DPP-4 inhibitors modulate ABCA1/ABCG1 expression in adipocytes through an LXR-α mediated process and thus affecting cholesterol homeostasis. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin (2 nM) or the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 (5 nM). Gene and protein expression of ABCA1, ABCG1 and LXR-α were determined and correlated with cholesterol efflux. Expression levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin and the glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) were also determined. Treatment with both medications significantly increased the expression of ABCA1, ABCG1, LXR-α and GLUT-4, decreased IL-6 and leptin, and improved cholesterol efflux from adipocytes (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that GLP-1-based therapy modulate ABCA1/ABCG1 expression in adipocytes potentially through an LXR-α mediated process. PMID:26603933

  18. Analysis of the multiple roles of gld-1 in germline development: Interactions with the sex determination cascade and the glp-1 signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.; Schedl, T.; Maine, E.

    1995-02-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans gene gld-1 is essential for oocyte development; in gld-1 (null) hermaphrodites, a tumor forms where oogenesis would normally occur. We use genetic epistasis analysis to demonstrate that tumor formation is dependent on the sexual fate of the germline. When the germline sex determination pathway is set in the female mode (terminal fem/fog genes inactive), gld-1 (null) germ cells exit meiotic prophase and proliferate to form a tumor, but when the pathway is et in the male mode, they develop into sperm. We conclude that the gld-1 (null) phenotype is cell-type specific and that gld-1(+) acts at the end of the cascade to direct oogenesis. We also use cell ablation and epistasis analysis to examine the dependence of tumor formation on the glp-1 signaling pathway. Although glp-1 activity promotes tumor growth, it is not essential for tumor formation by gld-1 (null) germ cells. These data also reveal that gld-1(+) plays a nonessential (and sex nonspecific) role in regulating germ cell proliferation before their entry into meiosis. Thus gld-1(+) may negatively regulate proliferation at two distinct points in germ cell development: before entry into meiotic prophase in both sexes (nonessential premeiotic gld-1 function) and during meiotic prophase when the sex determination pathway is set in the female mode (essential meiotic gld-1 function). 46 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Neuroprotection by Exendin-4 Is GLP-1 Receptor Specific but DA D3 Receptor Dependent, Causing Altered BrdU Incorporation in Subventricular Zone and Substantia Nigra.

    PubMed

    Harkavyi, A; Rampersaud, N; Whitton, P S

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation by exendin-4 (EX-4) is effective in preclinical models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and appears to promote neurogenesis even in severely lesioned rats. In the present study, we determined the effects of EX-4 on cellular BrdU incorporation in the rat subventricular zone (SVZ) and substantia nigra (SN). We also determined the specificity of this effect with the GLP-1R antagonist EX-(9-39) as well as the potential role of dopamine (DA) D3 receptors. Rats were administered 6-OHDA and 1 week later given EX-4 alone, with EX-(9-39) or nafadotride (D3 antagonist) and BrdU. Seven days later, rats were challenged with apomorphine to evaluate circling. Extracellular DA was measured using striatal microdialysis and subsequently tissue DA measured. Tyrosine hydroxylase and BrdU were verified using immunohistochemistry. Apomorphine circling was reversed by EX-4 in lesioned rats, an effect reduced by EX-4, while both EX-(9-39) and NAF attenuated this. 6-OHDA decreased extracellular and tissue DA, both reversed by EX-4 but again attenuated by EX-(9-39) or NAF. Analysis of BrdU+ cells in the SVZ revealed increases in 6-OHDA-treated rats which were reversed by EX-4 and antagonised by either EX-(9-39) or NAF, while in the SN the opposite profile was seen. PMID:26316987

  20. Neuroprotection by Exendin-4 Is GLP-1 Receptor Specific but DA D3 Receptor Dependent, Causing Altered BrdU Incorporation in Subventricular Zone and Substantia Nigra

    PubMed Central

    Harkavyi, A.; Rampersaud, N.; Whitton, P. S.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation by exendin-4 (EX-4) is effective in preclinical models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and appears to promote neurogenesis even in severely lesioned rats. In the present study, we determined the effects of EX-4 on cellular BrdU incorporation in the rat subventricular zone (SVZ) and substantia nigra (SN). We also determined the specificity of this effect with the GLP-1R antagonist EX-(9-39) as well as the potential role of dopamine (DA) D3 receptors. Rats were administered 6-OHDA and 1 week later given EX-4 alone, with EX-(9-39) or nafadotride (D3 antagonist) and BrdU. Seven days later, rats were challenged with apomorphine to evaluate circling. Extracellular DA was measured using striatal microdialysis and subsequently tissue DA measured. Tyrosine hydroxylase and BrdU were verified using immunohistochemistry. Apomorphine circling was reversed by EX-4 in lesioned rats, an effect reduced by EX-4, while both EX-(9-39) and NAF attenuated this. 6-OHDA decreased extracellular and tissue DA, both reversed by EX-4 but again attenuated by EX-(9-39) or NAF. Analysis of BrdU+ cells in the SVZ revealed increases in 6-OHDA-treated rats which were reversed by EX-4 and antagonised by either EX-(9-39) or NAF, while in the SN the opposite profile was seen. PMID:26316987

  1. Analysis of the Multiple Roles of Gld-1 in Germline Development: Interactions with the Sex Determination Cascade and the Glp-1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Francis, R.; Maine, E.; Schedl, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans gene gld-1 is essential for oocyte development; in gld-1 (null) hermaphrodites, a tumor forms where oogenesis would normally occur. We use genetic epistasis analysis to demonstrate that tumor formation is dependent on the sexual fate of the germline. When the germline sex determination pathway is set in the female mode (terminal fem/fog genes inactive), gld-1 (null) germ cells exit meiotic prophase and proliferate to form a tumor, but when the pathway is set in the male mode, they develop into sperm. We conclude that the gld-1 (null) phenotype is cell-type specific and that gld-1 (+) acts at the end of the cascade to direct oogenesis. We also use cell ablation and epistasis analysis to examine the dependence of tumor formation on the glp-1 signaling pathway. Although glp-1 activity promotes tumor growth, it is not essential for tumor formation by gld-1 (null) germ cells. These data also reveal that gld-1 (+) plays a nonessential (and sex nonspecific) role in regulating germ cell proliferation before their entry into meiosis. Thus gld-1 (+) may negatively regulate proliferation at two distinct points in germ cell development: before entry into meiotic prophase in both sexes (nonessential premeiotic gld-1 function) and during meiotic prophase when the sex determination pathway is set in the female mode (essential meiotic gld-1 function). PMID:7713420

  2. [GLP-1 receptor agonists versus SGLT-2 inhibitors in obese type 2 diabetes patients].

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Rita Forte; Jaafar, Jaafar; de Kalbermatten, Bénédicte; Philippe, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    Who never had a type 2 obese diabetic patient, treated by several oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin, with consequent weight gain associated with the therapeutic escalation and uncontrolled diabetes? The arrival of GLP-1 agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors allows to reevaluate the management of these patients, with their favorable effects on glycemic control, weight and the risk of hypoglycemia and their complementary mechanisms to conventional treatments. The vicious cycle of weight gain and increased need of insulin is limited. The choice between these two molecules must be based on several factors (glycemic target, weight, comorbidities, route of administration, side effects, etc.), and the balanced enthusiasm of these new treatments with the insufficient data regarding their long-term safety and their impact on micro- and macrovascular complications. PMID:26211282

  3. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist enhances intrinsic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activity in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Onuma, Hirohisa; Inukai, Kouichi Kitahara, Atsuko; Moriya, Rie; Nishida, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Katsuta, Hidenori; Takahashi, Kazuto; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Hosaka, Toshio; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • PPARγ activation was involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action. • Exendin-4 enhanced endogenous PPARγ transcriptional activity in HUVECs. • H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPARγ enhancement. • The anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 may be explained by PPARγ activation. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling to exert anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells, although the precise underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether PPARγ activation is involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action on endothelial cells. When we treated HUVEC cells with 0.2 ng/ml exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, endogenous PPARγ transcriptional activity was significantly elevated, by approximately 20%, as compared with control cells. The maximum PPARγ activity enhancing effect of exendin-4 was observed 12 h after the initiation of incubation with exendin-4. As H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPARγ enhancement, the signaling downstream from GLP-1 cross-talk must have been involved in PPARγ activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that GLP-1 has the potential to induce PPARγ activity, partially explaining the anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 on endothelial cells. Cross-talk between GLP-1 signaling and PPARγ activation would have major impacts on treatments for patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  4. PEGylated Exendin-4, a Modified GLP-1 Analog Exhibits More Potent Cardioprotection than Its Unmodified Parent Molecule on a Dose to Dose Basis in a Murine Model of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhongchan; Tong, Guang; Kim, Tae Hyung; Ma, Nan; Niu, Gang; Cao, Feng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    A Site-specifically PEGylated exendin-4 (denoted as PEG-Ex4) is an exendin-4 (denoted as Ex4) analog we developed by site-specific PEGylation of exendin-4 with a high molecular weight trimeric poly(ethylene glycol) (tPEG). It has been shown to possess prolonged half-life in vivo with similar receptor binding affinity compared to unmodified exendin-4 by our previous work. This study is sought to test whether PEG-Ex4 is suitable for treating myocardial infarction (MI). In the MI model, PEG-Ex4 was administered every 3 days while equivalent amount of Ex4 was administered every 3 days or twice daily. Animal survival rate, heart function, remodeling and neoangiogenesis were evaluated and compared. Tube formation was examined in endothelial cells. In addition, Western blotting and histology were performed to determine the markers of cardiac hypertrophy and angiogenesis and to explore the possible molecular mechanism involved. PEG-Ex4 and Ex4 showed comparable binding affinity to GLP-1 receptor. In MI mice, PEG-Ex4 given at 3 days interval achieved similar extent of protection as Ex4 given twice daily, while Ex4 given at 3 days interval failed to produce protection. PEG-Ex4 elevated endothelial tube formation in vitro and capillary density in the border area of MI. PEG-Ex4 increased Akt activity and VEGF production in a GLP-1R dependent manner in endothelial cells and antagonism of GLP-1R, Akt or VEGF abolished the protection of PEG-Ex4 in the MI model. PEG-Ex4 is a potent long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of chronic heart disease. Its protection might be attributed to enhanced angiogenesis mediated by the activation of Akt and VEGF. PMID:25553112

  5. Effects of PYY3-36 and GLP-1 on energy intake, energy expenditure, and appetite in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Pedersen, Sue D; Arentoft, Johanne L; Ritz, Christian; Schwartz, Thue W; Holst, Jens Juul; Astrup, Arne; Sjödin, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Our aim was to examine the effects of GLP-1 and PYY3-36, separately and in combination, on energy intake, energy expenditure, appetite sensations, glucose and fat metabolism, ghrelin, and vital signs in healthy overweight men. Twenty-five healthy male subjects participated in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, four-arm crossover study (BMI 29 ± 3 kg/m(2), age 33 ± 9 yr). On separate days they received a 150-min intravenous infusion of 1) 0.8 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) PYY3-36, 2) 1.0 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) GLP-1, 3) GLP-1 + PYY3-36, or 4) placebo. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed during the final 30 min. Measurements of appetite sensations, energy expenditure and fat oxidation, vital signs, and blood variables were collected throughout the infusion period. No effect on energy intake was found after monoinfusions of PYY3-36 (-4.2 ± 4.8%, P = 0.8) or GLP-1 (-3.0 ± 4.5%, P = 0.9). However, the coinfusion reduced energy intake compared with placebo (-30.4 ± 6.5%, P < 0.0001) and more than the sum of the monoinfusions (P < 0.001), demonstrating a synergistic effect. Coinfusion slightly increased sensation of nausea (P < 0.05), but this effect could not explain the effect on energy intake. A decrease in plasma ghrelin was found after all treatments compared with placebo (all P < 0.05); however, infusions of GLP-1 + PYY3-36 resulted in an additional decrease compared with the monoinfusions (both P < 0.01). We conclude that coinfusion of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 exerted a synergistic effect on energy intake. The satiating effect of the meal was enhanced by GLP-1 and PYY3-36 in combination compared with placebo. Coinfusion was accompanied by slightly increased nausea and a decrease in plasma ghrelin, but neither of these factors could explain the reduction in energy intake. PMID:24735885

  6. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Design A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI<30 kg/m2), male (25%) and female (75%) subjects. FPH was tested in a food supplement at two doses (1.4 and 2.8 g) to establish if a dose–effect relationship exists. Product use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day). Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels. PMID:26829186

  7. Acarbose, lente carbohydrate, and prebiotics promote metabolic health and longevity by stimulating intestinal production of GLP-1.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, which slows carbohydrate digestion and blunts postprandial rises in plasma glucose, has long been used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes or glucose intolerance. Like metformin, acarbose tends to aid weight control, postpone onset of diabetes and decrease risk for cardiovascular events. Acarbose treatment can favourably affect blood pressure, serum lipids, platelet aggregation, progression of carotid intima-media thickness and postprandial endothelial dysfunction. In mice, lifetime acarbose feeding can increase median and maximal lifespan-an effect associated with increased plasma levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and decreased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). There is growing reason to suspect that an upregulation of fasting and postprandial production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-stemming from increased delivery of carbohydrate to L cells in the distal intestinal tract-is largely responsible for the versatile health protection conferred by acarbose. Indeed, GLP-1 exerts protective effects on vascular endothelium, the liver, the heart, pancreatic β cells, and the brain which can rationalise many of the benefits reported with acarbose. And GLP-1 may act on the liver to modulate its production of FGF21 and IGF-I, thereby promoting longevity. The benefits of acarbose are likely mimicked by diets featuring slowly-digested 'lente' carbohydrate, and by certain nutraceuticals which can slow carbohydrate absorption. Prebiotics that promote colonic generation of short-chain fatty acids represent an alternative strategy for boosting intestinal GLP-1 production. The health benefits of all these measures presumably would be potentiated by concurrent use of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, which slow the proteolysis of GLP-1 in the blood. PMID:25685364

  8. Options for intensification of basal insulin in type 2 diabetes: Premeal insulin or short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists?

    PubMed

    Darmon, P; Raccah, D

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is an evolutive disease with a progressive defect of beta-cell insulin secretion. This characteristic points to a need for treatment that takes into account such a natural history. When oral antidiabetic drugs fail to achieve the patient's target HbA1c level, basal insulin treatment is usually initiated and titrated in association with oral drugs to manage fasting hyperglycaemia. Over a period of time, it is enough to simply achieve the HbA1c target. However, when even a good fasting blood glucose level is no longer sufficient to control overall glycaemia, then prandial treatment must be combined with the titrated basal insulin to deal with the postprandial hyperglycaemia responsible for the elevation of HbA1c. Of the different therapeutic options now available for this, rapid-acting insulins and GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) can be used. Rapid-acting insulins can be added either at each meal, achieving full insulin supplementation with a basal-bolus regimen, or at the main meal only as a "basal-plus" regimen. Compared with the full basal-bolus, the basal-plus strategy is associated with fewer injections, yet provides similar efficacy in terms of HbA1c improvement, but with less weight gain and lower hypoglycaemic risk. As for GLP-1 RAs, numerous studies, and especially those using short-acting GLP-1 RAs, have demonstrated more pronounced effects on postprandial hyperglycaemia, good complementary effects with basal insulin, and significant improvement of HbA1c with no weight gain and a low risk of hypoglycaemia. Similarly, direct and indirect comparisons of the use of rapid-acting insulins and GLP-1 RAs to intensify basal insulin have shown comparable efficacy in terms of HbA1c control, but with less weight gain and fewer hypoglycaemic episodes with GLP-1 RAs. PMID:26774016

  9. Mercaptoacetate blocks fatty acid-induced GLP-1 secretion in male rats by directly antagonizing GPR40 fatty acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Dinh, Thu T; Simasko, Steve M; Ritter, Sue

    2016-04-15

    Mercaptoacetate (MA) is an orexigenic agent reported to block fatty acid (FA) oxidation. Recently, however, we reported evidence from isolated nodose ganglion neurons that MA antagonizes the G protein-coupled long- and medium-chain FA receptor GPR40. GPR40 mediates FA-induced secretion of the satietogenic incretin peptide glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), by enteroendocrine L cells, as well as FA-induced enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our results in cultured nodose neurons suggest that MA would also block GPR40 in enteroendocrine cells controlling GLP-1 secretion. If so, this would suggest an alternative mechanism by which MA increases food intake. We tested the hypothesis that MA blocks FA-induced GLP-1 secretion in vitro using cultured STC-1 cells (a murine enteroendocrine cell line) and in vivo in adult male rats. In vitro, MA blocked the increase in both cytosolic Ca(2+)and GLP-1 release stimulated by FAs and also reduced (but less effectively) the response of STC-1 cells to grifolic acid, a partial agonist of the GPR120 FA receptor. In vivo, MA reduced GLP-1 secretion following olive oil gavage while also increasing glucose and decreasing insulin levels. The carnitine palmatoyltransferase 1 antagonist etomoxir did not alter these responses. Results indicate that MA's actions, including its orexigenic effect, are mediated by GPR40 (and possibly GPR120) receptor antagonism and not by blockade of fat oxidation, as previously believed. Analysis of MA's interaction with GPR40 may facilitate understanding of the multiple functions of this receptor and the manner in which FAs participate in the control of hunger and satiety. PMID:26791830

  10. Synergism by individual macronutrients explains the marked early GLP-1 and islet hormone responses to mixed meal challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Ahlkvist, L; Vikman, J; Pacini, G; Ahrén, B

    2012-10-10

    Apart from glucose, proteins and lipids also stimulate incretin and islet hormone secretion. However, the glucoregulatory effect of macronutrients in combination is poorly understood. We therefore developed an oral mixed meal model in mice to 1) explore the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and islet hormone responses to mixed meal versus isocaloric glucose, and 2) characterize the relative contribution of individual macronutrients to these responses. Anesthetized C57BL/6J female mice were orally gavaged with 1) a mixed meal (0.285 kcal; glucose, whey protein and peanut oil; 60/20/20% kcal) versus an isocaloric glucose load (0.285 kcal), and 2) a mixed meal (0.285 kcal) versus glucose, whey protein or peanut oil administered individually in their mixed meal caloric quantity, i.e., 0.171, 0.055 and 0.055 kcal, respectively. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin and intact GLP-1 before and during oral challenges. Plasma glucose was lower after mixed meal versus after isocaloric glucose ingestion. In spite of this, the peak insulin response (P=0.02), the peak intact GLP-1 levels (P=0.006) and the estimated β-cell function (P=0.005) were higher. Furthermore, the peak insulin (P=0.004) and intact GLP-1 (P=0.006) levels were higher after mixed meal ingestion than the sum of responses to individual macronutrients. Compared to glucose alone, we conclude that there is a marked early insulin response to mixed meal ingestion, which emanates from a synergistic, rather than an additive, effect of the individual macronutrients in the mixed meal and is in part likely caused by increased levels of GLP-1. PMID:22750278

  11. The GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 attenuates self-administration of sweetened fat on fixed and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement in rats.

    PubMed

    Bernosky-Smith, Kimberly A; Stanger, David B; Trujillo, Alexandria J; Mitchell, Luke R; España, Rodrigo A; Bass, Caroline E

    2016-03-01

    GLP-1 agonists such as exendin-4 (EX4) are used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes and have the additional benefit of promoting weight loss. GLP-1 agonists decrease feeding through peripheral effects, but recent evidence suggests they may also influence sweet or high fat preference, as well as motivation to obtain these tastants. Yet it remains unclear how GLP-1-induced alterations in food preference influences decreases in overall feeding. The current study sought to determine if EX4 affects the reinforcing strength and consumption of a highly palatable sweet/fat reinforcer. Rats were trained to self-administer sweetened vegetable shortening (SVS) under fixed (FR) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. EX4 (0.3-2.4μg/kg, i.p.) administered one hour prior to operant sessions significantly reduced responses for SVS under both FR and PR schedules, although the lowest active dose (0.6μg/kg) significantly suppressed FR responding only. EX4 also dose dependently decreased locomotor activity (0.6-2.4μg/kg doses), but did not enhance acute kaolin intake, suggesting that nausea did not influence the self-administration results. Analysis of ED50 values show that EX4 is more effective at inhibiting FR responding versus PR, indicating that EX4 may have more potent effects on amount consumed versus motivation for SVS. Although EX4 caused generalized locomotor suppression, these results do not fully explain the decreases in operant responding. For example, a dose of EX4 (0.6μg/kg) that significantly suppressed locomotor activity did not affect the mean total number of lever presses during PR sessions (59±15), although it did significantly reduce lever presses during FR sessions (21±3). In addition, the pattern of intake was constant at the beginning of the sessions in both PR and FR schedules, regardless of the dose. Together these data suggest that EX4 inhibits consumption of a palatable high sweet/high fat reinforcer potentially through altering satiety

  12. The pepper GNA-related lectin and PAN domain protein gene, CaGLP1, is required for plant cell death and defense signaling during bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Lee, Dong Hyuk; Choi, Du Seok; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-12-01

    Carbohydrate-binding proteins, commonly referred to as lectins or agglutinins, function in defense responses to microbial pathogens. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) GNA-related lectin and PAN-domain protein gene CaGLP1 was isolated and functionally characterized from pepper leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). CaGLP1 contained an amine-terminus prokaryotic membrane lipoprotein lipid attachment site, a Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-related lectin domain responsible for the recognition of high-mannose N-glycans, and a carboxyl-terminus PAN/apple domain. RNA gel blot and immunoblot analyses determined that CaGLP1 was strongly induced in pepper by compatible and incompatible Xcv infection. CaGLP1 protein localized primarily to the plasma membrane and exhibited mannose-binding specificity. CaGLP1-silenced pepper plants were more susceptible to compatible or incompatible Xcv infection compared with that of non-silenced control plants. CaGLP1 silencing in pepper leaves did not accumulate H2O2 and induce cell death during incompatible Xcv infection. Defense-related CaDEF1 (defensin) gene expression was significantly reduced in CaGLP1-silenced pepper plants. CaGLP1-overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Defense-related AtPDF1.2 expression was elevated in CaGLP1-overexpression lines. Together, these results suggest that CaGLP1 is required for plant cell death and defense responses through the reactive oxygen species burst and downstream defense-related gene expression in response to bacterial pathogen challenge. PMID:26706081

  13. Acting on Hormone Receptors with Minimal Side Effect on Cell Proliferation: A Timely Challenge Illustrated with GLP-1R and GPER

    PubMed Central

    Gigoux, Véronique; Fourmy, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large family of receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate inside signal transduction pathways and cellular responses. GPCR are involved in a wide variety of physiological processes, including in the neuroendocrine system. GPCR are also involved in many diseases and are the target of 30% of marketed medicinal drugs. Whereas the majority of the GPCR-targeting drugs have proved their therapeutic benefit, some of them were associated with undesired effects. We develop two examples of used drugs whose therapeutic benefits are tarnished by carcinogenesis risks. The chronic administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs widely used to treat type-2 diabetes was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic or thyroid cancers. The long-term treatment with the estrogen antagonist tamoxifen, developed to target breast cancer overexpressing estrogen receptors ER, presents agonist activity on the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor which is associated with an increased incidence of endometrial cancer and breast cancer resistance to hormonotherapy. We point out and discuss the need of pharmacological studies to understand and overcome the undesired effects associated with the chronic administration of GPCR ligands. In fact, biological effects triggered by GPCR often result from the activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Deciphering which signaling networks are engaged following GPCR activation appears to be primordial to unveil their contribution in the physiological and physiopathological processes. The development of biased agonists to elucidate the role of the different signaling mechanisms mediated by GPCR activation will allow the generation of new therapeutic agents with improved efficacy and reduced side effects. In this regard, the identification of GLP-1R biased ligands promoting insulin secretion without inducing pro-tumoral effects would offer therapeutic benefit. PMID

  14. Relief of diabetes by duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve implantation in the high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model is associated with an increase in GLP-1 levels and the number of GLP-1-positive cells

    PubMed Central

    SHUANG, JINQUAN; ZHANG, YING; MA, LIMEI; TAN, XUEMING; HUANG, JING; WANG, XIANG; XIONG, GUANYIN; JIANG, ZHONGHUA; ZHANG, XIUHUA; DU, SHIQING; GU, YONGSONG; SHI, XIANGYANG; FAN, ZHINING

    2015-01-01

    A recently invented duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) implanted in the duodenum and proximal jejunum has exhibited good glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. However, the specific mechanism by which DJBS placement induces the remission of diabetes is not well known. Previous studies have indicated that changes in the pattern of gut hormone secretion may play a role. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of intestinal L cells and the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by these cells in DJBS implantation-induced glycemic control in diabetic rats. A DJBS was placed in the proximal small intestine of rats with diabetes induced by a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ), and the effects of the DJBS on the remission of diabetes and the GLP-1 levels of plasma and intestinal tissues were investigated 12 weeks after DJBS placement. The number of intestinal GLP-1 positive cells was also counted. When the DJBS had been in place for 12 weeks, the plasma glucose level of the DJBS-implanted rats decreased significantly from 23.33±1.56 mmol/l prior to surgery to 7.70±0.84 mmol/l and the diabetes mellitus was relieved completely; however, diabetic control rats and diabetic rats subjected to sham surgery did not show any improvement. Parallel with the remission of diabetes, the plasma and distal ileum GLP-1 levels of rats in the DJBS implantation group were also higher than those of rats in the diabetic control and sham surgery groups. The number of GLP-1-positive cells in the distal ileum was also higher in the DJBS implantation group than in the diabetic control and sham surgery groups (31.0±2.6 vs. 23.5±4.4 vs. 23.0±3.2 respectively; P<0.01). DJBS implantation effectively led to the remission of diabetes in rats with diabetes induced by a high-fat diet and low-dose STZ when implanted for 12 weeks. The remission of diabetes may be associated with the increase in the number of L cells and elevation of GLP-1 levels induced by DJBS

  15. Systemic bile acid sensing by G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1) promotes PYY and GLP-1 release

    PubMed Central

    Ullmer, C; Alvarez Sanchez, R; Sprecher, U; Raab, S; Mattei, P; Dehmlow, H; Sewing, S; Iglesias, A; Beauchamp, J; Conde-Knape, K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Nutrient sensing in the gut is believed to be accomplished through activation of GPCRs expressed on enteroendocrine cells. In particular, L-cells located predominantly in distal regions of the gut secrete glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) upon stimulation by nutrients and bile acids (BA). The study was designed to address the mechanism of hormone secretion in L-cells stimulated by the BA receptor G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1). Experimental Approach A novel, selective, orally bioavailable, and potent GPBAR1 agonist, RO5527239, was synthesized in order to investigate L-cell secretion in vitro and in vivo in mice and monkey. In analogy to BA, RO5527239 was conjugated with taurine to reduce p.o. bioavailability yet retaining its potency. Using RO5527239 and tauro-RO5527239, the acute secretion effects on L-cells were addressed via different routes of administration. Key Results GPBAR1 signalling triggers the co-secretion of PYY and GLP-1, and leads to improved glucose tolerance. The strong correlation of plasma drug exposure and plasma PYY levels suggests activation of GPBAR1 from systemically accessible compartments. In contrast to the orally bioavailable agonist RO5527239, we show that tauro-RO5527239 triggers PYY release only when applied intravenously. Compared to mice, a slower and more sustained PYY secretion was observed in monkeys. Conclusion and Implications Selective GPBAR1 activation elicits a strong secretagogue effect on L-cells, which primarily requires systemic exposure. We suggest that GPBAR1 is a key player in the intestinal proximal-distal loop that mediates the early phase of nutrient-evoked L-cell secretion effects. PMID:23488746

  16. Markers of beta cell failure predict poor glycemic response to GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Angus G; McDonald, Timothy J; Shields, Beverley M; Hill, Anita V; Hyde, Christopher J; Knight, Bridget A; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether clinical characteristics and simple biomarkers of beta cell failure are associated with individual variation in glycemic response to GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods We prospectively studied 620 participants with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥58mmol/mol (7.5%) commencing GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy as part of their usual diabetes care and assessed response to therapy over 6 months. We assessed the association between baseline clinical measurements associated with beta cell failure and glycemic response (HbA1c change 0 to 6 months, primary outcome) with change in weight (0 to 6 months) as a secondary outcome using linear regression and ANOVA with adjustment for baseline HbA1c and co-treatment change. Results Reduced glycemic response to GLP-1R agonists was associated with longer duration diabetes, insulin co-treatment, lower fasting C-peptide, lower post meal urine C-peptide creatinine ratio and positive GAD or IA2 islet autoantibodies (p≤0.01 for all). Participants with positive autoantibodies or severe insulin deficiency (fasting C-peptide ≤0.25nmol/L) had markedly reduced glycemic response to GLP-1RA therapy (autoantibodies: mean HbA1c change -5.2 vs -15.2 mmol/mol (-0.5 vs -1.4%), p=0.005 C-peptide <0.25nmol/L: mean change -2.1 vs -15.3mmol/mol (-0.2 vs -1.4%), p=0.002). These markers were predominantly present in insulin treated participants and were not associated with weight change. Conclusions Clinical markers of low beta cell function are associated with reduced glycemic response to GLP-1R agonist therapy. C-peptide and islet autoantibodies represent potential biomarkers for the stratification of GLP-1R agonist therapy in insulin treated diabetes. PMID:26242184

  17. Cell-cycle quiescence maintains Caenorhabditis elegans germline stem cells independent of GLP-1/Notch

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hannah S; Kimble, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Many types of adult stem cells exist in a state of cell-cycle quiescence, yet it has remained unclear whether quiescence plays a role in maintaining the stem cell fate. Here we establish the adult germline of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for facultative stem cell quiescence. We find that mitotically dividing germ cells—including germline stem cells—become quiescent in the absence of food. This quiescence is characterized by a slowing of S phase, a block to M-phase entry, and the ability to re-enter M phase rapidly in response to re-feeding. Further, we demonstrate that cell-cycle quiescence alters the genetic requirements for stem cell maintenance: The signaling pathway required for stem cell maintenance under fed conditions—GLP-1/Notch signaling—becomes dispensable under conditions of quiescence. Thus, cell-cycle quiescence can itself maintain stem cells, independent of the signaling pathway otherwise essential for such maintenance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10832.001 PMID:26551561

  18. GLP-1R–Targeting Magnetic Nanoparticles for Pancreatic Islet Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Yoo, Byunghee; Yang, Jingsheng; Zhang, Xueli; Ross, Alana; Pantazopoulos, Pamela; Dai, Guangping; Moore, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive assessment of pancreatic β-cell mass would tremendously aid in managing type 1 diabetes (T1D). Toward this goal, we synthesized an exendin-4 conjugated magnetic iron oxide–based nanoparticle probe targeting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R), which is highly expressed on the surface of pancreatic β-cells. In vitro studies in βTC-6, the β-cell line, showed specific accumulation of the targeted probe (termed MN-Ex10-Cy5.5) compared with nontargeted (termed MN-Cy5.5). In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed a significant transverse relaxation time (T2) shortening in the pancreata of mice injected with the MN-Ex10-Cy5.5 probe compared with control animals injected with the nontargeted probe at 7.5 and 24 h after injection. Furthermore, ΔT2 of the pancreata of prediabetic NOD mice was significantly higher than that of diabetic NOD mice after the injection of MN-Ex10-Cy5.5, indicating the decrease of probe accumulation in these animals due to β-cell loss. Of note, ΔT2 of prediabetic and diabetic NOD mice injected with MN-Cy5.5 was not significantly changed, reflecting the nonspecific mode of accumulation of nontargeted probe. We believe our results point to the potential for using this agent for monitoring the disease development and response of T1D to therapy. PMID:24458362

  19. Quantification of the Contribution of GLP-1 to Mediating Insulinotropic Effects of DPP-4 Inhibition With Vildagliptin in Healthy Subjects and Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Using Exendin [9-39] as a GLP-1 Receptor Antagonist.

    PubMed

    Nauck, Michael A; Kind, Joachim; Köthe, Lars D; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Broschag, Matthias; He, Yan Ling; Kjems, Lise; Foley, James

    2016-08-01

    We quantified the contribution of GLP-1 as a mediator of the therapeutic effects of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibition (vildagliptin) by using the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin [9-39] in patients with type 2 diabetes and in healthy subjects. Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes and 29 age- and weight-matched healthy control subjects were treated in randomized order with 100 mg once daily vildagliptin or placebo for 10 days. Meal tests were performed (days 9 and 10) without and with a high-dose intravenous infusion of exendin [9-39]. The main end point was the ratio of the areas under the curve (AUCs) of integrated insulin secretion rates (total AUCISR) and glucose (total AUCglucose) over 4 h after the meal. Vildagliptin treatment more than doubled responses of intact GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and lowered glucose responses without changing AUCISR/AUCglucose in healthy subjects. Vildagliptin significantly increased this ratio by 10.5% in patients with type 2 diabetes, and exendin [9-39] reduced it (both P < 0.0001). The percentage reduction in the AUCISR/AUCglucose ratio achieved with exendin [9-39] was significantly smaller after vildagliptin treatment than after placebo treatment (P = 0.026) and was equivalent to 47 ± 5% of the increments due to vildagliptin. Thus, other mediators appear to contribute significantly to the therapeutic effects of DPP-4 inhibition. PMID:27207543

  20. Peripheral, but not central, GLP-1 receptor signaling is required for improvement in glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in mice.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Jill S; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Yin, Huali; Kaplan, Lee M

    2016-05-15

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes profound weight loss and remission of diabetes by influencing metabolic physiology, yet the mechanisms behind these clinical improvements remain undefined. After RYGB, levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a hormone that enhances insulin secretion and promotes satiation, are substantially elevated. Because GLP-1 signals in both the periphery and the brain to influence energy balance and glucose regulation, we aimed to determine the relative requirements of these systems to weight loss and improved glucose tolerance following RYGB surgery in mice. By pharmacologically blocking peripheral or central GLP-1R signaling, we examined whether GLP-1 action is necessary for the metabolic improvements observed after RYGB. Diet-induced obese mice underwent RYGB or sham operation and were implanted with osmotic pumps delivering the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-(9-39) (2 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) peripherally; 0.5 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) centrally) for up to 10 wk. Blockade of peripheral GLP-1R signaling partially reversed the improvement in glucose tolerance after RYGB. In contrast, fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity, as well as body weight, were unaffected by GLP-1R antagonism. Central GLP-1R signaling did not appear to be required for any of the metabolic improvements seen after this operation. Collectively, these results suggest a detectable but only modest role for GLP-1 in mediating the effects of RYGB and that this role is limited to its well-described action on glucose regulation. PMID:27026085

  1. The DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin and the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 improve endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat mesenteric arteries in the presence of high glucose.

    PubMed

    Salheen, S M; Panchapakesan, U; Pollock, C A; Woodman, O L

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1R agonist, exendin-4 on the mechanism(s) of endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat mesenteric arteries exposed to high glucose concentration (40 mM). Organ bath techniques were employed to investigate vascular endothelial function in rat mesenteric arteries in the presence of normal (11 mM) or high (40 mM) glucose concentrations. Pharmacological tools (1μM TRAM-34, 1μM apamin, 100 nM Ibtx, 100 μM l-NNA, 10 μM ODQ) were used to distinguish between NO and EDHF-mediated relaxation. Superoxide anion levels were assessed by L-012 and lucigenin enhanced-chemiluminescence techniques. Incubation of mesenteric rings with high glucose for 2 h caused a significant increase in superoxide anion generation and a significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation. Exendin-4 and DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin, but not sitagliptin or vildagliptin, significantly reduced vascular superoxide and improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence of high glucose. The beneficial actions of exendin-4, but not linagliptin, were attenuated by the GLP-1R antagonist exendin fragment (9-39). Further experiments demonstrated that the presence of high glucose impaired the contribution of both nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarisation to relaxation and that linagliptin improved both mechanisms involved in endothelium-dependent relaxation. These findings demonstrate that high glucose impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation can be improved by exendin-4 and linagliptin, likely due to their antioxidant activity and independently of any glucose lowering effect. PMID:25697548

  2. The GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Liraglutide Improves Memory Function and Increases Hippocampal CA1 Neuronal Numbers in a Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik H; Fabricius, Katrine; Barkholt, Pernille; Niehoff, Michael L; Morley, John E; Jelsing, Jacob; Pyke, Charles; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Farr, Susan A; Vrang, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, currently used in the management of type 2 diabetes, exhibit neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the potential pro-cognitive and neuroprotective effects of the once-daily GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a model of age-related sporadic AD not dominated by amyloid plaques. Six-month-old SAMP8 mice received liraglutide (100 or 500 μg/kg/day, s.c.) or vehicle once daily for 4 months. Vehicle-dosed age-matched 50% back-crossed as well as untreated young (4-month-old) SAMP8 mice were used as control groups for normal memory function. Vehicle-dosed 10-month-old SAMP8 mice showed significant learning and memory retention deficits in an active-avoidance T-maze, as compared to both control groups. Also, 10-month-old SAMP8 mice displayed no immunohistological signatures of amyloid-β plaques or hyperphosphorylated tau, indicating the onset of cognitive deficits prior to deposition of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in this AD model. Liraglutide significantly increased memory retention and total hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron numbers in SAMP8 mice, as compared to age-matched vehicle-dosed SAMP8 mice. In conclusion, liraglutide delayed or partially halted the progressive decline in memory function associated with hippocampal neuronal loss in a mouse model of pathological aging with characteristics of neurobehavioral and neuropathological impairments observed in early-stage sporadic AD. PMID:25869785

  3. The GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Liraglutide Improves Memory Function and Increases Hippocampal CA1 Neuronal Numbers in a Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Henrik H.; Fabricius, Katrine; Barkholt, Pernille; Niehoff, Michael L.; Morley, John E.; Jelsing, Jacob; Pyke, Charles; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Farr, Susan A.; Vrang, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, currently used in the management of type 2 diabetes, exhibit neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We investigated the potential pro-cognitive and neuroprotective effects of the once-daily GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a model of age-related sporadic AD not dominated by amyloid plaques. Six-month-old SAMP8 mice received liraglutide (100 or 500 μg/kg/day, s.c.) or vehicle once daily for 4 months. Vehicle-dosed age-matched 50% back-crossed as well as untreated young (4-month-old) SAMP8 mice were used as control groups for normal memory function. Vehicle-dosed 10-month-old SAMP8 mice showed significant learning and memory retention deficits in an active-avoidance T-maze, as compared to both control groups. Also, 10-month-old SAMP8 mice displayed no immunohistological signatures of amyloid-β plaques or hyperphosphorylated tau, indicating the onset of cognitive deficits prior to deposition of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in this AD model. Liraglutide significantly increased memory retention and total hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron numbers in SAMP8 mice, as compared to age-matched vehicle-dosed SAMP8 mice. In conclusion, liraglutide delayed or partially halted the progressive decline in memory function associated with hippocampal neuronal loss in a mouse model of pathological aging with characteristics of neurobehavioral and neuropathological impairments observed in early-stage sporadic AD. PMID:25869785

  4. Serum bile acids and GLP-1 decrease following telemetric induced weight loss: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Biemann, Ronald; Penner, Marina; Borucki, Katrin; Westphal, Sabine; Luley, Claus; Rönicke, Raik; Biemann, Kathleen; Weikert, Cornelia; Lux, Anke; Goncharenko, Nikolai; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Schneider, Jochen G; Isermann, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are increasingly recognised as metabolic regulators, potentially improving insulin sensitivity following bariatric surgery. However, physiological relevance of such observations remains unknown. Hence, we analysed serum BA composition and associated gut-derived hormone levels following lifestyle-induced weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). 74 non-smoking men (45-55 yr) with MetS were randomised to a lifestyle-induced weight loss program (supervision via telemonitoring) or to a control arm. Before and after a 6 months intervention period clinical and laboratory parameters, body composition, serum BA profile, FGF-19, and GLP-1 concentrations were determined in fasting blood samples. 30 participants in the control and 33 participants in the treatment arm completed the study and were included in the data analysis. In participants of the treatment arm lifestyle-induced weight loss resulted in markedly improved insulin sensitivity. Serum levels of BA species and total GLP-1 decreased, while FGF-19 remained stable. Serum BA composition changed towards an increased 12α-hydroxylated/non-12α-hydroxylated ratio. None of these parameters changed in participants of the control arm. Our results demonstrate that improved metabolic control by lifestyle modifications lowers serum levels of BAs and GLP-1 and changes serum BA composition towards an increased 12α/non-12α ratio (ICTRP Trial Number: U1111-1158-3672). PMID:27452603

  5. Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia.

    PubMed

    Mottalib, Adham; Mohd-Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak; Shehabeldin, Mohamed; Pober, David M; Mitri, Joanna; Hamdy, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP) effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC) versus oatmeal (OM) on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG). After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0-240) after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p < 0.001 for both). Insulin positive AUC0-120 after UGC was higher than after OM (p = 0.02). GLP-1 AUC0-120 and AUC0-240 after GL and UGC was higher than after OM (p < 0.001 for both). FFA and TG levels were not different between meals. Intake of DSNFs improves PP glucose for 4 h in comparison to oatmeal of similar caloric level. This is achieved by either direct stimulation of insulin secretion or indirectly by stimulating GLP-1 secretion. The difference between their effects is probably related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat. PMID:27455318

  6. Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Mottalib, Adham; Mohd-Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak; Shehabeldin, Mohamed; Pober, David M.; Mitri, Joanna; Hamdy, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP) effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC) versus oatmeal (OM) on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG). After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0–240) after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p < 0.001 for both). Insulin positive AUC0–120 after UGC was higher than after OM (p = 0.02). GLP-1 AUC0–120 and AUC0–240 after GL and UGC was higher than after OM (p < 0.001 for both). FFA and TG levels were not different between meals. Intake of DSNFs improves PP glucose for 4 h in comparison to oatmeal of similar caloric level. This is achieved by either direct stimulation of insulin secretion or indirectly by stimulating GLP-1 secretion. The difference between their effects is probably related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat. PMID:27455318

  7. Serum bile acids and GLP-1 decrease following telemetric induced weight loss: results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Biemann, Ronald; Penner, Marina; Borucki, Katrin; Westphal, Sabine; Luley, Claus; Rönicke, Raik; Biemann, Kathleen; Weikert, Cornelia; Lux, Anke; Goncharenko, Nikolai; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Schneider, Jochen G.; Isermann, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are increasingly recognised as metabolic regulators, potentially improving insulin sensitivity following bariatric surgery. However, physiological relevance of such observations remains unknown. Hence, we analysed serum BA composition and associated gut-derived hormone levels following lifestyle-induced weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). 74 non-smoking men (45–55 yr) with MetS were randomised to a lifestyle-induced weight loss program (supervision via telemonitoring) or to a control arm. Before and after a 6 months intervention period clinical and laboratory parameters, body composition, serum BA profile, FGF-19, and GLP-1 concentrations were determined in fasting blood samples. 30 participants in the control and 33 participants in the treatment arm completed the study and were included in the data analysis. In participants of the treatment arm lifestyle-induced weight loss resulted in markedly improved insulin sensitivity. Serum levels of BA species and total GLP-1 decreased, while FGF-19 remained stable. Serum BA composition changed towards an increased 12α-hydroxylated/non-12α-hydroxylated ratio. None of these parameters changed in participants of the control arm. Our results demonstrate that improved metabolic control by lifestyle modifications lowers serum levels of BAs and GLP-1 and changes serum BA composition towards an increased 12α/non-12α ratio (ICTRP Trial Number: U1111-1158-3672). PMID:27452603

  8. GLP-1 analogue improves hepatic lipid accumulation by inducing autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Qin; Sha, Sha; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Ming

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) keeps rising year by year, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide. Clinical studies have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, liraglutide (LRG), cannot only reduce glucose levels, but also improve hepatic lipase, especially in patients also with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, enhancing autophagy decreases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of LRG on hepatocyte steatosis and the possible role of autophagy. We set up an obesity mouse model with a high-fat diet (HFD) and induced hepatocyte steatosis with free fatty acids (FFA) in human L-O2 cells. LRG and two inhibitors of autophagy, Chloroquine (CQ) and bafilomycin A1 (Baf), were added into each group, respectively. The lipid profiles and morphological modifications of each group were tested. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to measure autophagy in this study. The autophagy protein expression of SQSTM1 (P62), and LC3B, along with the signaling pathway proteins of mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) and Beclin1, were evaluated by western blot. Our results showed that LRG improved hepatocyte steatosis by inducing autophagy, and the AMPK/mTOR pathway is involved. These findings suggest an important mechanism for the positive effects of LRG on hepatic steatosis, and provide new evidence for clinical use of LRG in NAFLD. PMID:27208776

  9. Grape powder attenuates the negative effects of GLP-1 receptor antagonism by exendin-3 (9-39) in a normoglycemic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Haufe, T C; Gilley, A D; Goodrich, K M; Ryan, C M; Smithson, A T; Hulver, M W; Liu, D; Neilson, A P

    2016-06-15

    Prediabetes is a condition affecting 35% of US adults and about 50% of US adults age 65+. Foods rich in polyphenols, including flavanols and other flavonoids, have been studied for their putative beneficial effects on many different health conditions including type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes. Studies have shown that some flavanols increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion. GLP-1 is a feeding hormone that increases insulin secretion after carbohydrate consumption, and increased GLP-1 secretion may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects on glycemic control after flavanol consumption. The present study explored the effects of grape powder consumption on metrics of glycemic health in normoglycemic and prediabetic C57BL/6J mice; additionally, the mechanism of action of grape powder polyphenols was investigated. Grape powder significantly reduced (p < 0.01) blood glucose levels following oral glucose gavage after GLP-1 receptor antagonism by exendin-3 (9-39) compared to sugar-matched control, indicating that it was able to attenuate the hyperglycemic effects of GLP-1 receptor antagonism. Grape powder was employed in acute (1.6 g grape powder per kg bodyweight) and long-term high fat diet (grape powder incorporated into treatment diets at 5% w/w) feeding studies in normoglycemic and prediabetic (diet-induced obesity) mice; grape powder did not impove glycemic control in these studies versus sugar-matched control. The mechanisms by which grape powder ameliorates the deleterious effects of GLP-1 receptor antagonism warrant further study. PMID:27189193

  10. Identification of a proglucagon cDNA from Rana tigrina rugulosa that encodes two GLP-1s and that is alternatively spliced in a tissue-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C M; Chow, B K

    2001-11-01

    Glucagon plays a pivotal role in the regulation of metabolism. A glucagon receptor has been previously characterized in the frog, Rana tigrina rugulosa, and the frog and human glucagon receptors have been shown to possess similar binding affinities toward human glucagon. To study the structural evolution of glucagon peptide and its receptor in vertebrates, in the current study, a proglucagon cDNA from the same frog species was cloned. Interestingly, in contrast to the mammalian proglucagons that contain only one GLP-1 peptide, the frog proglucagon cDNA encodes two GLP-1 peptides (GLP-1A and GLP-1B) in addition to a glucagon peptide and a glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). By reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis, the proglucagon gene expression was widely detected in the brain, colon, small intestine, liver, lung, and pancreas, suggesting that the proglucagon-derived peptides have diverse functions in frogs. Moreover, tissue-specific alternative mRNA splicing was observed in the brain, colon, and pancreas. In these tissues, proglucagon transcripts with a 135 bp in frame deletion encoding GLP-1A were found. This splicing event in R. tigrina rugulosa is novel because it deletes a GLP-1 encoding sequence instead of the GLP-2 observed in other vertebrates. These findings should enhance understanding of the proglucagon evolution, structure, and expression in vertebrates. PMID:11703080

  11. Insulin-releasing and metabolic effects of small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonist 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-N-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R; Patterson, Steven; Green, Brian D

    2010-02-25

    Much recent attention has focused on the GLP-1 receptor as a potential target for antidiabetic drugs. Enzyme resistant GLP-1 mimetics such as exenatide are now employed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but must be administered by injection. The present study has examined and compared the in vitro and in vivo metabolic actions of a small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonist 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-N-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline (DMB), with native GLP-1, exenatide and liraglutide. DMB significantly stimulated in vitro insulin secretion from BRIN-BD11 cells but with decreased molar potency compared to native GLP-1 or related mimetics. Administration of DMB in combination with glucose to mice significantly (P<0.05) decreased the overall glucose excursion compared to controls. Exenatide and liraglutide evoked similar (P<0.001) reductions of the overall glycaemic excursion, but were significantly (P<0.001 and P<0.05; respectively) more effective than DMB. These observations were associated with prominently (P<0.05) enhanced glucose-mediated insulin release by exenatide and liraglutide, but not by DMB. Combined injection of DMB with either liraglutide or exenatide did not substantially improve glucose-lowering or insulin-releasing responses. However, administration of DMB in combination with exendin(9-39) did not impair its glucoregulatory actions. These results provide evidence to support the development and potential use of low molecular weight GLP-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:19917278

  12. Effect of Concomitant Administration of L-Glutamine and Cycloart-23-ene-3β, 25-diol (B2) with Sitagliptin in GLP-1 (7–36) Amide Secretion, Biochemical and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin - Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Chandrashekhar G.; Zanwar, Anand A.

    2013-01-01

    Previously we have reported that, cycloart-23-ene-3β, 25-diol (called as B2) and L-glutamine stimulated glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (7–36) amide secretion diabetic rats. The objective of present investigation was to investigate the concomitant administration of cycloart-23-ene-3β, 25-diol+sitagliptin and L-glutamine+sitagliptin in streptozotocin - nicotinamide induced diabetic Sprague Dawley. Type 2 diabetes was induced in overnight fasted male Sprague Dawley rats pre-treated with nicotinamide (100 mg/kg, i.p.) followed by administration of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, i.p.) 20 min after. The rats were divided into; I- non-diabetic, II- diabetic control, III- Sitagliptin (5 mg/kg, p.o.)+cycloart-23-ene-3β, 25-diol (1 mg/kg, p.o.), IV- Sitagliptin (5 mg/kg, p.o.)+L-glutamine (1000 mg/kg, p.o.). The concomitant treatment of cycloart-23-ene-3β, 25-diol and L-glutamine with sitagliptin was 8 weeks. Plasma glucose, body weight, food and water intake were determined every week. Glycosylated haemoglobin, lipid profile, plasma and colonic active (GLP-1) (7–36) amide, plasma and pancreatic insulin, histology of pancreata and biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured after 8th week treatment. Concomitant administration of cycloart-23-ene-3β, 25-diol and L-glutamine with sitagliptin significantly (p<0.001) reduced plasma glucose, glyoxylated haemoglobin, lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters compared to diabetic control groups. Both concomitant treatment increased plasma and pancreatic insulin as well as plasma and colonic active (GLP-1) (7–36) amide secretion. Histological analysis by Gomori staining observed less destruction of pancreatic β cells. The result obtained from this study; it is concluded that concomitant administration of cycloart-23-ene-3β, 25-diol+sitagliptin and L-glutamine+sitagliptin showed additive antihyperglycaemic effect in diabetic rats. PMID:24023648

  13. Clinical and Patient-Related Variables Associated with Initiating GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Primary Care in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Qing; Grandy, Susan; Hiller, Josh; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims To investigate real-world clinical and patient-related variables associated with initiating GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) treatment relative to initiation of other glucose-lowering therapies in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients of primary care in Germany. Methods Data for 938 T2D patients who started therapy with a GLP-1RA within 823 practices of primary care throughout Germany were retrospectively analyzed (Disease Analyser: 01/2011–03/2014). 5,197 T2D patients who initiated other non-GLP-1RA antidiabetic therapies were selected as controls. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with GLP-1RA initiation in primary care. Results Mean age (SD) of GLP-1RA users was 57.8 (11.8) years (males: 55.5%) and the average BMI was 36.1 (6.7) kg/m2. 22.8% were in diabetologist care and 12.0% had private health insurance. In multivariate regression, choice of GLP-1RA therapy instead of a different glucose-lowering drug class was associated with obesity (odds ratio: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.34–2.10), private health insurance (2.42; 1.89–3.09), younger age (0.94; 0.93–0.95 per year), male sex (0.85; 0.73–0.99), diabetologist care (2.11; 1.73–2.57), and geographic practice location (East vs. West-Germany; 1.25; 1.05–1.49). Among co-medication, angiotensin II antagonists (increased) and non-steroidal antirheumatic agents (decreased) were related to GLP-1RA prescriptions (both p<0.001). Conclusions Consistent with German guidelines, GLP-1RA is mainly prescribed preferentially in T2D patients who are obese. GLP-1RA drugs were more frequently used than other options in privately health insured patients and in patients seeing a diabetologist. PMID:27019360

  14. Characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus newly treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists (CHADIG Study): a cross-sectional multicentre study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Conget, Ignacio; Mauricio, Dídac; Ortega, Rafael; Detournay, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Objective Several glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1Ra) have been made recently available in Spain for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) treatment. There are no published data on the clinical and sociodemographic profile of patients initiating treatment with GLP-1Ra in Spain. Our objective was to understand these patients' characteristics in a real-world clinical practice setting. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Spanish specialist outpatient clinics. Participants 403 adults with DM2 initiating GLP-1Ra treatment were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures Sociodemographic and DM2-related clinical data, including treatment at and after GLP-1Ra initiation and comorbidities, were collected. Results Evaluable patients (n=403; 50.9% female) were included (July 2013 to March 2014) at 24 centres by 53 specialists (47 endocrinology, 6 internal medicine), with the following profile (value±SD): age (58.3±10.4 years), diabetes duration (9.9±7 years), body mass index (BMI; 36.2±5.5) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; 8.4±1.4%); 14% had HbA1c≤7%. Previous antidiabetic treatment: 53.8% only oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs), 5.2% insulin and 40% insulin and OAD; of those receiving OAD, 35% single drug, 38.2% 2 drugs and 24% 3 drugs. Concomitant to GLP-1Ra, 55.3% were only on OAD, 36.2% on insulin and OAD, and 7.2% only on insulin. Of those receiving OAD, the GLP-1Ra was mainly associated with 1 drug (65%) or 2 drugs (31.8%). GLP-1Ra are frequently added to existing antidiabetic drugs, with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors being the OAD most frequently switched (45% receiving 1 before starting GLP-1Ra, only 2.7% receiving it concomitantly). Conclusions In Spain, GLP-1Ra therapy is usually started in combination with OADs or OADs and insulin. These drugs are used in relatively young patients often not reaching therapeutic goals with other treatment combinations, roughly a decade after diagnosis and with a relatively high BMI

  15. The role of GLP-1 mimetics and basal insulin analogues in type 2 diabetes mellitus: guidance from studies of liraglutide

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, A H

    2012-01-01

    In people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the incretin effect is reduced, but the recent advent of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 agonists/analogues has enabled restoration of at least some of the function of the incretin system, with accompanying improvements in glycaemic control. Two GLP-1 receptor agonists/analogues are currently approved for the treatment of T2DM—exenatide (Byetta®, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, IN, US) and liraglutide (Victoza®, Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark); a once-weekly formulation of exenatide (Bydureon®, Eli Lilly & Co.) has also been approved by the European Medicines Agency. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recently published guidance on the use of liraglutide in T2DM, based on evidence from the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes (LEAD) Phase III trial programme, which compared liraglutide with existing glucose-lowering therapies, such as exenatide and insulin glargine. The LEAD programme reported HbA1c reductions from 0.8 to 1.5% with liraglutide (1.2 and 1.8 mg), accompanied by low rates of hypoglycaemia and some weight loss; side effects were primarily gastrointestinal in nature (e.g. nausea and diarrhoea). Based on the findings of the LEAD studies and the NICE recommendation, liraglutide now represents an important therapy widely available in the UK for certain patient groups, including those with a body mass index (BMI) ≥35.0 kg/m2, and patients with a BMI <35 kg/m2 who are considered unsuitable for insulin and are failing to meet targets for glycaemic control with oral agents. NICE guidelines still suggest that most patients without considerable obesity (BMI <35 kg/m2) are probably best managed using insulin therapy. Evidence also suggests a future role for GLP-1 mimetics in combination with basal insulin. PMID:22051096

  16. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  17. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  18. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  19. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  20. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  1. Evaluation of an [18F]AlF-NOTA Analog of Exendin-4 for Imaging of GLP-1 Receptor in Insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Guo, Ning; Guo, Jinxia; Gao, Haokao; Zhu, Lei; Ma, Ying; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The GLP-1 receptor plays an important role in glucose homeostasis and thus is a very important target for diabetes therapy. The receptor is also overexpressed in insulinoma, a tumor of pancreatic beta-cells. We previously evaluated two fluorine-18-labeled analogs of exendin-4 prepared by conjugation with [18F]FBEM (N-[2-(4-[18F]fluorobenzamide)ethyl]maleimide). Both compounds demonstrated good tumor uptake, but the synthesis of the radiotracers was time consuming. To overcome this challenge, we developed a NOTA analog and performed radiolabeling using aluminum [18F]fluoride complexation. Methods: Cys40-exendin-4 was conjugated with NOTA mono N-ethylmaleimide. [18F]AlF conjugation was conducted and the radiolabeled product purified by preparative HPLC. Dynamic and static PET imaging scans were conducted on nude mice with established INS-1 xenografts. Uptake of tumor and other major organs in static images was quantitated (%ID/g) and comparison with blocking studies was made. PET quantification was also compared with ex vivo biodistribution results. Results: The radiosynthesis provided [18F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-cys40-exendin-4 in 23.6 ± 2.4 % radiochemical yield (uncorrected, n = 3) after HPLC; the process required about 55 min. The specific activity at time of injection ranged from 19.6 to 31.4 GBq (0.53-0.85 Ci)/µmol. Tumor uptake had reached its maximum (16.09 ± 1.18% ID/g, n = 4) by 5 min and remained nearly constant for the duration of the study. Kidney uptake continued to increase throughout the entire one hour time course. Pre-injection of exendin-4 caused a marked reduction in tissue uptake with the major exception of liver and kidneys, in which uptake was not affected. HPLC analysis of the radioactive components in extracts of the tumor and plasma showed primarily parent compound at 60 min post-injection, whereas extracts of kidney and urine contained exclusively one polar radioactive component. Conclusion: The radiotracer is prepared in a simple

  2. Synthetic small molecule GLP-1 secretagogues prepared by means of a three-component indole annulation strategy

    PubMed Central

    Chepurny, Oleg G.; Leech, Colin A.; Tomanik, Martin; DiPoto, Maria C.; Li, Hui; Han, Xinping; Meng, Qinghe; Cooney, Robert N.; Wu, Jimmy; Holz, George G.

    2016-01-01

    Rational assembly of small molecule libraries for purposes of drug discovery requires an efficient approach in which the synthesis of bioactive compounds is enabled so that numerous structurally related compounds of a similar basic formulation can be derived. Here, we describe (4 + 3) and (3 + 2) indole annulation strategies that quickly generate complex indole heterocycle libraries that contain novel cyclohepta- and cyclopenta[b]indoles, respectively. Screening of one such library comprised of these indoles identifies JWU-A021 to be an especially potent stimulator of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in vitro. Surprisingly, JWU-A021 is also a potent stimulator of Ca2+ influx through TRPA1 cation channels (EC50 ca. 200 nM), thereby explaining its ability to stimulate GLP-1 release. Of additional importance, the available evidence indicates that JWU-A021 is one of the most potent non-electrophilic TRPA-1 channel agonists yet to be reported in the literature. PMID:27352904

  3. Synthetic small molecule GLP-1 secretagogues prepared by means of a three-component indole annulation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurny, Oleg G.; Leech, Colin A.; Tomanik, Martin; Dipoto, Maria C.; Li, Hui; Han, Xinping; Meng, Qinghe; Cooney, Robert N.; Wu, Jimmy; Holz, George G.

    2016-06-01

    Rational assembly of small molecule libraries for purposes of drug discovery requires an efficient approach in which the synthesis of bioactive compounds is enabled so that numerous structurally related compounds of a similar basic formulation can be derived. Here, we describe (4 + 3) and (3 + 2) indole annulation strategies that quickly generate complex indole heterocycle libraries that contain novel cyclohepta- and cyclopenta[b]indoles, respectively. Screening of one such library comprised of these indoles identifies JWU-A021 to be an especially potent stimulator of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in vitro. Surprisingly, JWU-A021 is also a potent stimulator of Ca2+ influx through TRPA1 cation channels (EC50 ca. 200 nM), thereby explaining its ability to stimulate GLP-1 release. Of additional importance, the available evidence indicates that JWU-A021 is one of the most potent non-electrophilic TRPA-1 channel agonists yet to be reported in the literature.

  4. Synthetic small molecule GLP-1 secretagogues prepared by means of a three-component indole annulation strategy.

    PubMed

    Chepurny, Oleg G; Leech, Colin A; Tomanik, Martin; DiPoto, Maria C; Li, Hui; Han, Xinping; Meng, Qinghe; Cooney, Robert N; Wu, Jimmy; Holz, George G

    2016-01-01

    Rational assembly of small molecule libraries for purposes of drug discovery requires an efficient approach in which the synthesis of bioactive compounds is enabled so that numerous structurally related compounds of a similar basic formulation can be derived. Here, we describe (4 + 3) and (3 + 2) indole annulation strategies that quickly generate complex indole heterocycle libraries that contain novel cyclohepta- and cyclopenta[b]indoles, respectively. Screening of one such library comprised of these indoles identifies JWU-A021 to be an especially potent stimulator of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in vitro. Surprisingly, JWU-A021 is also a potent stimulator of Ca(2+) influx through TRPA1 cation channels (EC50 ca. 200 nM), thereby explaining its ability to stimulate GLP-1 release. Of additional importance, the available evidence indicates that JWU-A021 is one of the most potent non-electrophilic TRPA-1 channel agonists yet to be reported in the literature. PMID:27352904

  5. GLP-1 secretion is stimulated by 1,10-phenanthroline via colocalized T2R5 signal transduction in human enteroendocrine L cell.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Lee, In-Seung; Jeong, Hyeon-soo; Kim, Yumi; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) hormone is known to regulate blood glucose by an insulinotropic effect and increases proliferation as and also prevents apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. We know that GLP-1 is secreted by nutrients such as fatty acids and sweet compounds but also bitter compounds via stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the gut. Among these, bitter compounds are multiply-contained in phytochemicals or artificial materials and perceived as ligands of various bitter taste receptors. We hypothesized that GLP-1 hormone is secreted through stimulation of a single bitter taste receptor by 1,10-phenanthroline which is known agonist of taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5). To prove this hypothesis, we used the representatively well-known 1,10-phenanthroline as ligand of single receptor and evaluated the existence of T2R5 by double-labeling immunofluorescence and then 1,10-phenanthroline is able to secrete GLP-1 hormone through stimulation of T2R5 in human enteroendocrine cells. Consequently, we verify that GLP-1 hormone is colocalized with T2R5 in the human duodenum and ileum tissue and is secreted by 1,10-phenanthroline via T2R5 signal transduction in differentiated human enteroendocrine L cells. PMID:26505793

  6. Co-culture of clonal beta cells with GLP-1 and glucagon-secreting cell line impacts on beta cell insulin secretion, proliferation and susceptibility to cytotoxins.

    PubMed

    Green, Alastair D; Vasu, Srividya; Moffett, R Charlotte; Flatt, Peter R

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the direct effects on insulin releasing MIN6 cells of chronic exposure to GLP-1, glucagon or a combination of both peptides secreted from GLUTag L-cell and αTC1.9 alpha-cell lines in co-culture. MIN6, GLUTag and αTC1.9 cell lines exhibited high cellular hormone content and release of insulin, GLP-1 and glucagon, respectively. Co-culture of MIN6 cells with GLUTag cells significantly increased cellular insulin content, beta-cell proliferation, insulin secretory responses to a range of established secretogogues and afforded protection against exposure cytotoxic concentrations of glucose, lipid, streptozotocin or cytokines. Benefits of co-culture of MIN6 cells with αTC1.9 alphacells were limited to enhanced beta-cell proliferation with marginal positive actions on both insulin secretion and cellular protection. In contrast, co-culture of MIN6 with GLUTag cells plus αTC1.9 cells, markedly enhanced both insulin secretory responses and protection against beta-cell toxins compared with co-culture with GLUTag cells alone. These data indicate important long-term effects of conjoint GLP-1 and glucagon exposure on beta-cell function. This illustrates the possible functional significance of alpha-cell GLP-1 production as well as direct beneficial effects of dual agonism at beta-cell GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. PMID:27015674

  7. Dietary sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaf extract attenuates hyperglycaemia by enhancing the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Rika; Ueno, Shiori; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Hira, Tohru; Hara, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Takanori

    2014-09-01

    'Suioh', a sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivar developed in Japan, has edible leaves and stems. The sweet potato leaves contain polyphenols such as caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives. It has multiple biological functions and may help to regulate the blood glucose concentration. In this study, we first examined whether sweet potato leaf extract powder (SP) attenuated hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Administration of dietary SP for 5 weeks significantly lowered glycaemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Second, we conducted in vitro experiments, and found that SP and CQA derivatives significantly enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Third, pre-administration of SP significantly stimulated GLP-1 secretion and was accompanied by enhanced insulin secretion in rats, which resulted in a reduced glycaemic response after glucose injection. These results indicate that oral SP attenuates postprandial hyperglycaemia, possibly through enhancement of GLP-1 secretion. PMID:25066255

  8. 99mTc Labeled Glucagon-Like Peptide-1-Analogue (99mTc-GLP1) Scintigraphy in the Management of Patients with Occult Insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Trofimiuk-Müldner, Małgorzata; Stefańska, Agnieszka; Tomaszuk, Monika; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Jabrocka-Hybel, Agata; Głowa, Bogusław; Małecki, Maciej; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kowalska, Aldona; Mikołajczak, Renata; Janota, Barbara; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the utility of [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDA)NH2]-exendin-4 scintigraphy in the management of patients with hypoglycemia, particularly in the detection of occult insulinoma. Materials and Methods Forty patients with hypoglycemia and increased/confusing results of serum insulin and C-peptide concentration and negative/inconclusive results of other imaging examinations were enrolled in the study. In all patients GLP-1 receptor imaging was performed to localise potential pancreatic lesions. Results Positive results of GLP-1 scintigraphy were observed in 28 patients. In 18 patients postsurgical histopathological examination confirmed diagnosis of insulinoma. Two patients had contraindications to the surgery, one patient did not want to be operated. One patient, who presented with postprandial hypoglycemia, with positive result of GLP-1 imaging was not qualified for surgery and is in the observational group. Eight patients were lost for follow up, among them 6 patients with positive GLP-1 scintigraphy result. One patient with negative scintigraphy was diagnosed with malignant insulinoma. In two patients with negative scintigraphy Munchausen syndrome was diagnosed (patients were taking insulin). Other seven patients with negative results of 99mTcGLP-1 scintigraphy and postprandial hypoglycemia with C-peptide and insulin levels within the limits of normal ranges are in the observational group. We would like to mention that 99mTc-GLP1-SPECT/CT was also performed in 3 pts with nesidioblastosis (revealing diffuse tracer uptake in two and a focal lesion in one case) and in two patients with malignant insulinoma (with the a focal uptake in the localization of a removed pancreatic headin one case and negative GLP-1 1 scintigraphy in the other patient). Conclusions 99mTc-GLP1-SPECT/CT could be helpful examination in the management of patients with hypoglycemia enabling proper localization of the pancreatic lesion and effective

  9. GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide reverses long-term atypical antipsychotic treatment associated behavioral depression and metabolic abnormalities in rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Ligade, Sagar S; Sharma, Jay N; Shukla, Praveen; Elased, Khalid M; Lucot, James B

    2015-04-01

    Mood disorder patients that are on long-term atypical antipsychotics treatment frequently experience metabolic dysfunctions. In addition to this, accumulating evidences points to increased risk of structural abnormalities, brain volume changes, altered neuroplasticity and behavioral depression with long-term antipsychotics use. However, there is paucity of preclinical evidences for long-term antipsychotic associated depression-like behavior. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to evaluate influence of long-term antipsychotic (olanzapine) treatment on rat behavior in forced swim test (FST) as a model for depression and; (2) to examine impact of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide - an antidiabetic medication for type II diabetes, on long-term olanzapine associated metabolic and behavioral changes in rats. Daily olanzapine treatment (0.5 mg/kg; p.o.) for 8-9 weeks significantly increased body weights, food and water intake, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides and immobility time in FST with parallel reduction in plasma HDL cholesterol levels. These results points to development of metabolic abnormalities and depression-like behavior with long-term olanzapine treatment. Acute liraglutide (50 μg/kg; i.p.) and imipramine (10 mg/kg, i. p.) treatment per se significantly decreased duration of immobility in FST compared to vehicle treated rats. Additionally, 3-week liraglutide treatment (50 μg/kg; i.p., daily) partially reversed metabolic abnormalities and depression-like behavior with long-term olanzapine-treatment in rats. None of these treatment regimens affected locomotor behavior of rats. In summary, add-on GLP-1 receptor agonists promise novel alternatives to counteract long-term antipsychotics associated behavioral and metabolic complications. PMID:25023888

  10. Evidence for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signaling to activate ATP-sensitive potassium channels in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Jung; Park, Hyun-Sun; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Jae-Hyung; Shin, Su-Kyung; Song, Seung Eun; Hwang, Meeyul; Cho, Ho-Chan; Song, Dae-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut peptide that promotes insulin release from pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 has been shown to confer glucose-insensitive beta cells with glucose sensitivity by modulation of the activity of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The channel closing effect of GLP-1, interacting with corresponding G-protein-coupled receptors, has been well established; however, to our knowledge, no study has shown whether GLP-1 directly induces activation of beta-cell KATP channels. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether the activation of beta-cell KATP channels by GLP-1 exists and affects intracellular Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i). KATP channel activity was measured in isolated rat pancreatic beta cells by whole-cell perforated patch-clamp recordings with a diazoxide-containing pipette solution. Changes in [Ca(2+)]i and the subcellular localization of KATP channels were observed using the calcium-sensitive dye fura-4/AM and anti-Kir6.2 antibodies in INS-1 beta cells, respectively. To eliminate the well-known inhibitory effects of GLP-1 on KATP channel activity, channels were fully inhibited by pretreatment with methyl pyruvate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. In the pretreated beta cells, GLP-1 and exendin-4 promptly activated the channels, reducing [Ca(2+)]i. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 blocked the effects of GLP-1 on channel activity. Moreover, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate mimicked the effects of GLP-1. These results suggested that beta-cell GLP-1 receptor signaling involved activation of KATP channels via a PI3K-dependent pathway. This alternative mechanism of GLP-1 function may act as a negative feedback pathway, modulating the glucose-dependent GLP-1 inhibition on KATP channel activity. PMID:26655814

  11. Comparison of GLP-1 Analogues versus Sitagliptin in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Head-to-Head Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiansheng; Gou, Zhuoyue; Wang, Fei; Ma, Manling; Zhai, Suo-di

    2014-01-01

    Background Incretin–based therapies which include glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are recommended by several practice guidelines as second-line agents for add-on therapy to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who do not achieve glycemic control with metformin plus lifestyle interventions alone. The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of existing head to head studies to compare the efficacy and safety of GLP-1 analogues with DPP-4 inhibitors. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of head-to-head studies to compare GLP-1 analogues with DPP-4 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes. A random effects model was selected to perform the meta-analyses, results were expressed as weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes and relative risks for dichotomous outcomes, both with 95% confidence intervals, and with I2 values and P values as markers of heterogeneity. Results Four head-to-head randomized controlled studies with 1755 patients were included. Compared to sitagliptin, GLP-1 analogues are more effective in reducing HbA1C (weight mean difference −0.41%, 95% CI −0.51 to −0.31) and body weight (weight mean difference −1.55 kg, 95% CI −1.98 to −1.12). Conversely, GLP-1 analogues are associated with a higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events compared to sitagliptin: nausea (relative risk 3.14, 95% CI 2.15 to 4.59), vomiting (relative risk 2.60, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.56), diarrhea (relative risk 1.82, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.69), and constipation (relative risk 2.50, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.70). Conclusions The result of this meta-analysis demonstrates that compared to sitagliptin, GLP-1 analogues are more effective for glycemic control and weight loss, but have similar efficacy in reducing blood pressure and lipid parameters, however, GLP-1 analogues are associated with a higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse

  12. In vivo dual-delivery of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor through composites prepared by microfluidics for diabetes therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, F.; Shrestha, N.; Gomes, M. J.; Herranz-Blanco, B.; Liu, D.; Hirvonen, J. J.; Granja, P. L.; Santos, H. A.; Sarmento, B.

    2016-05-01

    Oral delivery of proteins is still a challenge in the pharmaceutical field. Nanoparticles are among the most promising carrier systems for the oral delivery of proteins by increasing their oral bioavailability. However, most of the existent data regarding nanosystems for oral protein delivery is from in vitro studies, lacking in vivo experiments to evaluate the efficacy of these systems. Herein, a multifunctional composite system, tailored by droplet microfluidics, was used for dual delivery of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (iDPP4) in vivo. Oral delivery of GLP-1 with nano- or micro-systems has been studied before, but the simultaneous nanodelivery of GLP-1 with iDPP4 is a novel strategy presented here. The type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rat model, induced through the combined administration of streptozotocin and nicotinamide, a non-obese model of T2DM, was used. The combination of both drugs resulted in an increase in the hypoglycemic effects in a sustained, but prolonged manner, where the iDPP4 improved the therapeutic efficacy of GLP-1. Four hours after the oral administration of the system, blood glucose levels were decreased by 44%, and were constant for another 4 h, representing half of the glucose area under the curve when compared to the control. An enhancement of the plasmatic insulin levels was also observed 6 h after the oral administration of the dual-drug composite system and, although no statistically significant differences existed, the amount of pancreatic insulin was also higher. These are promising results for the oral delivery of GLP-1 to be pursued further in a chronic diabetic model study.

  13. When Intensive Insulin Therapy (MDI) Fails in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Switching to GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Versus Insulin Pump.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ohad; Filetti, Sebastiano; Castañeda, Javier; Maranghi, Marianna; Glandt, Mariela

    2016-08-01

    Treatment with insulin, alone or with oral or injectable hypoglycemic agents, is becoming increasingly common in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, approximately 40% of patients fail to reach their glycemic targets with the initially prescribed regimen and require intensification of insulin therapy, which increases the risks of weight gain and hypoglycemia. Many of these patients eventually reach a state in which further increases in the insulin dosage fail to improve glycemic control while increasing the risks of weight gain and hypoglycemia. The recently completed OpT2mise clinical trial showed that continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is more effective in reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) than intensification of multiple daily injection (MDI) insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes who do not respond to intensive insulin therapy. CSII therapy may also be useful in patients who do not reach glycemic targets despite multidrug therapy with basal-bolus insulin and other agents, including glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists; current guidelines offer no recommendations for the treatment of such patients. Importantly, insulin and GLP-1 receptor agonists have complementary effects on glycemia and, hence, can be used either sequentially or in combination in the initial management of diabetes. Patients who have not previously failed GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy may show reduction in weight and insulin dose, in addition to moderate improvement in HbA1c, when GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy is added to MDI regimens. In subjects with long-standing type 2 diabetes who do not respond to intensive insulin therapies, switching from MDI to CSII and/or the addition of GLP-1 receptor agonists to MDI have the potential to improve glycemic control without increasing the risk of adverse events. PMID:27440831

  14. In Alzheimer’s Disease, 6-Month Treatment with GLP-1 Analog Prevents Decline of Brain Glucose Metabolism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gejl, Michael; Gjedde, Albert; Egefjord, Lærke; Møller, Arne; Hansen, Søren B.; Vang, Kim; Rodell, Anders; Brændgaard, Hans; Gottrup, Hanne; Schacht, Anna; Møller, Niels; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    In animal models, the incretin hormone GLP-1 affects Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesized that treatment with GLP-1 or an analog of GLP-1 would prevent accumulation of Aβ and raise, or prevent decline of, glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in AD. In this 26-week trial, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18), or placebo (n = 20). We measured Aβ load in brain with tracer [11C]PIB (PIB), CMRglc with [18F]FDG (FDG), and cognition with the WMS-IV scale (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01469351). The PIB binding increased significantly in temporal lobe in placebo and treatment patients (both P = 0.04), and in occipital lobe in treatment patients (P = 0.04). Regional and global increases of PIB retention did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.38). In placebo treated patients CMRglc declined in all regions, significantly so by the following means in precuneus (P = 0.009, 3.2 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 5.45; 0.92), and in parietal (P = 0.04, 2.1 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 4.21; 0.081), temporal (P = 0.046, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.05; 0.030), and occipital (P = 0.009, 2.10 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.61; 0.59) lobes, and in cerebellum (P = 0.04, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.01; 0.064). In contrast, the GLP-1 analog treatment caused a numerical but insignificant increase of CMRglc after 6 months. Cognitive scores did not change. We conclude that the GLP-1 analog treatment prevented the decline of CMRglc that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution. We draw no firm conclusions from the Aβ load or cognition measures, for which the study was underpowered. PMID:27252647

  15. Diabetes and obesity treatment based on dual incretin receptor activation: 'twincretins'.

    PubMed

    Skow, M A; Bergmann, N C; Knop, F K

    2016-09-01

    The gut incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted after meal ingestion and work in concert to promote postprandial insulin secretion and regulate glucagon secretion. GLP-1 also slows gastric emptying and suppresses appetite, whereas GIP seems to affect lipid metabolism. The introduction of selective GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity has increased the scientific and clinical interest in incretins. Combining the body weight-lowering and glucose-lowering effects of GLP-1 with a more potent improvement of β cell function through additional GIP action could potentially offer a more effective treatment of diabetes and obesity, with fewer adverse effects than selective GLP-1R agonists; therefore, new drugs designed to co-activate both the GIP receptor (GIPR) and the GLP-1R simultaneously are under development. In the present review, we address advances in the field of GIPR and GLP-1R co-agonism and review in vitro studies, animal studies and human trials involving co-administration of the two incretins, as well as results from a recently developed GIPR/GLP-1R co-agonist, and highlight promising areas and challenges within the field of incretin dual agonists. PMID:27160961

  16. The Extracellular Surface of the GLP-1 Receptor Is a Molecular Trigger for Biased Agonism.

    PubMed

    Wootten, Denise; Reynolds, Christopher A; Smith, Kevin J; Mobarec, Juan C; Koole, Cassandra; Savage, Emilia E; Pabreja, Kavita; Simms, John; Sridhar, Rohan; Furness, Sebastian G B; Liu, Mengjie; Thompson, Philip E; Miller, Laurence J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M

    2016-06-16

    Ligand-directed signal bias offers opportunities for sculpting molecular events, with the promise of better, safer therapeutics. Critical to the exploitation of signal bias is an understanding of the molecular events coupling ligand binding to intracellular signaling. Activation of class B G protein-coupled receptors is driven by interaction of the peptide N terminus with the receptor core. To understand how this drives signaling, we have used advanced analytical methods that enable separation of effects on pathway-specific signaling from those that modify agonist affinity and mapped the functional consequence of receptor modification onto three-dimensional models of a receptor-ligand complex. This yields molecular insights into the initiation of receptor activation and the mechanistic basis for biased agonism. Our data reveal that peptide agonists can engage different elements of the receptor extracellular face to achieve effector coupling and biased signaling providing a foundation for rational design of biased agonists. PMID:27315480

  17. A genomic approach to therapeutic target validation identifies a glucose-lowering GLP1R variant protective for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Scott, Robert A; Freitag, Daniel F; Li, Li; Chu, Audrey Y; Surendran, Praveen; Young, Robin; Grarup, Niels; Stancáková, Alena; Chen, Yuning; Varga, Tibor V; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Luan, Jian'an; Zhao, Jing Hua; Willems, Sara M; Wessel, Jennifer; Wang, Shuai; Maruthur, Nisa; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Pirie, Ailith; van der Lee, Sven J; Gillson, Christopher; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Amouyel, Philippe; Arriola, Larraitz; Arveiler, Dominique; Aviles-Olmos, Iciar; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Barroso, Inês; Garcia, Sara Benlloch; Bis, Joshua C; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehnke, Michael; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Bowden, Sarah; Caldas, Carlos; Caslake, Muriel; Cupples, L Adrienne; Cruchaga, Carlos; Czajkowski, Jacek; den Hoed, Marcel; Dunn, Janet A; Earl, Helena M; Ehret, Georg B; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Foltynie, Thomas; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gonzalez, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Hiller, Louise; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kee, Frank; Kerrison, Nicola D; Key, Timothy J; Kontto, Jukka; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Kraja, Aldi T; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Chunyu; Marenne, Gaëlle; Mohlke, Karen L; Morris, Andrew P; Muir, Kenneth; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Munroe, Patricia B; Navarro, Carmen; Nielsen, Sune F; Nilsson, Peter M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Packard, Chris J; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Peloso, Gina M; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Poole, Christopher J; Quirós, J Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Salomaa, Veikko; Sánchez, María-José; Sattar, Naveed; Sharp, Stephen J; Sims, Rebecca; Slimani, Nadia; Smith, Jennifer A; Thompson, Deborah J; Trompet, Stella; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Virtamo, Jarmo; Walker, Mark; Walter, Klaudia; Abraham, Jean E; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Aponte, Jennifer L; Butterworth, Adam S; Dupuis, Josée; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; Erdmann, Jeanette; Franks, Paul W; Frayling, Timothy M; Hansen, Torben; Howson, Joanna M M; Jørgensen, Torben; Kooner, Jaspal; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I; Pankow, James S; Pedersen, Oluf; Riboli, Elio; Rotter, Jerome I; Saleheen, Danish; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Deloukas, Panos; Danesh, John; Goodarzi, Mark O; Kathiresan, Sekar; Meigs, James B; Ehm, Margaret G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Waterworth, Dawn M

    2016-06-01

    Regulatory authorities have indicated that new drugs to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) should not be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Human genetics may be able to guide development of antidiabetic therapies by predicting cardiovascular and other health endpoints. We therefore investigated the association of variants in six genes that encode drug targets for obesity or T2D with a range of metabolic traits in up to 11,806 individuals by targeted exome sequencing and follow-up in 39,979 individuals by targeted genotyping, with additional in silico follow-up in consortia. We used these data to first compare associations of variants in genes encoding drug targets with the effects of pharmacological manipulation of those targets in clinical trials. We then tested the association of those variants with disease outcomes, including coronary heart disease, to predict cardiovascular safety of these agents. A low-frequency missense variant (Ala316Thr; rs10305492) in the gene encoding glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R), the target of GLP1R agonists, was associated with lower fasting glucose and T2D risk, consistent with GLP1R agonist therapies. The minor allele was also associated with protection against heart disease, thus providing evidence that GLP1R agonists are not likely to be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Our results provide an encouraging signal that these agents may be associated with benefit, a question currently being addressed in randomized controlled trials. Genetic variants associated with metabolic traits and multiple disease outcomes can be used to validate therapeutic targets at an early stage in the drug development process. PMID:27252175

  18. Regulation of gastric emptying rate and its role in nutrient-induced GLP-1 secretion in rats after vertical sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Adam P.; Smith, Eric P.; Begg, Denovan P.; Grayson, Bernadette E.; Sisley, Stephanie; Greer, Todd; Sorrell, Joyce; Lemmen, Lisa; LaSance, Kati; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.; D'Alessio, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are effective weight loss surgeries that also improve glucose metabolism. Rapid, early rises of circulating insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations following food ingestion are characteristic of these procedures. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that postprandial hormone release is due to increased nutrient emptying from the stomach. Radioscintigraphy and chemical and radiolabeled tracers were used to examine gastric emptying in rat models of VSG and RYGB surgery. Intraduodenal nutrient infusions were used to assess intestinal GLP-1 secretion and nutrient sensitivity in VSG rats compared with shams. Five minutes after a nutrient gavage, the stomachs of RYGB and VSG rats were completely emptied, whereas only 6.1% of the nutrient mixture had emptied from sham animals. Gastric pressure was increased in VSG animals, and rats with this procedure did not inhibit gastric emptying normally in response to increasing caloric loads of dextrose or corn oil, and they did not respond to neural or endocrine effectors of gastric motility. Finally, direct infusion of liquid nutrients into the duodenum caused significantly greater GLP-1 release in VSG compared with shams, indicating that increases in GLP-1 secretion after VSG are the result of both greater gastric emptying rates and altered responses at the level of the intestine. These findings demonstrate greatly accelerated gastric emptying in rat models of RYGB and VSG. In VSG this is likely due to increased gastric pressure and reduced responses to inhibitory feedback from the intestine. PMID:24368666

  19. GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

    MedlinePlus

    ... confused. You can learn what to eat or drink to bring your blood glucose level back up to normal. Exenatide and liraglutide can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, weakness, or dizziness. Some side effects are warning signs of serious conditions. For example, ...

  20. Long-term insulinotropic activity of glucagon-like peptide-1/polymer conjugate on islet microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungwon; Bae, You Han

    2004-01-01

    The biohybrid artificial pancreas (BAP), a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes, faces several obstacles such as the need for a large implantation volume of encapsulated islets because of low functionality. To address such problems, in this study we examined long-term insulinotropic activity of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/polymer conjugate [VAPG: poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-acrylic acid-g-PEG) (VAP)-GLP-1] as well as GLP-1/Zn(2+) crystal by coencapsulation with islets. Microcapsules with VAPG or crystal produced round-shaped beads whereas free GLP-1 showed poor capsule morphology. A perfusion experiment suggested that VAPG showed higher bioactivity than did microcapsules with GLP-1/Zn(2+). In long-term culture (200 mg of glucose/dL [G]), VAPG also enhanced insulinotropic activity over 5 weeks compared with the crystal form of GLP-1. However, maintenance of the high bioactivity of VAPG suddenly declined after week 5, possibly because of degradation, metabolism, and overstimulation. Basal (50 G) and glucose-stimulated (300 G) levels of insulin secretion confirmed a see-saw pattern in which the VAPG gradually decreased insulin secretion from encapsulated islets and then fell below the insulin level secreted from microcapsules containing GLP-1/Zn(2+) crystal. Viability of the microcapsulated islets of each group was not significantly different. Consequently, the coencapsulation of VAPG or GLP-1/Zn(2+) crystal can be a potential approach to reducing BAP volume with further optimization of activity duration. PMID:15684669

  1. Agavins from Agave angustifolia and Agave potatorum affect food intake, body weight gain and satiety-related hormones (GLP-1 and ghrelin) in mice.

    PubMed

    Santiago-García, Patricia Araceli; López, Mercedes G

    2014-12-01

    Agavins act as a fermentable dietary fiber and have attracted attention due to their potential for reducing the risk of disease. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of supplementation using 10% agavins with a short-degree of polymerization (SDP) from Agave angustifolia Haw. (AASDP) or Agave potatorum Zucc. (APSDP) along with chicory fructans (RSE) as a reference for 5 weeks, on the energy intake, body weight gain, satiety-related hormones from the gut and blood (GLP-1 and ghrelin), blood glucose and lipids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from the gut of ad libitum-fed mice. We evaluated the energy intake daily and weight gain every week. At the end of the experiment, portal vein blood samples as well as intestinal segments and the stomach were collected to measure glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin using RIA and ELISA kits, respectively. Colon SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography. The energy intake, body weight gain, and triglycerides were lower in the fructan-fed mice than in the STD-fed mice. The AASDP, APSDP, and RSE diets increased the serum levels of GLP-1 (40, 93, and 16%, respectively vs. STD) (P ≤ 0.05), whereas ghrelin was decreased (16, 38, and 42%, respectively) (P ≤ 0.05). Butyric acid increased significantly in the APSDP-fed mice (26.59 mmol g(-1), P ≤ 0.001) compared with that in the AASDP- and RSE-fed mice. We concluded that AASDP and APSDP are able to promote the secretion of the peptides involved in appetite regulation, which might help to control obesity and its associated metabolic disorder. PMID:25367106

  2. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) haplotypes correlate with altered response to multiple antipsychotics in the CATIE trial.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Timothy L; Brennan, Mark D

    2014-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) signaling has been shown to have antipsychotic properties in animal models and to impact glucose-dependent insulin release, satiety, memory, and learning in man. Previous work has shown that two coding mutations (rs6923761 and rs1042044) are associated with altered insulin release and cortisol levels. We identified four frequently occurring haplotypes in Caucasians, haplotype 1 through haplotype 4, spanning exons 4-7 and containing the two coding variants. We analyzed response to antipsychotics, defined as predicted change in PANSS-Total (dPANSS) at 18 months, in Caucasian subjects from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness treated with olanzapine (n=139), perphenazine (n=78), quetiapine (n=14), risperidone (n=143), and ziprasidone (n=90). Haplotype trend regression analysis revealed significant associations with dPANSS for olanzapine (best p=0.002), perphenazine (best p=0.01), quetiapine (best p=0.008), risperidone (best p=0.02), and ziprasidone (best p=0.007). We also evaluated genetic models for the two most common haplotypes. Haplotype 1 (uniquely including the rs1042044 [Leu(260)] allele) was associated with better response to olanzapine (p=0.002), and risperidone (p=0.006), and worse response to perphenazine (p=.03), and ziprasidone (p=0.003), with a recessive genetic model providing the best fit. Haplotype 2 (uniquely including the rs6923761 [Ser(168)] allele) was associated with better response to perphenazine (p=0.001) and worse response to olanzapine (p=.02), with a dominant genetic model providing the best fit. However, GLP1R haplotypes were not associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain. These results link functional genetic variants in GLP1R to antipsychotic response. PMID:25449714

  3. The non-peptide GLP-1 receptor agonist WB4-24 blocks inflammatory nociception by stimulating β-endorphin release from spinal microglia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hui; Gong, Nian; Li, Teng-Fei; Ma, Ai-Niu; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Two peptide agonists of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor, exenatide and GLP-1 itself, exert anti-hypersensitive effects in neuropathic, cancer and diabetic pain. In this study, we have assessed the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of the non-peptide agonist WB4-24 in inflammatory nociception and the possible involvement of microglial β-endorphin and pro-inflammatory cytokines. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We used rat models of inflammatory nociception induced by formalin, carrageenan or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), to test mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Expression of β-endorphin and pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured using real-time quantitative PCR and fluorescent immunoassays. KEY RESULTS WB4-24 displaced the specific binding of exendin (9–39) in microglia. Single intrathecal injection of WB4-24 (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 μg) exerted dose-dependent, specific, anti-hypersensitive effects in acute and chronic inflammatory nociception induced by formalin, carrageenan and CFA, with a maximal inhibition of 60–80%. Spinal WB4-24 was not effective in altering nociceptive pain. Subcutaneous injection of WB4-24 was also antinociceptive in CFA-treated rats. WB4-24 evoked β-endorphin release but did not inhibit expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in either the spinal cord of CFA-treated rats or cultured microglia stimulated by LPS. WB4-24 anti-allodynia was prevented by a microglial inhibitor, β-endorphin antiserum and a μ-opioid receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results suggest that WB4-24 inhibits inflammatory nociception by releasing analgesic β-endorphin rather than inhibiting the expression of proalgesic pro-inflammatory cytokines in spinal microglia, and that the spinal GLP-1 receptor is a potential target molecule for the treatment of pain hypersensitivity including inflammatory nociception. PMID:25176008

  4. Glucogon-like Peptide 1 Receptor (GLP1R) haplotypes correlate with altered response to multiple antipsychotics in the CATIE trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Timothy; Brennan, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Glucogon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) signaling has been shown to have antipsychotic properties in animal models and to impact glucose-dependent insulin release, satiety, memory, and learning in man. Previous work has shown that two coding mutations (rs6923761 and rs1042044) are associated with altered insulin release and cortisol levels. We identified four frequently occurring haplotypes in Caucasians, haplotype 1 through haplotype 4, spanning exons 4-7 and containing the two coding variants. We analyzed response to antiapsychotics, as defined as predicted change in PANSS-Total (dPANSS) at 18 months, in Caucasian subjects from Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness treated with (olanzapine, n=139; perphenazine, n=78; quetiapine, n=14; risperidone, n=143; and ziprasidone, n=90). Haplotype trend regression analysis revealed significant associations with dPANSS for olanzapine (best p=0.002), perphenazine (best p=0.01), quetiapine (best p=0.008), risperidone (best p=0.02), and ziprasidone (best p=0.007). We also evaluated genetic models for the two most common haplotypes. Haplotype 1 (uniquely including the rs1042044 [Leu260] allele) was associated with better response to olanzapine (p=0.002), and risperidone (p=0.006), and worse response to perphenazine (p=.03), and ziprasidone (p=0.003), with a recessive genetic model providing the best fit. Haplotype 2 (uniquely including the rs6923761 [Ser168] allele) was associated with better response to perphenazine (p=0.001) and worse response to olanzapine (p=.02), with a dominant genetic model providing the best fit. However, GLP1R haplotypes were not associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain. These results link functional genetic variants in GLP1R to antipsychotic response. PMID:25449714

  5. Long-Term Exposure of Pancreatic β-Cells to Palmitate Results in SREBP-1C-Dependent Decreases in GLP-1 Receptor Signaling via CREB and AKT and Insulin Secretory Response.

    PubMed

    Natalicchio, Annalisa; Biondi, Giuseppina; Marrano, Nicola; Labarbuta, Rossella; Tortosa, Federica; Spagnuolo, Rosaria; D'Oria, Rossella; Carchia, Emanuele; Leonardini, Anna; Cignarelli, Angelo; Perrini, Sebastio; Laviola, Luigi; Giorgino, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    The effects of prolonged exposure of pancreatic β-cells to high saturated fatty acids on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) action were investigated. Murine islets, human pancreatic 1.1B4 cells, and rat INS-1E cells were exposed to palmitate for 24 hours. mRNA and protein expression/phosphorylation were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Specific short interfering RNAs were used to knockdown expression of the GLP-1 receptor (Glp1r) and Srebf1. Insulin release was assessed with a specific ELISA. Exposure of murine islets, as well as of human and INS-1E β-cells, to palmitate reduced the ability of exendin-4 to augment insulin mRNA levels, protein content, and release. In addition, palmitate blocked exendin-4-stimulated cAMP-response element-binding protein and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog phosphorylation, whereas phosphorylation of MAPK-ERK kinase-1/2 and ERK-1/2 was not altered. Similarly, RNA interference-mediated suppression of Glp1r expression prevented exendin-4-induced cAMP-response element-binding protein and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog phosphorylation, but did not impair exendin-4 stimulation of MAPK-ERK kinase-1/2 and ERK-1/2. Both islets from mice fed a high fat diet and human and INS-1E β-cells exposed to palmitate showed reduced GLP-1 receptor and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and increased sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1C) mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, suppression of SREBP-1C protein expression prevented the reduction of PDX-1 and GLP-1 receptor levels and restored exendin-4 signaling and action. Finally, treatment of INS-1E cells with metformin for 24 h resulted in inhibition of SREBP-1C expression, increased PDX-1 and GLP-1 receptor levels, consequently, enhancement of exendin-4-induced insulin release. Palmitate impairs exendin-4 effects on β-cells by reducing PDX-1 and GLP-1 receptor expression and signaling in a SREBP-1C-dependent manner. Metformin

  6. Self-Assembling Glucagon-Like Peptide 1-Mimetic Peptide Amphiphiles for Enhanced Activity and Proliferation of Insulin-Secreting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saahir; Sur, Shantanu; Newcomb, Christina J.; Appelt, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Current treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus requires daily insulin injections that fail to produce physiological glycemic control. Islet cell transplantation has been proposed as a permanent cure but is limited by loss of β-cell viability and function. These limitations could potentially be overcome by relying on the activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which acts on β-cells to promote insulin release, proliferation, and survival. We have developed a peptide amphiphile (PA) molecule incorporating a peptide mimetic for GLP-1. This GLP-1-mimetic PA self-assembles into one-dimensional nanofibers that stabilize the active secondary structure of GLP-1 and can be cross-linked by calcium ions to form a macroscopic gel capable of cell encapsulation and 3-dimensional culture. The GLP-1-mimetic PA nanofibers were found to stimulate insulin secretion from rat insulinoma (RINm5f) cells to a significantly greater extent than the mimetic peptide alone and to a level equivalent to that of the clinically used agonist exendin-4. The activity of the GLP-1-mimetic PA is glucose-dependent, lipid-raft dependent, and partially PKA-dependent consistent with native GLP-1. The GLP-1-mimetic PA also completely abrogates inflammatory cytokine-induced cell death to the level of untreated controls. When used as a PA gel to encapsulate RINm5f cells, the GLP-1-mimetic PA stimulates insulin secretion and proliferation in a cytokine-resistant manner that is significantly greater than a non-bioactive PA gel containing exendin-4. Due to its self-assembling property and bioactivity, the GLP-1-mimetic PA can be incorporated into previously developed islet cell transplantation protocols with the potential for significant enhancement of β-cell viability and function. PMID:22342354

  7. Characterization of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, in rat partial and full nigral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik H; Fabricius, Katrine; Barkholt, Pernille; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Jelsing, Jacob; Pyke, Charles; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Vrang, Niels

    2016-09-01

    Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, have been demonstrated to promote neuroprotection in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron loss. In this report, we characterized the effect of a long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide (500µg/kg/day, s.c.) in the context of a partial or advanced (full) 6-OHDA induced nigral lesion in the rat. Rats received a low (3µg, partial lesion) or high (13.5µg, full lesion) 6-OHDA dose stereotaxically injected into the right medial forebrain bundle (n=17-20 rats per experimental group). Six weeks after induction of a partial nigral dopaminergic lesion, vehicle or liraglutide was administered for four weeks. In the full lesion model, vehicle dosing or liraglutide treatment was applied for a total of six weeks starting three weeks pre-lesion, or administered for three weeks starting on the lesion day. Quantitative stereology was applied to assess the total number of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive dopaminergic neurons. As compared to vehicle controls, liraglutide had no effect on the rotational responsiveness to d-amphetamine or apomorphine, respectively. In correspondence, while numbers of TH-positive nigral neurons were significantly reduced in the lesion side (partial lesion ≈55%; full lesion ≈90%) liraglutide administration had no influence dopaminergic neuronal loss in either PD model setting. In conclusion, liraglutide showed no neuroprotective effects in the context of moderate or substantial midbrain dopaminergic neuronal loss and associated functional motor deficits in the rat 6-OHDA lesion model of PD. PMID:27233809

  8. Pharmacologic stimulation of central GLP-1 receptors has opposite effects on the alterations of plasma FGF21 levels induced by feeding and fasting.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao; Yamazaki, Tomoe; Murakami, Mari

    2016-01-26

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) functions as an endocrine hormone to regulate energy metabolism. Circulating FGF21 is derived from the liver and is produced in response to alterations of nutritional status. Here we show the effects of liraglutide, a human glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, injected into the third cerebral ventricle on body weight and plasma FGF21 levels in free-feeding mice, food-deprived mice, and mice provided 1g after the injection. In free-feeding mice, liraglutide (5-100μg/kg) injected into the third cerebral ventricle suppressed food intake and body weight after 24h in a dose-dependent manner. Liraglutide (50 and 100μg/kg) significantly increased plasma FGF21 levels and hepatic FGF21 expression, whereas smaller doses (5 and 10μg/kg) had no effect. In food-deprived mice, body weight did not differ significantly between the saline control and liraglutide-treated groups, but liraglutide (100μg/kg) significantly decreased plasma FGF21 levels at 24h compared with the saline control. In mice provided 1g food, body weight did not differ significantly between the saline control and liraglutide-treated groups, but liraglutide (50μg/kg) significantly decreased plasma FGF21 levels at 24h compared with the saline control. These findings suggest that intracerebral injection of liraglutide decreases body weight by inhibiting food intake and increases plasma FGF21 levels in free-feeding mice, whereas it suppresses the elevations of plasma FGF21 levels induced by fasting or the restricted feeding. Thus, pharmacologic stimulation of central GLP-1 receptors has opposite effects on the alterations of plasma FGF21 levels induced by feeding and fasting. PMID:26683903

  9. Liraglutide: A review of its therapeutic use as a once daily GLP-1 analog for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dharmalingam, Mala; Sriram, Usha; Baruah, Manash P.

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Even though progress have been accomplished in the management of type 2 diabetes, current treatment preferences for patients with this disease still fall short to address disease progression. With the present therapy, glycaemic control remains suboptimal and are often associated with weight gain and hypoglycaemia. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone secreted from the small intestine that lowers fasting and postprandial glucose through multiple mechanisms including glucose-dependent insulin secretion, reduction of glucagon secretion, delaying gastric emptying and increased satiety. Liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue is a treatment for T2DM that is administered as a once-daily subcutaneous injection. The efficacy and tolerability of liraglutide at doses of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 mg for T2DM, in combination with, and compared with, other T2DM treatments were investigated in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes (LEAD) Phase III clinical trial program. In the LEAD trial, treatment with liraglutide was associated with substantial improvements in glycaemic control and low risk of hypoglycaemia. In addition liraglutide significantly improved β-cell function, reduced systolic blood pressure (BP) and induced weight loss. Overall, liraglutide was well tolerated. Recent data on safety and efficacy of liraglutide from real-life clinical practice settings also reiterate the better therapeutic profile of this molecule. Based on results from the LEAD programme, and real-life clinical experience, liraglutide has been demonstrated as an effective therapeutic intervention even at the early stage of diabetes regardless of with what, it has been used. PMID:21584160

  10. Glucose Variability and β- Cell Response by GLP-1 Analogue added-on CSII for Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Sheng-Hwu; Sun, Jui-Hung; Tsai, Jir-Shiong; Huang, Yu-Yao

    2015-01-01

    The effects of twice-daily GLP-1 analogue injections added on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were unknown. After optimization of blood glucose in the first 3 days by CSII during hospitalization, patients with poorly controlled T2DM were randomized to receive CSII combined with injections of exenatide or placebo for another 3 days. A total of 51 patients (30 in exenatide and 21 in placebo groups) with mean A1C 11% were studied. There was no difference in mean glucose but a significant higher standard deviation of plasma glucose (SDPG) was found in the exenatide group (50.51 ± 2.43 vs. 41.49 ± 3.00 mg/dl, p = 0.027). The improvement of incremental area under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulinogenic index (Insulin0–peak/ Glucose0–peak) in 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was prominent in the exenatide group (p < 0.01). The adiponectin level was significantly increased with exenatide added on (0.39 ± 0.32 vs. −1.62 ± 0.97 μg/mL, in exenatide and placebo groups, respectively, p = 0.045). In conclusion, the add-on of GLP-1 analogue to CSII increased glucose variability and the β - cell response in patients with poorly controlled T2DM. PMID:26607841

  11. Electrical activity-triggered glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from primary murine L-cells

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, G J; Tolhurst, G; Ramzan, A; Habib, A M; Parker, H E; Gribble, F M; Reimann, F

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) based therapies are now widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Developing our understanding of intestinal GLP-1 release may facilitate the development of new therapeutics aimed at targeting the GLP-1 producing L-cells. This study was undertaken to characterise the electrical activity of primary L-cells and the importance of voltage gated sodium and calcium channels for GLP-1 secretion. Primary murine L-cells were identified and purified using transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent protein driven by the proglucagon promoter. Fluorescent L-cells were identified within primary colonic cultures for patch clamp recordings. GLP-1 secretion was measured from primary colonic cultures. L-cells purified by flow cytometry were used to measure gene expression by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR. Electrical activity in L-cells was due to large voltage gated sodium currents, inhibition of which by tetrodotoxin reduced both basal and glutamine-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. Voltage gated calcium channels were predominantly of the L-type, Q-type and T-type, by expression analysis, consistent with the finding that GLP-1 release was blocked both by nifedipine and ω-conotoxin MVIIC. We observed large voltage-dependent potassium currents, but only a small chromanol sensitive current that might be attributable to KCNQ1. GLP-1 release from primary L-cells is linked to electrical activity and activation of L-type and Q-type calcium currents. The concept of an electrically excitable L-cell provides a basis for understanding how GLP-1 release may be modulated by nutrient, hormonal and pharmaceutical stimuli. PMID:21224236

  12. Activation of Transmembrane Bile Acid Receptor TGR5 Modulates Pancreatic Islet α Cells to Promote Glucose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Divya P; Asgharpour, Amon; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Park, So Hyun; Liu, Sichen; Imai, Yumi; Nadler, Jerry L; Grider, John R; Murthy, Karnam S; Sanyal, Arun J

    2016-03-25

    The physiological role of the TGR5 receptor in the pancreas is not fully understood. We previously showed that activation of TGR5 in pancreatic β cells by bile acids induces insulin secretion. Glucagon released from pancreatic α cells and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) released from intestinal L cells regulate insulin secretion. Both glucagon and GLP-1 are derived from alternate splicing of a common precursor, proglucagon by PC2 and PC1, respectively. We investigated whether TGR5 activation in pancreatic α cells enhances hyperglycemia-induced PC1 expression thereby releasing GLP-1, which in turn increases β cell mass and function in a paracrine manner. TGR5 activation augmented a hyperglycemia-induced switch from glucagon to GLP-1 synthesis in human and mouse islet α cells by GS/cAMP/PKA/cAMP-response element-binding protein-dependent activation of PC1. Furthermore, TGR5-induced GLP-1 release from α cells was via an Epac-mediated PKA-independent mechanism. Administration of the TGR5 agonist, INT-777, to db/db mice attenuated the increase in body weight and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. INT-777 augmented PC1 expression in α cells and stimulated GLP-1 release from islets of db/db mice compared with control. INT-777 also increased pancreatic β cell proliferation and insulin synthesis. The effect of TGR5-mediated GLP-1 from α cells on insulin release from islets could be blocked by GLP-1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that TGR5 activation mediates cross-talk between α and β cells by switching from glucagon to GLP-1 to restore β cell mass and function under hyperglycemic conditions. Thus, INT-777-mediated TGR5 activation could be leveraged as a novel way to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26757816

  13. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Activation in the Ventral Tegmental Area Decreases the Reinforcing Efficacy of Cocaine.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Heath D; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; Ige, Kelsey Y; Maurer, John J; Reiner, David J; Zimmer, Derek J; Van Nest, Duncan S; Guercio, Leonardo A; Wimmer, Mathieu E; Olivos, Diana R; De Jonghe, Bart C; Hayes, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    Cocaine addiction continues to be a significant public health problem for which there are currently no effective FDA-approved treatments. Thus, there is a clear need to identify and develop novel pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction. Recent evidence indicates that activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reduces intake of highly palatable food. As the neural circuits and neurobiological mechanisms underlying drug taking overlap to some degree with those regulating food intake, these findings suggest that activation of central GLP-1 receptors may also attenuate cocaine taking. Here, we show that intra-VTA administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (0.05 μg) significantly reduced cocaine, but not sucrose, self-administration in rats. We also demonstrate that cocaine taking is associated with elevated plasma corticosterone levels and that systemic infusion of cocaine activates GLP-1-expressing neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), a hindbrain nucleus that projects monosynaptically to the VTA. To determine the potential mechanisms by which cocaine activates NTS GLP-1-expressing neurons, we microinjected corticosterone (0.5 μg) directly into the hindbrain fourth ventricle. Intraventricular corticosterone attenuated cocaine self-administration and this effect was blocked in animals pretreated with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39) (10 μg) in the VTA. Finally, AAV-shRNA-mediated knockdown of VTA GLP-1 receptors was sufficient to augment cocaine self-administration. Taken together, these findings indicate that increased activation of NTS GLP-1-expressing neurons by corticosterone may represent a homeostatic response to cocaine taking, thereby reducing the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine. Therefore, central GLP-1 receptors may represent a novel target for cocaine addiction pharmacotherapies. PMID:26675243

  14. The Imaging of Insulinomas Using a Radionuclide-Labelled Molecule of the GLP-1 Analogue Liraglutide: A New Application of Liraglutide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Cheng, Dengfeng; Liu, Shuai; Shi, Hongcheng; Zhang, Yifan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores a new, non-invasive imaging method for the specific diagnosis of insulinoma by providing an initial investigation of the use of 125I-labelled molecules of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue liraglutide for in vivo and in vitro small-animal SPECT/CT (single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) imaging of insulinomas. Methods Liraglutide was labelled with 125I by the Iodogen method. The labelled 125I-liraglutide compound and insulinoma cells from the INS-1 cell line were then used for in vitro saturation and competitive binding experiments. In addition, in a nude mouse model, the use of 125I-liraglutide for the in vivo small-animal SPECT/CT imaging of insulinomas and the resulting distribution of radioactivity across various organs were examined. Results The labelling of liraglutide with 125I was successful, yielding a labelling rate of approximately 95% and a radiochemical purity of greater than 95%. For the binding between 125I-liraglutide and the GLP-1 receptor on the surface of INS-1 cells, the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was 128.8±30.4 nmol/L(N = 3), and the half-inhibition concentration (IC50) was 542.4±187.5 nmol/L(N = 3). Small-animal SPECT/CT imaging with 125I-liraglutide indicated that the tumour imaging was clearest at 90 min after the 125I-liraglutide treatment. An examination of the in vivo distribution of radioactivity revealed that at 90 min after the 125I-liraglutide treatment, the target/non-target (T/NT) ratio for tumour and muscle tissue was 4.83±1.30(N = 3). Our study suggested that 125I-liraglutide was predominantly metabolised and cleared by the liver and kidneys. Conclusion The radionuclide 125I-liraglutide can be utilised for the specific imaging of insulinomas, representing a new non-invasive approach for the in vivo diagnosis of insulinomas. PMID:24805918

  15. Glucagon-like peptide 1: a potent glycogenic hormone.

    PubMed

    Valverde, I; Morales, M; Clemente, F; López-Delgado, M I; Delgado, E; Perea, A; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L

    1994-08-01

    GLP-1(7-36)amide is an insulinotropic peptide derived from the intestinal post-translational proglucagon process, the release of which is increased mainly after a carbohydrate meal; also, its anti-diabetogenic effect in normal and diabetic states has been reported. In this study, GLP-1(7-36)amide stimulates the formation of glycogen from glucose in isolated rat hepatocytes, such a glycogenic effect being achieved with physiological concentrations of the peptide. The GLP-1(7-36)amide-induced glycogenesis is abolished by glucagon, and it is accompanied by stimulation of the glycogen synthase alpha activity and by a decrease in the basal and glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP content. These findings could explain, at least in part, the GLP-1(7-36)amide insulin-independent plasma glucose lowering effect. PMID:8050588

  16. Proteomic Analysis of INS-1 Rat Insulinoma Cells: ER Stress Effects and the Protective Role of Exenatide, a GLP-1 Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Jin-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Jin; Son, Moon-Ho; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Beta cell death caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key factor aggravating type 2 diabetes. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonist, prevents beta cell death induced by thapsigargin, a selective inhibitor of ER calcium storage. Here, we report on our proteomic studies designed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. We conducted comparative proteomic analyses of cellular protein profiles during thapsigargin-induced cell death in the absence and presence of exenatide in INS-1 rat insulinoma cells. Thapsigargin altered cellular proteins involved in metabolic processes and protein folding, whose alterations were variably modified by exenatide treatment. We categorized the proteins with thapsigargin initiated alterations into three groups: those whose alterations were 1) reversed by exenatide, 2) exaggerated by exenatide, and 3) unchanged by exenatide. The most significant effect of thapsigargin on INS-1 cells relevant to their apoptosis was the appearance of newly modified spots of heat shock proteins, thimet oligopeptidase and 14-3-3β, ε, and θ, and the prevention of their appearance by exenatide, suggesting that these proteins play major roles. We also found that various modifications in 14-3-3 isoforms, which precede their appearance and promote INS-1 cell death. This study provides insights into the mechanisms in ER stress-caused INS-1 cell death and its prevention by exenatide. PMID:25793496

  17. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Protects against Hyperglycemic-Induced Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Improves Myocardial Dysfunction by Suppressing Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fei; Zhang, Guang-hao; Feng, Min; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jia-ning; Dong, Wen-qian; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Ming-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Under high glucose conditions, endothelial cells respond by acquiring fibroblast characteristics, that is, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), contributing to diabetic cardiac fibrosis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has cardioprotective properties independent of its glucose-lowering effect. However, the potential mechanism has not been fully clarified. Here we investigated whether GLP-1 inhibits myocardial EndMT in diabetic mice and whether this is mediated by suppressing poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1). Streptozotocin diabetic C57BL/6 mice were treated with or without GLP-1 analog (24 nmol/kg daily) for 24 wks. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to assess cardiac function. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were cultured in normal glucose (NG) (5.5 mmol/L) or high glucose (HG) (30 mmol/L) medium with or without GLP-1analog. Immunofluorescent staining and Western blot were performed to evaluate EndMT and PARP-1 activity. Diabetes mellitus attenuated cardiac function and increased cardiac fibrosis. Treatment with the GLP-1 analog improved diabetes mellitus–related cardiac dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that hyperglycemia markedly increased the percentage of von Willebrand factor (vWF)+/alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+ cells in total α-SMA+ cells in diabetic hearts compared with controls, which was attenuated by GLP-1 analog treatment. In cultured HAECs, immunofluorescent staining and Western blot also showed that both GLP-1 analog and PARP-1 gene silencing could inhibit the HG-induced EndMT. In addition, GLP-1 analog could attenuate PARP-1 activation by decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, GLP-1 treatment could protect against the hyperglycemia-induced EndMT and myocardial dysfunction. This effect is mediated, at least partially, by suppressing PARP-1 activation. PMID:25715248

  18. Comparison of extended release GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy versus sitagliptin in the management of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Stolar, Mark W; Grimm, Michael; Chen, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Exenatide once weekly (EQW), the first glucose-lowering agent for type 2 diabetes that is dosed one time per week, contains exenatide encapsulated in microspheres of a dissolvable matrix, which release active agent slowly and continuously into the circulation following subcutaneous injection. In two direct head-to-head comparisons, EQW resulted in better long-term glucose control, greater reductions in fasting plasma glucose, and more significant weight loss than sitagliptin. In other trials, glucose-lowering effects of EQW compared favorably with those of metformin, pioglitazone, and basal insulin. Patients on EQW exhibited a higher incidence of nausea than those on sitagliptin, although gastrointestinal adverse events occurred primarily during the first 6–8 weeks of therapy and declined thereafter. EQW was also associated with a lower incidence of nausea than two other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, exenatide twice daily and liraglutide. Mild hypoglycemic episodes were uncommon with EQW, although risk of hypoglycemia increased in combination with sulfonylureas. When choosing between EQW and a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, such as sitagliptin, clinicians and patients should consider the differences between the two medications in terms of glucose control (EQW superior to DPP-4 inhibitors), weight control (EQW superior to DPP-4 inhibitors), gastrointestinal tolerability during treatment initiation (EQW inferior to DPP-4 inhibitors), and mode of administration (once-weekly subcutaneous administration versus once-daily oral administration). PMID:24285927

  19. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  20. Semaglutide, a Once-Weekly Human GLP-1 Analog, Does Not Reduce the Bioavailability of the Combined Oral Contraceptive, Ethinylestradiol/Levonorgestrel

    PubMed Central

    Kapitza, Christoph; Nosek, Leszek; Jensen, Lene; Hartvig, Helle; Jensen, Christine B; Flint, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The effect of semaglutide, a once-weekly human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog in development for type 2 diabetes (T2D), on the bioavailability of a combined oral contraceptive was investigated. Postmenopausal women with T2D (n = 43) on diet/exercise ± metformin received ethinylestradiol (0.03 mg)/levonorgestrel (0.15 mg) once daily for 8 days before (semaglutide-free) and during (steady-state 1.0 mg) semaglutide treatment (subcutaneous once weekly; dose escalation: 0.25 mg 4 weeks; 0.5 mg 4 weeks; 1.0 mg 5 weeks). Bioequivalence of oral contraceptives was established if 90%CI for the ratio of pharmacokinetic parameters during semaglutide steady-state and semaglutide-free periods was within prespecified limits (0.80–1.25). The bioequivalence criterion was met for ethinylestradiol area under the curve (AUC0–24 h) for semaglutide steady-state/semaglutide-free; 1.11 (1.06–1.15). AUC0–24 h was 20% higher for levonorgestrel at semaglutide steady-state vs. semaglutide-free (1.20 [1.15–1.26]). Cmax was within bioequivalence criterion for both contraceptives. Reductions (mean ± SD) in HbA1c (–1.1 ± 0.6%) and weight (–4.3 ± 3.1 kg) were observed. Semaglutide pharmacokinetics were compatible with once-weekly dosing; the semaglutide dose and dose-escalation regimen were well tolerated. Adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal, were mild to moderate in severity. Asymptomatic increases in mean amylase and lipase were observed. Three subjects had elevated alanine aminotransferase levels ≥3x the upper limit of normal during semaglutide/oral contraceptive coadministration, which were reported as adverse events, but resolved during follow-up. Semaglutide did not reduce the bioavailability of ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel. PMID:25475122

  1. GLP-1 Receptor Stimulation Reduces Amyloid-β Peptide Accumulation and Cytotoxicity in Cellular and Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yazhou; Duffy, Kara B.; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Ray, Balmiki; Bailey, Jason A.; Holloway, Harold W.; Tweedie, David; Perry, TracyAnn; Mattson, Mark P.; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Sambamurti, Kumar; Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Greiga, Nigel H.

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 (T2) diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with an increased incidence of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Several pathological features are shared between diabetes and AD, including dysfunctional insulin signaling and a dysregulation of glucose metabolism. It has therefore been suggested that not only may the two conditions share specific molecular mechanisms but also that agents with proven efficacy in one may be useful against the other. Hence, the present study characterized the effects of a clinically approved long-acting analogue, exendin-4 (Ex-4), of the endogenous insulin releasing incretin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), on stress-induced toxicity in neuronal cultures and on amyloid-β protein (Aβ) and tau levels in triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice with and without streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Ex-4 ameliorated the toxicity of Aβ and oxidative challenge in primary neuronal cultures and human SH-SY5Y cells in a concentration-dependent manner. When 11 to 12.5 month old female 3xTg AD mice were challenged with STZ or saline, and thereafter treated with a continuous subcutaneous infusion of Ex-4 or vehicle, Ex-4 ameliorated the diabetic effects of STZ in 3xTg-AD mice, elevating plasma insulin and lowering both plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Furthermore, brain levels of Aβ protein precursor and Aβ, which were elevated in STZ 3xTg-AD mice, were significantly reduced in Ex-4 treated mice. Brain tau levels were unaffected following STZ challenge, but showed a trend toward elevation that was absent following Ex-4 treatment. Together, these results suggest a potential value of Ex-4 in AD, particularly when associated with T2DM or glucose intolerance. PMID:20308787

  2. Prediction of the effect on antihyperglycaemic action of sitagliptin by plasma active form glucagon-like peptide-1

    PubMed Central

    Kushiyama, Akifumi; Kikuchi, Takako; Tanaka, Kentaro; Tahara, Tazu; Takao, Toshiko; Onishi, Yukiko; Yoshida, Yoko; Kawazu, Shoji; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a prediction Factor of Effect of sitagliptin on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (GLP-1 FEST:UMIN000010645). METHODS: Seventy-six patients with type 2 diabetes, who had insufficient glycemic control [Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 7%] in spite of treatment with metformin and/or sulfonylurea, were included in the investigation. Patients were divided into three groups by tertiles of fasting plasma active GLP-1 level, before the administration of 50 mg sitagliptin. RESULTS: At baseline, body mass index, serum UA, insulin and HOMA-IR were higher in the high active GLP-1 group than in the other two groups. The high active GLP-1 group did not show any decline of HbA1c (7.6% ± 1.4% to 7.5% ± 1.5%), whereas the middle and low groups indicated significant decline of HbA1c (7.4 ± 0.7 to 6.8 ± 0.6 and 7.4 ± 1.2 to 6.9 ± 1.3, respectively) during six months. Only the low and middle groups showed a significant increment of active GLP-1, C-peptide level, a decreased log and proinsulin/insulin ratio after administration. In logistic analysis, the low or middle group is a significant explanatory variable for an HbA1c decrease of ≥ 0.5%, and its odds ratio is 4.5 (1.40-17.6) (P = 0.01) against the high active GLP-1 group. This remains independent when adjusted for HbA1c level before administration, patients’ medical history, medications, insulin secretion and insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: Plasma fasting active GLP-1 is an independent predictive marker for the efficacy of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor sitagliptin. PMID:27326345

  3. A new angle for glp-1 receptor agonist: the medical economics argument. Editorial on: Huetson P, Palmer JL, Levorsen A, et al. Cost-effectiveness of the once-daily glp-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide compared to bolus insulin both in combination with basal insulin for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes in Norway. J Med Econ 2015: 1-13 [Epub ahead of print].

    PubMed

    Valencia, Willy Marcos; Florez, Hermes Jose

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) are relatively new medications for diabetes that offer a weight-loss profile that can be considered desirable for patients with both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. GLP-1 RA are effective in combination with insulin, and even slightly superior or at least equal to short-acting insulin in T2D; however, since they work in the incretin system, they may not be effective in long-standing disease. Additionally, only recently have publications reported their cardiovascular safety, and there is limited evidence for long-term effectiveness. The work presented by Huetson et al. offers a much needed perspective through a medical economic model for the long term cost-effectiveness of GLP-1 RA. The authors found benefits in quality-adjusted life years and reduced lifetime healthcare costs. While there are a few limitations, this study contributes to the understanding of these agents and their impact on the epidemics of obesity in T2D, where weight management is no longer an option, but an essential component of the diabetes plan of care. PMID:26337323

  4. Discovery of (S)-2-Cyclopentyl-N-((1-isopropylpyrrolidin2-yl)-9-methyl-1-oxo-2,9-dihydro-1H-pyrrido[3,4-b]indole-4-carboxamide (VU0453379): A Novel, CNS Penetrant Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor (GLP-1R) Positive Allosteric Modulator (PAM)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A duplexed, functional multiaddition high throughput screen and subsequent iterative parallel synthesis effort identified the first highly selective and CNS penetrant glucagon-like peptide-1R (GLP-1R) positive allosteric modulator (PAM). PAM (S)-9b potentiated low-dose exenatide to augment insulin secretion in primary mouse pancreatic islets, and (S)-9b alone was effective in potentiating endogenous GLP-1R to reverse haloperidol-induced catalepsy. PMID:25423411

  5. Influence of Selective Fluorination on the Biological Activity and Proteolytic Stability of Glucagon-like Peptide-1

    PubMed Central

    Meng, He; Krishnaji, Subrahmanian Tarakkad; Beinborn, Martin; Kumar, Krishna

    2009-01-01

    The relative simplicity and high specificity of peptide therapeutics has fueled recent interest. However, peptide and protein drugs generally require injection and suffer from low metabolic stability. We report here the design, synthesis and characterization of fluorinated analogues of the gut hormone peptide, GLP-1. Overall, fluorinated GLP-1 analogues displayed higher proteolytic stability with simultaneous retention of biological activity (efficacy). Fluorinated amino acids are useful for engineering peptide drug candidates and probing ligand-receptor interactions. PMID:18950150

  6. Impaired cardiometabolic responses to glucagon-like peptide 1 in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moberly, Steven P; Mather, Kieren J; Berwick, Zachary C; Owen, Meredith K; Goodwill, Adam G; Casalini, Eli D; Hutchins, Gary D; Green, Mark A; Ng, Yen; Considine, Robert V; Perry, Kevin M; Chisholm, Robin L; Tune, Johnathan D

    2013-07-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulin-like effects on myocardial glucose uptake which may contribute to its beneficial effects in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Whether these effects are different in the setting of obesity or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) requires investigation. We examined the cardiometabolic actions of GLP-1 (7-36) in lean and obese/T2DM humans, and in lean and obese Ossabaw swine. GLP-1 significantly augmented myocardial glucose uptake under resting conditions in lean humans, but this effect was impaired in T2DM. This observation was confirmed and extended in swine, where GLP-1 effects to augment myocardial glucose uptake during exercise were seen in lean but not in obese swine. GLP-1 did not increase myocardial oxygen consumption or blood flow in humans or in swine. Impaired myocardial responsiveness to GLP-1 in obesity was not associated with any apparent alterations in myocardial or coronary GLP1-R expression. No evidence for GLP-1-mediated activation of cAMP/PKA or AMPK signaling in lean or obese hearts was observed. GLP-1 treatment augmented p38-MAPK activity in lean, but not obese cardiac tissue. Taken together, these data provide novel evidence indicating that the cardiometabolic effects of GLP-1 are attenuated in obesity and T2DM, via mechanisms that may involve impaired p38-MAPK signaling. PMID:23764734

  7. A Comparison of the Effects of the GLP-1 Analogue Liraglutide and Insulin Glargine on Endothelial Function and Metabolic Parameters: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Sapporo Athero-Incretin Study 2 (SAIS2)

    PubMed Central

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Furumoto, Tomoo; Oba, Koji; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Miyoshi, Arina; Kondo, Takuma; Tsuchida, Kenichi; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Manda, Naoki; Kurihara, Yoshio; Aoki, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives GLP-1 improves hyperglycemia, and it has been reported to have favorable effects on atherosclerosis. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether GLP-1 is able to improve endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of the GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide on endothelial function and glycemic metabolism compared with insulin glargine therapy. Materials and Methods In this multicenter, prospective randomized parallel-group comparison study, 31 diabetic outpatients (aged 60.3 ± 10.3 years with HbA1c levels of 8.6 ± 0.8%) with current metformin and/or sulfonylurea treatment were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive liraglutide or glargine therapy once daily for 14 weeks. Flow mediated dilation (FMD), a comprehensive panel of hemodynamic parameters (Task Force Monitor), and serum metabolic markers were assessed before and after the treatment period. Results A greater reduction (worsening) in %FMD was observed in the glargine group, although this change was not statistically different from the liraglutide group (liraglutide; 5.7 to 5.4%, glargine 6.7 to 5.7%). The augmentation index, C-peptide index, derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites and BMI were significantly improved in the liraglutide group. Central systolic blood pressure and NT-proBNP also tended to be improved in the liraglutide-treated group, while improvements in HbA1c levels were similar between groups. Cardiac index, blood pressure and most other metabolic parameters were not different. Conclusions Regardless of glycemic improvement, early liraglutide therapy did not affect endothelial function but may provide favorable effects on beta-cell function and cardioprotection in type 2 diabetics without advanced atherosclerosis. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry System as trial ID UMIN000005331. PMID:26284918

  8. AMPK activation by glucagon-like peptide-1 prevents NADPH oxidase activation induced by hyperglycemia in adult cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Balteau, Magali; Van Steenbergen, Anne; Timmermans, Aurélie D; Dessy, Chantal; Behets-Wydemans, Gaetane; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Castanares-Zapatero, Diego; Gilon, Patrick; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Horman, Sandrine; Hue, Louis; Bertrand, Luc; Beauloye, Christophe

    2014-10-15

    Exposure of cardiomyocytes to high glucose concentrations (HG) stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NADPH oxidase (NOX2). NOX2 activation is triggered by enhanced glucose transport through a sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) but not by a stimulation of glucose metabolism. The aim of this work was to identify potential therapeutic approaches to counteract this glucotoxicity. In cultured adult rat cardiomyocytes incubated with 21 mM glucose (HG), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation by A769662 or phenformin nearly suppressed ROS production. Interestingly, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a new antidiabetic drug, concomitantly induced AMPK activation and prevented the HG-mediated ROS production (maximal effect at 100 nM). α2-AMPK, the major isoform expressed in cardiomyocytes (but not α1-AMPK), was activated in response to GLP-1. Anti-ROS properties of AMPK activators were not related to changes in glucose uptake or glycolysis. Using in situ proximity ligation assay, we demonstrated that AMPK activation prevented the HG-induced p47phox translocation to caveolae, whatever the AMPK activators used. NOX2 activation by either α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside, a glucose analog transported through SGLT, or angiotensin II was also counteracted by GLP-1. The crucial role of AMPK in limiting HG-mediated NOX2 activation was demonstrated by overexpressing a constitutively active form of α2-AMPK using adenoviral infection. This overexpression prevented NOX2 activation in response to HG, whereas GLP-1 lost its protective action in α2-AMPK-deficient mouse cardiomyocytes. Under HG, the GLP-1/AMPK pathway inhibited PKC-β2 phosphorylation, a key element mediating p47phox translocation. In conclusion, GLP-1 induces α2-AMPK activation and blocks HG-induced p47phox translocation to the plasma membrane, thereby preventing glucotoxicity. PMID:25128166

  9. Glucagon-like peptide-1 binding to rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Delgado, E; Luque, M A; Alcántara, A; Trapote, M A; Clemente, F; Galera, C; Valverde, I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L

    1995-01-01

    We have found [125I]glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)-amide-specific binding activity in rat skeletal muscle plasma membranes, with an estimated M(r) of 63,000 by cross-linking and SDS-PAGE. The specific binding was time and membrane protein concentration dependent, and displaceable by unlabeled GLP-1(7-36)-amide with an ID50 of 3 x 10(-9) M of the peptide; GLP-1(1-36)-amide also competed, whereas glucagon and insulin did not. GLP-1(7-36)-amide did not modify the basal adenylate cyclase activity in skeletal muscle plasma membranes. These data, together with our previous finding of a potent glycogenic effect of GLP-1(7-36)-amide in rat soleus muscle, and also in isolated hepatocytes, which was not accompanied by a rise in the cell cyclic AMP content, lead use to believe that the insulin-like effects of this peptide on glucose metabolism in the muscle could be mediated by a type of receptor somehow different to that described for GLP-1 in pancreatic B cells, where GLP-1 action is mediated by the cyclic AMP-adenylate cyclase system. PMID:7784253

  10. Expression, purification, and C-terminal amidation of recombinant human glucagon-like peptide-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Zhen; Yang, Sheng-Sheng; Dou, Hong; Mao, Ji-Fang; Li, Kang-Sheng

    2004-08-01

    Human glucagon-like peptide-1 (hGLP-1) (7-36) amide, a gastrointestinal hormone with a pharmaceutical potential in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus, is composed of 30 amino acid residues as a mature protein. We report here the development of a method for high-level expression and purification of recombinant hGLP-1 (7-36) amide (rhGLP-1) through glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion expression system. The cDNA of hGLP-1-Leu, the 31st-residue leucine-extended precursor peptide, was prepared by annealing and ligating of artificially synthetic oligonucleotide fragments, inserted into pBluescript SK (+/-) plasmid, and then cloned into pGEX-4T-3 GST fusion vector. The fusion protein GST-hGLP-1-Leu, expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3), was purified by affinity chromatography after high-level culture and sonication of bacteria. Following cleavage of GST-hGLP-1-Leu by cyanogen bromide, the recombinant hGLP-1-Leu was released from fusion protein, and purified using QAE Sepharose ion exchange and RP C(18) chromatography. After purification, the precursor hGLP-1-Leu was transacylated by carboxypeptidase Y, Arg-NH(2) as a nucleophile, to produce rhGLP-1. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed the molecular weight was as expected. The biological activity of rhGLP-1 in a rat model demonstrated that plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower and insulin concentrations higher after intraperitoneal injection of rhGLP-1 together with glucose compared with glucose alone (P < 0.001). PMID:15249052

  11. Glucagon-like peptide-1 binding to rat hepatic membranes.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L; Delgado, E; Trapote, M A; Alcántara, A; Clemente, F; Luque, M A; Perea, A; Valverde, I

    1995-07-01

    We have found [125I]glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1(7-36)amide specific binding activity in rat liver and isolated hepatocyte plasma membranes, with an M(r) of approximately 63,000, estimated by cross-linking and SDS-PAGE. The specific binding was time- and membrane protein concentration-dependent, and equally displaced by unlabelled GLP-1(7-36)amide and by GLP-1(1-36)amide, achieving its ID50 at 3 x 10(-9) M of the peptides. GLP-1(7-36)amide did not modify the basal or the glucagon (10(-8) M)-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the hepatocyte plasma membranes. These data, together with our previous findings of a potent glycogenic effect of GLP-1(7-36)amide in isolated rat hepatocytes, led us to postulate that the insulin-like effects of this peptide on glucose liver metabolism could be mediated by a type of receptor probably different from that described for GLP-1 in pancreatic B-cells or, alternatively, by the same receptor which, in this tissue as well as in muscle, uses a different transduction system. PMID:7561616

  12. Treatment of antipsychotic-associated obesity with a GLP-1 receptor agonist—protocol for an investigator-initiated prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention study: the TAO study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ishøy, Pelle L; Knop, Filip K; Broberg, Brian V; Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Andersen, Ulrik B; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte Y; Ebdrup, Bjørn H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Antipsychotic medication is widely associated with dysmetabolism including obesity and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular-related diseases and early death. Obesity is considered the single most important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Interventions against antipsychotic-associated obesity are limited and insufficient. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but their bodyweight-lowering effects have also been recognised in patients with non-diabetes. The primary endpoint of this trial is weight loss after 3 months of treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist (exenatide once weekly) in patients with non-diabetic schizophrenia with antipsychotic-associated obesity. Secondary endpoints include physiological and metabolic measurements, various psychopathological and cognitive measures, and structural and functional brain MRI. Methods and analysis 40 obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with antipsychotic drugs will be randomised to subcutaneous injection of exenatide once weekly (2 mg) or placebo for 3 months, adjunctive to their antipsychotic treatment. Ethics and dissemination The trial has been approved by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority, the National Committee on Health Research Ethics and the Danish Data Protection Agency. Trial participation presupposes theoral and written patient informed consent. An external, independent monitoring committee (Good Clinical Practice Unit at Copenhagen University Hospital) will monitor the study according to the GCP Guidelines. Trial data, including positive, negative and inconclusive results, will be presented at national and international scientific meetings and conferences. Papers will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01794429; National Committee on Health Research Ethics project number: 36378; EudraCT nr: 2012-005404-17; The

  13. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition in diabetic rats leads to activation of the transcription factor CREB in β-cells.

    PubMed

    Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Qin, LiMei; Bouchard, Ron

    2015-05-15

    Incretin therapies are effective in controlling blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients by improving the survival and function of β-cells. They include dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs. We have previously reported that GLP-1 enhances the survival of cultured human islets by activation of the transcription factor CREB. To test the in vivo relevance of these findings, we examined the effects of alogliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, in Zucker Diabetic rats, a model for type 2 diabetes. The plasma levels of GLP-1 increased in alogliptin-treated diabetic rats leading to normoglycemia. Pancreatic islets of untreated diabetic rats were characterized by decreased immunostaining for insulin and PDX-1. Elevation of GLP-1 in treated diabetic rats resulted in the improved survival of β-cells. Dual immunofluorescent staining showed phosphorylation/activation of CREB in insulin-positive β-cells of islets. This led to increases in the levels of CREB targets including Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic mitochondrial protein, BIRC3, a caspase inhibitor and IRS-2, an adapter protein needed for insulin signaling. Findings from this study suggest potential activation of cytoprotective CREB by GLP-1 in pancreatic β-cells of diabetic patients undergoing incretin-based therapies. PMID:25720341

  14. Long-Term Treatment with Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Receptor Agonist, Has No Effect on β-Amyloid Plaque Load in Two Transgenic APP/PS1 Mouse Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barkholt, Pernille; Kongsbak-Wismann, Pernille; Schlumberger, Chantal; Jelsing, Jacob; Terwel, Dick; Termont, Annelies; Pyke, Charles; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Vrang, Niels

    2016-01-01

    One of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is cerebral deposits of extracellular β-amyloid peptides. Preclinical studies have pointed to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptors as a potential novel target in the treatment of AD. GLP-1 receptor agonists, including exendin-4 and liraglutide, have been shown to promote plaque-lowering and mnemonic effects of in a number of experimental models of AD. Transgenic mouse models carrying genetic mutations of amyloid protein precursor (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) are commonly used to assess the pharmacodynamics of potential amyloidosis-lowering and pro-cognitive compounds. In this study, effects of long-term liraglutide treatment were therefore determined in two double APP/PS1 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease carrying different clinical APP/PS1 mutations, i.e. the ‘London’ (hAPPLon/PS1A246E) and ‘Swedish’ mutation variant (hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9) of APP, with co-expression of distinct PS1 variants. Liraglutide was administered in 5 month-old hAPPLon/PS1A246E mice for 3 months (100 or 500 ng/kg/day, s.c.), or 7 month-old hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice for 5 months (500 ng/kg/day, s.c.). In both models, regional plaque load was quantified throughout the brain using stereological methods. Vehicle-dosed hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice exhibited considerably higher cerebral plaque load than hAPPLon/PS1A246E control mice. Compared to vehicle-dosed transgenic controls, liraglutide treatment had no effect on the plaque levels in hAPPLon/PS1A246E and hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice. In conclusion, long-term liraglutide treatment exhibited no effect on cerebral plaque load in two transgenic mouse models of low- and high-grade amyloidosis, which suggests differential sensitivity to long-term liraglutide treatment in various transgenic mouse models mimicking distinct pathological hallmarks of AD. PMID:27421117

  15. Long-Term Treatment with Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Receptor Agonist, Has No Effect on β-Amyloid Plaque Load in Two Transgenic APP/PS1 Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik H; Fabricius, Katrine; Barkholt, Pernille; Kongsbak-Wismann, Pernille; Schlumberger, Chantal; Jelsing, Jacob; Terwel, Dick; Termont, Annelies; Pyke, Charles; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Vrang, Niels

    2016-01-01

    One of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is cerebral deposits of extracellular β-amyloid peptides. Preclinical studies have pointed to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptors as a potential novel target in the treatment of AD. GLP-1 receptor agonists, including exendin-4 and liraglutide, have been shown to promote plaque-lowering and mnemonic effects of in a number of experimental models of AD. Transgenic mouse models carrying genetic mutations of amyloid protein precursor (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) are commonly used to assess the pharmacodynamics of potential amyloidosis-lowering and pro-cognitive compounds. In this study, effects of long-term liraglutide treatment were therefore determined in two double APP/PS1 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease carrying different clinical APP/PS1 mutations, i.e. the 'London' (hAPPLon/PS1A246E) and 'Swedish' mutation variant (hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9) of APP, with co-expression of distinct PS1 variants. Liraglutide was administered in 5 month-old hAPPLon/PS1A246E mice for 3 months (100 or 500 ng/kg/day, s.c.), or 7 month-old hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice for 5 months (500 ng/kg/day, s.c.). In both models, regional plaque load was quantified throughout the brain using stereological methods. Vehicle-dosed hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice exhibited considerably higher cerebral plaque load than hAPPLon/PS1A246E control mice. Compared to vehicle-dosed transgenic controls, liraglutide treatment had no effect on the plaque levels in hAPPLon/PS1A246E and hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice. In conclusion, long-term liraglutide treatment exhibited no effect on cerebral plaque load in two transgenic mouse models of low- and high-grade amyloidosis, which suggests differential sensitivity to long-term liraglutide treatment in various transgenic mouse models mimicking distinct pathological hallmarks of AD. PMID:27421117

  16. EFFECT OF THE INGESTION OF THE PALM OIL AND GLUTAMINE IN SERUM LEVELS OF GLP-1, PYY AND GLYCEMIA IN DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO METABOLIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    TAKEUTI, Tharsus Dias; TERRA, Guilherme Azevedo; da SILVA, Alex Augusto; TERRA-JÚNIOR, Júverson Alves; da SILVA, Luci Mara; CREMA, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Incretins are hormones produced by the intestine and can stimulate the secretion of insulin, helping to diminish the post-prandial glycemia. The administration of an emulsion of palm oil can help in the maintenance of the weight, and can increase circulating incretins levels. Glutamine increases the concentration of incretins in diabetic people. Both can help in metabolic syndrome. Aim To analyze the effects of ingestion of palm oil and glutamine in glycemia and in incretins in patients with diabetes submitted to surgical duodenojejunal exclusion with ileal interposition without gastrectomy. Methods Eleven diabetic type 2 patients were included and were operated. They were called to laboratory follow-up without eating anything between eight and 12 hours. They had there blood collected after the stimulus of the palm oil and glutamine taken in different days. For the hormonal doses were used ELISA kits. Results The glycemia showed a meaningful fall between the fast and two hours after the stimulus of the palm oil (p=0,018). With the glutamine the GLP-1 showed an increase between the fast and one hour (p=0,32), the PYY showed an important increase between the fast and one hour after the stimulus (p=0,06), the glycemia showed a meaningful fall after two hours of the administration of the stimulus (p=0,03). Conclusion Palm oil and glutamine can influence intestinal peptides and glucose PMID:25409967

  17. Potential role of TCF7L2 gene variants on cardiac sympathetic/parasympathetic activity

    PubMed Central

    Boccardi, Virginia; Ambrosino, Immacolata; Papa, Michela; Fiore, Daniela; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Michelangela

    2010-01-01

    Variants in transcription factor 7-like 2 (266096218TCF7L2266096218USuser266096218Gene names have been italicized per house style. Please check and confirm whether there are other instances that need to be italicized or instances where italics have been inappropriately applied.) gene have been found strongly associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, as well as with an impairment of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signalling chain. In rats, stimulation of central GLP-1 receptors increases heart rate and activates autonomic regulatory neurons. We aimed to evaluate the potential role of TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms on sympathovagal response in relation to changes in plasma insulin and/or GLP-1 concentration after glucose ingestion. Genotyping was performed for rs12255372 and rs7903146 TCF7L2 gene variants in 250 non-related healthy volunteers (mean age 27±3 years). Consistent with previous reports, both single-nucleotide polymorphisms were in strong linkage disequilibrium (D′=0.87, r2=0.76). A subset of 167 patients underwent an oral glucose tolerance test while a continuous recording of heart rate variability was performed. At baseline, no differences in fasting plasma insulin, in GLP-1 levels and in LF/HF (low frequency/high frequency) ratio between the three genotypes were found. Along with glucose ingestion TT subjects had lower INSAUC (insulin area under curve), as well as higher LF/HFAUC (LF/HF area under curve) values. No difference in GLP-1AUC (GLP-1 area under curve) between TCF7L2 gene variants was found. A multivariate analysis including multiple covariates showed that only INSAUC, GLP-1AUC and TCF7L2 gene variants were independently associated with LF/HFAUC. In conclusion, TT genotype of rs12255372 and rs7903146 TCF7L2 gene variants is associated with lower insulin secretion and higher cardiosympathetic activity. Moreover, such effect is independent of GLP-1 and insulin plasma concentrations suggesting a potential role of such gene variants in

  18. Alleviation of high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance by a novel GLP-1 fusion protein in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yuelin; Tong, Yue; Chen, Chen; Gao, Mingming; Gao, Xiangdong; Yao, Wenbing

    2016-07-01

    We have previously constructed an engineered anti-diabetic fusion protein using glucagon-like peptide-1 and the globular domain of adiponectin. Herein, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of this fusion protein (GAD) on high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ApoE(-/-) mice. The lipid-lowering effect of GAD was determined in C57BL/6 mice using a lipid tolerance test. The effects of GAD on HFD-induced glucose intolerance, atherosclerosis, and hepatic steatosis were evaluated in HFD-fed ApoE(-/-) mice using glucose tolerance test, histological examinations and real-time quantitative PCR. The anti-inflammation activity of GAD was assessed in vitro on macrophages. GAD improved lipid metabolism in C57BL/6 mice. GAD treatment alleviated glucose intolerance, reduced blood lipid level, and attenuated atherosclerotic lesion in HFD-fed ApoE(-/-) mice, which was associated with a repressed macrophage infiltration in the vessel wall. GAD treatment also blocked hepatic macrophage infiltration and prevented hepatic inflammation. GAD suppressed lipopolysaccharide-triggered inflammation responses on macrophages, which can be abolished by H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. These findings demonstrate that GAD is able to generate a variety of metabolic benefits in HFD-fed ApoE(-/-) mice and indicate that this engineered fusion protein is a promising lead structure for anti-atherosclerosis drug discovery. PMID:26832342

  19. Synergy Between Gαz Deficiency and GLP-1 Analog Treatment in Preserving Functional β-Cell Mass in Experimental Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Brill, Allison L; Wisinski, Jaclyn A; Cadena, Mark T; Thompson, Mary F; Fenske, Rachel J; Brar, Harpreet K; Schaid, Michael D; Pasker, Renee L; Kimple, Michelle E

    2016-05-01

    A defining characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) pathophysiology is pancreatic β-cell death and dysfunction, resulting in insufficient insulin secretion to properly control blood glucose levels. Treatments that promote β-cell replication and survival, thus reversing the loss of β-cell mass, while also preserving β-cell function, could lead to a real cure for T1DM. The α-subunit of the heterotrimeric Gz protein, Gαz, is a tonic negative regulator of adenylate cyclase and downstream cAMP production. cAMP is one of a few identified signaling molecules that can simultaneously have a positive impact on pancreatic islet β-cell proliferation, survival, and function. The purpose of our study was to determine whether mice lacking Gαz might be protected, at least partially, from β-cell loss and dysfunction after streptozotocin treatment. We also aimed to determine whether Gαz might act in concert with an activator of the cAMP-stimulatory glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, exendin-4 (Ex4). Without Ex4 treatment, Gαz-null mice still developed hyperglycemia, albeit delayed. The same finding held true for wild-type mice treated with Ex4. With Ex4 treatment, Gαz-null mice were protected from developing severe hyperglycemia. Immunohistological studies performed on pancreas sections and in vitro apoptosis, cytotoxicity, and survival assays demonstrated a clear effect of Gαz signaling on pancreatic β-cell replication and death; β-cell function was also improved in Gαz-null islets. These data support our hypothesis that a combination of therapies targeting both stimulatory and inhibitory pathways will be more effective than either alone at protecting, preserving, and possibly regenerating β-cell mass and function in T1DM. PMID:27049466

  20. Exendin-4 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; He, Xin; Chen, Yili; Huang, Yiyi; Wu, Lingling; He, Jiangui

    Diabetes mellitus is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is an important complication of the heart independent of hypertension and coronary artery disease and is accompanied by cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy easily leads to heart failure, which is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone, which has various beneficial roles in the cardiovascular system, and exendin-4 is a highly potent glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist. However, the role of GLP-1 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Our study revealed that exendin-4 treatment ameliorated phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy, which presented as decreased cardiac hypertrophic markers (ANP, BNP, and β-MHC) and cell surface area. This condition was significantly reversed upon treatment with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin9-39. We also discovered that Erk1/2 and AMPK signaling pathways were involved in this process. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the AMPK inhibitor compound C inhibited the anti-hypertrophic effect of exendin-4, which is associated with the mTOR/p70S6K/4-EBP1 signaling pathway. Finally, exendin-4 enhanced the anti-hypertrophic effect of rapamycin. In summary, our study disclosed that exedin-4 inhibits cardiac hypertrophy by upregulating GLP-1 receptor expression and activating the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:26519882

  1. Spergularia marina Induces Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secretion in NCI-H716 Cells Through Bile Acid Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyong; Lee, Yu Mi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Spergularia marina Griseb. (SM) is a halophyte that grows in mud flats. The aerial portions of SM have been eaten as vegetables and traditionally used to prevent chronic diseases in Korea. However, there has been no scientific report that demonstrates the pharmacological effects of SM. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is important for the maintenance of glucose and energy homeostasis through acting as a signal in peripheral and neural systems. To discover a functional food for regulating glucose and energy homeostasis, we evaluated the effect of an aqueous ethanolic extract (AEE) of SM on GLP-1 release from enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells. In addition, we explored the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) agonist activity of AEE-SM in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells transiently transfected with human TGR5. As a result, treatment of NCI-H716 cells with AEE-SM increased GLP-1 secretion and intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Transfection of NCI-H716 cells with TGR5-specific small interference RNA inhibited AEE-SM-induced GLP-1 secretion and the increase in Ca2+ and cAMP levels. Moreover, AEE-SM showed that the TGR5 agonist activity in CHO-K1 cells transiently transfected with TGR5. The results suggest that AEE-SM might be a candidate for a functional food to regulate glucose and energy homeostasis. PMID:25260089

  2. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B activity regulates larval growth rate and germline development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Vought, Valarie E; Conradt, Barbara; Maine, Eleanor M

    2006-09-01

    In C. elegans, a population of proliferating germ cells is maintained via GLP-1/Notch signaling; in the absence of GLP-1 signaling, germ cells prematurely enter meiosis and differentiate. We previously identified ego (enhancer of glp-1) genes that promote germline proliferation and interact genetically with the GLP-1 signaling pathway. Here, we report that iffb-1 (initiation factor five B) is an ego gene. iffb-1 encodes the sole C. elegans isoform of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B, a protein essential for translation. We have used RNA interference and a deletion mutation to determine the developmental consequences of reduced iffb-1 activity. Our data indicate that maternal iffb-1 gene expression is sufficient for embryogenesis, and zygotic iffb-1 expression is required for development beyond late L1/early L2 stage. Partial reduction in iffb-1 expression delays larval development and can severely disrupt proliferation and differentiation of germ cells. We hypothesize that germline development is particularly sensitive to iffb-1 expression level. PMID:16937415

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Interacting Glucose-Sensing Mechanisms and Electrical Activity Underlying Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Riz, Michela; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal L-cells sense glucose and other nutrients, and in response release glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY and other hormones with anti-diabetic and weight-reducing effects. The stimulus-secretion pathway in L-cells is still poorly understood, although it is known that GLP-1 secreting cells use sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT) and ATP-sensitive K+-channels (K(ATP)-channels) to sense intestinal glucose levels. Electrical activity then transduces glucose sensing to Ca2+-stimulated exocytosis. This particular glucose-sensing arrangement with glucose triggering both a depolarizing SGLT current as well as leading to closure of the hyperpolarizing K(ATP) current is of more general interest for our understanding of glucose-sensing cells. To dissect the interactions of these two glucose-sensing mechanisms, we build a mathematical model of electrical activity underlying GLP-1 secretion. Two sets of model parameters are presented: one set represents primary mouse colonic L-cells; the other set is based on data from the GLP-1 secreting GLUTag cell line. The model is then used to obtain insight into the differences in glucose-sensing between primary L-cells and GLUTag cells. Our results illuminate how the two glucose-sensing mechanisms interact, and suggest that the depolarizing effect of SGLT currents is modulated by K(ATP)-channel activity. Based on our simulations, we propose that primary L-cells encode the glucose signal as changes in action potential amplitude, whereas GLUTag cells rely mainly on frequency modulation. The model should be useful for further basic, pharmacological and theoretical investigations of the cellular signals underlying endogenous GLP-1 and peptide YY release. PMID:26630068

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Interacting Glucose-Sensing Mechanisms and Electrical Activity Underlying Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Secretion.

    PubMed

    Riz, Michela; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2015-12-01

    Intestinal L-cells sense glucose and other nutrients, and in response release glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY and other hormones with anti-diabetic and weight-reducing effects. The stimulus-secretion pathway in L-cells is still poorly understood, although it is known that GLP-1 secreting cells use sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT) and ATP-sensitive K+-channels (K(ATP)-channels) to sense intestinal glucose levels. Electrical activity then transduces glucose sensing to Ca2+-stimulated exocytosis. This particular glucose-sensing arrangement with glucose triggering both a depolarizing SGLT current as well as leading to closure of the hyperpolarizing K(ATP) current is of more general interest for our understanding of glucose-sensing cells. To dissect the interactions of these two glucose-sensing mechanisms, we build a mathematical model of electrical activity underlying GLP-1 secretion. Two sets of model parameters are presented: one set represents primary mouse colonic L-cells; the other set is based on data from the GLP-1 secreting GLUTag cell line. The model is then used to obtain insight into the differences in glucose-sensing between primary L-cells and GLUTag cells. Our results illuminate how the two glucose-sensing mechanisms interact, and suggest that the depolarizing effect of SGLT currents is modulated by K(ATP)-channel activity. Based on our simulations, we propose that primary L-cells encode the glucose signal as changes in action potential amplitude, whereas GLUTag cells rely mainly on frequency modulation. The model should be useful for further basic, pharmacological and theoretical investigations of the cellular signals underlying endogenous GLP-1 and peptide YY release. PMID:26630068

  5. Enzymatic mono-pegylation of glucagon-like peptide 1 towards long lasting treatment of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Selis, Fabio; Schrepfer, Rodolfo; Sanna, Riccardo; Scaramuzza, Silvia; Tonon, Giancarlo; Dedoni, Simona; Onali, Pierluigi; Orsini, Gaetano; Genovese, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a physiological gastrointestinal peptide with glucose-dependent insulinotropic effects which is therefore considered an interesting antidiabetic agent. However, after in vivo administration, exogenous GLP-1 does not exert its physiological action due to the combination of rapid proteolytic degradation by ubiquitous dipeptidyldipeptidase IV (DPP IV) enzyme and renal clearance resulting in an extremely short circulating half-life. In this work we describe the conjugation of GLP-1-(7-36)-amide derivatives with polyethylene glycol (PEG) by enzymatic site-specific transglutamination reaction as an approach to reduce both the proteolysis and the renal clearance rates. The compound GLP-1-(7-36)-amide-Q23-PEG 20 kDa monopegylated on the single glutamine residue naturally present in position 23 maintained the ability to activate the GLP-1 receptor expressed in the rat β-cell line RIN-m5F with nanomolar potency along with an increased in vitro resistance to DDP IV and a circulating half-life of about 12 h after subcutaneous administration in rats. These properties enabled GLP-(7-36)-amide-Q23-PEG 20 kDa to exert a glucose-stabilizing effect for a period as long as 8 h, as demonstrated by a single subcutaneous injection to diabetic mice concomitantly challenged with an oral glucose load. The results reported in this work indicate that GLP-(7-36)-amide-Q23-PEG 20 kDa could be a lead compound for the development of long-lasting anti-diabetic agents useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes affected patients. PMID:25755995

  6. Defective insulin secretion by chronic glucagon receptor activation in glucose intolerant mice.

    PubMed

    Ahlkvist, Linda; Omar, Bilal; Valeur, Anders; Fosgerau, Keld; Ahrén, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Stimulation of insulin secretion by short-term glucagon receptor (GCGR) activation is well characterized; however, the effect of long-term GCGR activation on β-cell function is not known, but of interest, since hyperglucagonemia occurs early during development of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we examined whether chronic GCGR activation affects insulin secretion in glucose intolerant mice. To induce chronic GCGR activation, high-fat diet fed mice were continuously (2 weeks) infused with the stable glucagon analog ZP-GA-1 and challenged with oral glucose and intravenous glucose±glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1). Islets were isolated to evaluate the insulin secretory response to glucose±GLP1 and their pancreas were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. Two weeks of ZP-GA-1 infusion reduced insulin secretion both after oral and intravenous glucose challenges in vivo and in isolated islets. These inhibitory effects were corrected for by GLP1. Also, we observed increased β-cell area and islet size. We conclude that induction of chronic ZP-GA-1 levels in glucose intolerant mice markedly reduces insulin secretion, and thus, we suggest that chronic activation of the GCGR may contribute to the failure of β-cell function during development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26698567

  7. Angelica dahurica Extracts Improve Glucose Tolerance through the Activation of GPR119

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Hwi; Choung, Jin-Seung; Oh, Yoon-Sin; Moon, Hong-Sub; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 119 is expressed in pancreatic β-cells and intestinal L cells, and is involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, respectively. Therefore, the development of GPR119 agonists is a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes. We screened 1500 natural plant extracts for GPR119 agonistic actions and investigated the most promising extract, that from Angelica dahurica (AD), for hypoglycemic actions in vitro and in vivo. Human GPR119 activation was measured in GeneBLAzer T-Rex GPR119-CRE-bla CHO-K1 cells; intracellular cAMP levels and insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 cells; and GLP-1 release was measured in GLUTag cells. Glucose tolerance tests and serum plasma insulin levels were measured in normal C57BL6 mice and diabetic db/db mice. AD extract-treated cells showed significant increases in GPR119 activation, intracellular cAMP levels, GLP-1 levels and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with controls. In normal mice, a single treatment with AD extract improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin secretion. Treatment with multiple doses of AD extract or n-hexane fraction improved glucose tolerance in diabetic db/db mice. Imperatorin, phellopterin and isoimperatorin were identified in the active fraction of AD extract. Among these, phellopterin activated GPR119 and increased active GLP-1 and insulin secretion in vitro and enhanced glucose tolerance in normal and db/db mice. We suggest that phellopterin might have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27391814

  8. Activation of proglucagon gene transcription by protein kinase-A in a novel mouse enteroendocrine cell line.

    PubMed

    Drucker, D J; Jin, T; Asa, S L; Young, T A; Brubaker, P L

    1994-12-01

    The gene encoding proglucagon is expressed predominantly in the pancreas and intestine. The physiological importance of glucagon secreted from the islets of Langerhans has engendered considerable interest in the molecular control of proglucagon gene transcription in the endocrine pancreas. In contrast, little is known about the molecular control of proglucagon gene expression in the intestine. The recent demonstration that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from the intestine is a potent regulator of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis has stimulated renewed interest in the factors that control GLP-1 synthesis in the intestinal L-cell. To develop a model for the analysis of intestinal proglucagon gene expression, we have targeted expression of a proglucagon gene-simian virus-40 large T-antigen fusion gene to enteroendocrine cells in transgenic mice. These mice develop intestinal tumors that were used to derive a novel cell line, designated GLUTag, that expresses the proglucagon gene and secretes immunoreactive GLP-1 in vitro. GLUTag cells demonstrate morphological characteristics of enteroendocrine cells by electron microscopy and are plurihormonal, as shown by immunocytochemistry and RNA analyses. GLUTag cells express the proglucagon and cholecystokinin genes, consistent with the pattern of lineage-specific enteroendocrine differentiation described for mouse intestine. Proglucagon gene expression was induced by activators of the protein kinase-A pathway, and a combination of messenger RNA half-life and nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that the protein kinase-A-induction is mediated by an increase in proglucagon gene transcription. In contrast, activators of protein kinase-C stimulated secretion, but not biosynthesis of the PGDPs in GLUTag cell cultures. Analysis of proglucagon processing in GLUTag cells demonstrated the liberation of glucagon, oxyntomodulin, glicentin, and multiple forms of GLP-1. These observations provide evidence for the

  9. Examination of a Viral Infection Mimetic Model in Human iPS Cell-Derived Insulin-Producing Cells and the Anti-Apoptotic Effect of GLP-1 Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Baden, Megu Yamaguchi; Fukui, Kenji; Hosokawa, Yoshiya; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Imagawa, Akihisa; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-01-01

    Aims Viral infection is associated with pancreatic beta cell destruction in fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the acceleration and protective mechanisms of beta cell destruction by establishing a model of viral infection in pancreatic beta cells. Methods Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid was transfected into MIN6 cells and insulin-producing cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells via small molecule applications. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR, and apoptosis was evaluated by caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining. The anti-apoptotic effect of Exendin-4 was also evaluated. Results Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid transfection led to elevated expression of the genes encoding IFNα, IFNβ, CXCL10, Fas, viral receptors, and IFN-inducible antiviral effectors in MIN6 cells. Exendin-4 treatment suppressed the elevated gene expression levels and reduced polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid-induced apoptosis both in MIN6 cells and in insulin-producing cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, protein kinase A, and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitors counteracted the anti-apoptotic effect of Exendin-4. Conclusions Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid transfection can mimic viral infection, and Exendin-4 exerted an anti-apoptotic effect both in MIN6 and insulin-producing cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:26659307

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 regulates calcium homeostasis and electrophysiological activities of HL-1 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Hung; Chen, Yao-Chang; Lee, Ting-I; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Chazo, Tze-Fan; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2016-04-01

    Glucagon like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone with antidiabetic effects through stimulating insulin secretion, β cell neogenesis, satiety sensation, and inhibiting glucagon secretion. Administration of GLP-1 provides cardioprotective effects through attenuating cardiac inflammation and insulin resistance. GLP-1 also modulates the heart rate and systolic pressure, which suggests that GLP-1 may have cardiac electrical effects. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to evaluate whether GLP-1 has direct cardiac effects and identify the underlying mechanisms. Patch clamp, confocal microscopy with Fluo-3 fluorescence, and Western blot analyses were used to evaluate the electrophysiological characteristics, calcium homeostasis, and calcium regulatory proteins in HL-1 atrial myocytes with and without GLP-1 (1 and 10nM) incubation for 24h. GLP-1 (1 and 10nM) and control cells had similar action potential durations. However, GLP-1 at 10nM significantly increased calcium transients and sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+) contents. Compared to the control, GLP-1 (10nM)-treated cells significantly decreased phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor at S2814 and total phospholamban, but there were similar protein levels of sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+)-ATPase and the sodium-calcium exchanger. Moreover, exendin (9-39) amide (a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, 10nM) attenuated GLP-1-mediated effects on total SR content and phosphorylated ryanodine receptor S2814. This study demonstrates GLP-1 may regulate HL-1 cell arrhythmogenesis through modulating calcium handling proteins. PMID:26930508

  11. Differential Requirement of the Extracellular Domain in Activation of Class B G Protein-coupled Receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Hua; Yin, Yanting; Yang, Dehua; Liu, Bo; Hou, Li; Wang, Xiaoxi; Pal, Kuntal; Jiang, Yi; Feng, Yang; Cai, Xiaoqing; Dai, Antao; Liu, Mingyao; Wang, Ming-Wei; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2016-07-15

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from the secretin-like (class B) family are key players in hormonal homeostasis and are important drug targets for the treatment of metabolic disorders and neuronal diseases. They consist of a large N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) and a transmembrane domain (TMD) with the GPCR signature of seven transmembrane helices. Class B GPCRs are activated by peptide hormones with their C termini bound to the receptor ECD and their N termini bound to the TMD. It is thought that the ECD functions as an affinity trap to bind and localize the hormone to the receptor. This in turn would allow the hormone N terminus to insert into the TMD and induce conformational changes of the TMD to activate downstream signaling. In contrast to this prevailing model, we demonstrate that human class B GPCRs vary widely in their requirement of the ECD for activation. In one group, represented by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1R), parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R), and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide type 1 receptor (PAC1R), the ECD requirement for high affinity hormone binding can be bypassed by induced proximity and mass action effects, whereas in the other group, represented by glucagon receptor (GCGR) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), the ECD is required for signaling even when the hormone is covalently linked to the TMD. Furthermore, the activation of GLP-1R by small molecules that interact with the intracellular side of the receptor is dependent on the presence of its ECD, suggesting a direct role of the ECD in GLP-1R activation. PMID:27226600

  12. Site-specific fatty chain-modified exenatide analogs with balanced glucoregulatory activity and prolonged in vivo activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lidan; Huang, Xun; Han, Jing; Cai, Xingguang; Dai, Yuxuan; Chu, Yingying; Wang, Chuandong; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2016-06-15

    The therapeutic utility of exenatide (Ex-4) is limited due to short plasma half-life of 2.4h and thus numerous approaches have been used to obtain a longer action time. However, such strategies often attend to one thing and lose another. The study aimed to identify a candidate with balanced glucoregulatory activity and prolonged in vivo activity. A series of fatty chain conjugates of Ex-4 were designed and synthesized. First, thirteen cysteine modified peptides (1-13) were prepared. Peptides 1, 10, and 13 showed improved glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor activate potency and were thus selected for second step modifications to yield conjugates I-1-I-9. All conjugates retained significant GLP-1 receptor activate potency and more importantly exerted enhanced albumin-binding properties and in vitro plasma stability. The protracted antidiabetic effects of the most stable I-3 were further confirmed by both multiple intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and hypoglycemic efficacies test in vivo. Furthermore, once daily injection of I-3 to streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice achieved long-term beneficial effects on hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) lowering and glucose tolerance. Once daily injection of I-3 to diet induced obesity (DIO) mice also achieved favorable effects on food intake, body weight, and blood chemistry. Our results suggested that I-3 was a promising agent deserving further investigation to treat obesity patients with diabetes. PMID:27155328

  13. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Synthetic Analogs: New Therapeutic Agents for Use in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Holz, George G.; Chepurny, Oleg G.

    2010-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide (GLP-1) is a potent blood glucose-lowering hormone now under investigation for use as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of type 2 (adult onset) diabetes mellitus. GLP-1 binds with high affinity to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) located on pancreatic β-cells, and it exerts insulinotropic actions that include the stimulation of insulin gene transcription, insulin biosynthesis, and insulin secretion. The beneficial therapeutic action of GLP-1 also includes its ability to act as a growth factor, stimulating formation of new pancreatic islets (neogenesis) while slowing b-cell death (apoptosis). GLP-1 belongs to a large family of structurally-related hormones and neuropeptides that include glucagon, secretin, GIP, PACAP, and VIP. Biosynthesis of GLP-1 occurs in the enteroendocrine L-cells of the distal intestine, and the release of GLP-1 into the systemic circulation accompanies ingestion of a meal. Although GLP-1 is inactivated rapidly by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DDP-IV), synthetic analogs of GLP-1 exist, and efforts have been directed at engineering these peptides so that they are resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis. Additional modifications of GLP-1 incorporate fatty acylation and drug affinity complex (DAC) technology to improve serum albumin binding, thereby slowing renal clearance of the peptides. NN2211, LY315902, LY307161, and CJC-1131 are GLP-1 synthetic analogs that reproduce many of the biological actions of GLP-1, but with a prolonged duration of action. AC2993 (Exendin-4) is a naturally occurring peptide isolated from the lizard Heloderma, and it acts as a high affinity agonist at the GLP-1 receptor. This review summarizes structural features and signal transduction properties of GLP-1 and its cognate b-cell GPCR. The usefulness of synthetic GLP-1 analogs as blood glucose-lowering agents is discussed, and the applicability of GLP-1 as a therapeutic agent for treatment of type 2 diabetes is highlighted. PMID

  14. Immune challenge and satiety-related activation of both distinct and overlapping neuronal populations in the brainstem indicate parallel pathways for viscerosensory signaling.

    PubMed

    Gaykema, Ronald P A; Daniels, Teresa E; Shapiro, Nathan J; Thacker, Gregory C; Park, Su-Mi; Goehler, Lisa E

    2009-10-19

    Caudal brainstem viscerosensory nuclei convey information about the body's internal state to forebrain regions implicated in feeding behavior and responses to immune challenge, and may modulate ingestive behavior following immune activation. Illness-induced appetite loss might be attributed to accentuated "satiety" pathways, activation of a distinct "danger channel" separate from satiety pathways, or both. To evaluate neural substrates that could mediate the effects of illness on ingestive behavior, we analyzed the pattern and phenotypes of medullary neurons responsive to consumption of a preferred food, sweetened milk, and to intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide challenge that reduced sweetened milk intake. Brainstem sections were stained for c-Fos, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) immunoreactivity. Sweetened milk intake activated many neurons throughout the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), including A2 noradrenergic neurons in the caudal half of the NTS. LPS challenge activated a similar population of neurons in the NTS, in addition to rostral C2 adrenergic and mid-level A2 noradrenergic neurons in the NTS, many C1 and A1 neurons in the ventrolateral medulla, and in GLP-1 neurons in the dorsal medullary reticular nucleus. Increased numbers of activated GLP-1 neurons in the NTS were only associated with sweetened milk ingestion. Evidence for parallel processing was reflected in the parabrachial nucleus, where sweetened milk intake resulted in activation of the inner external lateral, ventrolateral and central medial portions, whereas LPS challenge induced c-Fos expression in the outer external lateral portions. Thus, signals generated in response to potentially dangerous physiological conditions seem to be propagated via specific populations of catecholaminergic neurons in the NTS and VLM, and likely include a pathway through the external lateral PBN. The data indicate that immune challenge

  15. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Activation Attenuates Platelet Aggregation and Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cameron-Vendrig, Alison; Reheman, Adili; Siraj, M Ahsan; Xu, Xiaohong Ruby; Wang, Yiming; Lei, Xi; Afroze, Talat; Shikatani, Eric; El-Mounayri, Omar; Noyan, Hossein; Weissleder, Ralph; Ni, Heyu; Husain, Mansoor

    2016-06-01

    Short-term studies in subjects with diabetes receiving glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-targeted therapies have suggested a reduced number of cardiovascular events. The mechanisms underlying this unexpectedly rapid effect are not known. We cloned full-length GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) mRNA from a human megakaryocyte cell line (MEG-01), and found expression levels of GLP-1Rs in MEG-01 cells to be higher than those in the human lung but lower than in the human pancreas. Incubation with GLP-1 and the GLP-1R agonist exenatide elicited a cAMP response in MEG-01 cells, and exenatide significantly inhibited thrombin-, ADP-, and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Incubation with exenatide also inhibited thrombus formation under flow conditions in ex vivo perfusion chambers using human and mouse whole blood. In a mouse cremaster artery laser injury model, a single intravenous injection of exenatide inhibited thrombus formation in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic mice in vivo. Thrombus formation was greater in mice transplanted with bone marrow lacking a functional GLP-1R (Glp1r(-/-)), compared with those receiving wild-type bone marrow. Although antithrombotic effects of exenatide were partly lost in mice transplanted with bone marrow from Glp1r(-/-) mice, they were undetectable in mice with a genetic deficiency of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The inhibition of platelet function and the prevention of thrombus formation by GLP-1R agonists represent potential mechanisms for reduced atherothrombotic events. PMID:26936963

  16. Molecular Characterisation of Small Molecule Agonists Effect on the Human Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Internalisation

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Aiysha; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Bain, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide receptor (GLP-1R), which is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), signals through both Gαs and Gαq coupled pathways and ERK phosphorylation to stimulate insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to determine molecular details of the effect of small molecule agonists, compounds 2 and B, on GLP-1R mediated cAMP production, intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, ERK phosphorylation and its internalisation. In human GLP-1R (hGLP-1R) expressing cells, compounds 2 and B induced cAMP production but caused no intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, ERK phosphorylation or hGLP-1R internalisation. GLP-1 antagonists Ex(9–39) and JANT-4 and the orthosteric binding site mutation (V36A) in hGLP-1R failed to inhibit compounds 2 and B induced cAMP production, confirming that their binding site distinct from the GLP-1 binding site on GLP-1R. However, K334A mutation of hGLP-1R, which affects Gαs coupling, inhibited GLP-1 as well as compounds 2 and B induced cAMP production, indicating that GLP-1, compounds 2 and B binding induce similar conformational changes in the GLP-1R for Gαs coupling. Additionally, compound 2 or B binding to the hGLP-1R had significantly reduced GLP-1 induced intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, ERK phosphorylation and hGLP-1R internalisation. This study illustrates pharmacology of differential activation of GLP-1R by GLP-1 and compounds 2 and B. PMID:27100083

  17. 24 CFR 7.36 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unless the MSPB has dismissed the mixed case complaint or appeal for jurisdictional reasons. (See 29 CFR... § 7.35(c) and 29 CFR 1614.108(f) or at any time after 180 days have elapsed from the filing of the... Administrative Judges may dismiss complaints pursuant to 29 CFR 1614.107, on their own initiative, after...

  18. 24 CFR 7.36 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unless the MSPB has dismissed the mixed case complaint or appeal for jurisdictional reasons. (See 29 CFR... § 7.35(c) and 29 CFR 1614.108(f) or at any time after 180 days have elapsed from the filing of the... Administrative Judges may dismiss complaints pursuant to 29 CFR 1614.107, on their own initiative, after...

  19. 24 CFR 7.36 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unless the MSPB has dismissed the mixed case complaint or appeal for jurisdictional reasons. (See 29 CFR... § 7.35(c) and 29 CFR 1614.108(f) or at any time after 180 days have elapsed from the filing of the... Administrative Judges may dismiss complaints pursuant to 29 CFR 1614.107, on their own initiative, after...

  20. 24 CFR 7.36 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unless the MSPB has dismissed the mixed case complaint or appeal for jurisdictional reasons. (See 29 CFR... § 7.35(c) and 29 CFR 1614.108(f) or at any time after 180 days have elapsed from the filing of the... Administrative Judges may dismiss complaints pursuant to 29 CFR 1614.107, on their own initiative, after...

  1. 24 CFR 7.36 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unless the MSPB has dismissed the mixed case complaint or appeal for jurisdictional reasons. (See 29 CFR... § 7.35(c) and 29 CFR 1614.108(f) or at any time after 180 days have elapsed from the filing of the... Administrative Judges may dismiss complaints pursuant to 29 CFR 1614.107, on their own initiative, after...

  2. The effect of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) on postprandial blood glucose, incretins, and antioxidant activity in Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes after consumption of two different composition breakfasts.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Patricia; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Vázquez-Manjarrez, Natalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Torres, Nimbe

    2014-11-01

    Nopal is a plant used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat diabetes. However, there is insufficient scientific evidence to demonstrate whether nopal can regulate postprandial glucose. The purpose for conducting this study was to evaluate the glycemic index, insulinemic index, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) index, and the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) index, and the effect of nopal on patients with type 2 diabetes after consumption of a high-carbohydrate breakfast (HCB) or high-soy-protein breakfast (HSPB) on the postprandial response of glucose, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and antioxidant activity. In study 1, the glycemic index, insulinemic index, GIP index, and GLP-1 index were calculated for seven healthy participants who consumed 50 g of available carbohydrates from glucose or dehydrated nopal. In study 2, 14 patients with type 2 diabetes consumed nopal in HCB or HSPB with or without 300 g steamed nopal. The glycemic index of nopal was 32.5±4, insulinemic index was 36.1±6, GIP index was 6.5±3.0, and GLP-1 index was 25.9±18. For those patients with type 2 diabetes who consumed the HCB+nopal, there was significantly lower area under the curve for glucose (287±30) than for those who consumed the HCB only (443±49), and lower incremental area under the curve for insulin (5,952±833 vs 7,313±1,090), and those patients with type 2 diabetes who consumed the HSPB avoided postprandial blood glucose peaks. Consumption of the HSPB+nopal significantly reduced the postprandial peaks of GIP concentration at 30 and 45 minutes and increased the antioxidant activity after 2 hours measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidracyl method. These findings suggest that nopal could reduce postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma GIP peaks, as well as increase antioxidant activity in healthy people and patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25132122

  3. A continued saga of Boc5, the first non-peptidic glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist with in vivo activities

    PubMed Central

    He, Min; Guan, Ni; Gao, Wei-wei; Liu, Qing; Wu, Xiao-yan; Ma, Da-wei; Zhong, Da-fang; Ge, Guang-bo; Li, Chuan; Chen, Xiao-yan; Yang, Ling; Liao, Jia-yu; Wang, Ming-wei

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapy presents a promising option for treating type 2 diabetes. However, there are several limitations relative to the peptidic GLP-1 mimetics currently on the market or under development. This concern has led to a continued interest in the search for non-peptidic agonists for GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). Here, we briefly review the discovery, characterization and current status of a novel class of cyclobutane-derivative-based non-peptidic agonists for GLP-1R, including Boc5 and its newly discovered analogue WB4–24. Although the oral bioavailability of such compounds still poses great challenges, the progress made so far encourages us to identify a truly 'druggable' small molecule agonist for GLP-1R. PMID:22301855

  4. The Neuroprotection of Liraglutide Against Ischaemia-induced Apoptosis through the Activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huili; Zhang, Yusheng; Shi, Zhongshan; Lu, Dan; Li, Tingting; Ding, Yan; Ruan, Yiwen; Xu, Anding

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that increases glucose-dependent insulin secretion to reduce the glucose level. Liraglutide, a long-acting GLP-1 analogue, has been found to have neuroprotective action in various experimental models. However, the protective mechanisms of liraglutide in ischaemic stroke remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that liraglutide significantly decreased the infarct volume, improved neurologic deficits, and lowered stress-related hyperglycaemia without causing hypoglycaemia in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Liraglutide inhibited cell apoptosis by reducing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improving the function of mitochondria in neurons under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro and MCAO in vivo. Liraglutide up-regulated the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Moreover, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 and/or the ERK inhibitor U0126 counteracted the protective effect of liraglutide. Taken together, these results suggest that liraglutide exerts neuroprotective action against ischaemia-induced apoptosis through the reduction of ROS and the activation of the PI3K/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Therefore, liraglutide has therapeutic potential for patients with ischaemic stroke, especially those with Type 2 diabetes mellitus or stress hyperglycaemia. PMID:27240461

  5. The Neuroprotection of Liraglutide Against Ischaemia-induced Apoptosis through the Activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huili; Zhang, Yusheng; Shi, Zhongshan; Lu, Dan; Li, Tingting; Ding, Yan; Ruan, Yiwen; Xu, Anding

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that increases glucose-dependent insulin secretion to reduce the glucose level. Liraglutide, a long-acting GLP-1 analogue, has been found to have neuroprotective action in various experimental models. However, the protective mechanisms of liraglutide in ischaemic stroke remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that liraglutide significantly decreased the infarct volume, improved neurologic deficits, and lowered stress-related hyperglycaemia without causing hypoglycaemia in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Liraglutide inhibited cell apoptosis by reducing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improving the function of mitochondria in neurons under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro and MCAO in vivo. Liraglutide up-regulated the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Moreover, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 and/or the ERK inhibitor U0126 counteracted the protective effect of liraglutide. Taken together, these results suggest that liraglutide exerts neuroprotective action against ischaemia-induced apoptosis through the reduction of ROS and the activation of the PI3K/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Therefore, liraglutide has therapeutic potential for patients with ischaemic stroke, especially those with Type 2 diabetes mellitus or stress hyperglycaemia. PMID:27240461

  6. Chronic inhibition of circulating dipeptidyl peptidase IV by FE 999011 delays the occurrence of diabetes in male zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Sudre, Béatrice; Broqua, Pierre; White, Richard B; Ashworth, Doreen; Evans, D Michael; Haigh, Robert; Junien, Jean-Louis; Aubert, Michel L

    2002-05-01

    Acute suppression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) activity improves glucose tolerance in the Zucker fatty rat, a rodent model of impaired glucose tolerance, through stabilization of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. This study describes the effects of a new and potent DPP-IV inhibitor, FE 999011, which is able to suppress plasma DPP-IV activity for 12 h after a single oral administration. In the Zucker fatty rat, FE 999011 dose-dependently attenuated glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test and increased GLP-1 (7-36) release in response to intraduodenal glucose. Chronic treatment with FE 999011 (10 mg/kg, twice a day for 7 days) improved glucose tolerance, as suggested by a decrease in the insulin-to-glucose ratio. In the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, a rodent model of type 2 diabetes, chronic treatment with FE 999011 (10 mg/kg per os, once or twice a day) postponed the development of diabetes, with the twice-a-day treatment delaying the onset of hyperglycemia by 21 days. In addition, treatment with FE 999011 stabilized food and water intake to prediabetic levels and reduced hypertriglyceridemia while preventing the rise in circulating free fatty acids. At the end of treatment, basal plasma GLP-1 levels were increased, and pancreatic gene expression for GLP-1 receptor was significantly upregulated. This study demonstrates that DPP-IV inhibitors such as FE 999011 could be of clinical value to delay the progression from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes. PMID:11978643

  7. Isolation of Positive Modulator of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Signaling from Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seed.

    PubMed

    King, Klim; Lin, Nai-Pin; Cheng, Yu-Hong; Chen, Gao-Hui; Chein, Rong-Jie

    2015-10-23

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in many tissues and has been implicated in diverse physiological functions, such as energy homeostasis and cognition. GLP-1 analogs are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are undergoing clinical trials for other disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. GLP-1 analog therapies maintain chronically high plasma levels of the analog and can lead to loss of spatiotemporal control of GLP-1R activation. To avoid adverse effects associated with current therapies, we characterized positive modulators of GLP-1R signaling. We screened extracts from edible plants using an intracellular cAMP biosensor and GLP-1R endocytosis assays. Ethanol extracts from fenugreek seeds enhanced GLP-1 signaling. These seeds have previously been found to reduce glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in humans. An active compound (N55) with a new N-linoleoyl-2-amino-γ-butyrolactone structure was purified from fenugreek seeds. N55 promoted GLP-1-dependent cAMP production and GLP-1R endocytosis in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. N55 specifically enhanced GLP-1 potency more than 40-fold, but not that of exendin 4, to stimulate cAMP production. In contrast to the current allosteric modulators that bind to GLP-1R, N55 binds to GLP-1 peptide and facilitates trypsin-mediated GLP-1 inactivation. These findings identify a new class of modulators of GLP-1R signaling and suggest that GLP-1 might be a viable target for drug discovery. Our results also highlight a feasible approach for screening bioactive activity of plant extracts. PMID:26336108

  8. Lowering blood glucose during hip surgery does not influence coagulation activation

    PubMed Central

    Sechterberger, Marjolein K.; Hermanides, Jeroen; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Kal, Jasper E.; Meijers, Joost C.M.; Hoekstra, Joost B.L.; Hans DeVries, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyperglycaemia during and after hip surgery is associated with coagulation activation and an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Whether lowering of glucose levels during hip surgery diminishes coagulation activation is unknown. We investigated the efficacy of the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide to lower glucose during and after hip surgery and studied its influence on coagulation activation. Methods A total of 37 obese subjects who underwent hip surgery were randomized to subcutaneous liraglutide or placebo for 4 consecutive days, starting one day prior to surgery. Glucose levels and coagulation indices at three fixed time-points (pre-operative, 2 h post-operative and 3 days post-operative) were measured. Results Liraglutide reduced glucose at day three post-surgery (median glucose (IQR) liraglutide 5.5 (5.2–5.7) vs. placebo 5.8 (5.5–6.2); difference 0.3 mmol/L, P = 0.04). Changes in 6 out of 8 coagulation indices studied did not differ between the two groups. Only D-dimer levels were significantly lower in the liraglutide group at day three post-surgery and FVIII levels were significantly higher in the liraglutide group 2 h post-surgery. Conclusion Although the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide moderately reduced post-operative blood glucose levels in non-diabetic and prediabetic obese patients undergoing elective hip surgery, no changes were observed with respect to coagulation activation. PMID:26675337

  9. Sitagliptin inhibits endothelin-1 expression in the aortic endothelium of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes by suppressing the nuclear factor-κB/IκBα system through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    TANG, SONG-TAO; SU, HUAN; ZHANG, QIU; TANG, HAI-QIN; WANG, CHANG-JIANG; ZHOU, QING; WEI, WEI; ZHU, HUA-QING; WANG, YUAN

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, including sitagliptin, exert favourable effects on the vascular endothelium. DPP-4 inhibitors suppress the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which has been reported to enhance nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in the aorta, as well as the underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects, have yet to be investigated in animal models of diabetes mellitus (DM). In the present study, the rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: i) control; ii) DM; iii) DM + low-dose sitagliptin (10 mg/kg); and iv) DM + high-dose sitagliptin (30 mg/kg). Apart from the control group, all the rats received a high-fat diet for 8 weeks prior to the induction of diabetes with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The treatments were then administered for 12 weeks. The serum levels of ET-1, NO, GLP-1 and insulin were measured as well as endothelial function. The expression of ET-1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB/IκBα were determined. After 12 weeks of treatment, the diabetic rats receiving sitagliptin showed significantly elevated serum levels of GLP-1 and NO, and reduced levels of ET-1. Moreover, sitagliptin significantly attenuated endothelial dysfunction as well as the remodeling of the aortic wall. Notably, sitagliptin inhibited ET-1 expression at the transcriptional and translational level in the aorta, which may have been mediated by the suppression of the NF-κB/IκBα system induced by AMPK activation. The majority of the above-mentioned effects were dose dependent. Taken together, the findings of the present study indicate that sitagliptin inhibits ET-1 expression in the aortic endothelium by suppressing the NF-κB/IκBα system through the activation of the AMPK pathway in diabetic rats. These findings further demonstrate some of the vasoprotective properties

  10. Role of Central Glucagon-like Peptide-1 in Stress Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Sriparna; Myers, Brent; Herman, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is best known as an incretin hormone, secreted from L cells in the intestine in response to nutrient ingestion to stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. However, GLP-1 is also expressed in neurons, and plays a major role in regulation of homeostatic function within the central nervous system (CNS). This review summarizes our current state of knowledge on the role GLP-1 plays in neural coordination of the organismal stress response. In brain, the primary locus of GLP-1 production is in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the ventrolateral medulla of the hindbrain. GLP-1 immunoreactive fibers directly innervate hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), placing GLP-1 in prime position to integrate hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical responses. Exogenous central GLP-1 activates HPA axis stress responses, and responses to a variety of stressors can be blocked by a GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) antagonist, confirming an excitatory role in glucocorticoid secretion. In addition, central infusion of GLP-1R agonist increases heart rate and blood pressure, and activates hypothalamic and brainstem neurons innervating sympathetic preganglionic neurons, suggesting a sympathoexcitatory role of GLP-1 in the CNS. Bioavailability of preproglucagon (PPG) mRNA and GLP-1 peptide is reduced by exogenous or endogenous glucocorticoid secretion, perhaps as a mechanism to reduce GLP-1-mediated stress excitation. Altogether, the data suggest that GLP-1 plays a key role in activation of stress responses, which may be connected with its role in central regulation of energy homeostasis. PMID:23623992

  11. Hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 neurons track intake volume and contribute to injection stress-induced hypophagia in meal-entrained rats.

    PubMed

    Kreisler, Alison D; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-05-15

    Published research supports a role for central glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) signaling in suppressing food intake in rodent species. However, it is unclear whether GLP-1 neurons track food intake and contribute to satiety, and/or whether GLP-1 signaling contributes to stress-induced hypophagia. To examine whether GLP-1 neurons track intake volume, rats were trained to consume liquid diet (LD) for 1 h daily until baseline intake stabilized. On test day, schedule-fed rats consumed unrestricted or limited volumes of LD or unrestricted volumes of diluted (calorically matched to LD) or undiluted Ensure. Rats were perfused after the test meal, and brains processed for immunolocalization of cFos and GLP-1. The large majority of GLP-1 neurons expressed cFos in rats that consumed satiating volumes, regardless of diet type, with GLP-1 activation proportional to intake volume. Since GLP-1 signaling may limit intake only when such large proportions of GLP-1 neurons are activated, a second experiment examined the effect of central GLP-1 receptor (R) antagonism on 2 h intake in schedule-fed rats. Compared with baseline, intracerebroventricular vehicle (saline) suppressed Ensure intake by ∼11%. Conversely, intracerebroventricular injection of vehicle containing GLP-1R antagonist increased intake by ∼14% compared with baseline, partly due to larger second meals. We conclude that GLP-1 neural activation effectively tracks liquid diet intake, that intracerebroventricular injection suppresses intake, and that central GLP-1 signaling contributes to this hypophagic effect. GLP-1 signaling also may contribute to satiety after large volumes have been consumed, but this potential role is difficult to separate from a role in the hypophagic response to intracerebroventricular injection. PMID:26936779

  12. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Kim, Gi-Beum; Na, Chong-Sam; Song, Choon-Ho; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas) powder (PY), water extract of yam (EY), and allantoin (the active constituent of yam) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (STZ), and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin). After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) compared to STZ (100%): 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001) in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%), total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%), and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%). There were also significant increases (p < 0.001) in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%), GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%), and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%). The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85%) together with increases (p < 0.01) in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145%) and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%). The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose

  13. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Kim, Gi-Beum; Na, Chong-Sam; Song, Choon-Ho; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas) powder (PY), water extract of yam (EY), and allantoin (the active constituent of yam) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (STZ), and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin). After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) compared to STZ (100%): 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001) in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%), total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%), and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%). There were also significant increases (p < 0.001) in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%), GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%), and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%). The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85%) together with increases (p < 0.01) in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145%) and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%). The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose

  14. Efficacy and Safety of the Once-Daily GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Lixisenatide in Monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Vivian A.; Alvarado-Ruiz, Ricardo; Raccah, Denis; Boka, Gabor; Miossec, Patrick; Gerich, John E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess efficacy and safety of lixisenatide monotherapy in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Randomized, double-blind, 12-week study of 361 patients not on glucose-lowering therapy (HbA1c 7–10%) allocated to one of four once-daily subcutaneous dose increase regimens: lixisenatide 2-step (10 μg for 1 week, 15 μg for 1 week, and then 20 μg; n = 120), lixisenatide 1-step (10 μg for 2 weeks and then 20 μg; n = 119), placebo 2-step (n = 61), or placebo 1-step (n = 61) (placebo groups were combined for analyses). Primary end point was HbA1c change from baseline to week 12. RESULTS Once-daily lixisenatide significantly improved HbA1c (mean baseline 8.0%) in both groups (least squares mean change vs. placebo: −0.54% for 2-step, −0.66% for 1-step; P < 0.0001). Significantly more lixisenatide patients achieved HbA1c <7.0% (52.2% 2-step, 46.5% 1-step) and ≤6.5% (31.9% 2-step, 25.4% 1-step) versus placebo (26.8% and 12.5%, respectively; P < 0.01). Lixisenatide led to marked significant improvements of 2-h postprandial glucose levels and blood glucose excursions measured during a standardized breakfast test. A significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose was observed in both lixisenatide groups versus placebo. Mean decreases in body weight (∼2 kg) were observed in all groups. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal—nausea was the most frequent (lixisenatide 23% overall, placebo 4.1%). Symptomatic hypoglycemia occurred in 1.7% of lixisenatide and 1.6% of placebo patients, with no severe episodes. Safety/tolerability was similar for the two dose regimens. CONCLUSIONS Once-daily lixisenatide monotherapy significantly improved glycemic control with a pronounced postprandial effect (75% reduction in glucose excursion) and was safe and well tolerated in type 2 diabetes. PMID:22432104

  15. Treatment of type 2 diabetes, lifestyle, GLP1 agonists and DPP4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tomkin, Gerald H

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the treatment focus for type 2 diabetes has shifted to prevention by lifestyle change and to more aggressive reduction of blood sugars during the early stage of treatment. Weight reduction is an important goal for many people with type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery is no longer considered a last resort treatment. Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists given by injection are emerging as a useful treatment since they not only lower blood sugar but are associated with a modest weight reduction. The role of the oral dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors is emerging as second line treatment ahead of sulphonylureas due to a possible beneficial effect on the beta cell and weight neutrality. Drugs which inhibit glucose re-absorption in the kidney, sodium/glucose co-transport 2 inhibitors, may have a role in the treatment of diabetes. Insulin treatment still remains the cornerstone of treatment in many patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25317241

  16. The Anthocyanin Delphinidin 3-Rutinoside Stimulates Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secretion in Murine GLUTag Cell Line via the Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase II Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masaki; Tani, Tsubasa; Terahara, Norihiko; Tsuda, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone secreted from enteroendocrine L-cells. Although several nutrients induce GLP-1 secretion, there is little evidence to suggest that non-nutritive compounds directly increase GLP-1 secretion. Here, we hypothesized that anthocyanins induce GLP-1 secretion and thereby significantly contribute to the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Delphinidin 3-rutinoside (D3R) was shown to increase GLP-1 secretion in GLUTag L cells. The results suggested that three hydroxyl or two methoxyl moieties on the aromatic ring are essential for the stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. Notably, the rutinose moiety was shown to be a potent enhancer of GLP-1 secretion, but only in conjunction with three hydroxyl moieties on the aromatic ring (D3R). Receptor antagonist studies revealed that D3R-stimulates GLP-1 secretion involving inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Treatment of GLUTag cells with a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinaseII (CaMKII) inhibitor (KN-93) abolished D3R-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. In addition, treatment of GLUTag cells with D3R resulted in activation of CaMKII. Pre-treatment of cells with a G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 40/120 antagonist (GW1100) also significantly decreased D3R-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. These observations suggest that D3R stimulates GLP-1 secretion in GLUTag cells, and that stimulation of GLP-1 secretion by D3R is mediated via Ca2+-CaMKII pathway, which may possibly be mediated by GPR40/120. These findings provide a possible molecular mechanism of GLP-1 secretion in intestinal L-cells mediated by foods or drugs and demonstrate a novel biological function of anthocyanins in regards to GLP-1 secretion. PMID:25962102

  17. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation through mitochondrial dynamics regulation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gloria; Morales, Pablo E; García-Miguel, Marina; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Cartes-Saavedra, Benjamín; Vidal-Peña, Gonzalo; Moncada-Ruff, David; Sanhueza-Olivares, Fernanda; San Martín, Alejandra; Chiong, Mario

    2016-03-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone produced by gastrointestinal tract in response to food ingestion. GLP-1 plays a very important role in the glucose homeostasis by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon secretion, inhibiting gastric emptying, reducing appetite and food intake. Because of these actions, the GLP-1 peptide-mimetic exenatide is one of the most promising new medicines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In vivo treatments with GLP-1 or exenatide prevent neo-intima layer formation in response to endothelial damage and atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic tissue. Whether GLP-1 modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation by controlling mitochondrial dynamics is unknown. In this report, we showed that GLP-1 increased mitochondrial fusion and activity in a PKA-dependent manner in the VSMC cell line A7r5. GLP-1 induced a Ser-637 phosphorylation in the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial localization. GLP-1 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation, actions inhibited by overexpressing wild type Drp1 and mimicked by the Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 and by overexpressing dominant negative Drp1. These results show that GLP-1 stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial activity and decreases PDGF-BB-induced VSMC dedifferentiation by a PKA/Drp1 signaling pathway. Our data suggest that GLP-1 inhibits vascular remodeling through a mitochondrial dynamics-dependent mechanism. PMID:26807480

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists increase pancreatic mass by induction of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Jacqueline A; Baggio, Laurie L; Cao, Xiemin; Abdulla, Tahmid; Campbell, Jonathan E; Secher, Thomas; Jelsing, Jacob; Larsen, Brett; Drucker, Daniel J

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) controls glucose homeostasis by regulating secretion of insulin and glucagon through a single GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). GLP-1R agonists also increase pancreatic weight in some preclinical studies through poorly understood mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that the increase in pancreatic weight following activation of GLP-1R signaling in mice reflects an increase in acinar cell mass, without changes in ductal compartments or β-cell mass. GLP-1R agonists did not increase pancreatic DNA content or the number of Ki67(+) cells in the exocrine compartment; however, pancreatic protein content was increased in mice treated with exendin-4 or liraglutide. The increased pancreatic mass and protein content was independent of cholecystokinin receptors, associated with a rapid increase in S6 phosphorylation, and mediated through the GLP-1R. Rapamycin abrogated the GLP-1R-dependent increase in pancreatic mass but had no effect on the robust induction of Reg3α and Reg3β gene expression. Mass spectrometry analysis identified GLP-1R-dependent upregulation of Reg family members, as well as proteins important for translation and export, including Fam129a, eIF4a1, Wars, and Dmbt1. Hence, pharmacological GLP-1R activation induces protein synthesis, leading to increased pancreatic mass, independent of changes in DNA content or cell proliferation in mice. PMID:25277394

  19. Intestinal regulation of urinary sodium excretion and the pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease: a focus on glucagon-like peptide 1 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4.

    PubMed

    Vallon, Volker; Docherty, Neil G

    2014-09-01

    The tubular hypothesis of glomerular filtration and nephropathy in diabetes is a pathophysiological concept that assigns a critical role to the tubular system, including proximal tubular hyper-reabsorption and growth, which is relevant for early glomerular hyperfiltration and later chronic kidney disease. Here we focus on how harnessing the bioactivity of hormones released from the gut may ameliorate the early effects of diabetes on the kidney in part by attenuating proximal tubular hyper-reabsorption and growth. The endogenous tone of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)/GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) system and its pharmacological activation are nephroprotective in diabetes independent of changes in blood glucose. This is associated with suppression of increases in kidney weight and glomerular hyperfiltration, which may reflect, at least in part, its inhibitory effects on tubular hyper-reabsorption and growth. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) is also nephroprotective independent of changes in blood glucose and involves GLP-1/GLP-1R-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 induces natriuresis via activation of the GLP-1R. In contrast, DPP4 inhibition increases circulating GLP-1, but drives a GLP-1R-independent natriuretic response, implying a role for other DPP-4 substrates. The extent to which the intrarenal DPP-4/GLP-1 receptor system contributes to all these changes remains to be established, as does the direct impact of the system on renal inflammation. PMID:25085841

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-1 modulates neurally evoked mucosal chloride secretion in guinea pig small intestine in vitro.

    PubMed

    Baldassano, Sara; Wang, Guo-Du; Mulè, Flavia; Wood, Jackie D

    2012-02-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) acts at the G protein-coupled receptor, GLP-1R, to stimulate secretion of insulin and to inhibit secretion of glucagon and gastric acid. Involvement in mucosal secretory physiology has received negligible attention. We aimed to study involvement of GLP-1 in mucosal chloride secretion in the small intestine. Ussing chamber methods, in concert with transmural electrical field stimulation (EFS), were used to study actions on neurogenic chloride secretion. ELISA was used to study GLP-1R effects on neural release of acetylcholine (ACh). Intramural localization of GLP-1R was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Application of GLP-1 to serosal or mucosal sides of flat-sheet preparations in Ussing chambers did not change baseline short-circuit current (I(sc)), which served as a marker for chloride secretion. Transmural EFS evoked neurally mediated biphasic increases in I(sc) that had an initial spike-like rising phase followed by a sustained plateau-like phase. Blockade of the EFS-evoked responses by tetrodotoxin indicated that the responses were neurally mediated. Application of GLP-1 reduced the EFS-evoked biphasic responses in a concentration-dependent manner. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39) suppressed this action of GLP-1. The GLP-1 inhibitory action on EFS-evoked responses persisted in the presence of nicotinic or vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor antagonists but not in the presence of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. GLP-1 significantly reduced EFS-evoked ACh release. In the submucosal plexus, GLP-1R immunoreactivity (IR) was expressed by choline acetyltransferase-IR neurons, neuropeptide Y-IR neurons, somatostatin-IR neurons, and vasoactive intestinal peptide-IR neurons. Our results suggest that GLP-1R is expressed in guinea pig submucosal neurons and that its activation leads to a decrease in neurally evoked chloride secretion by suppressing release of ACh at neuroepithelial junctions in the enteric neural networks

  1. Naturally-occurring TGR5 agonists modulating glucagon-like peptide-1 biosynthesis and secretion.

    PubMed

    Jafri, Laila; Saleem, Samreen; Calderwood, Danielle; Gillespie, Anna; Mirza, Bushra; Green, Brian D

    2016-04-01

    Selective GLP-1 secretagogues represent a novel potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examined the GLP-1 secretory activity of the ethnomedicinal plant, Fagonia cretica, which is postulated to possess anti-diabetic activity. After extraction and fractionation extracts and purified compounds were tested for GLP-1 and GIP secretory activity in pGIP/neo STC-1 cells. Intracellular levels of incretin hormones and their gene expression were also determined. Crude F. cretica extracts stimulated both GLP-1 and GIP secretion, increased cellular hormone content, and upregulated gene expression of proglucagon, GIP and prohormone convertase. However, ethyl acetate partitioning significantly enriched GLP-1 secretory activity and this fraction underwent bioactivity-guided fractionation. Three isolated compounds were potent and selective GLP-1 secretagogues: quinovic acid (QA) and two QA derivatives, QA-3β-O-β-D-glycopyranoside and QA-3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(28→1)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester. All QA compounds activated the TGR5 receptor and increased intracellular incretin levels and gene expression. QA derivatives were more potent GLP-1 secretagogues than QA. This is the first time that QA and its naturally-occurring derivatives have been shown to activate TGR5 and stimulate GLP-1 secretion. These data provide a plausible mechanism for the ethnomedicinal use of F. cretica and may assist in the ongoing development of selective GLP-1 agonists. PMID:26820940

  2. Mosapride citrate, a 5-HT₄ receptor agonist, increased the plasma active and total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in non-diabetic men.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Masuda, Kiyomi; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Mosapride citrate, a selective agonist of the 5-hydroxytryptaine (5-HT)₄ receptor, is typically used to treat heartburn, nausea, and vomiting associated with chronic gastritis or to prepare for a barium enema X-ray examination. Mosapride citrate reportedly improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. As mosapride citrate activates the motility of the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that mosapride citrate affects incretin secretion. We examined the effect of the administration of mosapride citrate on the plasma glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, and plasma incretin levels before breakfast and at 60, 120, and 180 min after breakfast in men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to exclude gastropathy. Mosapride citrate was administered according to two different intake schedules (C: control (no drug), M: mosapride citrate 20 mg) in each of the subject groups. The area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma glucose levels was smaller in the M group than in the C group. The time profiles for the serum insulin levels at 60 and 120 min after treatment with mosapride citrate tended to be higher, although the difference was not statistically significant. The AUCs of the plasma active and total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were significantly larger in the M group than in the C group. No significant difference in the AUC of the plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) level was observed between the two groups. Our results suggest that mosapride citrate may have an antidiabetic effect by increasing GLP-1 secretion. PMID:23257734

  3. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 receptor signaling in the lateral parabrachial nucleus contributes to the control of food intake and motivation to feed.

    PubMed

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Baird, John-Paul; Swick, Jennifer C; Hayes, Matthew R; Grill, Harvey J

    2014-08-01

    Central glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation reduces food intake and the motivation to work for food, but the neurons and circuits mediating these effects are not fully understood. Although lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) neurons are implicated in the control of food intake and reward, the specific role of GLP-1R-expressing lPBN neurons is unexplored. Here, neuroanatomical tracing, immunohistochemical, and behavioral/pharmacological techniques are used to test the hypothesis that lPBN neurons contribute to the anorexic effect of central GLP-1R activation. Results indicate that GLP-1-producing neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius project monosynaptically to the lPBN, providing a potential endogenous mechanism by which lPBN GLP-1R signaling may exert effects on food intake control. Pharmacological activation of GLP-1R in the lPBN reduced food intake, and conversely, antagonism of GLP-1R in the lPBN increased food intake. In addition, lPBN GLP-1R activation reduced the motivation to work for food under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Taken together, these data establish the lPBN as a novel site of action for GLP-1R-mediated control of food intake and reward. PMID:24681814

  4. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Signaling in the Lateral Parabrachial Nucleus Contributes to the Control of Food Intake and Motivation to Feed

    PubMed Central

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Baird, John-Paul; Swick, Jennifer C; Hayes, Matthew R; Grill, Harvey J

    2014-01-01

    Central glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation reduces food intake and the motivation to work for food, but the neurons and circuits mediating these effects are not fully understood. Although lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) neurons are implicated in the control of food intake and reward, the specific role of GLP-1R-expressing lPBN neurons is unexplored. Here, neuroanatomical tracing, immunohistochemical, and behavioral/pharmacological techniques are used to test the hypothesis that lPBN neurons contribute to the anorexic effect of central GLP-1R activation. Results indicate that GLP-1-producing neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius project monosynaptically to the lPBN, providing a potential endogenous mechanism by which lPBN GLP-1R signaling may exert effects on food intake control. Pharmacological activation of GLP-1R in the lPBN reduced food intake, and conversely, antagonism of GLP-1R in the lPBN increased food intake. In addition, lPBN GLP-1R activation reduced the motivation to work for food under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Taken together, these data establish the lPBN as a novel site of action for GLP-1R-mediated control of food intake and reward. PMID:24681814

  5. Effect of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 on the Differentiation of Adipose-derived Stem Cells into Osteoblasts and Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Min; Joo, Bo Sun; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Heung Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an intestinally secreted hormone and it plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. However, the possible role of GLP-1 in the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) remains unknown. Therefore this study investigated the effect of GLP-1 on the differentiation of ADSCs into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Methods ADSCs were isolated from human adipose tissues of the abdomens, cultured and characterized by flow cytometry and multi-lineage potential assay. ADSCs were induced in osteogenic and adipogenic media treated with two different doses (10 and 100 nM) of GLP-1, and then the effect of GLP-1 on differentiation of ADSCs into osteoblast and adipocyte was examined. The signaling pathway involved in these processes was also examined. Results Isolated human ADSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) specific markers as well as GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) proteins. They also showed multiple-lineage potential of MSC. GLP-1 was upregulated the activity and mRNA expression of osteoblast-specific marker, alkaline phosphatase and the mineralization of calcium. In contrast, GLP-1 significantly suppressed the expression of adipocyte-specific markers, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and adipocyte protein 2 (AP2). This decreased expression of adipocyte specific markers caused by GLP-1 was significantly reversed by the treatment of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059 (P < 0.05). Conclusion This result demonstrates that GLP-1 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in ADSCs, whereas it inhibits adipocyte differentiation. The ERK signaling pathway seems to be involved in these differentiation processes mediated by GLP-1. PMID:26357647

  6. Molecular physiology of glucagon-like peptide-1 insulin secretagogue action in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Leech, Colin A; Dzhura, Igor; Chepurny, Oleg G; Kang, Guoxin; Schwede, Frank; Genieser, Hans-G; Holz, George G

    2011-11-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is stimulated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a blood glucose-lowering hormone that is released from enteroendocrine L cells of the distal intestine after the ingestion of a meal. GLP-1 mimetics (e.g., Byetta) and GLP-1 analogs (e.g., Victoza) activate the β cell GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), and these compounds stimulate insulin secretion while also lowering levels of blood glucose in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An additional option for the treatment of T2DM involves the administration of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors (e.g., Januvia, Galvus). These compounds slow metabolic degradation of intestinally released GLP-1, thereby raising post-prandial levels of circulating GLP-1 substantially. Investigational compounds that stimulate GLP-1 secretion also exist, and in this regard a noteworthy advance is the demonstration that small molecule GPR119 agonists (e.g., AR231453) stimulate L cell GLP-1 secretion while also directly stimulating β cell insulin release. In this review, we summarize what is currently known concerning the signal transduction properties of the β cell GLP-1R as they relate to insulin secretion. Emphasized are the cyclic AMP, protein kinase A, and Epac2-mediated actions of GLP-1 to regulate ATP-sensitive K⁺ channels, voltage-dependent K⁺ channels, TRPM2 cation channels, intracellular Ca⁺ release channels, and Ca⁺-dependent exocytosis. We also discuss new evidence that provides a conceptual framework with which to understand why GLP-1R agonists are less likely to induce hypoglycemia when they are administered for the treatment of T2DM. PMID:21782840

  7. Molecular Physiology of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Insulin Secretagogue Action in Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leech, Colin A.; Dzhura, Igor; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Kang, Guoxin; Schwede, Frank; Genieser, Hans-G.; Holz, George G.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is stimulated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a blood glucose-lowering hormone that is released from enteroendocrine L cells of the distal intestine after the ingestion of a meal. GLP-1 mimetics (e.g., Byetta) and GLP-1 analogs (e.g., Victoza) activate the β cell GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), and these compounds stimulate insulin secretion while also lowering levels of blood glucose in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An additional therapeutic option for the treatment of T2DM involves the administration of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors (e.g., Januvia, Galvus). These compounds slow metabolic degradation of intestinally released GLP-1, thereby raising post-prandial levels of circulating GLP-1 substantially. Investigational compounds that stimulate GLP-1 secretion also exist, and in this regard a noteworthy advance is the demonstration that small molecule GPR119 agonists (e.g., AR231453) stimulate L cell GLP-1 secretion while also directly stimulating β cell insulin release. In this review, we summarize what is currently known concerning the signal transduction properties of the β cell GLP-1R as they relate to insulin secretion. Emphasized are the cyclic AMP, protein kinase A, and Epac2 mediated actions of GLP-1 to regulate ATP-sensitive K+ channels, voltage-dependent K+ channels, TRPM2 cation channels, intracellular Ca2+ release channels, and Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. We also discuss new evidence that provides a conceptual framework with which to understand why GLP-1R agonists are less likely to induce hypoglycemia when they are administered for the treatment of T2DM. PMID:21782840

  8. 43 CFR 7.36 - Permit reviews and disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Any affected person may request a review by the Departmental Consulting Archeologist of any... design, or other professional archaeological matters. The Departmental Consulting Archeologist shall make... of the Departmental Consulting Archeologist....

  9. 43 CFR 7.36 - Permit reviews and disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Any affected person may request a review by the Departmental Consulting Archeologist of any... design, or other professional archaeological matters. The Departmental Consulting Archeologist shall make... of the Departmental Consulting Archeologist....

  10. 43 CFR 7.36 - Permit reviews and disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Any affected person may request a review by the Departmental Consulting Archeologist of any... design, or other professional archaeological matters. The Departmental Consulting Archeologist shall make... of the Departmental Consulting Archeologist....

  11. 43 CFR 7.36 - Permit reviews and disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Any affected person may request a review by the Departmental Consulting Archeologist of any... design, or other professional archaeological matters. The Departmental Consulting Archeologist shall make... of the Departmental Consulting Archeologist....

  12. 43 CFR 7.36 - Permit reviews and disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Any affected person may request a review by the Departmental Consulting Archeologist of any... design, or other professional archaeological matters. The Departmental Consulting Archeologist shall make... of the Departmental Consulting Archeologist....

  13. Nutrient regulation of post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activity in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, L R; Beety, J M; Wright, J; Morgan, L M

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the immediate effect of ingestion of oral carbohydrate and fat on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity post-heparin in six lean and six obese age-matched women. Subjects were given, on two separate occasions, 340 kcal carbohydrate or an equicaloric amount of fat, both in 300 ml of water. Post-heparin LPL activity (10,000 U) was measured on each occasion 120 minutes after ingestion of the meal. Following oral carbohydrate postprandial plasma insulin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects than in lean (p < 0.01). Impaired glucose tolerance was seen in the obese group. GIP secretion was similar in lean and obese subjects both during oral fat and carbohydrate ingestion. GLP-1 secretion post-carbohydrate was lower in obese subjects. Total LPL activity unadjusted for body weight was similar in the two groups after carbohydrate administration but was significantly lower when adjusted per kg body weight. Total LPL activity was lower in the lean group at 130 minutes after fat administration (p < 0.02). Fasting serum triglycerides were higher in the obese group and were inversely related to the post-carbohydrate LPL activity (r = - 0.65, p < 0.02). Intraluminal lipoprotein lipase activity is not increased in established obesity. Fat and carbohydrate nutrients may affect LPL activity differently in lean and obese subjects. PMID:11280717

  14. Positive Allosteric Modulation of the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor by Diverse Electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Ana B; Showalter, Aaron D; Wainscott, David B; Stutsman, Cynthia; Marín, Aranzazu; Ficorilli, James; Cabrera, Over; Willard, Francis S; Sloop, Kyle W

    2016-05-13

    Therapeutic intervention to activate the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion and improves energy balance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Studies investigating mechanisms whereby peptide ligands activate GLP-1R have utilized mutagenesis, receptor chimeras, photo-affinity labeling, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, and crystallography of the ligand-binding ectodomain to establish receptor homology models. However, this has not enabled the design or discovery of drug-like non-peptide GLP-1R activators. Recently, studies investigating 4-(3-benzyloxyphenyl)-2-ethylsulfinyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine (BETP), a GLP-1R-positive allosteric modulator, determined that Cys-347 in the GLP-1R is required for positive allosteric modulator activity via covalent modification. To advance small molecule activation of the GLP-1R, we characterized the insulinotropic mechanism of BETP. In guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding and INS1 832-3 insulinoma cell cAMP assays, BETP enhanced GLP-1(9-36)-NH2-stimulated cAMP signaling. Using isolated pancreatic islets, BETP potentiated insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner that requires both the peptide ligand and GLP-1R. In studies of the covalent mechanism, PAGE fluorography showed labeling of GLP-1R in immunoprecipitation experiments from GLP-1R-expressing cells incubated with [(3)H]BETP. Furthermore, we investigated whether other reported GLP-1R activators and compounds identified from screening campaigns modulate GLP-1R by covalent modification. Similar to BETP, several molecules were found to enhance GLP-1R signaling in a Cys-347-dependent manner. These chemotypes are electrophiles that react with GSH, and LC/MS determined the cysteine adducts formed upon conjugation. Together, our results suggest covalent modification may be used to stabilize the GLP-1R in an active conformation. Moreover, the findings provide pharmacological guidance for the discovery and

  15. Positive Allosteric Modulation of the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor by Diverse Electrophiles*

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Aaron D.; Wainscott, David B.; Stutsman, Cynthia; Marín, Aranzazu; Ficorilli, James; Cabrera, Over

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention to activate the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion and improves energy balance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Studies investigating mechanisms whereby peptide ligands activate GLP-1R have utilized mutagenesis, receptor chimeras, photo-affinity labeling, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, and crystallography of the ligand-binding ectodomain to establish receptor homology models. However, this has not enabled the design or discovery of drug-like non-peptide GLP-1R activators. Recently, studies investigating 4-(3-benzyloxyphenyl)-2-ethylsulfinyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine (BETP), a GLP-1R-positive allosteric modulator, determined that Cys-347 in the GLP-1R is required for positive allosteric modulator activity via covalent modification. To advance small molecule activation of the GLP-1R, we characterized the insulinotropic mechanism of BETP. In guanosine 5′-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding and INS1 832-3 insulinoma cell cAMP assays, BETP enhanced GLP-1(9–36)-NH2-stimulated cAMP signaling. Using isolated pancreatic islets, BETP potentiated insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner that requires both the peptide ligand and GLP-1R. In studies of the covalent mechanism, PAGE fluorography showed labeling of GLP-1R in immunoprecipitation experiments from GLP-1R-expressing cells incubated with [3H]BETP. Furthermore, we investigated whether other reported GLP-1R activators and compounds identified from screening campaigns modulate GLP-1R by covalent modification. Similar to BETP, several molecules were found to enhance GLP-1R signaling in a Cys-347-dependent manner. These chemotypes are electrophiles that react with GSH, and LC/MS determined the cysteine adducts formed upon conjugation. Together, our results suggest covalent modification may be used to stabilize the GLP-1R in an active conformation. Moreover, the findings provide pharmacological guidance for the discovery and

  16. Inhibiting receptor for advanced glycation end product (AGE) and oxidative stress involved in the protective effect mediated by glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor on AGE induced neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Yin, Lei; Xu, Zheng; An, Feng-Mao; Liu, Ai-Ran; Wang, Ying; Yao, Wen-Bing; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2016-01-26

    Our previous study has demonstrated that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist could protect neurons from advanced glycation end products (AGEs) toxicity in vitro. However, further studies are still needed to clarify the molecular mechanism of this GLP-1 receptor -dependent action. The present study mainly focused on the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists against the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signal pathway and the mechanism underlying this effect of GLP-1. Firstly the data based on the SH-GLP-1R(+) and SH-SY5Y cells confirmed our previous finding that GLP-1 receptor could mediate the protective effect against AGEs. The assays of the protein activity and of the mRNA level revealed that apoptosis-related proteins such as caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax and Bcl-2 were involved. Additionally, we found that both GLP-1 and exendin-4 could reduce AGEs-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation by suppressing the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase. Interestingly, we also found that GLP-1 receptor activation could attenuate the abnormal expression of the RAGE in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the protein expression and translocation level of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and the use of GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) and NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, we found that the effect mediated by GLP-1 receptor could alleviate the over expression of RAGE induced by ligand via the suppression of NF-κB. In summary, the results indicated that inhibiting RAGE/oxidative stress was involved in the protective effect of GLP-1 on neuron cells against AGEs induced apoptosis. PMID:26679229

  17. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  18. Role of lateral septum glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors in food intake.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Sarah J; Jackson, Christine M; Greene, Hayden E; Lilly, Nicole; Maske, Calyn B; Vallejo, Samantha; Williams, Diana L

    2016-07-01

    Hindbrain glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) neurons project to numerous forebrain areas, including the lateral septum (LS). Using a fluorescently labeled GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, Exendin 4 (Ex4), we demonstrated GLP-1 receptor binding throughout the rat LS. We examined the feeding effects of Ex4 and the GLP-1R antagonist Exendin (9-39) (Ex9) at doses subthreshold for effect when delivered to the lateral ventricle. Intra-LS Ex4 suppressed overnight chow and high-fat diet (HFD) intake, and Ex9 increased chow and HFD intake relative to vehicle. During 2-h tests, intra-LS Ex9 significantly increased 0.25 M sucrose and 4% corn oil. Ex4 can cause nausea, but intra-LS administration of Ex4 did not induce pica. Furthermore, intra-LS Ex4 had no effect on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. We investigated the role of LS GLP-1R in motivation for food by examining operant responding for sucrose on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, with and without a nutrient preload to maximize GLP-1 neuron activation. The preload strongly suppressed PR responding, but blockade of GLP-1R in the intermediate subdivision of the LS did not affect motivation for sucrose under either load condition. The ability of the nutrient load to suppress subsequent chow intake was significantly attenuated by intermediate LS Ex9 treatment. By contrast, blockade of GLP-1R in the dorsal subdivision of the LS increased both PR responding and overnight chow intake. Together, these studies suggest that endogenous activity of GLP-1R in the LS influence feeding, and dLS GLP-1Rs, in particular, play a role in motivation. PMID:27194565

  19. Npas4 is a novel activity-regulated cytoprotective factor in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Paul V; Krentz, Nicole A J; Zarrouki, Bader; Westwell-Roper, Clara Y; Nian, Cuilan; Uy, Ryan A; Shapiro, A M James; Poitout, Vincent; Lynn, Francis C

    2013-08-01

    Cellular homeostasis requires intrinsic sensing mechanisms to temper function in the face of prolonged activity. In the pancreatic β-cell, glucose is likely a physiological trigger that activates an adaptive response to stimulation, thereby maintaining cellular homeostasis. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are activated as a first line of defense in cellular homeostasis and are largely responsible for transmitting an environmental cue to a cellular response. Here we examine the regulation and function of the novel β-cell IEG, neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4). Using MIN6 cells, mouse and human islets, as well as in vivo infusions, we demonstrate that Npas4 is expressed within pancreatic islets and is upregulated by β-cell depolarizing agents. Npas4 tempers β-cell function through a direct inhibitory interaction with the insulin promoter and by blocking the potentiating effects of GLP-1 without significantly reducing glucose-stimulated secretion. Finally, Npas4 expression is induced by classical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressors and can prevent thapsigargin- and palmitate-induced dysfunction and cell death. These results suggest that Npas4 is a key activity-dependent regulator that improves β-cell efficiency in the face of stress. We posit that Npas4 could be a novel therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes that could both reduce ER stress and cell death and maintain basal cell function. PMID:23656887

  20. Oral Delivery of Pentameric Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 by Recombinant Lactobacillus in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin; Krogh-Andersen, Kasper; Pelletier, Julien; Marcotte, Harold; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Hammarström, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone produced by intestinal cells and stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreas in a glucose-dependent manner. Exogenously supplied GLP-1 analogues are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. An anti-diabetic effect of Lactobacillus in lowering plasma glucose levels and its use as a vehicle for delivery of protein and antibody fragments has been shown previously. The aim of this study was to employ lactobacilli as a vehicle for in situ production and delivery of GLP-1 analogue to normalize blood glucose level in diabetic GK (Goto-Kakizaki) rats. In this study, we designed pentameric GLP-1 (5×GLP-1) analogues which were both expressed in a secreted form and anchored to the surface of lactobacilli. Intestinal trypsin sites were introduced within 5×GLP-1, leading to digestion of the pentamer into an active monomeric form. The E. coli-produced 5×GLP-1 peptides delivered by intestinal intubation to GK rats resulted in a significant improvement of glycemic control demonstrated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Meanwhile, the purified 5×GLP-1 (trypsin-digested) from the Lactobacillus cultures stimulated insulin secretion from HIT-T15 cells, similar to the E. coli-produced 5×GLP-1 peptides. When delivered by gavage to GK rats, non-expressor L. paracasei significantly lowered the blood glucose level but 5×GLP-1 expression did not provide an additional anti-diabetic effect, possibly due to the low levels produced. Our results indicate that lactobacilli themselves might be used as an alternative treatment method for type 2 diabetes, but further work is needed to increase the expression level of GLP-1 by lactobacilli in order to obtain a significant insulinotropic effect in vivo. PMID:27610615

  1. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  2. The effects of GLP-1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors on the renal system.

    PubMed

    Schernthaner, Guntram; Mogensen, Carl Erik; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) affects an estimated 20%-40% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Key modifiable risk factors for DN are albuminuria, anaemia, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension, together with lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity. Early detection and treatment of these risk factors can prevent DN or slow its progression, and may even induce remission in some patients. DN is generally preceded by albuminuria, which frequently remains elevated despite treatment in patients with T2DM. Optimal treatment and prevention of DN may require an early, intensive, multifactorial approach, tailored to simultaneously target all modifiable risk factors. Regular monitoring of renal function, including urinary albumin excretion, creatinine clearance and glomerular filtration rate, is critical for following any disease progression and making treatment adjustments. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors lower blood glucose levels without additional risk of hypoglycaemia, and may also reduce albuminuria. Further investigation of the potential renal benefits of DPP-4 and SGLT2 inhibitors is underway. PMID:25116004

  3. The effects of GLP-1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors on the renal system

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, Carl Erik; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) affects an estimated 20%–40% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Key modifiable risk factors for DN are albuminuria, anaemia, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension, together with lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity. Early detection and treatment of these risk factors can prevent DN or slow its progression, and may even induce remission in some patients. DN is generally preceded by albuminuria, which frequently remains elevated despite treatment in patients with T2DM. Optimal treatment and prevention of DN may require an early, intensive, multifactorial approach, tailored to simultaneously target all modifiable risk factors. Regular monitoring of renal function, including urinary albumin excretion, creatinine clearance and glomerular filtration rate, is critical for following any disease progression and making treatment adjustments. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors lower blood glucose levels without additional risk of hypoglycaemia, and may also reduce albuminuria. Further investigation of the potential renal benefits of DPP-4 and SGLT2 inhibitors is underway. PMID:25116004

  4. Sitagliptin inhibits endothelin-1 expression in the aortic endothelium of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes by suppressing the nuclear factor-κB/IκBα system through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Song-Tao; Su, Huan; Zhang, Qiu; Tang, Hai-Qin; Wang, Chang-Jiang; Zhou, Qing; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Hua-Qing; Wang, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, including sitagliptin, exert favourable effects on the vascular endothelium. DPP-4 inhibitors suppress the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP‑1), which has been reported to enhance nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in the aorta, as well as the underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects, have yet to be investigated in animal models of diabetes mellitus (DM). In the present study, the rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: i) control; ii) DM; iii) DM + low‑dose sitagliptin (10 mg/kg); and iv) DM + high‑dose sitagliptin (30 mg/kg). Apart from the control group, all the rats received a high-fat diet for 8 weeks prior to the induction of diabetes with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The treatments were then administered for 12 weeks. The serum levels of ET-1, NO, GLP-1 and insulin were measured as well as endothelial function. The expression of ET-1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB/IκBα were determined. After 12 weeks of treatment, the diabetic rats receiving sitagliptin showed significantly elevated serum levels of GLP-1 and NO, and reduced levels of ET-1. Moreover, sitagliptin significantly attenuated endothelial dysfunction as well as the remodeling of the aortic wall. Notably, sitagliptin inhibited ET-1 expression at the transcriptional and translational level in the aorta, which may have been mediated by the suppression of the NF-κB/IκBα system induced by AMPK activation. The majority of the above-mentioned effects were dose dependent. Taken together, the findings of the present study indicate that sitagliptin inhibits ET-1 expression in the aortic endothelium by suppressing the NF-κB/IκBα system through the activation of the AMPK pathway in diabetic rats. These findings further demonstrate some of the

  5. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Protects Against Cardiac Microvascular Injury in Diabetes via a cAMP/PKA/Rho-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongjuan; Luo, Peng; Wang, Yabin; Li, Weijie; Wang, Chen; Sun, Dongdong; Zhang, Rongqing; Su, Tao; Ma, Xiaowei; Zeng, Chao; Wang, Haichang; Ren, Jun; Cao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Impaired cardiac microvascular function contributes to cardiovascular complications in diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exhibits potential cardioprotective properties in addition to its glucose-lowering effect. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of GLP-1 on cardiac microvascular injury in diabetes and the underlying mechanism involved. Experimental diabetes was induced using streptozotocin in rats. Cohorts of diabetic rats received a 12-week treatment of vildagliptin (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor) or exenatide (GLP-1 analog). Experimental diabetes attenuated cardiac function, glucose uptake, and microvascular barrier function, which were significantly improved by vildagliptin or exenatide treatment. Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) were isolated and cultured in normal or high glucose medium with or without GLP-1. GLP-1 decreased high-glucose–induced reactive oxygen species production and apoptotic index, as well as the levels of NADPH oxidase such as p47phox and gp91phox. Furthermore, cAMP/PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity) was increased and Rho-expression was decreased in high-glucose–induced CMECs after GLP-1 treatment. In conclusion, GLP-1 could protect the cardiac microvessels against oxidative stress, apoptosis, and the resultant microvascular barrier dysfunction in diabetes, which may contribute to the improvement of cardiac function and cardiac glucose metabolism in diabetes. The protective effects of GLP-1 are dependent on downstream inhibition of Rho through a cAMP/PKA-mediated pathway. PMID:23364453

  6. Sustained wash-resistant receptor activation responses of GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Hothersall, J Daniel; Bussey, Charlotte E; Brown, Alastair J; Scott, James S; Dale, Ian; Rawlins, Philip

    2015-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is involved in regulating metabolic homoeostasis, with GPR119 agonists targeted for the treatment of type-2 diabetes and obesity. Using the endogenous agonist oleoylethanolamide and a number of small molecule synthetic agonists we have investigated the temporal dynamics of receptor signalling. Using both a dynamic luminescence biosensor-based assay and an endpoint cAMP accumulation assay we show that agonist-driven desensitization is not a major regulatory mechanism for GPR119 despite robust activation responses, regardless of the agonist used. Temporal analysis of the cAMP responses demonstrated sustained signalling resistant to washout for some, but not all of the agonists tested. Further analysis indicated that the sustained effects of one synthetic agonist AR-231,453 were consistent with a role for slow dissociation kinetics. In contrast, the sustained responses to MBX-2982 and AZ1 appeared to involve membrane deposition. We also detect wash-resistant responses to AR-231,453 at the level of physiologically relevant responses in an endogenous expression system (GLP-1 secretion in GLUTag cells). In conclusion, our findings indicate that in a recombinant expression system GPR119 activation is sustained, with little evidence of pronounced receptor desensitization, and for some ligands persistent agonist responses continue despite removal of excess agonist. This provides novel understanding of the temporal responses profiles of potential drug candidates targetting GPR119, and highlights the importance of carefully examining the the mechanisms through which GPCRs generate sustained responses. PMID:26101059

  7. [The physiology of glucagon-like peptide-1 and its role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Escalada, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is synthesized and secreted by L cells in the small intestine in response to food ingestion. After reaching the general circulation it has a half-life of 2-3 minutes due to degradation by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4. Its physiological role is directed to control plasma glucose concentration, though GLP-1 also plays other different metabolic functions following nutrient absorption. Biological activities of GLP-1 include stimulation of insulin biosynthesis and glucose-dependent insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cell, inhibition of glucagon secretion, delay of gastric emptying and inhibition of food intake. GLP-1 is able to reduce plasma glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and also can restore beta cell sensitivity to exogenous secretagogues, suggesting that the increasing GLP-1 concentration may be an useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25326836

  8. [The physiology of glucagon-like peptide-1 and its role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Escalada, Francisco Javier

    2014-09-01

    The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is synthesized and secreted by L cells in the small intestine in response to food ingestion. After reaching the general circulation it has a half-life of 2-3 minutes due to degradation by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4. Its physiological role is directed to control plasma glucose concentration, though GLP-1 also plays other different metabolic functions following nutrient absorption. Biological activities of GLP-1 include stimulation of insulin biosynthesis and glucose-dependent insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cell, inhibition of glucagon secretion, delay of gastric emptying and inhibition of food intake. GLP-1 is able to reduce plasma glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and also can restore beta cell sensitivity to exogenous secretagogues, suggesting that the increasing GLP-1 concentration may be an useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25437458

  9. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  10. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Ligand Interactions: Structural Cross Talk between Ligands and the Extracellular Domain

    PubMed Central

    West, Graham M.; Willard, Francis S.; Sloop, Kyle W.; Showalter, Aaron D.; Pascal, Bruce D.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in pancreatic β-cells potentiates insulin production and is a current therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Like other class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the GLP-1R contains an N-terminal extracellular ligand binding domain. N-terminal truncations on the peptide agonist generate antagonists capable of binding to the extracellular domain, but not capable of activating full length receptor. The main objective of this study was to use Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) to identify how the amide hydrogen bonding network of peptide ligands and the extracellular domain of GLP-1R (nGLP-1R) were altered by binding interactions and to then use this platform to validate direct binding events for putative GLP-1R small molecule ligands. The HDX studies presented here for two glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) peptide ligands indicates that the antagonist exendin-4[9-39] is significantly destabilized in the presence of nonionic detergents as compared to the agonist exendin-4. Furthermore, HDX can detect stabilization of exendin-4 and exendin-4[9-39] hydrogen bonding networks at the N-terminal helix [Val19 to Lys27] upon binding to the N-terminal extracellular domain of GLP-1R (nGLP-1R). In addition we show hydrogen bonding network stabilization on nGLP-1R in response to ligand binding, and validate direct binding events with the extracellular domain of the receptor for putative GLP-1R small molecule ligands. PMID:25180755

  11. Protein kinase A mediates glucagon-like peptide 1-induced nitric oxide production and muscle microvascular recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhenhua; Chai, Weidong; Wang, Wenhui; Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Cao, Wenhong

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) causes vasodilation and increases muscle glucose uptake independent of insulin. Recently, we have shown that GLP-1 recruits muscle microvasculature and increases muscle glucose use via a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a major signaling intermediate downstream of GLP-1 receptors. To examine whether PKA mediates GLP-1's microvascular action in muscle, GLP-1 was infused to overnight-fasted male rats for 120 min in the presence or absence of H89, a PKA inhibitor. Hindleg muscle microvascular recruitment and glucose use were determined. GLP-1 infusion acutely increased muscle microvascular blood volume within 30 min without altering microvascular blood flow velocity or blood pressure. This effect persisted throughout the 120-min infusion period, leading to a significant increase in muscle microvascular blood flow. These changes were paralleled with an approximately twofold increase in plasma NO levels and hindleg glucose extraction. Systemic infusion of H89 completely blocked GLP-1-mediated muscle microvascular recruitment and increases in NO production and muscle glucose extraction. In cultured endothelial cells, GLP-1 acutely increased PKA activity and stimulated endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation at Ser1177 and NO production. PKA inhibition abolished these effects. In ex vivo studies, perfusion of the distal saphenous artery with GLP-1 induced significant vasorelaxation that was also abolished by pretreatment of the vessels with PKA inhibitor H89. We conclude that GLP-1 recruits muscle microvasculature by expanding microvascular volume and increases glucose extraction in muscle via a PKA/NO-dependent pathway in the vascular endothelium. This may contribute to postprandial glycemic control and complication prevention in diabetes. PMID:23193054

  12. Metabolic Syndrome Abolishes Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonist Stimulation of SERCA in Coronary Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Dineen, Stacey L; McKenney, Mikaela L; Bell, Lauren N; Fullenkamp, Allison M; Schultz, Kyle A; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Chalasani, Naga; Sturek, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) doubles the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists induce weight loss, increase insulin secretion, and improve glucose tolerance. Studies in healthy animals suggest cardioprotective properties of GLP-1 receptor agonists, perhaps partially mediated by improved sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) activity. We examined the acute effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on coronary smooth muscle cells (CSM) enzymatically isolated from lean, healthy Ossabaw miniature swine. Intracellular Ca(2+) handling was interrogated with fura-2. The GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide activated SERCA but did not alter other Ca(2+) transporters. Further, we tested the hypothesis that chronic, in vivo treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonist AC3174 would attenuate coronary artery disease (CAD) in swine with MetS. MetS was induced in 20 swine by 6 months' feeding of a hypercaloric, atherogenic diet. Swine were then randomized (n = 10/group) into placebo or AC3174 treatment groups and continued the diet for an additional 6 months. AC3174 treatment attenuated weight gain, increased insulin secretion, and improved glucose tolerance. Intravascular ultrasound and histology showed no effect of AC3174 on CAD. MetS abolished SERCA activation by GLP-1 receptor agonists. We conclude that MetS confers vascular resistance to GLP-1 receptor agonists, partially through impaired cellular signaling steps involving SERCA. PMID:25845661

  13. Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)-Induced Cholecystokinin and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Release in the STC-1 Enteroendocrine Cell Model Is Mediated by Calcium-Sensing Receptor and Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 Channel.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J

    2015-06-01

    Food refusal is a hallmark of exposure of experimental animals to the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a common foodborne contaminant. Although studies in the mouse suggest that DON suppresses food intake by aberrantly inducing the release of satiety hormones from enteroendocrine cells (EECs) found in the gut epithelium, the underlying mechanisms for this effect are not understood. To address this gap, we employed the murine neuroendocrine tumor STC-1 cell line, a widely used EEC model, to test the hypothesis that DON-induced hormone exocytosis is mediated by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated Ca(2+) signaling. The results indicate for the first time that DON elicits Ca(2)-dependent secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) amide (GLP-1), hormones that regulate food intake and energy homeostasis and that are products of 2 critical EEC populations--I cells of the small intestine and L cells of the large intestine, respectively. Furthermore, these effects were mediated by the GPCR Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR) and involved the following serial events: (1)PLC-mediated activation of the IP3 receptor and mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) stores, (2) activation of transient receptor potential melastatin-5 ion channel and resultant L-type voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channel-facilitated extracellular Ca(2+) entry, (3) amplification of extracellular Ca(2+) entry by transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 channel activation, and finally (4) Ca(2+)-driven CCK and GLP-1 excytosis. These in vitro findings provide a foundation for future investigation of mechanisms by which DON and other trichothecenes modulate EEC function in ex vivo and in vivo models. PMID:25787141

  14. The inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by glucagon-like peptide-1 contributes to neuroprotection against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shingo; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Adachi, Naoki; Yoon, Hyung Shin; Odaka, Haruki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-03-11

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an insulinotropic peptide secreted from enteroendocrine cells, has been known to have a neuroprotective effect. However, it is not fully understood the intracellular mediator of GLP-1 signaling in neuronal cells. In the present study, we examined the change in intracellular signaling of cortical neurons after GLP-1 application and luminal glucose stimulation in vitro and in vivo. GLP-1 receptor was highly expressed in cultured cortical neurons and brain tissues including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The activation of GLP-1 receptor (5min) significantly decreased levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), which is involved in neuronal cell survival and death, in cultured cortical neurons. Oral glucose administration also rapidly reduced pERK levels in the prefrontal cortex, while intraperitoneal glucose injection did not show such an effect. Further, GLP-1 attenuated hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and hyperactivity of ERK in cultured cortical neurons. It is possible that increased GLP-1 by luminal glucose stimulation affects cortical system including the maintenance of neuronal cell survival. PMID:26827720

  15. The Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Analogue, Exendin-4, Attenuates the Rewarding Properties of Psychostimulant Drugs in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Egecioglu, Emil; Engel, Jörgen A.; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretine hormone that controls consummatory behavior and glucose homeostasis. It is released in response to nutrient ingestion from the intestine and production in the brain has also been identified. Given that GLP-1 receptors are expressed in reward areas, such as the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area, and that common mechanisms regulate food and drug-induced reward we hypothesize that GLP-1 receptors are involved in reward regulation. Herein the effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist Exendin-4 (Ex4), on amphetamine- and cocaine-induced activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system was investigated in mice. In a series of experiments we show that treatment with Ex4, at a dose with no effect per se, reduce amphetamine- as well as cocaine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release as well as conditioned place preference in mice. Collectively these data propose a role for GLP-1 receptors in regulating drug reward. Moreover, the GLP-1 signaling system may be involved in the development of drug dependence since the rewarding effects of addictive drugs involves interferences with the mesolimbic dopamine system. Given that GLP-1 analogues, such as exenatide and liraglutide, are clinically available for treatment of type II diabetes, we propose that these should be elucidated as treatments of drug dependence. PMID:23874851

  16. Fractionation of Plant Bioactives from Black Carrots (Daucus carota subspecies sativus varietas atrorubens Alef.) by Adsorptive Membrane Chromatography and Analysis of Their Potential Anti-Diabetic Activity.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Rodríguez-Werner, Miriam; Schlösser, Anke; Liehr, Martin; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-07-27

    Black and purple carrots have attracted interest as colored extracts for coloring food due to their high content of anthocyanins. This study aimed to investigate the polyphenol composition of black carrots. Particularly, the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds of the variety Deep Purple carrot (DPC), which presents a very dark color, was performed by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses. The separation of polyphenols from a DPC XAD-7 extract into an anthocyanin fraction (AF) and co-pigment fraction (CF; primarily phenolic acids) was carried out by membrane chromatography. Furthermore, possible anti-diabetic effects of the DPC XAD-7 extract and its AF and CF were determined. DPC samples (XAD-7, CF, and AF) inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, DPC XAD-7 and chlorogenic acid, but not DPC CF and DPC AF, caused a moderate inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells. However, DPC samples did not affect glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) activity. Overall, DPC exhibits an inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity and on cellular glucose uptake indicating potential anti-diabetic properties. PMID:27362825

  17. Milk is not just food but most likely a genetic transfection system activating mTORC1 signaling for postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C; John, Swen Malte; Schmitz, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Milk has been recognized to represent a functionally active nutrient system promoting neonatal growth of mammals. Cell growth is regulated by the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). There is still a lack of information on the mechanisms of mTORC1 up-regulation by milk consumption. This review presents milk as a materno-neonatal relay system functioning by transfer of preferential amino acids, which increase plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for mTORC1 activation. Importantly, milk exosomes, which regularly contain microRNA-21, most likely represent a genetic transfection system enhancing mTORC1-driven metabolic processes. Whereas human breast milk is the ideal food for infants allowing appropriate postnatal growth and species-specific metabolic programming, persistent high milk signaling during adolescence and adulthood by continued cow´s milk consumption may promote mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization. PMID:23883112

  18. The insulinotropic effect of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 is not affected by acute vagotomy in anaesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Veedfald, Simon; Hansen, Marie; Christensen, Louise Wulff; Larsen, Sara Agnete Hjort; Hjøllund, Karina Rahr; Plamboeck, Astrid; Hartmann, Bolette; Deacon, Carolyn Fiona; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? We investigated whether intestinal vagal afferents are necessary for the insulinotropic effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) infused into a mesenteric artery or a peripheral vein before and after acute truncal vagotomy. What is the main finding and its importance? We found no effect of truncal vagotomy on the insulinotropic effect of exogenous GLP-1 and speculate that high circulating concentrations of GLP-1 after i.v. and i.a. infusion might have overshadowed any neural signalling component. We propose that further investigations into the possible vagal afferent signalling of GLP-1 would best be pursued using enteral stimuli to provide high subepithelial levels of endogenous GLP-1. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted from the gut in response to luminal stimuli and stimulates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. As a result of rapid enzymatic degradation of GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase-4, a signalling pathway involving activation of intestinal vagal afferents has been proposed. We conducted two series of experiments in α-chloralose-anaesthetized pigs. In protocol I, pigs (n = 14) were allocated for either i.v. or i.a. (mesenteric) GLP-1 infusions (1 and 2 pmol kg(-1)  min(-1) , 30 min) while maintaining permissive glucose concentrations at 6 mmol l(-1) by i.v. glucose infusion. The GLP-1 infusions were repeated after acute truncal vagotomy. In protocol II, pigs (n = 27) were allocated into six groups. Glucagon-like peptide 1 was infused i.v. or i.a. (mesenteric) for 1 h at 3 or 30 pmol kg(-1)  min(-1) . During the steady state (21 min into the GLP-1 infusion), glucose (0.2 g kg(-1) , i.v.) was administered over 9 min to stimulate β-cell secretion. Thirty minutes after the glucose infusion, GLP-1 infusions were discontinued. Following a washout period, the vagal trunks were severed in four of six groups (vagal trunks were left intact in two of six groups), whereupon all

  19. Drugs on the horizon for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rachman, J; Turner, R C

    1995-06-01

    The only new pharmaceutical therapy for Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes that has become available for clinical use in the last 40 years is the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, which reduces postprandial glucose levels by retarding digestion of complex carbohydrates in the gut. It has proved difficult to find other new metabolically active drugs that lack toxicity. Agents that reduce insulin resistance include the thiazolidinediones, which are very effective in animals. Of these, the only one that has been maintained in clinical evaluation appears from preliminary data to have an effect that although still useful, is not greater than that reported for current oral agents. Agents that reduce non-esterified fatty acid levels by inhibiting lipolysis, thereby allowing increased peripheral uptake of glucose, have so far given minimal reduction in glycaemia. The development of fatty acid oxidation inhibitors to reduce gluconeogenesis in the liver has been hampered by toxicity, but additional new agents are being studied. The most promising new approach for enhancing insulin secretion has been suggested by the demonstration that pharmacological doses of GLP-1 (7-36 amide), a natural enteric incretin hormone, improves pancreatic beta-cell and alpha-cell sensitivity to glucose and can induce normal basal glucose levels in diabetic man. The future development of GLP-1 agonists will be of great interest. This is timely as other insulin secretogogues, such as alpha 2 adrenergic blockers have proved relatively ineffective. Anti-obesity agents would in theory be beneficial, but have either had limited efficacy or have been avoided because of concern about long-term safety. Until new pharmaceutical agents become available, if near-normal glycaemia is to be achieved, many more Type 2 diabetic patients will need insulin therapy. When full insulin replacement therapy is not feasible, reducing the fasting blood glucose level towards normal with a single daily basal

  20. Glucagon like peptide-1 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, involving the inactivation of NF-κB in mice.

    PubMed

    Gou, Si; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Min; Wang, Xi-chen; Chen, Zhong-hua

    2014-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. Previous studies confirmed that NF-κB plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has a property of anti-inflammation by inactivation of NF-κB. Furthermore, the GLP-1 receptor was detected in the lung tissues. Our aim was to investigate the potential value and mechanisms of GLP-1 on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Mice with BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis were treated with or without GLP-1 administration. 28 days after BLM infusion, the number of total cells, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and the content of TGF-β1 in BALF were measured. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Masson's trichrome (MT) staining were performed. The Ashcroft score and hydroxyproline content were analyzed. RT-qPCR and western blot were used to evaluate the expression of α-SMA and VCAM-1. The phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 was also assessed by western blot. DNA binding of NF-κB p65 was measured through Trans(AM) p65 transcription factor ELISA kit. GLP-1 reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and the content of TGF-β1 in BLAF in mice with BLM injection. The Ashcroft score and hydroxyproline content were decreased by GLP-1 administration. Meanwhile, BLM-induced overexpression of α-SMA and VCAM-1 were blocked by GLP-1 treatment in mice. GLP-1 also reduced the ratio of phosphor-NF-κB p65/total-NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Our data found that BLM-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis were significantly alleviated by GLP-1 treatment in mice, possibly through inactivation of NF-κB. PMID:25111852

  1. Central GLP-2 enhances hepatic insulin sensitivity via activating PI3K signaling in POMC neurons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1/GLP-2) are coproduced and highlighted as key modulators to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity after bariatric surgery. However, it is unknown if CNS GLP-2 plays any physiological role in the control of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. We sho...

  2. Metformin activates a duodenal Ampk-dependent pathway to lower hepatic glucose production in rats.

    PubMed

    Duca, Frank A; Côté, Clémence D; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Rutter, Guy A; Filippi, Beatrice M; Lam, Tony K T

    2015-05-01

    Metformin is a first-line therapeutic option for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, even though its underlying mechanisms of action are relatively unclear. Metformin lowers blood glucose levels by inhibiting hepatic glucose production (HGP), an effect originally postulated to be due to a hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent mechanism. However, studies have questioned the contribution of hepatic AMPK to the effects of metformin on lowering hyperglycemia, and a gut-brain-liver axis that mediates intestinal nutrient- and hormone-induced lowering of HGP has been identified. Thus, it is possible that metformin affects HGP through this inter-organ crosstalk. Here we show that intraduodenal infusion of metformin for 50 min activated duodenal mucosal Ampk and lowered HGP in a rat 3 d high fat diet (HFD)-induced model of insulin resistance. Inhibition of duodenal Ampk negated the HGP-lowering effect of intraduodenal metformin, and both duodenal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (Glp-1r)-protein kinase A (Pka) signaling and a neuronal-mediated gut-brain-liver pathway were required for metformin to lower HGP. Preabsorptive metformin also lowered HGP in rat models of 28 d HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance and nicotinamide (NA)-streptozotocin (STZ)-HFD-induced type 2 diabetes. In an unclamped setting, inhibition of duodenal Ampk reduced the glucose-lowering effects of a bolus metformin treatment in rat models of diabetes. These findings show that, in rat models of both obesity and diabetes, metformin activates a previously unappreciated duodenal Ampk-dependent pathway to lower HGP and plasma glucose levels. PMID:25849133

  3. Pituitary Adenlylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Protects Adult Neural Stem Cells from a Hypoglycaemic milieu.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Shiva; Lietzau, Grazyna; Lundberg, Mathias; Nathanson, David; Nyström, Thomas; Patrone, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia is a common side-effect of glucose-lowering therapies for type-2 diabetic patients, which may cause cognitive/neurological impairment. Although the effects of hypoglycaemia in the brain have been extensively studied in neurons, how hypoglycaemia impacts the viability of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) has been poorly investigated. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how hypoglycaemia regulates NSCs survival have not been characterized. Recent work others and us have shown that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist Exendin-4 stimulate NSCs survival against glucolipoapoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system where to study the effects of hypoglycaemia on NSC survival. Furthermore, we determine the potential role of PACAP and Exendin-4 in counteracting the effect of hypoglycaemia. A hypoglycaemic in vitro milieu was mimicked by exposing subventricular zone-derived NSC to low levels of glucose. Moreover, we studied the potential involvement of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress by quantifying protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mRNA levels of CHOP. We show that PACAP via PAC-1 receptor and PKA activation counteracts impaired NSC viability induced by hypoglycaemia. The protective effect induced by PACAP correlated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, Exendin-4 was ineffective. The results show that hypoglycaemia decreases NSC viability and that this effect can be substantially counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation. The data supports a potential therapeutic role of PAC-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neurological complications, based on neurogenesis impairment by hypoglycaemia. PMID:27305000

  4. Pituitary Adenlylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Protects Adult Neural Stem Cells from a Hypoglycaemic milieu

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Shiva; Lietzau, Grazyna; Lundberg, Mathias; Nathanson, David; Nyström, Thomas; Patrone, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia is a common side-effect of glucose-lowering therapies for type-2 diabetic patients, which may cause cognitive/neurological impairment. Although the effects of hypoglycaemia in the brain have been extensively studied in neurons, how hypoglycaemia impacts the viability of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) has been poorly investigated. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how hypoglycaemia regulates NSCs survival have not been characterized. Recent work others and us have shown that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist Exendin-4 stimulate NSCs survival against glucolipoapoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system where to study the effects of hypoglycaemia on NSC survival. Furthermore, we determine the potential role of PACAP and Exendin-4 in counteracting the effect of hypoglycaemia. A hypoglycaemic in vitro milieu was mimicked by exposing subventricular zone-derived NSC to low levels of glucose. Moreover, we studied the potential involvement of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress by quantifying protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mRNA levels of CHOP. We show that PACAP via PAC-1 receptor and PKA activation counteracts impaired NSC viability induced by hypoglycaemia. The protective effect induced by PACAP correlated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, Exendin-4 was ineffective. The results show that hypoglycaemia decreases NSC viability and that this effect can be substantially counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation. The data supports a potential therapeutic role of PAC-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neurological complications, based on neurogenesis impairment by hypoglycaemia. PMID:27305000

  5. A Novel Allosteric Activator of Free Fatty Acid 2 Receptor Displays Unique Gi-functional Bias*

    PubMed Central

    Bolognini, Daniele; Moss, Catherine E.; Nilsson, Karolina; Petersson, Annika U.; Donnelly, Iona; Sergeev, Eugenia; König, Gabriele M.; Kostenis, Evi; Kurowska-Stolarska, Mariola; Miller, Ashley; Dekker, Niek; Tobin, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    The short chain fatty acid receptor FFA2 is able to stimulate signaling via both Gi- and Gq/G11-promoted pathways. These pathways are believed to control distinct physiological end points but FFA2 receptor ligands appropriate to test this hypothesis have been lacking. Herein, we characterize AZ1729, a novel FFA2 regulator that acts as a direct allosteric agonist and as a positive allosteric modulator, increasing the activity of the endogenously produced short chain fatty acid propionate in Gi-mediated pathways, but not at those transduced by Gq/G11. Using AZ1729 in combination with direct inhibitors of Gi and Gq/G11 family G proteins demonstrated that although both arms contribute to propionate-mediated regulation of phospho-ERK1/2 MAP kinase signaling in FFA2-expressing 293 cells, the Gq/G11-mediated pathway is predominant. We extend these studies by employing AZ1729 to dissect physiological FFA2 signaling pathways. The capacity of AZ1729 to act at FFA2 receptors to inhibit β-adrenoreceptor agonist-promoted lipolysis in primary mouse adipocytes and to promote chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils confirmed these as FFA2 processes mediated by Gi signaling, whereas, in concert with blockade by the Gq/G11 inhibitor FR900359, the inability of AZ1729 to mimic or regulate propionate-mediated release of GLP-1 from mouse colonic preparations defined this physiological response as an end point transduced via activation of Gq/G11. PMID:27385588

  6. A Novel Allosteric Activator of Free Fatty Acid 2 Receptor Displays Unique Gi-functional Bias.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Daniele; Moss, Catherine E; Nilsson, Karolina; Petersson, Annika U; Donnelly, Iona; Sergeev, Eugenia; König, Gabriele M; Kostenis, Evi; Kurowska-Stolarska, Mariola; Miller, Ashley; Dekker, Niek; Tobin, Andrew B; Milligan, Graeme

    2016-09-01

    The short chain fatty acid receptor FFA2 is able to stimulate signaling via both Gi- and Gq/G11-promoted pathways. These pathways are believed to control distinct physiological end points but FFA2 receptor ligands appropriate to test this hypothesis have been lacking. Herein, we characterize AZ1729, a novel FFA2 regulator that acts as a direct allosteric agonist and as a positive allosteric modulator, increasing the activity of the endogenously produced short chain fatty acid propionate in Gi-mediated pathways, but not at those transduced by Gq/G11 Using AZ1729 in combination with direct inhibitors of Gi and Gq/G11 family G proteins demonstrated that although both arms contribute to propionate-mediated regulation of phospho-ERK1/2 MAP kinase signaling in FFA2-expressing 293 cells, the Gq/G11-mediated pathway is predominant. We extend these studies by employing AZ1729 to dissect physiological FFA2 signaling pathways. The capacity of AZ1729 to act at FFA2 receptors to inhibit β-adrenoreceptor agonist-promoted lipolysis in primary mouse adipocytes and to promote chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils confirmed these as FFA2 processes mediated by Gi signaling, whereas, in concert with blockade by the Gq/G11 inhibitor FR900359, the inability of AZ1729 to mimic or regulate propionate-mediated release of GLP-1 from mouse colonic preparations defined this physiological response as an end point transduced via activation of Gq/G11. PMID:27385588

  7. Caenorhabditis elegans atx-2 Promotes Germline Proliferation and the Oocyte Fate

    PubMed Central

    Maine, Eleanor M.; Hansen, Dave; Springer, Deborah; Vought, Valarie E.

    2004-01-01

    In the Caenorhabditis elegans germline, proliferation is induced by Notch-type signaling. Entry of germ cells into meiosis is triggered by activity of the GLD-1 and GLD-2 pathways, which function redundantly to promote meiosis and/or inhibit proliferation. Activation of the germline Notch-type receptor, GLP-1, ultimately inhibits the activities of the GLD-1 and GLD-2 pathways. We previously identified several ego (enhancer of glp-1) genes that promote germline proliferation and interact genetically with the GLP-1 signaling pathway. Here, we show that atx-2 is an ego gene. Our data suggest that ATX-2 is not a positive regulator of the GLP-1 signaling pathway and GLP-1 signaling is not the sole positive regulator of ATX-2 activity. Moreover, our data indicate that GLP-1 must have an additional function, which may be to repress activity of a third meiotic entry pathway that would work in parallel with the GLD-1 and GLD-2 pathways. In addition to its role in proliferation, ATX-2 acts downstream of FOG-2 to promote the female germline fate. PMID:15514056

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans atx-2 promotes germline proliferation and the oocyte fate.

    PubMed

    Maine, Eleanor M; Hansen, Dave; Springer, Deborah; Vought, Valarie E

    2004-10-01

    In the Caenorhabditis elegans germline, proliferation is induced by Notch-type signaling. Entry of germ cells into meiosis is triggered by activity of the GLD-1 and GLD-2 pathways, which function redundantly to promote meiosis and/or inhibit proliferation. Activation of the germline Notch-type receptor, GLP-1, ultimately inhibits the activities of the GLD-1 and GLD-2 pathways. We previously identified several ego (enhancer of glp-1) genes that promote germline proliferation and interact genetically with the GLP-1 signaling pathway. Here, we show that atx-2 is an ego gene. Our data suggest that ATX-2 is not a positive regulator of the GLP-1 signaling pathway and GLP-1 signaling is not the sole positive regulator of ATX-2 activity. Moreover, our data indicate that GLP-1 must have an additional function, which may be to repress activity of a third meiotic entry pathway that would work in parallel with the GLD-1 and GLD-2 pathways. In addition to its role in proliferation, ATX-2 acts downstream of FOG-2 to promote the female germline fate. PMID:15514056

  9. UBR-5, a Conserved HECT-Type E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Negatively Regulates Notch-Type Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Komal; Gu, Anniya; Xu, Xia; Au, Vinci; Taylor, Jon; Flibotte, Stephane; Moerman, Donald G.; Maine, Eleanor M.

    2016-01-01

    Notch-type signaling mediates cell−cell interactions important for animal development. In humans, reduced or inappropriate Notch signaling activity is associated with various developmental defects and disease states, including cancers. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses two Notch-type receptors, GLP-1 and LIN-12. GLP-1 mediates several cell-signaling events in the embryo and promotes germline proliferation in the developing and adult gonad. LIN-12 acts redundantly with GLP-1 in certain inductive events in the embryo and mediates several cell−cell interactions during larval development. Recovery of genetic suppressors and enhancers of glp-1 or lin-12 loss- or gain-of-function mutations has identified numerous regulators of GLP-1 and LIN-12 signaling activity. Here, we report the molecular identification of sog-1, a gene identified in screens for recessive suppressors of conditional glp-1 loss-of-function mutations. The sog-1 gene encodes UBR-5, the sole C. elegans member of the UBR5/Hyd family of HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases. Molecular and genetic analyses indicate that the loss of ubr-5 function suppresses defects caused by reduced signaling via GLP-1 or LIN-12. In contrast, ubr-5 mutations do not suppress embryonic or larval lethality associated with mutations in a downstream transcription factor, LAG-1. In the gonad, ubr-5 acts in the receiving cells (germ cells) to limit GLP-1 signaling activity. SEL-10 is the F-box component of SCFSEL-10 E3 ubiquitin–ligase complex that promotes turnover of Notch intracellular domain. UBR-5 acts redundantly with SEL-10 to limit Notch signaling in certain tissues. We hypothesize that UBR-5 activity limits Notch-type signaling by promoting turnover of receptor or limiting its interaction with pathway components. PMID:27185398

  10. UBR-5, a Conserved HECT-Type E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Negatively Regulates Notch-Type Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Komal; Gu, Anniya; Xu, Xia; Au, Vinci; Taylor, Jon; Flibotte, Stephane; Moerman, Donald G; Maine, Eleanor M

    2016-01-01

    Notch-type signaling mediates cell-cell interactions important for animal development. In humans, reduced or inappropriate Notch signaling activity is associated with various developmental defects and disease states, including cancers. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses two Notch-type receptors, GLP-1 and LIN-12. GLP-1 mediates several cell-signaling events in the embryo and promotes germline proliferation in the developing and adult gonad. LIN-12 acts redundantly with GLP-1 in certain inductive events in the embryo and mediates several cell-cell interactions during larval development. Recovery of genetic suppressors and enhancers of glp-1 or lin-12 loss- or gain-of-function mutations has identified numerous regulators of GLP-1 and LIN-12 signaling activity. Here, we report the molecular identification of sog-1, a gene identified in screens for recessive suppressors of conditional glp-1 loss-of-function mutations. The sog-1 gene encodes UBR-5, the sole C. elegans member of the UBR5/Hyd family of HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases. Molecular and genetic analyses indicate that the loss of ubr-5 function suppresses defects caused by reduced signaling via GLP-1 or LIN-12. In contrast, ubr-5 mutations do not suppress embryonic or larval lethality associated with mutations in a downstream transcription factor, LAG-1. In the gonad, ubr-5 acts in the receiving cells (germ cells) to limit GLP-1 signaling activity. SEL-10 is the F-box component of SCF(SEL-10) E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex that promotes turnover of Notch intracellular domain. UBR-5 acts redundantly with SEL-10 to limit Notch signaling in certain tissues. We hypothesize that UBR-5 activity limits Notch-type signaling by promoting turnover of receptor or limiting its interaction with pathway components. PMID:27185398

  11. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Regulates Cholecystokinin Production in β-Cells to Protect From Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Linnemann, Amelia K.; Neuman, Joshua C.; Battiola, Therese J.; Wisinski, Jaclyn A.; Kimple, Michelle E.

    2015-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a classic gut hormone that is also expressed in the pancreatic islet, where it is highly up-regulated with obesity. Loss of CCK results in increased β-cell apoptosis in obese mice. Similarly, islet α-cells produce increased amounts of another gut peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in response to cytokine and nutrient stimulation. GLP-1 also protects β-cells from apoptosis via cAMP-mediated mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that the activation of islet-derived CCK and GLP-1 may be linked. We show here that both human and mouse islets secrete active GLP-1 as a function of body mass index/obesity. Furthermore, GLP-1 can rapidly stimulate β-cell CCK production and secretion through direct targeting by the cAMP-modulated transcription factor, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). We find that cAMP-mediated signaling is required for Cck expression, but CCK regulation by cAMP does not require stimulatory levels of glucose or insulin secretion. We also show that CREB directly targets the Cck promoter in islets from obese (Leptinob/ob) mice. Finally, we demonstrate that the ability of GLP-1 to protect β-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis is partially dependent on CCK receptor signaling. Taken together, our work suggests that in obesity, active GLP-1 produced in the islet stimulates CCK production and secretion in a paracrine manner via cAMP and CREB. This intraislet incretin loop may be one mechanism whereby GLP-1 protects β-cells from apoptosis. PMID:25984632

  12. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Regulates Cholecystokinin Production in β-Cells to Protect From Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Amelia K; Neuman, Joshua C; Battiola, Therese J; Wisinski, Jaclyn A; Kimple, Michelle E; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2015-07-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a classic gut hormone that is also expressed in the pancreatic islet, where it is highly up-regulated with obesity. Loss of CCK results in increased β-cell apoptosis in obese mice. Similarly, islet α-cells produce increased amounts of another gut peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in response to cytokine and nutrient stimulation. GLP-1 also protects β-cells from apoptosis via cAMP-mediated mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that the activation of islet-derived CCK and GLP-1 may be linked. We show here that both human and mouse islets secrete active GLP-1 as a function of body mass index/obesity. Furthermore, GLP-1 can rapidly stimulate β-cell CCK production and secretion through direct targeting by the cAMP-modulated transcription factor, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). We find that cAMP-mediated signaling is required for Cck expression, but CCK regulation by cAMP does not require stimulatory levels of glucose or insulin secretion. We also show that CREB directly targets the Cck promoter in islets from obese (Leptin(ob/ob)) mice. Finally, we demonstrate that the ability of GLP-1 to protect β-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis is partially dependent on CCK receptor signaling. Taken together, our work suggests that in obesity, active GLP-1 produced in the islet stimulates CCK production and secretion in a paracrine manner via cAMP and CREB. This intraislet incretin loop may be one mechanism whereby GLP-1 protects β-cells from apoptosis. PMID:25984632

  13. Effects of solid-phase extraction of plasma in measuring gut metabolic hormones in fasted and fed blood of lean and diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Reidelberger, Roger; Haver, Alvin; Anders, Krista; Apenteng, Bettye; Lanio, Craig

    2016-05-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (3-36) [PYY(3-36)], amylin, ghrelin, insulin, and leptin are thought to act as hormonal signals from periphery to brain to control food intake. Here, we determined the effects of solid-phase extraction of plasma in measuring these hormones in blood of lean and diet-induced obese rats. Individual enzyme-linked immunoassays and a multiplex assay were used to measure active GLP-1, total PYY, active amylin, active ghrelin, insulin, leptin, and total GIP in response to (1) addition of known amounts of the peptides to lean and obese plasma, (2) a large meal in lean and obese rats, and (3) intravenous infusions of anorexigenic doses of GLP-1, PYY(3-36), amylin, and leptin in lean rats. Extraction of lean and obese plasma prior to assays produced consistent recoveries across assays for GLP-1, PYY, amylin, ghrelin, and insulin, reflecting losses inherent to the extraction procedure. Plasma extraction prior to assays generally revealed larger meal-induced changes in plasma GLP-1, PYY, amylin, ghrelin, and insulin in lean and obese rats. Plasma extraction and the multiplex assay were used to compare plasma levels of GLP-1, PYY, and amylin after a large meal with plasma levels produced by IV infusions of anorexigenic doses of GLP-1, PYY(3-36), and amylin. Infusions produced dose-dependent increases in plasma peptide levels, which were well above their postprandial levels. These results do not support the hypothesis that postprandial plasma levels of GLP-1, PYY(3-36), and amylin are sufficient to decrease food intake by an endocrine mechanism. PMID:27207785

  14. Protein Engineering Strategies for Sustained Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor–Dependent Control of Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Picha, Kristen M.; Cunningham, Mark R.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Mathur, Ashok; Ort, Tatiana; Scully, Michael; Soderman, Avery; Spinka-Doms, Tracy; Stojanovic-Susulic, Vedrana; Ann Thomas, Beth; O'Neil, Karyn T.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—We have developed a novel platform for display and delivery of bioactive peptides that links the biological properties of the peptide to the pharmacokinetic properties of an antibody. Peptides engineered in the MIMETIBODY platform have improved biochemical and biophysical properties that are quite distinct from those of Fc-fusion proteins. CNTO736 is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist engineered in our MIMETIBODY platform. It retains many activities of native GLP-1 yet has a significantly enhanced pharmacokinetic profile. Our goal was to develop a long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist with sustained efficacy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In vitro and in vivo activity of CNTO736 was evaluated using a variety of rodent cell lines and diabetic animal models. RESULTS—Acute pharmacodynamic studies in diabetic rodents demonstrate that CNTO736 reduces fasting and postprandial glucose, decreases gastric emptying, and inhibits food intake in a GLP-1 receptor–specific manner. Reduction of food intake following CNTO736 dosing is coincident with detection of the molecule in the circumventricular organs of the brain and activation of c-fos in regions protected by the blood-brain barrier. Diabetic rodents dosed chronically with CNTO736 have lower fasting and postprandial glucose and reduced body weight. CONCLUSIONS—Taken together, our data demonstrate that CNTO736 produces a spectrum of GLP-1 receptor–dependent actions while exhibiting significantly improved pharmacokinetics relative to the native GLP-1 peptide. PMID:18426860

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-1 improves beta-cell antioxidant capacity via extracellular regulated kinases pathway and Nrf2 translocation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Millán, E; Martín, M A; Goya, L; Lizárraga-Mollinedo, E; Escrivá, F; Ramos, S; Álvarez, C

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance, two major pathophysiological abnormalities of type 2 diabetes. Expression levels of antioxidant enzymes in beta cells are very low, rendering them more susceptible to damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although the antioxidant effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogs have been previously reported, the exact mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that GLP-1 was able to effectively inhibit oxidative stress and cell death of INS-1E beta cells induced by the pro-oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH). Incubation with GLP-1 enhanced cellular levels of glutathione and the activity of its related enzymes, glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) and -reductase (GR) in beta cells. However, inhibition of ERK, but not of the PI3K/AKT pathway abolished, at least in part, the antioxidant effect of GLP-1. Moreover, ERK activation seems to be protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent because inhibition of PKA with H-89 was sufficient to block the GLP-1-derived protective effect on beta cells. GLP-1 likewise increased the synthesis of GR and favored the translocation of the nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2p45-related factor (Nrf2), a transcription factor implicated in the expression of several antioxidant/detoxificant enzymes. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was also preserved in beta-cells challenged with tert-BOOH but pre-treated with GLP-1, probably through the down-regulation of the mitochondrial uncoupling-protein2 (UCP2). Thus, our results provide additional mechanisms of action of GLP-1 to prevent oxidative damage in beta cells through the modulation of signaling pathways involved in antioxidant enzyme regulation. PMID:26968794

  16. Selective FFA2 Agonism Appears to Act via Intestinal PYY to Reduce Transit and Food Intake but Does Not Improve Glucose Tolerance in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Sarah; Stafford, Stuart; Coope, Gareth; Heffron, Helen; Real, Katia; Newman, Robert; Davenport, Richard; Barnes, Matt; Grosse, Johannes; Cox, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) is expressed on enteroendocrine L cells that release glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) when activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Functionally GLP-1 and PYY inhibit gut transit, increase glucose tolerance, and suppress appetite; thus, FFA2 has therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, FFA2-selective agonists have not been characterized in vivo. Compound 1 (Cpd 1), a potent FFA2 agonist, was tested for its activity on the following: GLP-1 release, modulation of intestinal mucosal ion transport and transit in wild-type (WT) and FFA2(-/-) tissue, and food intake and glucose tolerance in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Cpd 1 stimulated GLP-1 secretion in vivo, but this effect was only detected with dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition, while mucosal responses were PYY, not GLP-1, mediated. Gut transit was faster in FFA2(-/-) mice, while Cpd 1 slowed WT transit and reduced food intake and body weight in DIO mice. Cpd 1 decreased glucose tolerance and suppressed plasma insulin in lean and DIO mice, despite FFA2(-/-) mice displaying impaired glucose tolerance. These results suggest that FFA2 inhibits intestinal functions and suppresses food intake via PYY pathways, with limited GLP-1 contribution. Thus, FFA2 may be an effective therapeutic target for obesity but not for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26239054

  17. REVIEW: Role of cyclic AMP signaling in the production and function of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Jin, Tianru

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic cells express the proglucagon gene (gcg) and thereby produce the peptide hormone glucagon, which stimulates hepatic glucose production and thereby increases blood glucose levels. The same gcg gene is also expressed in the intestinal endocrine L cells and certain neural cells in the brain. In the gut, gcg expression leads to the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). This incretin hormone stimulates insulin secretion when blood glucose level is high. In addition, GLP-1 stimulates pancreatic cell proliferation, inhibits cell apoptosis, and has been utilized in the trans-differentiation of insulin producing cells. Today, a long-term effective GLP-1 receptor agonist has been developed as a drug in treating diabetes and potentially other metabolic disorders. Extensive investigations have shown that the expression of gcg and the production of GLP-1 can be activated by the elevation of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). Recent studies suggest that in addition to protein kinase A (PKA), exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), another effector of cAMP signaling, and the crosstalk between PKA and Wnt signaling pathway, are also involved in cAMP-stimulated gcg expression and GLP-1 production. Furthermore, functions of GLP-1 in pancreatic cells are mainly mediated by cAMP-PKA, cAMP-Epac and Wnt signaling pathways as well.

  18. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor as a potential treatment target in alcohol use disorder: evidence from human genetic association studies and a mouse model of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Suchankova, P; Yan, J; Schwandt, M L; Stangl, B L; Caparelli, E C; Momenan, R; Jerlhag, E; Engel, J A; Hodgkinson, C A; Egli, M; Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Goldman, D; Heilig, M; Ramchandani, V A; Leggio, L

    2015-01-01

    The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates appetite and food intake. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation also attenuates the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rodents. The present translational study is based on four human genetic association studies and one preclinical study providing data that support the hypothesis that GLP-1R may have a role in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Case–control analysis (N=908) was performed on a sample of individuals enrolled in the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) intramural research program. The Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) sample (N=3803) was used for confirmation purposes. Post hoc analyses were carried out on data from a human laboratory study of intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA; N=81) in social drinkers and from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in alcohol-dependent individuals (N=22) subjected to a Monetary Incentive Delay task. In the preclinical study, a GLP-1R agonist was evaluated in a mouse model of alcohol dependence to demonstrate the role of GLP-1R for alcohol consumption. The previously reported functional allele 168Ser (rs6923761) was nominally associated with AUD (P=0.004) in the NIAAA sample, which was partially replicated in males of the SAGE sample (P=0.033). The 168Ser/Ser genotype was further associated with increased alcohol administration and breath alcohol measures in the IV-ASA experiment and with higher BOLD response in the right globus pallidus when receiving notification of outcome for high monetary reward. Finally, GLP-1R agonism significantly reduced alcohol consumption in a mouse model of alcohol dependence. These convergent findings suggest that the GLP-1R may be an attractive target for personalized pharmacotherapy treatment of AUD. PMID:26080318

  19. Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects cardiomyocytes from advanced oxidation protein product-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt/Bad signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HUA; XIONG, ZHOUYI; WANG, JIAO; ZHANG, SHUANGSHUANG; LEI, LEI; YANG, LI; ZHANG, ZHEN

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a major event in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Currently, no single effective treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy exists. The present study investigated whether advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs) have a detrimental role in the survival of cardiomyocytes and if glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts a cardioprotective effect under these circumstances. The present study also aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of AOPPs in the presence or absence of GLP-1, and the viability and apoptotic rate were detected using a cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, a phosphatidylino-sitol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, was employed to illustrate the mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of GLP-1. The expression levels of the apoptotic-associated proteins, Akt, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were measured by western blotting. It was revealed that GLP-1 significantly attenuated AOPP-induced cell toxicity and apoptosis. AOPPs inactivated the phosphorylation of Akt, reduced the phosphorylation of Bad, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, increased the expression of Bax and the activation of caspase-3 in H9c2 cells. GLP-1 reversed the above changes induced by AOPPs and the protective effects of GLP-1 were abolished by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, the present data suggested that GLP-1 protected cardiomyocytes against AOPP-induced apoptosis, predominantly via the PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway. These results provided a conceivable mechanism for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and rendered a novel application of GLP-1 exerting favorable cardiac effects for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26717963

  20. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor as a potential treatment target in alcohol use disorder: evidence from human genetic association studies and a mouse model of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Suchankova, P; Yan, J; Schwandt, M L; Stangl, B L; Caparelli, E C; Momenan, R; Jerlhag, E; Engel, J A; Hodgkinson, C A; Egli, M; Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Goldman, D; Heilig, M; Ramchandani, V A; Leggio, L

    2015-01-01

    The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates appetite and food intake. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation also attenuates the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rodents. The present translational study is based on four human genetic association studies and one preclinical study providing data that support the hypothesis that GLP-1R may have a role in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Case-control analysis (N = 908) was performed on a sample of individuals enrolled in the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) intramural research program. The Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) sample (N = 3803) was used for confirmation purposes. Post hoc analyses were carried out on data from a human laboratory study of intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA; N = 81) in social drinkers and from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in alcohol-dependent individuals (N = 22) subjected to a Monetary Incentive Delay task. In the preclinical study, a GLP-1R agonist was evaluated in a mouse model of alcohol dependence to demonstrate the role of GLP-1R for alcohol consumption. The previously reported functional allele 168Ser (rs6923761) was nominally associated with AUD (P = 0.004) in the NIAAA sample, which was partially replicated in males of the SAGE sample (P = 0.033). The 168 Ser/Ser genotype was further associated with increased alcohol administration and breath alcohol measures in the IV-ASA experiment and with higher BOLD response in the right globus pallidus when receiving notification of outcome for high monetary reward. Finally, GLP-1R agonism significantly reduced alcohol consumption in a mouse model of alcohol dependence. These convergent findings suggest that the GLP-1R may be an attractive target for personalized pharmacotherapy treatment of AUD. PMID:26080318

  1. Novel Small Molecule Agonist of TGR5 Possesses Anti-Diabetic Effects but Causes Gallbladder Filling in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Briere, Daniel A.; Ruan, Xiaoping; Cheng, Christine C.; Siesky, Angela M.; Fitch, Thomas E.; Dominguez, Carmen; Sanfeliciano, Sonia Gutierrez; Montero, Carlos; Suen, Chen S.; Xu, Yanping; Coskun, Tamer; Michael, M. Dodson

    2015-01-01

    Activation of TGR5 via bile acids or bile acid analogs leads to the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from intestine, increases energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue, and increases gallbladder filling with bile. Here, we present compound 18, a non-bile acid agonist of TGR5 that demonstrates robust GLP-1 secretion in a mouse enteroendocrine cell line yet weak GLP-1 secretion in a human enteroendocrine cell line. Acute administration of compound 18 to mice increased GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY) secretion, leading to a lowering of the glucose excursion in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), while chronic administration led to weight loss. In addition, compound 18 showed a dose-dependent increase in gallbladder filling. Lastly, compound 18 failed to show similar pharmacological effects on GLP-1, PYY, and gallbladder filling in Tgr5 knockout mice. Together, these results demonstrate that compound 18 is a mouse-selective TGR5 agonist that induces GLP-1 and PYY secretion, and lowers the glucose excursion in an OGTT, but only at doses that simultaneously induce gallbladder filling. Overall, these data highlight the benefits and potential risks of using TGR5 agonists to treat diabetes and metabolic diseases. PMID:26312995

  2. Hindbrain nucleus tractus solitarius glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signaling reduces appetitive and motivational aspects of feeding

    PubMed Central

    Grill, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Central glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling reduces food intake by affecting a variety of neural processes, including those mediating satiation, motivation, and reward. While the literature suggests that separable neurons and circuits control these processes, this notion has not been adequately investigated. The intake inhibitory effects of GLP-1R signaling in the hindbrain medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) have been attributed to interactions with vagally transmitted gastrointestinal satiation signals that are also processed by these neurons. Here, behavioral and pharmacological techniques are used to test the novel hypothesis that the reduction of food intake following mNTS GLP-1R stimulation also results from effects on food-motivated appetitive behaviors. Results show that mNTS GLP-1R activation by microinjection of exendin-4, a long-acting GLP-1R agonist, reduced 1) intake of a palatable high-fat diet, 2) operant responding for sucrose under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement and 3) the expression of a conditioned place preference for a palatable food. Together, these data demonstrate that the intake inhibitory effects of mNTS GLP-1R signaling extend beyond satiation and include effects on food reward and motivation that are typically ascribed to midbrain and forebrain neurons. PMID:24944243

  3. The incretin system ABCs in obesity and diabetes - novel therapeutic strategies for weight loss and beyond.

    PubMed

    João, A L; Reis, F; Fernandes, R

    2016-07-01

    Incretins are gastrointestinal-derived hormones released in response to a meal playing a key role in the regulation of postprandial secretion of insulin (incretin effect) and glucagon by the pancreas. Both incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have several other actions by peripheral and central mechanisms. GLP-1 regulates body weight by inhibiting appetite and delaying gastric, emptying actions that are dependent on central nervous system GLP-1 receptor activation. Several other hormones and gut peptides, including leptin and ghrelin, interact with GLP-1 to modulate appetite. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by the multifunctional enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 is involved in adipose tissue inflammation, which is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes progression, being a common pathophysiological mechanism in obesity-related complications. Furthermore, the incretin system appears to provide the basis for understanding the high weight loss efficacy of bariatric surgery, a widely used treatment for obesity, often in association with diabetes. The present review brings together new insights into obesity pathogenesis, integrating GLP-1 and DPP-4 in the complex interplay between obesity and inflammation, namely, in diabetic patients. This in turn will provide the basis for novel incretin-based therapeutic strategies for obesity and diabetes with promising benefits in addition to weight loss. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27125902

  4. Effect of the low- versus high-intensity exercise training on endoplasmic reticulum stress and GLP-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; So, Yong Seok

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of low-intensity exercise training compare with high-intensity exercise training on endoplasmic reticulum stress and glucagon-like peptide-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The low-intensity exercise training group performed aerobic exercise training at an intensity of ≤ 45% of the heart rate reserve. The high-intensity interval exercise training group performed interval exercise training at an intensity of ≥ 80% of the heart rate reserve. The exercise-related energy consumption was determined for both groups on a per-week basis (1,200 kcal/week). [Results] Both groups showed improvement in the glucose-regulated protein 78 and dipeptidyl peptidase-4, but the size of the between-group effect was not statistically significant. The high-intensity interval exercise training group showed a significant reduction in percentage body fat. The C-peptide level increased after the 12-weeks programs and was significantly different, between the groups. Fasting glucose, insulin resistance in the fasting state according to homeostasis model assessment, and leptin decreased after the 12-weeks exercise program and were significantly different between the groups, and glucagon-like peptide-1 increased after the 12-week exercise programs and was significantly different between the groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion high-intensity interval exercise training, as defined in this study, may lead to improvements in body composition, glycemic control, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and the glucagon-like peptide-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26644644

  5. A lincRNA-DYNLRB2-2/GPR119/GLP-1R/ABCA1-dependent signal transduction pathway is essential for the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yan-Wei; Yang, Jun-Yao; Ma, Xin; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Hu, Ya-Rong; Zhao, Jia-Yi; Li, Shu-Fen; Qiu, Yu-Rong; Lu, Jing-Bo; Wang, Yan-Chao; Gao, Ji-Juan; Sha, Yan-Hua; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Accumulated evidence shows that G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) plays a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effect of GPR119 on cholesterol metabolism and inflammation in THP-1 macrophages and atherosclerotic plaque progression in apoE−/− mice. We found that oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) significantly induced long intervening noncoding RNA (lincRNA)-DYNLRB2-2 expression, resulting in the upregulation of GPR119 and ABCA1 expression through the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor signaling pathway. GPR119 significantly decreased cellular cholesterol content and increased apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. In vivo, apoE−/− mice were randomly divided into two groups and infected with lentivirus (LV)-Mock or LV-GPR119 for 8 weeks. GPR119-treated mice showed decreased liver lipid content and plasma TG, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels, whereas plasma levels of apoA-I were significantly increased. Consistent with this, atherosclerotic lesion development was significantly inhibited by infection of apoE−/− mice with LV-GPR119. Our findings clearly indicate that, Ox-LDL significantly induced lincRNA-DYNLRB2-2 expression, which promoted ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and inhibited inflammation through GPR119 in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Moreover, GPR119 decreased lipid and serum inflammatory cytokine levels, decreasing atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice. These suggest that GPR119 may be a promising candidate as a therapeutic agent. PMID:24493833

  6. Effects of the once-daily GLP-1 analog liraglutide on gastric emptying, glycemic parameters, appetite and energy metabolism in obese, non-diabetic adults

    PubMed Central

    van Can, J; Sloth, B; Jensen, C B; Flint, A; Blaak, E E; Saris, W H M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mechanisms for liraglutide-induced weight loss are poorly understood. Objective: We investigated the effects of liraglutide on gastric emptying, glycemic parameters, appetite and energy metabolism in obese non-diabetic individuals. Design: Participants (N=49, 18–75 years, body mass index: 30–40 kg m−2) were randomized to two of three treatments: liraglutide 1.8 mg, 3.0 mg, or placebo in a double-blind, incomplete crossover trial. After 5 weeks, 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation were measured in a respiratory chamber. Gastric emptying (acetaminophen absorption method), glycemic parameters and appetite were assessed during a 5-h meal test. Ad libitum energy intake during a subsequent lunch was also assessed. Results: Five-hour gastric emptying (AUC0–300 min) was found to be equivalent for liraglutide 1.8 versus 3.0 mg (primary end point), and for both liraglutide doses versus placebo, as 90% confidence intervals for the estimated treatment ratios were contained within the prespecified interval (0.80–1.25). However, 1-h gastric emptying was 23% lower than placebo with liraglutide 3.0 mg (P=0.007), and a nonsignificant 13% lower than placebo with liraglutide 1.8 mg (P=0.14). Both liraglutide doses similarly reduced fasting glucose (0.5–0.6 mmol l−1 versus placebo, P<0.0001), glucose Cmax and 1-h AUC versus placebo; only liraglutide 3.0 mg reduced iAUC0–300 min (by ∼26% versus placebo, P=0.02). Glucagon iAUC0–300 min decreased by ∼30%, and iAUC0–60 min for insulin and C-peptide was ∼20% lower with both liraglutide doses versus placebo. Liraglutide doses similarly increased mean postprandial satiety and fullness ratings, reduced hunger and prospective food consumption and decreased ad libitum energy intake by ∼16%. Liraglutide-associated reductions in EE were partly explained by a decrease in body weight. A relative shift toward increased fat and reduced carbohydrate oxidation was observed with liraglutide. Clinicaltrials.gov ID:NCT00978393. Funding: Novo Nordisk. Conclusion: Gastric emptying AUC0–300 min was equivalent for liraglutide 1.8 and 3.0 mg, and for liraglutide versus placebo, whereas reductions in 1-h gastric emptying of 23% with liraglutide 3.0 mg and 13% with 1.8 mg versus placebo were observed. Liraglutide 3.0 mg improved postprandial glycemia to a greater extent than liraglutide 1.8 mg. Liraglutide-induced weight loss appears to be mediated by reduced appetite and energy intake rather than increased EE. PMID:23999198

  7. Alternative Agents in Type 1 Diabetes in Addition to Insulin Therapy: Metformin, Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors, Pioglitazone, GLP-1 Agonists, DPP-IV Inhibitors, and SGLT-2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    DeGeeter, Michelle; Williamson, Bobbie

    2016-04-01

    Insulin is the mainstay of current treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Due to increasing insulin resistance, insulin doses are often continually increased, which may result in weight gain for patients. Medications currently approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes offer varying mechanisms of action that can help to reduce insulin resistance and prevent or deter weight gain. A MEDLINE search was conducted to review literature evaluating the use of metformin, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, pioglitazone, glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 inhibitors, in patients with T1DM. Varying results were found with some benefits including reductions in hemoglobin A1c, decreased insulin doses, and favorable effects on weight. Of significance, a common fear of utilizing multiple therapies for diabetes treatment is the risk of hypoglycemia, and this review displayed limited evidence of hypoglycemia with multiple agents. PMID:25312263

  8. Examination of mercaptobenzyl sulfonates as catalysts for native chemical ligation: application to the assembly of a glycosylated Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue.

    PubMed

    Cowper, Ben; Sze, Tsz Mei; Premdjee, Bhavesh; Bongat White, Aileen F; Hacking, Andrew; Macmillan, Derek

    2015-02-21

    3/4-Mercaptobenzyl sulfonates were investigated as aryl thiol catalysts for native chemical ligation (NCL). Whilst catalysing NCL processes at a similar rate to 4-mercaptophenyl acetic acid (MPAA), the increased polarity and solubility of 3-mercaptobenzyl sulfonate in particular may favour its selection as NCL catalyst in many instances. PMID:25605668

  9. Evaluating preferences for profiles of GLP-1 receptor agonists among injection-naïve type 2 diabetes patients in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Gelhorn, Heather L; Poon, Jiat-Ling; Davies, Evan W; Paczkowski, Rosirene; Curtis, Sarah E; Boye, Kristina S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To use a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to evaluate preferences for the actual treatment features and overall profiles of two injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (dulaglutide and liraglutide) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the UK. Methods In-person interviews were conducted in the UK to administer a DCE to patients with self-reported T2DM, naïve to treatment with injectable medications. The DCE examined six attributes of T2DM treatment each described by two levels: “dosing frequency,” “hemoglobin A1c change,” “weight change,” “type of delivery system,” “frequency of nausea,” and “frequency of hypoglycemia.” Part-worth utilities were estimated using random effects logit models and were used to calculate relative importance (RI) values for each attribute. A chi-square test was used to determine differences in preferences for dulaglutide versus liraglutide profiles. Results A total of 243 participants [mean age: 60.5 (standard deviation 10.9) years; 76.1% male; mean body mass index: 29.8 (standard deviation 5.4) kg/m2] completed the study. RI values for the attributes in rank order were: “dosing frequency” (41.6%), “type of delivery system” (35.5%), “frequency of nausea” (10.4%), “weight change” (5.9%), “hemoglobin A1c change” (3.6%), and “frequency of hypoglycemia” (3.0%). Significantly more participants preferred the dulaglutide profile (83.1%) compared with the liraglutide profile (16.9%; P<0.0001). Conclusion This study elicited patients’ preferences for attributes and levels representing the actual characteristics of two specific glucagon-like peptide-1 medications. In this context, dosing frequency and type of delivery system were most important, accounting for over 75% of the RI. While previous studies have identified efficacy as highly important in T2DM medication decisions, this study suggests that when differences in efficacy between medications are small, other treatment features (eg, dosing frequency and delivery system) are of much greater importance to patients. PMID:26635470

  10. SGLT2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists as second-line therapy in type 2 diabetes: patient selection and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Gurgle, Holly E; White, Karen; McAdam-Marx, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the selection of second-line therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are unable to achieve glycemic control with metformin therapy alone. Newer pharmacologic treatments for T2DM include glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. Both the classes of medication are efficacious, exhibit positive effects on weight, and are associated with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. The purpose of this review is to compare the clinical trial and real-world effectiveness data of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists versus sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors related to A1c reduction, weight loss, cost-effectiveness, cardiovascular outcomes, and safety in patients with T2DM. This review summarizes comparative evidence for providers who are determining which of the two classes may be the most appropriate for a specific patient. PMID:27350752

  11. Hyperglycemia after protein ingestion concurrent with injection of a GLP-1 receptor agonist in rats: a possible role for dietary peptides.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Alfred; Anderson, G Harvey; Giacca, Adria; Cho, France

    2005-09-01

    Protein ingestion after injection of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist Exendin-4 (Ex-4) causes hyperglycemia in rats. The objectives of this study were to determine the components of protein digestion responsible for this effect and to associate it with changes in the concentrations of other metabolites and hormones. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, food-deprived rats were gavaged with intact whey (WP) or albumin protein, their hydrolysates, amino acid mixtures (1 g/2.5 ml), or water 5 min after injection of either PBS or Ex-4 (0.5 microg/rat). Tail vein blood was analyzed for glucose over 2 h. In the second experiment, food-deprived rats were gavaged with WP with or without Ex-4. Groups of conscious rats were killed by decapitation either before, or at selected times after gavage. Plasma concentrations of glucose, amino acids, free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, insulin, glucagon, and leptin were measured. In experiment 1, blood glucose was higher when intact proteins and protein hydrolysates, but not amino acid mixtures, were given with than without Ex-4 (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, concentrations of glucose, FFA, and the ratio of tyrosine to branched-chain amino acid were higher (P < 0.01), but leptin and essential amino acid concentrations were lower (P < 0.05), and insulin, glucagon, and glycerol were similar when WP was given with or without Ex-4. We conclude that the hyperglycemia caused by the administration of Ex-4 concurrently with dietary protein arises from the action of peptides released during digestion and their interaction with Ex-4 in the regulation of glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. PMID:15879053

  12. Adherence to GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy administered by once-daily or once-weekly injection in patients with type 2 diabetes in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Qing; Ouwens, Mario JNM; Grandy, Susan; Johnsson, Kristina; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to compare 6-month adherence to therapy with exenatide once weekly (Bydureon®) vs liraglutide once daily (Victoza®) in patients with type 2 diabetes under primary care in Germany. Methods A nationwide longitudinal prescription database (LRx), (between January 2011 and September 2014) was used to analyze adherence to therapy. The proportion of days covered (PDC) by prescription was used as a measure of adherence in the 6-month postindex period. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy adjusting for age, sex, and cotherapy. Results Therapy was initiated in 5,449 patients with exenatide once weekly (age: 59.7±11.8 years; 51.4% were male) and in 24,648 patients with liraglutide once daily (age: 59.4±11.4 years; 49.7% were male). The median PDC was 0.88 for exenatide once weekly and 0.77 for liraglutide once daily (P<0.05). Once-weekly exenatide was associated with significantly higher adherence. Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for having a PDC of ≥0.80 was 1.78 (1.62–1.96) for exenatide once weekly compared with liraglutide once daily after adjusting for age, sex, and cotherapy. Conclusion Adherence to treatment with exenatide once weekly was significantly increased compared to that with liraglutide once daily over 6 months in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27418849

  13. Comparison of safety and tolerability with continuous (exenatide once weekly) or intermittent (exenatide twice daily) GLP-1 receptor agonism in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, T; Moretto, T; MacConell, L; Pencek, R; Han, J; Schulteis, C; Porter, L

    2012-01-01

    Aims Exenatide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist shown to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Intermittent exenatide exposure is achieved with the twice-daily formulation (ExBID), while the once-weekly formulation (ExQW) provides continuous exenatide exposure. This integrated, retrospective analysis compared safety and tolerability of ExQW vs. ExBID in patients with T2DM. Methods Data were pooled from two open-label, randomized, comparator-controlled, trials directly comparing ExQW (N = 277) to ExBID (N = 268). Between-group differences in adverse event (AE) and hypoglycaemia incidences were calculated. Incidence over time and duration of selected AEs (nausea, vomiting, and injection-site-related AEs) were also summarized. Results The most common AEs were nausea, diarrhoea, injection-site pruritus, and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting occurred less frequently with ExQW vs. ExBID, peaking at initiation (ExQW) or at initiation and dose escalation (ExBID), and decreasing over time. Few patients discontinued because of gastrointestinal-related AEs. Injection-site AEs were more common with ExQW but decreased over time in both groups. No major hypoglycaemia occurred; minor hypoglycaemia occurred with low incidence in patients not using concomitant sulphonylurea, with no difference between ExQW and ExBID. Serious AEs and discontinuations because of AEs were reported with similar frequency in both groups. Conclusions Both exenatide formulations were generally safe and well-tolerated, with ExQW associated with less nausea and vomiting but more injection-site AEs. Continuous vs. intermittent exposure did not impact the overall tolerability profile of exenatide, with no evidence of prolonged duration or worsened intensities of AEs with continuous exposure. PMID:22734440

  14. A general method for making peptide therapeutics resistant to serine protease degradation: application to dipeptidyl peptidase IV substrates.

    PubMed

    Heard, Kathryn R; Wu, Wengen; Li, Youhua; Zhao, Peng; Woznica, Iwona; Lai, Jack H; Beinborn, Martin; Sanford, David G; Dimare, Matthew T; Chiluwal, Amrita K; Peters, Diane E; Whicher, Danielle; Sudmeier, James L; Bachovchin, William W

    2013-11-14

    Bioactive peptides have evolved to optimally fulfill specific biological functions, a fact which has long attracted attention for their use as therapeutic agents. While there have been some recent commercial successes fostered in part by advances in large-scale peptide synthesis, development of peptides as therapeutic agents has been significantly impeded by their inherent susceptibility to protease degradation in the bloodstream. Here we report that incorporation of specially designed amino acid analogues at the P1' position, directly C-terminal of the enzyme cleavage site, renders peptides, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) and six other examples, highly resistant to serine protease degradation without significant alteration of their biological activity. We demonstrate the applicability of the method to a variety of proteases, including dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), dipeptidyl peptidase 8 (DPP8), fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα), α-lytic protease (αLP), trypsin, and chymotrypsin. In summary, the "P1' modification" represents a simple, general, and highly adaptable method of generating enzymatically stable peptide-based therapeutics. PMID:24044354

  15. Novel dual agonist peptide analogues derived from dogfish glucagon show promising in vitro insulin releasing actions and antihyperglycaemic activity in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Harte, F P M; Ng, M T; Lynch, A M; Conlon, J M; Flatt, P R

    2016-08-15

    The antidiabetic potential of thirteen novel dogfish glucagon derived analogues were assessed in vitro and in acute in vivo studies. Stable peptide analogues enhanced insulin secretion from BRIN-BD11 β-cells (p < 0.001) and reduced acute glycaemic responses following intraperitoneal glucose (25 nmol/kg) in healthy NIH Swiss mice (p < 0.05-p<0.001). The in vitro insulinotropic actions of [S2a]dogfish glucagon, [S2a]dogfish glucagon-exendin-4(31-39) and [S2a]dogfish glucagon-Lys(30)-γ-glutamyl-PAL, were blocked (p < 0.05-p<0.001) by the specific GLP-1 and glucagon receptor antagonists, exendin-4(9-39) and (desHis(1)Pro(4)Glu(9))glucagon amide but not by (Pro(3))GIP, indicating lack of GIP receptor involvement. These analogues dose-dependently stimulated cAMP production in GLP-1 and glucagon (p < 0.05-p<0.001) but not GIP-receptor transfected cells. They improved acute glycaemic and insulinotropic responses in high-fat fed diabetic mice and in wild-type C57BL/6J and GIPR-KO mice (p < 0.05-p<0.001), but not GLP-1R-KO mice, confirming action on GLP-1 but not GIP receptors. Overall, dogfish glucagon analogues have potential for diabetes therapy, exerting beneficial metabolic effects via GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. PMID:27179756

  16. Gut-brain connection: The neuroprotective effects of the anti-diabetic drug liraglutide

    PubMed Central

    Candeias, Emanuel Monteiro; Sebastião, Inês Carolina; Cardoso, Susana Maria; Correia, Sónia Catarina; Carvalho, Cristina Isabel; Plácido, Ana Isabel; Santos, Maria Sancha; Oliveira, Catarina Resende; Moreira, Paula Isabel; Duarte, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues marketed for type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment have been showing positive and protective effects in several different tissues, including pancreas, heart or even brain. This gut secreted hormone plays a potent insulinotropic activity and an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, growing evidences suggest the occurrence of several commonalities between T2D and neurodegenerative diseases, insulin resistance being pointed as a main cause for cognitive decline and increased risk to develop dementia. In this regard, it has also been suggested that stimulation of brain insulin signaling may have a protective role against cognitive deficits. As GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are expressed throughout the central nervous system and GLP-1 may cross the blood-brain-barrier, an emerging hypothesis suggests that they may be promising therapeutic targets against brain dysfunctional insulin signaling-related pathologies. Importantly, GLP-1 actions depend not only on the direct effect mediated by its receptor activation, but also on the gut-brain axis involving an exchange of signals between both tissues via the vagal nerve, thereby regulating numerous physiological functions (e.g., energy homeostasis, glucose-dependent insulin secretion, as well as appetite and weight control). Amongst the incretin/GLP-1 mimetics class of anti-T2D drugs with an increasingly described neuroprotective potential, the already marketed liraglutide emerged as a GLP-1R agonist highly resistant to dipeptidyl peptidase-4 degradation (thereby having an increased half-life) and whose systemic GLP-1R activity is comparable to that of native GLP-1. Importantly, several preclinical studies showed anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effects of liraglutide against T2D, stroke and Alzheimer disease (AD), whereas several clinical trials, demonstrated some surprising benefits of liraglutide on weight loss

  17. Discovery of Dual-Action Membrane-Anchored Modulators of Incretin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Jean-Philippe; Chinnapen, Daniel; Beinborn, Martin; Lencer, Wayne; Kopin, Alan S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors are considered complementary therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes. Using recombinant membrane-tethered ligand (MTL) technology, the present study focused on defining optimized modulators of these receptors, as well as exploring how local anchoring influences soluble peptide function. Methodology/Principal Findings Serial substitution of residue 7 in membrane-tethered GIP (tGIP) led to a wide range of activities at the GIP receptor, with [G7]tGIP showing enhanced efficacy compared to the wild type construct. In contrast, introduction of G7 into the related ligands, tGLP-1 and tethered exendin-4 (tEXE4), did not affect signaling at the cognate GLP-1 receptor. Both soluble and tethered GIP and GLP-1 were selective activators of their respective receptors. Although soluble EXE4 is highly selective for the GLP-1 receptor, unexpectedly, tethered EXE4 was found to be a potent activator of both the GLP-1 and GIP receptors. Diverging from the pharmacological properties of soluble and tethered GIP, the newly identified GIP-R agonists, (i.e. [G7]tGIP and tEXE4) failed to trigger cognate receptor endocytosis. In an attempt to recapitulate the dual agonism observed with tEXE4, we conjugated soluble EXE4 to a lipid moiety. Not only did this soluble peptide activate both the GLP-1 and GIP receptors but, when added to receptor expressing cells, the activity persists despite serial washes. Conclusions These findings suggest that conversion of a recombinant MTL to a soluble membrane anchored equivalent offers a means to prolong ligand function, as well as to design agonists that can simultaneously act on more than one therapeutic target. PMID:21935440

  18. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Induced Signaling and Insulin Secretion Do Not Drive Fuel and Energy Metabolism in Primary Rodent Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peyot, Marie-Line; Gray, Joshua P.; Lamontagne, Julien; Smith, Peter J. S.; Holz, George G.; Madiraju, S. R. Murthy

    2009-01-01

    Background Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogue exendin-4 (Ex-4) enhance glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and activate various signaling pathways in pancreatic β-cells, in particular cAMP, Ca2+ and protein kinase-B (PKB/Akt). In many cells these signals activate intermediary metabolism. However, it is not clear whether the acute amplification of GSIS by GLP-1 involves in part metabolic alterations and the production of metabolic coupling factors. Methodology/Prinicipal Findings GLP-1 or Ex-4 at high glucose caused release (∼20%) of the total rat islet insulin content over 1 h. While both GLP-1 and Ex-4 markedly potentiated GSIS in isolated rat and mouse islets, neither had an effect on β-cell fuel and energy metabolism over a 5 min to 3 h time period. GLP-1 activated PKB without changing glucose usage and oxidation, fatty acid oxidation, lipolysis or esterification into various lipids in rat islets. Ex-4 caused a rise in [Ca2+]i and cAMP but did not enhance energy utilization, as neither oxygen consumption nor mitochondrial ATP levels were altered. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that GLP-1 barely affects β-cell intermediary metabolism and that metabolic signaling does not significantly contribute to GLP-1 potentiation of GSIS. The data also indicate that insulin secretion is a minor energy consuming process in the β-cell, and that the β-cell is different from most cell types in that its metabolic activation appears to be primarily governed by a “push” (fuel substrate driven) process, rather than a “pull” mechanism secondary to enhanced insulin release as well as to Ca2+, cAMP and PKB signaling. PMID:19593440

  19. Pax6 and Pdx1 are required for production of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in proglucagon-expressing L cells.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yukihiro; Chui, Jeannie W Y; King, David S; Zhang, Tianjiao; Seufert, Jochen; Pownall, Scott; Cheung, Anthony T; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2008-09-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are incretin hormones that play important roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis and are being actively pursued as novel therapeutic agents for diabetes. GIP is produced by dispersed enteroendocrine cells and interestingly at times is coexpressed with GLP-1. We sought to determine the factors that selectively define GIP- vs. GLP-1-expressing cells. We performed comparative immunostaining of Pax6 and Pdx1 in GIP- and GLP-1-secreting cells. We investigated whether Pax6 and Pdx1 activate the human GIP promoter in control IEC-6 cells and GIP-expressing STC-1 cells. EMSA was performed to assess the binding of these transcription factors to the GIP promoter. Pax6 and Pdx1 consistently colocalized in GIP-immunoreactive cells. Cells that coexpress GIP and GLP-1 were Pax6 and Pdx1 positive, whereas cells expressing only GLP-1 were Pax6 positive but did not express Pdx1. GIP promoter activity was enhanced in IEC-6 cells by exogenous Pax6 or Pdx1 and diminished in STC-1 cells by inhibition of endogenous Pax6 or Pdx1 by dominant-negative forms. Promoter truncation analysis revealed a major loss of promoter activity when the sequence between -184 to -145 bp was deleted. EMSA studies indicated that Pax6 and Pdx1 bind to this proximal sequence of the human GIP promoter. Our findings indicate that concomitant expression of Pax6 and Pdx1 is important for GIP expression. Our results also suggest that the presence of Pdx1 defines whether GLP-1-expressing gastrointestinal L cells also coexpress GIP. PMID:18593849

  20. Activation of transmembrane bile acid receptor TGR5 stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Divya P.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Grider, John R.; Murthy, Karnam S.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G protein coupled receptor TGR5 is expressed in mouse and human islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 is coupled to activation of Gs and Ca{sup 2+} release via cAMP/Epac/PLC-{epsilon} pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of TGR5 by bile salts and selective ligands causes insulin secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 could be a potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. -- Abstract: Bile acids act as signaling molecules and stimulate the G protein coupled receptor, TGR5, in addition to nuclear farnesoid X receptor to regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Bile acid induced activation of TGR5 in the enteroendocrine cells promotes glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, which has insulinotropic effect in the pancreatic {beta} cells. In the present study, we have identified the expression of TGR5 in pancreatic {beta} cell line MIN6 and also in mouse and human pancreatic islets. TGR5 selective ligands, oleanolic acid (OA) and INT-777 selectively activated G{alpha}{sub s} and caused an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca{sup 2+}. OA and INT-777 also increased phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and the increase was blocked by NF449 (a selective G{alpha}{sub s} inhibitor) or (U73122) (PI hydrolysis inhibitor). OA, INT-777 and lithocholic acid increased insulin release in MIN6 and human islets and the increase was inhibited by treatment with NF449, (U73122) or BAPTA-AM (chelator of calcium), but not with myristoylated PKI (PKA inhibitor), suggesting that the release is dependent on G{sub s}/cAMP/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, a cAMP analog, which activates Epac, but not PKA also stimulated PI hydrolysis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the TGR5 expressed in the pancreatic {beta} cells regulates insulin secretion and highlights the importance of ongoing therapeutic strategies targeting TGR5 in the control of glucose homeostasis.

  1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 increases cAMP but fails to augment contraction in adult rat cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Vila Petroff, M G; Egan, J M; Wang, X; Sollott, S J

    2001-08-31

    The gut hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which is secreted in nanomolar amounts in response to nutrients in the intestinal lumen, exerts cAMP/protein kinase A-mediated insulinotropic actions in target endocrine tissues, but its actions in heart cells are unknown. GLP-1 (10 nmol/L) increased intracellular cAMP (from 5.7+/-0.5 to 13.1+/-0.12 pmol/mg protein) in rat cardiac myocytes. The effects of cAMP-doubling concentrations of both GLP-1 and isoproterenol (ISO, 10 nmol/L) on contraction amplitude, intracellular Ca(2+) transient (CaT), and pH(i) in indo-1 and seminaphthorhodafluor (SNARF)-1 loaded myocytes were compared. Whereas ISO caused a characteristic increase (above baseline) in contraction amplitude (160+/-34%) and CaT (70+/-5%), GLP-1 induced a significant decrease in contraction amplitude (-27+/-5%) with no change in the CaT after 20 minutes. Neither pertussis toxin treatment nor exposure to the cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase (PDE2) inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine or the nonselective PDE inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine nor the phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid or calyculin A unmasked an ISO-mimicking response of GLP-1. In SNARF-1-loaded myocytes, however, both ISO and GLP-1 caused an intracellular acidosis (DeltapH(i) -0.09+/-0.02 and -0.08+/-0.03, respectively). The specific GLP-1 antagonist exendin 9-39 and the cAMP inhibitory analog Rp-8CPT-cAMPS inhibited both the GLP-1-induced intracellular acidosis and the negative contractile effect. We conclude that in contrast to beta-adrenergic signaling, GLP-1 increases cAMP but fails to augment contraction, suggesting the existence of functionally distinct adenylyl cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A compartments, possibly determined by unique receptor signaling microdomains that are not controlled by pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins or by enhanced local PDE or phosphatase activation. Furthermore, GLP-1 elicits a cAMP-dependent modest negative inotropic effect produced by a

  2. Intestinal Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 1 Inhibition Enhances Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secretion in Normal and Diabetic Rodents.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Takahiro; Nakayama, Keiko; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Matsushita, Yasuaki; Yoshida, Kumiko; Hikida, Kumiko; Obokata, Naoyuki; Tsuda-Tsukimoto, Minoru; Saito, Akira; Arakawa, Kenji; Ueta, Kiichiro; Shiotani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    The sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1 plays a major role in glucose absorption and incretin hormone release in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the impact of SGLT1 inhibition on plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels in vivo is controversial. We analyzed the effects of SGLT1 inhibitors on GLP-1 secretion in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rodents using phloridzin, CGMI [3-(4-cyclopropylphenylmethyl)-1-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-4-methylindole], and canagliflozin. These compounds are SGLT2 inhibitors with moderate SGLT1 inhibitory activity, and their IC50 values against rat SGLT1 and mouse SGLT1 were 609 and 760 nM for phloridzin, 39.4 and 41.5 nM for CGMI, and 555 and 613 nM for canagliflozin, respectively. Oral administration of these inhibitors markedly enhanced and prolonged the glucose-induced plasma active GLP-1 (aGLP-1) increase in combination treatment with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor, in normoglycemic mice and rats. CGMI, the most potent SGLT1 inhibitor among them, enhanced glucose-induced, but not fat-induced, plasma aGLP-1 increase at a lower dose compared with canagliflozin. Both CGMI and canagliflozin delayed intestinal glucose absorption after oral administration in normoglycemic rats. The combined treatment of canagliflozin and a DPP4 inhibitor increased plasma aGLP-1 levels and improved glucose tolerance compared with single treatment in both 8- and 13-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty rats. These results suggest that transient inhibition of intestinal SGLT1 promotes GLP-1 secretion by delaying glucose absorption and that concomitant inhibition of intestinal SGLT1 and DPP4 is a novel therapeutic option for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26105952

  3. Short-term sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure alters time-dependent glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin secretion in male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gil-Lozano, Manuel; Hunter, Paola M; Behan, Lucy-Ann; Gladanac, Bojana; Casper, Robert F; Brubaker, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal L cell is the principal source of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a major determinant of insulin release. Because GLP-1 secretion is regulated in a circadian manner in rodents, we investigated whether the activity of the human L cell is also time sensitive. Rhythmic fluctuations in the mRNA levels of canonical clock genes were found in the human NCI-H716 L cell model, which also showed a time-dependent pattern in their response to well-established secretagogues. A diurnal variation in GLP-1 responses to identical meals (850 kcal), served 12 h apart in the normal dark (2300) and light (1100) periods, was also observed in male volunteers maintained under standard sleep and light conditions. These findings suggest the existence of a daily pattern of activity in the human L cell. Moreover, we separately tested the short-term effects of sleep deprivation and nocturnal light exposure on basal and postprandial GLP-1, insulin, and glucose levels in the same volunteers. Sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure disrupted the melatonin and cortisol profiles and increased insulin resistance. Moreover, it also induced profound derangements in GLP-1 and insulin responses such that postprandial GLP-1 and insulin levels were markedly elevated and the normal variation in GLP-1 responses was abrogated. These alterations were not observed in sleep-deprived participants maintained under dark conditions, indicating a direct effect of light on the mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, the metabolic abnormalities known to occur in shift workers may be related to the effects of irregular light-dark cycles on these glucoregulatory pathways. PMID:26530153

  4. The Bro1-Domain Protein, EGO-2, Promotes Notch Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Maine, Eleanor M.

    2007-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, as in other animals, Notch-type signaling mediates numerous inductive events during development. The mechanism of Notch-type signaling involves proteolytic cleavage of the receptor and subsequent transport of the receptor intracellular domain to the nucleus, where it acts as a transcriptional regulator. Notch-type signaling activity is modulated by post-translational modifications and endocytosis of ligand and receptor. We previously identified the ego-2 (enhancer of glp-1) gene as a positive regulator of germline proliferation that interacts genetically with the GLP-1/Notch signaling pathway in the germline. Here, we show that ego-2 positively regulates signaling in various tissues via both GLP-1 and the second C. elegans Notch-type receptor, LIN-12. ego-2 activity also promotes aspects of development not known to require GLP-1 or LIN-12. The EGO-2 protein contains a Bro1 domain, which is known in other systems to localize to certain endosomal compartments. EGO-2 activity in the soma promotes GLP-1 signaling in the germline, consistent with a role for EGO-2 in production of active ligand. Another C. elegans Bro1-domain protein, ALX-1, is known to interact physically with LIN-12/Notch. We document a complex phenotypic interaction between ego-2 and alx-1, consistent with their relationship being antagonistic with respect to some developmental processes and agonistic with respect to others. PMID:17603118

  5. Exendin-4 protects bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells against oxygen/glucose and serum deprivation-induced apoptosis through the activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and the attenuation of ER stress