Science.gov

Sample records for active ground water

  1. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  2. National water-information clearinghouse activities; ground-water perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haupt, C.A.; Jensen, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has functioned for many years as an informal clearinghouse for water resources information, enabling users to access groundwater information effectively. Water resources clearinghouse activities of the USGS are conducted through several separate computerized water information programs that are involved in the collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of different types of water information. The following USGS programs perform water information clearinghouse functions and provide the framework for a formalized National Water-Information Clearinghouse: (1) The National Water Data Exchange--a nationwide confederation of more than 300 Federal, State, local, government, academic, and private water-oriented organizations that work together to improve access to water data; (2) the Water Resources Scientific Information Center--acquires, abstracts, and indexes the major water-resources-related literature of the world, and provides this information to the water resources community; (3) the Information Transfer Program--develops innovative approaches to transfer information and technology developed within the USGS to audiences in the public and private sectors; (4) the Hydrologic Information Unit--provides responses to a variety of requests, both technical and lay-oriented, for water resources information , and helps efforts to conduct water resources research; (5) the Water Data Storage and Retrieval System--maintains accessible computerized files of hydrologic data collected nationwide, by the USGS and other governmental agencies, from stream gaging stations, groundwater observation wells, and surface- and groundwater quality sampling sites; (6) the Office of Water Data Coordination--coordinate the water data acquisition activities of all agencies of the Federal Government, and is responsible for the planning, design, and inter-agency coordination of a national water data and information network; and (7) the Water Resources Research

  3. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  4. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1986-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains,plains, and deserts. It's not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and descri be. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old ; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old . Water under the Earth's surface is called ground water.

  5. Land-subsidence and ground-water storage monitoring in the Tucson Active Management Area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, Don R.; Winster, Daniel; Cole, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Tucson Active Management Area (TAMA) comprises two basins--Tucson Basin and Avra Valley. The TAMA has been directed by Arizona ground-water law to attain an annual balance between groundwater withdrawals and recharge by the year 2025. This balance is defined by the statute as "safe yield." Current ground-water withdrawals exceed recharge, resulting in conditions of ground-water overdraft, which causes removal of water from ground-water storage and subsidence of the land surface. Depletion of storage and associated land subsidence will not be halted until all discharge from the system, both natural and human induced, is balanced by recharge. The amount of the ground-water overdraft has been difficult to estimate until recently because it could not be directly measured. Overdraft has been estimated using indirect water-budget methods that rely on uncertain estimates of recharge. As a result, the status of the ground-water budget could not be known with great certainty. Gravity methods offer a means to directly measure ground-water overdraft through measurement of changes in the gravitational field of the Earth that are caused by changes in the amount of water stored in the subsurface. Changes in vertical position also affect the measured gravity value and thus subsidence also must be monitored. The combination of periodic observations of gravity and vertical positions provide direct measures of changes in stored ground water and land subsidence.

  6. Ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains, plains, and deserts. It is not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and describe. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old.

  7. Quality-assurance plan for ground-water activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, B. W.

    2005-01-01

    This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey's Washington Water Science Center, for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of ground-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all Washington Water Science Center personnel involved in ground-water activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the Washington Water Science Center and Discipline change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process.

  8. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  9. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  10. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  11. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  12. Geohydrology and ground-water quality at the Pueblo Depot Activity Landfill near Pueblo, Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.R.; Ortiz, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    The report describes the geohydrologic system and chemical characteristics of ground water at the Pueblo Depot Activity landfill, as required for the issuance of a certificate of designation for the landfill, and describes the potential effects of the landfill on ground-water quality. Ground-water samples were collected during December 1988 and mid-January 1989 from eight wells, a seep, and an offsite stock tank. These sites and the four piezometers were sampled during February 1989. Water levels were measured in the monitor wells and piezometers to determine depth from land surface to the water table, the water-table altitude, and saturated thickness of the shallow unconfined aquifer at the landfill. Hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer are based on lithologic descriptions and results of aquifer tests in nearby wells with similar lithologic characteristics.

  13. Ground-water recharge through active sand dunes in northwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Most water-resource investigations in semiarid basins of the Great Basin in western North America conclude that ground-water recharge from direct precipitation on the valley floor is negligible. However, many of these basins contain large areas covered by unvegetated, active sand dunes that may act as conduits for ground-water recharge. The potential for this previously undocumented recharge was investigated in an area covered by sand dunes in Desert Valley, northwestern Nevada, using a deep percolation model. The model uses daily measurements of precipitation and temperature to determine energy and moisture balance, from which estimates of long-term mean annual recharge are made. For the study area, the model calculated a mean annual recharge rate of as much as 1.3 inches per year, or 17 percent of the long-term mean precipitation. Model simulations also indicate that recharge would be virtually zero if the study area were covered by vegetation rather than dunes.

  14. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  15. Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met.

  16. Ground water in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  17. Environmental assessment of ground water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of the Spook, Wyoming, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. It analyzes the impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action for ground water compliance. The proposed action is to comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for the UMTRA Project sites (40 CFR Part 192) by meeting supplemental standards based on the limited use ground water at the Spook site. This proposed action would not require site activities, including ground water monitoring, characterization, or institutional controls. Ground water in the uppermost aquifer was contaminated by uranium processing activities at the Spook site, which is in Converse County, approximately 48 miles (mi) (77 kilometers [km]) northeast of Casper, Wyoming. Constituents from the site infiltrated and migrated into the uppermost aquifer, forming a plume that extends approximately 2500 feet (ft) (800 meters [m]) downgradient from the site. The principal site-related hazardous constituents in this plume are uranium, selenium, and nitrate. Background ground water in the uppermost aquifer at the site is considered limited use. It is neither a current nor a potential source of drinking water because of widespread, ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using treatment methods reasonably employed in public water supply systems (40 CFR {section} 192.11 (e)). Background ground water quality also is poor due to first, naturally occurring conditions (natural uranium mineralization associated with an alteration front), and second, the effects of widespread human activity not related to uranium milling operations (uranium exploration and mining activities). There are no known exposure pathways to humans, animals, or plants from the contaminated ground water in the uppermost aquifer because it does not discharge to lower aquifers, to the surface, or to surface water.

  18. [Microbiology of ground water and drinking water].

    PubMed

    Dott, W; Frank, C; Kämpfer, P; Tuschewitzki, G J; Wernicke, F

    1986-10-01

    Groundwater has been considered a safe source for drinking water protected against surface contamination. However, a number of reports about chemical and microbiological contamination have disproved this assumption. Besides hygienical monitoring, little is known about the microbiology of ground- and drinking water. The purpose of this paper is to give a review about the main fields of investigation concerning microbial activity in ground- and drinking-water-action. The hygienical relevant topics are: survival and transport of microorganisms, microbiological degradation of organic pollutants, turn-over of nitrogen compounds, oxidation and reduction of iron and manganese and development of methods for microbiological water examination.

  19. Oxygen uptake, muscle activity and ground reaction force during water aerobic exercises.

    PubMed

    Alberton, C L; Pinto, S S; Cadore, E L; Tartaruga, M P; Kanitz, A C; Antunes, A H; Finatto, P; Kruel, L F M

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the oxygen uptake (VO2), the muscle activity of lower limbs, and the vertical ground reaction force (V-GRF) of women performing water aerobic exercises at different intensities. 12 young women performed the experimental protocol, which consisted of 3 water exercises (stationary running [SR], frontal kick [FK] and cross country skiing [CCS]) at 3 intensities (first and second ventilatory thresholds and maximum effort). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used. Regarding VO2, different responses between intensities (p<0.001) were found, and values between exercises were similar. For electromyographic activity (EMG), differences between intensities for all muscles (p<0.001) were found. Greater EMG signals were observed in the FK compared to SR for rectus femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles (p<0.05). Regarding V-GRF, there was an increase in the V-GRF at greater intensities compared to the first ventilatory threshold (p=0.001). In addition, lower values were found during CCS compared to the SR and FK exercises (p<0.001). Thus, greater cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses were observed with increasing intensity. Exercises such as CCS could be used to attenuate the V-GRF; if the purpose is to reduce the muscular activity of lower limbs at a specific intensity, SR could be recommended.

  20. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling-dense region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Davis, J. Wade; Hormann, Anette M.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid rise in natural gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing increases the potential for contamination of surface and ground water from chemicals used throughout the process. Hundreds of products containing more than 750 chemicals and components are potentially used throughout the extraction process, including more than 100 known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized thataselected subset of chemicalsusedin natural gas drilling operationsandalso surface and ground water samples collected in a drilling-dense region of Garfield County, Colorado, would exhibit estrogen and androgen receptor activities. Water samples were collected, solid-phase extracted, and measured for estrogen and androgen receptor activities using reporter gene assays in human cell lines. Of the 39 unique water samples, 89%, 41%, 12%, and 46% exhibited estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic activities, respectively. Testing of a subset of natural gas drilling chemicals revealed novel antiestrogenic, novel antiandrogenic, and limited estrogenic activities. The Colorado River, the drainage basin for this region, exhibited moderate levels of estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities, suggesting that higher localized activity at sites with known natural gas–related spills surrounding the river might be contributing to the multiple receptor activities observed in this water source. The majority of water samples collected from sites in a drilling-dense region of Colorado exhibited more estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or antiandrogenic activities than reference sites with limited nearby drilling operations. Our data suggest that natural gas drilling operationsmayresult in elevated endocrine-disrupting chemical activity in surface and ground water.

  1. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling-dense region.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Davis, J Wade; Hormann, Annette M; Nagel, Susan C

    2014-03-01

    The rapid rise in natural gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing increases the potential for contamination of surface and ground water from chemicals used throughout the process. Hundreds of products containing more than 750 chemicals and components are potentially used throughout the extraction process, including more than 100 known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized that a selected subset of chemicals used in natural gas drilling operations and also surface and ground water samples collected in a drilling-dense region of Garfield County, Colorado, would exhibit estrogen and androgen receptor activities. Water samples were collected, solid-phase extracted, and measured for estrogen and androgen receptor activities using reporter gene assays in human cell lines. Of the 39 unique water samples, 89%, 41%, 12%, and 46% exhibited estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic activities, respectively. Testing of a subset of natural gas drilling chemicals revealed novel antiestrogenic, novel antiandrogenic, and limited estrogenic activities. The Colorado River, the drainage basin for this region, exhibited moderate levels of estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities, suggesting that higher localized activity at sites with known natural gas-related spills surrounding the river might be contributing to the multiple receptor activities observed in this water source. The majority of water samples collected from sites in a drilling-dense region of Colorado exhibited more estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or antiandrogenic activities than reference sites with limited nearby drilling operations. Our data suggest that natural gas drilling operations may result in elevated endocrine-disrupting chemical activity in surface and ground water.

  2. Chemical contamination of ground water in India

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, S.P.; Agnihoiri, N.P.

    1996-10-01

    Ground water is the main source of drinking water in rural areas and many urban areas in India. In addition, it has been increasingly used for irrigation in farmland. Contamination of ground water by persistent inorganic and organic chemicals has emerged as a major environmental concern in recent years. Nitrate, fluoride, heavy metals and organochlorine compounds are found to be major contaminants of ground water in different parts of the country. At many places the concentrations of these chemicals exceed national and international guideline values for drinking water. While large concentrations of heavy metals come from industrial sources, agricultural activities are responsible for ground water contamination by nitrate and organochlorine insecticides.

  3. Ozone treatment of coal- and coffee grounds-based active carbons: Water vapor adsorption and surface fractal micropores

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunoda, Ryoichi; Ozawa, Takayoshi; Ando, Junichi

    1998-09-15

    Characteristics of the adsorption iostherms of water vapor on active carbons from coal and coffee grounds and those ozonized ones from the surface fractal dimension analysis are discussed. The upswing of the adsorption isotherms in the low relative pressure of coffee grounds-based active carbon, of which isotherms were not scarcely affected on ozonization, was attributed to the adsorption of water molecules on the metallic oxides playing the role of oxygen-surface complexes, which formed the corrugated surfaces on the basal planes of micropore walls with the surface fractal dimension D{sub s} > 2. On the other hand, coal-based active carbon with D{sub s} < 2, which indicated the flat surfaces of micropore walls, showed little effect on the upswing even on ozonization, even though the adsorption amounts of water vapor were increased in the low relative pressure.

  4. Estimation of ground water residence times in the Critical zone: insight from U activity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaux, Francois; Ackerer, Julien; Lucas, Yann; viville, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The use of radioactive disequilibria as tracers and chronometers of weathering processes and related mass transfers has been recognized since the 60'. The development, over the last two decades, of analytical methods for measuring very precisely U-series nuclides (especially, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra) in environmental samples has opened up new scientific applications in Earth Surface Sciences. Here, we propose to present the potential of U activity ratios in surface waters as chronometer of water transfers at a watershed scale. This will be illustrated from studies performed at different scales, with the analysis of U activity ratios in surface waters from small watersheds (Strengbach and Ringelbach watersheds in the Vosges Mountain, France) but also from watersheds of much more regional extension (e.g., the Upper Rhine basin or the Ganges basin). These various studies show that variations of U activity ratios in surface waters are mainly associated with 234U-238U fractionations occurring during the water transfer within the bedrock, which intensity depends on two main parameters: the petro-physical characteristics of the aquifer, principally the geometry of water-rock interfaces and the duration of the water-rock interactions. This readily explains why different U activity ratios (UAR) can be observed in the different aquifers of a continental hydrosystem and hence why UAR can be used to trace the source of river waters. For a hydrological system developed on a substratum marked by fairly homogeneous petro-physical characteristics, the main parameter controlling the UAR in waters draining such a system would be the duration of the water-rock interactions. Variations of UAR in stream or spring waters of such a system can therefore be modeled using simple reactive transport model, which allows the estimation of both the dissolution rate of the bedrock and the residence time of the waters within the aquifer.

  5. Ground water at Towaoc, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, William J.

    1954-01-01

    At the request of the U.S bureau of Indian Affairs, the Ground Water Branch of the U. S Geological Survey made a reconnaissance of ground-water conditions in part of the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in the vicinity of Towaoc School. The study was requested because the water supply for the school and settlement was inadequate. 

  6. GROUND-WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This flyer describes the objectives and activities of the Ground-Water Technical Support Center, which is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division. It is directed toward technical audiences (EPA Regions and State regulators within the Regions) and will be use...

  7. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE: GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR METALS ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Filtration of ground-water samples for metals analysis is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers. Inconsistency in EPA Syperfund cleanup pracices occurs where one EPA Region implements a remedial action based on unfiltered ground-water samples,...

  8. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  9. Ground water investigations in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Leon V.

    1955-01-01

    Prior to 1937, ground-water work in Oklahoma consisted of broad scale early-day reconnaissance and a few brief investigations of local areas. The reconnaissance is distinguished by C. N. Gould's "Geology and Water Resources of Oklahoma" (Water-Supply Paper 148, 1905), which covers about half of the present State of Oklahoma. Among the shorter reports are two by Schwennesen for areas near Enid and Oklahoma City, one by Renick for Enid, and one by Thompson on irrigation possibilities near Gage. These reports are now inadequate by modern standards. Cooperative ground-water work in Oklahoma by the United States Geological Survey began in 1937, with the Oklahoma Geological Survey as cooperating agency. With the passage of the new ground-water law by the State Legislature in 1949, the need for more information on available ground waters and the safe yield of the various aquifers became very pressing. Accordingly, the Division of Water Resources of the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board, to which was delegated the responsibility of administering the Ground-Water Law, entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey, providing for an expansion of ground-water investigations. Both cooperators have consistently given full and enthusiastic cooperation, often beyond the requirements of the cooperative program. The first cooperative investigation was an evaluation of ground-water supplies available for irrigation in the Panhandle. In 1937 the Panhandle was still very much in the dust bowl, and it was hoped that irrigation would alleviate the drought. A bulletin on Texas County was published in 1939, and one on Cimarron County in 1943. Ground-water investigations during the World War II were restricted to the demands of Army and Navy installations, and to defense industries. Ground-water investigations since 1945 have included both country-wide and aquifer-type investigations. In Oklahoma it has been the policy for the State cooperator to publish the

  10. Movement and fate of chlorinated solvents in ground water; research activities at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fusillo, T.V.; Ehlke, T.A.; Martin, Mary

    1987-01-01

    The USGS, through its Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination Program, is undertaking an interdisciplinary research study of contaminants. The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of the chemical, physical, and biological processes that affect the movement and fate of these contaminants in groundwater. The study is being conducted at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, where metal plating and metal etching wastes have contaminated part of the glacial stratified drift aquifers. Major areas of research at the site are described, including: (1) distribution and movement of chlorinated solvents in groundwater, (2) behavior of chlorinated solvents in the unsaturated zone, (3) geochemistry of the contaminated groundwater, and (4) microbial transformations of chlorinated solvents. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Ground water and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  12. Ground Water and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  13. Continuous Water Vapor Profiles from Operational Ground-Based Active and Passive Remote Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. D.; Feltz, W. F.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, offers unique operational water vapor profiling capabilities, including active and passive remote sensors as well as traditional in situ radiosonde measurements. Remote sensing technologies include an automated Raman lidar and an automated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), which are able to retrieve water vapor profiles operationally through the lower troposphere throughout the diurnal cycle. Comparisons of these two water vapor remote sensing methods to each other and to radiosondes over an 8-month period are presented and discussed, highlighting the accuracy and limitations of each method. Additionally, the AERI is able to retrieve profiles of temperature while the Raman lidar is able to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles operationally. These data, coupled with hourly wind profiles from a 915-MHz wind profiler, provide complete specification of the state of the atmosphere in noncloudy skies. Several case studies illustrate the utility of these high temporal resolution measurements in the characterization of mesoscale features within a 3-day time period in which passage of a dryline, warm air advection, and cold front occurred.

  14. Natural vanadium-containing Jeju ground water stimulates glucose uptake through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in L6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seung-Lark; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of natural vanadium-containing Jeju ground water on glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and adipogensesis in 3T3 L1 cells. The Jeju ground water samples containing vanadium components were designated as S1 (8.0 ± 0.9 μg/l), S2 (24.0 ± 2.0 μg/l), and S3 (26.0 ± 2.0 μg/l), respectively. To investigate the effects of the Jeju ground water on glucose uptake in L6 myotubes, L6 cells were differentiated in media containing deionized distilled water (DDW group) and the water samples (S1, S2, and S3 groups). After daily changes in cultured media containing the Jeju ground water samples for 1 week, all samples had increased glucose uptake compared to the DDW group and the order of glucose uptake increased in parallel with vanadium content (S3 > S2 > S1). In addition, S3 significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of the Thr-172 residue of the AMP-activated protein kinase-α subunit and the Ser-79 subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase compared to the DDW group. The effect of glucose uptake by S3 was reversed by pretreatment with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Interestingly, vanadium pentoxide also increased glucose uptake and activated AMPK activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, as compared to the DDW treated group, S3 treatment inhibited adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by down regulation of expressions of adipogenic transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that S3 displays beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes, at least in part through the activation of AMPK activity.

  15. Geohydrology and ground-water quality at the Pueblo Depot activity landfill near Pueblo, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from the shallow unconfined aquifer at the Pueblo Depot Activity (Colorado) landfill and downstream from the landfill. The Pueblo Depot Activity is a U.S. Department of the Army facility in southeastern Colorado about 15 miles east of Pueblo, Colorado. The land-fill is underlain by upland alluvial terrace deposits that overlie a thick and almost impermeable shale. Saturated thickness of the aquifer generally is from 5 to 10 feet. Groundwater flow at the landfill is to the south-southeast toward the Arkansas River valley. Though not hydraulically connected to the upland terrace deposits, the alluvium underlying the Arkansas River valley may be recharged by groundwater that is discharged from seeps at the contact of the upland terrace deposits and the Pierre Shale. The water is classified as a mixed-cation mixed-anion type water that has concentrations of dissolved solids of 710 to 1,810 mg/L. Dissolved-solids concentrations increase downgradient. Chemical analysis, done to determine possible contamination of the groundwater, indicated that concentrations of trichloroethylene ranged from 5.2 to 2,900 microg/L and of trans-1,2-dichloroethylene ranged from 5 to 720 microg/L. The areal distribution of these volatile organic compounds indicate that there possibly are two sources of contamination of groundwater at the landfill, one upgradient from the landfill and the other within the landfill. Analysis of water samples from wells and seeps offsite and downgradient from the landfill did not indicate either contaminant in groundwater from the alluvial aquifer underlying the Arkansas River valley. (USGS)

  16. Modeled ground water age distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  17. Dating desert ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, L.; Rubin, M.; Brown, G.F.

    1961-01-01

    Tritium in Arabian rainfall has followed the trend observed in North America with peaks in 1958 and the spring of 1959. These measurements will be useful for future hydrologie studies. Water from wadi gravels averages 10 yr old. Carbon-14 measurements of deep waters indicate ages of several thousand years.

  18. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  19. Effects of forest-management activities on runoff components and ground-water recharge to Quabbin Reservoir, central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bent, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of forest-management activities (timber cutting and herbicide application) on runoff components (total streamflow, direct runoff, and base flow) and on ground-water recharge per unit area were evaluated for two separate paired drainage basins of Quabbin Reservoir in central Massachusetts. The Cadwell Creek study area, studied from 1962-1973, included an experimental basin (Upper Cadwell Creek) and a control basin (Lower Cadwell Creek). In the experimental basin, herbicide was applied to mixed oaks, northern hardwoods, and understory vegetation in different riparian zones during the summers of 1967 and 1968, and some pine plantations were thinned or clear-cut during the winter of 1967-1968. These forest-management activities decreased the total basal area by about 34%. The decrease in total basal area resulted in an increase in total streamflow, direct runoff (total streamflow minus base flow), and ground-water recharge for six dormant seasons (October-April) and six growing seasons (May-September) during 1968-1973. Base flow increased for three dormant seasons and two growing seasons during 1968-1970 and the dormant seasons of 1971 and 1973. Base flow accounted for 34% and direct runoff accounted for 66% of the 94 mm (15%) increase in total streamflow during water years 1968-1973. Sixty-one percent of this increase in total streamflow occurred in the dormant seasons. The Dickey Brook study area, studied from 1985-1989, included an experimental basin (Dickey Brook) and a control basin (Dickey Brook Tributary). Some pine plantations were thinned or clear-cut in the headwaters of the experimental basin from October 1986 to March 1987 and October to December 1988. These forest-management activities decreased the total basal area by 24% during 1986-1987 and an additional 8% during 1988. The decrease in total basal area resulted in an increase in total streamflow, base flow, and ground-water recharge for only one dormant season and one growing season in 1987

  20. Subsurface sediment mobilization and active pockmarks from sublacustrine ground-water seepage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, A.; Moernaut, J.; Loher, M.; Hilbe, M.; Meinecke, G.; Kipfer, R.; Anselmetti, F.; Bouffard, D.; Strasser, M.

    2014-12-01

    Lakes can be used as "model basins" to study fluid-flow processes with a multi-method approach in a well-defined environment. We present unprecedented insight into newly discovered pockmarks and associated subsurface sediment-mobilization structures in Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland. A geophysical approach using multiple tools provides precise high-resolution bathymetric data and subsurface information of the sedimentary infill. We combine geophysical (300 kHz Kongsberg EM2040 multibeam, 3.5 kHz pinger seismic, deep-towed multi-frequency chirp seismic, mounted on an AUV), sedimentological (piston cores), hydrological (CTD), geochemical (methane, δ18O) and visual (ROV survey) data and observations. The data show several circular, crater-shaped pockmarks of up to 160 m in diameter and up to 30 m depth. The pockmarks are partially filled with mud in a fluid-like state. It is hypothesized that this mud is a result of active fluid flow within the pockmark. The levees of the pockmarks are characterized by high-amplitude wedge-shaped seismic reflections being intercalated with the background sediments. They are interpreted as overflow deposits originating from episodic increases in fluid flow from inside the pockmarks, causing sediment to be spilled over the margin and deposited on the levees. Data show multiple phases of sediment expulsion during discrete periods throughout the Holocene. Geochemical sediment analyses of headspace methane indicate the presence of purely microbial methane at low concentrations, thus no indications of active gas seepage. Elevated temperature values and depleted δ18O signals within the pockmark, compared to the reference sites, hint towards different water sources. We interpret these data to show two water bodies: (i) lake bottom-water, and (ii) groundwater entering as focused fluid flow through the pockmark. This multi-proxy approach shows that the newly discovered pockmarks of Lake Neuchâtel are sublacustrine springs, possibly related to

  1. GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development operates a Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC). The Center provides support on issues regarding subsurface contamination, contaminant fluxes to other media (e.g., surface water or air), and ecosystem restoration. The GWTSC creat...

  2. Minnesota ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albin, D.R.; Bruemmer, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains summary information on ground-water quality in one of the 50 States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, Saipan, Guam, and American Samoa. The material is extracted from the manuscript of the 1986 National Water Summary, and with the exception of the illustrations, which will be reproduced in multi-color in the 1986 National Water Summary, the format and content of this report is identical to the State ground-water-quality descriptions to be published in the 1986 National Water Summary. Release of this information before formal publication in the 1986 National Water Summary permits the earliest access by the public.

  3. Texas ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strause, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains summary information on ground-water quality in one of the 50 States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, Saipan, Guam, and American Samoa. The material is extracted from the manuscript of the 1986 National Water Summary, and with the exception of the illustrations, which will be reproduced in multi-color in the 1986 National Water Summary, the format and content of this report is identical to the State ground-water-quality descriptions to be published in the 1986 National Water Summary. Release of this information before formal publication in the 1986 National Water Summary permits the earliest access by the public.

  4. Activities and summary statistics of radon-222 in stream- and ground-water samples, Owl Creek basin, north-central Wyoming, September 1991 through March 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, K.M.; Lee, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Radon-222 activity was measured for 27 water samples from streams, an alluvial aquifer, bedrock aquifers, and a geothermal system, in and near the 510-square mile area of Owl Creek Basin, north- central Wyoming. Summary statistics of the radon- 222 activities are compiled. For 16 stream-water samples, the arithmetic mean radon-222 activity was 20 pCi/L (picocuries per liter), geometric mean activity was 7 pCi/L, harmonic mean activity was 2 pCi/L and median activity was 8 pCi/L. The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is 29 pCi/L. The activities in the stream-water samples ranged from 0.4 to 97 pCi/L. The histogram of stream-water samples is left-skewed when compared to a normal distribution. For 11 ground-water samples, the arithmetic mean radon- 222 activity was 486 pCi/L, geometric mean activity was 280 pCi/L, harmonic mean activity was 130 pCi/L and median activity was 373 pCi/L. The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is 500 pCi/L. The activity in the ground-water samples ranged from 25 to 1,704 pCi/L. The histogram of ground-water samples is left-skewed when compared to a normal distribution. (USGS)

  5. Ground water and surface water; a single resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.; Harvey, Judson W.; Franke, O. Lehn; Alley, William M.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of considering ground water and surface water as a single resource has become increasingly evident. Issues related to water supply, water quality, and degradation of aquatic environments are reported on frequently. The interaction of ground water and surface water has been shown to be a significant concern in many of these issues. Contaminated aquifers that discharge to streams can result in long-term contamination of surface water; conversely, streams can be a major source of contamination to aquifers. Surface water commonly is hydraulically connected to ground water, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure. The purpose of this report is to present our current understanding of these processes and activities as well as limitations in our knowledge and ability to characterize them.

  6. COMPILATION OF GROUND WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The full report presents an overview of currently available computer-based simulation models for ground-water flow, solute and heat transport, and hydrogeochemistry in both porous media and fractured rock. Separate sections address multiphase flow and related chemical species tra...

  7. GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR VOCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling protocol should be dictated by the sampling objective(s). It is important to obtain representative ground water samples, regardless of the sampling objective(s). Low-flow (minimum draw-down) purging and sampling techniques are best in most instances, particularly for VOC...

  8. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.; Kemner, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs.

  9. INFLUENCE OF BACTERIAL ACTIVITY ON THE SPECIATION AND TRANSPORT OF ARSENIC ACROSS THE GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER TRANSITION ZONE AT A CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field investigations have been conducted to understand the fate of arsenic in contaminated ground water during discharge into a small lake. The ground water plume contains elevated levels of arsenic and BTEX compounds derived from historical disposal of process wastes from upgra...

  10. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in support of DOE`s environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE`s General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

  11. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

  12. Ground Water in a Fish Tank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes creating a Model Aquatic/Terrestrial Ecosystem for use in helping students understand how water moves beneath the ground's surface. The model is constructed from a fish tank using rocks, soil, gravel, clay, and organic materials. Author describes possible cooperative-learning and problem-solving activities that can be done with this…

  13. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards.

  14. A quality-assurance plan for district ground-water activities of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunett, J.O.; Barber, N.L.; Burns, A.W.; Fogelman, R.P.; Gillies, D.C.; Lidwin, R.A.; Mack, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    As the Nation's principal earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended upon to collect data of the highest quality. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing and reporting ground-water data that are quality assured and quality controlled.

  15. In-situ alteration of minerals by acidic ground water resulting from mining activities: Preliminary evaluation of method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, Carol J.; Creasey, C.L.; Angeroth, C.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH ~ 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are planned using alluvial sediments placed in the ground-water flow path to measure changes in mineral and chemical composition and changes in dissolution rates of subsurface alluvial sediments. The test results should help refine developed models of predicted chemical changes in ground-water composition and models of streamflow. For the preliminary test, sediment from the depth of the well screen of a newly drilled well was installed in three wells, the source well (pH 4.96) and two up-gradient wells (pHs 4.27 and 4.00). The sediment was placed in woven macrofilters, fastened in series to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, and hung at the screened level of each well. After interacting with the slowly moving ground water for 48 days, the test sediments were removed for analysis. There was no evidence that any of the materials used were biologically or chemically degraded or that the porosity of the filters was diminished by ferric hydroxide precipitation. These materials included 21-??m-pore (21PEMF) and 67-??m-pore polyester and the 174-??m-pore fluorocarbon Spectra/mesh macrofilters containing the in-situ sediment, the polypropylene (PP) macrofilter support structures, and the Nylon (NY) monofilament line used to attach the samples to the PVC pipe. Based on chemical and mineral composition and on particle-size distribution of the sediment before and after ground-water exposure, the 21PEMF macrofilter was chosen as the most suitable macrofilter for the long-term in-situ experiment. Tests also showed that the PP support structures and the NY monofilament line were sufficiently durable for this experiment.The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH approx. 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are

  16. ADVANCES IN GROUND WATER SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  17. Ground-water characterization field activities for 1995--1996 Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, University of California, Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.; Lanigan, D.C.; Last, G.V.

    1996-05-01

    This report documents ground-water characterization field activities completed from August to December 1995 and in January 1996 at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) in Davis, California. The ground water at LEHR is one of several operable units under investigation by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this work was to further characterize the hydrogeology beneath the LEHR site, with the primary focus on ground water. The objectives were to estimate hydraulic properties for the two uppermost saturated hydrogeologic units (i.e., HSU-1 and HSU-2), and to determine distributions of contaminants of concern in these units. Activities undertaken to accomplish these objectives include well installation, geophysical logging, well development, ground-water sampling, slug testing, Westbay ground-water monitoring system installation, continuous water-level monitoring, Hydropunch installation, and surveying. Ground-water samples were collected from 61 Hydropunch locations. Analytical results from these locations and the wells indicate high chloroform concentrations trending from west/southwest to east/northeast in the lower portion of HSU-1 and in the upper and middle portions of HSU-2. The chloroform appears to originate near Landfill 2. Tritium was not found above the MCL in any of the well or Hydropunch samples. Hexavalent chromium was found at four locations with concentrations above the MCL in HSU-1 and at one location in HSU-2. One well in HSU-1 had a total chromium concentration above the MCL. Nitrate-nitrogen above the MCL was found at several Hydropunch locations in both HSU-1 and HSU-2.

  18. The effect of human activities on the quality of ground water in the Chipuxet aquifer, Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, J.B.; Veeger, A.I.. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Chipuxet aquifer, part of a larger system of unconfined aquifers in the Pawcatuck River Basin, occupies approximately 3 square miles in the valley drained by the Chipuxet River and Chickasheen Brook. This aquifer is comprised of permeable glacial fluvial sediments and is capable of yielding up to 3 million gallons per day. However, the presence of permeable surficial deposits and the proximity of the water table to the surface make this aquifer susceptible to contamination. In this study, samples of surface water and the ground water aquifer were collected and analyzed for inorganic chemical constituents. Maps showing the concentration and distribution of constituents were constructed from these data. The spatial relationship between land uses and elevated concentrations of constituents was used to identify the probable contaminant sources. The background chemistry of ground water from surficial deposits and bedrock was determined using samples with electrical conductivity between 80 and 100. The surficial aquifer yields a Ca-Cl type water. Bedrock yields a Na-HCO[sub 3] type water. Na, Cl, SO[sub 4] and NO[sub 3] were found at levels above background in 28 of the 44 wells sampled. Road salt, fertilizer, and septic systems were identified as sources of contamination. Degradation of water quality occurs predominantly in the upper portion of the stratified drift aquifer to depths of 25 feet. Some contamination of deeper wells was attributed to faulty well construction.

  19. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 2 - critical changes in emission profiles as a result of increasing the water activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent field trapping studies ground pistachio and almond mummies were reported to attract adult navel orangeworm moths, which showed a slight preference for the dry pistachio mummy matrix depending on the year evaluated. Recent work in these laboratories has demonstrated that the water activity ...

  20. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  1. Sustainability of ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn

    1999-01-01

    The pumpage of fresh ground water in the United States in 1995 was estimated to be approximately 77 billion gallons per day (Solley and others, 1998), which is about 8 percent of the estimated 1 trillion gallons per day of natural recharge to the Nation's ground-water systems (Nace, 1960). From an overall national perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample. Locally, however, the availability of ground water varies widely. Moreover, only a part of the ground water stored in the subsurface can be recovered by wells in an economic manner and without adverse consequences.

  2. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  3. Ground-water studies and analog models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1962-01-01

    Hydrologists make ground-water studies to aid managers and users of water resources in solving their problems in the development and management of ground water. Geologic and hydrologic information provides the basic knowledge for construction of electric analog models that portray the ground-water system in miniature. Analog models can be analyzed electrically, and the results of the analysis are presented in terms of the ground-water system so that the effects of alternative methods of water development can be assessed.

  4. Potential for satellite remote sensing of ground water.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthew W

    2006-01-01

    Predicting hydrologic behavior at regional scales requires heterogeneous data that are often prohibitively expensive to acquire on the ground. As a result, satellite-based remote sensing has become a powerful tool for surface hydrology. Subsurface hydrology has yet to realize the benefits of remote sensing, even though surface expressions of ground water can be monitored from space. Remotely sensed indicators of ground water may provide important data where practical alternatives are not available. The potential for remote sensing of ground water is explored here in the context of active and planned satellite-based sensors. Satellite technology is reviewed with respect to its ability to measure ground water potential, storage, and fluxes. It is argued here that satellite data can be used if ancillary analysis is used to infer ground water behavior from surface expressions. Remotely sensed data are most useful where they are combined with numerical modeling, geographic information systems, and ground-based information.

  5. Mississippi Embayment Regional Ground Water Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased water usage in the southeastern United States in the tri-state area of Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas poses a dilemma to ensuring long-term sustainability of the quantity and quality of ground-water resources that underlie the region. Demand for ground water by ag...

  6. Ground water near Newton, Jasper County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality in the South Skunk River and the alluvial aquifer was similar, except most ground-water samples contained low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in ground water resulted in high concentrations of iron and manganese in some locations and reduced forms of nitrogen.

  7. Ground water resources of Lee County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Donivan L.

    1980-01-01

    In terms of these factors, there are few locations in Lee County where the availability of ground water is not limited to some degree. The most common limitation is poor water quality, that is, highly mineralized ground water. Secondary limitations are generally related to poor distribution, small yields from some sources, and poor accessibility due to the great depths to adequate sources.

  8. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  9. The importance of ground water in the Great Lakes Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grannemann, N.G.; Hunt, R.J.; Nicholas, J.R.; Reilly, T.E.; Winter, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is a major natural resource in the Great Lakes Region that helps link the Great Lakes and their watershed. This linkage needs to be more fully understood and quantified before society can address some of the important water-resources issues in the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes constitute the largest concentration of unfrozen fresh surface water in the western hemisphere—about 5,440 mi3. Because the quantity of water in the lakes is so large, ground water in the Great Lakes Basin is often overlooked when evaluating the hydrology of the region. Ground water, however, is more important to the hydrology of the Great Lakes and to the health of ecosystems in the watershed than is generally recognized.Although more than 1,000 mi3 of ground water are stored in the basin—a volume of water that is approximately equal to that of Lake Michigan—development of the groundwater resource must be carefully planned. Development of the ground-water resource removes water from storage and alters the paths of ground-water flow. Ground water that normally discharges to streams, lakes, and wetlands can be captured by pumping (the most common form of development), which may deplete or reduce inflows to the Great Lakes.Ground water is important to ecosystems in the Great Lakes Region because it is, in effect, a large, subsurface reservoir from which water is released slowly to provide a reliable minimum level of water flow to streams, lakes, and wetlands. Ground-water discharge to streams generally provides good quality water that, in turn, promotes habitat for aquatic animals and sustains aquatic plants during periods of low precipitation. Because of the slow movement of ground water, the effects of surface activities on ground-water flow and quality can take years to manifest themselves. As a result, issues relative to ground water are often seemingly less dire than issues related to surface water alone.Ground water is a major natural resource in the Great Lakes Region

  10. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  11. Ground-water quality in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically summarizes ground-water quality from selected chemical-quality data for about 2,300 ground-water sites in Wyoming. Dissolved-solids, nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, and manganese concentrations are summarized on a statewide basis. The major chemical-quality problem that limits the use of Wyoming ground-water is excessive dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifers with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentration of water in aquifers with 20 or more sampled sites, are Holocene lacustrine deposits, the upper Testiary Ogallala Formation and Arikaree Formation, and the Mississippian Madison Limestone. The counties with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentrations are Teton County and Laramie County. Hot Springs County and Natrona County have the highest median dissolved-solids concentrations. About 3 percent of the nitrate concentrations of ground-water samples exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard in 14 percent of the ground-water samples. Except for selenium, toxic trace elements generally have not been found in concentrations in excess of the drinking-water standards. About 19 percent of the iron and about 30 percent of the manganese concentrations in ground-water samples exceeded the national secondary drinking-water standards. (USGS)

  12. Low-Level Volatile Organic Compounds in Active Public Supply Wells as Ground-Water Tracers in the Los Angeles Physiographic Basin, California, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Burow, Karen R.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Land, Michael; Gronberg, JoAnn

    2001-01-01

    Data were collected to evaluate the use of low-level volatile organic compounds (VOC) to assess the vulnerability of public supply wells in the Los Angeles physiographic basin. Samples of untreated ground water from 178 active public supply wells in the Los Angeles physiographic basin show that VOCs were detected in 61 percent of the ground-water samples; most of these detections were low, with only 29 percent above 1 mg/L (microgram per liter). Thirty-nine of the 86 VOCs analyzed were detected in at least one sample, and 11 VOCs were detected in 7 percent or more of the samples. The six most frequently detected VOCs were trichloromethane (chloroform) (46 percent); trichloroethene (TCE) (28 percent); tetrachloro-ethene (PCE) (19 percent); methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (14 percent); 1,1-dichloroethane (11 percent); and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) (11 percent). These VOCs were also the most frequently detected VOCs in ground water representative of a wide range of hydrologically conditions in urban areas nationwide. Only two VOCs (TCE and PCE) exceeded state and federal primary maximum contaminant levels (MCL) for drinking water in a total of seven samples. Because samples were collected prior to water treatment, sample concentrations do not represent the concentrations entering the drinking-water system.Ground water containing VOCs may be considered to be a tracer of postindustrial-aged water-water that was recharged after the onset of intense urban development. The overall distribution of VOC detections is related to the hydrological and the engineered recharge facilities in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin and the Coastal Santa Ana Basin that comprise the Los Angeles physiographic basin. Most of the ground-water recharge occurs at engineered recharge facilities in the generally coarse-grained northeastern parts of the study area (forebay areas). Ground-water recharge from the land surface is minimal in the southwestern part of the basins, distal from the recharge

  13. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  14. FUNDAMENTALS OF GROUND-WATER MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water flow and contaminant transport modeling has been used at many hazardous waste sites with varying degrees of success. odels may be used throughout all phases of the site investigation and remediation processes. eveloping a better understanding of ground-water modeling...

  15. COMPILATION OF GROUND-WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water modeling is a computer-based methodology for mathematical analysis of the mechanisms and controls of ground-water systems for the evaluation of policies, action, and designs that may affect such systems. n addition to satisfying scientific interest in the workings of...

  16. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, Alan M.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1999 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1999 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality data are essential for water assessment and management. Ground-water-level fluctuations and trends can be used to estimate changes in aquifer storage resulting from the effects of ground-water withdrawal and recharge from precipitation. These data can be used to address water-management needs and to evaluate the effects of management and conservation programs. As part of the ground-water investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State of Georgia and city and county governments, a Statewide water-level-measurement program was started in 1938. Initially, this program consisted of an observation-well network in the coastal area of Georgia to monitor variations in ground-water storage and quality. Additional wells were later included in areas where data could be used to aid in water resources development and management. During 1999, periodic water-level measurements were made in 46 wells, and continuous water-level measurements were obtained from 165 wells. Continuous water-level records were obtained using analog (pen and chart

  17. Jeju ground water containing vanadium induced immune activation on splenocytes of low dose γ-rays-irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Ha, Danbee; Joo, Haejin; Ahn, Ginnae; Kim, Min Ju; Bing, So Jin; An, Subin; Kim, Hyunki; Kang, Kyung-goo; Lim, Yoon-Kyu; Jee, Youngheun

    2012-06-01

    Vanadium, an essential micronutrient, has been implicated in controlling diabetes and carcinogenesis and in impeding reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. γ-ray irradiation triggers DNA damage by inducing ROS production and causes diminution in radiosensitive immunocytes. In this study, we elucidate the immune activation capacities of Jeju water containing vanadium on immunosuppression caused by γ-ray irradiation, and identify its mechanism using various low doses of NaVO(3). We examined the intracellular ROS generation, DNA damage, cell proliferation, population of splenocytes, and cytokine/antibody profiles in irradiated mice drinking Jeju water for 180 days and in non-irradiated and in irradiated splenocytes both of which were treated with NaVO(3). Both Jeju water and 0.245 μM NaVO(3) attenuated the intracellular ROS generation and DNA damage in splenocytes against γ-ray irradiation. Splenocytes were significantly proliferated by the long-term intake of Jeju water and by 0.245 μM NaVO(3) treatment, and the expansion of B cells accounted for the increased number of splenocytes. Also, 0.245 μM NaVO(3) treatment showed the potency to amplify the production of IFN-γ and total IgG in irradiated splenocytes, which correlated with the expansion of B cells. Collectively, Jeju water containing vanadium possesses the immune activation property against damages caused by γ-irradiation.

  18. Arsenic contamination in ground water: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Jain, C K

    2002-07-01

    The ground water in a huge alluvial tract along the river Hooghly covering a stretch of about 470 km., encompassing eight districts in the state of West Bengal (India) is affected by arsenic pollution of ground water. The probable source of arsenic has been reported to be through geological formations. Occurrence of iron-pyrite and the change of geo-chemical environment due to over-exploitation of ground water or excessive fluctuation of ground water table are the possible reasons of decomposition of pyrite to ferrous sulphate, ferric sulphate and sulfuric acid. However, no definite explanation regarding the source of arsenic could be established so far. Keeping in view the severity of the problem, an attempt has been made to bring out the nature and extent of arsenic problem in ground water of West Bengal, India, as well as need for watershed management to combat the situation.

  19. Water resources data, Virginia, water year 2004 volume 2. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Roger K.; Powell, Eugene D.; Guyer, Joel R.; Owens, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Virginia consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report (Volume 2. Ground-Water-Level and Ground-Water-Quality Records) contains water levels at 346 observation wells and water quality at 40 wells. Locations of these wells are shown on figures 4 through 9. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Virginia.

  20. Ground-water program in Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMoreaux, P.E.

    1955-01-01

    Several recent years of drought have emphasized the importance of Alabama's ground-water supplies, a matter of concern to us all.  So far we have been blessed in Alabama with ample ground-water, although a combination of increased use, waste, pollution, and drought has brought about critical local water shortages.  These problems serve as a fair warning of what lies ahead if we do not take the necessary steps to obtan adequate knowledge of our ground-water resources.

  1. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  2. A primer on ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Helene L.; McGuinness, C.L.

    1963-01-01

    Most of us don't have to look for water. We grew up either in big cities where there was a public water supply, or in small towns or on farms where the water came from wells. But there are some people to whom finding a new supply of water is vitally important.

  3. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, A.M.; Blackburn, D.K.; McSwain, K.B.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1999 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1999 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards.

  4. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, Alan M.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1998 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1998 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards.

  5. Gross alpha- and beta-activities in surface and ground water of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malanca, A; Repetti, M; de Macêdo, H R

    1998-07-01

    Gross alpha- and beta-activities were determined on 37 fresh water samples collected from 14 artificial basins, 13 deep drilled wells, two dug wells, two lakes, two rivers, one spring, and a tap belonging to 30 locations scattered throughout the eastern and central parts of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte. The surveyed area was about 35,000 km2 with a lithology including both crystalline (18 towns) and sedimentary (12 towns) rocks. Concentrations ranging from < 2.8 to 354 Bq m-3 and from 50.5 to 580 Bq m-3 were observed for the gross alpha- and beta-activities, respectively. For the gross beta-activity, which was always higher than the corresponding alpha-activity, the arithmetic mean with its standard deviation was 226 +/- 154 Bq m-3. In order to evaluate the radioactive dose due to the ingestion of these waters, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out using the dose conversion factors suggested by the ICRP. An average annual effective dose equivalent of 60 +/- 42 microSv was obtained together with a range of 14-161 microSv y-1.

  6. Ground-water resources of Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.C.; Lohman, S.W.; Frye, J.C.; Waite, H.A.; McLaughlin, Thad G.; Latta, Bruce

    1940-01-01

    Importance of ground-water resources.—The importance of Kansas' ground-water resources may be emphasized from various viewpoints and in different ways. More than three-fourths of the public water supplies of Kansas are obtained from wells. In 1939, only 60 out of 375 municipal water supplies in Kansas, which is 16 percent, utilized surface waters. If the water wells of the cities and those located on all privately owned land in the state were suddenly destroyed, making it necessary to go to streams, springs, lakes (which are almost all artificial), and ponds for water supply domestic, stock, and industrial use, there would be almost incalculable difficulty and expense. If one could not go to springs, or dig new wells, or use any surface water derived from underground flow, much of Kansas would become uninhabitable.  These suggested conditions seem absurd, but they emphasize our dependence on ground-water resources. Fromm a quantitative standpoint, ground-water supplies existent in Kansas far outweigh surface waters that are present in the state at any one time. No exact figures for such comparison can be given, but, taking 384 square miles as the total surface water area of the state and estimating an average water depth of five feet, the computed volume of surface waters is found to be 1/100th of that of the conservatively estimated ground-water storage in Kansas. The latter takes account only of potable fresh water and is based on an assumed mean thickness of ten feet of reservoir having an effective porosity of twenty percent. It is to be remembered, however, that most of the surface water is run-off, which soon leaves the state, stream valleys being replenished from rainfall and flow from ground-water reservoirs. Most of the ground-water supplies, on the other hand, have existed for many years with almost no appreciable movement--in fact, it is reasonably certain that some well water drawn from beneath the surface of Kansas in 1940 represents rainfall in

  7. Regional ground-water evapotranspiration and ground-water budgets, Great Basin, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, William D.

    2000-01-01

    PART A: Ground-water evapotranspiration data from five sites in Nevada and seven sites in Owens Valley, California, were used to develop equations for estimating ground-water evapotranspiration as a function of phreatophyte plant cover or as a function of the depth to ground water. Equations are given for estimating mean daily seasonal and annual ground-water evapotranspiration. The equations that estimate ground-water evapotranspiration as a function of plant cover can be used to estimate regional-scale ground-water evapotranspiration using vegetation indices derived from satellite data for areas where the depth to ground water is poorly known. Equations that estimate ground-water evapotranspiration as a function of the depth to ground water can be used where the depth to ground water is known, but for which information on plant cover is lacking. PART B: Previous ground-water studies estimated groundwater evapotranspiration by phreatophytes and bare soil in Nevada on the basis of results of field studies published in 1912 and 1932. More recent studies of evapotranspiration by rangeland phreatophytes, using micrometeorological methods as discussed in Chapter A of this report, provide new data on which to base estimates of ground-water evapotranspiration. An approach correlating ground-water evapotranspiration with plant cover is used in conjunction with a modified soil-adjusted vegetation index derived from Landsat data to develop a method for estimating the magnitude and distribution of ground-water evapotranspiration at a regional scale. Large areas of phreatophytes near Duckwater and Lockes in Railroad Valley are believed to subsist on ground water discharged from nearby regional springs. Ground-water evapotranspiration by the Duckwater phreatophytes of about 11,500 acre-feet estimated by the method described in this report compares well with measured discharge of about 13,500 acre-feet from the springs near Duckwater. Measured discharge from springs near Lockes

  8. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  9. Quality of ground water in southern Buchanan County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Stanley M.; Powell, John D.

    1983-01-01

    In seven small contiguous stream basins in the coal area of southwest Virginia, ground water is predominantly bicarbonate in anion composition, with calcium as the major cation in the ridges and sodium the major cation in the lower altitudes. Sulfate is the major anion in water associated with coal seams and in stream waters draining areas extensively disturbed by mining activities. Water found along a major linear feature in the Big Prater Creek valley and water from deep wells in Levisa Fork basin contain chloride as the predominant anion. Hydrogen ion activities (pH) in the ground water range from 5.2 to 8.4. Iron concentrations as high as 14,000 micrograms per liter are present in domestic wells. The chemical composition of most streams changes with diminishing discharge and at baseflow is similar to the composition of local ground water. At high flows, streams draining mined areas are enriched with sulfate. (USGS)

  10. Ground Watering of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    USGS

    2006-10-12

    Water is a precious commodity, especially in the arid southwest region of the US, where there is a limited supply of both surface water and ground water. Ground water has a variety of uses (such as agricultural, commercial, and domestic) in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) of southern Nevada and eastern California. The DVRFS, an area of about 100,000 square kilometers, contains very complex geology and hydrology. Using a computer model to represent this complex system the US Geological Survey (USGS) simulated ground-water flow in the Death Valley region for use with US Department of Energy (DOE) projects in southern Nevada. The model was created to help address contaminant cleanup activities associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted from 1951 to 1992 at the Nevada Test Site and to support the licensing process for the Nation's proposed geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  11. Ground-Water Recharge in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Falteisek, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    'Ground-water recharge' broadly describes the addition of water to the ground-water system. Most water recharging the ground-water system moves relatively rapidly to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Over the long term, recharge is generally balanced by discharge to surface waters, to plants, and to deeper parts of the ground-water system. However, this balance can be altered locally as a result of pumping, impervious surfaces, land use, or climate changes that could result in increased or decreased recharge. * Recharge rates to unconfined aquifers in Minnesota typically are about 20-25 percent of precipitation. * Ground-water recharge is least (0-2 inches per year) in the western and northwestern parts of the State and increases to greater than 6 inches per year in the central and eastern parts of the State. * Water-level measurement frequency is important in estimating recharge. Measurements made less frequently than about once per week resulted in as much as a 48 percent underestimation of recharge compared with estimates based on an hourly measurement frequency. * High-quality, long-term, continuous hydrologic and climatic data are important in estimating recharge rates.

  12. Artificial recharge of humic ground water.

    PubMed

    Alborzfar, M; Villumsen, A; Grøn, C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of soil in removing natural organic matter from humic ground waters using artificial recharge. The study site, in western Denmark, was a 10,000 ml football field of which 2,000 m2 served as an infiltration field. The impact of the artificial recharge was studied by monitoring the water level and the quality of the underlying shallow aquifer. The humic ground water contained mainly humic adds with an organic carbon (OC) concentration of 100 to 200 mg C L(-1). A total of 5,000 mS of humic ground water were sprinkled onto the infiltration field at an average rate of 4.25 mm h(-1). This resulted in a rise in the water table of the shallow aquifer. The organic matter concentration of the water in the shallow aquifer, however, remained below 2.7 mg C L(-1). The organic matter concentration of the pore water in the unsaturated zone was measured at the end of the experiment. The organic matter concentration of the pore water decreased from 105 mg C L(-1) at 0.5 m to 20 mg C L(-1) at 2.5 m under the infiltration field indicating that the soil removed the organic matter from the humic ground water. From these results we conclude that artificial recharge is a possible method for humic ground water treatment.

  13. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1997 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1997 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 71 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. In 1997, annual mean ground-water levels in Georgia ranged from 6.2 feet (ft) lower to 5.6 ft higher than in 1996. Of the 71 wells summarized in this report, 23 wells had annual mean water levels that were higher, 35 wells had annual mean water levels that were lower, and 11 wells had annual mean water levels that were about the same in 1997 as during 1996. Data for two wells are incomplete because data collection was discontinued at one well, and the equipment was vandalized at one well. Record-low daily mean water levels were recorded in six wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, one well tapping the Caliborne aquifer, two wells tapping the Clayton aquifer, and three wells tapping Cretaceous aquifers. These record lows were from 0.2 to 5.6 ft lower than previous record lows. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standard. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality data are essential for water assessment and management. Ground-water-level fluctuations and trends can be used to estimate changes in aquifer storage resulting from the effects of ground-water withdrawal and recharge from precipitation. These data can be used to address water-management needs and to evaluate the effects of management and conservation programs. As part of the ground-water

  14. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  15. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  16. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  17. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  18. Ground-water models cannot be validated

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ground-water models are embodiments of scientific hypotheses. As such, the models cannot be proven or validated, but only tested and invalidated. However, model testing and the evaluation of predictive errors lead to improved models and a better understanding of the problem at hand. In applying ground-water models to field problems, errors arise from conceptual deficiencies, numerical errors, and inadequate parameter estimation. Case histories of model applications to the Dakota Aquifer, South Dakota, to bedded salts in New Mexico, and to the upper Coachella Valley, California, illustrate that calibration produces a nonunique solution and that validation, per se, is a futile objective. Although models are definitely valuable tools for analyzing ground-water systems, their predictive accuracy is limited. The terms validation and verification are misleading and their use in ground-water science should be abandoned in favor of more meaningful model-assessment descriptors. ?? 1992.

  19. MTBE concentrations in ground water in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution, concentrations, and detection frequency of methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive used in reformulated gasoline to improve air quality, were characterized in Pennsylvania?s ground water. Two sources of MTBE in ground water, the atmosphere and storage-tank release sites, were examined. An analysis of atmospheric MTBE concentrations shows that MTBE detections (MTBE greater than or equal to 0.2 micrograms per liter) in ground water are more likely the result of storage-tank releases than atmospheric deposition. A comparison of 86 ground-water samples near storage-tank releases and 359 samples from ambient ground water (not thought to be affected by point-source releases of MTBE or BTEX compounds) shows that samples within about 0.5 mile downgradient of storagetank release sites have significantly greater MTBE detection frequency than ambient ground-water samples. Aquifer type, land use, and the use of Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) are associated with high rates of occurrence of MTBE in ground water in Pennsylvania. Ground-water samples from wells in crystalline-rock aquifers near storage- tank release sites have a significantly greater MTBE detection frequency (57 percent) compared to other aquifers. Samples from wells in urban areas have a significantly greater MTBE detection frequency compared to ambient samples in agricultural and forested areas. Samples from the RFG-use areas in the five southeastern counties of Pennsylvania have a significantly greater MTBE detection frequency than samples outside of the RFG-use area. MTBE detection frequency of samples near storage- tank release sites in the RFG-use area (45 percent) are significantly greater than ambient samples in the RFG-use area.

  20. Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

    2008-01-01

    A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories.

  1. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  2. Estimating ground water discharge by hydrograph separation.

    PubMed

    Hannula, Steven R; Esposito, Kenneth J; Chermak, John A; Runnells, Donald D; Keith, David C; Hall, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Iron Mountain is located in the West Shasta Mining District in California. An investigation of the generation of acid rock drainage and metals loading to Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain was conducted. As part of that investigation, a hydrograph separation technique was used to determine the contribution of ground water to total flow in Boulder Creek. During high-flow storm events in the winter months, peak flow in Boulder Creek can exceed 22.7 m3/sec, and comprises surface runoff, interflow, and ground water discharge. A hydrograph separation technique was used to estimate ground water discharge into Boulder Creek during high-flow conditions. Total ground water discharge to the creek approaches 0.31 m3/sec during the high-flow season. The hydrograph separation technique combined with an extensive field data set provided reasonable estimates of ground water discharge. These estimates are useful for other investigations, such as determining a corresponding metals load from the metal-rich ground water found at Iron Mountain and thus contributing to remedial alternatives. PMID:12772830

  3. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joiner, C.N.; Cressler, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water conditions during 1993 and recent ground-water level and quality trends in Georgia were evaluated using data from precipitation, ground-water, and ground-water quality monitoring networks. Data for 1993 included in this report are from precipitation records from 10 National Weather Service stations, continuous water-level records from 72 wells, and chloride analyses from 13 wells. Annual mean ground-water levels in Georgia in 1993 ranged from about 3.2 feet higher to about 9.6 feet lower than in 1992. Of the 72 wells summarized in this report, 30 wells had annual mean water levels that were higher and 42 wells had annual mean water levels that were lower in 1993 than in 1992. Record-high daily mean water levels were recorded in one well tapping the surficial aquifer, one well tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, one well tapping the Claiborne aquifer, and one well tapping the crystalline- rock aquifers. These record highs were from about 0.1 to 0.7 feet higher than previous record highs. Record-low daily mean water levels were recorded in one well tapping the surficial aquifer, two wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, four wells tapping the Cretaceous aquifer, one well tapping the Dublin-Midville aquifer system, and one well tapping the crystalline-rock aquifers. These record lows were from about 0.1 foot to 7.2 feet lower than the previous record lows. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was below drinking water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking water standards.

  4. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  5. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthews, S.E.; Hester, Willis G.; O'Byrne, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    More than 2,000 water-level measurements made in Georgia in 1980 provided the basic data for this report. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends are shown in hydrographs for the previous year and fluctuations of the monthly mean water level are shown for the previous 10 years in selected observation wells in Georgia. Monitoring ground-water levels is essential to the understanding of storage changes in a ground-water reservoir or aquifer. Fluctuations and long-term trends in water levels occur as a result of recharge to and discharge from the reservoir. Mean annual water levels across Georgia were from 1.92 feet higher to 12.61 feet lower in 1980 than in 1979, and in some areas were the lowest on record. (USGS)

  6. Ground Water Flow No Longer A Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.; Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1976-01-01

    Examined are the physical characteristics of ground water movement. Some potential pollution problems are identified. Models are used to explain mathematical and hydraulic principles of flow toward a pumping well and an effluent stream, flow around and through lenticular beds, and effects of pumping on the water table. (Author/MR)

  7. Recharge estimation for transient ground water modeling.

    PubMed

    Jyrkama, Mikko I; Sykes, Jon F; Normani, Stefano D

    2002-01-01

    Reliable ground water models require both an accurate physical representation of the system and appropriate boundary conditions. While physical attributes are generally considered static, boundary conditions, such as ground water recharge rates, can be highly variable in both space and time. A practical methodology incorporating the hydrologic model HELP3 in conjunction with a geographic information system was developed to generate a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition for ground water modeling. The approach uses daily precipitation and temperature records in addition to land use/land cover and soils data. The importance of the method in transient ground water modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a MODFLOW modeling study in New Jersey. In addition to improved model calibration, the results from the study clearly indicate the importance of using a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition in ground water quality modeling, where the detailed knowledge of the evolution of the ground water flowpaths is imperative. The simulated water table is within 0.5 m of the observed values using the method, while the water levels can differ by as much as 2 m using uniform recharge conditions. The results also show that the combination of temperature and precipitation plays an important role in the amount and timing of recharge in cooler climates. A sensitivity analysis further reveals that increasing the leaf area index, the evaporative zone depth, or the curve number in the model will result in decreased recharge rates over time, with the curve number having the greatest impact.

  8. Iowa ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and several counties in Iowa, currently (1986) is monitoring about 1,500 public and private wells for inorganic and organic constituents. The principal objective of this program, begun in 1982, is to collect water-quality data that will describe the long-term chemical quality of the surficial and major bedrock aquifer systems in Iowa (Detroy, 1985).

  9. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  10. High Plains regional ground-water study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, Kevin F.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, industry and government have made large financial investments aimed at improving water quality across the Nation. Significant progress has been made; however, many water-quality concerns remain. In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment Program to provide consistent and scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers, (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality. Assessing the quality of water in every location in the Nation would not be practical; therefore, NAWQA Program studies are conducted within a set of areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units are composed of more than 50 important river and aquifer systems that represent the diverse geography, water resources, and land and water uses of the Nation. The High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study is one such study area, designed to address issues relevant to the High Plains Aquifer system while supplementing water-quality information collected in other study units across the Nation. Implementation of the NAWQA Program for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study area began in 1998.

  11. EPA GROUND WATER ISSUE: Ground Water Sample Preservation at ISCO Sites – Recommended Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the introduction of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of transforming ground water contaminants into harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste sites may contai...

  12. Hydrogeologic framework and simulation of ground-water flow and travel time in the shallow aquifer system in the area of Naval Support Activity Memphis, Millington, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, James L.; Carmichael, John K.; Halford, Keith J.; Ladd, David E.

    1997-01-01

    Naval Support Activity (NSA) Memphis is a Department of the Navy facility located at the City of Millington, Tennessee, about 5 miles north of Memphis. Contaminants have been detected in surface-water, sediment, and ground-water samples collected at the facility. As part of the Installation Restoration Program, the Navy is considering remedial-action options to prevent or lessen the effect of ground-water contamination at the facility and to control the movement and discharge of contaminants. A numerical model of the ground-water-flow system in the area of NSA Memphis was constructed and calibrated so that quantifiable estimates could be made of ground-water-flow rates, direction, and time-of-travel. The sediments beneath NSA Memphis, to a depth of about 200 feet, form a shallow aquifer system. From youngest to oldest, the stratigraphic units that form the shallow aquifer system are alluvium, loess, fluvial deposits, and the Cockfield and Cook Mountain Formations. The shallow aquifer system is organized into five hydrogeologic units: (1) a confining unit composed of the relatively low permeability sediments of the upper alluvium and the loess; (2) the A1 aquifer comprising sand and gravel of the lower alluvium and the fluvial deposits, and sand lenses in the upper part of the preserved section of the Cockfield Formation; (3) a confining unit composed of clay and silt within the upper part of the Cockfield Formation; (4) the Cockfield aquifer comprising sand lenses within the lower part of the preserved section of the Cockfield Formation; and (5) a confining unit formed by low permeability sediments of the Cook Mountain Formation that composes the upper confining unit for the Memphis aquifer. Thicknesses of individual units vary considerably across the facility. Structural and depositional features that affect the occurrence of ground water in the shallow aquifer system include faulting, an erosional scarp, and 'windows' in the confining units. Underlying the

  13. Assessing Ground-Water Contamination Across Broad Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsel, D. R.

    2001-05-01

    Ground-water quality is measured at discrete locations, and often interpreted at local scales. However, regional patterns in ground-water quality can be used to: 1) Assess relations between water quality and broad patterns of human activities or geochemical variation; 2) Reduce monitoring costs by sampling more frequently in areas of highest concentration or vulnerability; 3) Prioritize locations for prevention efforts such as for nitrate reduction, to obtain maximum benefits for lower costs; and 4) Project water-quality conditions to unsampled locations based on a regional understanding or "model". Examples of methods for modeling and interpreting ground-water quality at regional scales are presented along with their utility for cost reduction and contamination prevention purposes.

  14. Ground-Water Data for Georgia, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joiner, Charles N.; Peck, Michael F.; Reynolds, Mark S.; Stayton, Welby L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuous water-level records from 144 wells and water-level measurements from an additional 617 wells in Georgia during 1988 provide the basic data for this report. Daily mean water-level hydrographs for selected wells illustrate the effects that changes ln recharge and discharge have had on the ground-water reservoirs in the State during 1988. Monthly mean water levels are shown for the 10-year period 1979-88. Maps showing the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for Hay 1988 and the Claiborne and Clayton aquifers for October 1988 also are presented. Annual mean water levels in Georgia generally were below those measured in 1987; water levels ranged from 6.9 feet higher to 7.3 feet lower. Record-low water levels were measured during the last half of 1988 in 18 wells tapping the crystalline rock aquifer, the Cretaceous rock aquifer system, the Midville aquifer system, and the Clayton, Upper Floridan, and upper Brunswick aquifers. These record lows were from 0.1 to 1.4 feet lower than the previous record lows. A prolonged drought resulted in decreased recharge to the aquifers and increased ground-water pumping, which caused water levels to decline. Water-quality samples collected periodically throughout Georgia are analyzed as part of areal and regional ground-water studies. Maps showing chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer in October 1988 in coastal Georgia and in the Savannah and Brunswick areas are presented. Periodic monitoring of water quality in the Savannah and Brunswick areas indicates that chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan generally have remained stable.

  15. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Newcomer, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Webber, W.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Raymond, R.G.; Opitz, B.E.

    1993-06-01

    Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals present in ground water as a result of Hanford Site operations and, whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. A total of 720 wells were sampled during 1992 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project prepared water-table maps of DOE`s Hanford Site for June 1992 from water-level elevations measured in 287 wells across the Hanford Site and outlying areas. These maps are used to infer ground-water flow directions and gradients for the interpretation of contaminant transport. Water levels beneath the 200 Areas decreased as much as 0.75 m (2.5 ft) between December 1991 and December 1992. Water levels in the Cold Creek Valley decreased approximately 0.5 m in that same period. The water table adjacent to the Columbia River along the Hanford Reach continues to respond significantly to fluctuations in river stage. These responses were observed in the 100 and 300 areas. The elevation of the ground-water mound beneath B Pond did not change significantly between December 1991 and December 1992. However, water levels from one well located at the center of the mound indicate a water-level rise of approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) during the last quarter of 1992. Water levels measured from unconfined aquifer wells north and east of the Columbia River in 1992 indicate that the primary source of recharge is from irrigation practices.

  16. Carbon biogeochemistry of ground water, Guiyang, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Si-Liang; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Tao, Fa-Xiang; Lang, Yun-Chao; Han, Gui-Lin

    2005-01-01

    Variations in the concentrations and isotopic compositions (delta13C(DIC)) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) reflect contamination and biogeochemical cycling of the carbon in ground water. In order to understand contamination and biogeochemical cycling of DIC, we carried out research on the geochemistry of ground water of Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou Province, China. Results show that ground water is mainly characterized by SO4.HCO3-Ca.Mg and HCO3-Ca.Mg chemical compositions. The hydrochemical characteristics of these types of water are mainly controlled by lithology of the aquifers. HCO3- is the dominant species of DIC in ground water and has lower concentrations and more negative values of delta13C(DIC) in the high-flow (summer monsoon) season, as compared to the low-flow season. This indicates that DIC is relatively enriched in carbon of biological origin in the high-flow season as compared to the low-flow season and that biological activities are the predominant control on shifts of stable carbon isotope values. The evidence that the delta13C(DIC) values of ground water decrease with increasing concentrations of anthropogenic species shows that the carbon isotopic composition of DIC can be a useful tracer of contamination, in addition to biogeochemical cycling of inorganic carbon in ground water. Results from this study show that ground water is impacted by significant levels of contamination from human activities, especially in the urban areas, as well as the northeast and west suburbs, in Guiyang city, southwest China. PMID:16029175

  17. Uranium isotopes in ground water as a prospecting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cowart, J.B.; Osmond, J.K.

    1980-02-01

    The isotopic concentrations of dissolved uranium were determined for 300 ground water samples near eight known uranium accumulations to see if new approaches to prospecting could be developed. It is concluded that a plot of /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratio (A.R.) versus uranium concentration (C) can be used to identify redox fronts, to locate uranium accumulations, and to determine whether such accumulations are being augmented or depleted by contemporary aquifer/ground water conditions. In aquifers exhibiting flow-through hydrologic systems, up-dip ground water samples are characterized by high uranium concentration values (> 1 to 4 ppB) and down-dip samples by low uranium concentration values (less than 1 ppB). The boundary between these two regimes can usually be identified as a redox front on the basis of regional water chemistry and known uranium accumulations. Close proximity to uranium accumulations is usually indicated either by very high uranium concentrations in the ground water or by a combination of high concentration and high activity ratio values. Ground waters down-dip from such accumulations often exhibit low uranium concentration values but retain their high A.R. values. This serves as a regional indicator of possible uranium accumulations where conditions favor the continued augmentation of the deposit by precipitation from ground water. Where the accumulation is being dispersed and depleted by the ground water system, low A.R. values are observed. Results from the Gulf Coast District of Texas and the Wyoming districts are presented.

  18. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  19. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  20. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  1. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  2. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) to prevent contamination of samples and the ground water. ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A...

  3. Quality of ground water in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yee, Johnson J.; Souza, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The major aquifers in Idaho are categorized under two rock types, sedimentary and volcanic, and are grouped into six hydrologic basins. Areas with adequate, minimally adequate, or deficient data available for groundwater-quality evaluations are described. Wide variations in chemical concentrations in the water occur within individual aquifers, as well as among the aquifers. The existing data base is not sufficient to describe fully the ground-water quality throughout the State; however, it does indicate that the water is generally suitable for most uses. In some aquifers, concentrations of fluoride, cadmium, and iron in the water exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking-water standards. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate may cause problems in some local areas. Water-quality data are sparse in many areas, and only general statements can be made regarding the areal distribution of chemical constituents. Few data are available to describe temporal variations of water quality in the aquifers. Primary concerns related to special problem areas in Idaho include (1) protection of water quality in the Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, (2) potential degradation of water quality in the Boise-Nampa area, (3) effects of widespread use of drain wells overlying the eastern Snake River Plain basalt aquifer, and (4) disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Shortcomings in the ground-water-quality data base are categorized as (1) multiaquifer sample inadequacy, (2) constituent coverage limitations, (3) baseline-data deficiencies, and (4) data-base nonuniformity.

  4. Hydrogeolgy and Ground-Water-Flow Simulation in the Former Airfield Area of Naval Support Activity Mid-South, Millington, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, Connor J.; Carmichael, John K.; Ladd, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Naval Support Activity Mid-South is a Department of the Navy base located in Millington, Tennessee. The facility was home to the Naval Aviation Technical Training Center from 1943 until 1996. As part of the Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990, the primary training mission of the facility was realigned and most of the northern part of the base, referred to as the Northside and consisting primarily of an airfield, was transferred to the city of Millington in January 2000. During environmental investigations at the base, plumes of dissolved chlorinated solvents resulting from past aircraft maintenance and training operations were identified in shallow ground water beneath the airfield area. The airfield area containing the plumes has been designated as Area of Concern (AOC) A. Chlorinated solvents, primarily trichloroethene (TCE), are the principal contaminants in ground water at AOC A, with TCE identified in concentrations as high as 4,400 micrograms per liter. The nature and extent of these plumes at AOC A were addressed during a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation, and selected options for remediation currently are being implemented under a corrective action program. As part of these efforts, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working with the Navy and its consultants to study the hydrogeologic framework of the base and surrounding area, with a focus on AOC A. Since 1997, investigations at and near the facility have produced data prompting revisions and additions to information published that year in two USGS reports. The updates are presented in this report and consist primarily of (1) refinements to selected hydrogeologic maps presented in the 1997 reports, on the basis of data collected from new wells at on- and off-base locations, (2) additional hydraulic-conductivity data collected for the alluvial-fluvial deposits aquifer at AOC A, and (3) construction of a potentiometric-surface map of the shallow aquifer for the former part

  5. Selenium speciation in ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-07-10

    Selenium toxicity diseases in animals may occur when the intake exceeds 4 mg/kg and selenium deficiency symptoms may occur when dietary intake is less than 0.04 mg/kg. Since the selenium dietary requirement is very close to toxic concentration, it is important to understand the distribution of selenium in the environment. Selenium occurs in four oxidation states (-II, 0, +IV, and +VI) as selenide, elemental selenium, selenite and selenate. Selenate is reported as more soluble and less adsorbed than selenite. Selenate is more easily leached from soils and is the most available form for plants. Increased mobility of Se into the environment via anthropogenic activities, and the potential oxidation-reduction behavior of the element have made it imperative to study the aquatic chemistry of Se. For this purpose, Se species are divided into two different categories: dissolved Se (in material that passes through filters with 0.45 u openings) and particulate Se (in material of particle size > 0.45 mm) typically suspended sediment and other suspended solids. Element and colloidal phase, not truly dissolved, but passing through the filter is deemed to consist of selenium (-2,0). In dissolved state selenium may exist in three of its four oxidation states; Se(-II), Se(+IV), and Se(+VI). Particulate Se may exist in the same oxidation states as dissolved Se and can be found in different phases of the particulate matter. In sediments, Se may be within the organic material, iron and manganese oxides, carbonates or other mineral phases. The actual chemical forms of Se may be adsorbed to or coprecipitated with these phases (primarily selenite, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) and selenate, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Selenide, Se(-II), can be covalently bound in the organic portion of a sediment. In addition, Se may be found in anoxic sediments as insoluble metal selenide precipitates, an insoluble elemental Se or as ferroselite (FeSe{sub 2}) and Se containing pyrite.

  6. Ground-water models for water resource planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the past decade hydrogeologists have emphasized the development of computer-based mathematical models to aid in the understanding of flow, the transport of solutes, transport of heat, and deformation in the ground-water system. These models have been used to provide information and predictions for water managers. Too frequently, ground-water was neglected in water resource planning because managers believed that it could not be adequately evaluated in terms of availability, quality, and effect of development on surface-water supplies. Now, however, with newly developed digital ground-water models, effects of development can be predicted. Such models have been used to predict hydrologic and quality changes under different stresses. These models have grown in complexity over the last ten years from simple one-layer models to three-dimensional simulations of ground-water flow, which may include solute transport, heat transport, effects of land subsidence, and encroachment of saltwater. Case histories illustrate how predictive ground-water models have provided the information needed for the sound planning and management of water resources in the USA. ?? 1983 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  7. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  8. PRIORITIZATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to identify chemical, physical, bacteriological, and viral contaminants, and their sources, which present the greatest health threat in public ground water supplies in the USA; and to classify (prioritize) such contaminants and relative to their...

  9. EPA'S GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose and the services provided by EPA's Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) will be presented. In 1987 the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Regional Waste Management Offices, and ORD established the Technical Support Project (TSP)

    The purpos...

  10. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  11. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of Issue Papers and Briefing Documents which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. n an attemp...

  12. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  13. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    of the Water Resources Commission to control pollution of ground water, in effect has introduced the doctrine of reasonable use into the law of the State. Excluding controls administered by the Department of Conservation on activities of the oil and gas industry, however, legal controls have not been used abate intrusion of natural saline waters into fresh-water aquifers in response to pumping and other manmade changes in the hydrologic regimen.

  14. Ground-water and stream-water interaction in the Owl Creek basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding of the interaction of ground-water and surface-water resources is vital to water management when water availability is limited.Inflow of ground water is the primary source ofwater during stream base flow. The water chemistry of streams may substantially be affected by that inflow of ground water. This report is part of a study to examine ground-water and surface-water interaction in the Owl Creek Basin, Wyoming, completed by the U.S. Geological Survey incooperation with the Northern Arapaho Tribe and the Shoshone Tribe. During a low flow period between November\\x1113 - 17, 1991, streamflowmeasurements and water-quality samples were collected at 16 selected sites along major streams and tributaries in the Owl Creek Basin,Wyoming. The data were used to identify stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow and to examine causes of changes in stream chemistry.Streamflow measurements, radon-222 activity load, and dissolved solids load were used to identified stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow.Streamflow measurements identified three stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Analysis of radon-222 activity load identified five stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Dissolvedsolids load identified six stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. When these three methods were combined, stream reaches in two areas, theEmbar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area, were identified as receiving ground-water inflow.The Embar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area were then evaluated to determine the source of increased chemical load in stream water. Three potential sources were analyzed: tributary inflow, surficial geology, and anticlines. Two sources,tributary inflow and surficial geology, were related to changes in isotopic ratios and chemical load in the Embar Area. In two reaches in the Embar Area, isotopic ratios of 18O/16O, D/H, and 34S/32S indicated that tributary inflow affected stream-water chemistry. Increased chemical load of

  15. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  16. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1988-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  17. Ground water maps of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, G.L.; Harris, S.F.; Hartman, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of the June 1990, ground water level measurement program at the 100 Areas and 200 Areas of the Hanford Site (Figure 1). The water levels beneath these areas are measured regularly on a semiannual basis and the data received are used to produce the following set of maps for public release. For clarity, the locating prefixes have been omitted from all well numbers shown on the maps. Wells in the 100 Areas have the prefix 199; wells in the 200 Areas have the prefix 299, and the wells outside these areas have the prefix 699. Ground Water Maps of the Hanford Site is prepared by the Geosciences Group, Environmental Division, Westinghouse Hanford Company, for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of

  19. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  20. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  1. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  2. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  3. Ground-water movement and nitrate in ground water, East Erda area, Tooele County, Utah, 1997-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Susong, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrate was discovered in ground water in the east Erda area of Tooele County, Utah, in 1994. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Tooele County, investigated the ground-water flow system and water quality in the eastern part of Tooele Valley to determine (1) the vertical and horizontal distribution of nitrate, (2) the direction of movement of the nitrate contamination, and (3) the source of the nitrate. The potentiometric surface of the upper part of the basin-fill aquifer indicates that the general direction of ground-water flow is to the northwest, the flow system is complex, and there is a ground-water mound probably associated with springs. The spatial distribution of nitrate reflects the flow system with the nitrate contamination split into a north and south part by the ground-water mound. The distribution of dissolved solids and sulfate in ground water varies spatially. Vertical profiles of nitrate in water from selected wells indicate that nitrate contamination generally is in the upper part of the saturated zone and in some wells has moved downward. Septic systems, mining and smelting, agriculture, and natural sources were considered to be possible sources of nitrate contamination in the east Erda area. Septic systems are not the source of nitrate because water from wells drilled upgradient of all septic systems in the area had elevated nitrate concentrations. Mining and smelting activity are a possible source of nitrate contamination but few data are available to link nitrate contamination with mining sites. Natural and agricultural sources of nitrate are present east of the Erda area but few data are available about these sources. The source(s) of nitrate in the east Erda area could not be clearly delineated in spite of considerable effort and expenditure of resources.

  4. Regional Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling analysis of runoff and ground-water recharge for the arid and semiarid southwestern United States was performed to investigate the interactions of climate and other controlling factors and to place the eight study-site investigations into a regional context. A distributed-parameter water-balance model (the Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) was used in the analysis. Data requirements of the BCM included digital representations of topography, soils, geology, and vegetation, together with monthly time-series of precipitation and air-temperature data. Time-series of potential evapotranspiration were generated by using a submodel for solar radiation, taking into account topographic shading, cloudiness, and vegetation density. Snowpack accumulation and melting were modeled using precipitation and air-temperature data. Amounts of water available for runoff and ground-water recharge were calculated on the basis of water-budget considerations by using measured- and generated-meteorologic time series together with estimates of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of subsoil geologic units. Calculations were made on a computational grid with a horizontal resolution of about 270 meters for the entire 1,033,840 square-kilometer study area. The modeling analysis was composed of 194 basins, including the eight basins containing ground-water recharge-site investigations. For each grid cell, the BCM computed monthly values of potential evapotranspiration, soil-water storage, in-place ground-water recharge, and runoff (potential stream flow). A fixed percentage of runoff was assumed to become recharge beneath channels operating at a finer resolution than the computational grid of the BCM. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1941 to 2004 were used to explore climatic variability in runoff and ground-water recharge. The selected approach provided a framework for classifying study-site basins with respect to climate and dominant recharge

  5. Water resources data, Idaho, 2003; Volume 3. Ground water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.; Conti, S.N.; O'Dell, I.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 208 stream-gaging stations and 14 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 50 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 398 groundwater wells; and water levels for 427 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  6. Water resources data, Idaho, 2004; Volume 3. Ground water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.; Conti, S.N.; O'Dell, I.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 209 stream-gaging stations and 8 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 39 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 18 lakes sites, and 395 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  7. FRACFLO. Two-Dimensional Ground Water Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gureghian, A.B.

    1990-07-01

    FRACFLO computes the two-dimensional, space, time dependent, convective dispersive transport of a single radionuclide in an unbounded single or multiple parallel fracture system with constant aperture. It calculates the one-dimensional diffusive transport into the rock matrix as well as the mass flux and cumulative mass flux at any point in the fracture. Steady-state isothermal ground water flow and parallel streamlines are assumed in the fracture, and the rock matrix is considered to be fully saturated with immobile water. The model can treat a single or multiple finite patch source or a Gaussian distributed source subject to a step or band release mode.

  8. Ground water in Myrtle Creek - Glendale area, Douglas County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe briefly the occurence of ground water and to present ground-water information that will help water users, public officials, and planners to determine the probability of obtaining adequate quanitities of good-quality ground water in the Myrtle Creek-Glendale area.

  9. Geology and ground-water resources of Dane County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cline, Denzel R.

    1965-01-01

    The purpose of the ground-water investigation of Dane County, Wis., was to determine the occurrence, movement, quantity, quality, and availability of ground water in the unconsolidated deposits and the underlying bedrock. The relationships between ground water and surface water were studied in general in Dane County and in detail in the Madison metropolitan area. An analysis was made of the hydrologic system of the Yahara River valley and of the effects of ground-water pumpage on that system.

  10. Modeling decadal timescale interactions between surface water and ground water in the central Everglades, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; Newlin, J.T.; Krupa, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Surface-water and ground-water flow are coupled in the central Everglades, although the remoteness of this system has hindered many previous attempts to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water. We modeled flow through a 43,000 ha basin in the central Everglades called Water Conservation Area 2A. The purpose of the model was to quantify recharge and discharge in the basin's vast interior areas. The presence and distribution of tritium in ground water was the principal constraint on the modeling, based on measurements in 25 research wells ranging in depth from 2 to 37 m. In addition to average characteristics of surface-water flow, the model parameters included depth of the layer of 'interactive' ground water that is actively exchanged with surface water, average residence time of interactive ground water, and the associated recharge and discharge fluxes across the wetland ground surface. Results indicated that only a relatively thin (8 m) layer of the 60 m deep surfical aquifer actively exchanges surface water and ground water on a decadal timescale. The calculated storage depth of interactive ground water was 3.1 m after adjustment for the porosity of peat and sandy limestone. Modeling of the tritium data yielded an average residence time of 90 years in interactive ground water, with associated recharge and discharge fluxes equal to 0.01 cm d -1. 3H/3He isotopic ratio measurements (which correct for effects of vertical mixing in the aquifer with deeper, tritium-dead water) were available from several wells, and these indicated an average residence time of 25 years, suggesting that residence time was overestimated using tritium measurements alone. Indeed, both residence time and storage depth would be expected to be overestimated due to vertical mixing. The estimate of recharge and discharge (0.01 cm d-1) that resulted from tritium modeling therefore is still considered reliable, because the ratio of residence time and storage depth (used to

  11. Demonstrating remediation by natural attenuation using numerical ground water models and annual ground water sampling. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Vessely, M.; Moutoux, D.E.; Kampbell, D.; Hansen, J.E.

    1997-09-01

    Activities at a former fire training area at Westover Air Reserve Base (ARB) in Massachusetts resulted in contamination of shallow soils and ground water with a mixture of fuel hydrocarbons and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). Extensive hydrogeologic and geochemical data were collected in May 1995 and in July 1996. A numerical ground water model calibrated using hydrogeologic and geochemical data collected in 1995 was constructed to estimate the fate and transport of the dissolved BTEX compounds. Data collected during the second sampling round was used to assess the accuracy of model predictions and to confirm the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes. Data suggest that BTEX compounds are degrading through aerobic respiration and the anaerobic processes of ferric iron reduction, denitrification, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. A solute fate and transport model predicted that BTEX contaminant levels would increase over a 5-year period due to leaching of contaminants from soils into ground water.

  12. Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Geothermal Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Kennedy, John

    Subsurface geothermal sites are commonly colonized by chemolithotrophic bacteria which use rock minerals and CO_2 as sole nutrients. This type of ``life cradle'' may not only be common on Earth but may also be a likely scenario on many other planets. Three geothermal sites in southern New Mexico have been chosen to characterize geothermal waters for microbial diversity and chemical content. All sites of this on-going study are located on or near the Rio Grande Rift and are tapped into fractured reservoir systems of Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Tertiary volcanic rocks or consolidated basin-fill sediments. Geothermal fluids were analyzed for major cations and anions, selected trace elements, TOC, phosphate, fluoride and dissolved gases. The microbial analysis included phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and DNA sequencing. Geothermal ground water was high in dissolved solids, had high concentrations of carbon dioxide and was more acidic than adjacent ground water not affected by geothermal activity. Geothermal ground-water samples contained very low amounts of biomass composed of relatively simple microbial communities. Several species of Archaebacteria were detected in some of the ground water that was derived from wells tapping into deep fractured systems. The analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) images indicated distinct differences of the types of microbes present in geothermal water compared to an adjacent deep non-thermal flow system.

  13. Pesticides in Ground Water of Wyoming, 1995-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticides Strategy Committee (GPSC) to prepare the State of Wyoming Generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Little existing information was available describing pesticide occurrence in ground water; therefore, statewide baseline ground-water sampling was considered a high priority by the GPSC. The GPSC identified 20 pesticides and degradates for baseline ground-water sampling (referred to herein as focal pesticides). Sampling focused on the State's most vulnerable ground water (Wyoming Ground-water and Pesticides Strategy Committee, 1999) as determined by Hamerlinck and Arneson (1998; fig. 1). Ground-water vulnerability is based on inherent sensitivity of the hydrogeology (such as a shallow water table or highly permeable aquifer materials) and overlying land use.

  14. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  15. Remediation of dichloromethane (DCM)-contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Flathman, P.E.; Jerger, D.E.; Woodhull, P.M. )

    1992-08-01

    This case history describes the physical and biological treatment of dichloromethane (DCM)-contaminated ground water following the rupture of an underground pipeline which contaminated an estimated 11,000 m[sup 3] (14,000 yd[sup 3]) of soil and ground water in the early fall of 1983. Air stripping DCM from recovered ground water was initiated and provided an estimated 97% reduction in the ground water concentration of DCM. When it became evident that physical treatment alone would no longer be effective in removing residual DCM from the ground water environment, the practice of air stripping DCM from recovered ground water was terminated. Biological treatment was initiated and provided greater than a 500,000-fold reduction in the ground water concentration of DCM. Biological treatment had far exceeded the ability of physical treatment along to remediate a ground water environment contaminated with a biodegradable contaminant. 14 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUND WATER EXTRACTION SYSTEMS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common process for remediating contaminated ground water is extraction and treatment. Data from 19 ongoing and completed ground water extraction systems were collected and analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this process in achieving cleanup concentration goals for...

  17. Montana's Coalbed Methane Ground-Water Monitoring Program: Year One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, J. R.; Smith, M.; Donato, T. A.; Bobst, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tertiary coal seams in the Powder River Basin in southeastern Montana provide three very important resources: ground water, coal, and natural gas. Ground water from springs and wells is essential for the local agricultural economy. Because coal seams in the Fort Union Formation have higher hydraulic conductivity values and are more continuous than the sandstone units, they are the primary aquifers in this region. Coalbed methane (CBM) production is beginning in the Powder River Basin, and requires removal and management of large quantities of water from the coal-seam aquifers. The extensive pumping required to produce the methane is expected to create broad areas of severe potentiometric decline. The Montana CBM ground-water monitoring program, now in place, is based on scientific concepts developed during more than 30 years of coal-mine hydrogeology research. The program includes inventories of ground-water resources and regular monitoring at dedicated wells and selected springs. The program is now providing baseline potentiometric and water-quality data, and will continue to be active through the duration of CBM production and post-production ground-water recovery. An extensive inventory of ground-water resources in the Montana portion of the Powder River Basin has located 300 springs and 21 wells on private land, and 460 springs and 21 wells on U. S. Forest Service and U. S. Bureau of Land Management land, all producing ground water from the methane bearing strata. In southeastern Montana, 134 monitoring wells are currently included in the CBM monitoring program. They are completed either in coal seams, adjacent sandstone units, or alluvium. During the coal boom of the 1970's and 1980's many monitoring wells were drilled, but most have been since unused. Thirty-six of these existing wells have now been returned to service to decrease start-up costs for the CBM program. This network of existing wells has been augmented at key sites with 26 new wells drilled

  18. Ground-water quality, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, ground-water samples were collected from 34 existing wells in the Cook Inlet Basin in south-central Alaska during 1999. All ground-water samples were from aquifers composed of glacial or alluvial sediments. The water samples were used to determine the occurrence and distribution of selected major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radioisotopes, and environmental isotopes. Of 34 samples, 29 were from wells chosen by using a grid-based random-selection process. Water samples from five major public-supply wells also were collected. Radon-222 and arsenic concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 39 and 18 percent of sampled wells, respectively. The highest radon concentration measured during this study was 610 picocuries per liter; 12 of 31 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter. The highest arsenic concentration was 29 micrograms per liter; 6 of 34 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter. Human activities may be increasing the concen- tration of nitrate in ground water, but nitrate concentrations in all samples were less than the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Concentrations of nitrate were highest in Anchorage and were as great as 4.8 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 77 to 986 milligrams per liter; only 2 of 34 wells yielded water having greater than 500 milligrams per liter. Iron and manganese concentrations exceeded secondary maximum contaminant levels in 18 and 42 percent of samples, respectively. Concentrations of all pesticides and volatile organic compounds detected in ground-water samples were very low, less than 1 microgram per liter. No pesticide or volatile organic compounds were detected at concentrations

  19. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, P.; Dörfliger, N.; Kennedy, K.; Müller, I.; Aragno, M.

    Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra). In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  20. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  1. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  2. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  3. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  4. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51...

  5. Water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankin, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in two areas of eastern Bernalillo County in central New Mexico between March and July of 1995. Fifty-one wells, two springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County and nine wells in the northeast area of the city of Albuquerque were sampled. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; dissolved arsenic, boron, iron, and manganese; and methylene blue active substances. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground- water-level and well-depth measurements were made at the time of sample collection when possible. Water-quality data, ground- water-level data, and well-depth data are presented in tabular form.

  6. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; New England region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinnott, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Withdrawals of fresh ground water in 1975 aggregated about 220 billion gallons (830 hm3), or about 12 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals (from all sources) of 1,800 billion gallons (6,800 hm3). In view of the available ground-water reserves, considerable additional water, for the anticipated continuing increase in population and economic activity, could be developed.

  7. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2003 - Volume 2. Ground-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams: stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 2 contains a summary of the hydrologic conditions for 2003 water year; a listing of current water resource projects in New Jersey; a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets completed by the Geological Survey in recent years; records of ground-water levels from 185 wells; and a table of discontinued observation wells for which ground-water-level data are available. The locations of the ground-water level sites are shown on figure 4. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, Sate, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  8. Water resources data, New Jersey, water year 2005.Volume 2 - ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2005 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams: stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 2 contains a summary of the hydrologic conditions for 2005 water year; a listing of current water resource projects in New Jersey; a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets completed by the Geological Survey in recent years; records of ground-water levels from 214 wells; and a table of discontinued observation wells for which ground-water-level data are available. The locations of the ground-water level sites are shown on figure 4. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  9. Water resources data, New Jersey, water year 2004--volume 2. ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams: stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 2 contains a summary of the hydrologic conditions for 2004 water year; a listing of current water resource projects in New Jersey; a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets completed by the Geological Survey in recent years; records of ground-water levels from 196 wells; and a table of discontinued observation wells for which ground-water-level data are available. The locations of the ground-water level sites are shown on figure 4. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, Sate, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  10. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  11. Two-Dimensional Ground Water Transport

    1992-03-05

    FRACFLO computes the two-dimensional, space, time dependent, convective dispersive transport of a single radionuclide in an unbounded single or multiple parallel fracture system with constant aperture. It calculates the one-dimensional diffusive transport into the rock matrix as well as the mass flux and cumulative mass flux at any point in the fracture. Steady-state isothermal ground water flow and parallel streamlines are assumed in the fracture, and the rock matrix is considered to be fully saturatedmore » with immobile water. The model can treat a single or multiple finite patch source or a Gaussian distributed source subject to a step or band release mode.« less

  12. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... existing motor vehicle waste disposal wells within your State. (b) Ground water protection areas. (1) For... area is complete every existing motor vehicle waste disposal well owner in that ground water protection.... Existing motor vehicle waste disposal well owners and operators within other sensitive ground water...

  13. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... existing motor vehicle waste disposal wells within your State. (b) Ground water protection areas. (1) For... area is complete every existing motor vehicle waste disposal well owner in that ground water protection.... Existing motor vehicle waste disposal well owners and operators within other sensitive ground water...

  14. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... apply to all existing motor vehicle waste disposal wells within your State. (b) Ground Water Protection... protection area is complete every existing motor vehicle waste disposal well owner in that ground water.... Existing motor vehicle waste disposal well owners and operators within other sensitive ground water...

  15. The role of ground water in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Braune, Eberhard; Xu, Yongxin

    2010-01-01

    Although water resources managers speak of a water crisis in Africa, the management of ground water has to date not featured strongly in national and regional African water agendas. Examination of the physical environment of the continent and, in particular, the water resources in relation to the socioeconomic landscape and regional development challenges makes it clear that widely occurring, albeit largely low-yielding, ground water resources will be crucial in the achievement of water security and development. Ground water is important primarily in domestic water and sanitation services, but also for other local productive needs like community gardens, stock watering, and brick-making, all essential to secure a basic livelihood and thus to alleviate poverty. Despite the importance of small-scale farming in Africa, there is little information on the present and potential role of ground water in agriculture. In contrast to its socioeconomic and ecological importance, ground water has remained a poorly understood and managed resource. Widespread contamination of ground water resources is occurring, and the important environmental services of ground water are neglected. There appear to be critical shortcomings in the organizational framework and the building of institutional capacity for ground water. Addressing this challenge will require a much clearer understanding and articulation of ground water's role and contribution to national and regional development objectives and an integrated management framework, with top-down facilitation of local actions.

  16. Environmental isotopes as indicators for ground water recharge to fractured granite.

    PubMed

    Ofterdinger, U S; Balderer, W; Loew, S; Renard, P

    2004-01-01

    To assess the contribution of accumulated winter precipitation and glacial meltwater to the recharge of deep ground water flow systems in fracture crystalline rocks, measurements of environmental isotope ratios, hydrochemical composition, and in situ parameters of ground water were performed in a deep tunnel. The measurements demonstrate the significance of these ground water recharge components for deep ground water flow systems in fractured granites of a high alpine catchment in the Central Alps, Switzerland. Hydrochemical and in situ parameters, as well as delta(18)O in ground water samples collected in the tunnel, show only small temporal variations. The precipitation record of delta(18)O shows seasonal variations of approximately 14% and a decrease of 0.23% +/- 0.03% per 100 m elevation gain. delta(2)H and delta(18)O in precipitation are well correlated and plot close to the meteoric water line, as well as delta(2)H and delta(18)O in ground water samples, reflecting the meteoric origin of the latter. The depletion of 18O in ground water compared to 18O content in precipitation during the ground water recharge period indicates significant contributions from accumulated depleted winter precipitation to ground water recharge. The hydrochemical composition of the encountered ground water, Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4(-F), reflects an evolution of the ground water along the flowpath through the granite body. Observed tritium concentrations in ground water range from 2.6 to 16.6 TU, with the lowest values associated with a local negative temperature anomaly and anomalous depleted 18O in ground water. This demonstrates the effect of local ground water recharge from meltwater of submodern glacial ice. Such localized recharge from glaciated areas occurs along preferential flowpaths within the granite body that are mainly controlled by observed hydraulic active shear fractures and cataclastic faults.

  17. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  18. Monitoring for pesticides in ground water in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Patricia A.; Moses, Charles W.; Bevans, Hugh E.

    1997-01-01

    Many pesticides designed to control weed encroachment, plant disease, and insect predation are used in agricultural and urban areas in the United States. Contamination of ground water by pesticides has increased over the last 20 years (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). In 1985, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimated the detection of at least 17 agricultural pesticides in the ground water of 23 states. By 1988, pesticides identified in ground water had increased to 46 in 26 states. To protect ground water from pesticide contamination, USEPA, through the Federal Fungicide Insecticide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), requires all states to institute a ground-water protection program.

  19. Ground-water quality in selected areas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of 2,071 ground-water samples from 970 wells throughout Wisconsin indicate large variations in ground-water quality. Ground water in Wisconsin is generally suitable for most uses, but in some areas concentrations of chemical constituents exceed recommended drinking-water standards. Iron, manganese, and nitrate commonly exceed recommended drinking-water standards and dissolved solids, sulfate, heavy metals, and phenolic materials may present local problems. (USGS)

  20. Sulfate reduction in ground water of southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dockins, William S.; Olson, G.J.; McFeters, G.A.; Turbak, S.C.; Lee, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Ground waters in southeastern Montana were investigated to determine if sulfide production was bacterially mediated. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected in 25 of 26 groundwater samples in numbers ranging from 20 to greater than 24,000 bacteria per 100 milliliters for those samples containing bacteria. Stable sulfur isotope fractionation studies indicate a biological role in sulfate reduction. However, sulfate-reducing activity as determined by use of a radioactive sulfur isotope was observed in only 1 of 16 samples. Bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction is postulated to be responsible for a major part of the sulfide produced in these ground waters. These bacteria are most likely active in the adsorbed state, possibly in subsurface microzones where environmental conditions are conducive to sulfate reduction. (USGS)

  1. National water summary 1986; Hydrologic events and ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, David W.; Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    -scale, or nonpoint, sources of contamination such as agricultural activities or highdensity domestic waste disposal (septic systems) in urban centers. At present, only a very small percentage of the total volume of potable ground water in the United States is contaminated from both point and nonpoint sources; however, available data, especially data about the occurrence of synthetic organic and toxic substances, generally are inadequate to determine the full extent of ground-water contamination in the Nation's aquifers or to define trends in groundwater quality. Most information about the occurrence of these substances has come from the study of individual sites or areas where contamination had already been detected or suspected. Management and protection of ground water present a major challenge to the Nation. Current and projected costs of detection and cleanup of existing ground-water contamination are staggering and, even so, complete removal of pollutants from ground water in the vicinity of some waste sites might not be technically feasible. At all levels of government, the task of protecting the resource for its most beneficial uses is difficult and controversial. Despite increasing awareness that some of the Nation's ground water is contaminated with a variety of toxic metals, synthetic organic chemicals, radionuclides, pesticides, and other contaminants that might present a long-term risk to human health, public policy towards ground-water protection is still in the formative stages. Despite increasing efforts devoted to ground-water protection by State and Federal regulatory and resource-management agencies, the extent of ground-water contamination is likely to appear to increase over the next few years because more agencies will be searching for evidence of contamination, and they will be using increasingly sensitive analytical procedures. Increased technology and expanded monitoring activities probably will detect the effects of past contamination and land uses

  2. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 3B. Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.; Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 406 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 142 streams, periodic stage for 12 streams, peak stage and discharge for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 11 lakes, periodic elevations for 30 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 424 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,426 wells, and quality-of-water data for 80 surface-water sites and 245 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 33 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 347 wells; and water quality at 25 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  3. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2005. Volume 3B: Southwest Florida ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2005 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 429 streams, periodic discharge for 9 streams, continuous or daily stage for 218 streams, periodic stage for 5 streams, peak stage for 28 streams and peak discharge for 28 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 15 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 401 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,098 wells, and quality-of-water data for 211 surface-water sites and 208 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 108 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 24 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 354 wells; and water quality at 2 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  4. Water resources data Florida, water year 2004: Volume 3B: southwest Florida ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous or daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 streams, peak stage for 30 streams and peak discharge for 30 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,188 wells, and quality-of-water data for 140 surface-water sites and 240 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 98 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 56 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 374 wells; and water quality at 25 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  5. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2002, Volume 3B. Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 392 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous daily stage for 191 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 33 streams and peak discharge for 33 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 49 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 418 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,287 wells, and quality-of-water data for 116 surface-water sites and 291 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 125 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 377 wells; and water quality at 46 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  6. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3B: Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.; Fletcher, William L.; Lane, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 405 wells; and water quality at 32 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  7. A ground-water-quality monitoring program for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlin, Jon O.

    1986-01-01

    A program was designed for the systematic monitoring of ground-water quality in Nevada. Basic hydrologic and water-quality principles are discussed in the formulation of a rational approach to developing a statewide monitoring program. A review of ground-water monitoring efforts in Nevada through 1977 indicates that few requirements for an effective statewide program are being met. A suggested program has been developed that consists of five major elements: (1) A Background-Quality Network to assess the existing water quality in Nevada aquifers, (2) a Contamination Source Inventory of known or potential threats to ground-water quality, (3) Surveillance Networks to monitor ground-water quality in selected hydrographic areas, (4) Intensive Surveys of individual instances of known or potential ground-water contamination, and (5) Ground-Water Data File to manage data generated by the other monitoring elements. Two indices have been developed to help assign rational priorities for monitoring ground water in the 255 hydrographic areas of Nevada: (1) A Hydrographic-Area Priority Index for surveillance monitoring, and (2) A Development-Potential Index for background monitoring of areas with little or no current development. Requirements for efficient management of data from ground-water monitoring are discussed and the three major systems containing Nevada ground-water data are reviewed. More than 11,000 chemical analyses of ground water have been acquired from existing systems and incorporated into a prototype data base.

  8. High Plains Regional Ground-water Study web site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    Now available on the Internet is a web site for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program- High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The purpose of the web site is to provide public access to a wide variety of information on the USGS investigation of the ground-water resources within the High Plains aquifer system. Typical pages on the web site include the following: descriptions of the High Plains NAWQA, the National NAWQA Program, the study-area setting, current and past activities, significant findings, chemical and ancillary data (which can be downloaded), listing and access to publications, links to other sites about the High Plains area, and links to other web sites studying High Plains ground-water resources. The High Plains aquifer is a regional aquifer system that underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming). Because the study area is so large, the Internet is an ideal way to provide project data and information on a near real-time basis. The web site will be a collection of living documents where project data and information are updated as it becomes available throughout the life of the project. If you have an interest in the High Plains area, you can check this site periodically to learn how the High Plains NAWQA activities are progressing over time and access new data and publications as they become available.

  9. Flow and geochemistry along shallow ground-water flowpaths in an agricultural area in southeastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, D.A.; Thorstenson, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Ground water recharging at mid- and downgradient wells is oxic and contains dissolved nitrate, whereas the ground water discharging to the stream is anoxic and contains dissolved ammonium. Redox environments were defined at each well on the basis of relative concentrations of various dissolved redox-active species. Chemically permissible flowpaths inferred from the observed sequence of redox environments at well sites are consistent with flowpaths in the ground-water flow model. The transition from nitrate in recharging groun

  10. Implications of ground water chemistry and flow patterns for earthquake studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guangcai, W.; Zuochen, Z.; Min, W.; Cravotta, C.A.; Chenglong, L.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water can facilitate earthquake development and respond physically and chemically to tectonism. Thus, an understanding of ground water circulation in seismically active regions is important for earthquake prediction. To investigate the roles of ground water in the development and prediction of earthquakes, geological and hydrogeological monitoring was conducted in a seismogenic area in the Yanhuai Basin, China. This study used isotopic and hydrogeochemical methods to characterize ground water samples from six hot springs and two cold springs. The hydrochemical data and associated geological and geophysical data were used to identify possible relations between ground water circulation and seismically active structural features. The data for ??18O, ??D, tritium, and 14C indicate ground water from hot springs is of meteoric origin with subsurface residence times of 50 to 30,320 years. The reservoir temperature and circulation depths of the hot ground water are 57??C to 160??C and 1600 to 5000 m, respectively, as estimated by quartz and chalcedony geothermometers and the geothermal gradient. Various possible origins of noble gases dissolved in the ground water also were evaluated, indicating mantle and deep crust sources consistent with tectonically active segments. A hard intercalated stratum, where small to moderate earthquakes frequently originate, is present between a deep (10 to 20 km), high-electrical conductivity layer and the zone of active ground water circulation. The ground water anomalies are closely related to the structural peculiarity of each monitoring point. These results could have implications for ground water and seismic studies in other seismogenic areas. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  11. Ground-water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1990-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kues, G.E.; Garcia, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in four unincorporated areas of Bernalillo County during 1990-93. Twenty wells in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County were sampled approximately monthly between January 1990 and June 1993. The water samples were analyzed for concentrations of chloride and selected nutrient species; many of the samples also were analyzed for concentrations of total organic carbon and dissolved boron and iron. Eleven wells northeast of the city of Albuquerque, 20 wells in the Rio Grande Valley immediately north of Albuquerque, and 30 wells in the Rio Grande Valley immediately south of Albuquerque were sampled once each between December 1992 and September 1993; all water samples were analyzed for chloride and selected nutrient species, and selected samples from wells in the north and south valley areas were also analyzed for major dissolved constituents, iron, manganese, and methylene blue active substances. Samples from 10 of the wells in the north and south valley areas were analyzed for 47 selected pesticides. Field measurements of specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were made on most samples at the time of sample collection. Water levels also were measured at the time of sample collection when possible. Results of the monthly water-quality and water-level monitoring in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County are presented in graphical form. Water-quality and water-level data collected from the other areas are presented in tabular form.

  12. Water resources data--North Dakota, water year 2004, volume 2. Ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, S.M.; Wald, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains water-level records for 135 ground-water wells and water-quality records for 97 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  13. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  14. Model of tritium dispersion by ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubev, A. V.; Mavrin, S. V.; Sten'gach, A. V.

    2000-07-01

    A three-dimensional model of ground-water contamination in the zone of a steady source of tritium is presented. The model is oriented toward long-term modeling of contamination (for up to several decades) on a large area (of up to several hundred square kilometers) where the contaminant arrives through the roof of the aquiferous stratum by infiltration. The three-dimensional equation of convective diffusion is solved numerically by the method of splitting. The convective component is calculated by the method of particles. The dispersion component of the transfer is calculated using the finite-difference method. A transformation of the vertical coordinate is introduced. A solution of the model problem is presented and an interpretation of the results is given.

  15. Ground-water flow and water quality in the sand aquifer of Long Beach Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a study that was undertaken to improve the understanding of ground-water flow and water quality in the coastal sand aquifer of the Long Beach Peninsula of southwestern Washington. Data collected for the study include monthly water levels at 103 wells and 28 surface-water sites during 1992, and water-quality samples from about 40 wells and 13 surface-water sites in February and July 1992. Ground water generally flows at right angles to a ground-water divide along the spine of the low-lying peninsula. Historical water-level data indicate that there was no long-term decline in the water table from 1974 to 1992. The water quality of shallow ground water was generally good with a few local problems. Natural concentrations of dissolved iron were higher than 0.3 milligrams per liter in about one-third of the samples. The dissolved-solids concentrations were generally low, with a range of 56 to 218 milligrams per liter. No appreciable amount of seawater has intruded into the sand aquifer, chloride concentrations were low, with a maximum of 52 milligrams per liter. Agricultural activities do not appear to have significantly affected the quality of ground water. Concentrations of nutrients were low in the cranberry-growing areas, and selected pesticides were not found above the analytical detection limits. Septic systems probably caused an increase in the concentration of nitrate from medians of less than 0.05 milligrams per liter in areas of low population density to 0.74 milligrams per liter in areas of high density.

  16. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  17. Isotopes and sustainability of ground water resources, North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Zongyu, Chen; Zhenlong, Nie; Zhaoji, Zhang; Jixiang, Qi; Yunju, Nan

    2005-01-01

    Ground water in deep confined aquifers is one of the major water resources for agricultural, industrial, and domestic uses in the North China Plain. Detailed information on ground water age and recharge is vital for the proper management of these water resources, and to this end, we used carbon 14 of dissolved inorganic carbon and tritium in water to measure the age and determine the recharge areas of ground water in the North China Plain. These isotopic data suggest that most ground water in the piedmont part of the North China Plain is <40 years old and is recharged locally. In contrast, ground water in the central and littoral portions of the North China Plain is 10,000 to 25,000 years old. The delta18O (deltaD) values of this ground water are 1.7 per thousand (11 per thousand) less than that in the piedmont plain ground water and possibly reflect water recharged during a cooler climate during the last glaciation. The temperature of this recharge, based on delta18O values, ranges from 3.7 degrees C to 8.4 degrees C, compared to 12 degrees C to 13 degrees C of modern recharge water. The isotopic data set combined indicates that ground water in the central and littoral part of the North China Plain is being mined under non-steady state conditions.

  18. Hydrogeologic setting, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow at the O-Field area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, W.S.; Smith, B.S.; Donnelly, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at O-Field in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from before World War II until at least the 1950's. Soil, ground water, surface water,and wetland sediments in the O-Field area were contaminated from the disposal activity. A ground-water-flow model of the O-Field area was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1989 to simulate flow in the central and southern part of the Gunpowder Neck. The USGS began an additional study of the contamination in the O-Field area in cooperation with the U.S. Army in 1990 to (1) further define the hydrogeologic framework of the O-Field area, (2) characterize the hydraulic properties of the aquifers and confining units, and (3) define ground-water flow paths at O-Field based on the current data and simulations of ground-water flow. A water-table aquifer, an upper confining unit, and an upper confined aquifer comprise the shallow ground-water aquifer system of the O-Field area. A lower confining unit, through which ground-water movement is negligible, is considered a lower boundary to the shallow aquifer system. These units are all part of the Pleistocene Talbot Formation. The model developed in the previous study was redesigned using the data collected during this study and emphasized New O-Field. The current steady-state model was calibrated to water levels of June 1993. The rate of ground-water flow calculated by the model was approximately 0.48 feet per day (ft/d) and the rate determined from chlorofluorocarbon dates was approximately 0.39 ft/d.

  19. In Situ Tritium Probe for Ground Water Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, C.

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has requested a probe system that can provide daily measurements of tritium in ground waters, fit into 5 cm diameter ground water monitor wells, and survive extended periods (months to years) at hydrostatic pressures of 12,000 kPa (1800 psi) and water temperatures to 60oC. The analytical Minimum Detectable Limit Allowable (MDA) requested for tritium in solution is <1,000 picoCuries per liter (pCi L-1) and preferably <300 pCi L-1 (11 Bq L-1). The In Situ Tritium probe system (ITP) must produce analytical results without drawing a ground water sample to the surface while operating unattended and automatically download data from remote well sites without external power or communication lines. An ITP has been developed that satisfies most of these requirements. A prototype system that demonstrated proof-of-principal was deployed successfully in shallow monitor wells. Ground water samples were processed and analyzed onboard the prototype ITP and data automatically transmitted to the wellhead. A third generation tritium detection and measurement cell that quantitatively measures dissolved tritium at activities <2,000 pCi L-1 has been tested under laboratory conditions. This, or a more sensitive, detection cell will be integrated into the ITP platform and deployed for extensive tests in deep monitor wells at the USDOE/NNSA Nevada Test Site within the next two years. Ultimate goals for the ITP system are low detection limits for dissolved tritium (<300 pCi L-1) plus additional analytical capabilities for nuclear and chemical parameters such as in situ gamma and neutron fluxes, pH, EH, EC, concentrations of specific aqueous components, etc.

  20. Geology and occurrence of ground water in Lyon County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.

    1963-01-01

    Large quantities of ground water are available from melt-water channels in the county. Moderate quantities, adequate for domestic and small industrial needs, are available from many of the small isolated deposits of sand and gravel in the till. Small quantities of ground water, adequate only for domestic supply, generally can be obtained from Cretaceous sandstone.

  1. Ground-water resources of Rusk County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandeen, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Some mineralization of ground water is due to natural causes. Other mineralization of ground water is due to contamination. A program needs to be initiated to determine the extent and cause of mineralization that has taken place in freshwater sands. Water-quality data is needed at Henderson in order to monitor saltwater encroachment.

  2. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aquifer (as defined in § 257.5(b)) that: (1) Represent the quality of background ground water that has not...-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. The relevant point of compliance specified by the Director... uppermost aquifer. (b) The Director of an approved State may approve a multi-unit ground-water...

  3. Ground-water resources of Catron County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basabilvazo, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground-water and related surface-water resources in Catron County, the largest county in New Mexico. The county is located in the Lower Colorado River Basin and the Rio Grande Basin, and the Continental Divide is the boundary between the two river basins. Increases in water used for mining activities (coal, mineral, and geothermal), irrigated agriculture, reservoir construction, or domestic purposes could affect the quantity or quality of ground- water and surface-water resources in the county. Parts of seven major drainage basins are within the two regional river basins in the county--Carrizo Wash, North Plains, Rio Salado, San Agustin, Alamosa Creek, Gila, and San Francisco Basins. The San Francisco, Gila, and Tularosa Rivers typically flow perennially. During periods of low flow, most streamflow is derived from baseflow. The stream channels of the Rio Salado and Carrizo Wash Basins are commonly perennial in their upper reaches and ephemeral in their lower reaches. Largo Creek in the Carrizo Wash Basin is perennial downstream from Quemado Lake and ephemeral in the lower reaches. Aquifers in Catron County include Quaternary alluvium and bolson fill; Quaternary to Tertiary Gila Conglomerate; Tertiary Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Datil Group, and Baca Formation; Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Crevasse Canyon Formation, Gallup Sandstone, Mancos Shale, and Dakota Sandstone; Triassic Chinle Formation; and undifferentiated rocks of Permian age. Water in the aquifers in the county generally is unconfined; however, confined conditions may exist where the aquifers are overlain by other units of lower permeability. Yields of ground water from the Quaternary alluvium in the county range from 1 to 375 gallons per minute. Yields of ground water from the alluvium in the Carrizo Wash Basin are as much as 250 gallons per minute for short time periods. North of the Plains of San Agustin, ground-water yields from the

  4. Ground-Water Hydrology of the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.; Morgan, David S.; Collins, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The upper Deschutes Basin is among the fastest growing regions in Oregon. The rapid population growth has been accompanied by increased demand for water. Surface streams, however, have been administratively closed to additional appropriation for many years, and surface water is not generally available to support new development. Consequently, ground water is being relied upon to satisfy the growth in water demand. Oregon water law requires that the potential effects of ground-water development on streamflow be evaluated when considering applications for new ground-water rights. Prior to this study, hydrologic understanding has been insufficient to quantitatively evaluate the connection between ground water and streamflow, and the behavior of the regional ground-water flow system in general. This report describes the results of a hydrologic investigation undertaken to provide that understanding. The investigation encompasses about 4,500 square miles of the upper Deschutes River drainage basin.A large proportion of the precipitation in the upper Deschutes Basin falls in the Cascade Range, making it the principal ground-water recharge area for the basin. Water-balance calculations indicate that the average annual rate of ground- water recharge from precipitation is about 3,500 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Water-budget calculations indicate that in addition to recharge from precipitation, water enters the ground-water system through interbasin flow. Approximately 800 ft3/s flows into the Metolius River drainage from the west and about 50 ft3/s flows into the southeastern part of the study area from the Fort Rock Basin. East of the Cascade Range, there is little or no ground-water recharge from precipitation, but leaking irrigation canals are a significant source of artificial recharge north of Bend. The average annual rate of canal leakage during 1994 was estimated to be about 490 ft3/s. Ground water flows from the Cascade Range through permeable volcanic rocks

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  6. An overview of ground-water quality data in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains a summary of ground-water-quality data for Wisconsin and an evaluation of the adequacy of these data for assessing the impact of land disposal of wastes on ground-water quality. Chemical analyses used in data summaries were limited to those stored in the USGS computer system (WATSTORE). Information on documented instances of ground-water contamination and sources of potential contamination from land disposal of wastes was provided by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Available data provide an overview of ground water quality but may be insufficient for assessment of ground-water contamination from land disposal of wastes. Many sources of potential ground-water contamination (landfills, surface waste-storage impoundments, and buried tanks) are known. Some of these are probably causing local ground-water contamination that is not apparent from available regional data. Information needs for assessment of ground-water contamination from land disposal of wastes include improved understanding of both ground-water hydrology and the chemical behavior of specific contaminants in the environment. (USGS)

  7. Georgia's Ground-Water Resources and Monitoring Network, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is an abundant resource in Georgia, providing 1.45 billion gallons per day, or 22 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in the State (Fanning, 2003). Contrasting geologic features and landforms of the physiographic provinces of Georgia affect the quantity and quality of ground water throughout the State. Most ground-water withdrawals are in the Coastal Plain in the southern one-half of the State, where aquifers are highly productive. For a more complete discussion of the State's ground-water resources, see Leeth and others (2005).

  8. An application of thermometry to the study of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    The precise measurement of fluctuations in ground-water temperature, based on monthly readings in shallow glacial-outwash aquifers (up to about 70 feet deep), is useful in the study of ground-water movement and recharge. In addition to the study of natural phenomena in the hydrologic cycle, thermometry may be used as a tool in making detailed studies of (1) the effects of inducing the infiltration of surface water, (2) artificial recharge, (3) the effects of injecting petroleum products or radioactive or other wastes into the ground, and (4) ground-water movement in mines.

  9. Hanford Site environmental data for calendar year 1990 -- Ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Bates, D.J.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-03-01

    This report tabulates ground-water radiological and chemical data for calendar year 1990 by the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, reported Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Monitoring, and Operational Monitoring. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the RCRA and Operational Monitoring Projects are conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. This document supplements the reports Hanford Site Ground-Water Monitoring for 1990 (Evans et al. 1992) and mental Report for Calendar Year 1990 (Woodruff and Hanf 1991). The data listings provided here were generated from the Hanford Environmental Information System database.

  10. Hanford Site environmental data for calendar year 1991 -- Ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Bates, D.J.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-03-01

    This report tabulates ground-water radiological and chemical data reported for calendar year 1991 by the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Monitoring, and Operational Monitoring. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the RCRA and Operational Monitoring Projects are conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. This document supplements the reports Hanford Site Ground-Water Monitoring for 1991 (Evans et al. 1992) and Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1991 (Woodruff and Hanf 1992). The data listings provided here were generated from the Hanford Environmental Information System database.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  12. Relation of Chlorofluorocarbon Ground-Water Age Dates to Water Quality in Aquifers of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Kurt, J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    contain wastewater from domestic or industrial sources with CFC concentrations greater than modern atmospheric levels. However, based on a lack of detections of the volatile organic compounds analyzed for in most of the water samples collected for this and similar USGS investigations, ground-water resources of West Virginia used for public and private consumption do not appear to be routinely affected by anthropogenic activities despite their young apparent age.

  13. Effects of aquifer heterogeneity on ground-water flow and chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer near and within an active pumping well field, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tihansky, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Formation and the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, seismic-reflection data and photolinear analyses indicate that fractures and discontinuities in the Ocala Limestone are present within the southwestern part of the well field. It is possible that some fracture zones extend upward from the Avon Park Formation through the Ocala, Suwannee, and Tampa Limestones to land surface. These fractures may provide a more direct hydrologic connection between transmissive zones that are vertically separated by less permeable stratigraphic units. Ground water moves along permeable zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer in response to changes in head gradients as a result of pumping. Borehole geophysical measurements, including flow logs, specific conductance logs, and continuous monitoring of specific conductance at selected fixed depths, indicate that borehole specific conductance varies substantially with time and in response to pumping stresses. Ground-water mixing between hydrogeologic units likely occurs along highly transmissive zones and within boreholes of active production wells. Ground-water movement and water-quality changes were greatest along the most transmissive zones. Variable mixing of three water-type end members (freshwater, deepwater, and saltwater) occurs throughout the study area. Both deepwater and saltwater are likely sources for elevated chloride and sulfate concentrations in ground water. Mass-balance calculations of mixtures of the three end members indicate that deepwater is found throughout the aquifer units. Samples from wells within the southwestern part of the well field indicate that deepwater migrates into the shallow permeable units in the southwestern part of the well field. Deepwater contributes to elevated sulfate and chloride concentrations, which increase with depth and are elevated in wells less than 400 feet deep. The greatest increases in chloride concentrations over time are found in water from wells closest to the saltwater interface. Gro

  14. A geographic data model for representing ground water systems.

    PubMed

    Strassberg, Gil; Maidment, David R; Jones, Norm L

    2007-01-01

    The Arc Hydro ground water data model is a geographic data model for representing spatial and temporal ground water information within a geographic information system (GIS). The data model is a standardized representation of ground water systems within a spatial database that provides a public domain template for GIS users to store, document, and analyze commonly used spatial and temporal ground water data sets. This paper describes the data model framework, a simplified version of the complete ground water data model that includes two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) object classes for representing aquifers, wells, and borehole data, and the 3D geospatial context in which these data exist. The framework data model also includes tabular objects for representing temporal information such as water levels and water quality samples that are related with spatial features. PMID:17600583

  15. Ground-water sapping processes, Western Desert, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W.; Arvidson, R.E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Crombie, M.K.; Sturchio, N.; Alfy, Z.E.

    1997-01-01

    Depressions of the Western Desert of Egypt (specifically, Kharga, Farafra, and Kurkur regions) are mainly occupied by shales that are impermeable, but easily erodible by rainfall and runoff, whereas the surrounding plateaus are composed of limestones that are permeable and more resistant to fluvial erosion under semiarid to arid conditions. A computer simulation model was developed to quantify the ground-water sapping processes, using a cellular automata algorithm with coupled surface runoff and ground-water flow for a permeable, resistant layer over an impermeable, friable unit. Erosion, deposition, slumping, and generation of spring-derived tufas were parametrically modeled. Simulations using geologically reasonable parameters demonstrate that relatively rapid erosion of the shales by surface runoff, ground-water sapping, and slumping of the limestones, and detailed control by hydraulic conductivity inhomogeneities associated with structures explain the depressions, escarpments, and associated landforms and deposits. Using episodic wet pulses, keyed by {delta}{sup 18}O deep-sea core record, the model produced tufa ages that are statistically consistent with the observed U/Th tufa ages. This result supports the hypothesis that northeastern African wet periods occurred during interglacial maxima. This {delta}{sup 18}O-forced model also replicates the decrease in fluvial and sapping activity over the past million years. 65 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Johnson, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    At least eight urban areas in the world have encountered significant economic impact from land subsidence caused by pumping of ground water from unconsolidated sediment. The areas, most of which are coastal, include Bangkok, Houston, Mexico City, Osaka, San Jose, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Venice. Flooding related to decreased ground elevation is the principal adverse effect of the subsidence. Lesser effects include regional tilting, well-casing failures, "rising" buildings, and ground failure or rupture. Subsidence of most of these urban areas began before the phenomenon was discovered and understood. Thus, the subsidence problems were unanticipated. Methods to arrest subsidence typically have included control of ground water pumping and development of surface water to offset the reductions of ground water pumping. Ground water recharge has also been practiced. Areas threatened by flooding have been protected by extensive networks of dikes and sea walls, locks, and pumping stations to remove storm runoff. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  17. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...

  18. On ground water residence time in karst aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovsek, Franci; Petric, Metka; Kogovšek, Janja; Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Residence time of groundwater in karst aquifers span several orders of magnitude. To demonstrate some parts of this wide spectrum, several approaches are presented here. First, a genetic numerical model is used to study the spreading of plumes through confined telogenetic karst aquifer. Digital models of fractured karst aquifer at different stages of early karstification with well defined flow velocities are used as a "test sites". A particle tracking algorithm is applied to study the advective spreading of plumes caused by instantaneous input into selected region of the modelling domain. The simulations shows high variability of the resulting transfer functions, depending on the stage of evolution, the structure of initial network, the boundary conditions and the location of particle injection. Besides idealistic modelling scenario, several field studies in Dinaric karst systems in Slovenia are reviewed with focus to the ground water residence time. The methods include dye tracing experiments and continuous monitoring of ground water in epiphreatic caves. The studied systems have evolved in complex tectonic settings and are characterised by the network of epiphreatic conduits, interrupted by large collapse chambers and dolines. Dye tracing experiments revealed surprising flow paths and high variations of residence time at different hydrological conditions. Important information on the velocity of groundwater flow in large epiphreatic conduits can be obtained from continuous and simultaneous monitoring of ground water parameters in active caves in a selected system. Such cases from Reka - Timavo system and Postojna - Planina cave system are presented, where temperature is used as a ground water tracer and the results were compared to the results of dye tracing. Vadose zone presents the biggest challenge for characterisation of groundwater flow in karst. Many different flow paths show extremely high variability in flow velocities/residence times. These is

  19. Guide to North Dakota's Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  20. Ground-water monitoring in the Albuquerque area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Condé R.

    1996-01-01

    At present (1996), all drinking water for Albuquerque residents comes from ground-water reserves. The Albuquerque area is the largest population center in the State and the largest consumer of ground water. Recent reports concerning the water resources of the Albuquerque area suggest that the Albuquerque Basin may soon face serious water-availability and water-quality problems due to anticipated ground-water development. Recent studies completed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have improved the understanding of the ground-water resources in the Albuquerque Basin. These studies have indicated that the more permeable units within the aquifer system--the upper Santa Fe Group--are less extensive than previously thought, and that water-levels have declined as much as 160 feet.

  1. Ground water flow analysis of a mid-Atlantic outer coastal plain watershed, Virginia, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael A; Reay, William G

    2002-01-01

    Models for ground water flow (MODFLOW) and particle tracking (MODPATH) were used to determine ground water flow patterns, principal ground water discharge and recharge zones, and estimates of ground water travel times in an unconfined ground water system of an outer coastal plain watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. By coupling recharge and discharge zones within the watershed, flowpath analysis can provide a method to locate and implement specific management strategies within a watershed to reduce ground water nitrogen loading to surface water. A monitoring well network was installed in Eyreville Creek watershed, a first-order creek, to determine hydraulic conductivities and spatial and temporal variations in hydraulic heads for use in model calibration. Ground water flow patterns indicated the convergence of flow along the four surface water features of the watershed; primary discharge areas were in the nontidal portions of the watershed. Ground water recharge zones corresponded to the surface water features with minimal development of a regional ground water system. Predicted ground water velocities varied between < 0.01 to 0.24 m/day, with elevated values associated with discharge areas and areas of convergence along surface water features. Some ground water residence times exceeded 100 years, although average residence times ranged between 16 and 21 years; approximately 95% of the ground water resource would reflect land use activities within the last 50 years.

  2. Ground water contamination from creosote sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiilerich, O.; Arvin, E.

    1996-05-01

    Field data from 44 waste sites contaminated with creosote have been compiled in a database. The data from each site included geological and hydrogeological parameters and the concentrations of creosote compounds in the ground water at various distances from the pollution sources. The creosote compounds that were measured included mononuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and phenols. Already 50 m down-gradient of the creosote waste sites, 90% of the concentrations were from three to 50 times lower than at the source, and most of the median concentrations were below detection limit (0.1 to 0.5 {micro}g/L). The maximum concentrations of benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) and phenols were much lower under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. Among the phenols, the xylenols (dimethylphenols) appear in higher concentrations under aerobic conditions than phenol and the cresols do. The highest concentrations found were of the same order of magnitude as the calculated solubilities found in the literature, except the chrysene and benz(a)pyrene concentrations, which were one to two orders of magnitude higher than the solubilities.

  3. General database for ground water site information.

    PubMed

    de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Bodin, Jacques; Le Grand, Hervé; Davy, Philippe; Boulanger, Damien; Battais, Annick; Bour, Olivier; Gouze, Philippe; Porel, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    In most cases, analysis and modeling of flow and transport dynamics in ground water systems require long-term, high-quality, and multisource data sets. This paper discusses the structure of a multisite database (the H+ database) developed within the scope of the ERO program (French Environmental Research Observatory, http://www.ore.fr). The database provides an interface between field experimentalists and modelers, which can be used on a daily basis. The database structure enables the storage of a large number of data and data types collected from a given site or multiple-site network. The database is well suited to the integration, backup, and retrieval of data for flow and transport modeling in heterogeneous aquifers. It relies on the definition of standards and uses a templated structure, such that any type of geolocalized data obtained from wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations can be handled. New types of platforms other than wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations, and new types of experiments and/or parameters could easily be added without modifying the database structure. Thus, we propose that the database structure could be used as a template for designing databases for complex sites. An example application is the H+ database, which gathers data collected from a network of hydrogeological sites associated with the French Environmental Research Observatory.

  4. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  5. Assessment of selected ground-water-quality data in Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.E.; Rogers, G.D.

    1984-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the existing, computer-accessible, ground-water-quality data for Montana. All known sources of ground-water-quality data were reviewed. Although the estimated number of analyses exceeds 25,000, more than three-fourths of the data were not suitable for this study. The only data used were obtained from the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) of the US Geological Survey, because the chemical analyses generally are complete, have an assigned geohydrologic unit or source of water, and are accessible by computer. The data were assessed by geographic region of the State because of climatic and geologic differences. These regions consist of the eastern plains region and the western mountainous region. Within each region, the data were assessed according to geohydrologic unit. The number and areal distribution of data sites for some groupings of units are inadequate to be representative, particularly for groupings stratigraphically below the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Hell Creek Formation in the eastern region and for Quaternary alluvium, terrace deposits, glacial deposits, and associated units in the western region. More than one-half the data for the entire State are for the Tertiary Wasatch, Fort Union, and associated units in the eastern region. The results of statistical analyses of data in WATSTORE indicate that the median dissolved-solids concentration for the groupings of geohydrologic units ranges from about 400 to 5000 milligrams per liter in the eastern region and from about 100 to 200 milligrams per liter in the western region. Concentrations of most trace constituents do not exceed the primary drinking-water standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The data in WATSTORE for organic constituents presently are inadequate to detect any organic effects of man's activities on ground-water quality. 26 figs., 79 tabs.

  6. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  7. REMEDIATION AND PROTECTION OF GROUND WATER FROM CONTAMINATION BY ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful prevention of public exposure to arsenic in ground-water resources impacted by natural sources or contaminated sites is dependent on scientifically-based strategies for site remediation and water resource management. Research within the National Risk Management Resear...

  8. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley REgional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Michael T. Moreo; and Leigh Justet

    2008-07-02

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913–1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  9. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreo, Michael T.; Justet, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913-1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  10. Technical approach for the management of UMTRA ground water investigation-derived wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    During characterization, remediation, or monitoring activities of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, ground water samples are collected to assess the extent and amount of waterborne contamination that might have come from the mill tailings. This sampling sometimes occurs in contaminated areas where ground water quality has been degraded. Ground water sampling activities may result in field-generated wastes that must be disposed of in a manner protective of human health and the environment. During ground water sampling, appropriate measures must be taken to dispose of presampling purge water and well development water that is pumped to flush out any newly constructed wells. Additionally, pumping tests may produce thousands of gallons of potentially contaminated ground water that must be properly managed. In addition to the liquid wastes, there is the potential for bringing contaminated soils to the ground surface during the drilling and installation of water wells in areas where the subsurface soils may be contaminated. These soils must be properly managed as well. This paper addresses the general technical approach that the UMTRA Project will follow in managing field-generated wastes from well drilling, development, sampling, and testing. It will provide guidance for the preparation of Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the management and disposal of field-generated wastes from ground water monitoring and remediation activities.

  11. Ground water in the Thousand Oaks area, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1980-01-01

    The ground-water basin beneath the city of Thousand Oaks, Calif. , corresponds closely in area with the surface-water drainage basin of Conejo Valley. Before World War II there was little ground-water development. After World War II, urban development put a stress on the ground-water basin; many wells were drilled and water levels in wells were drawn down as much as 300 feet in places. Beginning in 1963, imported water replaced domestic and municipal ground-water systems, and water levels rapidly recovered to predevelopment levels or nearly so. Most of the ground water in the Thousand Oaks area is stored in fractured basalt of the middle Miocene Conejo Volcanics. Depending on the degree of occurrence of open fractures and cavities in the basalt, recoverable ground water in the upper 300 to 500 feet of aquifer is estimated to be between 400,000 and 600,000 acre-feet. The yield of water from wells in the area ranges from 17 to 1,080 gallons per minute. Most of the ground-water in the eastern part of the valley is high insulfate and has a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter. In the western part of the valley the ground-water is mostly of a bicarbonate type, and the dissolved-solids concentration is less than 800 milligrams per liter. In most areas of Conejo Valley, ground-water is a viable resource for irrigation of public lands and recreation areas. (USGS)

  12. Ground Water in the Southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-phased study of ground-water resources, including well drilling, aquifer tests, analysis of ground-water discharge, and numerical ground-water modeling, indicates that the rocks of the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, have permeabilities that are much lower than in most other areas of ground-water development in the Hawaiian islands. The regional hydraulic conductivity of the Koloa Volcanics, which dominates fresh ground-water flow in the basin, is about 0.275 foot per day. The Waimea Canyon Basalt which surrounds the basin and underlies the Koloa Volcanics within the basin is intruded by dikes that reduce the bulk hydraulic conductivity of the rocks to about 1.11 feet per day. The low permeabilities result in steeper head gradients compared with other areas in the Hawaiian islands, and a higher proportion of ground-water discharging to streams than to the ocean. Water levels rise from near sea level at the coast to several hundreds of feet above sea level at the center of the basin a few miles inland. The high inland water levels are part of a completely saturated ground-water system. Because of the low regional hydraulic conductivity and high influx of water from recharge in the southern Lihue Basin, the rocks become saturated nearly to the surface and a variably saturated/unsaturated (perched) condition is not likely to exist. Streams incising the upper part of the aquifer drain ground water and keep the water levels just below the surface in most places. Streams thus play an important role in shaping the water table in the southern Lihue Basin. At least 62 percent of the ground water discharging from the aquifer in the southern Lihue Basin seeps to streams; the remainder seeps directly to the ocean or is withdrawn by wells.

  13. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  14. Water resources data, Maryland and Delaware, water year 1997, volume 2. ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smigaj, Michael J.; Saffer, Richard W.; Starsoneck, Roger J.; Tegeler, Judith L.

    1998-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Maryland and Delaware each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data - Maryland and Delaware.' This series of annual reports for Maryland and Delaware began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the l975 water year, the report format was changed to present, in one volume, data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels. In the 1989 water year, the report format was changed to two volumes. Both volumes contained data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels. Volume 1 contained data on the Atlantic Slope Basins (Delaware River thru Patuxent River) and Volume 2 contained data on the Monongahela and Potomac River basins. Beginning with the 1991 water year, Volume 1 contains all information on quantities of surface water and surface- water-quality data and Volume 2 contains ground-water levels and ground-water-quality data. This report is Volume 2 in our 1998 series and includes records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells and springs. It contains records for water levels at 397 observation wells, discharge data for 6 springs, and water quality at 107 wells. Location of ground-water level wells are shown on figures 3 and 4. The location for the ground-water-quality sites are shown on figures 5

  15. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  16. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  17. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  18. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  19. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  20. Ground Water Quality Protection. State and Local Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Using regional case studies, this document examines representative programs for dealing with ground water contamination. Section one describes the ground water protection strategy of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); (2) discusses the limited data available for determining the extent of contamination; (3) provides a listing of the…

  1. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  2. EPA Research Evaluating CAFO Impacts on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of several projects will be presented on a research program currently underway at ORD’s Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) to evaluate CAFO impacts on ground water quality. The overall research objectives are to characterize the potential for gro...

  3. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  4. Ground-water remediation with granular collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Frieseke, R.W.; Christensen, E.R.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of a granular ground-water collection system to increase ground-water recovery well yield and radial influence during remediation of gasoline-contaminated ground water. The field study was conducted at a site in Kenosha, Wisconsin. Two identical recovery wells were designed and installed within the granular ground-water collection system (RW No. 1) and the native silty fine sand soils (RW No. 2), respectively, in order to allow a direct comparison of recovery well yields and radial influence. The comparison was based on laboratory grain size and permeability tests, and in-situ yield and pump tests. The results show that RW No. 1 can produce 2.2--4.5 times the quantity of ground water of RW No. 2, and that the radial influence (ground-water drawdown) created by extracting from RW No. 1 was three to four times the drawdown from RW No. 2. There was a significant improvement in ground-water quality since the implementation of the remediation system. The achieved increase in the recovery well yield and radial influence should reduce the time and cost to complete a ground-water remediation project.

  5. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard....

  6. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aquifer (as defined in § 257.5(b)) that: (1) Represent the quality of background ground water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may include sampling of...) Sampling at other wells will provide an indication of background ground-water quality that is...

  7. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  8. A ground-water sapping landscape in the Florida Panhandle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumm, S. A.; Boyd, K. F.; Wolff, C. G.; Spitz, W. J.

    1995-07-01

    Drainage networks that have formed by ground-water sapping are developed in the highly permeable sands of the Citronelle Formation in the Florida Panhandle. The valleys resemble those formed on Hawaii, the Colorado Plateau and on Mars, but they have developed without significant lithologic controls. Drainage patterns range from trellis to dentritic depending on the effect of beach ridges and relative relief. Many of the drainage networks are not fully developed, and the adjacent uplands have been modified by marine, aeolian, and to a limited extent fluvial processes. Extension of the networks appears to be episodic, as a result of fires, hurricanes, and human activities, which damage or destroy vegetation.

  9. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  10. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in the Albany Area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been working with the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission to monitor ground-water quality and availability since 1977. This report presents an overview of ground-water conditions and studies in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, during 2007. Historical data are also presented for comparison with 2007 data. Ongoing monitoring activities include continuous water-level recording in 24 wells and monthly water-level measurements in 5 wells. During 2007, water levels in 21 of the continuous-recording wells were below normal, corresponding to lower than average rainfall. Ground-water samples collected from the Upper Floridan aquifer indicate that nitrate levels have decreased or remained about the same since 2006. Water samples were collected from the Flint River and wells at the Albany wellfield, and data were plotted on a trilinear diagram to show the percent composition of selected major cations and anions. Ground-water constituents (major cations and anions) of the Upper Floridan aquifer at the Albany wellfield are distinctly different from those in the water of the Flint River. To improve the understanding of the ground-water flow system and nitrate movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer, the USGS is developing a ground-water flow model in the southwestern Albany area of Georgia. The model is being calibrated to simulate periods of dry (October 1999) and relatively wet (March 2001) hydrologic conditions. Preliminary water-level simulations indicate a generally good fit to measured water levels.

  11. Pesticides in Ground Water - Sublette County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Sublette County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Sublette County.

  12. Pesticides in Ground Water - Carbon County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Carbon County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Carbon County.

  13. Pesticides in Ground Water - Campbell County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Campbell County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Campbell County.

  14. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  15. Southwest Principal Aquifers Regional Ground-Water Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.; Thiros, S.A.; Bexfield, L.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Green, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifers in the southwestern United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to ground-water contamination by synthesizing the baseline knowledge of ground-water quality conditions in 15 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of ground-water resources. This fact sheet provides an overview of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States and description of the completed and planned regional analyses of ground-water quality being performed by the SWPA study.

  16. Hydrology and Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Tooele Valley Ground-Water Basin, Tooele County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolp, Bernard J.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water is the sole source of drinking water within Tooele Valley. Transition from agriculture to residential land and water use necessitates additional understanding of water resources. The ground-water basin is conceptualized as a single interconnected hydrologic system consisting of the consolidated-rock mountains and adjoining unconsolidated basin-fill valleys. Within the basin fill, unconfined conditions exist along the valley margins and confined conditions exist in the central areas of the valleys. Transmissivity of the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer ranges from 1,000 to 270,000 square feet per day. Within the consolidated rock of the mountains, ground-water flow largely is unconfined, though variability in geologic structure, stratigraphy, and lithology has created some areas where ground-water flow is confined. Hydraulic conductivity of the consolidated rock ranges from 0.003 to 100 feet per day. Ground water within the basin generally moves from the mountains toward the central and northern areas of Tooele Valley. Steep hydraulic gradients exist at Tooele Army Depot and near Erda. The estimated average annual ground-water recharge within the basin is 82,000 acre-feet per year. The primary source of recharge is precipitation in the mountains; other sources of recharge are irrigation water and streams. Recharge from precipitation was determined using the Basin Characterization Model. Estimated average annual ground-water discharge within the basin is 84,000 acre-feet per year. Discharge is to wells, springs, and drains, and by evapotranspiration. Water levels at wells within the basin indicate periods of increased recharge during 1983-84 and 1996-2000. During these periods annual precipitation at Tooele City exceeded the 1971-2000 annual average for consecutive years. The water with the lowest dissolved-solids concentrations exists in the mountain areas where most of the ground-water recharge occurs. The principal dissolved constituents are calcium

  17. Dynamics of flood water infiltration and ground water recharge in hyperarid desert.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Ofer; Tatarsky, Boaz; Enzel, Yehouda; Kulls, Christoph; Seely, Mary; Benito, Gererdo

    2008-01-01

    A study on flood water infiltration and ground water recharge of a shallow alluvial aquifer was conducted in the hyperarid section of the Kuiseb River, Namibia. The study site was selected to represent a typical desert ephemeral river. An instrumental setup allowed, for the first time, continuous monitoring of infiltration during a flood event through the channel bed and the entire vadose zone. The monitoring system included flexible time domain reflectometry probes that were designed to measure the temporal variation in vadose zone water content and instruments to concurrently measure the levels of flood and ground water. A sequence of five individual floods was monitored during the rainy season in early summer 2006. These newly generated data served to elucidate the dynamics of flood water infiltration. Each flood initiated an infiltration event which was expressed in wetting of the vadose zone followed by a measurable rise in the water table. The data enabled a direct calculation of the infiltration fluxes by various independent methods. The floods varied in their stages, peaks, and initial water contents. However, all floods produced very similar flux rates, suggesting that the recharge rates are less affected by the flood stages but rather controlled by flow duration and available aquifer storage under it. Large floods flood the stream channel terraces and promote the larger transmission losses. These, however, make only a negligible contribution to the recharge of the ground water. It is the flood duration within the active streambed, which may increase with flood magnitude that is important to the recharge process.

  18. Ground water in the Piedmont upland of central Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1982-01-01

    This report, describing ground-water occurrence in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland Piedmont, was originally designed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in replying to a request for designation of the aquifers to be the sole or principal source of ground water. However, the information contained in the report is pertinent to other crystalline-rock areas as well. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The ground water is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most ground water occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in ground-water storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70 percent of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The ground-water quality is generally satisfactory without treatment, and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on ground-water use are as follows: 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000, for commercial purposes; and 160,000, for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of it and of other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the ground water available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the ground-water conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province.

  19. Effects of ground water exchange on the hydrology and ecology of surface water.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaki; Rosenberry, Donald O

    2002-01-01

    Ground water exchange affects the ecology of surface water by sustaining stream base flow and moderating water-level fluctuations of ground water-fed lakes. It also provides stable-temperature habitats and supplies nutrients and inorganic ions. Ground water input of nutrients can even determine the trophic status of lakes and the distribution of macrophytes. In streams the mixing of ground water and surface water in shallow channel and bankside sediments creates a unique environment called the hyporheic zone, an important component of the lotic ecosystem. Localized areas of high ground water discharge in streams provide thermal refugia for fish. Ground water also provides moisture to riparian vegetation, which in turn supplies organic matter to streams and enhances bank resistance to erosion. As hydrologists and ecologists interact to understand the impact of ground water on aquatic ecology, a new research field called "ecohydrology" is emerging.

  20. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  1. Arsenic in Illinois ground water : community and private supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.; Martin, Angel; Arnold, Terri L.

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of arsenic in ground water from community-water supplies, private supplies, or monitoring wells is part of the process of determining the risk of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Illinois. Lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors make certain members of the population more susceptible to adverse health effects from repeated exposure to drinking water with high arsenic concentrations (Ryker, 2001). In addition, such factors may have geographic distribution patterns that complicate the analysis of the relation between arsenic in drinking water and health effects. For example, arsenic may not be the only constituent affecting the quality of drinking water in a region (Ryker, 2001); however, determining the extent and distribution of arsenic in ground water is a starting place to assess the potential risk for persons drinking from a community or private supply. Understanding the potential sources and pathways that mobilize arsenic in ground water is a necessary step in protecting the drinking-water supply in Illinois.

  2. Ground water recharge and flow characterization using multiple isotopes.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Ali H; Uliana, Matthew; Wade, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    Stable isotopes of delta(18)O, delta(2)H, and (13)C, radiogenic isotopes of (14)C and (3)H, and ground water chemical compositions were used to distinguish ground water, recharge areas, and possible recharge processes in an arid zone, fault-bounded alluvial aquifer. Recharge mainly occurs through exposed stream channel beds as opposed to subsurface inflow along mountain fronts. This recharge distribution pattern may also occur in other fault-bounded aquifers, with important implications for conceptualization of ground water flow systems, development of ground water models, and ground water resource management. Ground water along the mountain front near the basin margins contains low delta(18)O, (14)C (percent modern carbon [pmC]), and (3)H (tritium units [TU]), suggesting older recharge. In addition, water levels lie at greater depths, and basin-bounding faults that locally act as a flow barrier may further reduce subsurface inflow into the aquifer along the mountain front. Chemical differences in ground water composition, attributed to varying aquifer mineralogy and recharge processes, further discriminate the basin-margin and the basin-center water. Direct recharge through the indurated sandstones and mudstones in the basin center is minimal. Modern recharge in the aquifer is mainly through the broad, exposed stream channel beds containing coarse sand and gravel where ground water contains higher delta(18)O, (14)C (pmC), and (3)H (TU). Spatial differences in delta(18)O, (14)C (pmC), and (3)H (TU) and occurrences of extensive mudstones in the basin center suggest sluggish ground water movement, including local compartmentalization of the flow system.

  3. Geology and ground-water resources of Outagamie County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeRoux, E.F.

    1957-01-01

    The ground water differs greatly in chemical quality from well to well, but it is generally a very hard calcium magnesium bicarbonate water, some of it high in iron. To aid in determining the source of well waters, 22 chemical analyses were plotted on a logarithmic diagram to obtain characteristic patterns for waters from several geologic sources.

  4. Flow and geochemistry along shallow ground-water flowpaths in an agricultural area in southeastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, D.A.; Thorstenson, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Ground water recharging at mid- and downgradient wells is oxic and contains dissolved nitrate, whereas the ground water discharging to the stream is anoxic and contains dissolved ammonium. Redox environments were defined at each well on the basis of relative concentrations of various dissolved redox-active species. Chemically permissible flowpaths inferred from the observed sequence of redox environments at well sites are consistent with flowpaths in the ground-water flow model. The transition from nitrate in recharging ground water to ammonium in ground water discharging to the stream suggests the possibility of nitrate reduction along the flowpath. None of the techniques employed in this study, however, were able to prove the occurrence of this reaction.

  5. Linking Ground Water Age and Chemistry Along Flow Paths to Examine the Influence of Land Use Practices on Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesoriero, A. J.; Burow, K. R.; Saad, D. A.; Frick, E. A.; Puckett, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    Tracer-based ground-water ages, along with concentrations of nitrogen species, and other redox-active constituents, were used to evaluate the trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals along flow paths in diverse hydrogeologic settings. A range of conditions (e.g., thickness of unsaturated zone, redox conditions) affecting the transformation of these chemicals were examined at study sites in Georgia, North Carolina, Wisconsin, and California. Trends were evaluated by determining the time of recharge of a ground-water sample using chlorofluorocarbon concentrations and estimating concentrations of the parent compound at the time of recharge by summing the concentrations of the parent compound and its transformation products in the age-dated sample. For example, nitrate concentrations in recharging ground water from 1950 to present were estimated by summing the concentrations of nitrate and excess N2 (N2 derived from denitrification). Nitrate concentrations in recharging ground water have increased two- to five-fold in these aquifers since the 1960s. Fertilizer application data were related to nitrate concentrations in recharging ground water to examine how changes in land use practices may be affecting ground-water quality. Increasing trends in nitrate concentrations coincided with increases in the intensity of fertilizer applications (i.e., kg N/hectare) at each of the sites. Impacts of increasing nitrate concentrations on downgradient ground-water quality and receiving surface waters depends on the likelihood of transformations occurring along the ground-water flow path. The fraction of the initial nitrate concentration found as excess N2 increased with ground-water age only at the North Carolina site, where suboxic conditions occur within the top 5 meters of saturated thickness. In contrast, little denitrification occurred at the remaining sites, suggesting that elevated nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water will not be attenuated and pose a

  6. Dynamic factor analysis for estimating ground water arsenic trends.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-01-01

    Drinking ground water containing high arsenic (As) concentrations has been associated with blackfoot disease and the occurrence of cancer along the southwestern coast of Taiwan. As a result, 28 ground water observation wells were installed to monitor the ground water quality in this area. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) is used to identify common trends that represent unexplained variability in ground water As concentrations of decommissioned wells and to investigate whether explanatory variables (total organic carbon [TOC], As, alkalinity, ground water elevation, and rainfall) affect the temporal variation in ground water As concentration. The results of the DFA show that rainfall dilutes As concentration in areas under aquacultural and agricultural use. Different combinations of geochemical variables (As, alkalinity, and TOC) of nearby monitoring wells affected the As concentrations of the most decommissioned wells. Model performance was acceptable for 11 wells (coefficient of efficiency >0.50), which represents 52% (11/21) of the decommissioned wells. Based on DFA results, we infer that surface water recharge may be effective for diluting the As concentration, especially in the areas that are relatively far from the coastline. We demonstrate that DFA can effectively identify the important factors and common effects representing unexplained variability common to decommissioned wells on As variation in ground water and extrapolate information from existing monitoring wells to the nearby decommissioned wells.

  7. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  8. Ground-water quality protection; why it's important to you

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webbers, Ank

    1995-01-01

    Ground water is a valuable resource often used for industry, commerce, agriculture, and drinking water. In the 19080's, ground water provided 35 percent of the municipal water supplies in the United States and 95 percent of the rural, domestic drinking water. Scientists participating in ground-water studies may determine the potential pathways that contaminants could be transported in aquifers. In karst terrain especially, a contanimant can enter a fracture network in a carbonate aquifer and quickly spread to become a widespread health problem. Although Federal and local funding for ground-water cleanups and treatment may be available, the costs can exceed many millions of dollars each year. Such costly remedial actions could be avoided or minimized by becoming aware that ground water anywhere is vulnerable to contamination, but particularly so in carbonate terrain. Practicing good "out-of-doors" house- keeping is necessary. From the standpoint of economic and environmental responsibility, it is critical that we all work together to protect the quality of ground-water resources so that future generations can continue to have clean water.

  9. Pesticides in ground water: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive review of published information on the distribution and behavior of pesticides and their transformation products in ground water indicates that pesticides from every chemical class have been detected in ground waters of the United States. Many of these compounds are commonly present at low concentrations in ground water beneath agricultural land. Little information is available on their occurrence beneath non-agricultural land, although the intensity of their use in such areas (on lawns, golf courses, rights of way, timberlands, etc.) is often comparable to, or greater than agricultural use. Information on pesticides in ground water is not sufficient to provide either a statistically representative view of pesticide occurrence in ground water across the United States, or an indication of long-term trends or changes in the severity or extent of this contamination over the past three decades. This is largely due to wide variations in analytical detection limits, well selection procedures, and other design features among studies conducted in different areas or at different times. Past approaches have not been well suited for distinguishing "point source" from "nonpoint source" pesticide contamination. Among the variety of natural and anthropogenic factors examined, those that appear to be most strongly associated with the intensity of pesticide contamination of ground water are the depth, construction and age of the sampled wells, the amount of recharge (by precipitation or irrigation), and the depth of tillage. Approaches commonly employed for predicting pesticide distributions in the subsurface--including computer simulations, indicator solutes (e.g., nitrate or tritium), and ground-water vulnerability assessments--generally provide unreliable predictions of pesticide occurrence in ground water. Such difficulties may arise largely from a general failure to account for the preferential transport of pesticides in the subsurface. Significant

  10. Applications of thermal remote sensing to detailed ground water studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souto-Maior, J.

    1973-01-01

    Three possible applications of thermal (8-14 microns) remote sensing to detailed hydrogeologic studies are discussed in this paper: (1) the direct detection of seeps and springs, (2) the indirect evaluation of shallow ground water flow through its thermal effects on the land surface, and (3) the indirect location of small volumes of ground water inflow into surface water bodies. An investigation carried out with this purpose in an area containing a complex shallow ground water flow system indicates that the interpretation of the thermal imageries is complicated by many factors, among which the most important are: (1) altitude, angle of view, and thermal-spatial resolution of the sensor; (2) vegetation type, density, and vigor; (3) topography; (4) climatological and micrometeorological effects; (5) variation in soil type and soil moisture; (6) variation in volume and temperature of ground water inflow; (7) the hydraulic characteristics of the receiving water body, and (8) the presence of decaying organic material.

  11. Ground-water in the Austin area, Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1949-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State Engineer of Nevada, made a preliminary survey of ground-water conditions in the Austin area, Nev., during the period July 25 to 28, 1949. The purpose was to evaluate ground-water conditions with special reference to the quantity of ground water that might be available in the area--an adequate water supply has been a constant problem throughout the history of the Austin area. The investigation was made by the writer under the supervision of Thomas W. Robinson, district engineer, Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey. Material assistance was given in the field by local residents. Frank Bertrand, water commissioner, Thomas Peacock, county assessor, and George McGinnis, county commissioner, guided the writer to springs new utilized by the town of Austin and rendered other valuable field assistance.

  12. Ground-Water Reconnaissance at Pinnacles National Monument, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenson, R.E.

    1962-01-01

    Ground-water supplies at Pinnacles National Monument have been obtained from springs that occur in fractures and along bedding planes of volcanic flows and deposits, and from springs discharged from perched water in a sedimentary fanglomerate formation. The spring-water yield is barely adequate to supply existing camp facilities, and therefore a supplemental water supply is necessary before existing campgrounds can be expanded. This supplemental water can be supplied by good-quality ground water obtained from shallow wells drilled in the alluvium of Chalone Creek. The yield of properly constructed wells in this area should exceed 10 gallons per minute.

  13. Evidence for ground-water stratification near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Futa, K.; Marshall, B.D.; Peterman, Z.E.

    2006-01-01

    Major- and trace-element concentrations and strontium isotope ratios (strontium-87/strontium-86) in samples of ground water potentially can be useful in delineating flow paths in the complex ground-water system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water samples were collected from boreholes to characterize the lateral and vertical variability in the composition of water in the saturated zone. Discrete sampling of water-producing intervals in the saturated zone includes isolating borehole sections with packers and extracting pore water from core obtained by sonic drilling. Chemical and isotopic stratification was identified in the saturated zone beneath southern Fortymile Wash.

  14. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work

  15. Contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water from pharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Fick, Jerker; Söderström, Hanna; Lindberg, Richard H; Phan, Chau; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2009-12-01

    Low levels of pharmaceuticals are detected in surface, ground, and drinking water worldwide. Usage and incorrect disposal have been considered the major environmental sources of these microcontaminants. Recent publications, however, suggest that wastewater from drug production can potentially be a source of much higher concentrations in certain locations. The present study investigated the environmental fate of active pharmaceutical ingredients in a major production area for the global bulk drug market. Water samples were taken from a common effluent treatment plant near Hyderabad, India, which receives process water from approximately 90 bulk drug manufacturers. Surface water was analyzed from the recipient stream and from two lakes that are not contaminated by the treatment plant. Water samples were also taken from wells in six nearby villages. The samples were analyzed for the presence of 12 pharmaceuticals with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All wells were determined to be contaminated with drugs. Ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, cetirizine, terbinafine, and citalopram were detected at more than 1 microg/L in several wells. Very high concentrations of ciprofloxacin (14 mg/L) and cetirizine (2.1 mg/L) were found in the effluent of the treatment plant, together with high concentrations of seven additional pharmaceuticals. Very high concentrations of ciprofloxacin (up to 6.5 mg/L), cetirizine (up to 1.2 mg/L), norfloxacin (up to 0.52 mg/L), and enoxacin (up to 0.16 mg/L) were also detected in the two lakes, which clearly shows that the investigated area has additional environmental sources of insufficiently treated industrial waste. Thus, insufficient wastewater management in one of the world's largest centers for bulk drug production leads to unprecedented drug contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water. This raises serious concerns regarding the development of antibiotic resistance, and it creates a major challenge for producers and regulatory

  16. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  17. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  18. Assessing ground water development potential using landsat imagery.

    PubMed

    Mutiti, Samuel; Levy, Jonathan; Mutiti, Christine; Gaturu, Ndung'u S

    2010-01-01

    Seven villages in southeastern Kenya surround Mt. Kasigau and depend on the mountain's cloud forest for their water supply. Five of these villages have regularly experienced water shortages, and all village water supplies were contaminated with Escherichia coli bacteria. There is a need to economically find new sources of fresh ground water. Remote sensing offers a relatively quick and cost-effective way of identifying areas with high potential for ground water development. This study used spectral properties of features on Landsat remote sensing imagery to map linear features, soil types, surface moisture, and vegetation. Linear features represented geologic or geomorphologic features indicating either shallow ground water or areas of increased subsurface hydraulic conductivity. Regarding soil type, black soils were identified as potential indicators of shallow aquifers based on their relatively lower elevation and association with river valleys. A vegetation map was created using unsupervised classification, and three of the resulting vegetation classes were observed to be commonly associated with wet areas and/or ground water discharge. A wetness map, created using tasseled cap analysis, was used to identify all areas of high ground moisture, including those that corresponded to vegetated areas. The linear features, soil type, vegetation, and wetness maps were overlaid to produce a composite that highlighted areas with the highest potential for ground water development. Electrical resistivity surveys confirmed that areas highlighted by the composite image had relatively shallow depths to the water table. Some figures in this paper are available in color in the online version of the paper. PMID:19210559

  19. Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes Between Surface Water and Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on measuring the flow of water across the interface between surface water and ground water, rather than the hydrogeological or geochemical processes that occur at or near this interface. The methods, however, that use hydrogeological and geochemical evidence to quantify water fluxes are described herein. This material is presented as a guide for those who have to examine the interaction of surface water and ground water. The intent here is that both the overview of the many available methods and the in-depth presentation of specific methods will enable the reader to choose those study approaches that will best meet the requirements of the environments and processes they are investigating, as well as to recognize the merits of using more than one approach. This report is designed to make the reader aware of the breadth of approaches available for the study of the exchange between surface and ground water. To accomplish this, the report is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 describes many well-documented approaches for defining the flow between surface and ground waters. Subsequent chapters provide an in-depth presentation of particular methods. Chapter 2 focuses on three of the most commonly used methods to either calculate or directly measure flow of water between surface-water bodies and the ground-water domain: (1) measurement of water levels in well networks in combination with measurement of water level in nearby surface water to determine water-level gradients and flow; (2) use of portable piezometers (wells) or hydraulic potentiomanometers to measure hydraulic gradients; and (3) use of seepage meters to measure flow directly. Chapter 3 focuses on describing the techniques involved in conducting water-tracer tests using fluorescent dyes, a method commonly used in the hydrogeologic investigation and characterization of karst aquifers, and in the study of water fluxes in karst terranes. Chapter 4 focuses on heat as a tracer in hydrological

  20. Georgia's Ground-Water Resources and Monitoring Network, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nobles, Patricia L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ground-water network for Georgia currently consists of 170 wells in which ground-water levels are continuously monitored. Most of the wells are locatedin the Coastal Plain in the southern part of the State where ground-water pumping stress is high. In particular, there are large concentrations of wells in coastal and southwestern Georgia areas, where there are issues related to ground-water pumping, saltwater intrusion along the coast, and diminished streamflow in southwestern Georgia due to irrigation pumping. The map at right shows the USGS ground-water monitoring network for Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored in 170 wells statewide, of which 19 transmit data in real time via satellite and posted on the World Wide Web at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ga/nwis/current/?type=gw . A greater concentration of wells occurs in the Coastal Plain where there are several layers of aquifers and in coastal and southwestern Georgia areas, which are areas with specific ground-water issues.

  1. Latin hypercube approach to estimate uncertainty in ground water vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Gurdak, Jason J; McCray, John E; Thyne, Geoffrey; Qi, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    A methodology is proposed to quantify prediction uncertainty associated with ground water vulnerability models that were developed through an approach that coupled multivariate logistic regression with a geographic information system (GIS). This method uses Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to illustrate the propagation of input error and estimate uncertainty associated with the logistic regression predictions of ground water vulnerability. Central to the proposed method is the assumption that prediction uncertainty in ground water vulnerability models is a function of input error propagation from uncertainty in the estimated logistic regression model coefficients (model error) and the values of explanatory variables represented in the GIS (data error). Input probability distributions that represent both model and data error sources of uncertainty were simultaneously sampled using a Latin hypercube approach with logistic regression calculations of probability of elevated nonpoint source contaminants in ground water. The resulting probability distribution represents the prediction intervals and associated uncertainty of the ground water vulnerability predictions. The method is illustrated through a ground water vulnerability assessment of the High Plains regional aquifer. Results of the LHS simulations reveal significant prediction uncertainties that vary spatially across the regional aquifer. Additionally, the proposed method enables a spatial deconstruction of the prediction uncertainty that can lead to improved prediction of ground water vulnerability. PMID:17470124

  2. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  3. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  4. Ground-water resources data for Baldwin County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, James L.; Moreland, Richard S.; Clark, Amy E.

    1996-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data for 237 wells were collected, and water-levels in 223 wells in Baldwin and Escambia Counties were measured. Long-term water water-level data, available for many wells, indicate that ground-water levels in most of Baldwin County show no significant trends for the period of record. However, ground-water levels have declined in the general vicinity of Spanish Fort and Daphne, and ground-water levels in the Gulf Shores and Orange Beach areas are less than 5 feet above sea level in places. The quality of ground water generally is good, but problems with iron, sulfur, turbidity, and color occur. The water from most private wells in Baldwin County is used without treatment or filtration. Alabama public- health law requires that water from public-supply wells be chlorinated. Beyond that, the most common treatment of ground water by public-water suppliers in Baldwin County consists of pH adjustment, iron removal, and aeration. The transmissivity of the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer was determined at 10 locations in Baldwin County. Estimates of transmissivity ranged from 700 to 5,400 feet squared per day. In general, aquifer transmissivity was greatest in the southeastern part of the county, and least in the western part of the county near Mobile Bay. A storage coefficient of 1.5 x 10-3 was determined for the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer near Loxley.

  5. Ground water discharge and the related nutrient and trace metal fluxes into Quincy Bay, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Moffett, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the rate and direction of ground water flow beneath Wollaston Beach, Quincy, Massachusetts by use of a heat-pulsing flowmeter shows a mean velocity in the bulk sediment of 40 cm d-1. The estimated total discharge of ground water into Quincy Bay during October 1990 was 1324-2177 m3 d-1, a relatively low ground Water discharge rate. The tides have only a moderate effect on the rate and direction of this flow. Other important controls on the rate and volume of ground water flow are the limited thickness, geographic extent, and permeability of the aquifer. Comparisons of published streamflow data and estimates of ground water discharge indicate that ground water makes up between 7.4-12.1% of the gaged freshwater input into Quincy Bay. The data from this study suggest the ground water discharge is a less important recharge component to Quincy Bay than predicted by National Urban Runoff Program (NURP) models. The high nitrate and low nitrite and ammonia concentrations in the ground water at the backshore we]l sites and low nitrate and high nitrite and ammonia concentrations in the water flowing from the foreshore suggests that denitrification is active in the sediments. The low ground water flow rates and low nitrate concentrations in the foreshore samples suggest that little or no nitrate is surviving the denitrification process to affect the planktonic community. Similarly, oxidizing conditions in the aquifer and low trace metal concentrations in the ground water samples suggest that the metals may be precipitating and binding to sedimentary phases before impacting the bay.

  6. Deregulation, chemical waste, and ground water: a 1949 debate.

    PubMed

    Ross, Benjamin; Amter, Steven

    2002-03-01

    When did scientists, regulators, and industry first realize that industrial waste threatens the quality of ground-water? The conventional wisdom holds that widespread knowledge of this problem only dates back to the 1970s. In this view, what knowledge did exist earlier was confined to small circles of technical specialists and not generally known in industry. The passage of the Dickey Act, which established California's Water Quality Control Boards in 1949, provides documentation of events and ideas against which this hypothesis can be tested directly. A legislative committee, after lenghty public hearings, produced a detailed scientific report about ground-water and stream pollution. Bitter public controversy then erupted among politicians, industry, regulators and scientists about whether and how to protect ground-water supplies from contamination by industrial wastes. This controversy in the most populous region of the western United States demonstrates that many well-informed policy-makers knew that industrial wastes could pollute ground-water.

  7. REMEDIATION STRATEGIES FOR GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH METALS: CHROMIUM AND ARSENIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This departmental seminar will explore current research activities at EPA's Ground Water and Ecosystem Restoration Division. In particular, aspects of the geochemistry of chromium and arsenic will be discussed as will be mechanisms of contaminant uptake in context to ground-wate...

  8. Ground-water field trip, Tucson to Nogales, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, D.R.; Halpenny, L.C.

    1954-01-01

    A field excursion following the route described herein was conducted as a part of the curriculum of the 6th Ground Water Short Course, which was held by the Geological Survey at the University of Arizona in April 1954. The route log and descriptive text were designed to provide a general background of the ground-water situation in the Upper Santa Cruz Basin, a few of the geologic features that affect the occurrence of ground water, and some of the historical highlights of the region. 

  9. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, K.; Stovall, J.; Frailey, S.; Urban, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  10. Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

  11. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  12. Identification of Naegleria fowleri in warm ground water aquifers.

    PubMed

    Laseke, Ian; Korte, Jill; Lamendella, Regina; Kaneshiro, Edna S; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Oerther, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    The free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri was identified as the etiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis that caused the deaths of two children in Peoria, Arizona, in autumn of 2002. It was suspected that the source of N. fowleri was the domestic water supply, which originates from ground water sources. In this study, ground water from the greater Phoenix Metropolitan area was tested for the presence of N. fowleri using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences of bacterial populations in the ground water were performed to examine the potential link between the presence of N. fowleri and bacterial groups inhabiting water wells. The results showed the presence of N. fowleri in five out of six wells sampled and in 26.6% of all ground water samples tested. Phylogenetic analyses showed that beta- and gamma-proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial populations present in the ground water. Bacterial community analyses revealed a very diverse community structure in ground water samples testing positive for N. fowleri.

  13. Arsenic Species in the Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Arsenic concentrations in ground varies widely and regionally across the United States and exists as oxyanions having two oxidation states: As(+III) and As(+V). As(V) is effectively removed by most arsenic treatment processes whereas uncharged As(III) is poorly removed...

  14. A ground-water-quality monitoring network for the Lower Mojave River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A ground-water-quality monitoring network was developed for the Lower Mojave River valley to define the ground-water quality of the valley. Basin geohydrology, geology, land use and water-level and water-quality data were factors considered in developing objectives for an ideal network. These objectives were used in selecting well locations for the conceptual ground-water-quality monitoring network. The conceptual network was used as a guide in the design of the ground-water-quality monitoring network. Active monitoring sites are wells that are currently being monitored by some agency and were selected whenever possible because of budgetary constraints. In areas where no wells are currently being monitored, new well locations were selected and are considered proposed monitoring sites. A sampling regimen is also included. (USGS)

  15. The role of ground water in generating streamflow in headwater areas and in maintaining base flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    2007-01-01

    The volume and sustainability of streamflow from headwaters to downstream reaches commonly depend on contributions from ground water. Streams that begin in extensive aquifers generally have a stable point of origin and substantial discharge in their headwaters. In contrast, streams that begin as discharge from rocks or sediments having low permeability have a point of origin that moves up and down the channel seasonally, have small incipient discharge, and commonly go dry. Nearly all streams need to have some contribution from ground water in order to provide reliable habitat for aquatic organisms. Natural processes and human activities can have a substantial effect on the flow of streams between their headwaters and downstream reaches. Streams lose water to ground water when and where their head is higher than the contiguous water table. Although very common in arid regions, loss of stream water to ground water also is relatively common in humid regions. Evaporation, as well as transpiration from riparian vegetation, causing ground-water levels to decline also can cause loss of stream water. Human withdrawal of ground water commonly causes streamflow to decline, and in some regions has caused streams to cease flowing. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  16. Ground-water resources of Coke County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.

    1973-01-01

    Coke County, located in semiarid west-central Texas, where large ranches, small farms, and oil production are the main bases of the economy, has a small supply of ground and surface water. Of the approximately 1,900 acre-feet of fresh to moderately saline ground water used in 1968, industry used 880 acre-feet, irrigation used 210 acre-feet, and domestic supply and livestock used 820 acre-feet. All of the water for municipal supply and some of the water for industry is obtained from surface-water reservoirs.

  17. Ground-Water Quality and Potential Effects of Individual Sewage Disposal System Effluent on Ground-Water Quality in Park County, Colorado, 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2007-01-01

    . Currently (2004), there is no federally enforced drinking-water standard for radon in public water-supply systems, but proposed regulations suggest a maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) and an alternative maximum contaminant level of 4,000 pCi/L contingent on other mitigating remedial activities to reduce radon levels in indoor air. Radon concentrations in about 91 percent of ground-water samples were greater than or equal to 300 pCi/L, and about 25 percent had radon concentrations greater than or equal to 4,000 pCi/L. Generally, the highest radon concentrations were measured in samples collected from wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers. Analyses of ground-water-quality data indicate that recharge from ISDS effluent has affected some local ground-water systems in Park County. Because roughly 90 percent of domestic water used is assumed to be recharged by ISDS's, detections of human-related (wastewater) compounds in ground water in Park County are not surprising; however, concentrations of constituents associated with ISDS effluent generally are low (concentrations near the laboratory reporting levels). Thirty-eight different organic wastewater compounds were detected in 46 percent of ground-water samples, and the number of compounds detected per sample ranged from 1 to 17 compounds. Samples collected from wells with detections of wastewater compounds also had significantly higher (p-value < 0.05) chloride and boron concentrations than samples from wells with no detections of wastewater compounds. ISDS density (average subdivision lot size used to estimate ISDS density) was related to ground-water quality in Park County. Chloride and boron concentrations were significantly higher in ground-water samples collected from wells located in areas that had average subdivision lot sizes of less than 1 acre than in areas that had average subdivision lot sizes greater than or equal to 1 acre. For wells completed in the crystalline-

  18. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (<5-m depth) from sludge-treated spoil (pH 5.9) were not elevated relative to untreated spoil (pH 4.4). In contrast, concentrations of nitrate were elevated in vadose water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  19. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  20. Hydrology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Chipuxet ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, H.E.; Dickerman, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A glacial sand and gravel aquifer in the Chipuxet River basin of Rhode Island forms a ground-water reservoir that could yield as much as 8.6 million gallons per day to wells; however, some streams would go dry for extended periods of time. The State Water Resources Board has tested five site that it proposes to develop for a public supply of 3 million gallons per day. A digital model was used to determine how withdrawal at this rate from alternative combinations of wells would affect water levels and streamflow. Results show that withdrawal of 3 million gallons per day would have a minimal effect on water levels, but that withdrawal at this rate from some well combinations could cause the Chipuxet River to have little or no flow for 90 consecutive days on the average of 1 year in 20. Quality of ground water is generally good, but leaching of fertilizers applied to croplands, which overlie much of the aquifer, has caused locally excessive concentrations of nitrate. Induced infiltration of surface water through organic sediments that line the bottoms of ponds and streams also seems to be the cause of elevated concentrations of manganese in water from some heavily pumped wells. (USGS)

  1. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the uppermost aquifer (as defined in § 258.2) that: (1) Represent the quality of background ground... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... under § 258.40 that ensure detection of groundwater contamination in the uppermost aquifer. (b)...

  2. Flowpath delineation and ground water age, Allequash Basin, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pint, Christine D.; Hunt, Randall J.; Anderson, Mary P.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of ground water flowpaths to a lake and creek in northern Wisconsin shows the flow system in a geologically simple basin dominated by lakes can be surprisingly complex. Differences in source area, i.e., lakes or terrestrial, combined with the presence of intervening lakes, which may or may not capture underflowing ground water as water moves downgradient from recharge areas, contribute to a complex mix of flowpaths. The result is water of different chemistry and vastly different ages may discharge in close proximity. Flowpaths, travel times, and capture zones in the Allequash Basin in northern Wisconsin were delineated using particle tracking based on a calibrated steady-state ground water flow model. The flowpath analysis supports the conclusions of Walker et al. (2003) who made inferences about flowpath characteristics from isotope and major ion chemistry. Simulated particle tracking agreed with Walker et al.'s measurements of water source (lake or terrestrial recharge) in the stream subsurface and also supported their assertion that ground water with a high calcium concentration in the lower basin of Allequash Lake is derived from long flowpaths. Numerical simulations show that ground water discharging in this area originates more than 5 km away in a source area located upgradient of Big Muskellunge Lake, which is upgradient of Allequash Lake. These results graphically illustrate that in settings with multiple sources of water with different age characteristics and converging flowlines (like the Allequash Basin) it may be difficult to obtain accurate estimates of ground water age by chemical analyses of ground water.

  3. Factors affecting ground-water quality in Oakland County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is water stored in pores within soil and rock beneath the land surface. When these pores are connected so that water can be transmitted to wells or springs, these bodies of soil and rock are termed aquifers, from two Greek words meaning “water” and “to bear.” 

  4. Selected bibliography of ground-water in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography contains 899 records related to the hydrology of the US. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: aquifers; artesian wells; geophysics; ground water; flow models; pollution; tritium; water levels; water policy; and legal aspects. The subject index provides listings of records related to each state. Some of the items (81) are themselves bibliographies.

  5. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2002--Volume 2. Ground-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2002 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 15 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 6 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 12-14. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 40-41. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  6. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... necessary, to enable collection of ground-water samples. The annular space (i.e., the space between the bore... maintained so that they perform to design specifications throughout the life of the monitoring program....

  7. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... necessary, to enable collection of ground-water samples. The annular space (i.e., the space between the bore... maintained so that they perform to design specifications throughout the life of the monitoring program....

  8. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as “Superfund” sites. A review of Superfund R...

  9. ACQUISITION OF REPRESENTATIVE GROUND WATER QUALITY SAMPLES FOR METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    R.S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) personnel have evaluated sampling procedures for the collection of representative, accurate, and reproducible ground water quality samples for metals for the past four years. Intensive sampling research at three different field...

  10. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

  11. Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

  12. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

  13. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

  14. GROUND WATER SAMPLING USING LOW-FLOW TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. The sampling device or method used to collect samples from monitoring or compliance well can significantly impact data quality and reliability. Low-flo...

  15. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Graces Quarters area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    Graces Quarters was used for open-air testing of chemical-warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water and surface water. The hydrogeology and water quality were examined at three test areas, four disposal sites, a bunker, and a service area on Graces Quarters. Methods of investigation included surface and borehole geophysics, water-quality sampling, water- level measurement, and hydrologic testing. The hydrogeologic framework is complex and consists of a discontinuous surficial aquifer, one or more upper confining units, and a confined aquifer system. Directions of ground-water flow vary spatially and temporally, and results of site investigations show that ground-water flow is controlled by the geology of the area. The ground water and surface water at Graces Quarters generally are unmineralized; the ground water is mildly acidic (median pH is 5.38) and poorly buffered. Inorganic constituents in excess of certain Federal drinking-water regulations and ambient water-quality criteria were detected at some sites, but they probably were present naturally. Volatile and semivolatile organic com- pounds were detected in the ground water and surface water at seven of the nine sites that were investi- gated. Concentrations of organic compounds at two of the nine sites exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations. Volatile compounds in concentrations as high as 6,000 m/L (micrograms per liter) were detected in the ground water at the site known as the primary test area. Concentrations of volatile compounds detected in the other areas ranged from 0.57 to 17 m/L.

  16. Availability of Ground-Water Data for Idaho, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, collects a large amount of data each year pertaining to the ground-water resources of Idaho. These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 2005, data were published in a report series entitled, 'Water Resources Data for Idaho, Ground-Water Data.' Prior to the introduction of that series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 2006, the ground-water data reporting requirement was discontinued. However, data continue to be available in our databases. This fact sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for 2006.

  17. Handbook for state ground water managers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    ;Table of Contents: Nonpoint Source Implementation; State Public Water System Supervision; State Underground Water Source Protection (Underground Injection Control); Water Pollution Control -- State and Interstate Program Support (106 Grants); Water Quality Management Planning; Agriculture in Concert with the Environment; Consolidated Pesticide Compliance Monitoring and Program Cooperative Agreements; Pollution Prevention Incentives for States; Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund; Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance; Underground Storage Tank Program; Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund; State/EPA Data Management Financial Assistance Program; Environmental Education; and Multi-Media Assistance Agreements for Indian Tribes.

  18. Improvements to the DRASTIC ground-water vulnerability mapping method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water vulnerability maps are designed to show areas of greatest potential for ground-water contamination on the basis of hydrogeologic and anthropogenic (human) factors. The maps are developed by using computer mapping hardware and software called a geographic information system (GIS) to combine data layers such as land use, soils, and depth to water. Usually, ground-water vulnerability is determined by assigning point ratings to the individual data layers and then adding the point ratings together when those layers are combined into a vulnerability map. Probably the most widely used ground-water vulnerability mapping method is DRASTIC, named for the seven factors considered in the method: Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone media, and hydraulic Conductivity of the aquifer (Aller and others, 1985, p. iv). The DRASTIC method has been used to develop ground-water vulnerability maps in many parts of the Nation; however, the effectiveness of the method has met with mixed success (Koterba and others, 1993, p. 513; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1993; Barbash and Resek, 1996; Rupert, 1997). DRASTIC maps usually are not calibrated to measured contaminant concentrations. The DRASTIC ground-water vulnerability mapping method was improved by calibrating the point rating scheme to measured nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2+NO3–N) concentrations in ground water on the basis of statistical correlations between NO2+NO3–N concentrations and land use, soils, and depth to water (Rupert, 1997). This report describes the calibration method developed by Rupert and summarizes the improvements in results of this method over those of the uncalibrated DRASTIC method applied by Rupert and others (1991) in the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho.

  19. Tritium migration in A/M-Area ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC's) have entered aquifers in Cretaceous-aged sediments in the A/M-Area as a result of site operations. Tritium in A/M-Area ground water was investigated as a tracer to determine the movement of ground water in the subsurface and the transport mechanism of VOC's. The investigation was focused primarily on determining the continuity and integrity of the clay layers in the Ellenton Formation and their effectiveness as aquitards below the aquifers in Tertiary sediments.

  20. Proceedings of the second international conference on ground water ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, J.A.; Valett, H.M.

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held March 27--30, 1994 in Atlanta, Georgia. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for state-of-the-art information on groundwater ecosystems. Attention is focused on the following topics: Biogeochemistry; ecology of metazoans; ground water management; microbial ecology; modeling; pollution, restoration and bioremediation; problems in karst systems; and surface and ground water interaction zones. Individual papers are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in-place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Currently, no points of exposure (e.g. a drinking water well); and no receptors of contaminated ground water have been identified at the Maybell site. Therefore, there are no current human health and ecological risks associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Furthermore, if current site conditions and land- and water-use patterns do not change, it is unlikely that contaminated ground water would reach people or the ecological communities in the future.

  2. Status of ground-water modeling in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Appel, Charles A.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is active in the development and use of models for the analysis of various types of ground-water problems. Types of problems for which models have been, or are being, developed include: (1) ground-water flow in saturated or partially unsaturated materials, (2) land subsidence resulting from ground-water extraction, (3) flow in coupled ground water-stream systems, (4) coupling of rainfall-runoff basin models with soil moisture accounting and aquifer flow models, (5) interaction of economic and hydrologic considerations, (6) predicting the transport of contaminants in an aquifer, and (7) estimating the effects of proposed development schemes for geothermal systems. The status of modeling activity for various models is reported as being in a developmental, verification, operational, or continued improvement phase. Recently published references that provide useful details on the characteristics of the models are identified. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  4. Review of methods for assessing nonpoint-source contaminated ground-water discharge to surface water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The document provides an overview of selected methods that have been used for assessing nonpoint source contaminated ground water discharge to surface water. EPA undertook the project in response to the growing awareness that contaminated ground water discharge is a significant source of nonpoint source contaminant loading to surface water in many parts of the country.

  5. The effects of using ground water to maintain water levels of Cedar Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLeod, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    There were no identifiable changes in measured physical and chemical characteristics of lake water during sustained pumping of ground water into the lake, nor were there identifiable changes in the number or makeup of the phytoplankton community. Differences in physical and chemical characteristics of lake water and ground water added to the lake probably were not great enough to cause changes within the lake.

  6. Ground and Intermediate Water Equilibrium with Water-Bearing Rock Minerals (Moldova) under Anthropogenic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshenkova, A. N.; Moraru, C. Ye; Pasechnik, Ye Yu; Tokarenko, O. G.; Butoshina, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    The calculation results of ground water equilibrium with the major water-bearing rock minerals (Moldova) are presented under the condition of anthropogenic impact. As a calculation model the HydroGeo software is used. It is shown that both “ground water-rock” and “intermediate water-rock” systems are in equilibrium with a number of minerals.

  7. Enhanced submarine ground water discharge form mixing of pore water and estuarine water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge is suggested to be an important pathway for contaminants from continents to coastal zones, but its significance depends on the volume of water and concentrations of contaminants that originate in continental aquifers. Ground water discharge to the Banana River Lagoon, Florida, was estimated by analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of Cl− concentration profiles in the upper 230 cm of pore waters and was measured directly by seepage meters. Total submarine ground water discharge consists of slow discharge at depths > ∼70 cm below seafloor (cmbsf) of largely marine water combined with rapid discharge of mixed pore water and estuarine water above ∼70 cmbsf. Cl− profiles indicate average linear velocities of ∼0.014 cm/d at depths > ∼70 cmbsf. In contrast, seepage meters indicate water discharges across the sediment-water interface at rates between 3.6 and 6.9 cm/d. The discrepancy appears to be caused by mixing in the shallow sediment, which may result from a combination of bioirrigation, wave and tidal pumping, and convection. Wave and tidal pumping and convection would be minor because the tidal range is small, the short fetch of the lagoon limits wave heights, and large density contacts are lacking between lagoon and pore water. Mixing occurs to ∼70 cmbsf, which represents depths greater than previously reported. Mixing of oxygenated water to these depths could be important for remineralization of organic matter.

  8. Assessing background ground water chemistry beneath a new unsewered subdivision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, J.D.; Bradbury, K.R.; Thomas, C.L.; Bahr, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous site-specific studies designed to assess the impacts of unsewered subdivisions on ground water quality have relied on upgradient monitoring wells or very limited background data to characterize conditions prior to development. In this study, an extensive monitoring program was designed to document ground water conditions prior to construction of a rural subdivision in south-central Wisconsin. Previous agricultural land use has impacted ground water quality; concentrations of chloride, nitrate-nitrogen, and atrazine ranged from below the level of detection to 296 mg/L, 36 mg/L, and 0.8 ??g/L, respectively, and were highly variable from well to well and through time. Seasonal variations in recharge, surface topography, aquifer heterogeneities, surficial loading patterns, and well casing depth explain observed variations in ground water chemistry. This variability would not have been detected if background conditions were determined from only a few monitoring wells or inferred from wells located upgradient of the subdivision site. This project demonstrates the importance of characterizing both ground water quality and chemical variability prior to land-use change to detect any changes once homes are constructed. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  9. Ground water in the Verdigris River basin, Kansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fader, Stuart Wesley; Morton, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    Ground water in the Verdigris River basin occurs in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated deposits ranging in age from Mississippian to Quaternary. Water for municipal, industrial, and irrigation supplies generally can be obtained in limited quantities from the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys. Except for water in the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys and in the outcrop areas of the bedrock aquifers, the groundwater is generally of poor chemical quality. Owing to the generally poor chemical quality of water and low yields to wells, an increase in the use of ground water from the consolidated rocks is improbable. The unconsolidated rocks in the Verdigris River basin receive about 166,000 acre-feet of recharge annually, and about 1 million acre-fee of water is in temporary storage in the deposits. In 1968 about 4,200 acre-feet of ground was withdrawn for all uses. About 800 acre-feet of ground and 5,000 acre-feet of surface water were pumped for irrigation of 5,300 acres of cropland. The total annual withdrawal of ground water for irrigation may be 2,000 acre-feet by the year 2000.

  10. Ground water dependence of endangered ecosystems: Nebraska's eastern saline wetlands.

    PubMed

    Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F; Gosselin, David C

    2007-01-01

    Many endangered or threatened ecosystems depend on ground water for their survival. Nebraska's saline wetlands, home to a number of endangered species, are ecosystems whose development, sustenance, and survival depend on saline ground water discharge at the surface. This study demonstrates that the saline conditions present within the eastern Nebraska saline wetlands result from the upwelling of saline ground water from within the underlying Dakota Aquifer and deeper underlying formations of Pennsylvanian age. Over thousands to tens of thousands of years, saline ground water has migrated over regional scale flowpaths from recharge zones in the west to the present-day discharge zones along the saline streams of Rock, Little Salt, and Salt Creeks in Lancaster and Saunders counties. An endangered endemic species of tiger beetle living within the wetlands has evolved under a unique set of hydrologic conditions, is intolerant to recent anthropogenic changes in hydrology and salinity, and is therefore on the brink of extinction. As a result, the fragility of such systems demands an even greater understanding of the interrelationships among geology, hydrology, water chemistry, and biology than in less imperiled systems where adaptation is more likely. Results further indicate that when dealing with ground water discharge-dependent ecosystems, and particularly those dependent on dissolved constituents as well as the water, wetland management must be expanded outside of the immediate surface location of the visible ecosystem to include areas where recharge and lateral water movement might play a vital role in wetland hydrologic and chemical mixing dynamics. PMID:17973752

  11. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Ken; Stovall, Jeff; Frailey, Scott; Urban, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  12. Submarine Ground Water Discharge and Fate Along the Coast of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i:Part 2, Spatial and Temporal Variations in Salinity, Radium-Isotope Activity, and Nutrient Concentrations in Coastal Waters, December 2003-April 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knee, Karen; Street, Joseph; Grossman, Eric E.; Paytan, Adina

    2008-01-01

    The aquatic resources of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, including rocky shoreline, fishponds, and anchialine pools, provide habitat to numerous plant and animal species and offer recreational opportunities to local residents and tourists. A considerable amount of submarine groundwater discharge was known to occur in the park, and this discharge was suspected to influence the park's water quality. Thus, the goal of this study was to characterize spatial and temporal variations in the quality and quantity of groundwater discharge in the park. Samples were collected in December 2003, November 2005, and April 2006 from the coastal ocean, beach pits, three park observation wells, anchialine pools, fishponds, and Honokohau Harbor. The activities of two Ra isotopes commonly used as natural ground-water tracers (223Ra and 224Ra), salinity, and nutrient concentrations were measured. Fresh ground water composed a significant proportion (8-47 volume percent) of coastal-ocean water. This percentage varied widely between study sites, indicating significant spatial variation in submarine groundwater discharge at small (meter to kilometer) scales. Nitrate + nitrite, phosphate, and silica concentrations were significantly higher in nearshore coastal-ocean samples relative to samples collected 1 km or more offshore, and linear regression showed that most of this difference was due to fresh ground-water discharge. High-Ra-isotope-activity, higher-salinity springs were a secondary source of nutrients, particularly phosphate, at Honokohau Harbor and Aiopio Fishtrap. Salinity, Ra-isotope activity, and nutrient concentrations appeared to vary in response to the daily tidal cycle, although little seasonal variation was observed, indicating that submarine ground-water discharge may buffer the park's water quality against the severe seasonal changes that would occur in a system where freshwater inputs were dominated by rivers and runoff. Ra-isotope-activity ratios indicated

  13. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  14. Bibliography of publications relating to ground water in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushman, R.V.

    1950-01-01

    In 1939, when it became necessary to curtail the work being carried on by the Works Progress Administration, cooperation was arranged between the Federal Ecological Survey and the State Water Commission to continue investigations relative to the over-development of ground-water supplies in the New Haven area. From time to time additional funds have been made available to meet growing demands by the State for data on its ground-water supplied and the present cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the State Water Commission is a continuation of the original arrangement. It is estimated that about 14 per cont of the State has been covered by recent ground-water surveys and in addition some data are available for another 20 per cent of he State.

  15. 76 FR 77829 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming AGENCY... of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research report was prepared by... at the site is potential ground water contamination, based on resident complaints about...

  16. 77 FR 19012 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming'' is available via the Internet on the EPA Region...

  17. 77 FR 62234 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' is available via the Internet on the EPA Region...

  18. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  19. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to

  20. Iowa ground-water-quality monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detroy, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    More than 1,200 wells are available and acceptable for the network. From these and newly completed wells, 200 samples will be collected and analyzed annually. Analyses will be made for common anions and cations, trace metals, nutrients, and radionuclides. One out of ten samples will be analyzed for priority pollutants and pesticides. Data from this program will be published annually in Water Resources Data, Iowa, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report.

  1. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  2. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littin, Gregory R.; Baum, Bradley M.; Truini, Margot

    1999-01-01

    The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to document long-term effects of ground-water from the N aquifer by industrial and municipal users. The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area, and the ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions. Monitoring activities include continuous and periodic measurements of (1) ground-water pumpage from the confined and unconfined parts of the aquifer, (2) ground-water levels in the confined and unconfined parts of the aquifer, (3) surface-water discharge, and (4) chemistry of the ground water and surface water. In 1997, ground-water withdrawals for industrial and municipal use totaled about 7,090 acre-feet, which is less than a 1-percent increase from 1996. Pumpage from the confined part of the aquifer increased by about 2 percent to 5,510 acre-feet, and pumpage from the unconfined part of the aquifer decreased by about 4 percent to 1,580 acre-feet. Water-level declines in the confined part during 1997 were recorded in 5 of 12 wells; however, the median change was a rise of about 0.2 foot as opposed to a decline of 2.8 feet for 1996. Water-level declines in the unconfined part were recorded in 7 of 15 wells, and the median change was 0.0 foot in 1997 as opposed to a decline of 0.5 foot in 1996. The low-flow discharge at the Moenkopi streamflow-gaging station ranged from 1.6 to 2.0 cubic feet per second in 1997. Streamflow-discharge measurements also were made at Laguna Creek, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash during 1997. The low-flow discharge ranged from 2.3 to 4.2 cubic feet per second at Laguna Creek, 0.44 to 0.48 cubic foot per second at Dinnebito Wash, and 0.15 to 0.26 cubic foot per second at Polacca Wash. Discharge was measured at three springs. Discharge from Moenkopi School Spring increased by about 3 gallons per minute from the measurement in 1996. Discharge from an unnamed spring near Dennehotso increased by 9.9 gallons per minute from the measurement made in

  3. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for

  4. Use of Microgravity to Assess the Effects of El Nino on Ground-Water Storage in Southern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.; Pool, Donald R.

    1998-01-01

    The availability of ground water is of extreme importance in areas, such as southern Arizona, where it is the main supply for agricultural, industrial, or domestic purposes. Where ground-water use exceeds recharge, monitoring is critical for managing water supplies. Typically, monitoring has been done by measuring water levels in wells; however, this technique only partially describes ground-water conditions in a basin. A new application of geophysical technology is enabling U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists to measure changes in the amount of water in an aquifer using a network of microgravity stations. This technique enables a direct measurement of ground-water depletion and recharge. In Tucson, Arizona, residents have relied solely upon ground water for most of their needs since the 19th century. Water levels in some wells in the Tucson area have declined more than 200 ft in the past 50 years. Similar drops in water levels have occurred elsewhere in Arizona. In response to the overdrafting of ground water, the State of Arizona passed legislation designed to attain 'safe yield,' which is defined as a balance between ground-water withdrawals and annual recharge of aquifers. To monitor progress in complying with the legislation, ground-water withdrawals are measured and estimated, and annual recharge is estimated. The Tucson Basin and Avra Valley are two ground-water basins that form the Tucson Active Management Area (TAMA), which by State statute must attain 'safe yield' by the year 2025.

  5. Isotope Geochemistry and Chronology of Offshore Ground Water Beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, John Karl; Krantz, David E.

    2003-01-01

    detected by geophysical surveys beneath Indian River Bay represent lateral continuations of the active surficial nitrate-contaminated freshwater flow systems originating on land, but they do not indicate directly the magnitude of fresh ground-water discharge or nutrient exchange with the estuary. There is evidence that some of the terrestrial ground-water nitrate is reduced before discharging directly beneath the estuary. Local estuarine sediment-derived ammonium in saline pore water may be a substantial benthic source of nitrogen in offshore areas of the estuary.

  6. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 1B: Northeast Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, H.G.; Nazarian, A.P.; Dickerson, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharge for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous or daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage and discharge for 36 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells; quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for northeast Florida include continuous or daily discharge for 138 streams, periodic discharge for 3 streams, continuous or daily stage for 61 streams, periodic stage for 0 streams; peak stage and discharge for 0 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 9 lakes, periodic elevations for 20 lakes; continuous ground water levels for 73 wells, periodic groundwater levels for 543 wells; quality-of-water data for 43 surface-water sites and 115 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State and Federal agencies in Florida.

  7. Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Constantz, Jim; Stonestrom, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Recharge of aquifers within arid and semiarid environments is defined as the downward flux of water across the regional water table. The introduction of recharging water at the land surface can occur at discreet locations, such as in stream channels, or be distributed over the landscape, such as across broad interarroyo areas within an alluvial ground-water basin. The occurrence of recharge at discreet locations is referred to as focused recharge, whereas the occurrence of recharge over broad regions is referred to as diffuse recharge. The primary interest of this appendix is focused recharge, but regardless of the type of recharge, estimation of downward fluxes is essential to its quantification. Like chemical tracers, heat can come from natural sources or be intentionally introduced to infer transport properties and aquifer recharge. The admission and redistribution of heat from natural processes such as insolation, infiltration, and geothermal activity can be used to quantify subsurface flow regimes. Heat is well suited as a ground-water tracer because it provides a naturally present dynamic signal and is relatively harmless over a useful range of induced perturbations. Thermal methods have proven valuable for recharge investigations for several reasons. First, theoretical descriptions of coupled water-and-heat transport are available for the hydrologic processes most often encountered in practice. These include land-surface mechanisms such as radiant heating from the sun, radiant cooling into space, and evapotranspiration, in addition to the advective and conductive mechanisms that usually dominate at depth. Second, temperature is theoretically well defined and readily measured. Third, thermal methods for depths ranging from the land surface to depths of hundreds of meters are based on similar physical principles. Fourth, numerical codes for simulating heat and water transport have become increasingly reliable and widely available. Direct measurement of water

  8. Potential risk of microplastics transportation into ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-04-01

    Microplastics, are plastics particles with a size smaller than 5mm. They are formed by the fragmentation of plastic wastes. They are present in the air, soil and water. But only in aquatic systems (ocean and rivers) are studies over their distribution, and the effect of microplastics on organisms. There is a lack of information of what is the distribution of microplastics in the soil, and in the ground water. This study tries to estimate the potential risk of microplastics transportation into the ground water by the activity of earthworms. Earthworms can produce burrows and/or galleries inside the soil, with the presence of earthworms some ecosystem services are enhanced, as infiltration. In this study we observed after 14 days with 5 treatments (0, 7, 28 and 60% w/w microplastics mixed with Populus nigra litter) and the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, in microcosms (3 replicas per treatment) that macroplastics are indeed deposit inside earthworms burrows, with 7% microplastics on the surface is possible to find 1.8 g.kg-1 microplastics inside the burrows, with a bioaumentation factor of 0.65. Burrows made by earthworms under 60% microplastics, are significant bigger (p<0.05) than the burrows of those earthworms without microplastics in their soil surface. The amount of litter that is deposit inside the burrows is significant higher (p<0.05) with the presence of microplastics on the surface than without microplastics. The microplastics size distribution is smaller inside the burrows than on the surface, with an abundance of particles under 63 μm.

  9. Submarine ground-water discharge: nutrient loading and nitrogen transformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroeger, Kevin D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Crusius, John; Bratton, John F.; Charette, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters due to nonpoint source land-derived nitrogen (N) loads is a worldwide phenomenon and perhaps the greatest agent of change altering coastal ecology (National Research Council, 2000; Howarth and others, 2000). Within the United States, a majority of estuaries have been determined to be moderately to severely impaired by eutrophication associated with increasing nutrient loads (Bricker and others, 1999). In coastal watersheds with soils of high hydraulic conductivity and permeable coastal sediments, ground water is a major route of transport of freshwater and its solutes from land to sea. Freshwater flowing downgradient from aquifers may either discharge from a seepage face near the intertidal zone, or flow directly into the sea as submarine ground-water discharge (SGD) (fig. 1). In the coastal aquifer, entrainment of saline pore water occurs prior to discharge, producing a gradient in ground-water salinity from land to sea, referred to as a subterranean estuary (Moore, 1999). In addition, processes including density-driven flow and tidal pumping create brackish and saline ground-water circulation. Hence, submarine ground-water discharge often consists of a substantial amount of recirculating seawater. Mixing of fresh and saline ground waters in the context of coastal sediments may alter the chemical composition of the discharging fluid. Depending on the biogeochemical setting, removal of fixed N due to processes leading to N2 (dinitrogen gas) production in the nearshore aquifer and subterranean estuary may significantly attenuate land-derived N loads; or, processes such as ion exchange and tidal pumping in the subterranean estuary may substantially accelerate the transport of both land-derived and sediment re-mineralized N to estuarine water columns. As emphasized by Burnett and others (2001, 2002), a fundamental problem in evaluating the importance of ground-water discharge in marine geochemical budgets is the difficulty of

  10. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  11. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littin, Gregory R.; Monroe, Stephen A.

    1997-01-01

    The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to document long-term effects of ground-water pumping from the N aquifer by industrial and municipal users. The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area, and the ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions. Monitoring activities include continuous and periodic measurements of (1) ground-water pumpage from the confined and unconfined parts of the aquifer, (2) ground-water levels in the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (3) surface-water discharge, and (4) chemistry of the ground water and surface water. In 1996, ground-water withdrawals for industrial and municipal use totaled about 7,040 acre-feet, which is less than a 1-percent decrease from 1995. Pumpage from the confined part of the aquifer decreased by about 3 percent to 5,390 acre-feet, and pumpage from the unconfined part of the aquifer increased by about 9 percent to 1,650 acre-feet. Water-level declines in the confined area during 1996 were recorded in 11 of 13 wells, and the median change was a decline of about 2.7 feet as opposed to a decline of 1.8 feet for 1995. Water-level declines in the unconfined area were recorded in 11 of 18 wells, and the median change was a decline of 0.5 foot in 1996 as opposed to a decline of 0.1 foot in 1995. The average low-flow discharge at the Moenkopi streamflow-gaging station was 2.3 cubic feet per second in 1996. Streamflow-discharge measurements also were made at Laguna Creek, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash during 1996. Average low-flow discharge was 2.3 cubic feet per second at Laguna Creek, 0.4 cubic foot per second at Dinnebito Wash, and 0.2 cubic foot per second at Polacca Wash. Discharge was measured at three springs. Discharge from Moenkopi School Spring decreased by about 2 gallons per minute from the measurement in 1995. Discharge from an unnamed spring near Dennehotso decreased by 1.3 gallons per minute from the measurement made in 1995; however

  12. Delineating and quantifying ground water discharge zones using streambed temperatures.

    PubMed

    Conant, Brewster

    2004-01-01

    Streambed temperature mapping, hydraulic testing using minipiezometers, and geochemical analyses of interstitial water of the streambed were used to delineate the pattern of ground water discharge in a sandy streambed and to develop a flux-based conceptual model for ground water/surface water interactions. A new and simple empirical method was used to relate fluxes obtained from minipiezometer data to streambed temperatures. The relationship allowed flux to be calculated at locations where only streambed temperature measurements were made. Slug testing and potentiomanometer measurements at 34 piezometers indicated ground water discharge ranged from 0.03 to 446 L/m2/day (and possibly as high as 7060 L/m2/day) along a 60 m long by 11 to 14 m wide reach of river. Complex but similar plan-view patterns of flux were calculated for both summer and winter using hundreds of streambed temperatures measured on a 1 by 2 m grid. The reach was dominated by ground water discharge and 5% to 7% of the area accounted for approximately 20% to 24% of the total discharge. < 12% of the total area consisted of recharge zones or no-discharge zones. A conceptual model for ground water/surface water interactions consisting of five different behaviors was developed based on the magnitude and direction of flux across the surface of the streambed. The behaviors include short-circuit discharge (e.g., high-flow springs), high discharge (e.g., preferential flowpaths), low to moderate discharge, no discharge (e.g., horizontal hyporheic or ground water flow), and recharge. Geological variations at depth played a key role in determining which type of flow behavior occurred in the streambed. PMID:15035588

  13. Pesticides in Ground Water of Central and Western Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2008-01-01

    Selected pesticides and degradates (products of pesticide degradation) are detectable in ground water in many parts of central and western Maryland, although concentrations are generally less than 0.1 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples collected recently (1994-2003) from 72 wells in areas of Maryland underlain by consolidated carbonate, crystalline, or siliciclastic aquifers (areas north and west of the Fall Line) were analyzed for selected pesticides and degradates. Pesticides were typically detected in mixtures of multiple compounds in ground water, and degradates were commonly detected, often at greater concentrations than their respective parent compounds. No pesticides were observed at concentrations greater than established standards for drinking water, and nearly all observed concentrations were below other health-based guidelines. Although such standards and guidelines are generally much greater than measured concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of pesticides and degradates in ground water is related to application practices, as well as chemical and environmental factors that affect the fate and movement of individual compounds.

  14. Eolian transport of geogenic hexavalent chromium to ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Clark, D.; Imes, J.L.; Councell, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual model of eolian transport is proposed to address the widely distributed, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) observed in ground water in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Concentrations (30 to more than 1000 μg/L Cr+6) extend over thousands of square kilometers of ground water systems. It is hypothesized that the Cr is derived from weathering of chromium-rich pyroxenes and olivines present in ophiolite sequence of the adjacent Oman (Hajar) Mountains. Cr+3 in the minerals is oxidized to Cr+6 by reduction of manganese and is subsequently sorbed on iron and manganese oxide coatings of particles. When the surfaces of these particles are abraded in this arid environment, they release fine, micrometer-sized, coated particles that are easily transported over large distances by wind and subsequently deposited on the surface. During ground water recharge events, the readily soluble Cr+6 is mobilized by rain water and transported by advective flow into the underlying aquifer. Chromium analyses of ground water, rain, dust, and surface (soil) deposits are consistent with this model, as are electron probe analyses of clasts derived from the eroding Oman ophiolite sequence. Ground water recharge flux is proposed to exercise some control over Cr+6 concentration in the aquifer.

  15. Availability Of Ground-Water Data For California, Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia

    2001-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year. These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled ?Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.? Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 1994, the Volume 5 Ground-Water Data report was discontinued, but data continue to be available in our databases. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for water year 2000. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for water year 2000 (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the databases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  16. Quality of ground water from private domestic wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights major findings from two USGS reports: DeSimone (2009) and DeSimone and others (2009). These reports can be accessed at http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa. This article is followed by a summary of treatment considerations and options for owners of private domestic wells, written by Cliff Treyens of the National Ground Water Association.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION NEAR PAVILLION, WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to complaints by domestic well owners regarding objectionable taste and odor problems in well water, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a ground water investigation near the town of Pavillion, Wyoming under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental ...

  18. Geology and ground-water resources of Galveston County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petitt, Ben McDowell; Winslow, Allen George

    1957-01-01

    Much additional ground water could be obtained from both the "Alta Loma" sand and the upper part of the Beaumont clay, especially in the northern and western parts of the county. Before large developments of supplies are planned, however, these areas should be explored by test drilling. The problems of well spacing and pumping rates should be thoroughly studied in order to determine the maximum development permitted by the ground-water supply. Current observations should be continued with special emphasis on the progress of salt-water encroachment.

  19. Ground-water quality in Wisconsin through 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Holt, C. L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Ground water, a plentiful and largely underdeveloped resource of Wisconsin, has good to excellent chemical quality in most places. This resource is readily available in most parts of the State for municipal, industrial, and rural uses. In 1970, about 0.5 billion gallons of ground water a day was pumped in Wisconsin for all uses (Murray and Reeves, 1972). In addition, underground reservoirs discharge an average of 16 billion gallons per day of water of relatively constant temperature and uniform quality, which maintains the base flow of streams and the level of lakes (Holt, 1964).

  20. Regional estimation of total recharge to ground water in Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Jozsef; Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring long-term mean annual recharge to ground water in Nebraska was estimated by a novel water-balance approach. This approach uses geographic information systems (GIS) layers of land cover, elevation of land and ground water surfaces, base recharge, and the recharge potential in combination with monthly climatic data. Long-term mean recharge > 140 mm per year was estimated in eastern Nebraska, having the highest annual precipitation rates within the state, along the Elkhorn, Platte, Missouri, and Big Nemaha River valleys where ground water is very close to the surface. Similarly high recharge values were obtained for the Sand Hills sections of the North and Middle Loup, as well as Cedar River and Beaver Creek valleys due to high infiltration rates of the sandy soil in the area. The westernmost and southwesternmost parts of the state were estimated to typically receive < 30 mm of recharge a year.

  1. Ground water quality protection: the issue in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of protecting ground water resources cannot be overstated, and many people throughout the world seem anxious to physically and financially support a rational program to this end. Public complacency regarding the quality of ground water was destroyed with headline-grabbing incidents of pollution such as Love Canal, Valley of the Drums, and Times Beach. Contrary to earlier popular belief, the soil mantle has been shown to be ineffective in cleansing certain pollutants from the water flowing through it. The legislative basis for developing and implementing broad ground water quality protection programs exists, although it is dispersed in a variety of pieces of legislation. Such programs presuppose the existence of the scientific knowledge necessary to produce viable and effective results from its implementation. This article addresses the research needed for accumulation of this information. 12 references.

  2. DETECTION OF A GROUND-WATER/SURFACE-WATER INTERFACE WITH DIRECT-PUSH EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground-water/surface-water interface (GSI) was documented at the Thermo Chem CERCLA Site in Muskegon, MI via direct-push (DP) sampling. At that time, contaminated ground water flowed from the upland area of the site into the Black Creek floodplain. DP rods equipped with a 1.5...

  3. Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries from Discharge of Shallow Ground Water, Mt. Desert Island, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park because of the potential problem of water-quality degradation and eutrophication in its estuaries. Water-quality degradation has been observed at the Park?s Bass Harbor Marsh estuary but not in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, but the importance of shallow ground water that may contain nutrients derived from domestic or other sources is unknown. Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries were studied to (1) identify shallow ground-water seeps, (2) assess the chemistry of the water discharged from selected seeps, and (3) assess the chemistry of ground water in shallow ground-water hyporheic zones. The hyporheic zone is defined here as the region beneath and lateral to a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow ground water and surface water. This study also provides baseline chemical data for ground water in selected bedrock monitoring wells and domestic wells on Mt. Desert Island. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, wastewater compounds, dissolved organic carbon, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and specific conductance. Samples from bedrock monitoring wells also were analyzed for alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. Shallow ground-water seeps to Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries at Acadia National Park were identified and georeferenced using aerial infrared digital imagery. Monitoring included the deployment of continuously recording temperature and specific conductance sensors in the seep discharge zone to access marine or freshwater signatures related to tidal flooding, gradient-driven shallow ground-water flow, or shallow subsurface flow related to precipitation events. Many potential shallow ground-water discharge zones were

  4. Availability of Ground-Water Data for California, Water Year 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2000-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year. These data constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled ?Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.? Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 1994, the Volume 5 Ground-Water Data report was discontinued, but data continue to be available in our data bases. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for 1999. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for the current water year (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the data bases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  5. Availability of Ground-Water Data for California, Water Year 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia H.

    1998-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year. These data constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.' Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 1994, the Volume 5 Ground-Water Data report was discontinued, but data continue to be available in our data bases. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for 1997. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for the current water year (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the data bases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  6. Availability of Ground-Water Data For California, Water Year 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    1999-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year. These data constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled ?Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.? Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 1994, the Volume 5 Ground-Water Data report was discontinued, but data continue to be available in our data bases. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for 1998. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for the current water year (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the data bases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  7. The role of hand calculations in ground water flow modeling.

    PubMed

    Haitjema, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Most ground water modeling courses focus on the use of computer models and pay little or no attention to traditional analytic solutions to ground water flow problems. This shift in education seems logical. Why waste time to learn about the method of images, or why study analytic solutions to one-dimensional or radial flow problems? Computer models solve much more realistic problems and offer sophisticated graphical output, such as contour plots of potentiometric levels and ground water path lines. However, analytic solutions to elementary ground water flow problems do have something to offer over computer models: insight. For instance, an analytic one-dimensional or radial flow solution, in terms of a mathematical expression, may reveal which parameters affect the success of calibrating a computer model and what to expect when changing parameter values. Similarly, solutions for periodic forcing of one-dimensional or radial flow systems have resulted in a simple decision criterion to assess whether or not transient flow modeling is needed. Basic water balance calculations may offer a useful check on computer-generated capture zones for wellhead protection or aquifer remediation. An easily calculated "characteristic leakage length" provides critical insight into surface water and ground water interactions and flow in multi-aquifer systems. The list goes on. Familiarity with elementary analytic solutions and the capability of performing some simple hand calculations can promote appropriate (computer) modeling techniques, avoids unnecessary complexity, improves reliability, and is likely to save time and money. Training in basic hand calculations should be an important part of the curriculum of ground water modeling courses.

  8. Ground-water quality assessment of the Carson River basin, Nevada and California; results of investigations, 1987-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Lawrence, Stephen J.; Lico, Michael S.; Thomas, James M.; Schaefer, Donald H.

    1997-01-01

    Using existing Nevada State drinking-water standards as a measure of the overall water quality, ground-water quality in principal aquifers of the upper Carson River basin is generally excellent. Ground-water quality in the Carson Desert, the distal end of the Carson River basin, displays extremes in concentrations of major and minor inorganic constituents, with dissolved solids reaching concentrations exceeding sea water. More than 10 percent of sampled ground water in the principal aquifers contain concentrations of arsenic, dissolved solids, and manganese greater than the drinking-water standards. Nearly all sampled ground water in the basin had radon-222 activities greater than the proposed Federal maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed Federal maximum contaminant level of 20 micrograms per liter were found in ground water in the adjacent Sierra Nevada.

  9. Deposit control in ground water remediation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, B.; Soeder, K.

    1995-12-31

    Remedial actions at all types of hazardous waste sites require the implementation of various water treatment technologies. Though the many groundwater treatment technologies are constantly developing, some age-old problems associated with handling any water remains. These operating problems include deposition of naturally occurring inorganic solutes such as iron, manganese, calcium and fouling by indigenous micro-organisms. Fouling of air stripping towers is a common example of this phenomenon. Virtually all groundwater treatment systems experience some degree of operating impediment from this cause. Some systems may take years for deposits to become problems, but many systems become inoperable within weeks or months. Recently released studies by the American Petroleum Institute show that deposit control is the most common operation problem causing remediation system failure. Such failures result in greatly increased operation & maintenance costs and non compliance with regulatory mandates.

  10. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  11. EVALUATION OF A MATRIX INTERFERENCE IN GROUND WATER ARSENIC MEASUREMENT BY ICP-OES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic enters ground water systems by either the weathering of naturally occurring subsurface materials or human activities such as mining and pesticide manufacturing. The current EPA drinking water limit for arsenic is set at 50 ug/L, with the reduction to 10 ug/L in 2006. The...

  12. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    gneiss rocks can indicate a potential for corrosive water. The only constituent measured in the field that has a USEPA Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) is pH. The SMCL for pH is 6.5-8.5; 64 percent of samples analyzed for pH were acidic (below pH 6.5). Only 1 percent of samples were basic (above pH 8.5). Of the common ions, the USEPA has SMCLs for chloride, sulfate, and total dissolved solids. The USEPA has a SMCL and a Primary Maximum Contaminant Level (PMCL) for fluoride. Chloride is more closely related to land use than geology. In Chester County, chloride exceeded the SMCL (250 mg/L) only in 5 percent of the services (commercial services, community services, and military) land-use areas. No samples analyzed for sulfate exceeded the SMCL (250 mg/L). Only 3 percent of samples analyzed for total dissolved solids exceeded the SMCL (500 milligrams per liter) (mg/L). No samples analyzed for fluoride equaled or exceeded the SMCL (2.0 mg/L) or PMCL (4.0 mg/L). Iron concentrations exceeded the USEPA SMCL in 11 percent of samples and were highest in schist (14 percent) and gneiss (13 percent). Manganese concentrations exceeded the SMCL in 19 percent of samples and were highest in quartzite and schist (both 28 percent). Lead and arsenic were present in low concentrations: the highest concentrations of lead occurred in water from quartzite (8 percent exceeded the USEPA Action Level), and arsenic was detected mostly in Triassic sedimentary rocks (9 percent exceeded the USEPA PMCL). The highest concentrations of copper occurred more frequently in quartzite rocks, and to a lesser extent were evenly distributed between ground water in gneiss, schist, and Triassic sedimentary rocks. Elevated concentrations of radon-222 and the combined radium-226/radium-228 radionuclides were common in water from quartzite and schist. Gross alpha and gross beta particle activities were elevated in water from quartzite and carbonate rocks. In contrast, elevated concentrations of uranium

  13. Regional Water Table (1998) and Ground-Water-Level Changes in the Mojave River, and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory A.; Pimentel, M. Isabel

    2000-01-01

    The Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The rapid and continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The continuing collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water systems and, consequently, water availability. During 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,370 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from 450 wells, providing coverage for most of both basins. Twenty-three hydrographs show long-term (as much as 70 years) water-level trends throughout the basins. To help show effects of late seasonal recharge along the Mojave River, 14 short-term (13 years) hydrographs were created. A water-level change map was compiled to enable comparison of 1996 and 1998 water levels. The Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins had little change in water levels between 1996 and 1998 - with the exception of the areas of the Yucca Valley affected by artificial recharge. Other water-level changes were localized and reflected pumping or measurements made before seasonal recharge. Three areas of perched ground water were identified: El Mirage Lake (dry), Adelanto, and Lucerne Valley.

  14. Ground-water models as a management tool in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Highly sophisticated computer models provide powerful tools for analyzing historic data and for simulating future water levels, water movement, and water chemistry under stressed conditions throughout the ground-water system in Florida. Models that simulate the movement of heat and subsidence of land in response to aquifer pumping also have potential for application to hydrologic problems in the State. Florida, with 20 ground-water modeling studies reported since 1972, has applied computer modeling techniques to a variety of water-resources problems. Models in Florida generally have been used to provide insight to problems of water supply, contamination, and impact on the environment. The model applications range from site-specific studies, such as estimating contamination by wastewater injection at St. Petersburg, to a regional model of the entire State that may be used to assess broad-scale environmental impact of water-resources development. Recently, groundwater models have been used as management tools by the State regulatory authority to permit or deny development of water resources. As modeling precision, knowledge, and confidence increase, the use of ground-water models will shift more and more toward regulation of development and enforcement of environmental laws. (USGS)

  15. Chemistry and movement of ground water, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoff, S.L.; Moore, J.E.

    1964-01-01

    Three chemical types of ground water are distinguished at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. A sodium-potassium water is related to tuff (in part zeolitized) and to alluvium containing detrital tuff. A calcium-magnesium water is related to limestone and dolomite, or to alluvium containing detritus of these rock types. A mixed chemical type, containing about as much sodium and potassium as calcium and magnesium, may result from the addition of one of the first two types of water to the other; to passage of water first through tuff and then through carbonate rock, or vice versa; and to ion-exchange during water travel. Consideration of the distribution of these water types, together with the distribution of sodium in the water and progressive changes in the dissolved solids, suggests that the ground water in the Nevada Test Site probably moves toward the Amargosa Desert, not into Indian Spring Valley and thence southeastward toward Las Vegas. The low dissolved solids content of ground-water reservoirs in alluvium and tuff of the enclosed basins indicates that recharge is local in origin.

  16. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  17. Ground-water quality in alluvial basins that have minimal urban development, south-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Coes, Alissa L.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water quality data (1917-96) from 772 wells in 16 alluvial basins that have minimal urban development were used to determine the effect of nonurban factors on ground-water quality in south- central Arizona. Characterization of the spatial variability of ground-water quality within and among alluvial basins that have minimal urban development will provide a baseline to which water- quality problems associated with urbanization can be compared. Four water-type categories--calcium carbonate, calcium mixed anion, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride--were used to classify the 13 alluvial basins for which adequate data were available. Ground-water quality was compared to U.S. Environmental Protaection Agency maximum contaminant levels for drinking water, depth of well, and depth to top of perforated interval for five alluvial basins that represented the four water-type categories. Exceedances of maximum contaminant levels for fluoride and nitrate occurred in three and four basins, respectively, of the five selected basins. Specific-conductance values for ground water in the five selected basins tend to increase in a northwesterly direction toward the central part of Arizona as the extent of evaporite deposits increases. The results of this study, which are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, can be used to determine the effects of urban land-use activities on ground-water quality in similar hydrogeologic conditions and may be the best indicator available for nonurban ground-water quality in the region.

  18. Shallow ground-water quality beneath rice areas in the Sacramento Valley, California, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey installed and sampled 28 wells in rice areas in the Sacramento Valley as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of the study was to assess the shallow ground-water quality and to determine whether any effects on water quality could be related to human activities and particularly rice agriculture. The wells installed and sampled were between 8.8 and 15.2 meters deep, and water levels were between 0.4 and 8.0 meters below land surface. Ground-water samples were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 29 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, dissolved organic carbon, 86 pesticides, tritium (hydrogen- 3), deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. At least one health-related state or federal drinking-water standard (maximum contaminant or long-term health advisory level) was exceeded in 25 percent of the wells for barium, boron, cadmium, molybdenum, or sulfate. At least one state or federal secondary maximum contaminant level was exceeded in 79 percent of the wells for chloride, iron, manganese, specific conductance, or dissolved solids. Nitrate and nitrite were detected at concentrations below state and federal 2000 drinking-water standards; three wells had nitrate concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water redox conditions were anoxic in 26 out of 28 wells sampled (93 percent). Eleven pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples. Four of the detected pesticides are or have been used on rice crops in the Sacramento Valley (bentazon, carbofuran, molinate, and thiobencarb). Pesticides were detected in 89 percent of the wells sampled, and rice pesticides were detected in 82 percent of the wells sampled. The most frequently detected pesticide was the rice herbicide bentazon, detected in 20 out of 28 wells (71 percent); the other pesticides detected have been used for rice, agricultural

  19. Dichlorobenzene in ground water: Evidence for long-term persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrologic and geochemical evidence were used to establish the long-term persistence of dichlorobenzene in ground water that has been contaminated from 50 years of rapid-infiltration sewage disposal. An extensive plume of dichlorobenzene extends more than 3,500 meters downgradient from the disposal beds, with concentrations of the combined isomers ranging from less than 0.01 to over 1.0 ??g/l. Based on estimates of maximum ground-water flow velocities, a minimum age of 20 years was established for the farthest downgradient zone of dichlorobenzene contamination. Branched-chained, alkylbenzenesulfonic acid surfactants, that were introduced into the ground water prior to 1966, occur along with dichlorobenzene in the downgradient part of the plume, further establish residence of the compounds in the aquifer for at least 20 years. Although dichlorobenzene can be biologically degraded under aerobic conditions, its persistence at this field site is attributed to the dynamics of the ground-water system. Denitrifying conditions, resulting from the degradation of organic compounds in the aquifer near the disposal beds, appear to have enhanced the persistence of dichlorobenzene, which is not degraded by anaerobic bacteria. Biological degradation of dichlorobenzene in the aerobic part of the plume downgradient from the source is probably limited by the paucity of a suitable organic-carbon substrate and the low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the contaminated ground water.

  20. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ``pump-and-treat`` technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations.

  1. Hydrologic significance of carbon monoxide concentrations in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved carbon monoxide (CO) is present in ground water produced from a variety of aquifer systems at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20 nanomoles per liter (0.0056 to 0.56 ??g/L). In two shallow aquifers, one an unconsolidated coastal plain aquifer in Kings Bay, Georgia, and the other a fractured-bedrock aquifer in West Trenton, New Jersey, long-term monitoring showed that CO concentrations varied over time by as much as a factor of 10. Field and laboratory evidence suggests that the delivery of dissolved oxygen to the soil zone and underlying aquifers by periodic recharge events stimulates oxic metabolism and produces transiently high CO concentrations. In between recharge events, the aquifers become anoxic and more substrate limited, CO is consumed as a carbon source, and CO concentrations decrease. According to this model, CO concentrations provide a transient record of oxic metabolism affecting ground water systems after dissolved oxygen has been fully consumed. Because the delivery of oxygen affects the fate and transport of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in ground water, CO concentration changes may be useful for identifying predominantly anoxic ground water systems subject to periodic oxic or microaerophilic conditions. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  2. A national look at nitrate contamination of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    1998-01-01

    Knowing where and what type of risks to ground water exist can alert water-resource managers and private users of the need to protect water supplies. Although nitrate generally is not an adult public-health threat, ingestion in drinking water by infants can cause low oxygen levels in the blood, a potentially fatal condition (Spalding and Exner, 1993). For this reason, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) nitrate as nitrogen (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1995). Nitrate concentrations in natural ground waters are usually less than 2 mg/L (Mueller and others, 1995).

  3. Toward implementation of a national ground water monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, Robert P.; Cunningham, William L.; Copeland, Rick; Frederick, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information's (ACWI) Subcommittee on Ground Water (SOGW) has been working steadily to develop and encourage implementation of a nationwide, long-term ground-water quantity and quality monitoring framework. Significant progress includes the planned submission this fall of a draft framework document to the full committee. The document will include recommendations for implementation of the network and continued acknowledgment at the federal and state level of ACWI's potential role in national monitoring toward an improved assessment of the nation's water reserves. The SOGW mission includes addressing several issues regarding network design, as well as developing plans for concept testing, evaluation of costs and benefits, and encouraging the movement from pilot-test results to full-scale implementation within a reasonable time period. With the recent attention to water resource sustainability driven by severe droughts, concerns over global warming effects, and persistent water supply problems, the SOGW mission is now even more critical.

  4. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  5. Isotopic compositions and sources of nitrate in ground water from western Salt River Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellenbeck, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of ground water from western Salt River Valley near Phoenix, Arizona, were used to develop identification tech- niques for sources of nitrate in ground water. Four possible sources of nitrate were studied: dairies and feedlots, sewage-treatment plants, agricultural activities, and natural source. End members that represent these sources were analyzed for a variety of chemical and isotopic constituents; contents of the end-member and the ground water were compared to identify nitrate from these sources. Nitrate from dairies and feedlots was identified by delta 15N values higher than +9.0 per mil. Nitrate from sewage treatment plants was identified by some chemical constituents and values of delta 15N, delta 34S, delta 7Li, and delta 11B that were lighter than the values determined for ground water not affected by sewage-treatment plants. Nitrate from agricultural activities was identified by delta 15N, 3H, and delta 34S compositions. Natural nitrate derived from decomposing plants and accumulated by biological fixation was identified by delta 15N values that range between +2 and +8 per mil. In addition to identifying nitrate sources, some chemical and isotopic charabteristics of ground water were determined on the basis of data collected during this study. Concentrations of major ions, lithium, and boron and delta 7Li, delta 11B, 3H, delta D, and delta 18O data identify ground water in different geographic regions in the study area. These differences probably are related to different sources of ground water, geochemical processes, or geologic deposits. The Luke salt body and a geothermal anomaly alter the chemical and isotopic content of some ground water.

  6. An Integrated Approach to Determine Ground-water Surface Water Flux in a Contaminated Aquifer-Wetland System at the Norman Landfill Research Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, I.; Phanikumar, M.; McGuire, J. T.; Masoner, J.; Cozzarelli, I.

    2008-12-01

    An area of research in progress at the Norman Landfill Research Site in Oklahoma involves a small wetland that overlies a landfill leachate plume. The wetland-aquifer system actively exchanges contaminants and nutrients. These chemicals move from the wetland to the aquifer and vice versa depending on the ground- water/surface-water exchange rate and flow direction. The ground-water/surface-water flow has to be quantified in order to better understand the influence of contaminants and nutrients on the transport and fate of landfill leachates. Different types of data have been collected at the site over a period of ten years including isotopic composition of water samples, ion concentrations, water levels, evaporative and seepage fluxes and meteorological variables. After identifying key processes influencing the water exchange between the wetland and ground-water based on time series analysis, we used process-based modeling to determine the ground-water/surface-water flow rates in the system using an integrated water balance model. Other methods used to constrain processes and parameters in the study include: (a) ground-water inflow calculation with stable environmental isotopes mass balance (b) ground-water input to the wetland with solute mass balance, and (c) Darcy's flow calculation of ground-water/surface-water exchange based on measurements from a network of piezometers. Preliminary results show that it is possible to differentiate between regional and local ground-water influences, as well as precipitation and evapotranspiration contributions in the exchange behavior.

  7. An electromyographic study of human gait both in water and on dry ground.

    PubMed

    Chevutschi, Alain; Lensel, Ghislaine; Vaast, Daniel; Thevenon, André

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to define the degree of muscular activation while walking in water in order to aid rehabilitation therapists in their choice of exercises for daily clinical practice in aquatherapy. This study compares the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus femoris, the soleus of the right lower limb and the contra-lateral lumbar erector spinae, during gait in water and on dry ground. The study was carried out on a group of seven healthy female subjects without past rachidian pathology. EMG recordings in water were taken with immersion to the umbilicus at "comfortable" speed. A total of five recordings were made at this speed, in water and on dry ground, with a one-minute rest between recordings. Integrated EMG results, averaged on eight gait cycles, show, for all the subjects, more erector spinae activity in water than on the ground (p<0.01). Soleus activity is greater during gait on dry ground for the whole group (p<0.01). For four subjects, the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus femoris over the entire cycle is greater than that exhibited on dry ground. In the two experimental situations, no differences have been found either on amplitudinal peaks or on the shape of the patterns. The speed and gait cycle length are reduced in water (60% and 25%). Walking in water at an umbilical level increases the activity of the erector spinae and activates the rectus femoris to levels near to or higher than walking on dry ground. These data should be taken into account by the physiotherapist when designing a rehabilitation programme. PMID:17704625

  8. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean ground-water-level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2006. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2006 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 3 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 5, and below normal in the remaining 3 wells.

  9. Copepod communities from surface and ground waters in the everglades, south Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, M.C.; Cunningham, K.J.; Perry, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We studied species composition and individual abundance of copepods in the surficial aquifer northeast of Everglades National Park. We identified the spatial distribution of subsurface habitats by assessing the depth of the high porosity layers in the limestone along a canal system, and we used copepods to assess the exchange between surface water and ground water along canal banks, at levels in the wells where high porosity connections to the canals exist. Surface- and ground-water taxa were defined, and species composition was related to areal position, sampling depth, and time. Subsurface copepod communities were dominated by surface copepods that disperse into the aquifer following the groundwater seepage along canal L-31N. The similarities in species composition between wells along canal reaches, suggest that copepods mainly enter ground water horizontally along canals via active and passive dispersal. Thus, the copepod populations indicate continuous connections between surface- and ground waters. The most abundant species were Orthocyclops modestus, Arctodiaptomus floridanus, Mesocyclops edax, and Thermocyclops parvus, all known in literature from surface habitats; however, these species have been collected in ground water in ENP. Only two stygophiles were collected: Diacylcops nearcticus and Diacyclops crassicaudis brachycercus. Restoration of the Everglades ecosystem requires a mosaic of data to reveal a complete picture of this complex system. The use of copepods as indicators of seepage could be a tool in helping to assess the direction and the duration of surface and ground water exchange.

  10. Comparison of pesticide residues in surface water and ground water of agriculture intensive areas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The organochlorines (OClPs) and organophosphates (OPPs) pesticides in surface and ground water having intensive agriculture activity were investigated to evaluate their potential pollution and risks on human health. As per USEPA 8081 B method, liquid-liquid extraction followed by Gas-Chromatographic technique with electron capture detector and mass selective detector (GC-MS) were used for monitoring of pesticides. Among organochlorines, α,β,γ,δ HCH’s, aldrin, dicofol, DDT and its derivatives, α,β endosulphan’s and endosulphan-sulphate were analysed; dichlorovos, ethion, parathion-methyl, phorate, chlorpyrifos and profenofos were determined among organophosphates. As compared to ground water, higher concentrations of OClPs and OPPs were found in surface water. Throughout the monitoring study, α - HCH (0.39 μg/L in Amravati region),α - endosulphan (0.78 μg/L in Yavatmal region), chlorpyrifos (0.25 μg/L in Bhandara region) and parathion-methyl (0.09 μg/L in Amravati region) are frequently found pesticide in ground water, whereas α,β,γ-HCH (0.39 μg/L in Amravati region), α,β - endosulphan (0.42 μg/L in Amravati region), dichlorovos (0.25 μg/L in Yavatmal region), parathion-methyl (0.42 μg/L in Bhandara region), phorate (0.33 μg/L in Yavatmal region) were found in surface water. Surface water was found to be more contaminated than ground water with more number of and more concentrated pesticides. Among pesticides water samples are found to be more contaminated by organophosphate than organochlorine. Pesticides in the surface water samples from Bhandara and Yavatmal region exceeded the EU (European Union) limit of 1.0 μg/L (sum of pesticide levels in surface water) but were within the WHO guidelines for individual pesticides. PMID:24398360

  11. Geology and ground-water resources of Uvalde County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welder, F.A.; Reeves, R.D.

    1964-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawals from the Edwards and associated limestones in Uvalde County probably could be maintained indefinitely at a rate of about 200,000 acre-feet per year, provided that withdrawals north and west of the county were not increased. However, continued withdrawals at this rate-would cause wells in structurally high areas to go dry, and underflow into Medina County would cease. Furthermore, saline water might invade the fresh-water part of the

  12. Interregional management of ground and surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1957-01-01

    I feel that there is not a large gap between what we have and what we need for "management" of the people who must give their assent to any program for management of water resources. We need a "generalist" approach in addition to our specialist approach, to achieve a synthesis of the results of the specialist's analysis of specific problems. And as a means of developing these generalists, closer coordination or perhaps "combined operations" of groups of specialists in diverse fields might provide the comprehensive and overall understanding which we need, and which is needed by the general public.

  13. Surface-water and ground-water quality in the Yucaipa area, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Danskin, Wesley R.; Burton, Carmen A.

    2001-01-01

    The quality of surface water and ground water in the Yucaipa area was evaluated to determine general chemical characteristics and to identify areas of recent ground-water recharge. Water samples, collected from 8 sites on 3 creeks and from 25 wells, were analyzed for general chemistry, nutrients, tritium, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. At one production well (1S/2W-25R4), water samples were collected at discrete depths during pumping and a continuous profile of the vertical flow rate inside the well casing was recorded. In addition to general-chemistry samples, tritium and carbon-14 samples were collected at this well to interpret the age of water at different depths.Results indicate that most water in the Yucaipa area is a calcium-bicarbonate type. The general chemical composition of surface water resembles that of ground water, although the concentration of most constituents is higher in ground water. The chemical composition of most ground-water samples is similar. Elevated concentrations of nitrate in some ground-water samples may indicate recharge from agricultural areas.In surface water that recharges ground water tritium activity ranged from 7 to 18 picocuries per liter. The range of tritium activity found in ground water indicates different times since recharge and possible mixing along ground-water flow paths. The oldest ground-water sample had a tritium activity less than 0.3 picocuries per liter, indicating more than 50 years since recharge. Water samples that had tritium activity greater than 0.3 picocuries per liter indicate that some of the water was recharged since 1952. The youngest ground water (greater than 7 picocuries per liter) was found near the hills and mountains surrounding the Yucaipa area; the oldest ground water (less than 0.3 picocuries per liter) was found in the Western Heights subbasin. Testing of the vertical contribution of ground water to well 1S/2W-25R4 showed that more than one-half of the water flowed into the well

  14. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January-December 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Glenn L.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, collected, compiled, and summarized hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. These data were collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data collected from January through December 2005 are provided for ground-water levels at 35 boreholes and 1 fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs, ground-water levels and discharge at 1 flowing borehole, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert. Ground-water level, discharge, and withdrawal data collected by other agencies, or as part of other programs, are provided. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven boreholes in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992-2005 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements; maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes; and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to the 1992-93 baseline period. At seven boreholes in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 2005 were slightly higher (0.4-2.7 feet) than the median water levels for 1992-93.

  15. Ground rubber: Sorption media for ground water containing benzene and O-xylene

    SciTech Connect

    Kershaw, D.S.; Pamukcu, S.; Kulik, B.C.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the ability of ground rubber to sorb benzene and O-xylene from water contained with aromatic hydrocarbons. The study consisted of running both batch and packed bed column tests to determine the sorption capacity, the required sorption equilibration time, and the flow through utilization efficiency of ground rubber under various contact times when exposed to water contaminated with various amounts of benzene or O-xylene. Initial batch test results indicate that ground rubber can attain equilibrium sorption capacities up to 1.3 or 8.2 mg of benzene or O-xylene, respectively, per gram of tire rubber at solution equilibrium concentrations of 10 mg/L. Packed bed column tests indicate that ground tire rubber has on the average a 40% utilization rate when a hydraulic residence time of 15 min is used. Possible future uses of round rubber as a sorption media could include, but are not limited to, the use of ground rubber as an aggregate in slurry cutoff walls that are in contact with petroleum products. Ground rubber could also be used as a sorption media in pump-and-treat methodologies or as a sorption media in in-situ reactive permeable barriers.

  16. Ground-water hydrology and projected effects of ground-water withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mountain areas and from adjoining areas. Discharge is by wells, springs, seepage to the Sevier River, evapotranspiration, and subsurface outflow to adjoining areas.

  17. Drinking water and ground water data within the 305(b) program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The condition of the Nation`s ground water resources is monitored and assessed under Section 106(e) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), which requests that each State monitor ground water quality and report the findings to Congress in their biennial 305(b) State Water Quality Reports. Ground water quality data, reported by States under the CWA, are compiled and maintained in a data base. The purpose of developing and maintaining these data is to develop an accurate representation of the Nation`s ground water quality. The question has been raised whether the 305(b) of the CWA and assesses its appropriateness to support a ground water indicator under the IWI Initiative.

  18. Ground-water quality for Grainger County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.D.; Patel, A.R.; Hickey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The residents of Grainger County depend on ground water for many of their daily needs including personal consumption and crop irrigation. To address concerns associated with ground-water quality related to domestic use, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from 35 wells throughout the county during the summer 1992. The water samples were analyzed to determine if pesticides, nutrients, bacteria, and other selected constituents were present in the ground water. Wells selected for the study were between 100 and 250 feet deep and yielded 10 to 50 gallons of water per minute. Laboratory analyses of the water found no organic pesticides at concentrations exceeding the primary maximum contaminant levels established by the State of Tennessee for wells used for public supply. However, fecal coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations exceeding the State's maximum contaminant level in water from 15 of the 35 wells sampled. Analyses also indicated several inorganic compounds were present in the water samples at concentrations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant level.

  19. Understanding long-term baseflow water quality trends using a synoptic survey of the ground water-surface water interface, central Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Browne, Bryant A; Guldan, Nathan M

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between stream water quality and landscape activities is difficult to evaluate where the principal source of stream flow is ground water seepage because the average travel time from ground water recharge areas to stream discharge positions can be on the order of decades. We tested the idea that past and future baseflow water quality can be predicted based on a synoptic survey of ground water recharge age-dates (based on chlorofluorocarbon [CFC] measurements) and water quality measurements obtained at the ground water-surface water interface. In this study we (i) characterize the discharge-weighted age distribution and water quality of ground water seepage into the Little Plover River (LPR); (ii) use this information to backcast and forecast baseflow NO(3)(-) concentrations; and (iii) evaluate NO(3)(-) backcasts against historical baseflow data (1960 to 2000). The discharge-weighted apparent CFC age of ground water seepage into the LPR was 23.7 (+/-7) yr. Baseflow backcasts matched the four decade rise of baseflow NO(3)(-) from 2 to 8 mg L(-1). Baseflow forecasts included three scenarios. Scenario A projects the historical rise of NO(3)(-) in the LPR basin's ground water recharge through 2050. Scenario B projects a leveling off of NO(3)(-) in ground water recharge in the year 2000. Scenario C projects a leveling off in the year 1985. Under Scenario A, LPR baseflow NO(3)(-) will increase steadily from 8 to 19 mg L(-1) between 2000 and 2050. Under scenarios B and C baseflow NO(3)(-) will plateau at 13 mg L(-1) in 2030 and at 10 mg L(-1) in 2010, respectively. The approach developed in this study can be used to (i) reconstruct historical baseflow water quality patterns in the absence of long-term monitoring data and (ii) project the effects of potential management decision on future water quality.

  20. Patterns and rates of ground-water flow on Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Modica, Edward

    1992-01-01

    Increased ground-water contamination from human activities on Long Island has prompted studies to define the pattern and rate of ground-water movement. A two-dimensional, fine-mesh, finite-element model consisting of 11,969 nodes and 22,880 elements was constructed to represent ground-water flow along a north-south section through central Long Island. The model represents average hydrologic conditions within a corridor approximately 15 miles wide. The model solves discrete approximations of both the potential and stream functions. The resulting flownet depicts flow paths and defines the vertical distribution of flow within the section. Ground-water flow rates decrease with depth. Sixty-two percent of the water flows no deeper than the upper glacial (water-table) aquifer, 38 percent enters the underlying Magothy aquifer, and only 3.1 percent enters the Lloyd aquifer. The limiting streamlines for flow to the Magothy and Lloyd aquifers indicate that aquifer recharge areas are narrow east-west bands through the center of the island. The recharge area of the Magothy aquifer is only 5.4 miles wide; that of the Lloyd aquifer is less than 0.5 miles. The distribution of ground-water traveltime and a flownet are calculated from model results; both are useful in the investigation of contaminant transport or the chemical evolution of ground water within the flow system. A major discontinuity in traveltime occurs across the streamline which separates the flow subsystems of the two confined aquifers. Water that reaches the Lloyd aquifer attains traveltimes as high as 10,000 years, whereas water that has not penetrated deeper than the Magothy aquifer attains traveltimes of only 2,000 years. The finite-element approach used in this study is particularly suited to ground-water systems that have complex hydrostratigraphy and cross-sectional symmetry.

  1. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  2. Ground-water hydrology of the Willamette basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Terrence D.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Woodcock, Douglas; Herrera, Nora B.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Morgan, David S.; Lee, Karl K.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    The Willamette Basin encompasses a drainage of 12,000 square miles and is home to approximately 70 percent of Oregon's population. Agriculture and population are concentrated in the lowland, a broad, relatively flat area between the Coast and Cascade Ranges. Annual rainfall is high, with about 80 percent of precipitation falling from October through March and less than 5 percent falling in July and August, the peak growing season. Population growth and an increase in cultivation of crops needing irrigation have produced a growing seasonal demand for water. Because many streams are administratively closed to new appropriations in summer, ground water is the most likely source for meeting future water demand. This report describes the current understanding of the regional ground-water flow system, and addresses the effects of ground-water development. This study defines seven regional hydrogeologic units in the Willamette Basin. The highly permeable High Cascade unit consists of young volcanic material found at the surface along the crest of the Cascade Range. Four sedimentary hydrogeologic units fill the lowland between the Cascade and Coast Ranges. Young, highly permeable coarse-grained sediments of the upper sedimentary unit have a limited extent in the floodplains of the major streams and in part of the Portland Basin. Extending over much of the lowland where the upper sedimentary unit does not occur, silts and clays of the Willamette silt unit act as a confining unit. The middle sedimentary unit, consisting of permeable coarse-grained material, occurs beneath the Willamette silt and upper sedimentary units and at the surface as terraces in the lowland. Beneath these units is the lower sedimentary unit, which consists of predominantly fine-grained sediments. In the northern part of the basin, lavas of the Columbia River basalt unit occur at the surface in uplands and beneath the basin-fill sedimentary units. The Columbia River basalt unit contains multiple

  3. The effect of the earth's rotation on ground water motion.

    PubMed

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2007-01-01

    The average pore velocity of ground water according to Darcy's law is a function of the fluid pressure gradient and the gravitational force (per unit volume of ground water) and of aquifer properties. There is also an acceleration exerted on ground water that arises from the Earth's rotation. The magnitude and direction of this rotation-induced force are determined in exact mathematical form in this article. It is calculated that the gravitational force is at least 300 times larger than the largest rotation-induced force anywhere on Earth, the latter force being maximal along the equator and approximately equal to 34 N/m(3) there. This compares with a gravitational force of approximately 10(4) N/m(3).

  4. Evaluation of soil-venting application. Ground-water issue

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiulio, D.C.

    1992-04-01

    The Regional Superfund Ground-Water Forum is a group of scientists, representing EPA's Regional Superfund Offices, organized to exchange up-to-date information related to ground-water remediation at Superfund sites. One of the major issues of concern to the Forum is the transport and fate of contaminants in soil and ground water as related to subsurface remediation. The ability of soil venting to inexpensively remove large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated soils is well established. However, the time required using venting to remediate soils to low contaminant levels often required by state and federal regulators has not been adequately investigated. Discussion is presented to aid in evaluating the feasibility of venting application. Methods to optimize venting application are also discussed.

  5. Ground water hydrology of the Elizabethtown area, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, D.S.; Lyverse, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The principal aquifer in a 52 square mile karst area in north central Kentucky is the St. Louis Limestone of Mississippian age. Unconsolidated residuum and surficial deposits of slumped material may store water and recharge the underlying limestone aquifer. Precipitation averages 49 inches annually; 6 inches recharges ground-water reservoirs. The shallow ground-water velocity ranged from 0.30 to 1.40 feet per second. Flow net analysis indicates that about 2 million gallons of water per day flows through a 1.8 mile wide section of the aquifer. A water-level contour map indicates that the hydraulic gradient averages 40 feet per mile and that the water levels near the city supply wells have not lowered in 10 years. The effects of three faults on the ground-water flow system is shown as ponding on the upthrown side of the faults. Caliper logs suggest that shallow ground-water flow occurs in sheet-like openings within 100 feet of land surface. The openings range in height from 1 inch or less to 6 feet. A test well penetrated 5 zones of horizontal openings. The specific capacity ranged from 11.5 to 12.1 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown after 12 and 72 hours of pumping at 280 to 510 gallons per minute. Water in 28 wells and springs meets most drinking water standards and generally is a very hard calcium bicarbonate type. Heavily pumped industrial and public-supply wells tend to yield water with high values of specific conductance and sulfate. Coliform bacteria varied widely in rural wells and the city springs. Seven wells had no coliform bacteria. (USGS)

  6. The ground-water system in southeastern Laramie County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, Marvin A.; Borchert, William B.

    1972-01-01

    Increased development of irrigation wells in southeastern Laramie County, Wyo., has caused concern about the quantity of water available. Ground water from approximately 230 large-capacity wells is used to irrigate most of the 18,165 acres under irrigation. The purpose of this study is to provide more knowledge about the character of the aquifers, quantity of water in storage, rate of withdrawal, and the effect of withdrawals on streamflow. The area studied consists of about 400 square miles in southeastern Laramie County in the extreme southeast corner of Wyoming. The White River Formation of Oligocene age and alluvium of Quaternary age are the principal aquifers. The White River Formation is made up primarily of clay, silt, and fine sand. Secondary permeability in the White River Formation accounts for it being an important aquifer. The alluvium, which Includes terrace and flood-plain deposits, consists of sand and gravel that contain some lenses of silt and clay. Existence of secondary permeability in the White River Formation has been accepted for some time although the nature of the secondary permeability has been disputed. Examination of downhole conditions with a television camera during this study revealed openings in the formation that appeared to be similar to tubes or caverns. The openings were of various sizes and shapes but only a few appeared to be associated with fracturing. Solution activity in the formation probably is an important factor in the development of secondary permeability. The study area was divided into the Pine Bluffs-Egbert area and the Carpenter area. Ground-water movement in the Pine Bluffs-Egbert area is generally eastward into Nebraska; in the Carpenter area, movement is generally southward into Colorado. Pumpage from large-capacity wells in the Pine Bluffs-Egbert area was estimated to be about 21,790 acre-feet in 1971. Water levels exhibited a declining trend annually in some areas during the period of record. Data indicate that

  7. Research to More Effectively Manage Critical Ground-Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    As the regional management agency for two of the most heavily used ground-water basins in California, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) plays a vital role in sheparding the water resources of southern Los Angeles County. WRD is using the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies to help more effectively manage the Central and West Coast basins in the most efficient, cost-effective way. In partnership with WRD, the USGS is using the latest research tools to study the geohydrology and geochemistry of the two basins. USGS scientists are: *Drilling and collecting detailed data from over 40 multiple-well monitoring sites, *Conducting regional geohydrologic and geochemical analyses, *Developing and applying a computer simulation model of regional ground-water flow. USGS science is providing a more detailed understanding of ground-water flow and quality. This research has enabled WRD to more effectively manage the basins. It has helped the District improve the efficiency of its spreading ponds and barrier injection wells, which replenish the aquifers and control seawater intrusion into the ground-water system.

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  9. Ground-water quality and geochemistry, Carson Desert, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lico, Michael S.; Seiler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in the Carson Desert are the primary source of drinking water, which is highly variable in chemical composition. In the shallow basin-fill aquifers, water chemistyr varies from a dilute calcium bicarbonate-dominated water beneath the irrigated areas to a saline sodium chloride- dominated water beneath unirrigated areas. Water samples from the shallow aquifers commonly have dissolved solids, chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, and manganese concentrations that exceed State of Nevada drinking-water standards. Water in the intermediante basin-fill aquifers is a dilute sodium bicarbonate type in the Fallon area and a distinctly more saline sodium chloride type in the Soda Lake-Upsal Hogback area. Dissolved solids, chloride, arsenic, fluoride, and manganese concen- trations commonly exceed drinking-water standards. The basalt aquifer contains a dilute sodium bicarbonate chloride water. Arsenic concentrations exceed standards in all sampled wells. The concen- trations of major constituents in ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert are the result of evapotranspiration and natural geochemical reactions with minerals derived mostly from igneous rocks. Water with higher concentrations of iron and manganese is near thermodynamic equilibrium with siderite and rhodochrosite and indicates that these elements may be limited by the solubility of their respective carbonate minerals. Naturally occurring radionuclides (uranium and radon-222) are present in ground water from the Carson Desert in concen- tratons higher than proposed drinking-water standards. High uranium concentrations in the shallow aquifers may be caused by evaporative concentration and the release of uranium during dissolution of iron and manganese oxides or the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter that typically has elevated uranium concentrations. Ground water in the Carson Desert does not appear to have be contaminated by synthetic organic chemicals.

  10. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  11. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  12. Illinois ground-water observation network; a preliminary planning document for network design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, L.R.; O'Hearn, Michael; Gibb, J.P.; Sherrill, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality networks in Illinois were evaluated to determine the adequacy and completeness of available data bases. Ground-water data in present data bases are inadequate to provide information on ground-water quality and water levels in large areas of Illinois and in the major geohydrologic units underlying Illinois and surrounding areas. Data-management needs indicate that a new data base is desirable and could be developed by use of carefully selected available data and new data. Types of data needed to define ground-water quality and water levels in selected geohydrologic units were tentatively identified. They include data on concentrations of organic chemicals related to activities of man, and concentrations of inorganic chemicals which relate either to man 's activities or to the chemical composition of the source aquifer. Water-level data are needed which can be used to describe short- and long-term stresses on the ground-water resources of Illinois. Establishment of priorities for data collection has been deferred until existing hydrologic data files can be stored for usable data and until input from other local, State, and Federal agencies can be solicited and compiled. (USGS)

  13. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability in Clark County, Washington. Using the particle-tracking program, particles were placed in every cell of the flow model (about 60,000 particles) and tracked backwards in time and space upgradient along flow paths to their recharge points. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the results from a particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results. Ground-water vulnerability was evaluated by selecting parts of the ground-water flow system and combining the results with ancillary information stored in the GIS to determine recharge areas, characteristics of recharge areas, downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and age of ground water. Maps of the recharge areas for each hydrogeologic unit illustrate the presence of local, intermediate, or regional ground-water flow systems and emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the ground-water flow system in Clark County. Maps of the recharge points for each hydrogeologic unit were overlaid with maps depicting aquifer sensitivity as determined by DRASTIC (a measure of the pollution potential of ground water, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the near-surface unsaturated and saturated zones) and recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems. A large number of recharge areas were identified, particularly in southern Clark County, that have a high aquifer sensitivity, coincide with areas of recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems, or both. Using the GIS, the characteristics of the recharge areas were related to the downgradient parts of the ground-water system that will eventually receive flow that has recharged through these areas. The aquifer sensitivity, as indicated by DRASTIC, of the recharge areas for downgradient parts of the flow system was mapped for each hydrogeologic unit. A number of

  14. Ground water applications of the heat capacity mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses the ground water portion of a hydrologic investigation of eastern South Dakota using data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite. The satellite carries a two-channel radiometer (0.5-1.1 and 10.5-12.5 microns) in a sun synchronous orbit and collects data at approximately 0230 and 1330 local standard time with repeat coverage of 5 to 16 days depending on latitude. It is shown that HCMM data acquired at appropriate periods of the diurnal and annual temperature cycle can provide useful information on shallow ground water.

  15. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  16. Tritium migration in A/M-Area ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) have entered aquifers in Cretaceous-aged sediments in the A/M-Area as a result of site operations. Tritium in A/M-Area ground water was investigated as a tracer to determine the movement of ground water in the subsurface and the transport mechanism of VOC`s. The investigation was focused primarily on determining the continuity and integrity of the clay layers in the Ellenton Formation and their effectiveness as aquitards below the aquifers in Tertiary sediments.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  18. Geology and ground water of the Tualatin Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, D.H.; Newcomb, R.C.

    1965-01-01

    The Tualatin Valley proper consists of broad valley plains, ranging in altitude from 100 to 300 feet, and the lower mountain slopes of the drainage basin of the Tualatin River, a tributary of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon. The valley is almost entirely farmed. Its population is increasing rapidly, partly because of the expansion of metropolitan Portland. Structurally, the bedrock of the basin is a saucer-shaped syncline almost bisected lengthwise by a ridge. The bedrock basin has been partly filled by alluvium, which underlies the valley plains. Ground water occurs in the Columbia River basalt, a lava unit that forms the top several hundred feet of the bedrock, and also in the zones of fine sand in the upper part of the alluvial fill. It occurs under unconfined, confined, and perched conditions. Graphs of the observed water levels in wells show that the ground water is replenished each year by precipitation. The graphs show also that the amount and time of recharge vary in different aquifers and for different modes of ground-water occurrence. The shallower alluvial aquifers are refilled each year to a level where further infiltration recharge is retarded and water drains away as surface runoff. No occurrences of undue depletion of the ground water by pumping are known. The facts indicate that there is a great quantity of additional water available for future development. The ground water is developed for use by some spring works and by thousands of wells, most of which are of small yield. Improvements are now being made in the design of the wells in basalt and in the use of sand or gravel envelopes for wells penetrating the fine-sand aquifers. The ground water in the basalt and the valley fill is in general of good quality, only slightly or moderately hard and of low salinity. Saline and mineralized water is present in the rocks of Tertiary age below the Columbia River basalt. Under certain structural and stratigraphic conditions this water of poor

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site began in 1995 and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results presented in this document and other evaluations will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  20. Salinity of the ground water in western Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kister, Lester Ray; Hardt, W.F.

    1966-01-01

    The chemical quality of the ground water in western Pinal County is nonuniform areally and stratigraphically. The main areas of highly mineralized water are near Casa Grande and near Coolidge. Striking differences have been noted in the quality of water from different depths in the same well. Water from one well, (D-6-7) 25cdd, showed an increase in chloride content from 248 ppm (parts per million) at 350 feet below the land surface to 6,580 ppm at 375 feet; the concentration of chloride increased to 10,400 ppm at 550 feet below the land surface. This change was accompanied by an increase in the total dissolved solids as indicated by conductivity measurements. The change in water quality can be correlated with sediment types. The upper and lower sand and gravel units seem to yield water of better quality than the intermediate silt and clay unit. In places the silt and clay unit contains zones of gypsum and common table salt. These zones yield water that contains large amounts of the dissolved minerals usually associated with water from playa deposits. Highly mineralized ground water in an area near Casa Grande has moved southward and westward as much as 4 miles. Similar water near Coolidge has moved a lesser distance. Good management practices and proper use of soil amendments have made possible the use of water that is high in salinity and alkali hazard for agricultural purposes in western Pinal County. The fluoride content of the ground water in western Pinal County is usually low; however, water from wells that penetrate either the bedrock or unconsolidated sediments that contain certain volcanic rocks may have as much as 9 ppm of fluoride.

  1. Impact of the 1988 forest fires on the chemistry of ground water in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Siders, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Statistical tests (two-way ANOVA at 95 percent confidence interval) show that for most wells, there is no significant difference between pre-fire and post-fire chemistry of the shallow ground waters. Despite the lack of significance changes in water chemistry, there do appear to be differences in the interactions between chemical and physical parameters, as measured under pre-fire and post-fire conditions. For post-fire data from the most severely burned site, the concentrations of ground-water solutes appear to be inversely related to the depth of the water table, whereas this inverse relationship is not seen clearly for the pre-fire and control data. The apparent change in solute behavior seen in the post-fire ground water from the severely burned site may be due to the complete, although temporary, removal of the biotic component from the system, thereby altering the cycling of nutrients in this highly oligotrophic ecosystem. Although concentrations of nitrate in the ground water have not increased appreciably over the pre-fire values, samples of the soil solution from the severely burned site contained high concentrations of nitrate-N (as much as 67 mg/L). An increase in the activity of nitrifying bacteria, due to post-fire conditions, is thought to be responsible for the high concentrations of nitrate in the post-fire soil solution. Geochemical computer modeling indicates that mineral weathering by water of snowmelt composition can describe the transition in solute content from that of snowmelt to that of the ground water. In contrast, just the mixing of different solutions (i.e., a percentage of pure snowmelt plus a percentage of ash leachate) cannot create a solution approximating the chemical composition measured in samples of post-fire ground water. The modeling, however, does not rule out a combination of weathering and mixing (snow + ash) to produce the chemistry observed for the post-fire ground waters.

  2. Availability Of Ground-Water Data For California, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the groundwater resources of California each water year (October 1?September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled ?Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.? Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  3. Nitrate behavior in ground waters of the southeastern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, B.T.

    1999-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with water-quality data from studies conducted during 1993 to 1995 to explore potential nitrate- attenuation processes in ground waters of the southeastern USA. Nitrate reduction is an important attenuation process in selected areas of the Southeast. A nitrate-reduction component explains 23% of the total variance in the data and indicates that nitrate and dissolved oxygen (DO) are inversely related to ammonium, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Additional components extracted by PCA include calcite dissolution (18% of variance explained) and phosphate dissolution (9% of variance explained). Reducing conditions in ground waters of the region influence nitrate behavior through bacterially mediated reduction in the presence of organic matter, and by inhibition of nitrate formation in anoxic ground water beneath forested areas. Component scores are consistent with observed water- quality conditions in the region. For example, median nitrate concentration in ground-water samples from the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin (ALBE) Coastal Plain is <0.05 mg L-1, median DOC concentration is 4.2 mg L-1, and median DO concentration is 2.1 mg L-1, consistent with denitrification. Nitrate reduction does not occur uniformly throughout the Southeast. Median DO concentrations in ground-water samples from the Apalachicola- Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) are 6.2 to 7.1 mg L-1, and median nitrate concentrations are 0.61 to 2.2 mg L-1, inconsistent with denitrification. Similarly, median DO concentration in samples from the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) is 6.0 mg L-1 and median nitrate concentration is 5.8 mg L-1.

  4. Mathematical ground-water model of Indian Wells Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloyd, R.M.; Robson, S.G.

    1971-01-01

    A mathematical model of the Indian Wells Valley ground-water basin was developed and verified. The alternating-direction implicit method was used to compute the mathematical solution. It was assumed that there are only two aquifers in the valley, one being deep and the other shallow. Where the shallow aquifer occurs, the underlying deep aquifer is confined or artesian. Flow between the aquifers under steady-state conditions is assumed to be in one direction, from deep to shallow. The transmissivity of the deep aquifer ranges from about 250,000 to 22,000 gallons per day per foot and from about 25,000 to 5,000 gallons per day per foot for the shallow aquifer. The storage coefficient for the deep aquifer ranges from 1 x 10 -4 to 0.20. Steady-state recharge and discharge in each aquifer was estimated to be 9,850 acre-feet per year. Ground-water pumping, sewage-effluent recharge, and capture of ground-water discharge occurred under non-steady-state conditions. Most of the ground-water pumpage is near Ridgecrest and Inyokern and in the area between the two towns. By 1968 pumpage in the deep aquifer had caused a reversal in the ground-water gradient south of China Lake and small water-level declines over most of the aquifer. The model for the deep aquifer was verified under steady-state and non-steady-state conditions. The shallow aquifer was verified under steady-state conditions only. The verified model was then used to generate 1983 water-level conditions in the deep aquifer.

  5. Ground Water on Tropical Pacific Islands - Understanding a Vital Resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tribble, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    To a casual observer, tropical Pacific islands seem idyllic. Closer scrutiny reveals that their generally small size makes them particularly vulnerable to economic and environmental stresses imposed by rapidly growing populations, increasing economic development, and global climate change. On these islands, freshwater is one of the most precious resources. Ground water is the main source of drinking water on many islands, and for quite a few islands, it is the only reliable source of water throughout the year. Faced with a growing demand for this valuable resource, and the potential negative effects on its availability and quality from changes in global climate, increasingly sophisticated management approaches will be needed to ensure a dependable supply of freshwater for the residents of these islands. Much scientific information has been collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and other organizations about the ground-water resources of tropical Pacific islands. The aim of this Circular is to give members of the public, policymakers, and other stakeholders knowledge that will help ensure that this information can be used to make informed decisions about the management of these life-giving resources. As the demand for freshwater grows, new monitoring and research efforts will be needed to (1) characterize the extent and sustainability of ground-water resources on different tropical Pacific islands, (2) better understand linkages between ground-water discharge and freshwater and nearshore ecosystems, and (3) prepare for the effects of climate change, which will likely include the loss of habitable land and reduced areas for the accumulation of ground water as a result of rising sea levels.

  6. Nitrate behavior in ground water of the southeastern USA

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, B.T.

    1999-10-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with water-quality data from studies conducted during 1993 to 1995 to explore potential nitrate-attenuation processes in ground waters of the southeastern USA. Nitrate reduction is an important attenuation process in selected areas of the Southeast. A nitrate-reduction component explains 23% of the total variance in the data and indicates that nitrate and dissolved oxygen (DO) are inversely related to ammonium, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Additional components extracted by PCA include calcite dissolution (18% of variance explained) and phosphate dissolution (9% of variance explained). Reducing conditions in ground waters of the region influence nitrate behavior through bacterially mediated reduction in the presence of organic matter, and by inhibition of nitrate formation in anoxic ground water beneath forested areas. Component scores are consistent with observed water-quality conditions in the region. For example, median nitrate concentration in ground-water samples from the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin (ALBE) Coastal Plain is {lt}0.05 mg L{sup {minus}1}, median DOC concentration is 4.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median DO concentration is 2.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, consistent with denitrification. Nitrate reduction does not occur uniformly throughout the Southeast. Median DO concentrations in ground-water samples from the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) are 6.2 to 7.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median nitrate concentrations are 0.61 to 2.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, inconsistent with denitrification. Similarly, median DO concentration in samples from the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) is 6.0 mg L{sup {minus}1} and median nitrate concentration is 5.8 mg L{sup {minus}1}.

  7. GWVis: A Tool for Comparative Ground-Water Data Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Best, Daniel M.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    The Ground-Water Visualization application (GWVis) presents ground-water data visually in order to educate the public on ground-water issues. It is also intended for presentations to government and other funding agencies. Current three dimensional models of ground-water are overly complex, while the two dimensional representations (i.e., on paper) are neither comprehensive, nor engaging. At present, GWVis operates on water head elevation data over a given time span, together with a matching (fixed) underlying geography. Two elevation scenarios are compared with each other, typically a control data set (actual field data) and a simulation. Scenario comparison can be animated for the time span provided. We developed GWVis using the Python programming language, associated libraries, and pyOpenGL extension packages to improve performance and control of attributes of the mode (such as color, positioning, scale, and interpolation). GWVis bridges the gap between two dimensional and dynamic three dimensional research visualizations by providing an intuitive, interactive design that allows participants to view the model from different perspectives and to infer information about scenarios. By incorporating scientific data in an environment that can be easily understood, GWVis allows the information to be presented to a large audience base.

  8. The role of ground water in the national water situation: With state summaries based on reports by District Offices of Ground Water Branch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuinness, Charles Lee

    1963-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the principles of water occurrence and describes the water situation in the United States as of 1960-61, with emphasis on the occurrence of ground water and the status of development and accompanying problems. The Nation has been divided into 10 major ground-water regions by H. E. Thomas (1952a). The report summarizes the occurrence and development of ground water in each of Thomas' regions. In a large terminal section it also describes the occurrence and development of water, again with emphasis on ground water, in each of the 50 States and in certain other areas. The main text ends with a discussion of the water situation and prospects of the Nation.

  9. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  10. Ground-water protection, low-level waste, and below regulatory concern: What`s the connection?

    SciTech Connect

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L.

    1991-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a responsibility to protect ground water and drinking water under a wide variety of statutes. Each statute establishes different but specific requirements for EPA and applies to diverse environmental contaminants. Radionuclides are but one of the many contaminants subject to this regulatory matrix. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and below regulatory concern (BRC) are but two of many activities falling into this regulatory structure. The nation`s ground water serves as a major source of drinking water, supports sensitive ecosystems, and supplies the needs of agriculture and industry. Ground water can prove enormously expensive to clean up. EPA policy for protecting ground water has evolved considerably over the last ten years. The overall goal is to prevent adverse effects to human health, both now and in the future, and to protect the integrity of the nation`s ground-water resources. The Agency uses the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) under the Safe Drinking Water Act as reference points for protection in both prevention and remediation activities. What`s the connection? Both low-level waste management and disposal activities and the implementation of below regulatory concern related to low-level waste disposal have the potential for contaminating ground water. EPA is proposing to use the MCLs as reference points for low-level waste disposal and BRC disposal in order to define limits to the environmental contamination of ground water that is, or may be, used for drinking water.

  11. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... parameters in ground-water samples. Ground-water samples shall not be field-filtered prior to laboratory... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action §...

  12. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... parameters in ground-water samples. Ground-water samples shall not be field-filtered prior to laboratory... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action §...

  13. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... parameters in ground-water samples. Ground-water samples shall not be field-filtered prior to laboratory... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action §...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used...

  18. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  19. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis...-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.23 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  20. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....404 Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. (a) A ground water system with a... ground water system is in violation of the treatment technique requirement if, within 120 days (or...) before or at the first customer for a ground water source is in violation of the treatment...

  1. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....404 Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. (a) A ground water system with a... ground water system is in violation of the treatment technique requirement if, within 120 days (or...) before or at the first customer for a ground water source is in violation of the treatment...

  2. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....404 Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. (a) A ground water system with a... ground water system is in violation of the treatment technique requirement if, within 120 days (or...) before or at the first customer for a ground water source is in violation of the treatment...

  3. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....404 Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. (a) A ground water system with a... ground water system is in violation of the treatment technique requirement if, within 120 days (or...) before or at the first customer for a ground water source is in violation of the treatment...

  4. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....404 Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. (a) A ground water system with a... ground water system is in violation of the treatment technique requirement if, within 120 days (or...) before or at the first customer for a ground water source is in violation of the treatment...

  5. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  6. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater- level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2007. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2007 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 6 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 1 well, and below normal in the remaining 4 wells.

  7. Water-quality characteristics and ground water quantity of the Fraser River Watershed, Grand County, Colorado, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Bails, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand County Board of County Commissioners, conducted a 4-year study to assess ground- and surface-water-quality conditions and ground-water quantity in the 302-square-mile Fraser River watershed in north-central Colorado. The Fraser River flows north about 28 miles from the headwaters near the Continental Divide, through the towns of Winter Park, Fraser, Tabernash, and Granby, and is one of the major tributaries to the Upper Colorado River. Increasing urban development, as well as the seasonal influx of tourists, is placing more demands on the water resources in the Fraser River watershed. A ground-water sampling network of 11 wells was established to represent different aquifer systems (alluvial, Troublesome Formation, Precambrian granite), land uses (urban, nonurban), and areas with or without individual septic disposal system use. The well network was sampled for ground-water quality on a semiannual basis from August 1998 through September 2001. The sampling included field properties and the collection of water samples for analysis of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, bacteria, methylene blue active substances, and radon-222. One surface-water site, on the Fraser River just downstream from the town of Tabernash, Colorado, was sampled bimonthly from August 1998 through September 2001 to assess the cumulative effects of natural and human processes on water quality in the upper part of the Fraser River watershed. Surface-water-quality sampling included field properties and the collection of water-quality samples for analysis of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, organic carbon, and bacteria. Ground water was a calcium-bicarbonate type water and is suitable as a drinking-water, domestic, municipal, industrial, and irrigation source. In general, no widespread ground-water-quality problems were indicated. All pH values and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, fluoride

  8. [Ground water improvement in the Ruhr--then and now].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, W D

    1989-05-01

    The waterworks founded during the second half of the last century obtained the raw water exclusively from the Ruhr-valley; they were responsible for the water supply of the industrial area situated on the right of the river Rhine. The rapidly growing water demand, limited possibilities in water catchment, the very bad quality of the Ruhr-water and epidemic typhoid fever required new methods in the water supply. Consequently, the Hygiene-Institute of Gelsenkirchen was founded and a new method of water production developed: the artificial ground water recharge. In 1913 two associations were founded: the Ruhrtalsperrenverein responsible for the provision of water quantity, and the Ruhrverband, responsible for the improvement of water quality. These associations formed the essential base for the rapid development of the so-called "Revier". In spite of the excellent elimination of bacteria by artificial ground water recharge-operating according to the principle of slow sand filtration-a disinfection of drinking water with chlorine became necessary; this disinfection was started in 1910 by the waterworks of the Ruhr. The construction of reservoirs and clarification plants ameliorated temporary the overall situation in water resources management. These improvements were, however, destroyed by consequences arising from the rapid economical growth before the second world war and the following break-down. After this period, great efforts were necessary to enlarge the reservoirs and increase the capacity of sewage plants. The waterworks pre-purified the water from the Ruhr before infiltration into the underground in order to increase the quantity and quality of the recharged water. Downstream, the number of sewage plants increased; a more and more refined method of analysis indicates now the pollution load of the raw ater and signalized trends which lead to further treatment measures or to the change of existing ones like substitution of chlorine by chlorine-dioxide. The

  9. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and soil at Carroll Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, F.J.; Phillips, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Carroll Island was used for open-air testing of chemical warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities weresuspected of causing environmental contamination at 16 sites on the island. The hydrogeology and chemical quality of ground water, surface water, and soil at these sites were investigated with borehole logs, environmental samples, water-level measurements, and hydrologic tests. A surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and upper confined aquifer were defined. Ground water in the surficial aquifer generally flows from the east-central part of the island toward the surface-water bodies, butgradient reversals caused by evapotranspiration can occur during dry seasons. In the confined aquifer, hydraulic gradients are low, and hydraulic head is affected by tidal loading and by seasonal pumpage from the west. Inorganic chemistry in the aquifers is affected by brackish-water intrusion from gradient reversals and by dissolution ofcarboniferous shell material in the confining unit.The concentrations of most inorganic constituents probably resulted from natural processes, but some concentrations exceeded Federal water-quality regulations and criteria. Organic compounds were detected in water and soil samples at maximum concentrations of 138 micrograms per liter (thiodiglycol in surface water) and 12 micrograms per gram (octadecanoic acid in soil).Concentrations of organic compounds in ground water exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations at two sites. The organic compounds that weredetected in environmental samples were variously attributed to natural processes, laboratory or field- sampling contamination, fallout from industrial air pollution, and historical military activities.

  10. Selenium speciation in ground water. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-07-10

    Selenium toxicity diseases in animals may occur when the intake exceeds 4 mg/kg and selenium deficiency symptoms may occur when dietary intake is less than 0.04 mg/kg. Since the selenium dietary requirement is very close to toxic concentration, it is important to understand the distribution of selenium in the environment. Selenium occurs in four oxidation states (-II, 0, +IV, and +VI) as selenide, elemental selenium, selenite and selenate. Selenate is reported as more soluble and less adsorbed than selenite. Selenate is more easily leached from soils and is the most available form for plants. Increased mobility of Se into the environment via anthropogenic activities, and the potential oxidation-reduction behavior of the element have made it imperative to study the aquatic chemistry of Se. For this purpose, Se species are divided into two different categories: dissolved Se (in material that passes through filters with 0.45 u openings) and particulate Se (in material of particle size > 0.45 mm) typically suspended sediment and other suspended solids. Element and colloidal phase, not truly dissolved, but passing through the filter is deemed to consist of selenium (-2,0). In dissolved state selenium may exist in three of its four oxidation states; Se(-II), Se(+IV), and Se(+VI). Particulate Se may exist in the same oxidation states as dissolved Se and can be found in different phases of the particulate matter. In sediments, Se may be within the organic material, iron and manganese oxides, carbonates or other mineral phases. The actual chemical forms of Se may be adsorbed to or coprecipitated with these phases (primarily selenite, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) and selenate, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Selenide, Se(-II), can be covalently bound in the organic portion of a sediment. In addition, Se may be found in anoxic sediments as insoluble metal selenide precipitates, an insoluble elemental Se or as ferroselite (FeSe{sub 2}) and Se containing pyrite.

  11. The value of long-term monitoring in the development of ground-water-flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hart, David J.; Krohelski, James T.

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have come to the forefront of public concern, so has the awareness of the importance of ground water in the overall water cycle and as a source of the Nation’s drinking water. Heightened interest has spawned a host of scientific enterprises (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Some activities are directed toward collection of water-level data and related information to monitor the physical and chemical state of the resource. Other activities are directed at interpretive studies undertaken, for example, to optimize the location of new water-supply wells or to protect rivers and lakes fed by ground water. An important type of interpretive study is the computer ground-water-flow model that inte- grates field data in a mathematical framework. Long-term, systematic collection of hydro- logic data is crucial to the construction and testing of ground-water models so that they can reproduce the evolution of flow systems and forecast future conditions. 

  12. Statistical comparisons of ground-water quality underlying different land uses in central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, A.T.; German, E.R. Geological Survey, Altamonte Springs, FL )

    1988-09-01

    Human activities at land surface can affect the quality of water recharging groundwater systems. Because ground water is the principal source of drinking water in many areas, it is necessary to know the relation between land use and ground-water quality. This study is 1 of 7 being made throughout the US as part of the Toxic Waste - Ground-Water Contamination Program of the US Geological Survey. This report documents statistical comparisons of ground-water quality for three test areas in central Florida: (1) a control area where land use is minimal, (2) a citrus-growing area where effects of agriculture may be expected, and (3) a phosphate-mining area where effects of mining activities may be expected. This study addresses water-quality conditions in the surficial aquifer, which consists of sand and shell beds of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The two developed areas are representative of land uses that characterize large areas of Florida, and the control area is representative of near-pristine conditions that exist over a large area, so results of this study may be transferable. The water-quality variables of interest include physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace elements.

  13. Quality of ground water around Vadnais Lake and in Lambert Creek watershed, and interaction of ground water with Vadnais Lake, Ramsey County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the seepage analysis and ground-water quality evaluation indicate that the effect of the quality of the surrounding ground water on the quality of Vadnais Lake probably was small. Ground water that discharged to the lake generally had lower concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and total dissolved solids than the lake. The mixing of ground water with the lake slightly diluted the lake with respect to these constituents.

  14. Ground water and the law - some selected annotated references

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vorhis, Robert C.

    1955-01-01

    The strictly "legal" literature of ground-water use and control -except for a few essays in certain of the law reviews- is quite limited. A larger and more pointful source of information and analysis is the legal-scientific writings of the geologists, hydrologists, meteorologists, engineers and others. When new statutes are to be drafted by legislatures, and new decisions are to be made by courts on this subject, such literature may well be of far greater importance than legal precedents unfounded on scientific fact. This may be demonstrated by the character and scope of the legal-scientific literature of ground water, just one branch of water science, but one which is of major importance to any thoughtful consideration of water use and control.

  15. Distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.; Waldron, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, to evaluate the distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia. Fluoride is a natural chemical constituent in domestic and public water supplies in West Virginia. Fluoride concentrations of about 1.0 milligram per liter in drinking water are beneficial to dental health. Concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter, however, could harm teeth and bones. Fluoride concentra- tions in ground water of West Virginia range from less than 0.1 to 12 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are found in wells drilled to all depths, wells drilled in all topographic settings, and wells drilled into most geologic units. Most fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are located at sites clustered in the northwestern part of the State.

  16. Geohydrology, simulation of ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills, Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duwelius, R.F.; Greeman, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved inorganic substances in ground-water samples indicate that leachate from both landfills is reaching the shallow aquifers. The effect on deeper aquifers is small because of the predominance of horizontal ground-water flow and discharge to the streams. Increases in almost all dissolved constituents were observed in shallow wells that are screened beneath and downgradient from the landfills. Several analyses, especially those for bromide, dissolved solids, and ammonia, were useful in delineating the plume of leachate at both landfills.

  17. Over-Water Aspects of Ground-Effect Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Carter, Arthur W.; Schade, Robert O.

    1960-01-01

    The large thrust augmentation obtainable with annular-jet configurations in ground proximity has led to the serious investigation of ground-effect machines. The basic theoretical work on these phenomena has been done by Chaplin and Boehler. Large thrust-augmentation factors, however, can be obtained only at very low heights, that is, of the order of a few percent of the diameter of the vehicle. To take advantage of this thrust augmentation therefore the vehicle must be either very large or must operate over very smooth terrain. Over-land uses of these vehicles then will probably be rather limited. The water, however, is inherently smooth and those irregularities that do exist, that is waves, are statistically known. It appears therefore that some practical application of ground-effect machines may be made in over-water application.

  18. Availability of ground-water data for California, water year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year (October 1?September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for water year 2002. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and waterquality data for water year 2002 and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, California District.

  19. Ground-water level data for North Carolina, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coble, Ronald W.; Strickland, A.G.; Bailey, M. Carl

    1989-01-01

    Continuous and periodic measurements in 54 key wells and water-level measurements emplaced in Coastal Plain aquifers across North Carolina in 193 supplemental wells are presented in this report. Hydrographs of selected wells show changes in ground-water storage in the State. The water table in the shallow aquifers was higher throughout most of the State in 1987 than in 1986, indicating that rain had recharged these aquifers sufficiently to replenish the deficit in ground water storage that accumulated in the western and central parts of the State during 1986. Water levels in the heavily pumped Coastal Plain aquifers show a general downward trend for the year, indicating ground water is being withdrawn from aquifer storage. Record low water levels were measured in 4 of 13 wells in the Castle Hayne aquifer; the greatest decline measured during 1987 was 0.3 ft. Water levels in wells in the Peedee, Black Creek, upper Cape Fear, and lower Cape Fear aquifers generally show downward trends. Record low water levels were measured in 4 of 8 wells in the Peedee aquifer; the maximum decline measured during 1987 was 1.5 ft. All wells in the Black Creek, upper Cape Fear, and lower Cape Fear aquifers had record low water levels for 1987, with maximum measured declines in 1987 of 8.6, 3.1, and 3.1 ft., respectively. Record high water levels were measured in two wells, one each in the Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Potentiometric surface maps show the effects of major centers of pumping for the Castle Hayne, Black Creek, and lower Cape Fear aquifers of the Coastal Plain.

  20. Grounds for Movement: Green School Grounds as Sites for Promoting Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, J. E.; Bell, A. C.

    2008-01-01

    An environmental factor of particular importance to children's physical activity levels appears to be the presence of parks and open space. Thus, in promoting children's health, school grounds merit consideration as a potential setting for intervention. This paper explores how "green" school grounds, which contain a greater diversity of…

  1. Ground-Water Age and its Water-Management Implications, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2002-01-01

    The Cook Inlet Basin encompasses 39,325 square miles in south-central Alaska. Approximately 350,000 people, more than half of Alaska?s population, reside in the basin, mostly in the Anchorage area. However, rapid growth is occurring in the Matanuska?Susitna and Kenai Peninsula Boroughs to the north and south of Anchorage. Ground-water resources provide about one-third of the water used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes in the Anchorage metropolitan area and are the sole sources of water for industries and residents outside Anchorage. In 1997, a study of the Cook Inlet Basin was begun as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Samples of ground water were collected from 35 existing wells in unconsolidated glacial and alluvial aquifers during 1999 to determine the regional quality of ground water beneath about 790 mi2 of developed land and to gain a better understanding of the natural and human factors that affect the water quality (Glass, 2001). Of the 35 wells sampled, 31 had water analyzed for atmospherically derived substances to determine the ground water?s travel time from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge?also known as ground-water age. Ground water moves slowly from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge. This water starts as rain and melting snow that soak into the ground as recharge. In the Matanuska?Susitna, Anchorage, and Kenai Peninsula areas, ground water generally moves from near the mountain fronts toward Cook Inlet or the major rivers. Much of the water pumped by domestic and public-supply wells may have traveled less than 10 miles, and the trip may have taken as short a time as a few days or as long as several decades. This ground water is vulnerable to contamination from the land surface, and many contaminants in the water would follow the same paths and have similar travel times from recharge areas to points of use as the chemical substances analyzed in

  2. Selected ground-water data, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrologic data for Chester County, Pennsylvania are given for 3,010 wells and 32 springs. Water levels are given for 48 observation wells measured monthly during 1936-86. Chemical analyses of ground water are given for major ions, physical properties, nutrients, metals and other trace constituents, volatile organic compounds, acid organic compounds, base-neutral organic compounds, organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated napthalenes, organophosphorous insecticides, organic acid herbicides, triazine herbicides, other organic compounds, and radionuclides.

  3. Factors controlling tungsten concentrations in ground water, Carson Desert, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Stollenwerk, K.G.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation of a childhood leukemia cluster by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed that residents of the Carson Desert, Nevada, are exposed to high levels of W and this prompted an investigation of W in aquifers used as drinking water sources. Tungsten concentrations in 100 ground water samples from all aquifers used as drinking water sources in the area ranged from 0.27 to 742 ??g/l. Ground water in which W concentrations exceed 50 ??g/l principally occurs SE of Fallon in a geothermal area. The principal sources of W in ground water are natural and include erosion of W-bearing mineral deposits in the Carson River watershed upstream of Fallon, and, possibly, upwelling geothermal waters. Ground water in the Fallon area is strongly reducing and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides may be releasing W; however, direct evidence that the metal oxides contain W is not available. Although W and Cl concentrations in the Carson River, a lake, and water from many wells, appear to be controlled by evaporative concentration, evaporation alone cannot explain the elevated W concentrations found in water from some of the wells. Concentrations of W exceeding 50 ??g/l are exclusively associated with Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl water types and pH > 8.0; in these waters, geochemical modeling indicates that W exhibits <10% adsorption. Tungsten concentrations are strongly and positively correlated with As, B, F, and P, indicating either common sources or common processes controlling their concentrations. Geochemical modeling indicates W concentrations are consistent with pH-controlled adsorption of W. The geochemical model PHREEQC was used to calculate IAP values, which were compared with published Ksp values for primary W minerals. FeWO4, MnWO4, Na2WO4, and MgWO4 were undersaturated and CaWO4 and SrWO 4 were approaching saturation. These conclusions are tentative because of uncertainty in the thermodynamic data. The similar behavior of As and W observed in

  4. Chemical quality of ground water in the Tehama-Colusa Canal service area, Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

    1976-01-01

    The Tehama-Colusa Canal Service Area consists of about 450 square miles of irrigable land located on the west side of the Sacramento Valley, Calif. Upon the completion of the Tehama-Colusa Canal, it is expected that most of the service area will switch from passive forms of agriculture (dry farming and grazing) to intensive irrigated farming. Importation and application of surface water may affect the chemical quality of native ground water. This study documents the chemical quality of native ground water before large-scale importation and application of surface water provide the potential of altering the ground-water chemistry. Analyses of samples from 222 wells show that most of the area is underlain by ground water of a quality suitable for most agricultural and domestic uses. In the vicinities of College City-Arbuckle and the city of Williams, boron, chloride, sodium, and dissolved solids may be a threat to future agricultural activities where boron- or chloride-sensitive crops would be grown. The source of degraded ground water in the two areas is local intermittent streams that drain areas having numerous saline springs and seeps. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Pesticides in ground water of the United States, 1992-1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    During the first cycle of the National Water Quality Assessment (1992–1996), ground water in 20 of the nation's major hydro-logic basins was analyzed for 90 pesticide compounds (pesticides and degradates). One or more of the pesticide compounds examined were detected at 48.4% of the 2485 ground water sites sampled. However, approximately 70% of the sites where pesticides were detected, two or more pesticide compounds analyzed were present–documenting the prevalence of pesticide mixtures in ground water. The pesticide concentrations encountered were generally low, with the median total concentration (summation of concentrations for the 90 pesticide compounds) being 0.046 μg/L. Pesticides were commonly detected in shallow ground water beneath both agricultural (60.4%) and urban (48.5%) areas. This is an important finding because, although agricultural activities have long been associated with pesticide contamination, urban areas have only recently been recognized as a potential source of these types of compounds. Pesticides with higher frequencies of detection were generally those with more extensive use, greater environmental persistence, and greater mobility in ground water (lower soil-water partition coefficients).

  6. RESEARCH TO SUPPORT RESTORATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    A brief programmatic overview will be presented to highlight research and technical support efforts underway at the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division in Ada, Oklahoma. Details from a case study will be presented to emphasize the technical challenges encountered du...

  7. REMEDIAL COSTS FOR MTBE IN SOIL AND GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread contamination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in ground water has raised concerns about the increased cost of remediation of MTBE releases compared to BTEX-only sites. To evaluate these costs, cost information for 311 sites was furnished by U.S. EPA Office of Underg...

  8. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  9. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  10. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters, comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  11. Sorption of PFOA and PFOS to Ground Water Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During its years of operation, the Washington County Sanitary Landfill near St. Paul, Minnesota accepted both municipal and industrial solid waste. Several years of ground water monitoring performed by the MPCA indicates that, some of the waste disposed of at this landfill contai...

  12. Managing ground-water contamination from agricultural nitrates

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Ground-water contamination from agricultural nitrates poses potential adverse health effects to a large segment of the rural population of the United States. Contamination is especially prevalent in livestock intensive areas, which produce large quantities of animal waste with substantial nitrogen content. In this study, potential management strategies for reducing nitrate contamination of ground water from agricultural sources were examined using an economic-physical model of representative dairy farm in Rockingham County, Virginia. A mixed-integer programming model with stochastic constraints on nitrate loading to ground water and silage production was used. Results of the model indicate that substantial reductions in current nitrate loadings are possible with relatively minor impacts on farmers' net returns through the use of currently practiced approaches of cost sharing for manure storage facility construction and nutrient management planning. Study results indicate that a wide range of policy options exist for reducing nitrate loading to ground water; these reductions, while varying in cost, do no appear to come at the expense of eliminating the economic viability of the county dairy sector.

  13. 21. WATER TOWERBARRACKS COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS THE PARADE GROUNDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. WATER TOWER-BARRACKS COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS THE PARADE GROUNDS (Buildings No. 48, 49, 50) (Copy negative made from National Archives negative No. 92-F-61A-13) - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  14. 20. WATER TOWERBARRACKS COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS THE PARADE GROUNDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WATER TOWER-BARRACKS COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS THE PARADE GROUNDS (Buildings No. 50, 49, 48) (Copy negative made from National Archives negative No. 92-F-61A-12) - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  15. MANUAL: GROUND-WATER AND LEACHATE TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was developed for remedial design engineers and regulatory personnel who oversee the ex situ ground water or leachate treatment efforts of the regulated community. The manual can be used as a treatment technology screening tool in conjunction with other references. Mo...

  16. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  17. STATISTICAL ESTIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF GROUND-WATER CONTAMINATION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work presents methods of visualizing and animating statistical estimates of ground water and/or soil contamination over a region from observations of the contaminant for that region. The primary statistical methods used to produce the regional estimates are nonparametric re...

  18. GROUND WATER PURGING AND SAMPLING METHODS: HISTORY VS. HYSTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been over 10 years since the low-flow ground water purging and sampling method was initially reported in the literature. The method grew from the recognition that well purging was necessary to collect representative samples, bailers could not achieve well purging, and high...

  19. TBA IN GROUND WATER FROM THE NATURAL BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    At many UST spills, the concentrations of TBA in ground water are much higher than would be expected from the presence of TBA in the gasoline originally spilled. The ratio of concentrations of TBA to concentrations of MTBE in monitoring wells at gasoline spill sites was compared ...

  20. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water supply in central Florida and is critical for aquatic habitats and human consumption. To provide a better understanding for the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County, Florida, a study of the hydrogeologic framework, water budget, and ground-water quality characteristics was conducted from 1998 through 2002. The study also included extensive analyses of the surface-water resources, published as a separate report. An increase in population from about 264,000 in 1960 to 896,000 in 2000 and subsequent urban growth throughout this region has been accompanied by a substantial increase in water use. Total ground-water use in Orange County increased from about 82 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 287 million gallons per day in 2000. The hydrogeology of Orange County consists of three major hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. Data were compiled from 634 sites to construct hydrogeologic maps and sections of Orange County. Water-level elevations measured in 23 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system ranged from about 10.6 feet in eastern Orange County to 123.8 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Orange County from March 2000 through September 2001. Water levels also were measured in 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels fluctuate over time from seasonal and annual variations in rainfall; however, water levels in a number of wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer have declined over time. Withdrawal of ground water from the aquifers by pumping probably is causing the declines because the average annual precipitation rate has not changed substantially in central Florida since the 1930s, although yearly rates can vary. A generalized water budget was computed for Orange County from 1991 to 2000. Average rates for the 10-year period for the following budget components were computed based

  1. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, James A.; Christenson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Norman Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma, Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many, organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and deuterium in ground water are considered to be indicators of the leachate plume at this site. Leaf samples of broad-leafed cottonwood, Populus deltoides, were collected from 57 sites around the closed landfill. Cottonwood, a phreatophyte or “well plant,” functions as a & surrogate well and serves as a ground water quality sampler. The leaf samples were combusted to ash and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation for 35 elements and by prompt-gamma instrumental neutron activation, for boron. A monitoring well was located within a few meters of a sampled cottonwood tree at 15 of the 57 sites, and ground water samples were collected from these monitoring wells simultaneously with a leaf sample. The chemical analyses of the ground water and leaf samples from these 15 sites indicated that boron, bromine, sodium, and strontium concentrations in leaves were significantly correlated with leachate indicator constituents in ground water. A point-plot map of selected percentiles indicated high concentrations of boron, bromine, and sodium in leaf ash from sites downgradient of the most recent landfill and from older landfills nearby. Data from leaf analysis greatly extended the known areal extent of the leachate plume previously determined from a network of monitoring wells and geophysical surveys. This phytosgeochemical study provided a cost-effective method for assessing the extent of a leachate plume from an old landfill. Such a method may be useful as a preliminary sampling tool to guide the design of hydrogeochemical and geophysical studies.

  2. Availability of ground water in Lyon County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.

    1961-01-01

    The county is divided into areas of ground-water availability based on the quality and quantity of ground water available from the different geologic units. The glacial drift which covers all of the area, yields very hard water from sands and gravels occurring in melt-water channel deposits or as small, isolated melt-water bodies. Wells in the drift commonly yield from 2 to 30 gpm (gallons per minute), but sustained yields of as much as 500 gpm are obtained in areas where thick melt-water channel deposits occur. Cretaceous strata underlie about two-thirds of the county and yield water from poorly consolidated sandstone, The water ranges in hardness from soft to very hard and is sometimes high in chloride content. Wells in Cretaceous strata commonly yield from 2 to 7 gpm; however, in areas where the sandstone is in contact with the underlying weathered granite, sustained yields of as much as 75 gpm are obtained. The geographic and stratigraphic distribution of the geologic units suggests that additional water supplies may be available from Pleistocene and Cretaceous strata in areas not yet fully explored.

  3. Desalination of brackish ground waters and produced waters using in-situ precipitation.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene; Moore, Diana Lynn; Sattler, Allan Richard

    2004-08-01

    The need for fresh water has increased exponentially during the last several decades due to the continuous growth of human population and industrial and agricultural activities. Yet existing resources are limited often because of their high salinity. This unfavorable situation requires the development of new, long-term strategies and alternative technologies for desalination of saline waters presently not being used to supply the population growth occurring in arid regions. We have developed a novel environmentally friendly method for desalinating inland brackish waters. This process can be applied to either brackish ground water or produced waters (i.e., coal-bed methane or oil and gas produced waters). Using a set of ion exchange and sorption materials, our process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps. The ion exchange materials were chosen because of their specific selectivity for ions of interest, and for their ability to work in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. For anion exchange, we have focused on hydrotalcite (HTC), a layered hydroxide similar to clay in structure. For cation exchange, we have developed an amorphous silica material that has enhanced cation (in particular Na{sup +}) selectivity. In the case of produced waters with high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, a lime softening step is included.

  4. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; California region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.; Phoenix, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Of all the constraints on effective use of ground-water reservoirs, the most formidable may be the attitudes of people. Assurance of water supply is vital in areas of water deficiency, and Government has assumed increasing responsibility for the welfare of people in these areas. Unfortunately, when Government provides this assurance, most beneficiaries demand continued subsidy to the exclusion of perhaps cheaper private development. Indeed, as the water resources are presently segregated-with private rights predominant in ground water and public interest dominant in surface water-ground-water development has suffered for lack of public concern. The region has the scientific and technologic capability for effective use of groundwater reservoirs, as shown by the achievements and programs of several districts, but many districts are not organized or staffed for such comprehensive management and will need assistance and scientific expertise available from State and Federal agencies. Those agencies, in turn, may not have the scientific data that are essential to prevent haphazard activities and to enable programs to be organized for the most effective and attractive utilization of the water resources. In these days of increasing concern over pollution, existing data are generally inadequate to assess the natural deterioration of ground waters as a basis for defining pollution.

  5. Water resources data, Maryland, Delaware, and Washington, D.C., water year 1998, volume 2. ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smigaj, Michael J.; Starsoneck, Roger J.; Saffer, Richard W.; Marchand, Elizabeth H.

    1999-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1998 water year for Maryland and Delaware consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report (Volume 2. Ground-Water Data) contains water levels at 393 observation wells, discharge records for 6 springs and water quality at 290 wells and 23 streambed piezometers. Locations of ground-water level wells are shown on figures 5 and 6. Locations of ground-water-quality sites are shown on figure 7. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State, local, and Federal agencies in Maryland and Delaware.

  6. Water resources data Maryland, Delaware, and Washington, D.C., water year 2000, volume 2. ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smigaj, Michael J.; Saffer, Richard W.; Marchand, Elizabeth H.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2000 water year for Maryland and Delaware consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report (Volume 2. Ground-Water Data) contains water levels at 347 observation wells, discharge records for 5 springs, and water quality at 225 wells, 13 piezometers, and 4 springs. Locations of ground-water level wells are shown on figures 5 and 6. Locations of ground-water-quality sites are shown on figure 7. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State, local, and Federal agencies in Maryland and Delaware.

  7. Ground-water geochemistry of Kwajalein Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1991. Water resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, G.W.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to describe the chemical characteristics of ground water at Kwajalein Island. This characterization includes the overall chemical composition of aquifer water, the extent of non-conservative chemical reactions in the aquifer, and factors that influence of fate of organic contaminants, although the breakdown of specific contaminants is not addressed. A total of 116 ground-water samples were collected from the aquifer and shallow unsaturated zone during two periods in 1991. Because ground water on the islands is derived from rainwater and seawater, eight rain and eight seawater samples also were collected.

  8. Delineating ground water recharge from leaking irrigation canals using water chemistry and isotopes.

    PubMed

    Harvey, F E; Sibray, S S

    2001-01-01

    Across the Great Plains irrigation canals are used to transport water to cropland. Many of these canals are unlined, and leakage from them has been the focus of an ongoing legal, economic, and philosophical debate as to whether this lost water should be considered waste or be viewed as a beneficial and reasonable use since it contributes to regional ground water recharge. While historically there has been much speculation about the impact of canal leakage on local ground water, actual data are scarce. This study was launched to investigate the impact of leakage from the Interstate Canal, in the western panhandle of Nebraska, on the hydrology and water quality of the local aquifer using water chemistry and environmental isotopes. Numerous monitoring wells were installed in and around a small wetland area adjacent to the canal, and ground water levels were monitored from June 1992 until January 1995. Using the water level data, the seepage loss from the canal was estimated. In addition, the canal, the monitoring wells, and several nearby stock and irrigation wells were sampled for inorganic and environmental isotope analysis to assess water quality changes, and to determine the extent of recharge resulting from canal leakage. The results of water level monitoring within study wells indicates a rise in local ground water levels occurs seasonally as a result of leakage during periods when the canal is filled. This rise redirects local ground water flow and provides water to nearby wetland ecosystems during the summer months. Chemical and isotopic results were used to delineate canal, surface, and ground water and indicate that leaking canal water recharges both the surface alluvial aquifer and upper portions of the underlying Brule Aquifer. The results of this study indicate that lining the Interstate Canal could lower ground water levels adjacent to the canal, and could adversely impact the local aquifer.

  9. Quantifying ground water inputs along the Lower Jordan River.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Ran; Shavit, Uri; Segal-Rozenhaimer, Michal; Gavrieli, Ittai; Marei, Amer; Farber, Efrat; Vengosh, Avner

    2005-01-01

    The flow rate of the Lower Jordan River has changed dramatically during the second half of the 20th century. The diversion of its major natural sources reduced its flow rate and led to drying events during the drought years of 2000 and 2001. Under these conditions of low flow rates, the potential influence of external sources on the river discharge and chemical composition became significant. Our measurements show that the concentrations of chloride, calcium, and sodium in the river water decrease along the first 20-km section, while sulfate and magnesium concentrations increase. These variations were addressed by a recent geochemical study, suggesting that ground water inflow plays a major role. To further examine the role of ground water, we applied mass-balance calculations, using detailed flow rate measurements, water samplings, and chemical analyses along the northern (upstream) part of the river. Our flow-rate measurements showed that the river base-flow during 2000 and 2001 was 500 to 1100 L s(-1), which is about 40 times lower than the historical flow rates. Our measurements and calculations indicate that ground water input was 20 to 80% of the river water flow, and 20 to 50% of its solute mass flow. This study independently identifies the composition of possible end-members. These end-members contain high sulfate concentration and have similar chemical characteristics as were found in agricultural drains and in the "saline" Yarmouk River. Future regional development plans that include the river flow rate and chemistry should consider the interactions between the river and its shallow ground water system.

  10. Ground-water contamination in East Bay Township, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twenter, F.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Grannemann, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    Glacial deposits, as much as 360 feet thick, underlie the study area. The upper 29 to 118 feet, a sand and gravel unit, is the aquifer tapped by all wells in the area. This unit is underlain by impermeable clay that is at least 100 feet thick. Ground-water flow is northeastward at an estimated rate of 2 to 5 feet per day. Hydraulic conductivities in the aquifer range from 85 to 250 feet per day; 120 feet per day provided the best match of field data in a ground-water flow model. The depth to water ranged from 1 to 20 feet. Chemical analyses indicate that ground water is contaminated with organic chemicals from near the Hangar/Administration building at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station at East Bay, about 4,300 feet northeast. The plume, which follows ground-water flow lines, ranges from 180 to 400 feet wide. In the upper reach of the plume, hydrocarbons less dense than water occur at the surface of the water table; they move downward in the aquifer as they move toward east Bay. Maximum concentrations of the major organic compounds include: benzene, 3,390 ug/L; toluene, 55,500 ug/L; xylene, 3,900 ug/L, tetrachloroethylene, 3,410 ug/L; amd bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate, 2,100 ug/L. Soils are generally free of these hydrocarbons; however, in the vicinity of past drum storage, aircraft maintenance operations, and fuel storage and dispensing , as much as 1,100 ug/kg of tetrachloroethylene and 1,500 ug/kg of bis (-ethyl hexyl) phthalate were detected. At a few locations higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, characteristic of petroleum distillates were found. (USGS)

  11. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to characterize the interactions between ground water and surface water in mantled karst

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Coplen, T.B.; Bullen, T.D.; Hal, Davis J.

    1997-01-01

    Floridan aquifer, the major processes controlling the concentrations of major dissolved species included dissolution of calcite and dolomite, and degradation of organic matter under oxic conditions. The Upper Floridan aquifer is highly susceptible to contamination from activities at the land surface in the Tallahassee area. The presence of post-1950s concentrations of 3H in ground water from depths greater than 100 m below land surface indicates that water throughout much of the Upper Floridan aquifer has been recharged during the last 40 years. Even though mixing is likely between ground water and surface water in many parts of the study area, the Upper Floridan aquifer produces good quality water, which due to dilution effects shows little if any impact from trace elements or nutrients that are present in surface waters.The water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer is influenced by the degree of connectivity between the aquifer and the surface water. Chemical and isotopic analyses, tritium, and strontium-87/strontium-86 along with geochemical mass-balance modeling were used to identify the dominant hydrochemical processes that control the composition of groundwater. Differences in the composition of water isotopes in rainfall, groundwater and surface water were used to develop mixing models of surface water and groundwater. Even though mixing is likely between groundwater and surface water in many parts of the study area, the Upper Floridan aquifer produces good quality water, showing little impact from trace elements present in surface waters.

  12. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    , selenium, and gross-alpha activity that exceed drinking-water standards. Suspected problems include possible contamination of the aquifer by oil-field brines and drilling fluids, pesticides, industrial chemicals, septic-tank effluent, fertilizers, and leakage from sewage systems and underground tanks used for storage of hydrocarbons. There are four major components of the Central Oklahoma aquifer project. The first component is the collection and analysis of existing information, including chemical, hydrologic, and land-use data. The second component is the geohydrologic and geochemical investigations of the aquifer flow system. The third component is the sampling for a wide variety of inorganic, organic, and radioactive constituents as part a regional survey that will produce a consistent set of data among all ground-water pilot projects. These data can be used to: (1) Define regional ground-water quality within the Central Oklahoma aquifer, and (2) compare water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer to the water quality in the other ground-water study units of the NAWQA program. The fourth component is topical studies that will address, in more detail, some of the major water-quality issues pertaining to the aquifer.

  13. Ground water in Juab, Millard, and Iron Counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinzer, Oscar Edward

    1911-01-01

    Location and extent of area - Juab, Millard, and Iron counties lie in western Utah, and, with the exception of a small part of Iron County, are entirely within the Great Basin. (See fig. 1.) They comprise about 13,650 square miles, of which approximately 3,500 belong to Juab, 6,775 to Millard, and 3,375 to Iron County. Beaver County, which lies between Millard and Iron counties, is not discussed in this paper because its water resources have been described by W. T. Lee, of the United States Geological Survey, in Water-Supply Paper 217. Purpose of investigation - The investigation was begun in the summer of 1908, under cooperative agreement between the Director of the United States Geological Survey and Caleb Tanner, State engineer of Utah, the object of the work being to obtain and disseminate information which should lead to a greater utilization of the ground-water supplies. The agricultural development of an arid section, such as this, is primarily dependent on the amount of water available. Large tracts of fertile soil remain idle year after year for lack of water for irrigation, while much water that falls as rain and snow sinks into the ground, saturates the porous materials underlying the valleys and deserts, and eventually reappears at the surface in low alkali flats, where it is dissipated by evaporation without producing useful vegetation. If the water thus lost can be applied to fertile soil it will substantially increase the agricultural yield of the region. An urgent demand for information in regard to ground-water prospects has been created in recent years by the adoption of dry farming methods in localities where water is not readily obtained. The water required for culinary purposes and for supplying the horses and traction engines used in tilling the soil on some of the dry farms is at present hauled long distances. In most of the arid parts of this region watering places of any sort are so scarce that certain sections are accessible for grazing

  14. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Effects of Ground-Water Irrigation on Base Flow in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Saunders, Amanda T.; Bradley, Jesse R.

    2008-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is vital to the livelihood of communities in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins in Nebraska, and ground water is used to irrigate most of the cropland. Concerns about the sustainability of ground-water and surface-water resources have prompted State and regional agencies to evaluate the cumulative effects of ground-water irrigation in this area. To facilitate understanding of the effects of ground-water irrigation, a numerical computer model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and assess the effects of ground-water irrigation (including ground-water withdrawals, hereinafter referred to as pumpage, and enhanced recharge) on stream base flow. The study area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and includes the Elkhorn River Basin upstream from Norfolk, Nebraska, and the Loup River Basin upstream from Columbus, Nebraska. The water-table aquifer consists of Quaternary-age sands and gravels and Tertiary-age silts, sands, and gravels. The simulation was constructed using one layer with 2-mile by 2-mile cell size. Simulations were constructed to represent the ground-water system before 1940 and from 1940 through 2005, and to simulate hypothetical conditions from 2006 through 2045 or 2055. The first simulation represents steady-state conditions of the system before anthropogenic effects, and then simulates the effects of early surface-water development activities and recharge of water leaking from canals during 1895 to 1940. The first simulation ends at 1940 because before that time, very little pumpage for irrigation occurred, but after that time it became increasingly commonplace. The pre-1940 simulation was calibrated against measured water levels and estimated long-term base flow, and the 1940 through 2005 simulation was calibrated against measured water-level changes and estimated long-term base flow. The calibrated 1940 through 2005 simulation was used as the basis for analyzing hypothetical scenarios to evaluate the effects of

  15. Hydrogeology and ground-water/surface water interactions in the Des Moines River valley, southwestern Minnesota, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowdery, Timothy K.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term withdrawals of water for public supplies may cause a net decrease in ground-water discharge to surface water. Water that does not evaporate, or that is not exported, is discharged to the Des Moines River but with changed water quality. Because ground-water and surface-water qualities in the study area are similar, the ground-water discharge probably has little effect on river water quality.

  16. Ground-water availability on the Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Arnold J.; Bolke, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Unconsolidated deposits on the Kitsap Peninsula, Wash., are of glacial and interglacial origin. These deposits were divided into three units based on lithology and hydraulic properties. Two of the three units are composed of layers of sand and gravel , and silt and clay. The third unit consists of silt and clay and in most places separates the other two units. Water-bearing strata in the upper unit are fairly continuous and average 15 feet in thickness. The lower water-bearing strata are not believed to be as continuous as those in the upper unit, but yield larger quantities of water to wells. The silt-and-clay unit averages 70 feet in thickness, occurs generally near sea level, and is not known to contain major water-bearing deposits. The average annual ground-water recharge to streams on the Kitsap Peninsula was estimated to be 17 times the 1975 annual ground-water pumpage for the peninsula. Some, but an unknown amount, of this water is available for increased withdrawal by wells. Increased withdrawals cause decreased streamflow, declining water levels, and increased seawater contamination. There appears to be no widespread seawater contamination of wells in the study area. Local areas where chloride concentrations from wells exceed 25 milligrams per liter are near the southern part of the Longbranch Peninsula, Horsehead Bay, Point Evans, Sinclair Inlet, Eagle Harbor, Fletcher Bay, the northern end of Bainbridge Island, and the northern tip of the Kitsap Peninsula. (USGS)

  17. Ground-water supplies in the Murfreesboro area, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert; Moran, Mary S.; Woods, E. Jean

    1977-01-01

    Ground water occurs in the Murfreesboro area in solution openings in the otherwise dense paleozoic limestones that underlie most of central Tennessee. Test drilling based on conceptual models of ground-water occurrence in carbonate-rock aquifers indicate that multimillion-gallon-per-day supplies could be developed from strategically located production wells in the Shiloh and Overall Creek localities. The Shiloh locality which encompasses an elongated synclinal depression in the bedrock has the potential to supply 5 to 8 million gallons per day. The Overall Creek locality which straddles a joint-oriented lineament has the potential to supply 3 to 6 million gallons per day. Some local springs could be used as a supplemental source of potable water, but storage facilities would be needed to offset poorly sustained flows during dry periods. An exception is Fox Camp Spring which appears to be a natural well. The quality of ground water in the Murfreesboro area is typically hard, moderately mineralized and moderately to highly alkaline. Although the shallowest aquifers are subject to bacterial contamination from the land surface, aquifers beneath a depth of 100 feet are prone to yield potable water. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Studying ground water under Delmarva coastal bays using electrical resistivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.; Krantz, David E.; Bratton, John F.

    2004-01-01

    Fresh ground water is widely distributed in subsurface sediments below the coastal bays of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia). These conditions were revealed by nearly 300 km of streamer resistivity surveys, utilizing a towed multichannel cable system. Zones of high resistivity displayed by inversion modeling were confirmed by vibradrilling investigations to correspond to fresh ground water occurrences. Fresh water lenses extended from a few hundred meters up to 2 km from shore. Along the western margins of coastal bays in areas associated with fine-grained surficial sediments, high-resistivity layers were widespread and were especially pronounced near tidal creeks. Fresh ground water layers were less common along the eastern barrier-bar margins of the bays, where sediments were typically sandy. Mid-bay areas in Chincoteague Bay, Maryland, did not show evidence of fresh water. Indian River Bay, Delaware, showed complex subsurface salinity relationships, including an area with possible hypersaline brines. The new streamer resistivity system paired with vibradrilling in these investigations provides a powerful approach to recovering information required for extension of hydrologic modeling of shallow coastal aquifer systems into offshore areas.

  19. Arsenic in ground water in Sanilac County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of ground-water resources in Michigan by the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH), the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) indicate that in several counties in the southeastern part of the State the concentrations of arsenic in ground water may exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 micrograms per liter [µg/L]. This MCL was established in 1986. The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires USEPA to revise this standard in 2000. In June 2000, the USEPA proposed a revised MCL of 5 µg/L. In 1996, the USGS, in cooperation with the MDEQ and the Health Departments of Genesee, Huron, Lapeer, Livingston, Oakland, Sanilac, Shiawassee, Tuscola and Washtenaw counties, began a study of the factors controlling arsenic occurrence and concentrations in ground water in southeastern Michigan. This study is one of four USGS Drinking Water Initiative projects throughout the United States.

  20. Arsenic in ground water in Washtenaw County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of ground-water resources in Michigan by the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH), the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) indicate that in several counties in the southeastern part of the State the concentrations of arsenic in ground water may exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 micrograms per liter [µg/L]. This MCL was established in 1986. The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires USEPA to revise this standard in 2000. In June 2000, the USEPA proposed a revised MCL of 5 µg/L. In 1996, the USGS, in cooperation with the MDEQ and the Health Departments of Genesee, Huron, Lapeer, Livingston, Oakland, Sanilac, Shiawassee, Tuscola and Washtenaw counties, began a study of the factors controlling arsenic occurrence and concentrations in ground water in southeastern Michigan. This study is one of four USGS Drinking Water Initiative projects throughout the United States.