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Sample records for active group compared

  1. Comparing of goal setting strategy with group education method to increase physical activity level: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Jiryaee, Nasrin; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Taleban, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Materials and Methods: Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1) goal-setting strategy and 2) group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Results: Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P < 0.05). BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and well-being score were significantly different in the goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our study presented the effects of using the goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference. PMID:26929765

  2. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Mehdi; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Dolatshahi, Behroz; Alizadeh, Hamid; Overmann, Karenleigh A.; Coolidge, Frederick L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA) and cognitive therapy (CT), in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students. Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42) were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14), and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13). Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment. Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats. PMID:26884782

  3. [Comparative activity of different groups of insecticides against permethrin-resistant lice (anoplura: pediculidae)].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2013-01-01

    The activity of insecticides (CK50, CK95 ) from different chemical classes against permethrin-resistant body and head lice was investigated. Having developed resistance to pyrethroids (permethrin, d-phenothrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin), the lice remain susceptible to organophosphorus compounds, phenylpyrazoles, neonicotinoids, and avermectins. The susceptibility of lice to the insecticides having a mechanism of action that is different from that of pyrethroids does not depend on the level of their resistance to permethrin. PMID:23805484

  4. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  5. Outcome From a Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder: Comparing Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for Binge Eating to an Active Comparison Group Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Debra L.; Robinson, Athena Hagler; Jo, Booil

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder (DBT-BED) aims to reduce binge eating by improving adaptive emotion-regulation skills. Preliminary findings have been promising but have only compared DBT-BED to a wait-list. To control for the hypothesized specific effects of DBT-BED, the present study compared DBT-BED to an active comparison group therapy (ACGT). Men and women (n = 101) meeting DSM-IV BED research criteria were randomly assigned to 20 group sessions of DBT-BED (n = 50) or ACGT (n = 51). DBT-BED had a significantly lower dropout rate (4%) than ACGT (33.3%). Linear Mixed Models revealed that posttreatment binge abstinence and reductions in binge frequency were achieved more quickly for DBT-BED than for ACGT (posttreatment abstinence rate = 64% for DBT-BED vs. 36% for ACGT) though differences did not persist over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up assessments (e.g., 12-month follow-up abstinence rate = 64% for DBT-BED vs. 56% for ACGT). Secondary outcome measures revealed no sustained impact on emotion regulation. Although both DBT-BED and ACGT reduced binge eating, DBT-BED showed significantly fewer dropouts and greater initial efficacy (e.g., at posttreatment) than ACGT. The lack of differential findings over follow-up suggests that the hypothesized specific effects of DBT-BED do not show long-term impact beyond those attributable to nonspecific common therapeutic factors. PMID:20171332

  6. FMRI Brain Activation in a Finnish Family with Specific Language Impairment Compared with a Normal Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugdahl, Kenneth; Gundersen, Hilde; Brekke, Cecilie; Thomsen, Tormod; Rimol, Lars Morten; Ersland, Lars; Niemi, Jussi

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in brain activation in a family with SLI as compared to intact individuals with normally developed language during processing of language stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to monitor changes in neuronal activation in temporal and frontal lobe areas in 5…

  7. Comparing the Variances of Two Dependent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, C. E. McCulloch (1987) suggested a modification of the Morgan-Pitman test for comparing the variances of two dependent groups. This paper demonstrates that there are situations where the procedure is not robust. A subsample approach, similar to the Box-Scheffe test, and the Sandvik-Olsson procedure are also assessed. (TJH)

  8. An Active Adventure for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, H. Lee

    A sequence of action-oriented games and initiatives is provided in this guide for group therapy leaders who wish to employ activities to promote trust, problem solving, and cohesion among group members. Introductory material discusses the objectives of action-oriented therapy, the adaptation of traditionally outdoor activities to indoor settings,…

  9. Comparative in vitro assessment of sparfloxacin activity and spectrum using results from over 14,000 pathogens isolated at 190 medical centers in the USA. SPAR Study Group.

    PubMed

    Ballow, C H; Jones, R N; Johnson, D M; Deinhart, J A; Schentag, J J

    1997-11-01

    Sparfloxacin, a new orally administered fluoroquinolone, was tested against 14,182 clinical strains isolated (generally blood stream and respiratory tract cultures) at nearly 200 hospitals in the United States (USA) and Canada. Sparfloxacin activity was compared with 13 other compounds by Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden), broth microdilution, or a standardized disk diffusion method. Using the Food and Drug Administration/product package insert MIC breakpoint for sparfloxacin susceptibility (< or = 0.5 microgram/ml), 94% of Streptococcus pneumoniae (2666 isolates) and 89% of the other streptococci (554 isolates) were susceptible. However, at < or = 1 microgram/ml (the breakpoint for all nonstreptococcal species) sparfloxacin susceptibility rates increased to 100% and 98%, respectively, for the two groups of streptococci. Only 50% and 65% of pneumococci were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, 3 micrograms/ml) and penicillin (MIC90, 1.5 micrograms/ml), respectively. Although there were significant differences between regions in the USA in the frequency of penicillin-resistant pneumococcal strains, results indicate that the overall sparfloxacin MIC90 was uniformly at 0.5 microgram/ml. Nearly all (> or = 99%) Haemophilus species and Moraxella catarrhalis, including those harboring beta-lactamases, were susceptible to sparfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Only cefprozil and macrolides demonstrated lower potency and spectrum against these two species. Sparfloxacin was active against oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (96 to 97%), Klebsiella spp. (95%), and other tested enteric bacilli (93%). Comparison between broth microdilution MIC and disk diffusion interpretive results for M. catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and the Enterobacteriaceae showed an absolute intermethod categorical agreement of > 95% using current sparfloxacin breakpoints, in contrast to those of cefpodoxime for S. aureus where a conspicuous discord (98% versus 59

  10. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  11. Comparative genomics of the Campylobacter lari group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Campylobacter lari group is a phylogenetic clade within the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant campylobacters, a division within the genus that includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The lari group is currently composed of five validly-named sp...

  12. Activity Group Guidance: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Bill W.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Illustrates the content, process, and group dynamics of Activity Group Guidance. Describes and evaluates a comprehensive Activity Group Guidance program. Gives specific suggestions to counselors who wish to start Activity Groups. (Author)

  13. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  14. Activities of the WASVSO Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Michael A.; van Poucker, Joseph F.; Greene, Stephen M.

    2001-04-01

    This poster outlines the goals, activities, and achievements of the Warren Astronomical Society Variable Star Observers (WASVSO), a special-interest sub-group of the Warren Astronomical Society in Michigan. The WASVSO holds monthly meetings to discuss variable star behavior, terminology, current events, observing techniques, Internet resources, software, and of course, the weather. Ongoing projects include monitoring cataclysmic variables, active galactic nuclei, and stars that need more observations from the AAVSO "News Flashes" and "Alert Notices". We are also actively involved in "spreading the word" about AAVSO and variable star observing through presentations at star parties and a speaker exchange program with other astronomy clubs throughout the Midwest and Canada. The WASVSO also maintains an impressive website featuring member areas, upcoming events, articles on variable stars and observing techniques, charts for obscure cataclsmic variables, utilities for observing, and links to variable star organizations and observers throughout the world. Members of the WASVSO contributed 94% of all variable star observations submitted to the AAVSO from Michigan in the fiscal year 2000-2001, and our enthusiasm has catapulted Michigan from 20th place to 11th in overall numbers of US observations submitted to AAVSO in one year.

  15. Comparative study of the coupling between topoisomerase I activity and high-mobility group proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, S; Caron, N; Boissonneault, G

    2000-07-01

    It is now well established that the HMG box DNA-binding motif can alter the topology of double-stranded DNA in several ways. Using the spermatid-specific tsHMG as a model protein of the HMG-1/-2 family, we have demonstrated that its expression in E. coli produces an increase in plasmid supercoiling density that is likely a consequence of its ability to constrain free supercoils in vivo. As demonstrated in vitro, stabilization of free DNA supercoils by tsHMG prevents topoisomerase I from gaining access to the template and could represent a mechanism for the apparent inhibition of topoisomerase I in bacteria. A similar modulation of eukaryotic topoisomerase I activity was not detected after expression of the tsHMG in mammalian cells. This differential response is discussed in terms of the marked difference in DNA packaging and accessibility of free supercoils in prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells. PMID:10945232

  16. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  17. A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study to demonstrate equivalence in efficacy and safety of CT-P13 compared with innovator infliximab when coadministered with methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: the PLANETRA study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Dae Hyun; Hrycaj, Pawel; Miranda, Pedro; Ramiterre, Edgar; Piotrowski, Mariusz; Shevchuk, Sergii; Kovalenko, Volodymyr; Prodanovic, Nenad; Abello-Banfi, Mauricio; Gutierrez-Ureña, Sergio; Morales-Olazabal, Luis; Tee, Michael; Jimenez, Renato; Zamani, Omid; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, HoUng; Park, Won; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of innovator infliximab (INX) and CT-P13, an INX biosimilar, in active rheumatoid arthritis patients with inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Methods Phase III randomised, double-blind, multicentre, multinational, parallel-group study. Patients with active disease despite MTX (12.5–25 mg/week) were randomised to receive 3 mg/kg of CT-P13 (n=302) or INX (n=304) with MTX and folic acid. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 30. Therapeutic equivalence of clinical response according to ACR20 criteria was concluded if the 95% CI for the treatment difference was within ±15%. Secondary endpoints included ACR response criteria, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, change in Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Simplified Disease Activity Index, Clinical Disease Activity Index, as well as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters, safety and immunogenicity. Results At week 30, ACR20 responses were 60.9% for CT-P13 and 58.6% for INX (95% CI −6% to 10%) in the intention-to-treat population. The proportions in CT-P13 and INX groups achieving good or moderate EULAR responses (C reactive protein (CRP)) at week 30 were 85.8% and 87.1%, respectively. Low disease activity or remission according to DAS28–CRP, ACR–EULAR remission rates, ACR50/ACR70 responses and all other PK and PD endpoints were highly similar at week 30. Incidence of drug-related adverse events (35.2% vs 35.9%) and detection of antidrug antibodies (48.4% vs 48.2%) were highly similar for CT-P13 and INX, respectively. Conclusions CT-P13 demonstrated equivalent efficacy to INX at week 30, with a comparable PK profile and immunogenicity. CT-P13 was well tolerated, with a safety profile comparable with that of INX. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01217086 PMID:23687260

  18. Lead exposure among five distinct occupational groups: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Mohammad Younis; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan; Khabour, Omar Falah; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Gharaibeh, Mamoun Abdallah; Matarneh, Sulaiman Khalid

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate blood lead concentration among five selected occupational groups. The five groups were: hospital health workers, shop workers, taxi drivers, automobiles mechanics, and wood workers. The groups did not significantly differ among each other in the average of age and work years. ANOVA test revealed significantly higher mean lead blood concentration in taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers compared to other groups. Additionally, workers with lead concentration >0.483 umol/L (10μg/dL) were more likely to have frequent muscle pain compared to those with lower concentrations. No association between other symptoms of lead exposure/toxicity and blood lead concentration was detected. In conclusion, special attention must be directed toward lead blood levels and lead poisoning symptoms when examining patients from certain occupational groups such as taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers. Special safety precautions and educational programs are also needed to limit the lead exposure in these occupational groups. PMID:24374433

  19. Small Group Activities for Introductory Business Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundrake, George

    1999-01-01

    Describes numerous small-group activities for the following areas of basic business education: consumer credit, marketing, business organization, entrepreneurship, insurance, risk management, economics, personal finance, business careers, global markets, and government regulation. (SK)

  20. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, William; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Background information and procedures for demonstrating physical phenomena to groups are described: a red plastic sheet that changes to blue, a group activity for understanding energy transfer, and hanging a spoon from one's nose to illustrate forces involved in static equilibrium. (SK)

  1. Biostatistics Series Module 3: Comparing Groups: Numerical Variables.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Numerical data that are normally distributed can be analyzed with parametric tests, that is, tests which are based on the parameters that define a normal distribution curve. If the distribution is uncertain, the data can be plotted as a normal probability plot and visually inspected, or tested for normality using one of a number of goodness of fit tests, such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The widely used Student's t-test has three variants. The one-sample t-test is used to assess if a sample mean (as an estimate of the population mean) differs significantly from a given population mean. The means of two independent samples may be compared for a statistically significant difference by the unpaired or independent samples t-test. If the data sets are related in some way, their means may be compared by the paired or dependent samples t-test. The t-test should not be used to compare the means of more than two groups. Although it is possible to compare groups in pairs, when there are more than two groups, this will increase the probability of a Type I error. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to compare the means of three or more independent data sets that are normally distributed. Multiple measurements from the same set of subjects cannot be treated as separate, unrelated data sets. Comparison of means in such a situation requires repeated measures ANOVA. It is to be noted that while a multiple group comparison test such as ANOVA can point to a significant difference, it does not identify exactly between which two groups the difference lies. To do this, multiple group comparison needs to be followed up by an appropriate post hoc test. An example is the Tukey's honestly significant difference test following ANOVA. If the assumptions for parametric tests are not met, there are nonparametric alternatives for comparing data sets. These include Mann-Whitney U-test as the nonparametric counterpart of the unpaired Student's t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test

  2. Biostatistics Series Module 3: Comparing Groups: Numerical Variables

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Numerical data that are normally distributed can be analyzed with parametric tests, that is, tests which are based on the parameters that define a normal distribution curve. If the distribution is uncertain, the data can be plotted as a normal probability plot and visually inspected, or tested for normality using one of a number of goodness of fit tests, such as the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. The widely used Student's t-test has three variants. The one-sample t-test is used to assess if a sample mean (as an estimate of the population mean) differs significantly from a given population mean. The means of two independent samples may be compared for a statistically significant difference by the unpaired or independent samples t-test. If the data sets are related in some way, their means may be compared by the paired or dependent samples t-test. The t-test should not be used to compare the means of more than two groups. Although it is possible to compare groups in pairs, when there are more than two groups, this will increase the probability of a Type I error. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to compare the means of three or more independent data sets that are normally distributed. Multiple measurements from the same set of subjects cannot be treated as separate, unrelated data sets. Comparison of means in such a situation requires repeated measures ANOVA. It is to be noted that while a multiple group comparison test such as ANOVA can point to a significant difference, it does not identify exactly between which two groups the difference lies. To do this, multiple group comparison needs to be followed up by an appropriate post hoc test. An example is the Tukey's honestly significant difference test following ANOVA. If the assumptions for parametric tests are not met, there are nonparametric alternatives for comparing data sets. These include Mann–Whitney U-test as the nonparametric counterpart of the unpaired Student's t-test, Wilcoxon signed

  3. Comparing galaxy populations in compact and loose groups of galaxies. II. Brightest group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Héctor J.; Coenda, Valeria; Muriel, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Aims: The properties of the brightest galaxies (BCGs) are studied in both compact and loose groups of galaxies in order to better understand the physical mechanisms influencing galaxy evolution in different environments. Methods: Samples of BCGs are selected in compact and loose groups of galaxies previously identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The following physical properties of the BCGs in compact groups and in sub-samples of loose groups are compared, defined by their mass and total luminosity: absolute magnitude, colour, size, surface brightness, stellar mass, concentration and morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo. The fraction of BCGs classified as red and/or early-type as a function of galaxy luminosity is studied. The fraction of the group's total luminosity contained in the BCG and the difference in luminosity between the BCG and the second-ranked galaxy, are also analysed. Results: Some properties of BCGs in compact and loose groups are comparable. However, BCGs in compact groups are systematically more concentrated and have larger surface brightness than their counterparts in both, high- and low-mass loose groups. The fractions of red and early-type BCGs in compact groups are consistent with those of high-mass loose groups. Comparing BCGs in sub-samples of compact and loose groups selected for their similar luminosities, BCGs in compact groups are found to be, on average, brighter, more massive, larger, redder and more frequently classified as elliptical. In compact groups, the BCG contains a larger fraction of the system's total luminosity and differs more in absolute magnitude from the second-ranked galaxy. Using a simple model, which dry-merges the BCG in loose groups with a random choice among the 2nd, 3rd and 4th-ranked galaxies in the group, and allowing for some star loss in the process, we show that the absolute magnitude distributions of BCGs in compact and loose groups of similar luminosities can be made more alike. Conclusions

  4. A Group Recommender System for Tourist Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Inma; Sebastia, Laura; Onaindia, Eva; Guzman, Cesar

    This paper introduces a method for giving recommendations of tourist activities to a group of users. This method makes recommendations based on the group tastes, their demographic classification and the places visited by the users in former trips. The group recommendation is computed from individual personal recommendations through the use of techniques such as aggregation, intersection or incremental intersection. This method is implemented as an extension of the e-Tourism tool, which is a user-adapted tourism and leisure application, whose main component is the Generalist Recommender System Kernel (GRSK), a domain-independent taxonomy-driven search engine that manages the group recommendation.

  5. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p < 0.05) in their use of prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p < 0.01) in prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the

  6. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  7. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Breakout Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Perka, Alan; Walz, Carl; Cobb, Sharon; Hanford, Anthony; Eppler, Dean

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document summarizes the workings of the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (AEVA) Breakout group in a Martian environment. The group was tasked with: identifying potential contaminants and pathways for AEVA systems with respect to forward and backward contamination; identifying plausible mitigation alternatives and obstacles for pertinent missions; identifying topics that require further research and technology development and discuss development strategies with uncertain Planetary Protection (PP) requirements; Identifying PP requirements that impose the greatest mission/development costs; Identifying PP requirements/topics that require further definition;

  8. Biostatistics Series Module 4: Comparing Groups – Categorical Variables

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Categorical variables are commonly represented as counts or frequencies. For analysis, such data are conveniently arranged in contingency tables. Conventionally, such tables are designated as r × c tables, with r denoting number of rows and c denoting number of columns. The Chi-square (χ2) probability distribution is particularly useful in analyzing categorical variables. A number of tests yield test statistics that fit, at least approximately, a χ2 distribution and hence are referred to as χ2 tests. Examples include Pearson's χ2 test (or simply the χ2 test), McNemar's χ2 test, Mantel–Haenszel χ2 test and others. The Pearson's χ2 test is the most commonly used test for assessing difference in distribution of a categorical variable between two or more independent groups. If the groups are ordered in some manner, the χ2 test for trend should be used. The Fisher's exact probability test is a test of the independence between two dichotomous categorical variables. It provides a better alternative to the χ2 statistic to assess the difference between two independent proportions when numbers are small, but cannot be applied to a contingency table larger than a two-dimensional one. The McNemar's χ2 test assesses the difference between paired proportions. It is used when the frequencies in a 2 × 2 table represent paired samples or observations. The Cochran's Q test is a generalization of the McNemar's test that compares more than two related proportions. The P value from the χ2 test or its counterparts does not indicate the strength of the difference or association between the categorical variables involved. This information can be obtained from the relative risk or the odds ratio statistic which is measures of dichotomous association obtained from 2 × 2 tables. PMID:27512183

  9. Biostatistics Series Module 4: Comparing Groups - Categorical Variables.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Categorical variables are commonly represented as counts or frequencies. For analysis, such data are conveniently arranged in contingency tables. Conventionally, such tables are designated as r × c tables, with r denoting number of rows and c denoting number of columns. The Chi-square (χ(2)) probability distribution is particularly useful in analyzing categorical variables. A number of tests yield test statistics that fit, at least approximately, a χ(2) distribution and hence are referred to as χ(2) tests. Examples include Pearson's χ(2) test (or simply the χ(2) test), McNemar's χ(2) test, Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) test and others. The Pearson's χ(2) test is the most commonly used test for assessing difference in distribution of a categorical variable between two or more independent groups. If the groups are ordered in some manner, the χ(2) test for trend should be used. The Fisher's exact probability test is a test of the independence between two dichotomous categorical variables. It provides a better alternative to the χ(2) statistic to assess the difference between two independent proportions when numbers are small, but cannot be applied to a contingency table larger than a two-dimensional one. The McNemar's χ(2) test assesses the difference between paired proportions. It is used when the frequencies in a 2 × 2 table represent paired samples or observations. The Cochran's Q test is a generalization of the McNemar's test that compares more than two related proportions. The P value from the χ(2) test or its counterparts does not indicate the strength of the difference or association between the categorical variables involved. This information can be obtained from the relative risk or the odds ratio statistic which is measures of dichotomous association obtained from 2 × 2 tables. PMID:27512183

  10. From Cannibalism to Active Motion of Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanczuk, Pawel; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2008-03-01

    The detailed mechanisms leading to collective dynamics in groups of animals and insect are still poorly understood. A recent study by Simpson et. al. suggests cannibalism as a driving mechanism for coordinated migration of mormon crickets [1]. Based on this result we propose a simple generic model of brownian particles interacting by asymmetric, non-conservative collisions accounting for cannibalistic behavior and the corresponding avoidance strategy. We discuss our model in one and two dimensions and show that a certain type of collisions drives the system out of equilibrium and leads to coordinated active motion of groups.[1] Stephen J. Simpson, Gregory A. Sword, Patrick D. Lorch and Iain D. Couzin: Cannibal crickets on a forced march for protein and salt, PNAS, 103:4152-4156, 2006

  11. Renormalization Group (RG) in Turbulence: Historical and Comparative Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Ye; McComb, W. David; Vahala, George

    1997-01-01

    The term renormalization and renormalization group are explained by reference to various physical systems. The extension of renormalization group to turbulence is then discussed; first as a comprehensive review and second concentrating on the technical details of a few selected approaches. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance and application of renormalization group to turbulence modelling.

  12. Comparing Two Cooperative Small Group Formats Used with Physical Therapy and Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eon, Marcel; Proctor, Peggy; Reeder, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study compared "Structured Controversy" (a semi-formal debate like small group activity) with a traditional open discussion format for medical and physical therapy students. We found that those students who had participated in Structured Controversy changed their personal opinion on the topic more than those who were in the Open Discussion…

  13. Characterization and comparative genomic analysis of bacteriophages infecting members of the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2014-05-01

    The Bacillus cereus group phages infecting B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis (Bt) have been studied at the molecular level and, recently, at the genomic level to control the pathogens B. cereus and B. anthracis and to prevent phage contamination of the natural insect pesticide Bt. A comparative phylogenetic analysis has revealed three different major phage groups with different morphologies (Myoviridae for group I, Siphoviridae for group II, and Tectiviridae for group III), genome size (group I > group II > group III), and lifestyle (virulent for group I and temperate for group II and III). A subsequent phage genome comparison using a dot plot analysis showed that phages in each group are highly homologous, substantiating the grouping of B. cereus phages. Endolysin is a host lysis protein that contains two conserved domains: a cell-wall-binding domain (CBD) and an enzymatic activity domain (EAD). In B. cereus sensu lato phage group I, four different endolysin groups have been detected, according to combinations of two types of CBD and four types of EAD. Group I phages have two copies of tail lysins and one copy of endolysin, but the functions of the tail lysins are still unknown. In the B. cereus sensu lato phage group II, the B. anthracis phages have been studied and applied for typing and rapid detection of pathogenic host strains. In the B. cereus sensu lato phage group III, the B. thuringiensis phages Bam35 and GIL01 have been studied to understand phage entry and lytic switch regulation mechanisms. In this review, we suggest that further study of the B. cereus group phages would be useful for various phage applications, such as biocontrol, typing, and rapid detection of the pathogens B. cereus and B. anthracis and for the prevention of phage contamination of the natural insect pesticide Bt. PMID:24264384

  14. Collaborative Group Learning Approaches for Teaching Comparative Planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    Modern science education reform documents propose that the teaching of contemporary students should focus on doing science, rather than simply memorizing science. Duschl, Schweingruber, and Shouse (2007) eloquently argue for four science proficiencies for students. Students should: (i) Know, use, and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world; (ii) Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations; (iii) Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge; and (iv) Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse. In response, scholars with the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are creating and field-tested two separate instructional approaches. The first of these is a series of computer-mediated, inquiry learning experiences for non-science majoring undergraduates based upon an inquiry-oriented teaching approach framed by the notions of backwards faded-scaffolding as an overarching theme for instruction. Backwards faded-scaffolding is a strategy where the conventional and rigidly linear scientific method is turned on its head and students are first taught how to create conclusions based on evidence, then how experimental design creates evidence, and only at the end introduces students to the most challenging part of inquiry - inventing scientifically appropriate questions. Planetary science databases and virtual environments used by students to conduct scientific investigations include the NASA and JPL Solar System Simulator and Eyes on the Solar System as well as the USGS Moon and Mars Global GIS Viewers. The second of these is known widely as a Lecture-Tutorial approach. Lecture-Tutorials are self-contained, collaborative group activities. The materials are designed specifically to be easily integrated into the lecture course and directly address the needs of busy and heavily-loaded teaching faculty for effective, student-centered, classroom-ready materials that do not require a drastic course

  15. Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

  16. Comparing Participation in Activities among Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse, Louise C.; Miller, Anton R.; Shen, Jane; Schiariti, Veronica; Roxborough, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Compared to typically developing peers, children with disabilities due to neurodevelopmental disorders and disabilities (NDD/D) and to chronic medical conditions (CMC) have reduced participation in activities. The extent to which these two groups of children have different levels of participation is unknown and was examined in this…

  17. Efficacy and Safety of FospropofolFD Compared to Propofol When Given During the Induction of General Anaesthesia: A Phase II, Multi-centre, Randomized, Parallel-Group, Active-Controlled, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Luo, Chaozhi; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng; Li, Yan; Xu, Jing

    2016-07-01

    The present phase II study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of fospropofol disodium for injection (FospropofolFD ) and propofol when given during the induction of general anaesthesia in patients scheduled for elective surgery. FospropofolFD is a water-soluble prodrug of propofol. Approved by the Ethical Committee, 240 participants aged 18-65 years were equally randomly allocated to receive an intravenous bolus of FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg or propofol 2 mg/kg without any anaesthetic pre-treatment. The primary efficacy end-point was the sedation success rate within 5 min. after administering investigational drugs (the sedation success is defined as obtaining Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale score of 1). All the participants completed the induction and intubation within 25 min. after administration. The sedation success rates within 5 min. after administration of FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg and propofol 2 mg/kg were 94.50% versus 100% in the intention-to-treat population and 95.10% versus 100% in the per-protocol population, respectively. The non-inferiority test obtained a p-value less than 0.025, and the lower limits of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval were more than -0.09. This meant that FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg was considered non-inferior to propofol 2 mg/kg for the primary efficacy end-point. Compared with propofol 2 mg/kg, FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg had a slower sedation efficacy. No serious adverse events were observed in the two groups. The sedation success rate within 5 min. after administration of FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg was non-inferior to propofol 2 mg/kg, and FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg can be used for the induction of general anaesthesia safely. PMID:26781338

  18. A Comparative Study of Small Group Fluency Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the reading development of small groups of learners making the transition from intentional decoding to fluent reading. The research focused on the relative effectiveness of repeated and wide reading as a means of developing reading fluency. It also looked at the importance of expressive, or prosodic, reading in…

  19. Group and Family Day Care: A Comparative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth

    The point is made that studies of day-care use consistently confirm that the most common form of day care is in-home day care by a relative or another person. Group care as it now functions is most practical for a mother who works regular daytime hours and lives within manageable commuting distance of a center. The yearly costs per child reported…

  20. Undergraduates with Employer-Sponsored Aid: Comparing Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulk, Dagney G.; Wang, Zhenlei

    2014-01-01

    Tuition assistance offered by employers is an understudied area of financial aid research. The purpose of this study is to compare the demographic, socioeconomic, academic and financial aid characteristics of college students who receive employer-sponsored financial aid with students who receive traditional financial aid (institutional, state, or…

  1. Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

  2. IGM Heating and AGN activity in Fossil Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Ponman, T. J.; Jetha, N. N.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2014-07-01

    Fossil galaxy groups are energetically and morphologically ideal environments to study the intergalactic medium (IGM) heating, because their inter-galactic gas is undisturbed due to the lack of recent group scale mergers. We study the role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in heating the IGM in a sample of five fossil galaxy groups by employing properties at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz. We find that two of the dominant galaxies in fossil groups, ESO 3060170 and RX J1416.4+2315, are associated with the radio lobes. We evaluate the PdV work of the radio lobes and their corresponding heating power and compare to the X-ray emission loss within cooling radius. Our results show that the power due to mechanical heating is not sufficiently high to suppress the cooling.

  3. Ceftaroline activity tested against viridans group streptococci from US hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sader, Helio S; Rhomberg, Paul R; Castanheira, Mariana; Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    A total of 840 clinically relevant viridans group streptococci (VGS) isolates (1/patient episode) were collected from 71 US medical centers in 2013-2014. These organisms were tested for susceptibility by reference broth microdilution methods against ceftaroline and selected comparator agents. All isolates were speciated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and were primarily from skin/soft tissue (32.6%) and bloodstream (32.3%) infections. Ceftaroline was highly active against all VGS species/groups with MIC50 and MIC90 values ranging from ≤0.015 to 0.03μg/mL and ≤0.015 to 0.06μg/mL, respectively. The highest ceftaroline MIC value was only 0.5μg/mL (0.5% of strains) and ceftaroline (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06μg/mL) was 8-fold more active than ceftriaxone (MIC50/90, 0.25/0.5μg/mL). The VGS groups most susceptible to ceftaroline were Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus bovis (MIC90, ≤0.015μg/mL), whereas the highest ceftaroline MIC values were observed among Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis groups. In summary, ceftaroline exhibited potent in vitro activity against VGS, including many uncommonly isolated species/groups for which very limited susceptibility information is currently available to guide therapy. PMID:26658313

  4. Sociometric classification methods in school peer groups: a comparative investigation.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, N L; Furnham, A F

    1998-09-01

    The categorical consequences and psychometric properties of different sociometric classification methods were evaluated. Children aged 9 to 12 years (N = 254) completed three sociometric questionnaires and a peer assessment measure on two occasions 5 weeks apart. The sociometric data were analysed using 13 different methods. Analysis of kappa values indicated relatively poor agreement across methods on subject classification. Temporal stability of the classifications was also poor. Assessment of construct validity involved analysis of the peer assessment items, using MANOVA to test hypotheses based on ideas from social exchange theory. Cross-sex rating biases and difficulties with the neglected and controversial classifications are discussed as indicating a need for the application of theoretically based approaches which consider features of the peer group social system and a need for caution in selecting methods for clinical use. PMID:9758200

  5. [Comparative immunologic activity of marine bioglycans].

    PubMed

    Zaporozhets, T S; Besednova, N N; Molchanova, V N; Zviagintseva, T N

    2001-01-01

    Immunomodulating activity of three marine bioglycanes of different structure was investigated. The following preparations were compared: mitilan--glycoprotein, containing 1,4-alpha-D-glucane, isolated from mussel Crenomytilus grayanus; translam--beta-1,3; 1,6-beta-D-glucane isolated from Laminaria cichorioides and zosterin--low-metoxylated pectine isolated from marine plant of genera Zosteraceae. It was shown that immune response modulating was due to delicate and complex interaction of immune competent cells with cytokins participation. All bioglycanes investigated when introduced into animals organism produced changes in immune system: spleen mass enlarged, lymphocytes subpopulation redistributed, nonspecific T-supressors activity enhanced, content of interferone in blood serum increased. It is considered that similarity of immune system reactions is due to polysaccharide component of investigated biopolymers and potency of the effect is determined by structural specificity and by stereochemistry of each bioglycane. PMID:11697245

  6. Comparative Antianaerobic Activity of BMS 284756

    PubMed Central

    Hoellman, Dianne B.; Kelly, Linda M.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Agar dilution MIC methodology was used to compare the activity of BMS 284756 with those of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 357 anaerobes. Overall, the respective MICs at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited (MIC50s) and MIC90s (in micrograms per milliliter) were as follows: BMS 284756, 0.5 and 2.0; ciprofloxacin, 2.0 and 16.0; levofloxacin, 1.0 and 8.0; moxifloxacin, 0.5 and 4.0; trovafloxacin, 0.5 and 2.0; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 0.5 and 2.0; piperacillin-tazobactam, 0.25 and 8.0; imipenem, 0.06 and 1.0; clindamycin, 0.25 and 8.0; and metronidazole, 1.0 and >16.0. BMS 284756 is a promising new quinolone with excellent antianaerobic activity. PMID:11158759

  7. Comparative Genomics of the Staphylococcus intermedius Group of Animal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Beatson, Scott A.; van den Broek, Adri H. M.; Thoday, Keith L.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2012-01-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius group consists of three closely related coagulase-positive bacterial species including S. intermedius, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, and Staphylococcus delphini. S. pseudintermedius is a major skin pathogen of dogs, which occasionally causes severe zoonotic infections of humans. S. delphini has been isolated from an array of different animals including horses, mink, and pigeons, whereas S. intermedius has been isolated only from pigeons to date. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the S. pseudintermedius whole genome sequence in comparison to high quality draft S. intermedius and S. delphini genomes, and to other sequenced staphylococcal species. The core genome of the SIG was highly conserved with average nucleotide identity (ANI) between the three species of 93.61%, which is very close to the threshold of species delineation (95% ANI), highlighting the close-relatedness of the SIG species. However, considerable variation was identified in the content of mobile genetic elements, cell wall-associated proteins, and iron and sugar transporters, reflecting the distinct ecological niches inhabited. Of note, S. pseudintermedius ED99 contained a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus of the Nmeni subtype and S. intermedius contained both Nmeni and Mtube subtypes. In contrast to S. intermedius and S. delphini and most other staphylococci examined to date, S. pseudintermedius contained at least nine predicted reverse transcriptase Group II introns. Furthermore, S. pseudintermedius ED99 encoded several transposons which were largely responsible for its multi-resistant phenotype. Overall, the study highlights extensive differences in accessory genome content between closely related staphylococcal species inhabiting distinct host niches, providing new avenues for research into pathogenesis and bacterial host-adaptation. PMID:22919635

  8. Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanveer, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Group work has only been recently introduced in the education system of Pakistan but many primary teachers, especially in the public schools, are still not aware of how different kinds of strategies that is group work and whole class teaching facilitate learning among students. This paper aims to provide an overview of teaching strategies to…

  9. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  10. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  11. [Analyze and compare metabolic pathways of Bacillus cereus group].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Cheng-Chen; He, Jin; Zhang, Qing-Ye; Yu, Zi-Niu

    2011-10-01

    A large number of data and information was obtained from genome sequencing and high-throughput genomic studies, use of the information to study metabolic networks become a new hotspot in biological research. This article compared different methods to reconstruct metabolic networks and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of each methods, and then introduced some researches about carbohydrate metabolism pathways, amino acid metabolic pathways, and energy metabolism pathways of 9 strains of Bacillus cereus, 6 strains of B. anthracis,,6 strain of B. thuringiensis, and finds out their similarities and characteristics. These three strains have some necessary metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, tri-carboxylic acid cycle, alanine metabolism, histidine metabolism, and energy metabolism, but they may have some specific pathways. B cereus has higher efficiency in utilizing monosaccharide, B. anthracis is rich in degradation and transport pathways of amino acids. A glutamate metabolic bypass way exists in B. thuringiensis. Analysis of metabolic pathways provides a new way to study and use food toxin, anthrax toxin, and insecticidal toxin of these strains in future. PMID:21993280

  12. Exploring Group Activity Therapy with Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…

  13. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  14. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  15. Outcomes of Group Care for Youth: A Review of Comparative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bethany R.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Fakunmoju, Sunday; Barth, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review empirical evidence of the effects of placement in group care compared to other interventions. Method: Two-group empirical studies were identified and effect sizes for all reported outcomes were calculated. Results: Nineteen two-group studies were found that compared group care with family foster…

  16. Mountain Biking with Groups: A "Safe" Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Terry

    2001-01-01

    A survey mailed to 200 British mountain bike leaders found that rates of cycling accidents and injuries were greater in forests and woodlands than on terrain where a license is required to lead groups of young cyclists. Excessive speed was mentioned in most accidents, coupled with poor use of breaks in many cases. (SV)

  17. Group Learning as Relational Economic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Atencio, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss group learning in line with economic perspectives of embeddedness and integration emanating from the work of Karl Polanyi. Polanyi's work defines economy as a necessary interaction among human beings for survival; the economy is considered inextricably linked from broader society and social relations…

  18. Active microwave users working group program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Bare, J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Childs, L. F.; Dellwig, L. F.; Heighway, J. E.; Joosten, R.; Lewis, A. J.; Linlor, W.; Lundien, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed programmatic and technical development plan for active microwave technology was examined in each of four user activities: (1) vegetation; (2) water resources and geologic applications, and (4) oceanographic applications. Major application areas were identified, and the impact of each application area in terms of social and economic gains were evaluated. The present state of knowledge of the applicability of active microwave remote sensing to each application area was summarized and its role relative to other remote sensing devices was examined. The analysis and data acquisition techniques needed to resolve the effects of interference factors were reviewed to establish an operational capability in each application area. Flow charts of accomplished and required activities in each application area that lead to operational capability were structured.

  19. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  20. Obscured Starburst Activity in High Redshift Clusters and Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Dale; Lemaux, B.; Lubin, L.; Gal, R.

    2011-01-01

    Using Spitzer MIPS 24um imaging and extensive Keck spectroscopy we have found evidence for environmentally triggered starburst activity within six clusters and groups at z 0.9. I will show that the density of 24um-detected galaxies in the cluster environment is nearly twice that of the surrounding field at this redshift and that this overdensity scales with the cluster's dynamical state. The 24um-bright members often appear optically unremarkable and exhibit only moderate [OII] line emission due to severe obscuration. Although their spatial distribution suggests they are an infalling population, a close examination of their spectral properties, morphologies and optical colors indicate they are not simply analogs of the field population that have yet to be quenched. Using stacked DEIMOS spectra, we find the 24um-detected cluster and group galaxies exhibit elevated levels of Balmer absorption compared to galaxies undergoing normal, continuous star formation. A similar excess is not observed in field galaxies with equivalent infrared luminosities, indicating a greater fraction of the detected cluster and group members have experienced a burst of star formation in the recent past compared to their counterparts in the field. Our results suggest that gas-rich galaxies at high redshift experience a temporary increase in their star formation activity as they assemble into denser environments. Using HST ACS imaging we find that disturbed morphologies are common among the obscured starburst population and become more prevalent in regions of higher galaxy density. We conclude that mergers are the dominant triggering mechanism responsible for the enhanced star formation found in the group galaxies, while a mix of harassment and mergers are likely driving the activity of the cluster galaxies.

  1. Obscured Starburst Activity in High-redshift Clusters and Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Dale D.; Lemaux, Brian C.; Lubin, Lori M.; Gal, Roy; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Squires, Gordon K.; Surace, Jason A.; Lacy, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Using Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer 24 μm imaging and extensive Keck spectroscopy, we examine the nature of the obscured star-forming population in three clusters and three groups at z ~ 0.9. These six systems are the primary components of the Cl1604 supercluster, the largest structure imaged by Spitzer at redshifts approaching unity. We find that the average density of 24 μm detected galaxies within the Cl1604 clusters is nearly twice that of the surrounding field and that this overdensity scales with the cluster's dynamical state. The 24 μm bright members often appear optically unremarkable and exhibit only moderate [O II] line emission due to severe obscuration. Their spatial distribution suggests that they are an infalling population, but an examination of their spectral properties, morphologies, and optical colors indicates that they are not simply analogs of the field population that have yet to be quenched. Using stacked composite spectra, we find that the 24 μm detected cluster and group galaxies exhibit elevated levels of Balmer absorption compared with galaxies undergoing normal, continuous star formation. A similar excess is not observed in field galaxies with equivalent infrared luminosities, indicating a greater fraction of the detected cluster and group members have experienced a burst of star formation in the recent past compared to their counterparts in the field. Our results suggest that gas-rich galaxies at high redshift experience a temporary increase in their star formation activity as they assemble into denser environments. Using Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging, we find that disturbed morphologies are common among the 24 μm detected cluster and group members and become more prevalent in regions of higher galaxy density. We conclude that mergers are the dominant triggering mechanism responsible for the enhanced star formation found in the Cl1604 groups, while a mix of harassment and mergers are likely

  2. Activities of the PNC Nuclear Safety Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, W.Y.

    1991-12-31

    The Nuclear Safety Working Group of the Pacific Nuclear Council promotes nuclear safety cooperation among its members. Status of safety research, emergency planning, development of lists of technical experts, severe accident prevention and mitigation have been the topics of discussion in the NSWG. This paper reviews and compares the severe accident prevention and mitigation program activities in some of the areas of the Pacific Basin region based on papers presented at a special session organized by the NSWG at an ANS Topical Meeting as well as papers from other sources.

  3. Activities of the PNC Nuclear Safety Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, W.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Working Group of the Pacific Nuclear Council promotes nuclear safety cooperation among its members. Status of safety research, emergency planning, development of lists of technical experts, severe accident prevention and mitigation have been the topics of discussion in the NSWG. This paper reviews and compares the severe accident prevention and mitigation program activities in some of the areas of the Pacific Basin region based on papers presented at a special session organized by the NSWG at an ANS Topical Meeting as well as papers from other sources.

  4. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  5. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  6. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2003-01-01

    TD64, the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group, is one of several groups with high-fidelity fluids design and analysis expertise in the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). TD64 assists personnel working on other programs. The group participates in projects in the following areas: turbomachinery activities, nozzle activities, combustion devices, and the Columbia accident investigation.

  7. Comparing time use in individuals at different stages of psychosis and a non-clinical comparison group.

    PubMed

    Hodgekins, Jo; French, Paul; Birchwood, Max; Mugford, Miranda; Christopher, Rose; Marshall, Max; Everard, Linda; Lester, Helen; Jones, Peter; Amos, Tim; Singh, Swaran; Sharma, Vimal; Morrison, Anthony P; Fowler, David

    2015-02-01

    Social functioning difficulties are a common and disabling feature of psychosis and have also been identified in the prodromal phase. However, debate exists about how such difficulties should be defined and measured. Time spent in structured activity has previously been linked to increased psychological wellbeing in non-clinical samples and may provide a useful way of assessing social functioning in clinical settings. The current study compared hours in structured activity, assessed with the Time Use Survey, in three clinical groups at different stages of psychosis: individuals with at-risk mental states (N=199), individuals with first-episode psychosis (N=878), and individuals with delayed social recovery following the remission of psychotic symptoms (N=77). Time use in the three clinical groups was also compared with norms from an age-matched non-clinical group (N=5686) recruited for the Office for National Statistics UK 2000 Time Use Survey. Cutoff scores for defining social disability and recovery were examined. All three clinical groups spent significantly fewer hours per week in structured activity than individuals in the non-clinical group. Reduced activity levels were observed before the onset of psychosis in individuals with at-risk mental states. Additional reductions in activity were observed in the first-episode psychosis and delayed recovery groups compared to the at-risk mental state group. Assessing time spent in structured activity provides a useful way to assess social disability and recovery across the spectrum of psychosis. PMID:25541138

  8. Recent activities at PTB nanometer comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flugge, Jens; Koning, Rainer; Bosse, Harald

    2003-11-01

    The PTB in cooperation with the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH built up a new length comparator with a measurement range of 610 mm for 1D length measurements on line scales, linear encoders and interferometers. The PTB nanometer comparator was retrofitted and now allows a stable operation of the interferometer. To investigate the actual measurement performance a few line scales and a linear encoder were measured and compared with results from other comparators. The results are discussed and recent developments at the nanometer comparator are described.

  9. Activities of the Boom and Chassis Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dell, Jason Scott; Meeks, Thomas Bayne; Merkel, Kelly; Nelson, Brent; Winchell, Tom

    1992-01-01

    Group One of the NASA Lunar Enabler Project has designed the primary chassis and boom structures for the lunar vehicle. Both components also feature V-clamps that were adapted to interface connections within the structure. The chassis features a front end, rear end section, middle cross-section, and face plate. The rear section contains an extra compartment for the engine, hydraulic pump, fuel bottles, and oil reservoir necessary for the wheel drives. Each section consists of tubular aluminum 6061-T6. The boom features four degrees of freedom system, where the minimum factor of safety of any part is 1.5 (but, normally much higher). It consists of a tapered upper boom, lower boom, and three elbows that complement the articulation joints. Each section of the boom has been constructed from aluminum 6061-T6. There are four joints and eight V-clamps in the boom assembly. The V-clamps feature support rings that prevent axial rotation. They provide easy adaptability and assembly.

  10. The effects of activity-elicited humor and group structure on group cohesion and affective responses.

    PubMed

    Banning, M R; Nelson, D L

    1987-08-01

    The ability to analyze the therapeutic components of an activity is an important skill for occupational therapists. This study examined two potentially significant factors in activity analysis: the use of humor and the effect of group structure. Four groups (two with a parallel structure and two with a project structure) participated in a hat-making activity designed to elicit humor. Four groups (two with a parallel structure and two with a project structure) participated in a bookmark-making activity. The 28 female subjects' affective responses were measured by Osgood's short-form semantic differential, and the cohesion among group members was assessed by the Group Environment Scale. Results indicated that subjects who participated in groups which included humor rated their activity significantly higher on two factors of affective meaning (evaluation and action) and significantly higher in terms of cohesion. There was a significant interaction between the two activities and group structure in terms of the action factor and cohesion. In both cases the parallel groups making bookmarks received particularly low scores. The findings have implications for conceptualizing occupational therapy group activities. PMID:3434603

  11. Extended Group Counseling with Psychiatry Residents: HIM and the Bonney Scale Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, C. J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to compare the descriptions of group process obtained from the Hill Interaction Matrix (Form G) and the Bonney Scale in rating an extended counseling group of psychiatric residents (N = 10). (Author)

  12. PEGASUS: Designing a System for Supporting Group Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyprianidou, Maria; Demetriadis, Stavros; Pombortsis, Andreas; Karatasios, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the design and first results of the integration of a web-based system person-centred group-activity support system (PEGASUS) in university instruction, as a means for advancing person-centred learning by supporting group activity. The PEGASUS is expected to help students and teachers in two distinct…

  13. Supporting "Learning by Design" Activities Using Group Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, Georgios; Tatsis, Konstantinos; Dimitracopoulou, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of the educational exploitation of group blogging for the implementation of a "learning by design" activity. More specifically, a group of students used a blog as a communication and information management tool in the University course of ICT-enhanced Geometry learning activities. The analysis of the designed…

  14. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  15. Day Reporting Center and Recidivism: Comparing Offender Groups in a Western Pennsylvania County Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, David R.; Harvey, Patrick J.; Schanz, Youngyol Yim

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors report on an investigation comparing the recidivism and other variables of two similar offender populations in a western Pennsylvania county. The two groups were comparable in offense type, size (N = 63 for each) and other variables such as sex, race and age range. One group represented offenders who received a sentence…

  16. Comparative molecular modelling of biologically active sterols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Mariusz; Mazerski, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Membrane sterols are targets for a clinically important antifungal agent - amphotericin B. The relatively specific antifungal action of the drug is based on a stronger interaction of amphotericin B with fungal ergosterol than with mammalian cholesterol. Conformational space occupied by six sterols has been defined using the molecular dynamics method to establish if the conformational features correspond to the preferential interaction of amphotericin B with ergosterol as compared with cholesterol. The compounds studied were chosen on the basis of structural features characteristic for cholesterol and ergosterol and on available experimental data on the ability to form complexes with the antibiotic. Statistical analysis of the data obtained has been performed. The results show similarity of the conformational spaces occupied by all the sterols tested. This suggests that the conformational differences of sterol molecules are not the major feature responsible for the differential sterol - drug affinity.

  17. Group-wise FMRI Activation Detection on DICCCOL Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jinglei; Guo, Lei; Zhu, Dajiang; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Group-wise activation detection in task-based fMRI has been widely used because of its robustness to noises and its capacity to deal with variability of individual brains. However, current group-wise fMRI activation detection methods typically rely on the co-registration of individual brains’ fMRI images, which has difficulty in dealing with the remarkable anatomic variation of different brains. As a consequence, the resulted misalignments could significantly degrade the required inter-subject correspondences, thus substantially reducing the sensitivity and specificity of group-wise fMRI activation detection. To deal with these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach to detecting group-wise fMRI activation on our recently developed and validated Dense Individualized and Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks (DICCCOL). The basic idea here is that the first-level general linear model (GLM) analysis is first performed on the fMRI signal of each corresponding DICCCOL landmark in individual brain’s own space, and then the estimated effect sizes of the same landmark from a group of subjects are statistically assessed with the mixed-effect model at the group level. Finally, the consistently activated DICCCOL landmarks are determined and declared in a group-wise fashion in response to external block-based stimuli. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed approach can detect meaningful activations. PMID:24777386

  18. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Wang, Tee-See; Griffin, Lisa; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document is a presentation graphic which reviews the activities of the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (i.e., Code TD64). The work of this group focused on supporting the space transportation programs. The work of the group is in Computational Fluid Dynamic tool development. This development is driven by hardware design needs. The major applications for the design and analysis tools are: turbines, pumps, propulsion-to-airframe integration, and combustion devices.

  19. Effects of Collaborative Activities on Group Identity in Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyungsung; Seo, Sumin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of collaborative activities on group identity in a virtual world such as "Second Life." To achieve this purpose, this study adopted events that promoted participants' interactions using tools inherent in "Second Life." The interactive tools given to the control group in…

  20. Implementing Small-Group Activities in Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazedjian, Ani; Kolkhorst, Brittany Boyle

    2007-01-01

    This study examines student perceptions regarding the effectiveness of small-group work in a large lecture class. The article considers and illustrates from students' perspectives the ways in which small-group activities could enhance comprehension of course material, reduce anonymity associated with large lecture classes, and promote student…

  1. Comparative Validity of Physical Activity Measures in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    COLBERT, LISA H.; MATTHEWS, CHARLES E.; HAVIGHURST, THOMAS C.; KIM, KYUNGMANN; SCHOELLER, DALE A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the validity of various physical activity measures with doubly labeled water (DLW)–measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in free-living older adults. Methods Fifty-six adults aged ≥65 yr wore three activity monitors (New Lifestyles pedometer, ActiGraph accelerometer, and a SenseWear (SW) armband) during a 10-d free-living period and completed three different surveys (Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS), Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), and a modified Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (modPASE)). Total energy expenditure was measured using DLW, resting metabolic rate was measured with indirect calorimetry, the thermic effect of food was estimated, and from these, estimates of PAEE were calculated. The degree of linear association between the various measures and PAEE was assessed, as were differences in group PAEE, when estimable by a given measure. Results All three monitors were significantly correlated with PAEE (r = 0.48–0.60, P < 0.001). Of the questionnaires, only CHAMPS was significantly correlated with PAEE (r = 0.28, P = 0.04). Statistical comparison of the correlations suggested that the monitors were superior to YPAS and modPASE. Mean squared errors for all correlations were high, and the median PAEE from the different tools was significantly different from DLW for all but the YPAS and regression-estimated PAEE from the ActiGraph. Conclusions Objective devices more appropriately rank PAEE than self-reported instruments in older adults, but absolute estimates of PAEE are not accurate. Given the cost differential and ease of use, pedometers seem most useful in this population when ranking by physical activity level is adequate. PMID:20881882

  2. Communication Status and Semantic Network of Students in Small Group Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the communication status in group and the semantic network of science gifted students. Seven small groups, 5 members in each, participated in small group activities, in which they discussed the calculation of earth density. Both the communication status in group and the semantic network of science gifted students were analyzed using KrKwic, Ucinet 6.0 for Windows. As a result, the semantic network of prime movers in group represented more frequently used words, lesser rate of component, and higher density than that of out lookers. It means that the prime movers have coherent knowledge compared to out lookers, and they output more knowledge for problem solving than out lookers. Therefore, the results of this study may be applied to evaluating the cognitive level of science gifted students and group organization for small group activity. Keywords: small group activity, science gifted students, communication status, semantic network

  3. Comparative genomics of the bacterial genus Streptococcus illuminates evolutionary implications of species groups.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hong-Wei; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Streptococcus within the phylum Firmicutes are among the most diverse and significant zoonotic pathogens. This genus has gone through considerable taxonomic revision due to increasing improvements of chemotaxonomic approaches, DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It is proposed to place the majority of streptococci into "species groups". However, the evolutionary implications of species groups are not clear presently. We use comparative genomic approaches to yield a better understanding of the evolution of Streptococcus through genome dynamics, population structure, phylogenies and virulence factor distribution of species groups. Genome dynamics analyses indicate that the pan-genome size increases with the addition of newly sequenced strains, while the core genome size decreases with sequential addition at the genus level and species group level. Population structure analysis reveals two distinct lineages, one including Pyogenic, Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups, and the other including Mitis, Anginosus and Unknown groups. Phylogenetic dendrograms show that species within the same species group cluster together, and infer two main clades in accordance with population structure analysis. Distribution of streptococcal virulence factors has no obvious patterns among the species groups; however, the evolution of some common virulence factors is congruous with the evolution of species groups, according to phylogenetic inference. We suggest that the proposed streptococcal species groups are reasonable from the viewpoints of comparative genomics; evolution of the genus is congruent with the individual evolutionary trajectories of different species groups. PMID:24977706

  4. Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.

  5. Problem-Based Group Activities for Teaching Sensation and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, David S.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes 14 problem-based group activities for a sensation and perception course. The intent was to provide opportunities for students to practice applying their knowledge to real-world problems related to course content. Student ratings of how effectively the activities helped them learn were variable but relatively high. Students…

  6. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  7. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  8. Comparing Groups in a Before-After Design: When t Test and ANCOVA Produce Different Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Researchers often test people before and after some treatment and compare these scores with a control group. Sometimes it is not possible to allocate people into conditions randomly, which means the initial scores for the two groups may differ. There are two main approaches: t test on the gain scores and ANCOVA partialling out the…

  9. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  10. Group Assessment at First Year and Final Degree Level: A Comparative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plastow, N.; Spiliotopoulou, G.; Prior, S.

    2010-01-01

    Group projects are an established but debated pedagogical technique in higher education. The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of combining individual and group marks in assessment. A mixed method design involving correlational and comparative elements was used. The sample included one cohort of students who completed a group…

  11. A Well Woman's Health Maintenance Study Comparing Physical Fitness and Group Support Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Alice Ann; And Others

    1984-01-01

    To examine the effect of group support and physical activity on 75 physiological and psychological health indicators in women 40 to 64 years of age, 50 subjects were placed in exercise, discussion, exercise and discussion, or control groups. Pre- and postprogram psychosocial and physical measures were analyzed, and implications for prevention and…

  12. Influences on preschool children's physical activity: exploration through focus groups.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, Trina; Salmon, Jo; Okely, Anthony D; Crawford, David; Hesketh, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    This study explored mothers' perceptions of influences on preschoolers' physical activity. Six semistructured focus groups with 23 mothers were conducted across a range of socioeconomic position locations. Mothers identified 4 key areas of influence: child fundamentals (eg, sex, personality), parent power (eg, rules, support), people to share with (eg, peers, adults), and places and things (eg, physical environments, toys). No substantial differences in themes were identified among socioeconomic position groups. Influences on preschoolers' physical activity are multidimensional, multifactorial, and support the use of ecological models to conceptualize and understand the influencing factors. Associations among factors influencing preschoolers' physical activity should be further investigated through quantitative research. PMID:21135627

  13. Latent activity rhythm disturbance sub-groups and longitudinal change in depression symptoms among older men.

    PubMed

    Smagula, Stephen F; Boudreau, Robert M; Stone, Katie; Reynolds, Charles F; Bromberger, Joyce T; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dam, Thuy-Tien; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Activity rhythm disturbances and depression often co-occur among older adults. However, little is known about how activity rhythm disturbances themselves co-occur, or how disturbances to multiple aspects of the activity rhythm relate to depression over time. In this study, we performed a Latent Class Analysis to derive sub-groups of older men [total n = 2933, mean age = 76.28, standard deviation (SD) = 5.48] who shared similar patterns of activity rhythm disturbances (defined as extreme values of modeled activity rhythm parameters). We found eight sub-groups with distinct combinations of activity rhythm disturbances: one had all normative activity rhythm parameters (32.09%), one had only lower activity (10.06%), three had earlier activity (totaling 26.96%) and three had later activity (totaling 30.89%). Groups with similar timing were distinguished depending on whether the relative length of the active period was shorter and/or if the activity rhythm had lesser amplitude/robustness. We next examined whether the derived activity rhythm sub-groups were associated with different rates of change in depression symptom levels over an average of 5.5 (0.52 SD) follow-up years. The sub-group with lower activity only had faster increases in depressive symptoms over time (compared with the group with normative rhythm parameters), but this association was accounted for by adjustments for concurrently assessed health status covariates. Independent of these covariates, we found that four activity rhythm disturbance sub-groups experienced faster depressive symptom increases (compared with the normative sub-group): These included all three sub-groups that had later activity timing and one sub-group that had earlier activity timing plus a shorter active period and a dampened rhythm. Low activity rhythm height/robustness with normal timing therefore may mark depression risk that is attributable to co-occurring disease processes; in contrast, having late or combined early

  14. Comparative Genomics of the Bacterial Genus Streptococcus Illuminates Evolutionary Implications of Species Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hong-Wei; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Streptococcus within the phylum Firmicutes are among the most diverse and significant zoonotic pathogens. This genus has gone through considerable taxonomic revision due to increasing improvements of chemotaxonomic approaches, DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It is proposed to place the majority of streptococci into “species groups”. However, the evolutionary implications of species groups are not clear presently. We use comparative genomic approaches to yield a better understanding of the evolution of Streptococcus through genome dynamics, population structure, phylogenies and virulence factor distribution of species groups. Genome dynamics analyses indicate that the pan-genome size increases with the addition of newly sequenced strains, while the core genome size decreases with sequential addition at the genus level and species group level. Population structure analysis reveals two distinct lineages, one including Pyogenic, Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups, and the other including Mitis, Anginosus and Unknown groups. Phylogenetic dendrograms show that species within the same species group cluster together, and infer two main clades in accordance with population structure analysis. Distribution of streptococcal virulence factors has no obvious patterns among the species groups; however, the evolution of some common virulence factors is congruous with the evolution of species groups, according to phylogenetic inference. We suggest that the proposed streptococcal species groups are reasonable from the viewpoints of comparative genomics; evolution of the genus is congruent with the individual evolutionary trajectories of different species groups. PMID:24977706

  15. Comparing Outcomes for Youth Served in Treatment Foster Care and Treatment Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared youth in the Florida Medicaid system prior to entry into treatment foster care or treatment group care, and compared outcomes in the 6 months after treatment. Florida Medicaid data from FY2003/04 through 2006/2007 along with Department of Juvenile Justice, Department of Law Enforcement, and involuntary examination data were…

  16. Activities of the EMRAS Tritium/C14 Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Balonov, M.; Venter, A

    2005-07-15

    A new model evaluation program, Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS), was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in September 2003. EMRAS includes a working group (WG) on modeling tritium and C-14 transfer through the environment to biota and man. The main objective of this WG is to develop and test models of the uptake, formation and translocation of organically bound tritium (OBT) in food crops, animals and aquatic systems. To the extent possible, the WG is carrying out its work by comparing model predictions with experimental data to identify the modeling approaches and assumptions that lead to the best agreement between predictions and observations. Results for scenarios involving a chronically contaminated aquatic ecosystem and short-term exposure of soybeans are presently being analyzed. In addition, calculations for scenarios involving chronically contaminated terrestrial food chains and hypothetical short-term releases are currently underway, and a pinetree scenario is being developed. The preparation of datasets on tritium dynamics in large animals and fish is being encouraged, since these are the areas of greatest uncertainty in OBT modeling. These activities will be discussed in this paper.

  17. A Comparative Perspective on Intermarriage: Explaining Differences Among National-Origin Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    KALMIJN, MATTHIJS; VAN TUBERGEN, FRANK

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the validity of group-level theories of ethnic intermarriage despite the fact that such theories are often invoked in explaining why certain ethnic groups are “closed,” whereas others are relatively “open.” We develop a comparative perspective by analyzing the marriage choices of 94 national-origin groups in the United States, using pooled data from the Current Population Surveys, 1994–2006, and multilevel models in which individual and contextual determinants of intermarriage are included simultaneously. Our analyses show large differences in endogamy across groups. After taking compositional effects into account, we find that both structural and cultural group-level factors have significant effects on endogamy. Cultural explanations (which focus on the role of norms and preferences) play a more important role than structural explanations (which focus on meeting and mating opportunities). Our results reinforce the common but untested interpretation of endogamy in terms of group boundaries. PMID:20608106

  18. Using Research Cruise Data to Improve Group Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    Group activities can be used to create an interactive classroom learning environment. POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) is a pedagogical approach that uses group activities to teach content and process skills. In these group activities an initial model and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to new content. These activities have primarily been developed for chemistry courses, using general information in the model. New activities have been developed for an environmental chemistry course using real-world data as the model. The data used for one of these activities were collected during a research cruise in the Pacific Ocean. Halocarbons were measured in surface seawater and the overlying atmosphere as part of a research study on the natural cycling of compounds involved in ozone depletion. The coupled air and water measurements are used to help students learn about the solubility of gases in water. Students are first given a graph of atmospheric mixing ratios as a function of latitude for several halocarbons and then asked to predict what the corresponding graph of seawater concentrations will look like. The students are then guided through the interpretation of the seawater concentration graph. Plotting the data as a function of latitude enables the discussion of the temperature dependence of the solubility. This activity will be presented as an example of how research data can be incorporated into a classroom module. The effectiveness of this approach will be discussed.

  19. The essential activated carboxyl group of inorganic pyrophosphatase.

    PubMed

    Avaeva, S M; Bakuleva, N P; Baratova, L A; Nazarova, T I; Fink, N Y

    1977-05-12

    1. A carboxyl group of high reactivity has been found in inorganic pyrophosphatase (pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.1) from yeast. This group interacts with agents which react neither with carboxyl groups of low molecular weight compounds nor with other carboxyl groups of the protein. 2. The reaction of this activated carboxyl group with inorganic phosphate, hydroxylamine, N-methyl- and O-methylhydroxylamines, and glycine methyl ester has been studied. 3. Homoserine and homoserine lactone were found in the hydrolyzate of phosphorylated and NaBH4-reduced pyrophosphatase, indicating that an aspartyl residue is phosphorylated. 4. Hydroxylamine and other nucleophilic agents cause inactivation of pyrophosphatase as a result of interaction with a carboxyl group. Both diaminobutyric and diaminopropionic acids were seen in the acid hydrolyzate of the protein treated with hydroxylamine and subjected to rearrangement in the presence of carbodiimide. 5. The ways in which the activation of a carboxyl group in the enzyme is achieved and the presumed mechanism of action of inorganic pyrophosphatase are discussed. PMID:16652

  20. A comparative analysis of arterial blood flow in unexplained infertility, tubal infertility and fertile groups.

    PubMed

    Zebitay, A G; Tutumlu, M; Verit, F F; Ilhan, G K; Gungor, E S; Cetin, O; Vuruşkan, E

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to compare ovarian (O), uterine (U) and spiral (S) artery (A) resistance of patients diagnosed as fertile, unexplained infertility (UI) and tubal factor infertility (TFI) in the peri-implantation period and independent from the impact of the treatment. UI (n = 70), TFI (n = 75) and fertile (n = 72) patients' ovarian, uterine and spiral artery pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI) and the endometrial thickness, serum estradiol and progesterone levels were compared. The specificity and sensitivity values were calculated according to determined cutoff values. Both TFI and control groups' UA PI values were significantly lower than the UI group's PI values. The highest UA RI values were found in UI group and the lowest values were in the control group. UI and TFI groups' OA PI/RI values were significantly higher than the control group. Both the control and TFI groups' SA PI/RI values were significantly lower than UI group's PI/RI values. UI patients' uterine and spiral arteries PI values >1.86 and >0.85, RI values >0.80 and >0.53 can be used as a valuable test showing reduced uterine perfusion. Ovarian artery PI values  >0.96 and RI values  >0.58 can be used as tests showing decreased ovarian perfusion in patients with TFI. In these patients, embryo cryopreservation can be considered. PMID:26699267

  1. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy Compared to the Usual Opioid Dependence Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Noroozi, Alireza; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT) compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU).Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy) and control groups (the Usual Treatment).The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the usual treatment according to the INCAS program. Methods: The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Addiction Sevier Index (ASI) were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment periods. Thirteen patients from the experimental group and 15 from the control group completed post-test assessments. Results: The results of MANCOVA revealed an increase in mean scores in observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, non-reacting, and decrease in mean scores of alcohol and opium in MBGT patient group. Conclusion: The effectiveness of MBGT, compared to the usual treatment, was discussed in this paper as a selective protocol in the health care setting for substance use disorders. PMID:26877751

  2. Comparative study of the hypotensive effect of a group of structural derivatives of glaucine.

    PubMed

    Todorov, S; Zamfirova, R

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the hypotensive effect of a group of dehydrogenated structural derivatives of the alkaloid glaucine. The compounds studied induced a slowly occurring marked decrease in the blood pressure. Applied intravenously, they did not manifest the initial brief and very pronounced phase of the hypotensive effect, typical of glaucine, and failed to change substantially the respiration and the cardiac activity of the experimental animals. The most marked hypotensive effect was demonstrated by 7-benzoyl-dehydroglaucine (DG4), which reduced the blood pressure by about 50 and 60% respectively, when applied in doses of 1 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg. Applied duodenally, the dehydrogenated glaucine derivatives also manifested a gradually occurring hypotensive effect, whereby DG4 again caused the most pronounced blood pressure drop. Depending on the DG4 and glaucine doses used, the pressor effects of noradrenaline (NA) and nicotine (NIC) were moderately to strongly suppressed or completely inhibited. In experiments on cat membrana nictitans glaucine also suppressed moderately (2.5 mg/kg) or markedly (5 mg/kg) the contractile effects of NIC and NA, while DG4 did not influence (1 mg/kg) or potentiated (2.5 mg/kg) these effects. PMID:1819921

  3. Forestry Activities. A Guide for Youth Group Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Twenty-six activities related to forestry, conservation, and outdoor education comprise the content of this leader's guide. Designed for use with youth groups, ideas and techniques range from forest conservation mobiles, locating forest fires, and Christmas tree uses to litterbug campaigns, watershed experiments, and crossword puzzles. Activities…

  4. Active Classroom Participation in a Group Scribbles Primary Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2011-01-01

    A key stimulus of learning efficacy for students in the classroom is active participation and engagement in the learning process. This study examines the nature of teacher-student and student-student discourse when leveraged by an interactive technology--Group Scribbles (GS) in a Primary 5 Science classroom in Singapore which supports rapid…

  5. Division Iv/v Working Group on Active B Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Jones, Carol E.; Townsend, Richard D.; Fabregat, Juan; Bjorkman, Karen S.; McSwain, M. Virginia; Mennickent, Ronald E.; Neiner, Coralie; Stee, Philippe; Fabregat, Juan

    2010-05-01

    The meeting of the Working Group on Active B Stars consisted of a business session followed by a scientific session containing nine talks. The titles of the talks and their presenters are listed below. We plan to publish a series of articles containing summaries of these talks in Issue No. 40 of the Be Star Newsletter. This report contains an account of the announcements made during the business session, an update on a forthcoming IAU Symposium on active B stars, a report on the status of the Be Star Newsletter, the results of the 2009 election of the SOC for the Working Group for 2009-12, a listing of the Working Group bylaws that were recently adopted, and a list of the scientific talks that we presented at the meeting.

  6. Adherence to physical activity guidelines among cancer support group participants.

    PubMed

    Stevinson, C; Lydon, A; Amir, Z

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity is recommended after cancer diagnosis for physical function, quality of life and survival benefits. This study provided preliminary data on the prevalence of physical activity among adult men and women with cancer in the UK. As part of a national survey of cancer support group participation, questionnaires including items on leisure-time physical activity and demographic information were completed by 748 cancer survivors. Overall, 395 (52.8%) participants reported no weekly moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity, 221 (29.5%) reported some activity but below minimum recommendations and 132 (17.6%) were meeting published guidelines. Gender, health status and socio-economic status were independently associated with meeting guidelines. Among participants in good or fair health who were not meeting guidelines, 59.9% thought that they ought to be more physically active. In conclusion, overall levels of physical activity are low among cancer survivors in the UK. However, the majority of insufficiently active participants showed awareness of the need to increase their activity, and may be receptive to interventions for promoting physical activity in this population. PMID:24127843

  7. The Adequacy of Different Robust Statistical Tests in Comparing Two Independent Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pero-Cebollero, Maribel; Guardia-Olmos, Joan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we evaluated various robust statistical methods for comparing two independent groups. Two scenarios for simulation were generated: one of equality and another of population mean differences. In each of the scenarios, 33 experimental conditions were used as a function of sample size, standard deviation and asymmetry. For each…

  8. Predicting and Comparing Role Stress and Burnout for Supportive Service Groups and Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Dorothy; Archambault, Francis

    Using a survey of 1,656 Connecticut public school employees, this study compared burnout and stress variables for five groups: classroom teachers, school social workers, school psychologists, guidance counselors, and reading specialists. Questionnaires included a burnout inventory, role-behavior survey, and request for demographic information.…

  9. Learning through Discussions: Comparing the Benefits of Small-Group and Large-Class Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin; Wilson, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on teaching and learning heralds the benefits of discussion for student learner outcomes, especially its ability to improve students' critical thinking skills. Yet, few studies compare the effects of different types of face-to-face discussions on learners. Using student surveys, we analyze the benefits of small-group and large-class…

  10. Comparative Efficacy of Group and Individual Feedback in Gross Anatomy for Promoting Medical Student Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Christopher L.; Gregory, Jeremy K.; Lachman, Nirusha; Chen, Laura P.; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Professionalism is a core competency of medical training that requires students to develop the skills of providing and receiving feedback. Our study evaluated the effectiveness of delivering feedback in a group setting compared with an individual setting. The first-year class of Mayo medical students (n = 49) enrolled in gross anatomy (in…

  11. Group Work and Whole-Class Teaching with 11- to 14-Year-Olds Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galton, Maurice; Hargreaves, Linda; Pell, Tony

    2009-01-01

    This article compares the academic performance and classroom behaviour of pupils when taught new concepts or engaged in problem solving in sessions organised either as cooperative group work or whole class, teacher directed instruction. Comparisons of attainment were made in classes of pupils aged 11 to 14 years (Key Stage 3) in English,…

  12. Comparing One-Step M-Estimators of Location When There Are More than Two Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1993-01-01

    Modifications are proposed to the recently developed method of comparing one-step M-estimators of location corresponding to two independent groups that provides good control over the probability of Type I error even for unequal sample size, unequal variances, and different shaped distributions. Simulation results reveal cautions required. (SLD)

  13. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1993 Peer Group Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan; Meeker, Bradley

    Comparative financial information derived from a national sample of 516 two-year colleges is presented in this report for fiscal year 1992-93, including statistics for the national sample and for six peer groups. The report's nine sections focus on: (1) introductory information about the study's background, objectives, and sample; the National…

  14. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1995 Peer Groups Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Bradley

    Comparative financial information derived from a national sample of 405 two-year colleges is presented in this report for fiscal year 1994-95, including data for the national sample and for 6groups of peer institutions. The first section provides introductory information on the annual study, discussing the study sample and the use of study…

  15. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1994 Peer Groups Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan; Meeker, Bradley

    Comparative financial information derived from a national sample of 427 two-year colleges is presented in this report for fiscal year 1993-94, including data for the national sample and 6 groups of peer institutions. The first section provides introductory information on the annual study, reviewing the objectives of the study and potential uses of…

  16. Modulation of Group I Ribozyme Activity by Cationic Porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Shigeyoshi; Ito, Tatsunobu; Tanaka, Takahiro; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    The effects of cationic porphyrins on the catalytic activities of four group I ribozymes were investigated. A cationic porphyrin possessing four pyridinium moieties (pPyP) inhibited two group IC3 ribozymes (Syn Rz and Azo Rz) and a group IC1 ribozyme (Tet Rz). In the case of a group IA2 ribozyme (Td Rz), however, pPyP served not only as an inhibitor but also as an activator, and the effects of pPyP were dependent on its concentration. To analyze the structural and electronic factors determining the effects of pPyP on group I ribozymes, three cationic porphyrins (pPyNCP, pPyF4P, and TMPyP) were also examined. As interactions between small organic molecules and nucleic acids are attractive and important issues in biochemistry and biotechnology, this study contributes to the development of porphyrin-based molecules that can modulate functions of structured RNA molecules. PMID:25811638

  17. Comparative in vitro activity of faropenem against staphylococci.

    PubMed

    von Eiff, Christof; Schepers, Sven; Peters, Georg

    2002-08-01

    The anti-staphylococcal activity of faropenem, a novel beta-lactam, was examined and compared with that of amoxicillin, cefuroxime, clindamycin and vancomycin using the agar dilution method. A total of 234 staphylococci, including a large number of clonally different methicillin-resistant strains and a representative number of Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants, were tested. While the activity of faropenem was independent of the staphylococcal phenotype, the novel penem was up to eight times more active against methicillin-susceptible strains compared with the other agents tested. In addition, faropenem was active against many methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:12161412

  18. Attention to Form in Collaborative Writing Tasks: Comparing Pair and Small Group Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobao, Ana Fernández

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the opportunities that a collaborative writing task completed in pairs and in small groups offers for attention to form. Previous research suggests that collaborative writing activities encourage learners to focus their attention on language and to collaborate in the resolution of their language-related problems in ways that…

  19. The evolution of star formation activity in galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanianfar, G.; Popesso, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Wuyts, S.; Wilman, D.; Biviano, A.; Ziparo, F.; Salvato, M.; Nandra, K.; Lutz, D.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Tanaka, M.; Mirkazemi, M.; Balogh, M. L.; Altieri, M. B.; Aussel, H.; Bauer, F.; Berta, S.; Bielby, R. M.; Brandt, N.; Cappelluti, N.; Cimatti, A.; Cooper, M.; Fadda, D.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floch, E.; Magnelli, B.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Nordon, R.; Newman, J. A.; Poglitsch, A.; Pozzi, F.

    2014-12-01

    We study the evolution of the total star formation (SF) activity, total stellar mass (ΣM*) and halo occupation distribution (HOD) in massive haloes by using one of the largest X-ray selected sample of galaxy groups with secure spectroscopic identification in the major blank field surveys (ECDFS, CDFN, COSMOS, AEGIS). We provide an accurate measurement of star formation rate (SFR) for the bulk of the star-forming galaxies using very deep mid-infrared Spitzer MIPS and far-infrared Herschel PACS observations. For undetected IR sources, we provide a well-calibrated SFR from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We observe a clear evolution in the level of SF activity in galaxy groups. The total SF activity in the high-redshift groups (0.5 < z < 1.1) is higher with respect to the low-redshift (0.15 < z < 0.5) sample at any mass by 0.8 ± 0.12 dex. A milder difference (0.35 ± 0.1 dex) is observed between the low-redshift bin and the groups at z ˜ 0. We show that the level of SF activity is declining more rapidly in the more massive haloes than in the more common lower mass haloes. We do not observe any evolution in the HOD and total stellar mass-halo mass relations in groups. The picture emerging from our findings suggests that the galaxy population in the most massive systems is evolving faster than galaxies in lower mass haloes, consistently with a `halo downsizing' scenario.

  20. Human blood group activity of human and canine intestinal glycolipids containing fucose

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E. L.; Bowdler, A. J.; Bull, R. W.; McKibbin, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    A number of fucose-containing glycolipids (fuco-lipids), which are similar in composition to those of human normal and malignant gastrointestinal tissue, have been isolated from whole small intestines of individual dogs. Dogs from which these fuco-lipids were isolated fell into two types according to the qualitative sugar composition of their fuco-lipids. Glycolipids from type I dogs contained glucose, galactose, glucosamine, galactosamine and fucose, while those from type II dogs contained the same sugars but lacked galactosamine. Fucolipids isolated from type I and II dogs were tested for both canine blood group and human A, B, H and Lea and Leb blood group activity. At the concentrations tested, only human blood group A activity was found in significant amounts, and only in those fuco-lipids which contained galactosamine (type I dogs). Of the fuco-lipids with human blood group A activity, some had activity comparable to that of glycoprotein blood group substances, while others had lower, but significant, activity. These latter fuco-lipids also had marked chromatographic differences, indicating that they are of several different structural types, a finding similar to the A active glycolipids of human red cell stroma. None of the isolated intestinal fuco-lipids had canine blood group activity. A fuco-lipid with Lea activity was also isolated in relatively large amounts from a normal human whole small intestine. PMID:4753403

  1. [Health education for varicose ulcer patients through group activities].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jodo Luis Almeida; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques

    2006-06-01

    It is a report on the group activities carried out with carriers of varicose ulcer in a health unit in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The varicose ulcer presents factors, besides the biological ones, which interfere in the cicatrization, in the relapse cases and in its effective resolution. The proposed activities aimed at producing behavior changes with the intention of achieving self-care, providing information, socializing the participants, and stimulating cooperation, searching for joint solutions, aggregating interdisciplinary spirit and improving the care. Two groups have been formed and a thematic schedule established. The results have showed higher adhesion to the treatment, behavioral changes, and adapted and more effective attitudes of the health team. PMID:17025041

  2. Comparing the antibacterial activity of gaseous ozone and chlorhexidine solution on a tooth cavity model

    PubMed Central

    Öztaş, Nurhan; Sümer, Zeynep

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of gaseous ozone and chlorhexidine solution on a tooth cavity model. Study Design: Twenty-one human molars were divided into 3 groups. Cavities were then cut into the teeth (4 per tooth, 28 cavities per group). After sterilization, the teeth were left in broth cultures of 106 colony-forming units (CFU) ml-1 of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) at 36°C for 48 h. The appropriate treatment followed (group A, control; group B, 2% chlorhexidine solution; and group C, 80s of treatment with ozone, and the cavities were then filled with composite resin. After 72h, the restorations were removed, dentin chips were collected with an excavator, and the total number of microorganisms was determined. Results: Both of the treatments significantly reduced the number of S. mutans present compared with the control group and there was a significant difference between the all groups in terms of the amount of the microorganisms grown (p < 0.05). Group B was beter than group C; and group C was better than group A. Moreover, it was found that the amount of the growth in the group of chlorhexidine was significantly less than that of the ozone group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Chlorhexidine solution was the antibacterial treatment most efficacious on S. mutans; however, ozone application could be an anlternative cavity disinfection method because of ozone’s cavity disinfection activity. Key words:Antibacterial activity, chlorhexidine, ozone, streptococcus mutans, tooth cavity. PMID:24455068

  3. Silanone groups on the surface of mechanically activated silicon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bobyshev, A.A.; Radtsig, V.A.

    1988-12-01

    A new type of natural defects, namely, silanone groups, was identified on the surface of mechanically activated SiO/sub 2/. A study was carried out on their thermal stability, optical properties (a characteristic absorption band was found with maximum at 5.3 eV), and reactivity relative to simple molecules such as CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O and radicals such as H, D, and CH/sub 3/.

  4. Knowledge discovery in group activities through sequential observation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2014-06-01

    Understanding of Group Activities (GA) has significant applications in civilian and military domains. The process of understanding GA is typically involved with spatiotemporal analysis of multi-modality sensor data. Video imagery is one popular sensing modality that offers rich data, however, data associated with imagery source may become fragmented and discontinued due to a number of reasons (e.g., data transmission, or observation obstructions and occlusions). However, making sense out of video imagery is a real challenge. It requires a proper inference working model capable of analyzing video imagery frame by frame, extract and inference spatiotemporal information pertaining to observations while developing an incremental perception of the GA as they emerge overtime. In this paper, we propose an ontology based GA recognition where three inference Hidden Markov Models (HMM's) are used for predicting group activities taking place in outdoor environments and different task operational taxonomy. The three competing models include: a concatenated HMM, a cascaded HMM, and a context-based HMM. The proposed ontology based GA-HMM was subjected to set of semantically annotated visual observations from outdoor group activity experiments. Experimental results from GA-HMM are presented with technical discussions on design of each model and their potential implication to Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS).

  5. Comparative genomics and functional analysis of the 936 group of lactococcal Siphoviridae phages

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James; Bottacini, Francesca; Mahony, Jennifer; Kelleher, Philip; Neve, Horst; Zomer, Aldert; Nauta, Arjen; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2016-01-01

    Genome sequencing and comparative analysis of bacteriophage collections has greatly enhanced our understanding regarding their prevalence, phage-host interactions as well as the overall biodiversity of their genomes. This knowledge is very relevant to phages infecting Lactococcus lactis, since they constitute a significant risk factor for dairy fermentations. Of the eighty four lactococcal phage genomes currently available, fifty five belong to the so-called 936 group, the most prevalent of the ten currently recognized lactococcal phage groups. Here, we report the genetic characteristics of a new collection of 936 group phages. By combining these genomes to those sequenced previously we determined the core and variable elements of the 936 genome. Genomic variation occurs across the 936 phage genome, such as genetic elements that (i) lead to a +1 translational frameshift resulting in the formation of additional structures on the phage tail, (ii) specify a double neck passage structure, and (iii) encode packaging module-associated methylases. Hierarchical clustering of the gene complement of the 936 group phages and nucleotide alignments allowed grouping of the ninety 936 group phages into distinct clusters, which in general appear to correspond with their geographical origin. PMID:26892066

  6. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  7. Ethnicity and Child Health in Northern Tanzania: Maasai Pastoralists Are Disadvantaged Compared to Neighbouring Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E.; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  8. Comparative genomic hybridisation divides retinoblastomas into a high and a low level chromosomal instability group

    PubMed Central

    van der Wal, J E; Hermsen, M A J A; Gille, H J P; Schouten-Van Meeteren, N Y N; Moll, A C; Imhof, S M; Meijer, G A; Baak, J P A; van der Valk, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in childhood and is responsible for approximately 1% of all deaths caused by childhood cancer. Aims/methods: Comparative genomic hybridisation was performed on 13 consecutive, histologically confirmed retinoblastomas to analyse patterns of chromosomal changes and correlate these to clinicopathological variables. Six cases were hereditary and seven cases were sporadic. Results: In 11 of the 13 tumours chromosomal abnormalities were detected, most frequently gains. Frequent chromosomal gains concerned 6p (46%), 1q (38%), 2p, 9q (30%), 5p, 7q, 10q, 17q, and 20q (23%). Frequent losses occurred at Xq (46%), 13q14, 16q, and 4q (23%). High level copy number gains were found at 5p15 and 6p11–12. A loss at 13q14 occurred in three cases only. Relatively few events occurred in the hereditary cases (27) compared with the non-hereditary cases (70 events). The number of chromosomal aberrations in these 13 retinoblastomas showed a bimodal distribution. Seven tumours showed less than four chromosomal aberrations, falling into a low level chromosomal instability (CIN) group, and six tumours showed at least eight aberrations, falling into a high level CIN group. In the low level CIN group the mean age was half that seen in the high level CIN group, there were less male patients, and there were more hereditary and bilateral cases. Microsatellite instability was not detected in either of the two groups. Conclusion: Despite the complex pattern of genetic changes in retinoblastomas, certain chromosomal regions appear to be affected preferentially. On the basis of the number of genetic events, retinoblastomas can be divided in low and a high level chromosomal instability groups, which have striking differences in clinical presentation. PMID:12499428

  9. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory based testing

    PubMed Central

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching to sample memory test. Despite differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  10. Hypnosis compared with group therapy and individual desensitization for dental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Abrahamsen, R; Brødsgaard, I

    1996-01-01

    Effects of hypnotherapy (HT) and self-hypnosis training on extreme dental anxiety in adults aged 19-65 years were compared with group therapy (GT) and individual desensitization (SD) using scales of dental anxiety, dental beliefs, and fear of a next dentist (after specialist treatment). All experimental groups were demographically comparable and showed reduced anxiety and improved dental beliefs compared with 51 control patients. The 25 HT patients did not differ significantly in numbers of dropouts during training compared with the 30 GT patients or 68 SD patients. For patients completing treatment, HT (n = 22) reduced dental anxiety to the same degree as GT (n = 24) and SD (n = 60). HT and SD patients required more therapist hours per patient than did GT, but total dropouts at 1 yr after specialist treatment were significantly greater in HT (13/ 25) than for SD rehearsals (5/34) or SD video (8/32), but not GT (15/30). Hypnotizability was found to vary from patient to patient, with a direct relationship to time saved. But hypnotizability had an inverse relationship to STAI general anxiety level for those who went on to dentists after 1 year. Transference effects were noted for most HT dropout patients as an aversive response to continued dental treatment with other dentists than the specialist. PMID:9021334

  11. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  12. Dynamic regulation of Polycomb group activity during plant development.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes play important roles in phase transitions and cell fate determination in plants and animals, by epigenetically repressing sets of genes that promote either proliferation or differentiation. The continuous differentiation of new organs in plants, such as leaves or flowers, requires a highly dynamic PcG function, which can be induced, modulated, or repressed when necessary. In this review, we discuss the recent advance in understanding PcG function in plants and focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been described to regulate and counteract PcG activity in Arabidopsis. PMID:22999383

  13. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  14. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  15. Phage Morphology Recapitulates Phylogeny: The Comparative Genomics of a New Group of Myoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, André M.; Tremblay, Denise; Moineau, Sylvain; Rattei, Thomas; Kushkina, Alla I.; Tovkach, Fedor I.; Krisch, Henry M.; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Among dsDNA tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales), members of the Myoviridae family have the most sophisticated virion design that includes a complex contractile tail structure. The Myoviridae generally have larger genomes than the other phage families. Relatively few “dwarf” myoviruses, those with a genome size of less than 50 kb such as those of the Mu group, have been analyzed in extenso. Here we report on the genome sequencing and morphological characterization of a new group of such phages that infect a diverse range of Proteobacteria, namely Aeromonas salmonicida phage 56, Vibrio cholerae phages 138 and CP-T1, Bdellovibrio phage φ1422, and Pectobacterium carotovorum phage ZF40. This group of dwarf myoviruses shares an identical virion morphology, characterized by usually short contractile tails, and have genome sizes of approximately 45 kb. Although their genome sequences are variable in their lysogeny, replication, and host adaption modules, presumably reflecting differing lifestyles and hosts, their structural and morphogenesis modules have been evolutionarily constrained by their virion morphology. Comparative genomic analysis reveals that these phages, along with related prophage genomes, form a new coherent group within the Myoviridae. The results presented in this communication support the hypothesis that the diversity of phages may be more structured than generally believed and that the innumerable phages in the biosphere all belong to discrete lineages or families. PMID:22792219

  16. In-Person Versus Online Focus Group Discussions: A Comparative Analysis of Data Quality.

    PubMed

    Woodyatt, Cory R; Finneran, Catherine A; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-05-01

    Online focus group discussions (FGDs) are becoming popular as a qualitative research method. Methodological examinations regarding the data quality of online versus more traditional in-person FGDs are limited. We compared two online FGDs with two in-person FGDs conducted with gay and bisexual men using a sensitive topic (the experience of intimate partner violence) to examine differences in data quality between the two methods. The online FGDs resulted in larger word count but were shorter in time than the in-person FGDs. There was high overlap in the themes generated across groups; however, the online discussions yielded one additional theme regarding a sensitive topic. In-person FGDs involved less sharing of in-depth stories, whereas sensitive topics were discussed more candidly in the online FGDs. The results illustrate that although theformatof the data generated from each type of FGD may differ, thecontentof the data generated is remarkably similar. PMID:26935719

  17. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents). PMID:22699828

  18. Comparative efficacy of switching to natalizumab in active multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Spelman, Timothy; Kalincik, Tomas; Zhang, Annie; Pellegrini, Fabio; Wiendl, Heinz; Kappos, Ludwig; Tsvetkova, Larisa; Belachew, Shibeshih; Hyde, Robert; Verheul, Freek; Grand-Maison, Francois; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Grammond, Pierre; Duquette, Pierre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Hupperts, Raymond; Petersen, Thor; Barnett, Michael; Trojano, Maria; Butzkueven, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare treatment efficacy and persistence in patients who switched to natalizumab versus those who switched between glatiramer acetate (GA) and interferon-beta (IFNβ) after an on-treatment relapse on IFNβ or GA using propensity score matched real-world datasets. Methods Patients included were registered in MSBase or the TYSABRI Observational Program (TOP), had relapsed on IFNβ or GA within 12 months prior to switching to another therapy, and had initiated natalizumab or IFNβ/GA treatment ≤6 months after discontinuing prior therapy. Covariates were balanced across post switch treatment groups by propensity score matching at treatment initiation. Relapse, persistence, and disability measures were compared between matched treatment arms in the total population (n = 869/group) and in subgroups defined by prior treatment history (IFNβ only [n = 578/group], GA only [n = 165/group], or both IFNβ and GA [n = 176/group]). Results Compared to switching between IFNβ and GA, switching to natalizumab reduced annualized relapse rate in year one by 65–75%, the risk of first relapse by 53–82% (mean follow-up 1.7–2.2 years) and treatment discontinuation events by 48–65% (all P ≤ 0.001). In the total population, switching to natalizumab reduced the risk of confirmed disability progression by 26% (P = 0.036) and decreased the total disability burden by 1.54 EDSS-years (P < 0.0001) over the first 24 months post switch. Interpretation Using large, real-world, propensity-matched datasets we demonstrate that after a relapse on IFNβ or GA, switching to natalizumab (rather than between IFNβ and GA) led to superior outcomes for patients in all measures assessed. Results were consistent regardless of the prior treatment identity. PMID:25909083

  19. Comparative growth of spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. strains in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arannadia Barbosa; Duarte, Myrian Morato; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Duré, Ana Íris de Lima; Lopéz, Diego Montenegro; Nogueira, Rita de Maria Seabra; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes; Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles

    2016-08-01

    In Brazil, the spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri related species are the etiological agents of spotted fever rickettsiosis. However, the SFG, Rickettsia rhipicephali, that infects humans, has never been reported. The study of growth dynamics can be useful for understanding the infective and invasive capacity of these pathogens. Here, the growth rates of the Brazilian isolates R. rickettsii str. Taiaçu, R. parkeri str. At#24, and R. rhipicephali HJ#5, were evaluated in Vero cells by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. R. rhipicephali showed different kinetic growth compared to R. rickettsii and R. parkeri. PMID:27508322

  20. Comparative growth of spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. strains in Vero cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Arannadia Barbosa; Duarte, Myrian Morato; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Duré, Ana Íris de Lima; Lopéz, Diego Montenegro; Nogueira, Rita de Maria Seabra; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes; Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, the spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri related species are the etiological agents of spotted fever rickettsiosis. However, the SFG, Rickettsia rhipicephali, that infects humans, has never been reported. The study of growth dynamics can be useful for understanding the infective and invasive capacity of these pathogens. Here, the growth rates of the Brazilian isolates R. rickettsii str. Taiaçu, R. parkeri str. At#24, and R. rhipicephali HJ#5, were evaluated in Vero cells by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. R. rhipicephali showed different kinetic growth compared to R. rickettsii and R. parkeri. PMID:27508322

  1. Comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity index analysis studies on 1H NMR chemical shift of NH group of diaryl triazene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rofouie, M K; Salahinejad, M; Ghasemi, J B; Aghaei, A

    2013-05-01

    Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative molecular field analysis region focusing (CoMFA-RF) for optimizing the region for the final partial least square analysis, and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) methods were employed to develop three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models of (1)H NMR chemical shift of NH proton of diaryl triazene derivatives. The best orientation was searched by all-orientation search (AOS) strategy to minimize the effect of the initial orientation of the structures. The predictive abilities of CoMFA-RF and CoMSIA models were determined using a test set of ten compounds affording predictive correlation coefficients of 0.721 and 0.754, respectively, indicating good predictive power. For further model validation, cross validation (leave one out), progressive scrambling, and bootstrapping were also applied. The accuracy and speed of obtained 3D-QSAR models for the prediction of (1)H NMR chemical shifts of NH group of diaryl triazene derivatives were greater compared to some computational well-known procedures. PMID:23456682

  2. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luípa Michele; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Cavalli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes. METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults. RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%). Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6%) and alterations in routine activities (9.6%). In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses. CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults. PMID:25806625

  3. Psoriasis Risk Genes of the Late Cornified Envelope-3 Group Are Distinctly Expressed Compared with Genes of Other LCE Groups

    PubMed Central

    Bergboer, Judith G.M.; Tjabringa, Geuranne S.; Kamsteeg, Marijke; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M.J.J.; Rodijk-Olthuis, Diana; Jansen, Patrick A.M.; Thuret, Jean-Yves; Narita, Masashi; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Zeeuwen, Patrick L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the late cornified envelope (LCE) genes LCE3B and LCE3C has recently been identified as a risk factor for psoriasis. Expression of 16 LCE genes of LCE groups 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 was examined in vivo and in vitro. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that moderate to high LCE expression was largely confined to skin and a few oropharyngeal tissues. Genes of the LCE3 group demonstrated increased expression in lesional psoriatic epidermis and were induced after superficial injury of normal skin, whereas expression of members of other LCE groups was down-regulated under these conditions. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that LCE2 protein expression was restricted to the uppermost granular layer and the stratum corneum. Stimulation of in vitro reconstructed skin by several psoriasis-associated cytokines resulted in induction of LCE3 members. The data suggest that LCE proteins of groups 1, 2, 5, and 6 are involved in normal skin barrier function, whereas LCE3 genes encode proteins involved in barrier repair after injury or inflammation. These findings may provide clues to the mechanistic role of LCE3B/C deletion in psoriasis. PMID:21435436

  4. Photovoltaic Reliability Group activities in USA and Brazil (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Cruz, Leila R. O.

    2015-09-01

    Recently prices of photovoltaic (PV) systems have been reduced considerably and may continue to be reduced making them attractive. If these systems provide electricity over the stipulated warranty period, it would be possible attain socket parity within the next few years. Current photovoltaic module qualifications tests help in minimizing infant mortality but do not guarantee useful lifetime over the warranty period. The PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) is trying to formulate accelerated tests that will be useful towards achieving the ultimate goal of assuring useful lifetime over the warranty period as well as to assure manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, assuring the manufacturing quality may require 24/7 presence. Alternatively, collecting data on the performance of fielded systems would assist in assuring manufacturing quality. Here PV systems installed by home-owners and small businesses can constitute as an important untapped source of data. The volunteer group, PV - Reliable, Safe and Sustainable Quality! (PVRessQ!) is providing valuable service to small PV system owners. Photovoltaic Reliability Group (PVRG) is initiating activities in USA and Brazil to assist home owners and small businesses in monitoring photovoltaic (PV) module performance and enforcing warranty. It will work in collaboration with small PV system owners, consumer protection agencies. Brazil is endowed with excellent solar irradiance making it attractive for installation of PV systems. Participating owners of small PV systems would instruct inverter manufacturers to copy the daily e-mails to PVRG and as necessary, will authorize the PVRG to carry out review of PV systems. The presentation will consist of overall activities of PVRG in USA and Brazil.

  5. Peroxidized coelenterazine, the active group in the photoprotein aequorin.

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, O; Johnson, F H

    1978-01-01

    The photoprotein aequorin emits light by an intramolecular reaction when Ca2+ is added under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Previously reported evidence has indicated two possibilities: (i) the functional group of aequorin is coelenterazine itself, a compond that plays key roles in the bioluminescence of various other types of organisms, or (ii) it is the enolized form of this compound. Present data rule out both of these possibilities, through elucidation of the structure of the yellow compound that is split off aequorin by treatment with NaHSO3. The yellow compound is now shown to be a tertiary alcohol of coelenterazine on the basis of chemical reactions, mass spectral data, and relationships to known derivatives of coelenterazine. From this structure and the method of forming the yellow compound from aequorin, aequorin evidently contains a peroxide of coelenterazine as the active group. The presence of such a peroxide is consistent with the fact that aequorin yields free coelenterazine upon treatment with Na2S2O4. Although there is no applicable technique at present to determine with assurance the specific state of the peroxide in the protein, a study with 18O tracer indicates that a linear peroxide structure is more likely than the alternative possibility of a dioxetane structure. PMID:275832

  6. An Update on the VAMOS Extremes Working Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Cavalcanti, Iracema

    2011-01-01

    We review here the progress of the Variability of the American MOnsoon Systems (VAMOS) extremes working group since it was formed in February of 2010. The goals of the working group are to 1) develop an atlas of warm-season extremes over the Americas, 2) evaluate existing and planned simulations, and 3) suggest new model runs to address mechanisms and predictability of extremes. Substantial progress has been made in the development of an extremes atlas based on gridded observations and several reanalysis products including Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). The status of the atlas, remaining issues and plans for its expansion to include model data will be discussed. This includes the possibility of adding a companion atlas based on station observations based on the software developed under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Expert Team on Climate Change. Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) activity. We will also review progress on relevant research and plans for the use and validation of the atlas results.

  7. Comparative in vitro activities of new quinolones against coryneform bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, L; Suárez, A I; Ortega, M C; Perea, E J

    1994-06-01

    The in vitro activities of eight quinolones against 115 coryneform bacteria (20 Corynebacterium jeikeium, 15 Corynebacterium minutissimum, 15 Corynebacterium striatum, 25 Corynebacterium urealyticum, 10 Corynebacterium xerosis, 10 Corynebacterium group ANF-1, 10 Corynebacterium group 12, and 10 Listeria monocytogenes) were determined. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and sparfloxacin for 90% of C. jeikeium, C. urealyticum, and C. xerosis isolates tested were > 16 micrograms/ml. Those of BAY Y 3118 and clinafloxacin against these species were 0.5 and 1 to 2 micrograms/ml, respectively. The MICs for 90% of all 115 strains tested were 0.5 microgram/ml for BAY Y 3118, 1 microgram/ml for clinafloxacin, 2 micrograms/ml for E-5068, 4 micrograms/ml for E-5065, and > 16 micrograms/ml for ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and E-4868. PMID:8092851

  8. Comparative Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Cuscuta australis against Acetaminophen Intoxication in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Folarin, Rachael O.; Omirinde, Jamiu O.; Bejide, Ronald; Isola, Tajudeen O.; Usende, Levi I.; Basiru, Afisu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the comparative hepatoprotective activity of crude ethanol extracts of Cuscuta australis against acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into six groups of 6 replicates: Group 1 which served as control received water. Group 2 was orally administered 835 mg/kg body wt. of paracetamol on day 8. Groups 3 and 4 were orally administered ethanolic extracts of the seed of Cuscuta australis in doses of 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively, for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Group 2 on the 8th day. Groups 5 and 6 received similar oral doses of Cuscuta australis stem extracts for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Groups 3 and 4. Group 2 rats showed severe periportal hepatic necrosis, significantly elevated serum hepatic injury markers, markedly increased lipid peroxidation, and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities. Remarkably, Cuscuta australis (seed and stem) extract pretreatments in Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6, most especially, the stem extract pretreatment in Groups 5 and 6, improved better the hepatic histoarchitecture, the hepatocellular, and the oxidative stress injury markers in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusively, ethanol extractions of Cuscuta australis stem appear to protect the liver from acetaminophen intoxication better than the seed counterpart. PMID:27433518

  9. Comparative evaluation of passive, active, and passive-active distraction techniques on pain perception during local anesthesia administration in children

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmoniem, Soad A.; Mahmoud, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthesia forms the backbone of pain control techniques and is necessary for a painless dental procedure. Nevertheless, administering a local anesthetic injection is among the most anxiety-provoking procedures to children. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of different distraction techniques (passive, active, and passive-active) on children’s pain perception during local anesthesia administration. A total of 90 children aged four to nine years, requiring inferior alveolar nerve block for primary molar extraction, were included in this study and randomly divided into three groups according to the distraction technique employed during local anesthesia administration. Passive distraction group: the children were instructed to listen to a song on headphones; Active distraction group: the children were instructed to move their legs up and down alternatively; and Passive-active distraction group: this was a combination between both techniques. Pain perception during local anesthesia administration was evaluated by the Sounds, Eyes, and Motor (SEM) scale and Wong Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale. There was an insignificant difference between the three groups for SEM scale and Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale at P = 0.743 and P = 0.112 respectively. The examined distraction techniques showed comparable results in reducing pain perception during local anesthesia administration. PMID:27222759

  10. Comparative blanching activities of proprietary diflucortolone valerate topical preparations.

    PubMed

    Coleman, G L; Kanfer, I; Haigh, J M

    1978-01-01

    The blanching activities and hence bioavailabilities of the cream, ointment and fatty ointment preparations of Nerisone and Temetex (diflucortolone valerate 0.1%) were evaluated using an occluded and unoccluded blanching assay. These products were compared to Synalar ointment and cream (fluocinolone acetonide 0.025%), established topical corticosteroid preparations. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between similar formulations of diflucortolone valerate. Significant differences were noted between diflucortolone valerate and fluocinolone acetonide preparations. PMID:342295

  11. [A comparative study of individuals' responses to formative and declining groups].

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, K

    1990-04-01

    Using 40 college students as subjects, this experiment was conducted to investigate differences in the influence exerted by formative groups and declining groups of the same size. No significant differences between formative and declining groups were found at the behavioural level, especially with respect to conformity rates. However, significant differences were found between the two groups at internal levels, especially with respect to the confidence exhibited in subjects' responses and the evaluation of group opinions. In formative groups, the confidence of conformers in the group increased but non-conformers showed no change. In declining groups, the confidence of non-conformers increased but conformers showed no change. Moreover, only the conformers continued to support group opinions after the groups broke down, evaluating the group opinions highly in private. The results suggested in general that individuals are influenced by group changes and that they select their own responses by anticipating changes likely to occur in the group. PMID:2250419

  12. Comparative defect evaluation of aircraft components by active thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zauner, G.; Mayr, G.; Hendorfer, G.

    2009-02-01

    Active Thermography has become a powerful tool in the field of non-destructive testing (NDT) in recent years. This infrared thermal imaging technique is used for non-contact inspection of materials and components by visualizing thermal surface contrasts after a thermal excitation. The imaging modality combined with the possibility of detecting and characterizing flaws as well as determining material properties makes Active Thermography a fast and robust testing method even in industrial-/production environments. Nevertheless, depending on the kind of defect (thermal properties, size, depth) and sample material (CFRP carbon fiber reinforced plastics, metal, glass fiber) or sample structure (honeycomb, composite layers, foam), active thermography can sometimes produce equivocal results or completely fails in certain test situations. The aim of this paper is to present examples of results of Active Thermography methods conducted on aircraft components compared to various other (imaging) NDT techniques, namely digital shearography, industrial x-ray imaging and 3D-computed tomography. In particular we focus on detection limits of thermal methods compared to the above-mentioned NDT methods with regard to: porosity characterization in CFRP, detection of delamination, detection of inclusions and characterization of glass fiber distributions.

  13. Reduced stress and inflammatory responsiveness in experienced meditators compared to a matched healthy control group.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Lutz, Antoine; Perlman, David M; Bachhuber, David R W; Schuyler, Brianna S; MacCoon, Donal G; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Psychological stress is a major contributor to symptom exacerbation across many chronic inflammatory conditions and can acutely provoke increases in inflammation in healthy individuals. With the rise in rates of inflammation-related medical conditions, evidence for behavioral approaches that reduce stress reactivity is of value. Here, we compare 31 experienced meditators, with an average of approximately 9000 lifetime hours of meditation practice (M age=51years) to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=37; M age=48years) on measures of stress- and inflammatory responsivity, and measures of psychological health. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used to induce psychological stress and a neurogenic inflammatory response was produced using topical application of capsaicin cream to forearm skin. Size of the capsaicin-induced flare response and increase in salivary cortisol and alpha amylase were used to quantify the magnitude of inflammatory and stress responses, respectively. Results show that experienced meditators have lower TSST-evoked cortisol (62.62±2.52 vs. 70.38±2.33; p<.05) and perceived stress (4.18±.41 vs. 5.56±.30; p<.01), as well as a smaller neurogenic inflammatory response (81.55±4.6 vs. 96.76±4.26; p<.05), compared to the control group. Moreover, experienced meditators reported higher levels of psychological factors associated with wellbeing and resilience. These results suggest that the long-term practice of meditation may reduce stress reactivity and could be of therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26970711

  14. Health workforce remuneration: comparing wage levels, ranking, and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article represents the first attempt to explore remuneration in Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupational groups in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, India, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Russian Federation, Republic of South Africa (RSA), Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (USA)). The main aim is to examine to what extent the wage rankings, standardized wage levels, and wage dispersion are similar between the 16 occupational groups and across the selected countries and what factors can be shown to be related to the differences that emerge. Method The pooled data from the continuous, worldwide, multilingual WageIndicator web survey between 2008 and 2011 (for selected HRH occupations, n=49,687) have been aggregated into a data file with median or mean remuneration values for 300 occupation/country cells. Hourly wages are expressed in standardized US Dollars (USD), all controlled for purchasing power parity (PPP) and indexed to 2011 levels. Results The wage ranking of 16 HRH occupational groups is fairly similar across countries. Overall Medical Doctors have the highest and Personal Care Workers the lowest median wages. Wage levels of Nursing & Midwifery Professionals vary largely. Health Care Managers have lower earnings than Medical Doctors in all except six of the 20 countries. The largest wage differences are found for the Medical Doctors earning 20 times less in Ukraine than in the US, and the Personal Care Workers, who earn nine times less in the Ukraine than in the Netherlands. No support is found for the assumption that the ratio across the highest and lowest earning HRH occupations is similar between countries: it varies from 2.0 in Sweden to 9.7 in Brazil. Moreover, an increase in the percentage of women in an occupation has a large downward effect on its wage rank

  15. A Comparative Study of Antifungal Activity of Endodontic Irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Asgary, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the antifungal activity of final canal rinse with either three concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (0.5, 2.6 and 6%), two concentrations of chlorhexidine (CHX) (2% and 0.2%), MTAD, Tetraclean, Hypoclean and Chlor-Xtra on Candida albicans (C. albicans) in a human tooth model. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and thirty five extracted human maxillary central and lateral incisors were used in this study. Teeth were randomly divided into nine test groups (n=25) and positive and a negative control groups (n=5). After cleaning and shaping, teeth were contaminated with C. albicans and incubated for 72 h. The irrigation solution in nine experimental groups included: 6% NaOCl, 2.6% NaOCl, 0.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, 0.2% CHX, MTAD, Tetraclean, Hypoclean and Chlor-Xtra. After culturing on Sabouraud 4% dextrose agar, colony-forming units (CFU) were counted. Results: 6% NaOCl, 2% CHX and Chlor-Xtra were equally effective (P>0.05) and significantly superior to MTAD and Tetraclean (P<0.05). In addition, the effectiveness of Tetraclean and MTAD was significantly less than Hypoclean, NaOCl at all concentrations (6% 2.6% and 0.5%), MTAD and 0.2% CHX (P<0.05). Furthermore, Tetraclean was significantly more effective than MTAD (P<0.05). Conclusion: Antifungal activity of 6% NaOCl, Chlor-Xtra and 2% CHX was significantly greater than 2.6% NaOCl, 0.5% NaOCl, MTAD, 0.2% CHX and Tetraclean. PMID:25834602

  16. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. Methods This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007–2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008–2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population’s total energy intake were compared between the countries. Results Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Conclusion Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not

  17. Update on Activities of CEOS Disaster Management Support Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, H. M.; Lauritson, L.

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Disaster Management Support Group (DMSG) has supported natural and technological disaster management on a worldwide basis by fostering improved utilization of existing and planned Earth Observation (EO) satellite data. The DMSG has focused on developing and refining recommendations for the application of satellite data to selected hazard areas--drought, earthquake, fire, flood, ice, landslide, oil spill, and volcanic hazards. Particular emphasis was placed on working closely with space agencies, international and regional organizations, and commercial organizations on the implementation of these recommendations. The DMSG is in its last year with its primary focus on documenting its work and migrating on going activities to other fora. With over 300 participants from more than 140 organizations, the DMSG has found strong support among CEOS space agencies and the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS), as well as an enthusiastic reception from numerous international, regional, and national emergency managers, and distinct interest from the commercial sector. In addition, the group has worked to give full support to the work of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) in pursuit of decisions taken at UNISPACE III and the United Nations International Strategy on Disaster Reduction (ISDR). In conjunction with the IGOS, several of the DMSG hazards teams (earthquake, landslide, and solid Earth dimensions of volcanoes) are joining in the effort to develop an IGOS Geohazards theme team. Cooperation efforts with organizations such as IGOS, COPUOS, and ISDR will hopefully lead to the pick up of much of the on going DMSG activities. Since the inception of this ad hoc working group and its predecessor project, the DMSG has developed and refined recommendations for the application of satellite data by bringing together experts from eight hazard areas to identify user needs, as well as

  18. Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Pupil Responses during an Open-Communication Structured Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and a Closed Communication Structured Group Directed Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petre, Richard M.

    The quality, quantity, and variety of pupil responses while using two different group directed reading activities, the Directed Reading Activity (DRA), and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) were investigated in this study. The subjects, all fourth graders in two nearby communities, were grouped into above-grade-level, at-grade-level,…

  19. Some Factors Relevant to Group Activities in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugglestone, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the handling of groups. The teacher should be aware of variables: size of group, composition (by ability, needs, etc.), seating arrangement, group structure, etc. Cooperative, competitive or individual work should be used, depending on the learning goal. The teacher must be perceptive, flexible, and must have good organizing ability.…

  20. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  1. Activities of coordinated dietetic program directors compared by educational background.

    PubMed

    Nyland, N K; Spears, M C; Myers, E F

    1989-12-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the activities performed by coordinated program directors, compare current activities with 5-year expectations, and identify differences in importance and time spent on 14 pertinent activities by directors with master's degrees and those with doctorates. Responses were collected by a descriptive survey of 64 directors, all of whom participated. Program directors with master's degrees considered public relations with affiliations, attending faculty meetings, student advisement, and reading professional materials significantly more important (p less than .05) than did directors with doctorates, who considered faculty evaluations and research significantly more important (p less than .01). Directors with doctorates spent significantly less time in teaching (p less than .05) than those with master's degrees. Responsibilities of directors in the 22 submitted descriptions were organized into five categories: program management, curricular affairs, policies impacting on programs, student advisement and counseling, and academic activities. In the ADA Standards of Education, responsibilities of directors include program assessment, planning, and evaluation; in this study, those responsibilities were placed in the program management category. Exhibition of leadership qualities, revision of curriculum, and counseling and recruitment of students were responsibilities most frequently included in the position descriptions; however, those responsibilities were in categories other than program management. The responsibilities could serve as a guide for the development of a position description and as criteria for the role of a coordinated program director. PMID:2592717

  2. Comparative studies of brain activation with MEG and functional MRI

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Aine, C.J.; Sanders, J.A.; Lewine, J.D.; Caprihan, A.

    1993-12-31

    The past two years have witnessed the emergence of MRI as a functional imaging methodology. Initial demonstrations involved the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent and required ultrafast echo planar imaging capability to adequately resolve the passage of the injected bolus. By measuring the local reduction in image intensity due to magnetic susceptibility, it was possible to calculate blood volume, which changes as a function of neural activation. Later developments have exploited endogenous contrast mechanisms to monitor changes in blood volume or in venous blood oxygen content. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that it is possible to make such measurements in a clinical imager, suggesting that the large installed base of such machines might be utilized for functional imaging. Although it is likely that functional MRI (fMRI) will subsume some of the clinical and basic neuroscience applications now touted for MEG, it is also clear that these techniques offer different largely complementary, capabilities. At the very least, it is useful to compare and cross-validate the activation maps produced by these techniques. Such studies will be valuable as a check on results of neuromagnetic distributed current reconstructions and will allow better characterization of the relationship between neurophysiological activation and associated hemodynamic changes. A more exciting prospect is the development of analyses that combine information from the two modalities to produce a better description of underlying neural activity than is possible with either technique in isolation. In this paper we describe some results from initial comparative studies and outline several techniques that can be used to treat MEG and fMRI data within a unified computational framework.

  3. The Use of a Group Blog to Actively Support Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of blogs in higher education, there remains a lack of knowledge and consensus about the use and value of blogging in higher education, particularly when used for long periods. This article investigates the use of a group blog to assist traditional teaching activities and foster collaborative learning through the…

  4. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: IONOLAB-TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Sezen, U.; Arikan, O.; Ugurlu, O.; Nayir, H.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather (SW) is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space and affect Earth and its technological systems. SW is a consequence of the solar activities and the coupling of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere due to the Earth's magnetic field. The monitoring and prediction of SW has utmost importance for HF communication, Satellite communication, navigation and guidance systems, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, Space Craft exit and entry into the atmosphere. Ionosphere is the plasma layer of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation and it is a key player of SW. Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. IONOLAB is a group of researchers of various disciplines, getting together to handle challenges of the Earth's ionosphere. The team has researchers from Hacettepe University and Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and General Command of Mapping of Turkish Army. One of the most important contributions of IONOLAB group is the automated web-based computation service for Total Electron Content (TEC). TEC corresponds to the line integral of electron density distribution on a given path. TEC can also be expressed as the amount of free electrons within 1 m2 cross-sectional area of the cylinder on the ray path. Global Position System (GPS) provides a cost-effective medium for monitoring of ionosphere using the signals recorded by stationary GPS receivers in estimating TEC. IONOLAB group has developed IONOLAB-TEC for reliable and robust estimates for all latitudes and both calm and disturbed days by using RINEX, IONEX and satellite ephemeris data provided from the IGS centers. IONOLAB-TEC consists of a regularized signal estimation algorithm which combines signals from all GPS satellites for a given instant and a given receiver, for a desired time period or for 24 hours

  5. Comparing mirror neuron system activity between sporadic and familial cases of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sayantanava; Nizamie, S Haque; Goyal, Nishant; Tikka, Sai Krishna; Kavoor, Anjana Rao

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogenous disorder, and has often been subtyped on the basis of family history of psychotic disorders. Compared to those without, a positive family history is associated with an earlier age of onset, greater structural brain abnormalities and poorer clinical course. Given recent emphasis on mirror neuron system (MNS) in attempting to explain psychopathology in schizophrenia; present analysis tried to tease out differences in MNS functioning between these two groups. With ethical approval, 10 consenting right-handed patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10-DCR; M=8; Drug-naïve=2) were recruited and divided into two groups of five each (M=4, F=1): those with (age 29.40±5.85 years, duration of illness 50.80±30.84 months) and without (age 29.60±5.77 years, duration of illness 43.20±43.76 months) family history of schizophrenic illness (group difference p>0.05). MNS activity was assessed using event-related desynchronization of EEG Mu waves in response to biological motion on 192-channel EEG Neurofax EEG-1100K. On comparison, while patients had significantly lower mu suppression compared to controls (p<0.001); two schizophrenia groups did not differ between themselves, neither on MNS activity nor on psychopathology (p>0.05). Present study replicates finding of a dysfunctional MNS in schizophrenia patients, and represents a preliminary attempt at comparing two groups of symptomatic schizophrenia patients. In both these groups, MNS dysfunctions were comparable, and commensurate with respect to psychopathology. Thus, MNS dysfunction in schizophrenia might either be inherited or acquired. However, this abnormality forms a common base, and ultimate vulnerability marker, for development of psychopathology during active disease states. PMID:27208448

  6. [Group polymorphism and variability of dermatoglyphic characters of the toes and fingers: the comparative characteristic].

    PubMed

    Teplov, K V; Gugnin, I V; Bozhchenko, A P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate into the morphological features of the papillary relief on the toes depending on the age and sex of the adult people and the length of their body and to compare the data obtained with dermatoglyphic patterns of the hands. Fingerprints of 120 male and 80 female central European caucasoids varying in age from 18 to 83 years were studied. The fingerprints were obtained using black printing ink. Special attention was given to the recognition of pattern types, ridge count, rudiments of lines, line density, the distances between the delta and the centre of the pattern or the interphalangeal fold, white lines, scar prints, and other characteristics. The results of the study were treated by the methods of descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. It was shown that coefficients of correlation between the most informative characters and the general personality traits are equal to 0.3-0.4. The regular features of group polymorphism of dermatoglyphic patterns on the toes and fingers were found to be on the whole similar. The correlation coefficients between dermatoglyphic signs on the bilateral and homolateral halves of the body were 0.6-0.8 and 0.2-0.4 respectively. It is concluded that the results of this study provide a basis for the development of the methods for the detection of the general personality traits and the establishment of belonging of the cut-off feet and hands to one or several corpses. PMID:25764863

  7. Does College Matter for Emerging Adulthood? Comparing Developmental Trajectories of Educational Groups.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Lauren L; Syed, Moin

    2015-11-01

    Critics of emerging adulthood theory have suggested that it only applies to college students, but this assertion has largely gone untested. The purpose of the present study was to compare developmental trajectories of non-students versus college-educated youth in theoretically relevant domains of work, love, and financial independence. Using data from the Youth Development Study (N = 1139, 49.6 % female, 63.3 % White, 10.9 % Southeast Asian, 1.5 % Other Asian, 8.6 % Black, 5.3 % Mixed Race, 4.0 % Latino, 0.8 % Native American), latent growth curve models were fitted to chart each group's development, from ages 14 to 30. Different trajectories were revealed for hours worked, children, and financial dependence on parents, spouses, and government aid. No differences were found in employment rates, marriage rates, or financial dependence on own income. These results provide a clearer picture of emerging adulthood for non-students, and highlight problems with generalizing college student research to all emerging adults. PMID:26199078

  8. Comparative studies on group III σ-hole and π-hole interactions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Zeng, Yanli; Zhang, Xueying; Meng, Lingpeng

    2016-05-30

    The σ-hole of M2 H6 (M = Al, Ga, In) and π-hole of MH3 (M = Al, Ga, In) were discovered and analyzed, the bimolecular complexes M2 H6 ···NH3 and MH3 ···N2 P2 F4 (M = Al, Ga, In) were constructed to carry out comparative studies on the group III σ-hole interactions and π-hole interactions. The two types of interactions are all partial-covalent interactions; the π-hole interactions are stronger than σ-hole interactions. The electrostatic energy is the largest contribution for forming the σ-hole and π-hole interaction, the polarization energy is also an important factor to form the M···N interaction. The electrostatic energy contributions to the interaction energy of the σ-hole interactions are somewhat greater than those of the π-hole interactions. However, the polarization contributions for the π-hole interactions are somewhat greater than those for the σ-hole interactions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26949204

  9. Comparative pharmacological activity of optical isomers of phenibut.

    PubMed

    Dambrova, Maija; Zvejniece, Liga; Liepinsh, Edgars; Cirule, Helena; Zharkova, Olga; Veinberg, Grigory; Kalvinsh, Ivars

    2008-03-31

    Phenibut (3-phenyl-4-aminobutyric acid) is a GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-mimetic psychotropic drug which is clinically used in its racemic form. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of racemic phenibut and its optical isomers in pharmacological tests and GABAB receptor binding studies. In pharmacological tests of locomotor activity, antidepressant and pain effects, S-phenibut was inactive in doses up to 500 mg/kg. In contrast, R-phenibut turned out to be two times more potent than racemic phenibut in most of the tests. In the forced swimming test, at a dose of 100 mg/kg only R-phenibut significantly decreased immobility time. Both R-phenibut and racemic phenibut showed analgesic activity in the tail-flick test with R-phenibut being slightly more active. An GABAB receptor-selective antagonist (3-aminopropyl)(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348) inhibited the antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of R-phenibut, as well as locomotor depressing activity of R-phenibut in open field test in vivo. The radioligand binding experiments using a selective GABAB receptor antagonist [3H]CGP54626 revealed that affinity constants for racemic phenibut, R-phenibut and reference GABA-mimetic baclofen were 177+/-2, 92+/-3, 6.0+/-1 microM, respectively. We conclude that the pharmacological activity of racemic phenibut relies on R-phenibut and this correlates to the binding affinity of enantiomers of phenibut to the GABAB receptor. PMID:18275958

  10. A comparative study of oxidant-antioxidant status in stable and active vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Ines, Dammak; Sonia, Boudaya; Riadh, Ben Mansour; Amel, El Gaied; Slaheddine, Marrekchi; Hamida, Turki; Hamadi, Attia; Basma, Hentati

    2006-09-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms in vitiligo have not been completely clarified. One of the major hypotheses in the pathogenesis of vitiligo is the oxidative stress hypothesis. The active or stable phase of vitiligo is defined on the basis of the progression or appearance of new lesions in the last 3 months and the absence of new lesions or their progression in the last 6 months, respectively. Eighteen patients with active vitiligo, 18 patients with stable vitiligo, and 40 controls were included in this study. We examined serum levels of malondialdehyde, selenium, vitamin E and A, and the erythrocyte activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Our results revealed a significantly higher level of serum malondialdehyde, selenium in patients with active disease compared with the controls. Significant higher increase in erythrocytes superoxide dismutase activities was observed in active vitiligo group, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased significantly in active disease, whereas erythrocyte catalase activity and plasma vitamin E and A levels were not different in vitiligo patients as compared with controls. Our study shows that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of both active and stable vitiligo but increased imbalance of antioxidants was observed in the blood of active vitiligo patients. PMID:16897080

  11. Comparing Family Counseling and Group Counseling: An Interview with George Gazda, James Hansen, and Alan Hovestadt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Contains edited excerpts from a panel discussion held at the 1984 American Association for Counseling and Development convention and sponsored by the Association for Specialists in Group Work. Focuses on the therapeutic process in family and group counseling and on the delineation of the similarities and differences in the group dynamics in the…

  12. Double P-P Plots for Comparing Differences between Two Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.

    2006-01-01

    This article suggests a graphic technique that uses P-P plots to show the extent to which two groups differ on two variables. It can be used even if the variables are measured in completely different, noncomparable units. The comparison is symmetric with respect to the variables and the groups. It reflects the differences between the groups over…

  13. Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

  14. Skills for Living: Group Counseling Activities for Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganett, Rosemarie Smead

    This book can help counselors in the school or mental health setting create meaningful group experiences for children who, for whatever reason, are behind in social and life skill development. The group agendas have been developed with children from grades 2-5 in mind. Although each topic stands alone, children can benefit from more than one…

  15. The Fantastic Facilitator: Engaging Activities for Leading Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud

    This document is designed to help facilitators with the formation and development of effective teams of people who have no previous history as a team and no training in group processes. Part 1 provides a narrative explanation of the stages of group development (investing in membership, forming attachments to subgroups, confronting/debating issues,…

  16. Sexually active groups in cattle-a novel estrus sign.

    PubMed

    Sveberg, G; Refsdal, A O; Erhard, H W; Kommisrud, E; Aldrin, M; Tvete, I F; Buckley, F; Waldmann, A; Ropstad, E

    2013-07-01

    The current study presents a novel objective measure for characterizing sexually active groups (SAG 3-5) and relates this measure to other behaviors of lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Cows in SAG 3-5 were required to participate in a minimum of 1 estrus behavior per 5min while staying within 3m (2 cow lengths) of its partner(s) for a minimum of 5min. Twenty Holstein-Friesian cows were video-monitored continuously through 1 complete estrous cycle (22d). Standing behavior, SAG 3-5, secondary estrus signs (SEC), and other social and agonistic behaviors were recorded continuously. The period of mounting estrus (MTE) was divided into the 3 parts: prestand, standing estrus (STE), and poststand. The mean durations of MTE, prestand, STE, and poststand period were 12.9±1.84, 4.0±1.93, 7.1±1.44, and 1.8±0.57h (n=13). The fractions of time spent in SAG 3-5 during MTE, prestand, STE, and poststand period were 13, 8, 19, and 1% (n=11). During MTE, cows participated, on average, in 5.8±1.24 SAG 3-5 and initiated 9.5±2.99 mounts, with mean durations of 0.25±0.03h and 4.00±0.36s, respectively. The novel measure SAG 3-5 was a sign of long duration not confined only to groups of STE cows. On one day when no cows were in estrus and during the periods 4 to 24h before and after MTE, no SAG 3-5 behaviors were observed. Luteal-phase cows participated in SAG 3-5 only when the partner was a single cow in estrus. The time spent in SAG 3-5 increased between 1 and 3h before MTE and the prestand period (3 vs. 8%) and reached a peak level during STE. From STE to poststand, time spent in SAG 3-5 decreased considerably (19 vs. 1%). The observed decrease in nonmutual agonistic behaviors 4 to 24h before MTE is suggested as an early sign of pre-estrus. Changes in SAG 3-5, agonistic behaviors, and SEC are suggested as indicators of the specific stages of MTE. Increased SEC initiated and SAG 3-5 were indicators of late pre-estrus and early estrus (prestand). Peak levels of SAG 3-5, SEC, and

  17. Identifying organic aerosol sources by comparing functional group composition in chamber and atmospheric particles

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Lynn M.; Bahadur, Ranjit; Ziemann, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of submicron particles by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in 14 campaigns in North America, Asia, South America, and Europe were used to identify characteristic organic functional group compositions of fuel combustion, terrestrial vegetation, and ocean bubble bursting sources, each of which often accounts for more than a third of organic mass (OM), and some of which is secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from gas-phase precursors. The majority of the OM consists of alkane, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups. The organic functional groups formed from combustion and vegetation emissions are similar to the secondary products identified in chamber studies. The near absence of carbonyl groups in the observed SOA associated with combustion is consistent with alkane rather than aromatic precursors, and the absence of organonitrate groups can be explained by their hydrolysis in humid ambient conditions. The remote forest observations have ratios of carboxylic acid, organic hydroxyl, and nonacid carbonyl groups similar to those observed for isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, but in biogenic aerosols transported downwind of urban areas the formation of esters replaces the acid and hydroxyl groups and leaves only nonacid carbonyl groups. The carbonyl groups in SOA associated with vegetation emissions provides striking evidence for the mechanism of esterification as the pathway for possible oligomerization reactions in the atmosphere. Forest fires include biogenic emissions that produce SOA with organic components similar to isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, also resulting in nonacid carbonyl groups in SOA. PMID:21317360

  18. Adolescent Girls' Perceptions of Physical Activity: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Sarah; Biddle, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among adolescent girls are a cause for concern. Examining girls' physical activity perceptions and motivations through in-depth qualitative research allows for greater understanding of the reasons behind their physical activity-related choices. Forty-seven girls aged 14 to 16 years participated in exploratory focus…

  19. An Activity Group Experience for Disengaged Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, John Ewing; Bodden, Jack L.

    1978-01-01

    Tested the activity theory (which proposes that elderly persons remain in active contact with their environment) and disengagement theory (which suggests adjustment comes through reduction of activity and social contact). Disengaged elderly were identified. Subjects demonstrated significant improvement over the untreated control subjects. Results…

  20. Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewe, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).

  1. Mothers' Experiences of Facilitated Peer Support Groups and Individual Child Health Nursing Support: A Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kruske, Sue; Schmied, Virginia; Sutton, Ivy; O'Hare, Joan

    2004-01-01

    The “Early Bird Program” is a support group facilitated by child and family health nurses and offered to families of infants aged 0–8 weeks in South East Sydney, Australia. This paper describes the experiences of 20 women who participated in the Early Bird groups and 20 women who chose to use individual consultations with the child and family health nurse. The qualitative evaluation used focus groups and interviews with the 40 women, and data were analysed using content analysis. Key findings show the Early Bird Program mothers received support and knowledge from both the nurses and each other, while the women who utilised the individual consultations with the nurses sought out and received specific services and information that focused on the baby. The group approach appears to promote group relationships and to empower mothers as a group by de-emphasising the power and expertise of the professional. PMID:17273398

  2. Horseradish peroxidase and chitosan: activation, immobilization and comparative results.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Kumosani, Taha A; El-Shishtawy, Reda M

    2013-09-01

    Recently, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized on activated wool and we envisioned that the use of chitosan would be interesting instead of wool owing to its simple chemical structure, abundant nature and biodegradability. In this work, HRP was immobilized on chitosan crosslinked with cyanuric chloride. FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize immobilized HRP. The number of ten reuses of immobilized HRP has been detected. The pH was shifted from 5.5 for soluble HRP to 5.0 for immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP had an optimum temperature of 30 °C, which was shifted to 35 °C for immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP and immobilized HRP were thermal stable up to 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The apparent kinetic constant values (K(m)) of soluble HRP and chitosan-HRP were 35 mM and 40 mM for guaiacol and 2.73 mM and 5.7 mM for H2O2, respectively. Immobilization of HRP partially protected them from metal ions compared to soluble enzyme. The chitosan-HRP was remarkably more stable against urea, Triton X-100 and organic solvents. Chitosan-HRP exhibited large number of reuses and more resistance to harmful compounds compared with wool-HRP. On the basis of results obtained in the present study, chitosan-HRP could be employed in bioremediation application. PMID:23769933

  3. Comparative activities of milk components in reversing chronic colitis.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, J R; Kanwar, R K; Stathopoulos, S; Haggarty, N W; MacGibbon, A K H; Palmano, K P; Roy, K; Rowan, A; Krissansen, G W

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a poorly understood chronic immune disorder for which there is no medical cure. Milk and colostrum are rich sources of bioactives with immunomodulatory properties. Here we compared the therapeutic effects of oral delivery of bovine milk-derived iron-saturated lactoferrin (Fe-bLF), angiogenin, osteopontin (OPN), colostrum whey protein, Modulen IBD (Nestle Healthsciences, Rhodes, Australia), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched milk fat in a mouse model of dextran sulfate-induced colitis. The CLA-enriched milk fat significantly increased mouse body weights after 24d of treatment, reduced epithelium damage, and downregulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and nitrous oxide. Modulen IBD most effectively decreased the clinical score at d 12, and Modulen IBD and OPN most effectively lowered the inflammatory score. Myeloperoxidase activity that denotes neutrophil infiltration was significantly lower in mice fed Modulen IBD, OPN, angiogenin, and Fe-bLF. A significant decrease in the numbers of T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and a significant decrease in cytokine expression were observed in mice fed the treatment diets compared with dextran sulfate administered mice. The Fe-bLF, CLA-enriched milk fat, and Modulen IBD inhibited intestinal angiogenesis. In summary, each of the milk components attenuated IBD in mice, but with differing effectiveness against specific disease parameters. PMID:26805965

  4. Parents' Networking Strategies: Participation of Formal and Informal Parent Groups in School Activities and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…

  5. Malaria crisis activity in sera from individuals of different ethnic groups of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Herrera, S; Perlaza, B L; Sanchez, C A; Herrera, M A

    1990-08-01

    Sera of negroes of African origin and of indians, living in a malaria endemic village on the Pacific Coast of Colombia, were analyzed to see if they could block intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. A group of mestizos from a malaria-free city in Colombia was used as a negative control. Blood of each individual was studied for the presence of circulating parasites by thick and thin smears and their sera for antimalarial antibodies by IFAT and IRMA techniques. The inhibition of the intraerythrocytic growth induced by these sera was assessed by [3H]Hypoxanthine incorporation. All groups showed inhibitory activity independent of their exposure to malaria. Negro sera had the highest inhibitory activity even following the removal of antibody, and also the highest antimalarial antibody titers. The group of indians had reduced inhibitory activity and lower antibody titers compared to the negro sera. In the group of mestizos, who reported no malaria exposure, 14% had antibodies to asexual blood forms of P. falciparum and 60% induced significant inhibition. PMID:2283155

  6. Lysis of typhus-group rickettsia-infected targets by lymphokine activated killers

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, M.; Dasch, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    The authors recently described a subset of OKT8, OKT3-positive lymphocytes from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals which were capable of lysing autologous PHA-blasts or Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cells (LCL) infected with typhus-group rickettsiae. In order to determine if killing by these effectors was HLA-restricted, they stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals in vitro with typhus-group rickettsia-derived antigen for one week and then measured lysis of autologous LCL or HLA-mismatched LCL in a 4-6 hour Cr/sup 51/-release assay. There was significant lysis of both the autologous and the HLA-mismatched infected targets as compared to the corresponding uninfected targets. Since this suggested that the effectors were lymphokine activated killers (LAK) rather than cytotoxic T lymphocytes, they then tested this hypothesis by stimulating PBMC from both immune and non-immune individuals in vitro for one week with purified interleukin 2 and measuring lysis of infected, autologous LCL. PBMC thus treated, from both immune and non-immune individuals, were capable of significantly lysing autologous, infected LCL as compared to the non-infected control. They therefore conclude that targets infected with typhus-group rickettsiae are susceptible to lysis to LAK.

  7. Chicago's Two Public School Systems: Standardized Test Results Compared by Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James H.

    Throughout the Chicago Public Schools systematic differences exist between the performance of children of different racial and ethnic groups. In most schools where students of more than one group are found, Asians and Whites test at higher levels than Blacks and Hispanics. When income level and school type are controlled, small differences are…

  8. Teacher Commitment: A Comparative Study of Malaysian Ethnic Groups in Three Types of Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Lei Mee; Razak, Nordin Abd

    2014-01-01

    Commitment is a complex attitude that is potentially influenced by the nature of the groups and is contingent on the context in which an individual functions. Thus, different sociocultural environments will prescribe different imperatives for individuals' or groups' attitudes toward their work, particularly teachers' commitment in a…

  9. A Comparative Study of Collaborative Learning in "Paper Scribbles" and "Group Scribbles"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Chen Fang

    2010-01-01

    "Paper Scribbles" (PS) consisting of markers, vanguard sheets and 3M "Post-It" notes, is a pedagogical tool to harness collective intelligence of groups for collaborative learning in the classroom. Borrowing the key features of PS and yet avoiding some of their physical limitations, a computer-based tool called "Group Scribbles" (GS) was designed…

  10. The Element Effect Revisited: Factors Determining Leaving Group Ability in Activated Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Senger, Nicholas A.; Bo, Bo; Cheng, Qian; Keeffe, James R.; Gronert, Scott; Wu, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    The “element effect” in nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions (SNAr) is characterized by the leaving group order, F > NO2 > Cl ≈ Br > I, in activated aryl halides. Multiple causes for this result have been proposed. Experimental evidence shows that the element effect order in the reaction of piperidine with 2,4-dinitrophenyl halides in methanol is governed by the differences in enthalpies of activation. Computational studies of the reaction of piperidine and dimethylamine with the same aryl halides using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for solvation indicate that polar, polarizability, solvation, and negative hyperconjugative effects are all of some importance in producing the element effect in methanol. In addition, a reversal of polarity of the C–X bond from reactant to transition state in the case of ArCl and ArBr compared to ArF also contributes to their difference in reactivity. The polarity reversal, and hyperconjugative influences have received little or no attention in the past. Nor has differential solvation of the different transition states been strongly emphasized. An anionic nucleophile, thiolate, gives very early transition states and negative activation enthalpies with activated aryl halides. The element effect is not established for these reactions. We suggest that the leaving group order in the gas phase will be dependent on the exact combination of nucleophile, leaving group, and substrate framework. The geometry of the SNAr transition state permits useful, qualitative conceptual distinctions to be made between this reaction and other modes of nucleophilic attack. PMID:23057717

  11. Formation of nanostructured Group IIA metal activated sensors: The transformation of Group IIA metal compound sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tune, Travis C.; Baker, Caitlin; Hardy, Neil; Lin, Arthur; Widing, Timothy J.; Gole, James L.

    2015-05-01

    Trends in the Group IIA metal oxides and hydroxides of magnesium, calcium, and barium are unique in the periodic table. In this study we find that they display novel trends as decorating nanostructures for extrinsic semiconductor interfaces. The Group IIA metal ions are strong Lewis acids. We form these M2+ ions in aqueous solution and bring these solutions in contact with a porous silicon interface to form interfaces for conductometric measurements. Observed responses are consistent with the formation of MgO whereas the heavier elements display behaviors which suggest the effect of their more basic nature. Mg(OH)2, when formed, represents a weak base whereas the heavier metal hydroxides of Ca, Sr, and Ba are strong bases. However, the hydroxides tend to give up hydrogen and act as Brönsted acids. For the latter elements, the reversible interaction response of nanostructures deposited to the porous silicon (PS) interface is modified, as the formation of more basic sites appears to compete with M2+ Lewis acidity and hydroxide Brönsted acidity. Mg2+ forms an interface whose response to the analytes NH3 and NO is consistent with MgO and well explained by the recently developing Inverse Hard/Soft Acid/Base model. The behavior of the Ca2+ and Ba2+ decorated interfaces as they interact with the hard base NH3 follows a reversal of the model, indicating a decrease in acidic character as the observed conductometric response suggests the interaction with hydroxyl groups. A change from oxide-like to hydroxide-like constituents is supported by XPS studies. The changes in conductometric response is easily monitored in contrast to changes associated with the Group IIA oxides and hydroxides observed in XPS, EDAX, IR, and NMR measurements.

  12. Population modelling to compare chronic external radiotoxicity between individual and population endpoints in four taxonomic groups.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Frédéric; Hertel-Aas, Turid; Real, Almudena; Lance, Emilie; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Bradshaw, Clare; Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Oughton, Deborah H; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we modelled population responses to chronic external gamma radiation in 12 laboratory species (including aquatic and soil invertebrates, fish and terrestrial mammals). Our aim was to compare radiosensitivity between individual and population endpoints and to examine how internationally proposed benchmarks for environmental radioprotection protected species against various risks at the population level. To do so, we used population matrix models, combining life history and chronic radiotoxicity data (derived from laboratory experiments and described in the literature and the FREDERICA database) to simulate changes in population endpoints (net reproductive rate R0, asymptotic population growth rate λ, equilibrium population size Neq) for a range of dose rates. Elasticity analyses of models showed that population responses differed depending on the affected individual endpoint (juvenile or adult survival, delay in maturity or reduction in fecundity), the considered population endpoint (R0, λ or Neq) and the life history of the studied species. Among population endpoints, net reproductive rate R0 showed the lowest EDR10 (effective dose rate inducing 10% effect) in all species, with values ranging from 26 μGy h(-1) in the mouse Mus musculus to 38,000 μGy h(-1) in the fish Oryzias latipes. For several species, EDR10 for population endpoints were lower than the lowest EDR10 for individual endpoints. Various population level risks, differing in severity for the population, were investigated. Population extinction (predicted when radiation effects caused population growth rate λ to decrease below 1, indicating that no population growth in the long term) was predicted for dose rates ranging from 2700 μGy h(-1) in fish to 12,000 μGy h(-1) in soil invertebrates. A milder risk, that population growth rate λ will be reduced by 10% of the reduction causing extinction, was predicted for dose rates ranging from 24 μGy h(-1) in mammals to 1800 μGy h(-1) in

  13. Comparing Three Years of Well-Being Outcomes for Youth in Group Care and Nonkinship Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Julie S.; Lee, Bethany R.; Barth, Richard P.; Rauktis, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, this study examines differences in cognitive, academic, and affective well-being of youth first placed in nonkinship foster care (N=259) and youth first placed in group care (N=89). To compare nonrandomized groups, propensity score matching was used. Results…

  14. DFT studies on the directing group dependent arene-alkene cross-couplings: arene activation vs. alkene activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Fang, De-Cai

    2015-08-01

    Due to its green-chemistry advantages, the dehydrogenative Heck reaction (DHR) has experienced enormous growth over the past few decades. In this work, two competing reaction channels were comparatively studied for the Pd(OAc)2-catalyzed DHRs of arenes with alkenes, referred to herein as the arene activation mechanism and the alkene activation mechanism, respectively, which mainly differ in the involvement of the reactants in the C-H activation step. Our calculations reveal that the commonly accepted arene activation mechanism is plausible for the desired arene-alkene cross-coupling; in contrast, the alternative alkene activation mechanism is kinetically inaccessible for the desired cross-coupling, but it is feasible for the homo-coupling of alkenes. The nature of directing groups on reactants could mainly determine the dominance of the two competing reaction routes, and therefore, influence the experimental yields. A wide range of directing groups experimentally used are examined by the density functional theory (DFT) method in this work, providing theoretical guidance for screening compatible reactants. PMID:26108375

  15. Supporting Mobile Collaborative Activities through Scaffolded Flexible Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boticki, Ivica; Looi, Chee-Kit; Wong, Lung-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    Within the field of Mobile Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (mCSCL), we are interested in exploring the space of collaborative activities that enable students to practice communication, negotiation and decision-making skills. Collaboration is via learning activities that circumvent the constraints of fixed seating or locations of…

  16. Development, Evaluation and Implementation of Chief Complaint Groupings to Activate Data Collection

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, L.; Hoffman, J.; Alessandrini, E.; Ballard, D. W.; Norris, R.; Tzimenatos, L.; Swietlik, M.; Tham, E.; Grundmeier, R. W.; Kuppermann, N.; Dayan, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Overuse of cranial computed tomography scans in children with blunt head trauma unnecessarily exposes them to radiation. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) blunt head trauma prediction rules identify children who do not require a computed tomography scan. Electronic health record (EHR) based clinical decision support (CDS) may effectively implement these rules but must only be provided for appropriate patients in order to minimize excessive alerts. Objectives To develop, implement and evaluate site-specific groupings of chief complaints (CC) that accurately identify children with head trauma, in order to activate data collection in an EHR. Methods As part of a 13 site clinical trial comparing cranial computed tomography use before and after implementation of CDS, four PECARN sites centrally developed and locally implemented CC groupings to trigger a clinical trial alert (CTA) to facilitate the completion of an emergency department head trauma data collection template. We tested and chose CC groupings to attain high sensitivity while maintaining at least moderate specificity. Results Due to variability in CCs available, identical groupings across sites were not possible. We noted substantial variability in the sensitivity and specificity of seemingly similar CC groupings between sites. The implemented CC groupings had sensitivities greater than 90% with specificities between 75–89%. During the trial, formal testing and provider feedback led to tailoring of the CC groupings at some sites. Conclusions CC groupings can be successfully developed and implemented across multiple sites to accurately identify patients who should have a CTA triggered to facilitate EHR data collection. However, CC groupings will necessarily vary in order to attain high sensitivity and moderate-to-high specificity. In future trials, the balance between sensitivity and specificity should be considered based on the nature of the clinical condition

  17. Classroom-Based Interdependent Group Contingencies Increase Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Sarah; Rudrud, Eric H.; Witts, Benjamin N.; Schulze, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 2 interdependent group contingencies (individual vs. cumulative classroom goal setting) on the number of pedometer-recorded steps taken per day. Thirty third-grade students in 2 classrooms participated. An ABACX design was conducted in which the X phase referred to a replication of the most successful phase…

  18. The comparative effectiveness of group and individually contingent free time with inner-city junior high school students1

    PubMed Central

    Long, James D.; Williams, Robert L.

    1973-01-01

    A major purpose of the study was to assess the relative effects of group versus individually contingent free time in modifying student behaviors. Other purposes were to determine the effectiveness of well-planned lesson activities and tokens without back-up reinforcers. Eight students in an inner-city seventh-grade class of 32 blacks served as subjects. Well-organized lesson activities and success feedback via tokens did not produce high levels of desirable behavior. In contrast, group and individually contingent free time produced substantially higher levels of appropriate behavior than did the baseline conditions. The group reinforcement procedure appeared to be slightly more effective than individual reinforcement. PMID:16795429

  19. Antimalarial and Antileishmanial Activities of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Triazole-Linked Cap Group

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vishal; Guerrant, William; Chen, Po C.; Gryder, Berkley; Benicewicz, Derek B.; Khan, Shabana I.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2009-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are endowed with plethora of biological functions including anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, and cognition-enhancing activities. Parsing the structure–activity relationship (SAR) for each disease condition is vital for long-term therapeutic applications of HDACi. We report in the present study specific cap group substitution patterns and spacer-group chain lengths that enhance the antimalarial and antileishmanial activity of aryltriazolylhydroxamates-based HDACi. We identified many compounds that are several folds selectively cytotoxic to the plasmodium parasites compared to standard HDACi. Also, a few of these compounds have antileishmanial activity that rivals that of miltefosine, the only currently available oral agent against visceral leishmaniasis. The anti-parasite properties of several of these compounds tracked well with their anti-HDAC activities. The results presented here provide further evidence on the suitability of HDAC inhibition as a viable therapeutic option to curb infections caused by apicomplexan protozoans and trypanosomatids. PMID:19914074

  20. A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Group Equine Assisted Counseling with At-Risk Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Kay Sudekum; Chandler, Cynthia K.; Goodwin-Bond, Deborah; Casey, Janie

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrates the efficacy of Equine Assisted Counseling (EAC) by comparing EAC to classroom-based counseling. Students (n = 164) identified as being at high risk for academic and/or social failure participated in 12 weekly counseling sessions. Within-group paired sample t-test results comparing pre- and post-treatment scores for…

  1. Physical Activity Level and Physical Functionality in Nonagenarians Compared to Individuals Aged 60–74 Years

    PubMed Central

    Frisard, Madlyn I.; Fabre, Jennifer M.; Russell, Ryan D.; King, Christina M.; DeLany, James P.; Wood, Robert H.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional dependence and the risks of disability increase with age. The loss of independence is thought to be partially due to a decrease in physical activity. However, in populations, accurate measurement of physical activity is challenging and may not provide information on functional impairment. Methods This study therefore assessed physical functionality and physical activity level in a group of nonagenarians (11 men/11 women; 93 ± 1 years, 66.6 ± 2.4 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 24 ± 1 kg/m2) and a group of participants aged 60–74 years (17 men/15 women; 70 ± 1 years, 83.3 ± 3.0 kg, BMI = 29 ± 1 kg/m2) from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Physical activity level was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Physical functionality was assessed using the Reduced Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP10). Results Nonagenarians had lower absolute ( p < .001) and adjusted ( p < .007) TEE compared to participants aged 60–74 years which was attributed to a reduction in both RMR and physical activity level. Nonagenarians also had reduced functional performance ( p < .001) which was correlated with activity level (r = 0.68, p < .001). Conclusions When compared to individuals aged 60–74 years, 73% of the reduction in TEE in nonagenarians can be attributed to a reduction in physical activity level, the remaining being accounted for by a reduction in RMR. The reduced physical activity in nonagenarians is associated with less physical functionality. This study provides the first objective comparison of physical functionality and actual levels of physical activity in older individuals. PMID:17634327

  2. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  3. [Migration strategies and ethnic networks compared: the Burkina Faso and Senegalese groups in Italy].

    PubMed

    Schmidt Di Friedberg, O

    1996-03-01

    "African immigration towards Italy is presented as part of the wider international context. The function of emigration networks is briefly examined. A comparison is made between the Burkinabe and Senegalese groups, the latter being the most important group from West Africa. The different ways of entering the labour market are studied according to the legal situation of migrants (whether regulars or clandestines), the Italian region of settlement, and above all according to the characteristics of the ethnic networks established by the two above-mentioned nationalities.... The article shows how the choice of individual or group integration strategies depends both on cultural factors of the society of origin and on the economic and social situation of the Italian region of settlement." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12320684

  4. Comparative Study of Bacterial Groups within the Human Cecal and Fecal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Marteau, Philippe; Pochart, Philippe; Doré, Joël; Béra-Maillet, Christel; Bernalier, Annick; Corthier, Gérard

    2001-01-01

    The composition of the human cecal microbiota is poorly known because of sampling difficulties. Samples of cecal fluid from eight subjects were collected via an intestinal tube. Feces were also collected. Total anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, bifidobacteria, and Bacteroides were enumerated by culture methods, and the predominant phylogenetic groups were quantified by molecular hybridization using a set of six rRNA-targeted probes. The numbers of strict anaerobes, bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, and members of the Clostridium coccoides group and Clostridium leptum subgroup were lower in the cecum. Facultative anaerobes represented 25% of total bacteria in the cecum versus 1% in the feces. PMID:11571208

  5. A Comparative Study of the Perceived Stress of Springboard Diving by Age and Sex Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, R. Gary

    Three measures--physiological, behavioral, and phenomenological in nature--were used to register inexperienced springboard divers' perceptions of stress when faced with the execution of a forward dive from three standard heights; pool deck, one-meter and three-meter springboards. Forty-eight subjects were divided into four groups representing…

  6. Comparative Research on Mixed-Age Groups in Swedish Nursery and Compulsory Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut

    1994-01-01

    Reviews recent studies on the effects of mixed-age grouping (MAG) in Swedish nursery and elementary schools. Although studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that MAG was beneficial to children's learning and socioemotional development and to teachers' work satisfaction, studies conducted in the 1990s suggest that MAG does not promote…

  7. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  8. Expanded MLST genotyping and comparative genomic hybridization evidence for host preferred groups in Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of previous work on campylobacteriosis has centered on the species Campylobacter jejuni, however, Campylobacter coli, the sister group to C. jejuni, is also a significant problem, but remains a much less studied organism. The purpose of this work was to develop and apply an expanded 16 ...

  9. Combining Identity and Integration: Comparative Analysis of Schools for Two Minority Groups in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulyk, Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses school systems for two of Ukraine's minorities, the Hungarians and the Crimean Tatars with the aim of assessing their success in promoting ethnocultural identity and social integration of the minority youth. I demonstrate that the exclusive instruction in Hungarian ensures the reproduction of group language knowledge and…

  10. Comparing the clustering of galaxies and galaxy group by using the SDSS DR7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiran; Brunner, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    By using the angular two-point correlation function, we measure the clustering strength of a clean sample of galaxies (explored in Wang, Brunner, & Dolence 2013) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven. By using these same data, we first find isolated pairs, triplets, quads, and larger groups of galaxies, and subsequently measure the clustering of these subsamples. We find the clustering strength increases with groups size, which supports the halo model of galaxy clustering and demonstrates the efficacy of our isolated group catalog for general studies such as the galaxy merger rate. Finally, we explore the effects of galaxy spectral type and photometric redshift on the clustering behavior of these galaxy group samples. References: Blake, C., Collister, A., Lahav, O. 2008, MNRAS, 385, 1257 Hickson, P. 1982, ApJ, 255, 382 Ross, A. J., Brunner, R. J. 2009, MNRAS, 399, 878 Wang Y., Brunner R. J., Dolence J. C. 2013, MNRAS, 432, 1961 Zehavi, I., et al. 2004, ApJ, 608, 16

  11. In Vitro Activity of Netilmicin Compared with Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Amikacin, and Kanamycin

    PubMed Central

    Eickhoff, Theodore C.; Ehret, Josephine M.

    1977-01-01

    The in vitro activity of netilmicin was compared with that of gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and kanamycin against 636 strains of bacteria recently isolated from clinical sources. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic, but netilmicin and tobramycin closely paralleled it. Netilmicin was generally four-to eightfold less active than gentamicin against Serratia and group A streptococci, and was twofold less active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. When effects of inoculum size and concentration of divalent cations in the media were evaluated, netilmicin was shown to be similar to gentamicin in vitro. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for P. aeruginosa were increased as much as 18-fold when the Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations were increased to physiological levels in Mueller-Hinton broth. PMID:879733

  12. Working Group 5: Measurements technology and active experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E.; Barfield, J. N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Feynman, J.; Quinn, J. N.; Roberts, W.; Stone, N.; Taylor, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues identified by working groups 5 are listed. (1) New instruments are needed to upgrade the ability to measure plasma properties in space. (2) Facilities should be developed for conducting a broad range of plasma experiments in space. (3) The ability to predict plasma weather within magnetospheres should be improved and a capability to modify plasma weather developed. (4) Methods of control of plasma spacecraft and spacecraft plasma interference should be upgraded. (5) The space station laboratory facilities should be designed with attention to problems of flexibility to allow for future growth. These issues are discussed.

  13. A comparative study of frontal bone morphology among Pleistocene hominin fossil groups.

    PubMed

    Athreya, Sheela

    2009-12-01

    Features of the frontal bone that are conventionally used to distinguish among fossil hominin groups were quantitatively examined. Fifty-five fossil crania dating from the early to the late Pleistocene were analyzed. Using a modified pantograph, outlines of the frontal bone were collected along the midsagittal and two parasagittal planes. The profile from nasion to bregma, as well as two profiles above the medial and lateral sections of the orbit, respectively, extending from the orbital margin to the coronal suture were traced. The outlines were measured using Elliptical Fourier Function Analysis (EFFA), which enabled a quantification of aspects of the frontal bone that have historically been described primarily in nonmetric or linear terms. Four measurements were obtained: 1) overall morphology as expressed in the Fourier harmonic amplitudes; 2) maximum projection of the supraorbital torus at three points along the browridge (glabella and the medial and lateral aspects of the torus above the orbit); 3) maximum distance of the frontal squama from the frontal chord, capturing forehead curvature; and 4) nasion-bregma chord length. The results indicate that the midsagittal profile is significantly different among all Pleistocene groups in analyses that include both size and shape, as well as size-adjusted data. Homo erectus is significantly different from the late Pleistocene groups (Neandertals and early modern H. sapiens) in glabellar projection. Anatomically modern humans are significantly different from all other groups in both raw and size-standardized analyses of all three outlines that captured overall morphology, as well as forehead curvature and lateral supraorbital torus prominence, and middle Pleistocene Homo are significantly different in both medial and lateral overall parasagittal form. However, for the majority of analyses there were no significant differences among the Pleistocene archaic groups in supraorbital torus projection, frontal squama

  14. Activation of Group I and Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Causes LTD and LTP of Electrical Synapses in the Rat Thalamic Reticular Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zemin; Neely, Ryan; Landisman, Carole E

    2015-05-13

    Compared with the extensive characterization of chemical synaptic plasticity, electrical synaptic plasticity remains poorly understood. Electrical synapses are strong and prevalent among the GABAergic neurons of the rodent thalamic reticular nucleus. Using paired whole-cell recordings, we show that activation of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) induces long-term depression of electrical synapses. Conversely, activation of the Group II mGluR, mGluR3, induces long-term potentiation of electrical synapses. By testing downstream targets, we show that modifications induced by both mGluR groups converge on the same signaling cascade--adenylyl cyclase to cAMP to protein kinase A--but with opposing effects. Furthermore, the magnitude of modification is inversely correlated to baseline coupling strength. Thus, electrical synapses, like their chemical counterparts, undergo both strengthening and weakening forms of plasticity, which should play a significant role in thalamocortical function. PMID:25972185

  15. Comparative Study of Surface-Active Properties and Antimicrobial Activities of Disaccharide Monoesters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Song, Fei; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Wei, Wei; Feng, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides of medium-chain fatty acid monoesters were synthesized through transesterifications by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) to yield nine monoesters for subsequent study. Their antimicrobial activities were investigated using three pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans. Their surface-active properties including air–water surface tension, critical micelle concentration, and foaming and emulsion power and stability were also studied. The results showed that all of the tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). The results demonstrated that the carbon chain length was the most important factor influencing the surface properties, whereas degree of esterification and hydrophilic groups showed little effect. PMID:25531369

  16. Comparative study of surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of disaccharide monoesters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Song, Fei; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Wei, Wei; Feng, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides of medium-chain fatty acid monoesters were synthesized through transesterifications by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) to yield nine monoesters for subsequent study. Their antimicrobial activities were investigated using three pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans. Their surface-active properties including air-water surface tension, critical micelle concentration, and foaming and emulsion power and stability were also studied. The results showed that all of the tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). The results demonstrated that the carbon chain length was the most important factor influencing the surface properties, whereas degree of esterification and hydrophilic groups showed little effect. PMID:25531369

  17. Characterization of inhibitory mechanism and antifungal activity between group-1 and group-2 phytocystatins from taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Ming; Kumar, Senthil; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Venkatagiri, Shripathi; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-10-01

    Tarocystatin from Colocasia esculenta, a group-2 phytocystatin, is a defense protein against phytopathogenic nematodes and fungi. It is composed of a highly conserved N-terminal region, which is homological to group-1 cystatin, and a repetitive peptide at the C-terminus. The purified recombinant proteins of tarocystatin, such as full-length (FL), N-terminus (Nt) and C-terminus (Ct) peptides, were produced and their inhibitory activities against papain as well as their antifungal effects were investigated. Kinetic analysis revealed that FL peptide exhibited mixed type inhibition (K(ia) = 0.098 microM and K(ib) = 0.252 microM) and Nt peptide showed competitive inhibition (K(i) = 0.057 microM), whereas Ct peptide possessed weak papain activation properties. A shift in the inhibitory pattern from competitive inhibition of Nt peptide alone to mixed type inhibition of FL peptide implied that the Ct peptide has an regulatory effect on the function of FL peptide. Based on the inhibitory kinetics of FL (group-2) and Nt (group-1) peptides on papain activity, an inhibitory mechanism of group-2 phytocystatins and a regulatory mechanism of extended Ct peptide have each been proposed. By contrast, the antifungal activity of Nt peptide appeared to be greater than that of FL peptide, and the Ct peptide showed no effect on antifungal activity, indicating that the antifungal effect is not related to proteinase inhibitory activity. The results are valid for most phytocystatins with respect to the inhibitory mechanism against cysteine proteinase. PMID:18785929

  18. Anesthetic Activity of Alfaxalone Compared with Ketamine in Mice.

    PubMed

    Siriarchavatana, Parkpoom; Ayers, Jessica D; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    Alfaxalone encased in hydroxypropyl-β -cyclodextrin is a neuroactive steroid compound that has recently been approved in the United States for use as an anesthetic in dogs and cats. We evaluated the use of alfaxalone compared with ketamine, both alone and in combination with xylazine, for anesthesia of C57BL/6 mice. We assessed time to onset of anesthesia, duration of action, reflex responses, respiratory rate, and clinical signs. Alfaxalone (80 mg/kg IP) induced a light surgical plane of anesthesia in all mice, with a time to onset of 2.2 ± 0.2 min and duration of 57.1 ± 3.8 min, whereas ketamine (80 mg/kg IP) provided only sedative effects (time to onset, 5.4 ± 0.4 min; duration, 6.9 ± 0.8 min). Clinically, alfaxalone caused a spectrum of activities, including popcorn-like jumping movements after injection, intense scratching of the face, hyperresponsiveness to noise or touch, and marked limb jerking during recovery. Adding xylazine to the single-agent protocols achieved deep surgical anesthesia (duration: alfaxalone + xylazine, 80.3 ± 17.8 min; ketamine + xylazine, 37.4 ± 8.2 min) and ameliorated the adverse clinical signs. Our preliminary analysis suggests that, because of its side effects, alfaxalone alone is not a viable anesthetic option for mice. Although alfaxalone combined with xylazine appeared to be a more viable option, some mice still experienced mild adverse reactions, and the long duration of action might be problematic regarding the maintenance of body temperature and monitoring of recovery. Further studies evaluating different routes of administration and drug combinations are warranted. PMID:27423149

  19. Active site mutants of human secreted Group IIA Phospholipase A2 lacking hydrolytic activity retain their bactericidal effect.

    PubMed

    Chioato, Lucimara; Aragão, Elisangela Aparecida; Ferreira, Tatiana Lopes; Ward, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The Human Secreted Group IIA Phospholipase A(2) (hsPLA2GIIA) presents potent bactericidal activity, and is considered to contribute to the acute-phase immune response. Hydrolysis of inner membrane phospholipids is suggested to underlie the bactericidal activity, and we have evaluated this proposal by comparing catalytic activity with bactericidal and liposome membrane damaging effects of the G30S, H48Q and D49K hsPLA2GIIA mutants. All mutants showed severely impaired hydrolytic activities against mixed DOPC:DOPG liposome membranes, however the bactericidal effect against Micrococcus luteus was less affected, with 50% killing at concentrations of 1, 3, 7 and 9 μg/mL for the wild-type, D49K, H48Q and G30S mutants respectively. Furthermore, all proteins showed Ca(2+)-independent damaging activity against liposome membranes demonstrating that in addition to the hydrolysis-dependent membrane damage, the hsPLA2GIIA presents a mechanism for permeabilization of phospholipid bilayers that is independent of catalytic activity, which may play a role in the bactericidal function of the protein. PMID:21986368

  20. Reactivity of activated phenyl groups in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, M.R.; Yao, J.; Evilia, R.F.

    1996-08-01

    The reactivities of phenol, anisole, aniline, and N,N-dimethylaniline in deuterium oxide and sodium deuteroxide solution at 400 C and 250 bar are reported. Ortho/para deuteration characteristic of electrophilic substitution is found for phenol in both media and for all of the compounds in deuterium oxide. However, under basic conditions, only ortho deuteration of anisole and aniline and no deuteration of N,N-dimethylaniline is observed. These latter results in basic media suggest that, in these cases, the reaction proceeds via attack by deuteroxide ion at the site closest to the inductively electron withdrawing group, rather than by the more common electrophilic mechanism. N,N-dimethylaniline undergoes electrophilic substitution under neutral conditions, but does not react in basic media because either the acidity of its ortho hydrogen is too weak and/or it is sterically hindered by the presence of the methyl groups. N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium chloride decomposes to uncharacterized products under the reaction conditions employed.

  1. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM. PMID:26018644

  2. Meta-Analysis of Group Learning Activities: Empirically Based Teaching Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Teaching researchers commonly employ group-based collaborative learning approaches in Teaching of Psychology teaching activities. However, the authors know relatively little about the effectiveness of group-based activities in relation to known psychological processes associated with group dynamics. Therefore, the authors conducted a meta-analytic…

  3. Effect of Different Types of Small-Group Activities on Students' Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Krista K.; Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Teaching reform efforts in chemistry education often involve engaging students in small-group activities of different types. This study focused on the analysis of how activity type affected the nature of group conversations. In particular, we analyzed the small-group conversations of students enrolled in a chemistry course for nonscience majors.…

  4. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  5. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé*, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  6. Current activities of the Atmospheric Composition Sub-Group of the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkov, Bojan

    The Atmospheric Sub-Group of the CEOS Calibration and Validation Working Group (CEOS WGCV/ASCG) was established in November 2001 with mission to ensure accurate and traceable calibration of remotely-sensed atmospheric chemistry radiance data and validation of higher level products, for application to atmospheric chemistry and climate research. This working-group, consisting of 15 members from space agencies and other relevant agencies and organizations with broad experience in calibration, modeling, algorithm development and validation, meet on an annual basis to promote international collaboration and technical exchanges, encourage interactions between mission scientists and data users, recommend network validation sites, develop comprehensive validation methodologies involving ground-based and space-borne assets, and specify comprehensive and consistent multi-mission validation datasets. Recent activities of the ACSG, including the recent ground-based intercomparisons, the ongoing NASA-ESA-NDACC validation data sharing activities, and the planned multi-agency CO2 validation efforts, will be presented.

  7. A comparative study of parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization of in vitro matured caprine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kouamo, J; Kharche, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured caprine oocytes. A total of 881 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC’s) were collected from 243 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing eCG (20 IU/ml), hCG (20 IUµg/ml), oestradiol-17β (1 µg/ml), BSA embryo tested (3 mg/ml) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27 h. Based on cumulus expansion, the maturation rate was 86.86%. Morphological matured oocytes (n=749) were selected, denuded and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=223) in vitro matured oocytes activated with 5 µm calcium ionophore for 5 min and cultured in mCR2aa medium containing 5 mM DMAP for 4 h. After 4 h of DMAP treatment, the presumptive zygotes were washed and cultured in the embryo culture medium. Group 2 (n=526) in vitro matured oocytes processed for IVF in mTALP using fresh semen of a fertile pure bred adult Sirohi buck and in vitro culture in mCR2aa medium. Development of putative zygotes was observed every 24 h till day 9 post activation or fertilization under inverted phase contrast microscope. The cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst percentage in groups 1 and 2 were 67.36%, 23.07% and 9.23%, and 30.99%, 19.63% and 9.82%, respectively. The results indicated that the cleavage rate was comparatively higher following parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin/6-DMAP than IVF. PMID:27175145

  8. A comparative study of parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization of in vitro matured caprine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kouamo, J; Kharche, S D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured caprine oocytes. A total of 881 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC's) were collected from 243 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing eCG (20 IU/ml), hCG (20 IUµg/ml), oestradiol-17β (1 µg/ml), BSA embryo tested (3 mg/ml) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27 h. Based on cumulus expansion, the maturation rate was 86.86%. Morphological matured oocytes (n=749) were selected, denuded and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=223) in vitro matured oocytes activated with 5 µm calcium ionophore for 5 min and cultured in mCR2aa medium containing 5 mM DMAP for 4 h. After 4 h of DMAP treatment, the presumptive zygotes were washed and cultured in the embryo culture medium. Group 2 (n=526) in vitro matured oocytes processed for IVF in mTALP using fresh semen of a fertile pure bred adult Sirohi buck and in vitro culture in mCR2aa medium. Development of putative zygotes was observed every 24 h till day 9 post activation or fertilization under inverted phase contrast microscope. The cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst percentage in groups 1 and 2 were 67.36%, 23.07% and 9.23%, and 30.99%, 19.63% and 9.82%, respectively. The results indicated that the cleavage rate was comparatively higher following parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin/6-DMAP than IVF. PMID:27175145

  9. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Spanish and Virginia groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mahatma, M K; Thawait, L K; Bishi, S K; Khatediya, N; Rathnakumar, A L; Lalwani, H B; Misra, J B

    2016-05-01

    Kernels of sixty groundnut genotypes comprising thirty each of Spanish and Virginia groups were characterized and compared for the content of oil, protein, phenols and antioxidant activity along with their fatty acid and sugars profiles. The antioxidant activity for Virginia genotypes was ranged from 12.5 to 16.5 μM Trolox equivalent activity for Spanish genotypes ranged from 6.8-15.2 μM. Amongst Virginia types, the highest oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio of 2.38 was observed for NRCG 12312 while from Spanish group the highest O/L ratio of 1.24 was observed for NRCG 12731. The sucrose content for Virginia genotypes ranged from 38.5 to 69.0 mg/g while it was 27.9 to 53.3 mg/g for Spanish genotypes. Average myo-inositol content was higher for Spanish genotypes (0.8-2.1 mg/g) compared to Virginia (0.4-1.8 mg/g) while the reverse was true for stachayose content (Spanish: 3.5-7.9 mg/g; Virginia: 4.6-10.3 mg/g). Thus, Virginia genotypes could be preferred to Spanish genotypes for better oil stability and antioxidant activity. PMID:27407194

  10. Comparability of TOEFL CBT Writing Prompts for Different Native Language Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won; Breland, Hunter; Muraki, Eiji

    2005-01-01

    This study has investigated the comparability of computer-based testing writing prompts in the Test of English as a Foreign LanguageTM (TOEFL) for examinees of different native language backgrounds. A total of 81 writing prompts introduced from July 1998 through August 2000 were examined using a 3-step logistic regression procedure for ordinal…

  11. Comparing One-Step M-Estimators of Location Corresponding to Two Independent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of comparing one-step M-estimates of location for heavy tailed distributions is proposed and investigated. Simulations indicate that the new procedure provides good control over Type I errors and has more power than do some other methods for dealing with heavy tailed distributions. (SLD)

  12. Comparative Research for the 16-19 Age Group in Western Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Edmund J.

    1975-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1973 the Comparative Research Unit at the University of London King's College investigated the social and educational implications of rapidly increasing full-time enrollments at the upper secondary level in England, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden. The methods and results of investigation are summarized in this paper. (Editor/RK)

  13. Comparative Characteristic of Job Mobility and Job Career of Different Demographic Groups in Rural Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryvkina, Rozalina Vladimirovna; Koriakina, Irina Mikhailovna

    The job mobility and job career of rural women of three generations (16-29, 30-54, and 55 and older) were compared to those of rural men. Data were derived from questionnaires given to the rural people of the Novosibirsk province during surveys conducted in 1967 and 1972. Two data arrays were used--605 questionnaires mechanically selected from the…

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Cytotoxic Effects of Okadaic Acid-Group Toxins on Human Intestinal Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ferron, Pierre-Jean; Hogeveen, Kevin; Fessard, Valérie; Le Hégarat, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    The phycotoxin, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin 1 and 2 (DTX-1 and -2) are protein phosphatase PP2A and PP1 inhibitors involved in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Data on the toxicity of the OA-group toxins show some differences with respect to the in vivo acute toxicity between the toxin members. In order to investigate whether OA and congeners DTX-1 and -2 may induce different mechanisms of action during acute toxicity on the human intestine, we compared their toxicological effects in two in vitro intestinal cell models: the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2, and the intestinal muco-secreting cell line, HT29-MTX. Using a high content analysis approach, we evaluated various cytotoxicity parameters, including apoptosis (caspase-3 activation), DNA damage (phosphorylation of histone H2AX), inflammation (translocation of NF-κB) and cell proliferation (Ki-67 production). Investigation of the kinetics of the cellular responses demonstrated that the three toxins induced a pro-inflammatory response followed by cell cycle disruption in both cell lines, leading to apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that the three toxins induce similar effects, as no major differences in the cytotoxic responses could be detected. However DTX-1 induced cytotoxic effects at five-fold lower concentrations than for OA and DTX-2. PMID:25196936

  15. Comparative Model Tests of SDP and CFA Pile Groups in Non-Cohesive Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA) piles and screw displacement piles (SDP). The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.

  16. Superfluid phase transition with activated velocity fluctuations: Renormalization group approach.

    PubMed

    Dančo, Michal; Hnatič, Michal; Komarova, Marina V; Lučivjanský, Tomáš; Nalimov, Mikhail Yu

    2016-01-01

    A quantum field model that incorporates Bose-condensed systems near their phase transition into a superfluid phase and velocity fluctuations is proposed. The stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is used for a generation of the velocity fluctuations. As such this model generalizes model F of critical dynamics. The field-theoretic action is derived using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism and path integral approach. The regime of equilibrium fluctuations is analyzed within the perturbative renormalization group method. The double (ε,δ)-expansion scheme is employed, where ε is a deviation from space dimension 4 and δ describes scaling of velocity fluctuations. The renormalization procedure is performed to the leading order. The main corollary gained from the analysis of the thermal equilibrium regime suggests that one-loop calculations of the presented models are not sufficient to make a definite conclusion about the stability of fixed points. We also show that critical exponents are drastically changed as a result of the turbulent background and critical fluctuations are in fact destroyed by the developed turbulence fluctuations. The scaling exponent of effective viscosity is calculated and agrees with expected value 4/3. PMID:26871026

  17. Superfluid phase transition with activated velocity fluctuations: Renormalization group approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dančo, Michal; Hnatič, Michal; Komarova, Marina V.; Lučivjanský, Tomáš; Nalimov, Mikhail Yu.

    2016-01-01

    A quantum field model that incorporates Bose-condensed systems near their phase transition into a superfluid phase and velocity fluctuations is proposed. The stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is used for a generation of the velocity fluctuations. As such this model generalizes model F of critical dynamics. The field-theoretic action is derived using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism and path integral approach. The regime of equilibrium fluctuations is analyzed within the perturbative renormalization group method. The double (ɛ ,δ ) -expansion scheme is employed, where ɛ is a deviation from space dimension 4 and δ describes scaling of velocity fluctuations. The renormalization procedure is performed to the leading order. The main corollary gained from the analysis of the thermal equilibrium regime suggests that one-loop calculations of the presented models are not sufficient to make a definite conclusion about the stability of fixed points. We also show that critical exponents are drastically changed as a result of the turbulent background and critical fluctuations are in fact destroyed by the developed turbulence fluctuations. The scaling exponent of effective viscosity is calculated and agrees with expected value 4 /3 .

  18. Comparative Study of the Activity of Brain Behavioral Systems in Methamphetamine and Opiate Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Alemikhah, Marjan; Faridhosseini, Farhad; Kordi, Hassan; Rasouli-Azad, Morad; Shahini, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Substance dependency is a major problem for the general health of a society. Different approaches have investigated the substance dependency in order to explain it. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) is an advanced and important neuropsychological theory in this area. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare three systems of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory the behavioral activation system (r-BAS), the revised behavioral inhibition system (r-BIS), and the revised fight/flight/freezing system (r-FFFS) between patients dependent on methamphetamine and opiates, and a group of controls. Patients and Methods: This research was a causal-comparative study that was conducted in the first six months of 2012. The population of the study was males of Mashhad city, who were dependent on methamphetamine or opiates, and ruling out psychotic disorders and prominent Axis II. Twenty-five people were selected by the convenient sampling method. Also, 25 non-dependent people from the patients’ relatives were selected and matched for the variables of age, gender, and education to participate in this study. Participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview (SCID) for DSM-IV, demographic questionnaire information, and a Jackson-5 questionnaire (2009). Data were analyzed by Chi-square, K-S, and independent t-test. Results: The methamphetamine dependent group had a higher sensitivity in the r-BAS, r-BIS, and the r-Fight and r-Freezing systems compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in r-Flight between the two groups (P > 0.05). “The scores of r-BIS were also significantly higher in the methamphetamine-dependent group than the opioid-dependent and control groups. For the r-Fight variable, the methamphetamine-dependent group was higher than the opioid-dependent group”. Conclusions: The personality patterns of patients dependent on methamphetamines were different from the controls

  19. BRAIN REWARD ACTIVITY TO MASKED IN-GROUP SMILING FACES PREDICTS FRIENDSHIP DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-Hao A.; Whalen, Paul J.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Taylor, James M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether neural responses in the ventral striatum (VS) to in-group facial expressions—presented without explicit awareness—could predict friendship patterns in newly arrived individuals from China six months later. Individuals who initially showed greater VS activity in response to in-group happy expressions during functional neuroimaging later made considerably more in-group friends, suggesting that VS activity might reflect reward processes that drive in-group approach behaviors. PMID:26185595

  20. The Nitrogen Footprint Tool for Institutions: Comparing Results for a Diverse Group of Institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castner, E.; Leach, A. M.; Galloway, J. N.; Hastings, M. G.; Lantz-Trissel, J.; Leary, N.; Kimiecik, J.; de la Reguera, E.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) has drastically altered the nitrogen cycle over the past few decades by causing it to accumulate in the environment. A nitrogen footprint (NF) estimates the amount of Nr released to the environment as a result of an entity's activities. The Nitrogen Footprint Tool (NFT) for universities and institutions provides a standardized method for quantifying the NF for the activities and operations of these entities. The NFT translates data on energy use, food purchasing, sewage treatment, and fertilizer use to the amount of Nr lost to the environment using NOx and N2O emission factors, virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) for food production, N reduction rates from wastewater treatment, and nitrogen uptake factors for fertilizer. As part of the Nitrogen Footprint Project supported by the EPA, seven institutions (colleges, universities, and research institutions) have completed NFT assessments: University of Virginia, University of New Hampshire, Brown University, Dickinson College, Colorado State University, Eastern Mennonite University, and the Marine Biological Laboratory. The results of these assessments reveal the magnitude of impacts on the global nitrogen cycle by different activities and sectors, and will allow these institutions to set NF reduction goals along with management decisions based on scenarios and projections in the NFT. The trends revealed in early analysis of the results include geographic differences based on regional energy sources and local sewage treatment, as well as operational differences that stem from institution type and management. As an example of the impact of management, the amount and type of food served directly impacts the food production NF, which is a large percentage of the total NF for all institutions (35-75%). Comparison of these first NF results will shed light on the primary activities of institutions that add Nr to the environment and examine the differences between them.

  1. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: TEC Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Yilmaz, A.; Arikan, O.; Sayin, I.; Gurun, M.; Akdogan, K. E.; Yildirim, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Being a key player in Space Weather, ionospheric variability affects the performance of both communication and navigation systems. To improve the performance of these systems, ionosphere has to be monitored. Total Electron Content (TEC), line integral of the electron density along a ray path, is an important parameter to investigate the ionospheric variability. A cost-effective way of obtaining TEC is by using dual-frequency GPS receivers. Since these measurements are sparse in space, accurate and robust interpolation techniques are needed to interpolate (or map) the TEC distribution for a given region in space. However, the TEC data derived from GPS measurements contain measurement noise, model and computational errors. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the interpolation performance of the techniques on synthetic data sets that can represent various ionospheric states. By this way, interpolation performance of the techniques can be compared over many parameters that can be controlled to represent the desired ionospheric states. In this study, Multiquadrics, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Cubic Splines, Ordinary and Universal Kriging, Random Field Priors (RFP), Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP-NN), and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBF-NN) are employed as the spatial interpolation algorithms. These mapping techniques are initially tried on synthetic TEC surfaces for parameter and coefficient optimization and determination of error bounds. Interpolation performance of these methods are compared on synthetic TEC surfaces over the parameters of sampling pattern, number of samples, the variability of the surface and the trend type in the TEC surfaces. By examining the performance of the interpolation methods, it is observed that both Kriging, RFP and NN have important advantages and possible disadvantages depending on the given constraints. It is also observed that the determining parameter in the error performance is the trend in the Ionosphere

  2. Enhancement of CA3 hippocampal network activity by activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ster, Jeanne; Mateos, José María; Grewe, Benjamin Friedrich; Coiret, Guyllaume; Corti, Corrado; Corsi, Mauro; Helmchen, Fritjof; Gerber, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Impaired function or expression of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRIIs) is observed in brain disorders such as schizophrenia. This class of receptor is thought to modulate activity of neuronal circuits primarily by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Here, we characterize a postsynaptic excitatory response mediated by somato-dendritic mGluRIIs in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in stratum oriens interneurons. The specific mGluRII agonists DCG-IV or LCCG-1 induced an inward current blocked by the mGluRII antagonist LY341495. Experiments with transgenic mice revealed a significant reduction of the inward current in mGluR3−/− but not in mGluR2−/− mice. The excitatory response was associated with periods of synchronized activity at theta frequency. Furthermore, cholinergically induced network oscillations exhibited decreased frequency when mGluRIIs were blocked. Thus, our data indicate that hippocampal responses are modulated not only by presynaptic mGluRIIs that reduce glutamate release but also by postsynaptic mGluRIIs that depolarize neurons and enhance CA3 network activity. PMID:21628565

  3. A Comparative Investigation: Group 9 Cp*M(III)-Catalyzed Formal [4 + 2] Cycloaddition as an Atom-Economic Approach to Quinazolines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Lerchen, Andreas; Glorius, Frank

    2016-05-01

    A comparative study on the catalytic activity of different group 9 [Cp*M(III)] complexes in the formal [4 + 2] cycloaddition of arenes with rarely explored free imines and dioxazolones for the construction of multisubstituted quinazolines is reported herein. This investigation revealed that the cobalt catalyst is uniquely suited to this transformation due to its strong Lewis acidity and high sensitivity to steric hindrance. PMID:27110724

  4. Comparative topical anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids and cannabivarins.

    PubMed

    Tubaro, Aurelia; Giangaspero, Anna; Sosa, Silvio; Negri, Roberto; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Casano, Salvatore; Della Loggia, Roberto; Appendino, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    A selection of seven phytocannabinoids representative of the major structural types of classic cannabinoids and their corresponding cannabivarins was investigated for in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity in the Croton oil mouse ear dermatitis assay. Differences in the terpenoid moiety were far more important for anti-inflammatory activity than those at the C-3 alkyl residue, suggesting the involvement not only of cannabinoid receptors, but also of other inflammatory end-points targeted by phytocannabinoids. PMID:20450962

  5. Hippocampus-specific fMRI group activation analysis using the continuous medial representation.

    PubMed

    Yushkevich, Paul A; Detre, John A; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Fernández-Seara, María A; Tang, Kathy Z; Hoang, Angela; Korczykowski, Marc; Zhang, Hui; Gee, James C

    2007-05-01

    We present a new shape-based approach for regional group activation analysis in fMRI studies. The method restricts anatomical normalization, spatial smoothing and random effects statistical analysis to the space inside and around a structure of interest. Normalization involves finding intersubject correspondences between manually outlined masks, and it leverages the continuous medial representation, which makes it possible to extend surface-based shape correspondences to the space inside and outside of structures. Our approach is an alternative to whole-brain normalization in cases where the latter may fail due to anatomical variability or pathology. It also provides an opportunity to analyze the shape and thickness of structures concurrently with functional activation. We apply the technique to the hippocampus and evaluate it using data from a visual scene encoding fMRI study, where activation in the hippocampus is expected. We produce detailed statistical maps of hippocampal activation, as well as maps comparing activation inside and outside of the hippocampus. We find that random effects statistics computed by the new approach are more significant than those produced using the Statistical Parametric Mapping framework (Friston, K.J., Holmes, A.P., Worsley, K.J., Poline, J.-P., Firth, C.D., Frackowiak, R.S.J. 1994, Statistical parametric maps in functional imaging: a general linear approach. Human Brain Mapping, 2(4): 189-210) at low levels of smoothing, suggesting that greater specificity can be achieved by the new method without a severe tradeoff in sensitivity. PMID:17383900

  6. Evaluation of Work Place Group and Internet Based Physical Activity Interventions on Psychological Variables Associated with Exercise Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963

  7. Comparing sports vision among three groups of soft tennis adolescent athletes: Normal vision, refractive errors with and without correction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Tsun; Liu, Yen-Hsiu; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of correcting static vision on sports vision is still not clear. Aim: To examine whether sports vision (depth perception [DP], dynamic visual acuity [DVA], eye movement [EM], peripheral vision [PV], and momentary vision [MV],) were different among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision (Group A), with refractive error and corrected with (Group B) and without eyeglasses (Group C). Setting and Design: A cross-section study was conducted. Soft tennis athletes aged 10–13 who played softball tennis for 2–5 years, and who were without any ocular diseases and without visual training for the past 3 months were recruited. Materials and Methods: DPs were measured in an absolute deviation (mm) between a moving rod and fixing rod (approaching at 25 mm/s, receding at 25 mm/s, approaching at 50 mm/s, receding at 50 mm/s) using electric DP tester. A smaller deviation represented better DP. DVA, EM, PV, and MV were measured on a scale from 1 (worse) to 10 (best) using ATHLEVISION software. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the data among the three study groups. Results: A total of 73 athletes (37 in Group A, 8 in Group B, 28 in Group C) were enrolled in this study. All four items of DP showed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0051, 0.0004, 0.0095, 0.0021). PV displayed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0044). There was no significant difference in DVA, EM, and MV among the three study groups. Conclusions: Significant better DP and PV were seen among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision than those with refractive error regardless whether they had eyeglasses corrected. On the other hand, DVA, EM, and MV were similar among the three study groups. PMID:26632127

  8. Internal Consistency and Power When Comparing Total Scores from Two Groups.

    PubMed

    Barchard, Kimberly A; Brouwers, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Researchers now know that when theoretical reliability increases, power can increase, decrease, or stay the same. However, no analytic research has examined the relationship of power to the most commonly used type of reliability-internal consistency-and the most commonly used measures of internal consistency, coefficient alpha and ICC(A,k). We examine the relationship between the power of independent samples t tests and internal consistency. We explicate the mathematical model upon which researchers usually calculate internal consistency, one in which total scores are calculated as the sum of observed scores on K measures. Using this model, we derive a new formula for effect size to show that power and internal consistency are influenced by many of the same parameters but not always in the same direction. Changing an experiment in one way (e.g., lengthening the measure) is likely to influence multiple parameters simultaneously; thus, there are no simple relationships between such changes and internal consistency or power. If researchers revise measures to increase internal consistency, this might not increase power. To increase power, researchers should increase sample size, select measures that assess areas where group differences are largest, and use more powerful statistical procedures (e.g., ANCOVA). PMID:27269041

  9. [Emotional experience and regulation across the adult lifespan: comparative analysis in three age groups].

    PubMed

    Márquez-González, María; Izal Fernández de Trocóniz, María; Montorio Cerrato, Ignacio; Losada Baltar, Andrés

    2008-11-01

    The studies focused on age-related differences in emotional experience are still scarce, and most of them have been conducted with North-American samples. This study explores the presence of age-related differences in some facets of emotional experience (subjective well-being and emotional intensity), as well as in variables related to emotion regulation (subjective emotional control and three emotion-regulation mechanisms: situation selection, emotion suppression, rumination) in the Spanish population. One hundred and sixty people from three age groups (younger, middle-aged and older adults) participated in the study. Older participants reported lower levels of life satisfaction and positive emotional intensity than younger ones, as well as higher levels of perceived emotional control, emotional maturity and leveling of positive affect, and more use of emotion suppression. The results partially support the emotional maturity hypothesis of emotional functioning in old age, but also suggest that older adults' emotional regulation may present important peculiarities which have not yet been addressed in the extant literature, such as the moderation or limitation of emotional experience, especially positive emotions. PMID:18940059

  10. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  11. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Skills Groups at School: A Randomized Trial Comparing Intervention Approach and Peer Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Method: Children with ASD were…

  12. Comparative analysis of Hox paralog group 2 gene expression during Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Pierre; Stellwag, Edmund J; Brothers, Shelby N; Scemama, Jean-Luc

    2007-12-01

    The hindbrain and pharyngeal arch-derived structures of vertebrates are determined, at least in part, by Hox paralog group 2 genes. In sarcopterygians, the Hoxa2 gene alone appears to specify structures derived from the second pharyngeal arch (PA2), while in zebrafish (Danio rerio), either of the two Hox PG2 genes, hoxa2b or hoxb2a, can specify PA2-derived structures. We previously reported three Hox PG2 genes in striped bass (Morone saxatilis), including hoxa2a, hoxa2b, and hoxb2a and observed that only HoxA cluster genes are expressed in PA2, indicative that they function alone or together to specify PA2. In this paper, we present the cloning and expression analysis of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Hox PG2 genes and show that all three genes are expressed in the hindbrain and in PA2. The expression of hoxb2a in PA2 was unexpected given the close phylogenetic relationship of Nile tilapia and striped bass, both of which are members of the order Perciformes. A reanalysis of striped bass hoxb2a expression demonstrated that it is expressed in PA2 with nearly the same temporal and spatial expression pattern as its Nile tilapia ortholog. Further, we determined that Nile tilapia and striped bass hoxa2a orthologs are expressed in PA2 well beyond the onset of chondrogenesis whereas neither hoxa2b nor hoxb2a expression persist until this stage, which, according to previous hypotheses, suggests that hoxa2a orthologs in these two species function alone as selector genes of PA2 identity. PMID:17924140

  13. Comparative study between two different active flutter suppression systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1978-01-01

    An activated leading-edge (LE)-tailing-edge (TE) control system is applied to a drone aircraft with the objective of enabling the drone to fly subsonically at dynamic pressures which are 44% above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The control synthesis approach is based on the aerodynamic energy concept and it incorporates recent developments in this area. A comparison is made between the performance of the activated LE-TE control system and the performance of a TE control system, analyzed in a previous work. The results obtained indicate that although all the control systems achieve the flutter suppression objectives, the TE control system appears to be somewhat superior to the LE-TE control system, in this specific application. This superiority is manifested through reduced values of control surface activity over a wide range of flight conditions.

  14. Comparing Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy With Treatment as Usual for Opioid Dependents: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah; Noroozi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: In response to high burden of opioid abuse in Iran, Ministry of Health has launched a large-scale opioid maintenance treatment program, delivered through a network of certified drug treatment centers. To promote opioid pharmacotherapies, there is an urgent need to develop and introduce evidence-based psychosocial interventions into the network. Patients and Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to investigate feasibility and effectiveness of adding mindfulness-based group therapy to opioid pharmacotherapies as compared to opioid pharmacotherapies alone. The primary outcomes were treatment retention and percentage of weekly morphine, methamphetamine, and benzodiazepine negative tests. Discussion: This is the first RCT that explores the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention group therapy among opioid dependent clients in Iran. The feasibility of group therapy and comparison of outcomes in intervention and control groups should be discussed in the outcome article. PMID:26251659

  15. A Comparative Study of Active Play on Differently Designed Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchs, Antje; Fikus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The physical and social environment of children in cities is continuously changing. Knowledge about the positive effects of natural play experiences within the child's development is becoming widely known. Affordances of diverse landscape elements and especially loose parts for play in natural environments influence play activities. New…

  16. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  17. Independent and Small Group Activities for Social Studies in the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Barbara; And Others

    A teachers' guide for social studies, this manual stresses geography curriculum and activities for the primary grades. It is suggested that a teacher work with one group while the other children work individually. Children first work independently for a team, and then progress to less structured small group activities. Positive reinforcement by…

  18. Comparing the Effectiveness of Individual Coaching, Self-Coaching, and Group Training: How Leadership Makes the Difference

    PubMed Central

    Losch, Sabine; Traut-Mattausch, Eva; Mühlberger, Maximilian D.; Jonas, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Few empirical studies have used a randomized controlled design to evaluate the impact of coaching, and there are even fewer that have compared coaching with other interventions. In the current field study, we investigated the relative effectiveness of coaching as an intervention to reduce procrastination. In a randomized controlled study, participants (N = 84) were assigned to an individual coaching, a self-coaching, a group training, or a control group condition. Results indicate that individual coaching and group training were effective in reducing procrastination and facilitating goal attainment. Individual coaching created a high degree of satisfaction and was superior in helping participants attaining their goals, whereas group training successfully promoted the acquisition of relevant knowledge. The results for the self-coaching condition show that independently performing exercises without being supported by a coach is not sufficient for high goal attainment. Moreover, mediation analysis show that a coach’s transformational and transactional leadership behavior influenced participants’ perceived autonomy support and intrinsic motivation, resulting in beneficial coaching outcomes. The results may guide the selection of appropriate human resource development methods: If there is a general need to systematically prepare employees to perform on specific tasks, group training seems appropriate due to lower costs. However, when certain aspects of working conditions or individual development goals are paramount, coaching might be indicated. However, further research is needed to compare the relative effectiveness of coaching with other interventions in different contexts. PMID:27199857

  19. Comparing the Effectiveness of Individual Coaching, Self-Coaching, and Group Training: How Leadership Makes the Difference.

    PubMed

    Losch, Sabine; Traut-Mattausch, Eva; Mühlberger, Maximilian D; Jonas, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Few empirical studies have used a randomized controlled design to evaluate the impact of coaching, and there are even fewer that have compared coaching with other interventions. In the current field study, we investigated the relative effectiveness of coaching as an intervention to reduce procrastination. In a randomized controlled study, participants (N = 84) were assigned to an individual coaching, a self-coaching, a group training, or a control group condition. Results indicate that individual coaching and group training were effective in reducing procrastination and facilitating goal attainment. Individual coaching created a high degree of satisfaction and was superior in helping participants attaining their goals, whereas group training successfully promoted the acquisition of relevant knowledge. The results for the self-coaching condition show that independently performing exercises without being supported by a coach is not sufficient for high goal attainment. Moreover, mediation analysis show that a coach's transformational and transactional leadership behavior influenced participants' perceived autonomy support and intrinsic motivation, resulting in beneficial coaching outcomes. The results may guide the selection of appropriate human resource development methods: If there is a general need to systematically prepare employees to perform on specific tasks, group training seems appropriate due to lower costs. However, when certain aspects of working conditions or individual development goals are paramount, coaching might be indicated. However, further research is needed to compare the relative effectiveness of coaching with other interventions in different contexts. PMID:27199857

  20. Comparing Educational Tools Using Activity Theory: Clickers and Flashcards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Edward; De Leone, Charles; Lasry, Nathaniel

    2010-10-01

    Physics educators and researchers have recently begun to distinguish between pedagogical approaches and the educational technologies that are used to implement them. For instance, peer instruction has been shown to be equally effective, in terms of student learning outcomes, when implemented with clickers or flashcards. Therefore, technological tools (clickers and flashcards) can be viewed as means to mediate pedagogical techniques (peer instruction or traditional instruction). In this paper, we use activity theory to examine peer instruction, with particular attention to the role of tools. This perspective helps clarify clickers' and flashcards' differences, similarities, impacts in the classroom, and utility to education researchers. Our analysis can suggest improvements and new uses. Finally, we propose activity theory as a useful approach in understanding and improving the use of technology in the physics classroom.

  1. Features for voice activity detection: a comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Simon; Herbig, Tobias; Buck, Markus; Schmidt, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    In many speech signal processing applications, voice activity detection (VAD) plays an essential role for separating an audio stream into time intervals that contain speech activity and time intervals where speech is absent. Many features that reflect the presence of speech were introduced in literature. However, to our knowledge, no extensive comparison has been provided yet. In this article, we therefore present a structured overview of several established VAD features that target at different properties of speech. We categorize the features with respect to properties that are exploited, such as power, harmonicity, or modulation, and evaluate the performance of some dedicated features. The importance of temporal context is discussed in relation to latency restrictions imposed by different applications. Our analyses allow for selecting promising VAD features and finding a reasonable trade-off between performance and complexity.

  2. Redefining Neighborhoods Using Common Destinations: Social Characteristics of Activity Spaces and Home Census Tracts Compared

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Malia; Pebley, Anne R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on neighborhood effects has focused largely on residential neighborhoods, but people are exposed to many other places in the course of their daily lives—at school, at work, when shopping, and so on. Thus, studies of residential neighborhoods consider only a subset of the social-spatial environment affecting individuals. In this article, we examine the characteristics of adults’ “activity spaces”—spaces defined by locations that individuals visit regularly, in Los Angeles County, California. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, we define activity spaces in two ways and estimate their socioeconomic characteristics. Our research has two goals. First, we determine whether residential neighborhoods represent the social conditions to which adults are exposed in the course of their regular activities. Second, we evaluate whether particular groups are exposed to a broader or narrower range of social contexts in the course of their daily activities. We find that activity spaces are substantially more heterogeneous in terms of key social characteristics, compared to residential neighborhoods. However, the characteristics of both home neighborhoods and activity spaces are closely associated with individual characteristics. Our results suggest that most people experience substantial segregation across the range of spaces in their daily lives, not just at home. PMID:24719273

  3. Redefining neighborhoods using common destinations: social characteristics of activity spaces and home census tracts compared.

    PubMed

    Jones, Malia; Pebley, Anne R

    2014-06-01

    Research on neighborhood effects has focused largely on residential neighborhoods, but people are exposed to many other places in the course of their daily lives-at school, at work, when shopping, and so on. Thus, studies of residential neighborhoods consider only a subset of the social-spatial environment affecting individuals. In this article, we examine the characteristics of adults' "activity spaces"-spaces defined by locations that individuals visit regularly-in Los Angeles County, California. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, we define activity spaces in two ways and estimate their socioeconomic characteristics. Our research has two goals. First, we determine whether residential neighborhoods represent the social conditions to which adults are exposed in the course of their regular activities. Second, we evaluate whether particular groups are exposed to a broader or narrower range of social contexts in the course of their daily activities. We find that activity spaces are substantially more heterogeneous in terms of key social characteristics, compared to residential neighborhoods. However, the characteristics of both home neighborhoods and activity spaces are closely associated with individual characteristics. Our results suggest that most people experience substantial segregation across the range of spaces in their daily lives, not just at home. PMID:24719273

  4. Comparative investigation of antimutagenic activity of sterically hindered phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Pashin, Yu.V.; Bakhitova, L.M.; Bentkhen, T.I.

    1985-07-01

    Mutagenic properties of primarily inactive carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are manifested after metabolic oxidation by microsomal enzymes. It has been established that activation of carcinogens in biological systems is accompanied by intensification of free-radical processes, effective inhibition of which is achieved by sterically hindered phenols (SHP). The authors studied the effect of SHP on the mutagenic activity of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) using estimation of induced direct gene mutation at the locus for hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) in somatic Chinese hamster cells of line V-79 cultured in vitro and with estimation of the induction of micronuclei in polychromatophilic erythrocytes of mouse bone marrow in vivo. The reference mutagen was BP from Fluka and the following SHP were used: dibunol, F-800, and F-804. Genetic activity of each substance tested and their combination was studied in an in vitro system under conditions of metabolic activation by mouse liver microsomes and in vivo according to induction of micronuclei in polychromatophilic bone marrow erythrocytes in (CBA x C57B1/6J)F/sub 1/ mice 60-80 days old, which reflects gross defects of chromosomes at the erythroblast stage. In order to establish optimal time for recording the frequency of induction of micronuclei, bone marrow samples were taken from the animals, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of the agents. The BP was dissolved in sunflower oil and used in a concentration constituting 1/3 of the lowest lethal dose in mice. The SHP was then dissolved in water or dimethyl sulfoxide and administered in a ratio with BP of 1:1 or 1:0.5. The smears were then stained in methanol, washed with twice-distilled water, and stained in 7% Giemsa solution.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of acid-base bifunctional materials through protection of amino groups

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yanqiu; Liu, Heng; Yu, Xiaofang; Guan, Jingqi; Kan, Qiubin

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acid-base bifunctional material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized through protection of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} catalyst containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties. -- Abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, transmission electron micrographs (TEM), back titration, {sup 13}C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR were employed to characterize the synthesized materials. The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Compared with monofunctional catalysts of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15 and SBA-15-NH{sub 2}, the bifunctional sample of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity for the aldol condensation.

  6. [Comparative in vitro study of the antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime against clinical isolates].

    PubMed

    Klietmann, W; Focht, J; Nösner, K

    1987-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime was tested against 1482 gram-negative and 1216 gram-positive strains isolated from fresh clinical specimens and compared with generally used antibiotics including other third generation cephalosporins and broad spectrum penicillins. Minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined in a broth dilution test on microtiter plates. In the group of the gram-negative bacteria ceftazidime was the most active of the antimicrobial agents tested with an MIC of 0.5 mg/l (MIC90) for most of the isolates. Ceftazidime exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp. Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp.) including frequently resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Alcaligenes faecalis. The activity against P. aeruginosa is the most remarkable property of the agent. Ceftazidime is less effective against gram-positive compared to gram-negative bacteria. No inhibitory action can be observed against Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:3312026

  7. Similar barriers and facilitators to physical activity across different clinical groups experiencing lower limb spasticity.

    PubMed

    Hundza, Sandra; Quartly, Caroline; Kim, Jasmine M; Dunnett, James; Dobrinsky, Jill; Loots, Iris; Choy, Kim; Chow, Brayley; Hampshire, Alexis; Temple, Viviene A

    2016-07-01

    Purpose Given the importance of physical activity in maintaining health and wellness, an improved understanding of physical activity patterns across different clinical populations is required. This study examines the facilitators for, and barriers to, participation in physical activity across multiple contexts for three clinical groups with chronic lower limb spasticity (individuals with stroke, multiple sclerosis and incomplete spinal cord injury). Method This cross-sectional study employed quantitative measures for spasticity, ankle range of motion, pain, falls, cognition, mobility, and physical activity as well as qualitative semi-structured interviews. Results There were similar impairments in body functions and structures and limitations in activities across the clinical groups. These impairments and limitations negatively impacted participation in physical activity, which was low. Environmental and personal factors exacerbated or mitigated the limiting effects of body functions and structures and activities on physical activity in many areas of life. Conclusions In this population, participation in physical activity includes activities such as housework which are different than what is typically considered as physical activity. Further, the presence of similar barriers and facilitators across the groups suggests that support and services to promote valued forms of physical activity could be organised and delivered based on limitations in mobility and functioning rather than clinical diagnosis. Implications for rehabilitation Physical activity is of utmost importance in maintaining health and wellness in clinical populations. This research highlights the desired and actual physical activity for these populations can look different than what may traditionally be considered as physical activity (e.g. housework is not typically considered participation physical activity). Therefore, rehabilitation interventions need to be directly designed to enhance clients

  8. Group II p21-activated kinases as therapeutic targets in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yang-Guang; Ning, Ke; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are central players in various oncogenic signaling pathways. The six PAK family members are classified into group I (PAK1-3) and group II (PAK4-6). Focus is currently shifting from group I PAKs to group II PAKs. Group II PAKs play important roles in many fundamental cellular processes, some of which have particular significance in the development and progression of cancer. Because of their important functions, group II PAKs have become popular potential drug target candidates. However, few group II PAKs inhibitors have been reported, and most do not exhibit satisfactory kinase selectivity and “drug-like” properties. Isoform- and kinase-selective PAK inhibitors remain to be developed. This review describes the biological activities of group II PAKs, the importance of group II PAKs in the development and progression of gastrointestinal cancer, and small-molecule inhibitors of group II PAKs for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26811660

  9. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils.

    PubMed

    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In our research on natural compounds efficient against human pathogen or opportunist microorganisms contracted by food or water, the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils (EOs) was investigated against 11 bacterial species (6 Gram positive, 5 Gram negative) and 7 fungal species (2 dermatophytes, 1 mould, 4 yeasts) using microdilution assays. Five essential oils were obtained from Tunisian plants (EOtun): Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L. and Thymus vulgaris L., whereas others were commercial products (EOcom). Overall, T. vulgaris EOtun was the most efficient EO against both bacteria (Gram negative: MIC ≤ 0.34 mg/mL; Gram positive: MIC ≤ 0.70 mg/mL) and fungi (yeasts: MIC ≤ 0.55 mg/mL; mould: MIC = 0.30 mg/mL; dermatophytes: MIC ≤ 0.07 mg/mL). Two EOcom displayed both acceptable antibacterial and antifungal potency, although weaker than T. vulgaris EOtun activity: Origanum vulgare EOcom (bacteria: MIC ≤ 1.13 mg/mL, fungi: MIC ≤ 1.80 mg/mL), and Cymbopogon martinii var. motia EOcom (bacteria: MIC ≤ 1.00 mg/mL, fungi: MIC ≤ 0.80 mg/mL). Bacillus megaterium, Legionella pneumophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Trichophyton spp. were the most sensitive species to both EOcom and EOtun. This study demonstrated the noteworthy antimicrobial activity of two commercial EOs and points out the remarkable efficiency of T. vulgaris EOtun on all tested bacterial and fungal species, certainly associated with its high content in carvacrol (85 %). These three oils could thus represent promising candidates for applications in water and food protections. PMID:26566647

  10. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6–8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions’ similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. PMID:24089423

  11. Effect of substituents at phenyl group of 7,7'-dioxo-9,9'-epoxylignane on antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Ouchi, Maya; Matsugi, Junko; Akiyama, Koichi; Sugahara, Takuya; Kishida, Taro; Yamauchi, Satoshi

    2012-11-01

    Using 21 newly synthesized 7,7'-dioxo-9,9'-epoxylignane derivatives having a modified 7-phenyl group, we examined the relationship between their structure and antifungal activity against plant pathogens such as Bipolaris oryzae to determine the effects of various substituents on the antifungal activity. Compared with the lead compound having a 4-OH-3-CH(3)O-phenyl moiety, several analogs showed higher antifungal activity against B. oryzae, including the compound having an unsubstituted phenyl group and those having either of the following phenyl substituents: 2-OH, 4-CH(3)O, 4-C(2)H(5)O, 4-n-C(3)H(7)O, 4-n-C(4)H(9)O, 4-CF(3)O, 4-C(2)H(5), or 4-Cl. On the other hand, the activity of compounds having a branched substituent, such as 4-i-C(3)H(7)O or 4-i-C(3)H(7), on the 7-phenyl group or a multi-substituted phenyl group was equipotent or inferior to that of the lead compound. These results as well as correlations between the antifungal activity of the test compounds and the physicochemical parameters of the varied substituents suggest that the position of substitution on the 7-phenyl group and the incorporation of substituents with optimal physicochemical properties are important for exerting the antifungal activity. PMID:23017887

  12. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activity of Cassia fistula Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Irshad, Md.; Zafaryab, Md.; Singh, Man; Rizvi, M. Moshahid A.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of various extracts of Cassia fistula was determined by the DPPH, FRAP, Fe3+ reducing power, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula showed the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and reducing capacity, whereas hexane extracts exhibited the lowest level of reducing capacity. The order of antioxidant activity in Cassia fistula extracts displayed from higher to lower level as methanolic extracts of pulp, methanolic extracts of seed, hexane extracts of pulp, and hexane extracts of seed. The antioxidant potential of Cassia fistula extracts significantly correlated (P < 0.02) with the phenolic content of the methanolic extracts. Ascorbic acid taken as control showed highest antioxidant power in the present study. PMID:25374682

  14. Preferential Acquisition and Activation of Plasminogen Glycoform II by PAM Positive Group A Streptococcal Isolates.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, David M P; Law, Ruby H P; Ly, Diane; Cook, Simon M; Quek, Adam J; McArthur, Jason D; Whisstock, James C; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L

    2015-06-30

    Plasminogen (Plg) circulates in the host as two predominant glycoforms. Glycoform I Plg (GI-Plg) contains glycosylation sites at Asn289 and Thr346, whereas glycoform II Plg (GII-Plg) is exclusively glycosylated at Thr346. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated that Plg binding group A streptococcal M protein (PAM) exhibits comparative equal affinity for GI- and GII-Plg in the "closed" conformation (for GII-Plg, KD = 27.4 nM; for GI-Plg, KD = 37.0 nM). When Plg was in the "open" conformation, PAM exhibited an 11-fold increase in affinity for GII-Plg (KD = 2.8 nM) compared with that for GI-Plg (KD = 33.2 nM). The interaction of PAM with Plg is believed to be mediated by lysine binding sites within kringle (KR) 2 of Plg. PAM-GI-Plg interactions were fully inhibited with 100 mM lysine analogue ε-aminocaproic acid (εACA), whereas PAM-GII-Plg interactions were shown to be weakened but not inhibited in the presence of 400 mM εACA. In contrast, binding to the KR1-3 domains of GII-Plg (angiostatin) by PAM was completely inhibited in the presence 5 mM εACA. Along with PAM, emm pattern D GAS isolates express a phenotypically distinct SK variant (type 2b SK) that requires Plg ligands such as PAM to activate Plg. Type 2b SK was able to generate an active site and activate GII-Plg at a rate significantly higher than that of GI-Plg when bound to PAM. Taken together, these data suggest that GAS selectively recruits and activates GII-Plg. Furthermore, we propose that the interaction between PAM and Plg may be partially mediated by a secondary binding site outside of KR2, affected by glycosylation at Asn289. PMID:26029848

  15. Differences in social skills performance between institutionalized juvenile male offenders and a comparable group of boys without offence records.

    PubMed

    Spence, S H

    1981-09-01

    Eighteen institutionalized young male offenders and 18 boys without criminal records, comparable in terms of age, academic performance and social background, were videotaped during a five-minute standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. The videotapes were then subjected to a behavioural analysis of 13 responses which had previously been suggested to be important social skill components. The tapes were also shown to six independent judges who rated each tape in terms of social skills performance, social anxiety, friendliness, and employability. The offender group was found to differ significantly from the non-offender group in terms of the level of eye-contact, head movements, amount spoken, fiddling movements, and gross body movements. The offender group was also rated in significantly less favourably terms on the scales of social skills performance, social anxiety, and employability, compared to the non-offender groups. No significant difference was found in terms of friendliness ratings. Correlation analyses between the specific behavioural measures and the subjective rating scales revealed statistically significant associations between six of the 13 behavioural measures and one or more of the subjective rating scales. The provides some indication of the type of responses important in determining the impression made by adolescent male in an interview situation. PMID:7284650

  16. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  17. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  18. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal-nitrogen coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-06-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon-nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation.

  19. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal–nitrogen coordination

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon–nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation. PMID:26059552

  20. Direction to an Internet Support Group Compared With Online Expressive Writing for People With Depression And Anxiety: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Jeremy; Potts, Henry WW

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are common, often comorbid, conditions, and Internet support groups for them are well used. However, little rigorous research has been conducted on the outcome of these groups. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an Internet support group in reducing depression and anxiety, and increasing social support and life satisfaction. Methods A randomized trial compared direction to an existing Internet support group for depression and anxiety with an online expressive writing condition. A total of 863 (628 female) United Kingdom, United States, and Canadian volunteers were recruited via the Internet. Online, self-report measures of depression, anxiety, social support, and satisfaction with life were administered at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Results All four outcomes – depression, anxiety, social support, and satisfaction with life – improved over the 6 months of the study (all P<.001). There was no difference in outcome between the two conditions: participants responded similarly to the expressive writing and the Internet support group. Engagement with the Internet support group was low, it had high 6-month attrition (692/795, 87%) and low adherence, and it received mixed and often negative feedback. The main problems reported were a lack of comfort and connection with others, negative social comparisons, and the potential for receiving bad advice. Expressive writing had lower attrition (194/295, 65%) and participants reported that it was more acceptable. Conclusions Until further evidence accumulates, directing people with depression and anxiety to Internet support groups cannot be recommended. On the other hand, online expressive writing seems to have potential, and its use for people with depression and anxiety warrants further investigation. Trial Registration Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01149265; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01149265 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6h

  1. The physical activity profiles of South Asian ethnic groups in England

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Townsend, Nick; Shaw, Alison; Foster, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify what types of activity contribute to overall physical activity in South Asian ethnic groups and how these vary according to sex and age. We used the White British ethnic group as a comparison. Methods Self-reported physical activity was measured in the Health Survey for England 1999 and 2004, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that boosted ethnic minority samples in these years. We merged the two survey years and analysed data from 19 476 adults. The proportions of total physical activity achieved through walking, housework, sports and DIY activity were calculated. We stratified by sex and age group and used analysis of variances to examine differences between ethnic groups, adjusted for the socioeconomic status. Results There was a significant difference between ethnic groups for the contributions of all physical activity domains for those aged below 55 years, with the exception of walking. In women aged 16–34 years, there was no significant difference in the contribution of walking to total physical activity (p=0.38). In the 35–54 age group, Bangladeshi males have the highest proportion of total activity from walking (30%). In those aged over 55 years, the proportion of activity from sports was the lowest in all South Asian ethnic groups for both sexes. Conclusions UK South Asians are more active in some ways that differ, by age and sex, from White British, but are similarly active in other ways. These results can be used to develop targeted population level interventions for increasing physical activity levels in adult UK South Asian populations. PMID:26677257

  2. A pilot study of ambulatory masticatory muscle activities in TMJD diagnostic groups

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, LR; Gonzalez, YM; Liu, H; Marx, DB; Gallo, LM; Nickel, JC

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine differences in masticatory muscle usage between TMJD diagnostic groups. Setting and Sample Population Seventy-one informed and consented subjects (27 men; 44 women) participated at the University at Buffalo. Material and Methods Research Diagnostic Criteria and imaging data were used to categorize subjects according to presence/absence (+/−) of TMJ disc placement (DD) and chronic pain (P) (+DD+P, n=18; +DD-P, n =14; −DD-P, n=39). EMG/bite-force calibrations determined subject-specific masseter and temporalis muscle activities per 20 N bite-force (T20N, μV). Over 3 days and nights subjects collected EMG recordings. Duty factors (DFs, % of recording time) were determined based on threshold intervals (5–9, 10–24, 25–49, 50–79, ≥80%T20N). ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-hoc tests identified (i) diagnostic group differences in T20N, and (ii) effects of diagnostic group, gender, time, and interval, and on muscle DFs. Results Mean (±standard error) temporalis T20N in +DD+P subjects was significantly higher (71.4±8.8 μV) than masseter T20N in these subjects (19.6±8.8 μV; P=0.001) and in −DD-P subjects (25.3±6.0 μV, P=0.0007). Masseter DFs at 5–9%T20N were significantly higher in +DD-P women (3.48%) than +DD-P men (0.85%) and women and men in both other diagnostic groups (all P<0.03); and in +DD+P women (2.00%) compared to −DD-P men (0.83%; P=0.029). Night-time DFs at 5–9%T20N in +DD-P women (1.97%) were significantly higher than in −DD-P men (0.47%) and women (0.24%; all P<0.01). Conclusions Between-group differences were found in masticatory muscle activities in both laboratory and natural environmental settings. PMID:25865543

  3. Chemical modification and structure-activity relationships of pyripyropenes. 1. Modification at the four hydroxyl groups.

    PubMed

    Obata, R; Sunazuka, T; Li, Z; Tian, Z; Harigaya, Y; Tabata, N; Tomoda, H; Omura, S

    1996-11-01

    Four hydroxyl groups of pyripyropenes have been modified and evaluated for their ability to inhibit microsomal acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in vitro and to lower cholesterol absorption in vivo in a cholesterol-fed hamster. 7-O-n-Valeryl derivative (8c) improved the in vitro ACAT inhibitory activity (IC50 = 13 nM) about 7 times better than pyripyropene A. Introduction of methanesulfonyl group at 11-hydroxyl group (17a) increased both in vitro activity (IC50 = 19 nM) and in vivo efficacy (ED50 = 10 mg/kg). PMID:8982343

  4. Testing the Efficacy of OurSpace, a Brief, Group Dynamics-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chalin, Patrice; Thompson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    mean 5.81, SD 1.04) condition compared to the standard (overall mean 5.04, SD 0.81) conditions (P=.006), but did not differ between group dynamics-based–low presence and group dynamics-based–high presence (overall mean 5.42, SD 1.07) conditions (P=.25). Physical activity was higher in the high presence condition (mean 64.48, SD 20.19, P=.01) than all other conditions (mean 53.3, SD 17.35). Conclusions A brief, online group dynamics-based intervention may be an effective method of improving group cohesion in virtual PA groups. However, it may be insufficient on its own to improve PA. PMID:27154301

  5. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  6. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups.

    PubMed

    Hrv, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna; Kandi, Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  7. Psychosocial mediators of group cohesion on physical activity intention of older adults.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina; Mummery, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    Considerable evidence has indicated that group-based physical activity may be a promising approach to reducing and preventing age-related illness. However, this research has not examined the mechanisms by which cohesion may impact on behaviour. The purpose of the present research was to utilise the theory of planned behaviour to investigate the mechanism by which group cohesion may affect physical activity intention. Participants were recruited from an existing physical activity intervention studying the effects of group cohesion on physical activity behaviour. The outcomes of this intervention are reported elsewhere. This paper presents data from a sub-sample of the intervention population (N=74) that examined the mediating relationships between the theory of planned behaviour and group cohesion on physical activity intention. Analyses showed that attitude and perceived behavioural control mediated the relationship between specific group cohesion concepts and physical activity intention. The direct measure of subjective norm failed to display a mediating relationship. The mediating relationships displayed between attitude and perceived behavioural control and physical activity intention provide insight into potential mechanisms by which group cohesion may affect behaviour. PMID:17129936

  8. Comparing Team-Based and Mixed Active-Learning Methods in an Ambulatory Care Elective Course

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Andrea S.; Guirguis, Alexander B.; George, Christa M.; Howard-Thompson, Amanda; Heidel, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess students' performance and perceptions of team-based and mixed active-learning methods in 2 ambulatory care elective courses, and to describe faculty members' perceptions of team-based learning. Methods Using the 2 teaching methods, students' grades were compared. Students' perceptions were assessed through 2 anonymous course evaluation instruments. Faculty members who taught courses using the team-based learning method were surveyed regarding their impressions of team-based learning. Results The ambulatory care course was offered to 64 students using team-based learning (n = 37) and mixed active learning (n = 27) formats. The mean quality points earned were 3.7 (team-based learning) and 3.3 (mixed active learning), p < 0.001. Course evaluations for both courses were favorable. All faculty members who used the team-based learning method reported that they would consider using team-based learning in another course. Conclusions Students were satisfied with both teaching methods; however, student grades were significantly higher in the team-based learning course. Faculty members recognized team-based learning as an effective teaching strategy for small-group active learning. PMID:21301594

  9. A comparative study of obsessive beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder patients and a normal group.

    PubMed

    Shams, Giti; Milosevic, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that specific kinds of dysfunctional beliefs underlie the development of this disorder. The aim of present study was to determine whether these beliefs are endorsed more strongly by OCD patients than by those with other anxiety disorders and by community samples. A battery of questionnaires, including the OBQ-44, MOCI, BDI-II, BAI, STAI, used to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression and anxiety in 39 OCD patients (OC), 46 anxious patients (AC) and 41 community controls (CC). Compared to CCs and ACs, OC patients more strongly endorsed beliefs related to importance and control of thoughts. Both OC and AC patients scored higher than CC participants did on belief domains about responsibility/threat estimation and perfectionism/certainty. Therefore, the domain that seems to be specific to OCD is a set of beliefs that revolves around the contention that it is possible and necessary to control one's thoughts. Results regarding group differences on particular items of the OBQ-44 indicated that 21 items discriminated between the OC and CC groups and 7 items discriminated between the OC and AC groups, suggesting that these items are more specific to the OC group. Additional research warranted because it is plausible that these cognitive factors relate differently to OCD phenomena across different cultures. PMID:26024706

  10. Active Learning in the Classroom: The Use of Group Role Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitzerow, Phyllis

    1990-01-01

    Describes group role-playing activities that have been used to teach about education, criminology, and sex roles. Suggests that role play helps students to absorb and retain many of the insights about the issues involved. (DB)

  11. 75 FR 49913 - Active Duty Service Determinations For Civilian or Contractual Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ..., determined that service of the group known as the ``''Honorably Discharged Members of The Gold Coast Native... at Then `American Camp,' Now Named `Burma Camp,' Ghana' '' shall not be considered ``active...

  12. Comparing demographic, health status and psychosocial strategies of audience segmentation to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Boslaugh, Sarah E; Kreuter, Matthew W; Nicholson, Robert A; Naleid, Kimberly

    2005-08-01

    The goal of audience segmentation is to identify population subgroups that are homogeneous with respect to certain variables associated with a given outcome or behavior. When such groups are identified and understood, targeted intervention strategies can be developed to address their unique characteristics and needs. This study compares the results of audience segmentation for physical activity that is based on either demographic, health status or psychosocial variables alone, or a combination of all three types of variables. Participants were 1090 African-American and White adults from two public health centers in St Louis, MO. Using a classification-tree algorithm to form homogeneous groups, analyses showed that more segments with greater variability in physical activity were created using psychosocial versus health status or demographic variables and that a combination of the three outperformed any individual set of variables. Simple segmentation strategies such as those relying on demographic variables alone provided little improvement over no segmentation at all. Audience segmentation appears to yield more homogeneous subgroups when psychosocial and health status factors are combined with demographic variables. PMID:15572439

  13. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.; Tan, L. K.; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The role of ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons in the control of abdominal and internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting was investigated in cats. Two series of experiments were performed: in one, the activity of VRG E neurons was recorded during fictive vomiting in cats that were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated; in the second, the abdominal muscle activity during vomiting was compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons in decerebrate spontaneously breathing cats. The results show that about two-thirds of VRG E neurons that project at least as far caudally as the lower thoracic cord contribute to internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting. The remaining VRG E neurons contribute to abdominal muscle activation. As shown by severing the axons of the VRG E neurons, other, as yet unidenified, inputs (either descending from the brain stem or arising from spinal reflexes) can also produce abdominal muscle activation.

  14. A multicentre randomised, 1-year comparative effectiveness, parallel-group trial protocol of a physical therapy approach compared to corticosteroid injections

    PubMed Central

    Deyle, Gail D; Gill, Norman W; Rhon, Daniel I; Allen, Chris S; Allison, Stephen C; Hando, Ben R; Petersen, Evan J; Dusenberry, Douglas I; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Corticosteroid injections (CSIs) are commonly used as an initial or a primary intervention for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consistent evidence indicates CSIs offer symptom relief with conflicting reports regarding long-term efficacy. Physical therapy (PT) offers a non-invasive alternative. There is moderate evidence suggesting short-term and long-term symptom relief and functional improvement with PT interventions. Patients with knee OA are more commonly prescribed CSI than PT prior to total joint replacement. UnitedHealthcare and Military Health System data show substantially more total knee replacement patients receive preoperative CSI than PT. There are no studies comparing CSI to a PT approach in individuals with knee OA. The primary objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of CSI to PT in individuals with knee OA at 1, 2 and 12 months. Methods and analysis We plan to recruit 156 participants meeting established knee OA criteria. Following informed consent, participants will be randomised to receive either CSI or PT. All participants will receive instruction on recommended exercise and weight control strategies plus usual medical care. The CSI intervention consisting of 3 injections and the PT intervention consisting of 8–12 sessions will be spaced over 12 months. Measures of the dependent variables (DVs) will occur at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months post enrolment. This pragmatic, randomised clinical trial will be a mixed-model 2×5 factorial design. The independent variables are treatment (CSI and PT) and time with five levels from baseline to 1 year. The primary DV is the Western Ontario & McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). We will also compare healthcare utilisation between the 2 groups. Ethics and Dissemination The protocol was approved by the Madigan Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board. The authors intend to publish the results in a peer-reviewed source. Trial Registration

  15. Need for Cognition and Active Information Search in Small Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curseu, Petru Lucian

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 213 students organized in 44 groups this study tests the impact of need for cognition on active information search by using a multilevel analysis. The results show that group members with high need for cognition seek more advice in task related issues than those with low need for cognition and this pattern of information exchange is…

  16. Anger Management and Violence Prevention: A Group Activities Manual for Middle and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Teresa M.

    This group-activity manual is intended for adolescents who have risk factors on any of the four ecological levels: personal, family, social, and societal. It contains everything needed to lead a group of middle or high school students through this anger-management program. Part 1 provides guidelines to help initiate and implement a support-group…

  17. DHPG Activation of Group 1 mGluRs in BLA Enhances Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Jerry W.; Matus-Amat, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to play an important role in both synaptic plasticity and memory. We show that activating these receptors prior to fear conditioning by infusing the group 1 mGluR agonist, (R.S.)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), into the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats…

  18. 77 FR 58608 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... (77 FR 55372), with comments due by November 6, 2012. No additional System Safety Task Group meetings... announcement of working group activities and status reports of April 23, 2012 (77 FR 24257). The 46th full RSAC... published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23, 2006. The...

  19. 76 FR 72997 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of December 7, 2010 (75 FR 76070). The 44th full..., 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23, 2006. The working group agreed upon... rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR 6370). The task force met on October 17-18,...

  20. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  1. Antianaerobic activity of the ketolide RU 64004 compared to activities of four macrolides, five beta-lactams, clindamycin, and metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Ednie, L M; Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1997-05-01

    Agar dilution methodology (with added Oxyrase in the case of the macrolide group to allow incubation without added CO2) was used to compare the activity of RU 64004, a new ketolide, with the activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, amoxicillin with and without clavulanate, piperacillin with and without tazobactam, metronidazole, and imipenem against 379 anaerobes. Overall, RU 64004 yielded an MIC at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 microg/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 microg/ml. In comparison, MIC50s and MIC90s of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin were 2.0 to 8.0 and >64.0 microg/ml, respectively. MICs of macrolides, including RU 64004, were higher for Bacteroides ovatus, Fusobacterium varium, Fusobacterium mortiferum, and Clostridium difficile than for the other species. RU 64004 was more active against gram-positive rods and cocci, Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp., and fusobacteria other than F. mortiferum and F. varium than against the Bacteroides fragilis group. Overall MIC50s and MIC90s (in micrograms per milliliter), respectively, of other compounds were as follows: clindamycin, 1.0 and 16.0; amoxicillin, 4.0 and 64.0; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 0.5 and 4.0; piperacillin, 8.0 and >64.0; piperacillin-tazobactam, 1.0 and 16.0; metronidazole, 1.0 and 4.0; and imipenem, 0.25 and 1.0. PMID:9145865

  2. [A study to compare independent groups of patients with episodic migraine who were treated preventively with flunarizine or nadolol].

    PubMed

    Gracia-Naya, M; Huerta-Villanueva, M; Rios, C; Garcia-Gomara, M J; Artal-Roy, J; Sanchez-Valiente, S; Santos-Lasaosa, S; Mauri-Llerda, J A; Latorre-Jimenez, A M

    2012-03-01

    INTRODUCTION. Flunarizine, with level of evidence A, and nadolol, with evidence level C, would be indicated as preventive treatment of migraine. Yet, no previous studies have been conducted to compare the effectiveness of the two drugs. AIM. To compare the effectiveness parameters in independent groups of patients treated preventively with one of the pharmaceuticals from the study, the same protocol being applied in both cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The subjects selected for the study were patients with episodic migraine (according to 2004 International Headache Society criteria) who had undergone preventive treatment for the first time, with flunarizine (5 mg/day) or nadolol (20-40 mg/day). The main effectiveness variables (reduction in the number of seizures at four months of treatment and responder rates) were analysed. RESULTS. The study included 227 patients who intended to receive treatment: 155 with flunarizine (80.5% females; mean age: 38.3 ± 12.1 years) and 72 with nadolol (63.8% females; mean age: 37.1 ± 12.0 years). The mean number of seizures prior to treatment was 6.09 ± 2.6 in the flunarizine group and 5.1 ± 1.7 in the nadolol group (p = 0.0079); at four months of treatment it was 2.61 ± 2.4 in the flunarizine group and 2.77 ± 2.4 in the nadolol group (p = NS). Percentage of reduction of migraines: 55.2% with flunarizine and 50.4% with nadolol (p = NS). The responder rate was 69% with flunarizine and 67% with nadolol (p = NS). The excellent response rate (reduction in the number of seizures by 75% or more) was 52.2% with flunarizine and 36.1% with nadolol (p = 0.0077). Percentage of adverse side effects: 48.3% with flunarizine and 25% with nadolol (p = 0.0009). The satisfaction rate was similar in both groups, 68%. CONCLUSIONS. Both flunarizine and nadolol proved to be effective in the preventive treatment of episodic migraine. Flunarizine is used more often in our milieu and was less well tolerated. PMID:22362476

  3. Specialization of the DNA-Cleaving Activity of a Group I Ribozyme Through In Vitro Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, Joyce; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1996-01-01

    In an earlier study, an in vitro evolution procedure was applied to a large population of variants of the Tetrahymena group 1 ribozyme to obtain individuals with a 10(exp 5)-fold improved ability to cleave a target single-stranded DNA substrate under simulated physiological conditions. The evolved ribozymes also showed a twofold improvement, compared to the wild-type, in their ability to cleave a single-stranded RNA substrate. Here, we report continuation of the in vitro evolution process using a new selection strategy to achieve both enhanced DNA and diminished RNA-cleavage activity. Our strategy combines a positive selection for DNA cleavage with a negative selection against RNA binding. After 36 "generations" of in vitro evolution, the evolved population showed an approx. 100-fold increase in the ratio of DNA to RNA-cleavage activity. Site-directed mutagenesis experiment confirmed the selective advantage of two covarying mutations within the catalytic core of ribozyme that are largely responsible for this modified behavior. The population of ribozymes has now undergone a total of 63 successive generations of evolution, resulting in an average 28 mutations relative to the wild-type that are responsible for the altered phenotype.

  4. Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Hyderabad, India: barriers, facilitators and identification of target groups.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Mark S; Douglas, G W; Sabitha Rani, G P; Chakraborty, Apurba

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the barriers and facilitators to highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence and determined their prevalence among HIV/AIDS patients in Hyderabad, India. We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected adults prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy and receiving care from nine clinics. Depression was screened using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and facilitators of HIV medication adherence were assessed using an 11-item scale which yielded a total positive attitude to disease score. Prevalence ratios of non-adherence between different categories of potential risk factors were calculated. We compared mean 'facilitators to adherence' scores between the adherent and non-adherent population. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was used to identify independent risk factors. Among the 211 respondents, nearly 20% were non-adherent, approximately 8% had either moderately severe or severe depression and mean score for combined facilitators to medication adherence was 33.35 (±7.88) out of a possible 44 points. Factors significantly associated with non-adherence included older age, female sex worker, moderate-to-severe depression and the combined facilitators to medication adherence score. These data from a broad range of clinical settings in Hyderabad reveal that key groups to focus on for adherence intervention are female sex workers, older persons and those with depression. PMID:25801316

  5. Anatomically-adapted graph wavelets for improved group-level fMRI activation mapping.

    PubMed

    Behjat, Hamid; Leonardi, Nora; Sörnmo, Leif; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2015-12-01

    A graph based framework for fMRI brain activation mapping is presented. The approach exploits the spectral graph wavelet transform (SGWT) for the purpose of defining an advanced multi-resolutional spatial transformation for fMRI data. The framework extends wavelet based SPM (WSPM), which is an alternative to the conventional approach of statistical parametric mapping (SPM), and is developed specifically for group-level analysis. We present a novel procedure for constructing brain graphs, with subgraphs that separately encode the structural connectivity of the cerebral and cerebellar gray matter (GM), and address the inter-subject GM variability by the use of template GM representations. Graph wavelets tailored to the convoluted boundaries of GM are then constructed as a means to implement a GM-based spatial transformation on fMRI data. The proposed approach is evaluated using real as well as semi-synthetic multi-subject data. Compared to SPM and WSPM using classical wavelets, the proposed approach shows superior type-I error control. The results on real data suggest a higher detection sensitivity as well as the capability to capture subtle, connected patterns of brain activity. PMID:26057594

  6. Group A streptococcal peptidoglycan-polysaccharide inhibits phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Leong, P A; Cohen, M S

    1984-01-01

    Injection of sterile aqueous preparations of the peptidoglycan-polysaccharide of group A streptococci (PG-APS) produces chronic inflammation in several animal models. Chronic bacterial infection may be involved in some aspects of the pathogenesis of inflammation associated with the accumulation of PG-APS. Accordingly, the effect of PG-APS on human neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte [PMN]) bactericidal activity was studied with the supposition that this interaction may contribute to the inflammation observed. Concentrations of PG-APS greater than 10 micrograms/ml inhibited the ability of PMNs to kill Staphylococcus aureus. This inhibition was not due to a cytotoxic effect of PG-APS on PMNs, nor did PG-APS inhibit PMN metabolism required for the formation of microbicidal oxygen reduction products. PG-APS concentrations of 10 micrograms/ml or greater in the presence of 10% normal serum inhibited the attachment of bacteria to PMNs by 49% as compared with control cell populations. The concentrations of PG-APS required to inhibit uptake of Staphylococcus aureus were identical to those required for inhibition of PMN bactericidal activity. This inhibition did not occur in the presence of serum-free medium or medium with sera that had been heated to inactivate complement. These results show that PG-APS interacts with serum to inhibit PMN-mediated killing of S. aureus, most probably by interfering with bacterial uptake. PMID:6378796

  7. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools.

    PubMed

    Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset. PMID:26638219

  8. Group cohesion and between session homework activities predict self-reported cognitive-behavioral skill use amongst participants of SMART Recovery groups.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Baker, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    SMART Recovery groups are cognitive-behaviorally oriented mutual support groups for individuals with addictions. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which the quality of group facilitation, group cohesion and the use of between session homework activities contribute to self-rated use of cognitive-behavioral skills amongst group participants. Participants attending SMART Recovery groups in Australia completed a cross sectional survey (N=124). The survey included measures of cognitive and behavioral skill utilization, group cohesion, quality of group facilitation and a rating of how frequently participants leave group meetings with an achievable between session homework plan. On average, participants had been attending SMART Recovery meetings for 9 months. Participants were most likely to attend SMART Recovery for problematic alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated that group cohesion significantly predicted use of cognitive restructuring, but that only provision of homework at the end of each group session predicted self-reported behavioral activation. Both group cohesion and leaving a group with an achievable homework plan predicted participant use of cognitive behavioral skills. The concrete actions associated with homework activities may facilitate behavioral activation. There is a need for longitudinal research to examine the relationship between the utilization of cognitive and behavioral skills and participant outcomes (e.g. substance use, mental health) for people attending SMART Recovery groups. PMID:25535099

  9. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Cuminum Cyminum as an Intracanal Medicament Compared to Chlorhexidine Gel

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Gholami, Ahmad; Ghahramani, Yasamin; Ghareghan, Razieh; Ghareghan, Marzieh; Kazemi, Aboozar; Iraji, Aida; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were i) to define the chemical constituents of Cuminum cyminum (cumin) essential oil, ii) to compare the antimicrobial activity of this oil to that of chlorhexidine (CHX) and co-trimoxazole on planktonic and biofilm forms of bacteria isolated from the teeth with persistent endodontic infection and iii) to compare the cytotoxicity of these medicaments on L929 fibroblasts. Methods and Materials: Three groups of microorganisms [aerobic bacterial mixture, anaerobic bacterial mixture and Enterococcus faecalis (E .faecalis)] were isolated from the teeth with persistent apical periodontitis. Zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) and time-kill tests were performed to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the medicaments. Further, a cytocompatibility analysis of the medicaments was performed on L929 fibroblasts. The results obtained from disc diffusion test and mean cell viability values of the experimental medicaments were analyzed using two-way and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Seventeen constituents were recognized in cumin oil (predominantly cumin aldehyde and γ-terpinene). Co-trimoxazole showed the greatest ZOI followed by cumin and CHX. The smallest MIC and MBC belonged to co-trimoxazole followed by cumin and CHX for all groups of bacteria except for E. faecalis for which the MBC of cumin was smaller than co-trimoxazole. The results of time-kill assay revealed that all medicaments totally inhibited the bacterial growth in all groups after 24 h. CHX was the most cytotoxic solution while there were no significant differences between the cytocompatibility of different concentrations of cumin essential oil and co-trimoxazole. Conclusion: Cumin exhibited a strong antimicrobial efficiency against the microbial flora of the teeth with failed endodontic treatments and it was biocompatible for L929 mouse

  10. Potential long-acting anticonvulsants. 1; Synthesis and activity of succinimides containing an alkylating group at the 2 position.

    PubMed

    Kornet, M J; Crider, A M; Magarian, E O

    1977-03-01

    The synthesis of succinimide derivatives in which alkylating groups have been attached to the 2 positions of the ring or to the para position of the 2-phenyl substituent is described. The alkylating groups used were (a) alpha-haloacetyl, (b) alpha-haloacetamido, (c) maleimido, and (d) maleamyl. These compounds were prepared as potential long-acting anticonvulsants. Several of these derivatives exhibited activity against metrazole-induced seizures comparable to phensuximde, The maleimide 16 and the bromoacetamido derivative 23 exhibited a duration of action of at least 3.5 h. PMID:845873

  11. Distinct activity of the oxyl FeIIIsbnd Orad group in the methane dissociation by activated iron hydroxide: DFT predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubin, Aleksandr A.; Ruzankin, Sergey Ph.; Zilberberg, Igor L.; Parmon, Valentin N.

    2015-11-01

    The abstraction of hydrogen from methane on the terminal iron-oxo group in the ferryl FeIVdbnd O and oxyl FeIIIsbnd Orad states, the hydrogen peroxide group Fesbnd OOH and the peroxo group Fesbnd OOsbnd Fe created in iron hydroxide was modeled by means of the density functional theory. The active groups were built using the Fe4O4(OH)4 starting complex having one hydrogen removed imitating the effect of the external oxidizer. Among considered groups the oxyl group is predicted to have the highest reactivity. A clear distinction in reactivity between the FeIIIsbnd Orad and FeIVdbnd O quasi-degenerate states has been attributed to the sign of terminal oxygen spin polarization.

  12. IMPORTANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON'S OXYGEN SURFACE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of varying physical and chemical properties of activated carbons on adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] was studied by treating two activated carbons to modify their surface functional groups and pore structures. Heat treatment (1200 K) in nitrogen (N2), air oxidat...

  13. What Do We Want Small Group Activities For? Voices from EFL Teachers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental issue of why small group activities are utilized in the language learning classroom. Although these activities have gained popularity in the field of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), supported by a sound theoretical base, few studies have so far examined the reasons why language teachers are…

  14. Integration of Structured Expressive Activities within a Humanistic Group Play Therapy Format for Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratton, Sue C.; Ceballos, Peggy L.; Ferebee, Kelly Webb

    2009-01-01

    The integration of expressive activities in play groups with preadolescents encourages them to reach more deeply into their own resources, enabling them to handle future challenges more effectively. Developmental and therapeutic rationale, along with research support, is given for the integration of creative activities into a humanistic play group…

  15. Upper Elementary Boys' Participation during Group Singing Activities in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzy, Zadda M.

    2010-01-01

    As boys in the upper elementary grades become increasingly influenced by peer pressure, many are less likely to participate in singing activities because singing is considered a "feminine" activity. The purpose of this research was to explore if there was an effect on upper elementary boys' level of participation during group singing activities…

  16. Taking It to the Classroom: Number Board Games as a Small Group Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Siegler, Robert S.; Hitti, Aline

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether a theoretically based number board game could be translated into a practical classroom activity that improves Head Start children's numerical knowledge. Playing the number board game as a small group learning activity promoted low-income children's number line estimation, magnitude comparison, numeral identification, and…

  17. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (Ramp): Training Persons with Dementia to Serve as Group Activity Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Cameron J.; Skrajner, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an activity implemented by means of Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP). Design and Methods: Four persons with early-stage dementia were trained to serve as leaders for a small-group activity played by nine persons with more advanced dementia. Assessments of leaders'…

  18. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: a national study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K

    2014-03-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41-11.54% during 2009-2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005-2011 (1.58-1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth. PMID:24342767

  19. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T.; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K.

    2014-01-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41–11.54% during 2009–2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005–2011 (1.58–1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth. PMID:24342767

  20. Mutualistic Benefits Generate an Unequal Distribution of Risky Activities Among Unrelated Group Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuk, Penelope F.; Ward, Seamus A.; Jozwiak, Amy

    Recent studies provide a new challenge to the adequacy of theories concerning the evolution of cooperation among nonrelatives: some individuals perform high-risk activities while others do not. We examined a communal hymenopteran species, Lasioglossum(Chilalictus)hemichalceum, to determine why group members engaged in demonstrably risky activities (foraging) tolerate the selfish behavior (remaining in the nest) of unrelated nestmates. Experimental removal of adult females indicated that their presence is required for the protection of brood from ant predators. Nonforagers ensure the continued presence of adults in the nest if the risk-taking foragers die, thereby safeguarding the survival of forager offspring. This results in an unequal distribution of risky activities within social groups in which avoidance of risky activities by some group members is ultimately beneficial to risk takers.

  1. Seismicity characteristics of a potentially active Quaternary volcano: The Tatun Volcano Group, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou, Konstantinos I.; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Liang, Wen-Tzong

    2007-02-01

    The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located at the northern tip of Taiwan, near the capital Taipei and close to two nuclear power plants. Because of lack of any activity in historical times it has been classified as an extinct volcano, even though more recent studies suggest that TVG might have been active during the last 20 ka. In May 2003 a seismic monitoring project at the TVG area was initiated by deploying eight three-component seismic stations some of them equipped with both short-period and broadband sensors. During the 18 months observation period local seismicity mainly consisted of high frequency earthquakes either occurring as isolated events, or as a continuous sequence in the form of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency events were also present during the same period, even though they occurred only rarely. Arrival times from events with clear P-/S-wave phases were inverted in order to obtain a minimum 1D velocity model with station corrections. Probabilistic nonlinear earthquake locations were calculated for all these events using the newly derived velocity model. Most high frequency seismicity appeared to be concentrated near the areas of hydrothermal activity, forming tight clusters at depths shallower than 4 km. Relative locations, calculated using the double-difference method and utilising catalogue and cross-correlation differential traveltimes, showed insignificant differences when compared to the nonlinear probabilistic locations. In general, seismicity in the TVG area seems to be primarily driven by circulation of hydrothermal fluids as indicated by the occurrence of spasmodic bursts, mixed/low frequency events and a b-value (1.17 ± 0.1) higher than in any other part of Taiwan. These observations, that are similar to those reported in other dormant Quaternary volcanoes, indicate that a magma chamber may still exist beneath TVG and that a future eruption or period of unrest should not be considered unlikely.

  2. An evaluation of self-reported mobile phone use compared to billing records among a group of engineers and scientists.

    PubMed

    Shum, Mona; Kelsh, Michael A; Sheppard, Asher R; Zhao, Ke

    2011-01-01

    Most epidemiologic studies of potential health impacts of mobile phones rely on self-reported information, which can lead to exposure misclassification. We compared self-reported questionnaire data among 60 participants, and phone billing records over a 3-year period (2002-2004). Phone usage information was compared by the calculation of the mean and median number of calls and duration of use, as well as correlation coefficients and associated P-values. Average call duration from self-reports was slightly lower than billing records (2.1 min vs. 2.8 min, P = 0.01). Participants reported a higher number of average daily calls than billing records (7.9 vs. 4.1, P = 0.002). Correlation coefficients for average minutes per day of mobile phone use and average number of calls per day were relatively high (R = 0.71 and 0.69, respectively, P < 0.001). Information reported at the monthly level tended to be more accurate than estimates of weekly or daily use. Our findings of modest correlations between self-reported mobile phone usage and billing records and substantial variability in recall are consistent with previous studies. However, the direction of over- and under-reporting was not consistent with previous research. We did not observe increased variability over longer periods of recall or a pattern of lower accuracy among older age groups compared with younger groups. Study limitations included a relatively small sample size, low participation rates, and potential limited generalizability. The variability within studies and non-uniformity across studies indicates that estimation of the frequency and duration of phone use by questionnaires should be supplemented with subscriber records whenever practical. PMID:20857456

  3. Comparative efficacy of subcutaneous versus oral methotrexate in active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Haq, S A; Islam, M N; Azad, A K; Islam, M A; Barua, R; Hasan, M M; Mahmood, M; Safiuddin, M; Rahman, M M; Osmany, M F; Bari, N; Rumki, R S; Rashid, F B

    2013-07-01

    This prospective study was conducted in rheumatology clinic under the department of medicine of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from December 2004 to December 2005 to asses the efficacy, safety and compliance of subcutaneous methotrexate (MTX) in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. A total of 92 active rheumatoid arthritis patients according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria were recruited for the trial for six months. Among them 46 cases belonged to injectable MTX group and 46 cases belonged to oral MTX group. Mean±SD age of patients was 45.54±12.42 vs. 44.63±13.99 years in subcutaneous group and oral group respectively. In the subcutaneous group 41 were female and 5 male; in the oral group 34 were female and 12 male. Mean duration of the disease was 49.74 months in subcutaneous group and 49 months in oral group. RA test was positive in 35 cases in both groups whereas Rose Waaler test was positive in 19 patients in subcutaneous group and 14 patients in oral group. At 24 week, response rate of ACR 20 was significantly higher in subcutaneous MTX than oral MTX group (93% vs. 80%, p=0.02). Similarly ACR 50 response was significantly higher in subcutaneous MTX than in oral group (89% vs. 72%, p=0.03). ACR 70 response was not significantly higher in SCMTX group then oral group (11% vs. 9 %, p=0.72). Adverse effects were relatively less in subcutaneous MTX and most common side effects were nausea (37% vs. 63%), vomiting (11% vs. 30%), dyspepsia (29% vs. 48%), dizziness (4l% vs. 52%) and alopecia (72% vs. 85%). The results of the study demonstrated that subcutaneous MTX was significantly more effective than oral MTX at the same dosage in active Rheumatoid arthritis patients with no increase in side effects. PMID:23982537

  4. Personality traits of aggression-submissiveness and perfectionism associate with ABO blood groups through catecholamine activities.

    PubMed

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2011-08-01

    Personality trait research has shown associations with many genes, prominently those of the catecholamine metabolism such as dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). Because DBH gene is in linkage disequilibrium with ABO gene, there is reason to think that other catecholamine genes using the same substrate as DBH may also have associations with ABO blood groups, and this paper demonstrates how this may be so. Reasons include similarities in hapmap population frequency distributions, similarities in illness risks between ABO blood groups and DBH activities as well as between ABO blood groups and COMT activities and between ABO blood groups and MAOA activities. If ABO blood groups can be demonstrated to associate with all these catecholamine genes, then the catecholamine personality trait research can be applied to ABO blood groups and tested for confirmation. ABO blood typing is widely available and affords ability to test this hypothesis and thus confirm the possible joint association of personality traits of aggression-submissiveness and perfectionism to catecholamine genes and to ABO blood groups. Clinical applications and implications are discussed. PMID:21601990

  5. Potentiation of acid-sensing ion channel activity by peripheral group I metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiong; Wu, Jing; Ren, Cuixia; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Li, Yan-Kun; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Glutamate activates peripheral group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and contributes to inflammatory pain. However, it is still not clear the mechanisms are involved in group I mGluR-mediated peripheral sensitization. Herein, we report that group I mGluRs signaling sensitizes acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and contributes to acidosis-evoked pain. DHPG, a selective group I mGluR agonist, can potentiate the functional activity of ASICs, which mediated the proton-induced events. DHPG concentration-dependently increased proton-gated currents in DRG neurons. It shifted the proton concentration-response curve upwards, with a 47.3±7.0% increase of the maximal current response to proton. Group I mGluRs, especially mGluR5, mediated the potentiation of DHPG via an intracellular cascade. DHPG potentiation of proton-gated currents disappeared after inhibition of intracellular Gq/11 proteins, PLCβ, PKC or PICK1 signaling. Moreover, DHPG enhanced proton-evoked membrane excitability of rat DRG neurons and increased the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of spikes induced by acid stimuli. Finally, peripherally administration of DHPG dose-dependently exacerbated nociceptive responses to intraplantar injection of acetic acid in rats. Potentiation of ASIC activity by group I mGluR signaling in rat DRG neurons revealed a novel peripheral mechanism underlying group I mGluRs involvement in hyperalgesia. PMID:26946972

  6. Making sense(s) in dementia: a multisensory and motor-based group activity program.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Joana; Marques, Alda; Barbosa, Ana; Figueiredo, Daniela; Sousa, Liliana X

    2013-03-01

    Lack of engagement in meaningful activities is associated with poor quality of life in dementia; thus, the development of these activities has been recommended. This pilot study aimed to develop a multisensory and motor-based group activity program for residents with dementia and assess its impact on residents' behavior. The program was designed using a multisensory and motor-based approach in sixteen 45-minute weekly sessions tailored to residents' characteristics. Four residents with advanced dementia participated in the program. The frequency and duration of the residents' behavior were assessed using video recordings. All residents participated in the proposed activities, although they were more participative and communicative in some sessions than in others. Group activity programs based on multisensory and motor stimulation can be a promising approach for people with advanced dementia; however, further research is needed. This study may serve as reference to the implementation of future programs aiming to increase person-centeredness of the care provided. PMID:23307794

  7. Effect of cardiopulmonary C fibre activation on the firing activity of ventral respiratory group neurones in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C G; Bonham, A C

    1997-01-01

    1. Cardiopulmonary C fibre receptor stimulation elicits apnoea and rapid shallow breathing, but the effects on the firing activity of central respiratory neurones are not well understood. This study examined the responses of ventral respiratory group neurones: decrementing expiratory (Edec), augmenting expiratory (Eaug), and inspiratory (I) neurones during cardiopulmonary C fibre receptor-evoked apnoea and rapid shallow breathing. 2. Extracellular neuronal activity, phrenic nerve activity and arterial pressure were recorded in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Cardiopulmonary C fibre receptors were stimulated by right atrial injections of phenylbiguanide. Neurones were tested for antidromic activation from the contra- and ipsilateral ventral respiratory group (VRG), spinal cord and cervical vagus nerve. 3. Edec neurones discharged tonically during cardiopulmonary C fibre-evoked apnoea and rapid shallow breathing, displaying increased burst durations, number of impulses per burst, and mean impulse frequencies. Edec neurones recovered either with the phrenic nerve activity (25 s) or much later (3 min). 4. By contrast, the firing activity of Eaug and most I neurones was decreased, featuring decreased burst durations and number of impulses per burst and increased interburst intervals. Eaug activity recovered in approximately 3 min and inspiratory activity in approximately 1 min. 5. The results indicate that cardiopulmonary C fibre receptor stimulation causes tonic firing of Edec neurones and decreases in Eaug and I neuronal activity coincident with apnoea or rapid shallow breathing. PMID:9365917

  8. Obstacles to 12-step group participation as seen by addiction professionals: comparing Norway to the United States.

    PubMed

    Vederhus, John-Kåre; Laudet, Alexandre; Kristensen, Oistein; Clausen, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Twelve-step groups (TSGs) are a valuable recovery resource for substance-dependent individuals. However, some aspects of these fellowships are controversial and may limit clinician referrals. This study describes attitude- and knowledge-based barriers to TSG participation as seen by addiction professionals in Norway, a treatment culture in which less than 5% of programs use the 12-step philosophy, and compares the findings with those of a similar study in the United States. Data were collected in Norway in mid-2008 using a self-administered questionnaire, and the U.S. sample was obtained from historical data. The Norwegian professionals (n = 291) considered the religious aspects of TSGs a considerable obstacle to participation, whereas the U.S. providers (n = 100) did not. Treatment providers unfamiliar with the 12-step philosophy need to be better informed of TSGs' "higher power" concept to educate patients and maximize the utilization of TSGs. PMID:20619998

  9. Factors Affecting Collective Action for Forest Fire Management: A Comparative Study of Community Forest User Groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  10. Factors affecting collective action for forest fire management: a comparative study of community forest user groups in central Siwalik, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management. PMID:25413128

  11. Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N‧-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

  12. Increased cytotoxicity and streptolysin O activity in group G streptococcal strains causing invasive tissue infections

    PubMed Central

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kittang, Bård R.; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Oppegaard, Oddvar; Johansson, Linda; Bruun, Trond; Mylvaganam, Haima; Arnell, Per; Hyldegaard, Ole; Nekludov, Michael; Karlsson, Ylva; Svensson, Mattias; Skrede, Steiner; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 69) were analyzed with respect to virulence factor expression and cytotoxic or inflammatory effects on human cells and 3D skin tissue models. SDSE strains efficiently infected the 3D-skin model and severe tissue pathology, inflammatory responses and altered production of host structural framework proteins associated with epithelial barrier integrity were evident already at 8 hours post-infection. Invasive strains were significantly more cytotoxic towards keratinocytes and expressed higher Streptokinase and Streptolysin O (SLO) activities, as compared to non-invasive strains. The opposite was true for Streptolysin S (SLS). Fractionation and proteomic analysis of the cytotoxic fractions implicated SLO as a factor likely contributing to the keratinocyte cytotoxicity and tissue pathology. Analyses of patient tissue biopsies revealed massive bacterial load, high expression of slo, as well as immune cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest the contribution of SLO to epithelial cytotoxicity and tissue pathology in SDSE tissue infections. PMID:26601609

  13. Human Activity Dampens the Benefits of Group Size on Vigilance in Khulan (Equus hemionus) in Western China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mu-Yang; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Xu, Wen-Xuan; Blank, David; Yang, Wei-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called "the many-eyes effect", together with the "encounter dilution effect", is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus) in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups' disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection. PMID:26756993

  14. The cost-utility of open prostatectomy compared with active surveillance in early localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an on-going debate about whether to perform surgery on early stage localised prostate cancer and risk the common long term side effects such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Alternatively these patients could be closely monitored and treated only in case of disease progression (active surveillance). The aim of this paper is to develop a decision-analytic model comparing the cost-utility of active surveillance (AS) and radical prostatectomy (PE) for a cohort of 65 year old men with newly diagnosed low risk prostate cancer. Methods A Markov model comparing PE and AS over a lifetime horizon was programmed in TreeAge from a German societal perspective. Comparative disease specific mortality was obtained from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group trial. Direct costs were identified via national treatment guidelines and expert interviews covering in-patient, out-patient, medication, aids and remedies as well as out of pocket payments. Utility values were used as factor weights for age specific quality of life values of the German population. Uncertainty was assessed deterministically and probabilistically. Results With quality adjustment, AS was the dominant strategy compared with initial treatment. In the base case, it was associated with an additional 0.04 quality adjusted life years (7.60 QALYs vs. 7.56 QALYs) and a cost reduction of €6,883 per patient (2011 prices). Considering only life-years gained, PE was more effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €96,420/life year gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of developing metastases under AS and utility weights under AS are a major sources of uncertainty. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that AS was more likely to be cost-effective even under very high willingness to pay thresholds. Conclusion AS is likely to be a cost-saving treatment strategy for some patients with early stage localised prostate cancer. However, cost-effectiveness is

  15. Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Four Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between physical activity and depression and the multiple contextual factors influencing these associations in four major ethnic-groups of midlife women in the U.S. This was a secondary analysis of the data from 542 midlife women. The instruments included questions on background characteristics and health and menopausal status; the Depression Index for Midlife Women; and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests, the ANOVA, twoway ANOVA, correlation analyses, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The women's depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with active living and sports/exercise physical activities whereas they were positively correlated with occupational physical activities (p < .01). Family income was the strongest predictor of their depressive symptoms. Increasing physical activity may improve midlife women's depressive symptoms, but the types of physical activity and multiple contextual factors need to be considered in intervention development. PMID:24879749

  16. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using the 16S rRNA gene as target. Intestinal metabolic activity was determined by analysis of short-chain fatty acids in feces. For comparison, other Carnivora and mammals were included in this study. Total bacterial abundance was approximately log 8.5 DNA gene copies·(g feces)-1 in all 3 polar bears. Fecal polar bear microbiota was dominated by the facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, and the Clostridium cluster I. The detection of the Clostridium perfringens α-toxin gene verified the presence of C. perfringens. Composition of the fecal bacterial population was stable on a genus level; according to results obtained by PCR-DGGE, dominant bacterial species fluctuated. The total short-chain fatty acid content of Carnivora and other mammals analysed was comparable; lactate was detected in feces of all carnivora but present only in trace amounts in other mammals. In comparison, the fecal microbiota and metabolic activity of captive polar bears mostly resembled the closely related grizzly and black bears. PMID:21358758

  17. Hyperbranched Aliphatic Polyester Modified Activated Carbon Particles with Homogenized Surface Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Liuxue

    The hyperbranched aliphatic polyester grafted activated carbon (HAPE-AC), was successfully prepared by the simple "one-pot" method. The surface functional groups of commercial activated carbon particles were homogenized to hydroxyl groups by being oxidized with nitric acid and then reduced with lithium tetrahydroaluminate (LiAlH4) at first. Secondly, the surface hydroxyl groups were used as the active sites for the solution polycondensation of the AB2 monomer, 2, 2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA), with the catalysis of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). The homogenization of the surface groups of the activated carbon particles and the graft polymerization of the hyperbranched aliphatic polyester were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The products were also characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The competitive adsorption properties of the products toward the heavy metal ions (Cu(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II)) also proved the translations of the surface groups.

  18. Using activity-based costing to track resource use in group practices.

    PubMed

    Zeller, T L; Siegel, G; Kaciuba, G; Lau, A H

    1999-09-01

    Research shows that understanding how resources are consumed can help group practices control costs. An American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons study used an activity-based costing (ABC) system to measure how resources are consumed in providing medical services. Teams of accounting professors observed 18 diverse orthopedic surgery practices. The researchers identified 17 resource-consuming business processes performed by nonphysician office staff. They measured resource consumption by assigning costs to each process according to how much time is spent on related work activities. When group practices understand how their resources are being consumed, they can reduce costs and optimize revenues by making adjustments in how administrative and clinical staff work. PMID:11066706

  19. The 4'-hydroxyl group of resveratrol is functionally important for direct activation of PPARα.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Yoshie; Nakata, Rieko; Fukuhara, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kubodera, Hideo; Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Long-term moderate consumption of red wine is associated with a reduced risk of developing lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Therefore, resveratrol, a constituent of grapes and various other plants, has attracted substantial interest. This study focused on one molecular target of resveratrol, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα). Our previous study in mice showed that resveratrol-mediated protection of the brain against stroke requires activation of PPARα; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the chemical basis of the resveratrol-mediated activation of PPARα by performing a docking mode simulation and examining the structure-activity relationships of various polyphenols. The results of experiments using the crystal structure of the PPARα ligand-binding domain and an analysis of the activation of PPARα by a resveratrol analog 4-phenylazophenol (4-PAP) in vivo indicate that the 4'-hydroxyl group of resveratrol is critical for the direct activation of PPARα. Activation of PPARα by 5 μM resveratrol was enhanced by rolipram, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase. We also found that resveratrol has a higher PDE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19 μM) than resveratrol analogs trans-4-hydroxystilbene and 4-PAP (IC50 = 27-28 μM), both of which has only 4'-hydroxyl group, indicating that this 4'-hydroxyl group of resveratrol is not sufficient for the inhibition of PDE. This result is consistent with that 10 μM resveratrol has a higher agonistic activity of PPARα than these analogs, suggesting that there is a feedforward activation loop of PPARα by resveratrol, which may be involved in the long-term effects of resveratrol in vivo. PMID:25798826

  20. Antiprotozoal activity of bicycles featuring a dimethylamino group at their bridgehead.

    PubMed

    Faist, Johanna; Seebacher, Werner; Saf, Robert; Brun, Reto; Kaiser, Marcel; Weis, Robert

    2016-08-15

    Several dimethylamino-derivatives of the new compound-class 3-azabicyclo[3.2.2]nonanes were prepared. For better comparison of activity also a few analogues of bicyclo[2.2.2]octanes and 2-azabicyclo[3.2.2]nonanes were synthesized. Their activities were examined in vitro against the multiresistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum and against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (STIB 900). A couple of the newly synthesized compounds showed promising antiprotozoal activity and selectivity. The results of the biological tests of the novel compounds were compared with the activities of already synthesized compounds and of drugs in use. Structure-activity relationships were discussed. PMID:27344215

  1. Comparative performance of the probable case definitions of dengue by WHO (2009) and the WHO-SEAR expert group (2011)

    PubMed Central

    Nujum, Zinia T; Thomas, Achu; Vijayakumar, K; Nair, Radhakrishnan R; Radhakrishna Pillai, M; Indu, P S; Sundar, Syam; Gopakumar, Soumya; Mohan, Devi; Sudheeshkumar, T K

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to find the performance of the 2009 probable case definition of dengue and compare it with the definition given by the WHO-SEAR expert group in 2011. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala, which is hyperendemic for dengue. A consecutive series of 851 participants defined by the selection criteria were recruited from the primary, secondary, and tertiary health care settings. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of the clinical case definitions were calculated using reverse transcriptase-polymerized chain reaction (RT-PCR) as gold standard in case of fever less than or equal to 5 days and serology (IgM positivity) for fever >5 days. Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was also calculated as a single indicator of performance of the case definition. Results The 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) case definition had a sensitivity of 76.4% (69.6–82.1) and negative predictive value of 87.5%. The 2011 WHO-SEAR expert group case definition had a higher sensitivity of 87.9% (82.2–91.9) but lower negative predictive value of 86.6%. The three independent criteria which were significantly associated with dengue were thrombocytopenia less than 150 000 (OR 2.80), leukopenia (OR 2.28), and absence of backache (OR 2.68). The performance of 2009 case definition was better (DOR 2.4) than the 2011 WHO-SEAR expert group case definition. This was further enhanced when thrombocytopenia was specified as platelet count less than 150 000 (DOR2.7). When ‘no backahe’ was added as an additional criteria, the performance of both definitions improved. Conclusions The 2009 WHO case definition has better discriminatory power than the 2011 WHO-SEAR expert group case definition. The performance of 2009 WHO case definition is enhanced by specifying thrombocytopenia as platelet count less than 150 000. The inclusion of ‘no backache’ further improves the

  2. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of some species of the Dendropsophus microcephalus group (Anura, Hylidae) in the light of phylogenetic inferences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dendropsophus is a monophyletic anuran genus with a diploid number of 30 chromosomes as an important synapomorphy. However, the internal phylogenetic relationships of this genus are poorly understood. Interestingly, an intriguing interspecific variation in the telocentric chromosome number has been useful in species identification. To address certain uncertainties related to one of the species groups of Dendropsophus, the D. microcephalus group, we carried out a cytogenetic analysis combined with phylogenetic inferences based on mitochondrial sequences, which aimed to aid in the analysis of chromosomal characters. Populations of Dendropsophus nanus, Dendropsophus walfordi, Dendropsophus sanborni, Dendropsophus jimi and Dendropsophus elianeae, ranging from the extreme south to the north of Brazil, were cytogenetically compared. A mitochondrial region of the ribosomal 12S gene from these populations, as well as from 30 other species of Dendropsophus, was used for the phylogenetic inferences. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Results The species D. nanus and D. walfordi exhibited identical karyotypes (2n = 30; FN = 52), with four pairs of telocentric chromosomes and a NOR located on metacentric chromosome pair 13. In all of the phylogenetic hypotheses, the paraphyly of D. nanus and D. walfordi was inferred. D. sanborni from Botucatu-SP and Torres-RS showed the same karyotype as D. jimi, with 5 pairs of telocentric chromosomes (2n = 30; FN = 50) and a terminal NOR in the long arm of the telocentric chromosome pair 12. Despite their karyotypic similarity, these species were not found to compose a monophyletic group. Finally, the phylogenetic and cytogenetic analyses did not cluster the specimens of D. elianeae according to their geographical occurrence or recognized morphotypes. Conclusions We suggest that a taxonomic revision of the taxa D. nanus and D. walfordi is quite necessary. We also

  3. Participating in Political Activities: Political Systems, Unit Three. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Patrick, John J.

    The third unit to the first-semester course, "Comparing Political Experiences," provides 16 activities to help 12th-grade students acquire in-depth knowledge of various kinds of political activities, such as decision making, leadership, communication, and participation. The activities and readings are divided into six sections which stress the…

  4. Comparing the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats in African-American and Hispanic women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats—one that lists activities (Checklist questionnaire) and one that assesses overall activities (Global questionnaire) by domain. Two questionnaire formats were validated among 260 African-American and Hi...

  5. WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY, WORK GROUP I REPORT: COMPARABILITY OF MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment measures used in developmental neurotoxicology are reviewed for their comparability in humans and laboratory animals, and their ability to detect comparable, adverse effects across species. ompounds used for these comparisons include: abuse substances, anticonvulsant d...

  6. Involving postgraduate's students in undergraduate small group teaching promotes active learning in both

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ruchi; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Vyas, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lecture is a common traditional method for teaching, but it may not stimulate higher order thinking and students may also be hesitant to express and interact. The postgraduate (PG) students are less involved with undergraduate (UG) teaching. Team based small group active learning method can contribute to better learning experience. Aim: To-promote active learning skills among the UG students using small group teaching methods involving PG students as facilitators to impart hands-on supervised training in teaching and managerial skills. Methodology: After Institutional approval under faculty supervision 92 UGs and 8 PGs participated in 6 small group sessions utilizing the jigsaw technique. Feedback was collected from both. Observations: Undergraduate Feedback (Percentage of Students Agreed): Learning in small groups was a good experience as it helped in better understanding of the subject (72%), students explored multiple reading resources (79%), they were actively involved in self-learning (88%), students reported initial apprehension of performance (71%), identified their learning gaps (86%), team enhanced their learning process (71%), informal learning in place of lecture was a welcome change (86%), it improved their communication skills (82%), small group learning can be useful for future self-learning (75%). Postgraduate Feedback: Majority performed facilitation for first time, perceived their performance as good (75%), it was helpful in self-learning (100%), felt confident of managing students in small groups (100%), as facilitator they improved their teaching skills, found it more useful and better identified own learning gaps (87.5%). Conclusions: Learning in small groups adopting team based approach involving both UGs and PGs promoted active learning in both and enhanced the teaching skills of the PGs. PMID:26380201

  7. A method to quantify movement activity of groups of animals using automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianyu; Yu, Haizhen; Liu, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Most physiological and environmental changes are capable of inducing variations in animal behavior. The behavioral parameters have the possibility to be measured continuously in-situ by a non-invasive and non-contact approach, and have the potential to be used in the actual productions to predict stress conditions. Most vertebrates tend to live in groups, herds, flocks, shoals, bands, packs of conspecific individuals. Under culture conditions, the livestock or fish are in groups and interact on each other, so the aggregate behavior of the group should be studied rather than that of individuals. This paper presents a method to calculate the movement speed of a group of animal in a enclosure or a tank denoted by body length speed that correspond to group activity using computer vision technique. Frame sequences captured at special time interval were subtracted in pairs after image segmentation and identification. By labeling components caused by object movement in difference frame, the projected area caused by the movement of every object in the capture interval was calculated; this projected area was divided by the projected area of every object in the later frame to get body length moving distance of each object, and further could obtain the relative body length speed. The average speed of all object can well respond to the activity of the group. The group activity of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were quantified based on these methods. High UIA level condition elicited a marked increase in school activity at the first hour (P<0.05) exhibiting an avoidance reaction (trying to flee from high UIA condition), and then decreased gradually.

  8. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children’s perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Methods Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children’s perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. Results The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls’ requests for more “hanging-out” facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Conclusion Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and

  9. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm. PMID:26724713

  10. THE MERGER HISTORY, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS, AND DWARF GALAXIES OF HICKSON COMPACT GROUP 59

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Charlton, J. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Eracleous, M.; Gronwall, C.; Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Hill, A. R.; Durrell, P. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Zabludoff, A. I.; Maier, M. L.; Johnson, K. E.; Walker, L. M.; Maybhate, A.; English, J.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2012-01-20

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (Hubble Space Telescope), infrared (Spitzer), and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun }), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other are two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic H II regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at {approx}1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in HCG 59A by its {approx}10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR spectral energy distribution. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  11. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid-liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.

  12. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-19

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict themore » effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.« less

  13. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-19

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Kohler theory to predict themore » effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. Furthermore, the model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.« less

  14. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2015-09-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. The model combines Köhler theory with semi-empirical group contribution methods to estimate molar volumes, activity coefficients and liquid-liquid phase boundaries to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of two. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging testbeds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger scale models.

  15. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    SciTech Connect

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.

  16. [THE COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF KAOLIN-ACTIVATED THROMBOELASTOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY NEWBORNS AND NEWBORNS WITH HEART AILMENTS].

    PubMed

    Leonov, N P; Karas'kov, A M; Litasova, E E; Strunin, O V; Karmadonova, N A; Akopov, G D; Vishegorodtseva, L I

    2016-02-01

    The study was carried out to diferentiate reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in newborns with congenital heart disease. The study included two groups ofpatients. The first one consisted of 62 newborns with congenital heart disease and the second one consisted of 35 healthy newborns. The results of kaolin-activated thromboelastography implemented in groups are evaluated as condition of normal coagulation. The valuable diferences of homeostasis system in healthy newborns and newborns with congenital heart disease (without severe concomitant pathology) are not established. They have similar indicators of kaolin-activated thromboelastography. The derived results can be applied as standards in full-term newborns with congenital heart disease. PMID:27455561

  17. Structure-activity relationships in aminosterol antibiotics: the effect of stereochemistry at the 7-OH group.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Tsemre-Dingel; Gassler, Frank; Shu, Youheng; Jones, Stephen; Selinsky, Barry S

    2013-06-01

    Squalamine and three aminosterol analogs have been shown to inhibit bacterial cell growth and induce lysis of large unilamellar phospholipid vesicles. The analogs differ in the identity of the polyamine attached at C3 of the sterol, and the stereochemistry of a hydroxyl substituent at C7. Analogs with a tetraammonium spermine polyamine are somewhat more active than analogs with a shorter trisammonium spermidine polyamine, and analogs with an axial (α) hydroxyl substituent at C7 are more active than analogs with the corresponding equatorial (β) hydroxyl group. There is some variability noted; the 7β-OH spermine analog is the most active compound against Escherichia coli, but the least effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lytic activity correlates well with antimicrobial activity of the compounds, but the lytic activity varies with the phospholipid composition of the vesicles. PMID:23618624

  18. Physical activity and beverage consumption in preschoolers: focus groups with parents and teachers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents’ and teachers’ opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on children’s current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes. Methods Multi-cultural and multi-geographical focus groups were carried out in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). In total, twenty-four focus groups with 122 parents and eighteen focus groups with 87 teachers were conducted between October 2010 and January 2011. Based on a semi-structured interview guide, questions on preschoolers’ physical activity (opinions on preschoolers’ physical activity, how to increase physical activity, facilitators and barriers of physical activity) and beverage consumption (rules and policies, factors influencing promotion of healthy drinking, recommendations for future intervention development) were asked. The information was analyzed using qualitative data analysis software (NVivo8). Results The focus group results indicated misperceptions of caregivers on preschoolers’ physical activity and beverage consumption levels. Caregivers perceived preschoolers as sufficiently active; they argue that children need to learn to sit still in preparation for primary school. At most preschools, children can drink only water. In some preschools sugar-sweetened beverages like chocolate milk or fruit juices, are also allowed. It was mentioned that sugar-sweetened beverages can be healthy due to mineral and vitamin content, although according to parents their daily intake is limited. These opinions resulted in low perceived needs to change behaviours. Conclusions Although previous research shows need of change in

  19. Group Project Work and Student-centered Active Learning: Two Different Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, David; Lynch, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Compared experiences with group-based student projects in a Geographical Information Systems degree taught by one faculty member and in geography degree modules taught by another. Concludes that care must be taken in the design and execution of these projects to avoid problems that might reinforce myths about negative effects of team-based…

  20. Stress and Activity Management: Group Treatment for Cancer Patients and Spouses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Richard L.; Schag, Cyndie Coscarelli

    1985-01-01

    Studied 51 ambulatory patients with commonly occurring cancers and 25 of their spouses to evaluate a group stress and activity management treatment program. Found support for unique effects of the treatment intervention, but also support for improvement in psychosocial adjustment for patients and spouses with the passage of time. (Author/MCF)

  1. Peer Groups and Substance Use: Examining the Direct and Interactive Effect of Leisure Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships among adolescent leisure activities, peer behavior, and substance use. We suggest that peer group interaction can have a differential effect on adolescent deviant behavior depending on the type of leisure pattern adolescents engage in. We analyze data from a representative national sample of Icelandic…

  2. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  3. An Investigation of the Structure of Group Activities in ELT Coursebooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; Ball, Jessica

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study examining the use of group activities in 10 randomly selected English-language teaching coursebooks published since 1990. Results are discussed in light of theory and research on cooperative learning; task-based language teaching; and the roles of learners, teachers, and coursebooks. (26 references) (Author/CK)

  4. Peer Interactions among Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Method: Group activities for…

  5. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  6. 75 FR 76070 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... (Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance) regarding bridge failure. Final rule published on July 15, 2010 (75 FR... announcement of working group activities and status reports of August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51525). The 42nd full... Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October...

  7. 77 FR 24257 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of November 28, 2011 (76 FR 72997). The 45th full... Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23... emergency communication, emergency egress, and rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR...

  8. Activities for Learning about Conservation of Forest Resources: A Guide for Leaders of Youth Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to support the leader of a youth group in increasing the awareness of members of the need for good forest conservation practices. Sections include: (1) science fundamentals; (2) making informative exhibits; (3) gaining community involvement; (4) Christmas activities; (5) games and crafts; and (6) a list of resources and…

  9. Activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors is neuroprotective in cortical cultures.

    PubMed

    Bruno, V; Copani, A; Bonanno, L; Knoepfel, T; Kuhn, R; Roberts, P J; Nicoletti, F

    1996-08-22

    (RS)-alpha-Methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) and (S)-alpha-methyl-3-carboxyphenylalanine (M3CPA), two novel preferential antagonists of group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, antagonized the neuroprotective activity of L-2-amino-4-phosphono-butanoate (L-AP4) or L-serine-O-phosphate in mice cultured cortical cells exposed to a toxic pulse of N-methyl-D-aspartate. In contrast, MPPG did not influence the neuroprotective activity of the selective group II mGlu receptor agonist, (2S,1'R,2'R,3'R)-2-(2,3-dicarboxy-cyclopropyl) glycine (DCG-IV). These results indicate that activation of group III mGu receptors exerts neuroprotective activity against excitotoxic neuronal death. At least one of the two major group III mGlu receptor subtypes, i.e. mGlu4 receptor, is expressed by cultured cortical neurons, as shown by immunocytochemical analysis with specific polyclonal antibodies. PMID:8880068

  10. Information Activities and Appropriation in Teacher Trainees' Digital, Group-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanell, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports results from an ethnographic study of teacher trainees' information activities in digital, group-based learning and their relation to the interplay between use and appropriation of digital tools and the learning environment. Method: The participants in the present study are 249 pre-school teacher trainees in…

  11. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of January 29, 2010 (75 FR 4904). The 41st full... October 11, 2005. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275... published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR 6370). The Task Force met on October 17-18, 2007, and reached...

  12. Collaborative Activities Enabled by GroupScribbles (GS): An Exploratory Study of Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli; Ng, Foo-Keong

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of an exploratory cycle of a design-based research project and examines the learning effectiveness of collaborative activities that are supported by the GroupScribbles (GS) software technology in two Singapore primary science classrooms. The students had ten weeks of GS-based lessons in science, which were…

  13. Use of a Wiki-Based Software to Manage Research Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting; Vezenov, Dmitri V.; Simboli, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses use of the wiki software Confluence to organize research group activities and lab resources. Confluence can serve as an electronic lab notebook (ELN), as well as an information management and collaboration tool. The article provides a case study in how researchers can use wiki software in "home-grown" fashion to…

  14. When Talking Won't Work: Implementing Experiential Group Activities with Addicted Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Hirshhorn, Meredith A.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional talk therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral techniques, are often ineffective when working with addicted clients for many reasons. By tapping into the power of the group modality, experiential activities can serve as a powerful facilitator of insight and behavior change. The authors provide a brief review of the literature followed…

  15. Singing as Language Learning Activity in Multilingual Toddler Groups in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kultti, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on learning conditions in preschool that support multilingual children's linguistic development. The aim of this paper was to study singing activities through the experiences of ten multilingual children in toddler groups (one to three years of age) in eight Swedish preschools. A sociocultural theoretical approach is…

  16. 78 FR 75905 - Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... similar provisions of the Code. See, e.g., Prop. Reg. Sec. 1.199-1, 70 FR 67220, 67236 (November 4, 2005...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BE14 Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice...

  17. Bill Gates' Great-Great-Granddaughter's Honeymoon: An Astronomy Activity for Several Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When students finish a unit or course on the planets these days, they are often overwhelmed with facts, comparisons, and images. A good culminating activity, to help them organize their thinking (and review), is to have them divide into small groups (travel agencies) and come up with their top ten solar system "tourist sights" for future space…

  18. Human Activity Dampens the Benefits of Group Size on Vigilance in Khulan (Equus hemionus) in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mu-Yang; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E.; Xu, Wen-Xuan; Blank, David; Yang, Wei-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called “the many-eyes effect”, together with the “encounter dilution effect”, is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus) in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups’ disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection. PMID:26756993

  19. Activities of the US-Japan Safety Monitor Joint Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Richard L. Savercool; Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    This paper documents the activities of the US-Japan exchange in the area of personnel safety at magnetic and laser fusion experiments. A near-miss event with a visiting scientist to the US in 1992 was the impetus for forming the Joint Working Group on Fusion Safety. This exchnge has been under way for over ten years and has provided many safety insights for both US and Japanese facility personnel at national institutes and at universities. The background and activities of the Joint Working Group are described, including the facilities that have been visited for safety walkthroughs, the participants from both countries, and the main safety issues examined during visits. Based on these visits, some operational safety ideas to enhance experiment safety are given. The near-term future plans of the Safety Monitor Joint Working group are also discussed.

  20. Positional effects of hydroxy groups on catalytic activity of proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Iridium(III) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Suna, Yuki; Fujita, Etsuko; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Wang, Wan-Hui; Kambayashi, Hide; Manaka, Yuichi; Muckerman, James T.; Himeda, Yuichiro

    2014-11-12

    Proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Ir(III) complexes possessing a bipyridine ligand with two hydroxy groups at the 3,3'-, 4,4'-, 5,5'- or 6,6'-positions (3DHBP, 4DHBP, 5DHBP, or 6DHBP) were systematically investigated. UV-vis titration data provided average pK a values of the hydroxy groups on the ligands. Both hydroxy groups were found to deprotonate in the pH 4.6–5.6 range for the 4–6DHBP complexes. One of the hydroxy groups of the 3DHBP complex exhibited the low pKa value of < 0.4 because the deprotonation is facilitated by the strong intramolecular hydrogen bond formed between the generated oxyanion and the remaining hydroxy group, which in turn leads to an elevated pKa value of ~13.6 for the second deprotonation step. The crystal structures of the 4– and 6DHBP complexes obtained from basic aqueous solutions revealed their deprotonated forms. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in the 3DHBP complex was also observed in the crystal structures. The catalytic activities of these complexes in aqueous phase reactions, at appropriate pH, for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (pH 8.5), dehydrogenation of formic acid (pH 1.8), transfer hydrogenation reactions using formic acid/formate as a hydrogen source (pH 7.2 and 2.6) were investigated to compare the positional effects of the hydroxy groups. The 4– and 6DHBP complexes exhibited remarkably enhanced catalytic activities under basic conditions because of the resonance effect of the strong electrondonating oxyanions, whereas the 5DHBP complex exhibited negligible activity despite the presence of electron-donating groups. The 3DHBP complex exhibited relatively high catalytic activity at low pH owing to the one strong electron-donating oxyanion group stabilized by the intramolecular hydrogen bond. DFT calculations were employed to study the mechanism of CO₂ hydrogenation by the 4DHBP and 6DHBP complexes, and comparison of the activation free energies of the H₂ heterolysis and CO

  1. Positional effects of hydroxy groups on catalytic activity of proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Iridium(III) complexes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Suna, Yuki; Fujita, Etsuko; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Wang, Wan-Hui; Kambayashi, Hide; Manaka, Yuichi; Muckerman, James T.; Himeda, Yuichiro

    2014-11-12

    Proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Ir(III) complexes possessing a bipyridine ligand with two hydroxy groups at the 3,3'-, 4,4'-, 5,5'- or 6,6'-positions (3DHBP, 4DHBP, 5DHBP, or 6DHBP) were systematically investigated. UV-vis titration data provided average pK a values of the hydroxy groups on the ligands. Both hydroxy groups were found to deprotonate in the pH 4.6–5.6 range for the 4–6DHBP complexes. One of the hydroxy groups of the 3DHBP complex exhibited the low pKa value of < 0.4 because the deprotonation is facilitated by the strong intramolecular hydrogen bond formed between the generated oxyanion and the remaining hydroxy group, which in turn leadsmore » to an elevated pKa value of ~13.6 for the second deprotonation step. The crystal structures of the 4– and 6DHBP complexes obtained from basic aqueous solutions revealed their deprotonated forms. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in the 3DHBP complex was also observed in the crystal structures. The catalytic activities of these complexes in aqueous phase reactions, at appropriate pH, for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (pH 8.5), dehydrogenation of formic acid (pH 1.8), transfer hydrogenation reactions using formic acid/formate as a hydrogen source (pH 7.2 and 2.6) were investigated to compare the positional effects of the hydroxy groups. The 4– and 6DHBP complexes exhibited remarkably enhanced catalytic activities under basic conditions because of the resonance effect of the strong electrondonating oxyanions, whereas the 5DHBP complex exhibited negligible activity despite the presence of electron-donating groups. The 3DHBP complex exhibited relatively high catalytic activity at low pH owing to the one strong electron-donating oxyanion group stabilized by the intramolecular hydrogen bond. DFT calculations were employed to study the mechanism of CO₂ hydrogenation by the 4DHBP and 6DHBP complexes, and comparison of the activation free energies of the H₂ heterolysis and CO₂ insertion steps

  2. Compared to Purpurinimides, the Pyropheophorbide Containing an Iodobenzyl Group showed Enhanced PDT Efficacy and Tumor Imaging (124I-PET) Ability

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Suresh K.; Sajjad, Munawwar; Chen, Yihui; Pandey, Anupam; Missert, Joseph R.; Batt, Carrie; Yao, Rutao; Nabi, Hani A.; Oseroff, Allan R.; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2009-01-01

    Two positional isomers of purpurinimide; 3-[1’-(3-iodobenzyloxyethyl)] purpurin-18-N-hexylimide methyl ester 4 in which the iodobenzyl group is present at the top half of the molecule (position-3) and a 3-(1’-hexyloxyethy)purpurin-18-N-(3-iodo-benzylimide)] methyl ester 5, where the iodobenzyl group is introduced at the bottom half (N-substitued cyclicimide) of the molecule were derived from chlorophyll-a. The tumor uptake and phototherapeutic abilities of these isomers were compared with the pyropheophorbide analog 1 (lead compound). These compounds were then converted into the corresponding 124I- labeled PET imaging agents with specific activity >1Ci/μmole. Among the positional isomers 4 and 5, purpurinimide 5 showed enhanced imaging and therapeutic potential. However, the lead compound 1 derived from pyropheophorbide-a exhibited the best PET imaging and PDT efficacy. For investigating the overall lipophilicity of the molecule, the 3-O-hexyl ether group presnt at position-3 of purpurinimide 5 was replaced with a methyl ether substituent and the resulting product 10 showed improved tumor uptake, but due to its significantly higher uptake in liver, spleen and other organs, a poor tumor contrast in whole-body tumor imaging was observed. PMID:19191565

  3. Communication: Active space decomposition with multiple sites: Density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Shane M.; Shiozaki, Toru

    2014-12-07

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few μE{sub h} or less) with M = 128 in both cases. This rapid convergence is because the renormalization steps are used only for the interfragment electron correlation.

  4. The Infant Feeding Intentions scale demonstrates construct validity and comparability in quantifying maternal breastfeeding intentions across multiple ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Cohen, Roberta J; Chantry, Caroline J; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2010-07-01

    Research tools that are comparable across ethnic groups are needed in order to understand sociodemographic disparities in breastfeeding rates. The Infant Feeding Intentions (IFI) scale provides a quantitative measure of maternal breastfeeding intentions. IFI score ranges from 0 (no intention to breastfeed) to 16 (very strong intentions to fully breastfeed for 6 months). The objective of this study was to examine intra- and inter-ethnic validity of the IFI scale. The IFI scale was administered to 218 white non-Hispanic, 75 African-American, 80 English-speaking Hispanic, 62 Spanish-speaking Hispanic and 64 Asian expectant primiparae. Participants were asked their planned duration of providing breast milk as the sole source of milk (full breastfeeding). The IFI scale was examined for intra-ethnic internal consistency and construct validity and for inter-ethnic comparability. For all five ethnic categories, principal component analysis separated the scale into the same two factors: intention to initiate breastfeeding and intention to continue full breastfeeding. Across ethnic categories, the range in Cronbach's alpha was 0.70-0.85 for the initiation factor and 0.90-0.93 for the continuation factor. Within each ethnic category, IFI score increased as planned duration of full breastfeeding increased (P < 0.0001 for all). Within the planned duration categories of <1, 1-3, 3-6 and ≥6 months, the median IFI score by ethnic category ranged from (low-high) 5-8, 9-10, 12-14 and 16-16, respectively. The IFI scale provides a valid measure of breastfeeding intentions in diverse populations of English- and Spanish-speaking primiparae, and may be a useful tool when researching disparities in breastfeeding practices. PMID:20929494

  5. Differentiation and grouping of isolates of the Ganoderma lucidum complex by random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR compared with grouping on the basis of internal transcribed spacer sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Hseu, R S; Wang, H H; Wang, H F; Moncalvo, J M

    1996-01-01

    Laccate polypores of the Ganoderma lucidum species complex are widespread white rot fungi of economic importance, but isolates cannot be identified by traditional taxonomic methods. Parsimony analysis of nucleotide sequences from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the ribosomal gene (rDNA) distinguished six lineages in this species complex. Each ITS lineage may represent one or more putative species. While some isolates have identical ITS sequences, all of them could be clearly differentiated by genetic fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). To investigate the suitability of RAPD markers for taxonomic identification and grouping of isolates of the G. lucidum complex, RAPD fragments (RAPDs) were used as phenotypic characters in numerical and parsimony analyses. Results show that data from RAPDS do not distinguish the same clades as ITS data do. Groupings based on analysis of RAPD data were very sensitive to the choice of the grouping method used, and no consistent grouping of isolates could be proposed. However, analysis with RAPDs did resolve several robust terminal clades containing putatively conspecific isolates, suggesting that RAPDs might be helpful for systematics at the lower taxonomic levels that are unresolved by ITS sequence data. The limitations of RAPDs for systematics are briefly discussed. The conclusion of this study is that ITS sequences can be used to identify isolates of the G. lucidum complex, whereas RAPDs can be used to differentiate between isolates having identical ITS sequences. The practical implications of these results are briefly illustrated. PMID:8919797

  6. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA. PMID:25992659

  7. “Convivência” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Tânia R. Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    2012-01-01

    In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups. PMID:22830022

  8. Townes Group Activities from 1983-2000: Personal Recollections of William Danchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2015-01-01

    I arrived in Berkeley in October 1983 as a post-doc, and my appointment was at the Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). During that time the group was very large, with multiple activities led by Charlie himself and also by Senior Fellows such as John Lacy, Dan Jaffe, and Al Betz at the top of the hill at Space Sciences. Another significant contingent of the Townes group was housed in Birge Hall on campus, led by Reinhard Genzel when he was an Assistant Professor in the Physics Department. Although the group encompassed two separate locations, it functioned as one large group. Either we rode with Charlie up and down the hill, or (if we were concerned about our safety!) we took the bus.

  9. A Small-Group Activity Introducing the Use and Interpretation of BLAST †

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Peter D.; Fricker, Ashwana D.; Roco, Constance Armanda; Chandrangsu, Pete; Merkel, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    As biological sequence data are generated at an ever increasing rate, the role of bioinformatics in biological research also grows. Students must be trained to complete and interpret bioinformatic searches to enable them to effectively utilize the trove of sequence data available. A key bioinformatic tool for sequence comparison and genome database searching is BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). BLAST identifies sequences in a database that are similar to the entered query sequence, and ranks them based on the length and quality of the alignment. Our goal was to introduce sophomore and junior level undergraduate students to the basic functions and uses of BLAST with a small group activity lasting a single class period. The activity provides students an opportunity to perform a BLAST search, interpret the data output, and use the data to make inferences about bacterial cell envelope structure. The activity consists of two parts. Part 1 is a handout to be completed prior to class, complete with video tutorial, that reviews cell envelope structure, introduces key terms, and allows students to familiarize themselves with the mechanics of a BLAST search. Part 2 consists of a hands-on, web-based small group activity to be completed during the class period. Evaluation of the activity through student performance assessments suggests that students who complete the activity can better interpret the BLAST output parameters % query coverage and % max identity. While the topic of the activity is bacterial cell wall structure, it could be adapted to address other biological concepts. PMID:24358388

  10. Activities of the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C; Rugama, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Management of spent nuclear fuel is a key issue for many NEA member countries. In nuclear criticality safety, the decision of many countries to advance burnup credit as part of their licensing strategy has heightened recent interest in experimental data needed to validate computer codes used in burnup credit calculations. This paper discusses recent activities of an Expert Group on assay data, formed under the OECD/NEA/NSC/WPNCS (Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety) to help coordinate isotopic assay data activities and facilitate international collaboration between NEA member countries developing or implementing burnup credit methodologies. Recent activities of the Expert Group are described, focusing on the planned expansion of the Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO), and preparation of a state-of-the-art report on assay data that includes sections on recommended radiochemical analysis methods, techniques, and lessons learned from previous experiments.

  11. Effects of sulfate group in red seaweed polysaccharides on anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wanai; Mao, Xuan; Peng, Xiaohui; Tang, Shunqing

    2014-01-30

    In this paper, the structural effects of two main red seaweed polysaccharides (agarose and carrageenan) and their sulfated derivatives on the anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The substitution position rather than the substitution degree of sulfate groups shows the biggest impact on both the anticoagulant activity and the cell proliferation. Among them, C-2 of 3,6-anhydro-α-d-Galp is the most favorable position for substitution, whereas C-6 of β-d-Galp is the most disadvantageous. Moreover, the secondary structures of glycans also play a key role in biological activities. These demonstrations warrant that the red seaweed polysaccharides should be seriously considered in biomedical applications after carefully tailoring the sulfate groups. PMID:24299838

  12. Enhanced Surfactant Adsorption on Activated Carbon through Manipulation of Surface Oxygen Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, John; Qu, Deyang; Foster, Michelle

    2012-02-01

    Passive energy storage is a necessary component for balancing the lifecycle budget with new forms of green energy. The work presented describes how surface oxygen groups (SOG) on granulated activated carbon have been manipulated using Nitric Acid in a controlled, stepwise fashion. The structure and surface functionality of the activated carbon samples were characterized using DRIFTS, Raman Spectroscopy and Porosimetry. Total surface area was found to increase proportionally with the removal of heteroatom material, exposing previously insulated active sites responsible for SOG attachment. Broad oxide peaks were deconvoluted and analyzed, allowing for absolute identification of evolving functionality at each oxidation stage. SOGs were maximized on the third oxidation cycle with the presence of conjugated aromatic, phenol, lactone, and carboxylic acid groups. FSN Zonyl nonionic was applied to all oxidized samples at various concentrations. Total adsorbed surfactant was quantified for each concentration / oxidation scheme using attenuated total reflection. The relative quantity and polarity of chemisorbed surfactant were qualitatively assessed for each equilibrium concentration.

  13. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. PMID:27282078

  14. Vowel and consonant identification tests can be used to compare performances in a multilingual group of cochlear implant patients.

    PubMed

    Pelizzone, M; Boëx, C; Montandon, P

    1993-01-01

    Vowel and consonant identification tests were conducted in the sound-only condition in a multilingual group of 13 totally deaf patients who are users of the Ineraid multichannel cochlear implant. Native languages ranged across French, German, Italian, Spanish, Albanian and Swahili. We found high correlations (r > -0.83) among vowel or consonant identification scores and 'subjective ranking' scores established on the basis of a subjective evaluation of the patient's speech reception abilities in the sound-only condition. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the identification of vowel and consonant is dominated by the perception of acoustic cues characteristic of the set of stimuli used as well as by the strengths and weaknesses of the speech processing of the cochlear implant system. We did not find any systematic pattern in the results that could be related to the native language of the patients. These results suggest that vowel as well as consonant identification tests are effective means to compare the performance of cochlear implant patients even across different native languages. They also indicate that, in the future, one can conduct a fewer number of the many different (e.g. nonsense-syllable, word, sentence, speech-tracking) tests when evaluating the speech recognition abilities of patients with the implant. PMID:8265119

  15. FRESH ACTIVITY IN OLD SYSTEMS: RADIO AGNs IN FOSSIL GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Kelley M.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Hartwick, Victoria L. E-mail: ewilcots@astro.wisc.edu

    2012-08-15

    We present the first systematic 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum survey of fossil galaxy group candidates. These are virialized systems believed to have assembled over a gigayear in the past through the merging of galaxy group members into a single, isolated, massive elliptical galaxy and featuring an extended hot X-ray halo. We use new photometric and spectroscopic data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to determine that three of the candidates are clearly not fossil groups. Of the remaining 30 candidates, 67% contain a radio-loud (L{sub 1.4GHz} > 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the center of their dominant elliptical galaxy. We find a weak correlation between the radio luminosity of the AGN and the X-ray luminosity of the halo suggesting that the AGN contributes to energy deposition into the intragroup medium. We only find a correlation between the radio and optical luminosity of the central elliptical galaxy when we include X-ray-selected, elliptically dominated non-fossil groups, indicating a weak relationship between AGN strength and the mass assembly history of the groups. The dominant elliptical galaxy of fossil groups is on average roughly an order of magnitude more luminous than normal group elliptical galaxies in optical, X-ray, and radio luminosities and our findings are consistent with previous results that the radio-loud fraction in elliptical galaxies is linked to the stellar mass of a population. The current level of activity in fossil groups suggests that AGN fueling continues long after the last major merger. We discuss several possibilities for fueling the AGN at the present epoch.

  16. A comparative study of the interaction of platinum with group 4A (germanium, tin and lead) porphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dy, E. S.; Kasai, H.

    2007-09-01

    Because of its vast number of applications and high price many studies have been made on how to reduce the amount of platinum in catalysts. One method includes dispersing platinum nanoparticles in porous support materials. But electrically conductive carbon-based support materials—needed for fuel cell electrodes—permit nanoparticles to migrate and form larger clusters, leading to reduced catalytic activity over time. To find a solution to this problem, we modelled the interaction of group 4A metal porphyrins (germanium (II) porphyrin (GePor), tin (II) porphyrin (SnPor) and lead (II) porphyrin (PbPor)) with platinum (Pt) using density functional theory. We showed that platinum can bond strongly on both germanium porphyrin and tin porphyrin. More importantly, valence Pt d-orbital characteristics dominate their HOMO and HOMO-1. Our study indicates that dispersing Pt as individual atoms on a SnPor and GePor surface is a good way to minimize platinum load in carbon-based reduction catalysts for reactions involving mainly the HOMO and HOMO-1 of Pt, of which the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells is an example.

  17. Effect of group activities on health promotion for the community-dwelling elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fukasawa, Masako; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In Japan, the Integrated Community Care System aims to support residents to live as independently as possible at home. Koreisya-Kyoshitsu and Fureaiikiiki salons are two types of group activities for community-dwelling elderly. We investigated effective ways of conducting such activities. Methods: We analyzed 96 subjects from 8 salons and 354 subjects from 10 Koreisya-Kyoshitsu. Self-completed questionnaires included the following: attributes, the Motor Fitness Scale (MFS), revised Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), Measurement of Psychological Independence (MPI), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and self-rated health status (SRH). Follow-up assessment was conducted 6 months later. Representatives from 8 salons and staff members from 10 Koreisya-Kyoshitsu answered an additional questionnaire on management. Results: In Koreisya-Kyoshitsu, physical performance (MFS) (p = 0.007) and subjective well-being (PGCMS) (p = 0.001) improved significantly, whereas psychological independence (MPI) deteriorated significantly (p = 0.015). The MFS scores significantly improved in the sub-group with a high number of sessions (7 or more) (p = 0.043), as well as in the non-volunteer sub-group (p = 0.004). The PGCMS scores significantly improved in the sub-group with a high number of sessions (p < 0.001). The MPI scores significantly deteriorated in the sub-group with a low frequency of sessions (6 or less) and in the non-volunteer sub-group (p = 0.013 and p = 0.010, respectively). In salons, the frequency of going out decreased significantly (p = 0.049). Functional status (IADL) significantly improved in the “twice or more a month” sub-group (p = 0.046), whereas it significantly deteriorated in the “once a month” sub-group (p = 0.004). The proportion of volunteers/organizers in Koreisya-Kyoshitsu (23.4%) was significantly lower than that in salons (39.6%). Conclusion: The frequency (number) of sessions, but not the volunteer

  18. Dihydrolipoic acid activates oligomycin-sensitive thiol groups and increases ATP synthesis in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, G; Mainka, L; Krüger, E

    1991-08-01

    Investigations with dihydrolipoic acid in rat heart mitochondria and mitoplasts reveal an activation of ATP-synthase up to 45%, whereas ATPase activities decrease by 36%. In parallel with an increase in ATP synthesis oligomycin-sensitive mitochondrial -SH groups are activated at 2-4 nmol dihydrolipoic acid/mg protein. ATPase activation by the uncouplers carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and oleate is diminished by dihydrolipoic acid, and ATP synthesis depressed by oleate is partially restored. No such efficiency of dihydrolipoic acid is seen with palmitate-induced ATPase activation or decrease of ATP synthesis. This indicates different interference of oleate and palmitate with mitochondria. In addition to its known coenzymatic properties dihydrolipoic acid may act as a substitute for coenzyme A, thereby diminishing the uncoupling efficiency of oleate. Furthermore, dihydrolipoic acid is a very potent antioxidant, shifting the -SH-S-S- equilibrium in mitochondria to the reduced state and improving the energetic state of cells. PMID:1832845

  19. A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Peer Assessment of Individuals' Contributions to Group Projects in Undergraduate Construction Management Core Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various forms of group work have been introduced in university courses across various subject domains, including construction management courses. Although the use of group work in higher education has sound pedagogical reasons and advantages, group work has its own drawbacks. Therefore, the acceptance by students and the success…

  20. Blunted HPA Axis Activity in Suicide Attempters Compared to those at High Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A

    2016-05-01

    Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26450815

  1. The effect of thiol functional group incorporation into cationic helical peptides on antimicrobial activities and spectra.

    PubMed

    Wiradharma, Nikken; Khan, Majad; Yong, Lin-Kin; Hauser, Charlotte A E; Seow, See Voon; Zhang, Shuguang; Yang, Yi-Yan

    2011-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been proposed as blueprints for the development of new antimicrobial agents for the treatment of drug resistant infections. A series of synthetic AMPs capable of forming α-helical structures and containing free-sulfhydryl groups are designed in this study ((LLKK)(2)C, C(LLKK)(2)C, (LLKK)(3)C, C(LLKK)(3)C). In particular, the AMP with 2 cysteine residues at the terminal ends of the peptide and 2 repeat units of LLKK, i.e., C(LLKK)(2)C, has been demonstrated to have high selectivity towards a wide range of microbes from Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, and yeast Candida albicans over red blood cells. At the MIC levels, this peptide does not induce significant hemolysis, and its MIC values occur at the concentration of more than 10 times of their corresponding 50% hemolysis concentrations (HC(50)). Microscopy studies suggest that this peptide kills microbial cells by inducing pores of ∼20-30 nm in size in microbial membrane on a short time scale, which further develops to grossly damaged membrane envelope on a longer time scale. Multiple treatments of microbes with this peptide at sub MIC concentration do not induce resistance, even up to passage 10. However, the same treatment with conventional antibiotics penicillin G or ciprofloxacin easily develop resistance in the treated microbes. In addition, the peptides are shown not to induce secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α in human monocytes as compared to lipopolysaccharide, which implies additional safety aspects of the peptides to be used as both systemic and topical antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this study provides an excellent basis to develop promising antimicrobial agents that possess a broad range of antimicrobial activities with less susceptibility for development of drug resistance. PMID:21906803

  2. In Vitro Activity of Isavuconazole and Comparators against Clinical Isolates of the Mucorales Order

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Meletiadis, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro activity of isavuconazole against Mucorales isolates measured by EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 methodologies was investigated in comparison with those of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Seventy-two isolates were included: 12 of Lichtheimia corymbifera, 5 of Lichtheimia ramosa, 5 of group I and 9 of group II of Mucor circinelloides, 9 of Rhizomucor pusillus, 26 of Rhizopus microsporus, and 6 of Rhizopus oryzae. Species identification was confirmed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. EUCAST MICs were read on day 1 (EUCAST-d1) and day 2 (EUCAST-d2), and CLSI MICs were read on day 2 (CLSI-d2). Isavuconazole MIC50s (range) (mg/liter) by EUCAST-d1, CLSI-d2, and EUCAST-d2 were 1 (0.125 to 16), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to >16), respectively, across all isolates. The similar values for comparator drugs were as follows: posaconazole, 0.25 (≤0.03 to >16), 0.25 (0.06 to >16), and 1 (0.06 to >16); amphotericin, 0.06 (≤0.03 to 0.5), 0.06 (≤0.03 to 0.25), and 0.125 (≤0.03 to 1); voriconazole, 16 (2 to >16), 8 (1 to >16), and >16 (8 to >16), respectively. Isavuconazole activity varied by species: Lichtheimia corymbifera, 1 (0.5 to 2), 1 (1 to 2), and 2 (1 to 4); Lichtheimia ramosa, 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5), 1 (0.5 to 2), and 2 (0.5 to 4); Rhizomucor pusillus, 0.5 (0.5 to 1), 1 (0.125 to 1), and 2 (1 to 2); Rhizopus microsporus, 1 (0.5 to 4), 0.5 (0.125 to 1), and 4 (1 to 8); and Rhizopus oryzae, 1 (0.5 to 4), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to 8), respectively, were more susceptible than Mucor circinelloides: group I, 8 (4 to 8), 4 (2 to 4), and 16 (2 to 16), respectively, and group II, 8 (1 to 16), 8 (1 to 8), and 16 (4 to >16), respectively. This was also observed for posaconazole. The essential agreement was best between EUCAST-d1 and CLSI-d2 (75% to 83%). Isavuconazole displayed in vitro activity against Mucorales isolates with the exception of Mucor circinelloides. The MICs were in general 1 to 3 steps higher than those for

  3. In Vitro Activity of Isavuconazole and Comparators against Clinical Isolates of the Mucorales Order.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Meletiadis, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro activity of isavuconazole against Mucorales isolates measured by EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 methodologies was investigated in comparison with those of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Seventy-two isolates were included: 12 of Lichtheimia corymbifera, 5 of Lichtheimia ramosa, 5 of group I and 9 of group II of Mucor circinelloides, 9 of Rhizomucor pusillus, 26 of Rhizopus microsporus, and 6 of Rhizopus oryzae. Species identification was confirmed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. EUCAST MICs were read on day 1 (EUCAST-d1) and day 2 (EUCAST-d2), and CLSI MICs were read on day 2 (CLSI-d2). Isavuconazole MIC50s (range) (mg/liter) by EUCAST-d1, CLSI-d2, and EUCAST-d2 were 1 (0.125 to 16), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to >16), respectively, across all isolates. The similar values for comparator drugs were as follows: posaconazole, 0.25 (≤ 0.03 to >16), 0.25 (0.06 to >16), and 1 (0.06 to >16); amphotericin, 0.06 (≤ 0.03 to 0.5), 0.06 (≤ 0.03 to 0.25), and 0.125 (≤ 0.03 to 1); voriconazole, 16 (2 to >16), 8 (1 to >16), and >16 (8 to >16), respectively. Isavuconazole activity varied by species: Lichtheimia corymbifera, 1 (0.5 to 2), 1 (1 to 2), and 2 (1 to 4); Lichtheimia ramosa, 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5), 1 (0.5 to 2), and 2 (0.5 to 4); Rhizomucor pusillus, 0.5 (0.5 to 1), 1 (0.125 to 1), and 2 (1 to 2); Rhizopus microsporus, 1 (0.5 to 4), 0.5 (0.125 to 1), and 4 (1 to 8); and Rhizopus oryzae, 1 (0.5 to 4), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to 8), respectively, were more susceptible than Mucor circinelloides: group I, 8 (4 to 8), 4 (2 to 4), and 16 (2 to 16), respectively, and group II, 8 (1 to 16), 8 (1 to 8), and 16 (4 to >16), respectively. This was also observed for posaconazole. The essential agreement was best between EUCAST-d1 and CLSI-d2 (75% to 83%). Isavuconazole displayed in vitro activity against Mucorales isolates with the exception of Mucor circinelloides. The MICs were in general 1 to 3 steps higher than those for

  4. Structure characterization of three polysaccharides and a comparative study of their immunomodulatory activities on chicken macrophage.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wentao; Zhang, Shijie; Hao, Pan; Zheng, Pimiao; Liu, Jianzhu; Zhao, Xiaona

    2016-11-20

    In this study, we evaluated structure characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from Astragalus aboriginum Richardson (RAPS), Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (RAMPS) and Rumia seseloides Hoffm (RSPS) in vitro on chicken macrophage. We found that molecular weight of RAPS and RAMPS was 122.4 and 109.4kDa higher than 64.71kDa of RSPS. Glucose occupied 83.95% and 66.39% in RAPS and RAMPS, respectively. RSPS mainly contained glucose and galacturonic acid, which accounted for 32.35% and 29.25%, respectively. The NMR results displayed that RAPS and RAMPS contained β- glucose, β-galactose, and β-galacturonic acid. The backbone was 1→6 linked glucose. RSPS showed at least six monosaccharide response signals. In vitro experiment, the results showed that RAPS at dosage of 15.62μgmL(-1) exhibited significant immunological on chicken macrophage compared to RAMPS and RSPS. Interestingly, costimulatory molecules levels in RSPS group were higher than that of RAPS, which may associated with the special structure of RSPS. PMID:27561535

  5. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    PubMed Central

    Siegford, Janice M.; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K.; Daigle, Courtney L.; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Hernandez, Carlos E.; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Tracking of individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. We describe several tracking systems that are currently in use for laying hens and review each, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suited, and relevant issues to fit the best technology for the intended purpose. Abstract Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns

  6. Detection of enzyme activities and their relation to serotypes of bovine and human group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Gurturk, Kemal; Ilhan, Ziya; Arabaci, Cigdem; Gulaydin, Ozgul

    2015-09-01

    Enzymatic properties of group B streptococci (GBS) serotypes from bovine milk and human routine vaginal specimens were investigated. Out of the 56 human and 66 bovine GBS, 35 and 30 could be classified serologically by a co-agglutination test with type-specific antisera, respectively. Hyaluronidase (HYAL), streptokinase (SK) and protease activities were detected using culture media. HYAL activity was observed mostly in typable human GBS, and serotypes Ia, Ic and II comprised 77.3% of the typable strains producing HYAL. Bovine GBS serotypes II, III and VII comprised 87.5% of typable bovine strains exhibiting HYAL activity. SK activity was detected only in three human GBS. Human GBS serotypes Ia, Ic, II, III, VII and almost all typable bovine GBS strains showed protease activity. β-D-glucosidase activity was frequently observed in human GBS, whereas N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity was mostly detected in non-typable GBS from humans. These results indicate that different GBS serotypes could vary in their virulence properties, and bovine and human GBS isolates could not be differentiated by their enzyme activities. Use of the culture media appeared to be a simple-to-apply and useful method for the detection of extracellular enzyme activity such as HYAL, protease and SK. PMID:26297151

  7. The active galactic nucleus population in X-ray-selected galaxy groups at 0.5 < Z < 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Semyeong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Matsuoka, Kenta; Mulchaey, John S.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Cooper, Michael C.; Ziparo, Felicia; Bauer, Franz E.

    2014-07-20

    We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of f(L{sub X,H}>10{sup 42};M{sub R}<−20)=8.0{sub −2.3}{sup +3.0}% at z-bar ∼0.74, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L{sub X,{sub H}} > 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.

  8. The Active Galactic Nucleus Population in X-Ray-selected Galaxy Groups at 0.5 < z < 1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Semyeong; Mulchaey, John S.; Woo, Jong-Hak; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Cooper, Michael C.; Ziparo, Felicia; Bauer, Franz E.; Matsuoka, Kenta

    2014-07-01

    We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of f(LX,H \\gt 1042;MR < {-20}) = 8.0-2.3+3.0% at \\bar{z} ˜ 0.74, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L X, H > 1041 erg s-1) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.

  9. Synergistic effect between defect sites and functional groups on the hydrolysis of cellulose over activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Foo, Guo Shiou; Sievers, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    The chemical oxidation of activated carbon by H2 O2 and H2 SO4 is investigated, structural and chemical modifications are characterized, and the materials are used as catalysts for the hydrolysis of cellulose. Treatment with H2 O2 enlarges the pore size and imparts functional groups such as phenols, lactones, and carboxylic acids. H2 SO4 treatment targets the edges of carbon sheets primarily, and this effect is more pronounced with a higher temperature. Adsorption isotherms demonstrate that the adsorption of oligomers on functionalized carbon is dominated by van der Waals forces. The materials treated chemically are active for the hydrolysis of cellulose despite the relative weakness of most of their acid sites. It is proposed that a synergistic effect between defect sites and functional groups enhances the activity by inducing a conformational change in the glucan chains if they are adsorbed at defect sites. This activates the glycosidic bonds for hydrolysis by in-plane functional groups. PMID:25504913

  10. Activities of potential therapeutic and prophylactic antibiotics against blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci from neutropenic patients receiving ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed Central

    McWhinney, P H; Patel, S; Whiley, R A; Hardie, J M; Gillespie, S H; Kibbler, C C

    1993-01-01

    All 47 sequential blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci obtained from febrile neutropenic patients receiving quinolone prophylaxis were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and imipenem. Resistance to benzylpenicillin (MIC for 50% of isolates [MIC50], 0.125 microgram/ml) and ceftazidime (MIC50, 4 micrograms/ml) was common. Most isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid at a 2:1 ratio by weight), azlocillin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin, with azithromycin showing comparable activity. The MIC90 of sparfloxacin was 1 microgram/ml; those for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were > 16 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:8285642

  11. Assessing sources of error in comparative analyses of primate behavior: Intraspecific variation in group size and the social brain hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sandel, Aaron A; Miller, Jordan A; Mitani, John C; Nunn, Charles L; Patterson, Samantha K; Garamszegi, László Zsolt

    2016-05-01

    Phylogenetic comparative methods have become standard for investigating evolutionary hypotheses, including in studies of human evolution. While these methods account for the non-independence of trait data due to phylogeny, they often fail to consider intraspecific variation, which may lead to biased or erroneous results. We assessed the degree to which intraspecific variation impacts the results of comparative analyses by investigating the "social brain" hypothesis, which has provided a framework for explaining complex cognition and large brains in humans. This hypothesis suggests that group life imposes a cognitive challenge, with species living in larger social groups having comparably larger neocortex ratios than those living in smaller groups. Primates, however, vary considerably in group size within species, a fact that has been ignored in previous analyses. When within-species variation in group size is high, the common practice of using a mean value to represent the species may be inappropriate. We conducted regression and resampling analyses to ascertain whether the relationship between neocortex ratio and group size across primate species persists after controlling for within-species variation in group size. We found that in a sample of 23 primates, 70% of the variation in group size was due to between-species variation. Controlling for within-species variation in group size did not affect the results of phylogenetic analyses, which continued to show a positive relationship between neocortex ratio and group size. Analyses restricted to non-monogamous primates revealed considerable intraspecific variation in group size, but the positive association between neocortex ratio and group size remained even after controlling for within-species variation in group size. Our findings suggest that the relationship between neocortex size and group size in primates is robust. In addition, our methods and associated computer code provide a way to assess and account for

  12. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O; Baek, Eun J; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-01-01

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine. PMID:26078220

  13. Towards a common framework for assessing the activity and associations of groups who sexually abuse children

    PubMed Central

    Cockbain, Ella; Brayley, Helen; Sullivan, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Extensive social psychological research emphasises the importance of groups in shaping individuals’ thoughts and actions. Within the child sexual abuse (CSA) literature criminal organisation has been largely overlooked, with some key exceptions. This research was a novel collaboration between academia and the UK's Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOP). Starting from the premise that the group is, in itself, a form of social situation affecting abuse, it offers the first systematic situational analysis of CSA groups. In-depth behavioural data from a small sample of convicted CSA group-offenders (n = 3) were analysed qualitatively to identify factors and processes underpinning CSA groups’ activities and associations: group formation, evolution, identity and resources. The results emphasise CSA groups’ variability, fluidity and dynamism. The foundations of a general framework are proposed for researching and assessing CSA groups and designing effective interventions. It is hoped that this work will stimulate discussion and development in this long-neglected area of CSA, helping to build a coherent knowledge-base. PMID:26494978

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROTEINASE ACTIVITIES OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS-RESISTANT AND -SUSCEPTIBLE OSTRINIA NUBILALIS (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteinase activities were compared in soluble and membrane fractions of gut tissues of Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis larvae. The soluble trypsin-like proteinase activity of the resistant strain was reduced 56%, significantly lower than that of the susceptibl...

  15. Comparing Primary Student Teachers' Attitudes, Subject Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Needs in a Physics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Jane; Ahtee, Maija

    2006-01-01

    This research explores and compares primary student teachers' attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students…

  16. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  17. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  18. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  19. Comparative electrochemical degradation of salicylic and aminosalicylic acids: Influence of functional groups on decay kinetics and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Florenza, Xavier; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Centellas, Francesc; Brillas, Enric

    2016-07-01

    Solutions of 100 mL with 1.20 mM of salicylic acid (SA), 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA) or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) have been comparatively degraded by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Trials were carried out with a stirred tank reactor with a BDD anode and an air-diffusion cathode for continuous H2O2 production. A marked influence of the functional groups of the drugs was observed in their decay kinetics, increasing in the order SA < 5-ASA < 4-ASA in AO-H2O2 and 5-ASA < SA < 4-ASA in EF and PEF, due to the different attack of OH generated at the BDD surface and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction, respectively. This effect was clearly observed when varying the current density between 16.7 and 100 mA cm(-2). The relative mineralization power of the processes always followed the sequence: AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF. The three drugs underwent analogous mineralization abatement up to 88% by AO-H2O2 at 100 mA cm(-2). The mineralization rate in EF and PEF grew in the order: 4-ASA < 5-ASA < SA. The most powerful process was PEF, attaining >98% mineralization for all the drugs at 100 mA cm(-2). Oxalic and oxamic acids were detected as final short-linear aliphatic carboxylic acids by ion-exclusion HPLC, allowing the fast photolysis of their Fe(III) complexes by UVA light to justify the high power of PEF. PMID:27045634

  20. Prediction of the mesiodistal size of unerupted canines and premolars for a group of Romanian children: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    BOITOR, Cornel Gheorghe; STOICA, Florin; NASSER, Hamdan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to develop an optimization method of multiple linear regression equation (MLRE), using a genetic algorithm to determine a set of coefficients that minimize the prediction error for the sum of permanent premolars and canine dimensions in a group of young people from a central area of Romania represented by a city called Sibiu. Material and Methods: To test the proposed method, we used a multiple linear regression equation derived from the estimation method proposed by Mojers, to which we adjusted regression coefficients using the Breeder genetic algorithm. A total of 92 children were selected with complete permanent teeth with no clinically visible dental caries, proximal restorations or orthodontic treatment. A hard dental stone was made for each of these models, which was then measured with a digital calliper. The Dahlberg analyses of variance had been performed to determine the error of method, then the Correlation t Test was applied, and finally the MLRE equations were obtained using the version 16 for Windows of the SPSS program. Results: The correlation coefficient of MLRE was between 51-67% and the significance level was set at α=0.05. Comparing predictions provided by the new and respectively old method, we can conclude that the Breeder genetic algorithm is capable of providing the best values for parameters of multiple linear regression equations, and thus our equations are optimized for the best performance. Conclusion: The prediction error rates of the optimized equations using the Breeder genetic algorithm are smaller than those provided by the multiple linear regression equations proposed in the recent study. PMID:23857650

  1. Secondary traumatic stress and burnout in child welfare workers: a comparative analysis of occupational distress across professional groups.

    PubMed

    Sprang, Ginny; Craig, Carlton; Clark, James

    2011-01-01

    This study describes predictors of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in a national sample of helping professionals, with a specific focus on the unique responses of child welfare (CW) workers. Specific worker and exposure characteristics are examined as possible predictors of these forms of occupational distress in a sample of 669 professionals from across the country who responded to mailed (e-mail and post) invitations to participate in an online survey. E-mail and home mailing addresses were secured from licensure boards and professional membership organizations in six states from across the country that had high rates of child related deaths in 2009. Respondents completed the Professional Quality of Life IV (Stamm, 2005) to ascertain compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout symptoms. Being male, young, Hispanic, holding rural residence, and endorsing a lack of religious participation were significant predictors of secondary traumatic stress. Similarly, being male and young predicted high burnout rates, while actively participating in religious services predicted lower burnout. CW worker job status as a professional was significantly more likely to predict CF and burnout compared to all other types of behavioral healthcare professionals. Based on the findings from this study, this paper proposes strategies for enhancing self-care for CW workers, and describes the essential elements of a trauma-informed CW agency that addresses secondary traumatic stress and burnout. PMID:22533047

  2. Comparative study of two structures of shunt active filter suppressing particular harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchaita, L.; Salem Nia, A.; Saadate, S.

    1998-07-01

    This paper deals with the study of shunt active filters used for suppressing particular harmonics generated by nonlinear loads in utility distribution power systems. Both structures of shunt active filter, voltage source active filter (VSAF) and current source active filter (CSAF), are considered. The analytical study of specific harmonics identification in a given spectrum is first presented. For simulation as well as experimentation the nonlinear load is a conventional three phase thyristor rectifier and harmonics 5 and 7 are selected to be eliminated by active filter. The whole system consisting of the ac power supply network, the SCR rectifier and the shunt active filter (VSAF/CSAF) is then simulated. The simulation results are discussed and the efficiency of the two kinds of active filter are compared. Finally, for the first structure, VSAF, the simulation results are confirmed by experimental test realized by means of a fully digital control active power filter developed in our laboratory.

  3. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Group of South African School Children

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Joanne; Meiring, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined physical activity and inactivity levels in an urban South African setting across 12 years of formal schooling. This information is important for implementing strategies to curb increasing trends of physical inactivity and related negative consequences, especially in low to middle income countries facing multiple challenges on overburdened health care systems. We examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour cross-sectionally over 12 school years from childhood to adolescence in Black, White and Indian boys and girls. The aim of our study was to describe gender and race related patterns of physical and sedentary activity levels in a sample of South African children and to determine whether there were associations between these variables and body mass status. Physical activity questionnaires, previously validated in a South African setting, were used to gather information about activity and sedentary behaviours among 767 Black, White and Indian children (5-18 years of age) across the 12 grades of formal schooling. Body mass and height were also measured. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity declined over the school years for all race groups and was consistently lower for girls than boys (p = 0.03), while time spent in sedentary activity increased with increasing grade (p < 0.001) for boys and girls and across all race groups. Associations between physical activity and body mass were observed for White children (r = -0.22, p < 0.001), but not for Black and Indian children (p > 0.05) whereas time spent in sedentary activities was significantly and positively correlated with body mass across all race groups: Indian (r = 0.25, p < 0.001), White (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) and Black (r = 0.37, p = 0.001). The strength of the associations was similar for boys and girls. Black and Indian children were less physically active than their white peers (p < 0.05), and Black children also spent more time in sedentary activity (p < 0

  4. Comparing Subjective Ratings of Sexual Arousal and Desire in Partnered Sexual Activities from Women of Different Sexual Orientations.

    PubMed

    Persson, Tonje J; Ryder, Andrew G; Pfaus, James G

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about non-monosexual women's sexual arousal and desire. Typically, bisexual women have been excluded from research on sexual arousal and desire, whereas mostly heterosexual and mostly lesbian women have been placed into monosexual categories. This research (1) compared the subjective sexual arousal and desire of self-identified heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, and lesbian women in partnered sexual activities with men and with women, and (2) compared within-group differences for subjective sexual arousal and desire with men versus women for the five groups. Participants included 388 women (M age = 24.40, SD = 6.40, 188 heterosexual, 53 mostly heterosexual, 64 bisexual, 32 mostly lesbian, 51 lesbian) who filled out the Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI). Sexual orientation was associated with sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with both men and with women. Bisexuals reported higher sexual arousal and desire for women than heterosexuals and lesbians, while lesbians reported lower sexual arousal and desire with men than the other groups. Heterosexuals and mostly heterosexuals scored higher on the male than on the female motivational dimension of the SADI, while the reverse was found for lesbians and mostly lesbians. Findings indicate that non-monosexuals have higher sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with women than monosexuals. Further, bisexual women did not differentiate their sexual arousal with men versus women, while the other sexual orientation groups differentiated in terms of their motivation to engage in sexual activity. These findings may have implications for how female sexual orientation is conceptualized. PMID:25808718

  5. Comparing participation in out of school activities between children with visual impairments, children with hearing impairments and typical peers.

    PubMed

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hamed-Daher, Shaima

    2013-10-01

    Hearing or visual impairments may negatively affect child's development and participation. Yet the literature about participation of children with hearing or visual impairments is insufficient. The present study aimed to compare participation patterns of children with visual impairments to those of children with hearing impairments and to typical peers and to examine the correlations between participation and socio-demographic parameters in each group. Participants were 70 children between the ages of 6-11: 25 with hearing impairments, 20 with visual impairments and 25 typical peers. All children filled the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). This self-report refers to participation in daily out of school activities. Children with hearing or visual impairments showed significant limited participation compared to typical peers, expressed in lower number of activities, lower participation intensity; more activities performed at home and with someone else. The limited participation was more emphasized among children with visual impairments. Socio-demographic variables (age, mother's education and socio-economic level) correlated with participation dimensions in both study groups. In conclusion, children with hearing or visual impairments may have restricted participation in out of school activities. Socio-demographic parameters may play a role in encouraging child's participation. Participation among these populations should be further studied in order to assist service providers to create intervention programs together with the child, for enhancing his/her inclusion in the community. PMID:23880031

  6. Comparative antimicrobial activity of ceftibuten against multiply-resistant microorganisms from Belgium.

    PubMed

    Verbist, L; Jacobs, J; Hens, K

    1991-01-01

    To study the activity of ceftibuten, we obtained multiply-resistant isolates from approximately 20 hospitals in Belgium. Against Enterobacteriaceae, all of the tested comparative compounds were more active than cefaclor, and ceftibuten and tigemonam were the most active of the agents tested. Ceftibuten MIC50s were less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml for most enteric bacilli species and 85% of strains were susceptible (less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml). This level of activity compared favorably to that recorded for cefaclor (less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml), cefetamet (less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml), and cefteram (less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml), that is, 37%, 69%, and 59%, respectively. Ceftibuten, cefetamet, cefteram, and tigemonam were highly active against isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. None of the comparative agents were as active as cefaclor against staphylococcal isolates. Against streptococci, cefteram was the most active, and tigemonam the least active of the agents. The MIC90s of ceftibuten for strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes were 2 micrograms/ml and 0.5 microgram/ml, respectively. Strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were resistant to both ceftibuten and tigemonam; cefaclor and cefteram inhibited 100% of isolates of this species. Strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were consistently resistant to all of the compounds. Overall, ceftibuten exhibited potent activity against many multiply-resistant clinical isolates. PMID:1901535

  7. Surveillance and maintenance activities of waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.; Jones, R.G.

    1991-12-01

    Surveillance and maintenance (S M) of 75 sites were conductd by the Remedial Action Section for the Environmental Restoration Program for surplus facilities and sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. S M activities on these sites were conducted from the end of their operating life until final facility disposal or site stabilization. The objectives of the Waste Area Grouping S M Program are met by maintaining a program of routine S M as well as by implementing interim corrective maintenance when deemed necessary as a result of site surveillance. This report briefly presents this program's activities and includes tables indicating tank levels and dry well data for FY 1991.

  8. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kehan; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yanwei; Bai, Guojing; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shichong; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a–r), which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. PMID:25792806

  9. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kehan; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yanwei; Bai, Guojing; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shichong; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a-r), which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. PMID:25792806

  10. Structure-Guided Design of Group I Selective p21-Activated Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Crawford, James J; Lee, Wendy; Aliagas, Ignacio; Mathieu, Simon; Hoeflich, Klaus P; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Weiru; Rouge, Lionel; Murray, Lesley; La, Hank; Liu, Ning; Fan, Peter W; Cheong, Jonathan; Heise, Christopher E; Ramaswamy, Sreemathy; Mintzer, Robert; Liu, Yanzhou; Chao, Qi; Rudolph, Joachim

    2015-06-25

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) play important roles in cytoskeletal organization, cellular morphogenesis, and survival and have generated significant attention as potential therapeutic targets for cancer. Following a high-throughput screen, we identified an aminopyrazole scaffold-based series that was optimized to yield group I selective PAK inhibitors. A structure-based design effort aimed at targeting the ribose pocket for both potency and selectivity led to much-improved group I vs II selectivity. Early lead compounds contained a basic primary amine, which was found to be a major metabolic soft spot with in vivo clearance proceeding predominantly via N-acetylation. We succeeded in identifying replacements with improved metabolic stability, leading to compounds with lower in vivo rodent clearance and excellent group I PAK selectivity. PMID:26030457

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed Trimethylenemethane Cycloaddition of Olefins Activated by the σ-Electron-Withdrawing Trifluoromethyl Group.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Debien, Laurent

    2015-09-16

    α-Trifluoromethyl-styrenes, trifluoromethyl-enynes, and dienes undergo palladium-catalyzed trimethylenemethane cycloadditions under mild reaction conditions. The trifluoromethyl group serves as a unique σ-electron-withdrawing group for the activation of the olefin toward the cycloaddition. This method allows for the formation of exomethylene cyclopentanes bearing a quaternary center substituted by the trifluoromethyl group, compounds of interest for the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and materials industries. In the diene series, the cycloaddition operates in a [3 + 4] and/or [3 + 2] manner to give rise to seven- and/or five-membered rings. This transformation greatly improves the scope of the TMM cycloaddition technology and provides invaluable insights into the reaction mechanism. PMID:26291872

  12. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. PMID:25268019

  13. Default-Mode Network Activity Identified by Group Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Conghui; Zhuang, Jie; Peng, Danling; Yu, Guoliang; Yang, Yanhui

    Default-mode network activity refers to some regional increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during baseline than cognitive tasks. Recent functional imaging studies have found co-activation in a distributed network of cortical regions, including ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PPC) that characterize the default mode of human brain. In this study, general linear model and group independent component analysis (ICA) were utilized to analyze the fMRI data obtained from two language tasks. Both methods yielded similar, but not identical results and detected a resting deactivation network at some midline regions including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Particularly, the group ICA method segregated functional elements into two separate maps and identified ventral cingulate component and fronto-parietal component. These results suggest that these two components might be linked to different mental function during "resting" baseline.

  14. Introduction of Methyl Groups at C2 and C6 Positions Enhances the Antiangiogenesis Activity of Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun-Jung; Shin, Sarah; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung-Tae; Choe, Yearn Seong

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin has diverse biological activities, but is known to undergo rapid metabolism via reduction of vinylic double bonds and phase II conjugation. To prevent reductive metabolism of curcumin, we introduced a methyl group at both C2 and C6 positions (compound 1) or at the C2 position (compound 2) of curcumin, creating steric hindrance on double bonds against metabolizing enzymes. As predicted, these compounds were resistant to reduction by alcohol dehydrogenase. Compound 1 was further evaluated for its antiangiogenesis activity in vitro and in vivo. It exhibited significantly greater inhibitory activity than curcumin against endothelial cell migration, invasion, and tube formation. Similarly, the in vivo Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice showed more pronounced reduction of blood vessels in the plugs containing 1 than those containing curcumin. Moreover, 1 suppressed tumor growth more effectively than curcumin in a U87MG mouse xenograft model by inhibiting angiogenesis. In vivo metabolite analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry demonstrated that 1 underwent markedly slower reductive metabolism than curcumin. Taken together, our results indicate that 1 has enhanced antiangiogenesis activity and suppression of tumor growth compared with curcumin, reflecting diminished reductive metabolism owing to the introduction of methyl groups at the C2 and C6 positions of curcumin. PMID:26391485

  15. Introduction of Methyl Groups at C2 and C6 Positions Enhances the Antiangiogenesis Activity of Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun-Jung; Shin, Sarah; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung-Tae; Choe, Yearn Seong

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin has diverse biological activities, but is known to undergo rapid metabolism via reduction of vinylic double bonds and phase II conjugation. To prevent reductive metabolism of curcumin, we introduced a methyl group at both C2 and C6 positions (compound 1) or at the C2 position (compound 2) of curcumin, creating steric hindrance on double bonds against metabolizing enzymes. As predicted, these compounds were resistant to reduction by alcohol dehydrogenase. Compound 1 was further evaluated for its antiangiogenesis activity in vitro and in vivo. It exhibited significantly greater inhibitory activity than curcumin against endothelial cell migration, invasion, and tube formation. Similarly, the in vivo Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice showed more pronounced reduction of blood vessels in the plugs containing 1 than those containing curcumin. Moreover, 1 suppressed tumor growth more effectively than curcumin in a U87MG mouse xenograft model by inhibiting angiogenesis. In vivo metabolite analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry demonstrated that 1 underwent markedly slower reductive metabolism than curcumin. Taken together, our results indicate that 1 has enhanced antiangiogenesis activity and suppression of tumor growth compared with curcumin, reflecting diminished reductive metabolism owing to the introduction of methyl groups at the C2 and C6 positions of curcumin. PMID:26391485

  16. Control of Surface Functional Groups on Pertechntate Sorption on Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Wang; H. Gao; R. Yeredla; H. Xu; M. Abrecht; G.D. Stasio

    2006-07-05

    {sup 99}Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) varying from 9.5 x 10{sup 5} to 3.2 x 10{sup 3} mL/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with K{sub d} remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10{sup 3} - 1.8 x 10{sup 3} mL/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified to be carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups A, B, and C in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during material processing.

  17. Correlation of fungostatic activity with log P and sigma parameters in the group of thiobenzanilides.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, K; Szumiło, H

    2000-11-01

    2,4-Dihydroxythiobenzanilide and its analogues were recently found to show strong biological activity. Earlier works exhibited that their biological activity depends strongly on their lipophilicity determined by means of RP-HPLC. Among others, fungostatic activity against tested yeast and mould strains appeared to be comparatively poorer modelled by chromatographic lipophilicity parameters. Very high correlation (r approximately 0.85-0.9) with these activities was obtained by means of multiparameter regression analysis where calculated log P and Hammet sigma values were involved as the independent variables. Analysed data show that activity against yeast and mould fungi is a superposition of two basic properties of thiobenzanilides: their lipophilicity and electronic properties. PMID:11293275

  18. Mathematics Learning in Groups: Analyzing Equity in Two Cooperative Activity Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmonde, Indigo

    2009-01-01

    Many mathematics classrooms use cooperative learning to support equitable learning environments for all students. Past research in the field has focused primarily on increasing achievement rather than on contexts that support equitable interactions. This year-long study in 3 secondary mathematics classes compares 2 activity structures--a group…

  19. A Controlled Trial of Active versus Passive Learning Strategies in a Large Group Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidet, Paul; Morgan, Robert O.; O'Malley, Kimberly; Moran, Betty Jeanne; Richards, Boyd F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of active and didactic teaching strategies on learning- and process-oriented outcomes. Design: Controlled trial. Setting: After-hours residents' teaching session. Participants: Family and Community Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Pediatrics residents at two academic medical institutions. Interventions: We…

  20. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology.

    PubMed

    Siegford, Janice M; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K; Daigle, Courtney L; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Hernandez, Carlos E; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds. PMID:26848693

  1. Inhibition of mammillary body neurons by direct activation of Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    The mammillary body is an important neural component of limbic circuitry implicated in learning and memory. Excitatory and inhibitory inputs, primarily mediated by glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), respectively, converge and integrate in this region, before sending information to the thalamus. One potentially overlooked mechanism for inhibition of mammillary body neurons is through direct activation of Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Here, whole-cell patch clamp recordings of in vitro slice preparations containing the mammillary body nuclei of the mouse were employed to record responses to bath application of pharmacological agents to isolate the direct effect of activating Group II mGluRs. Application of the Group II mGluR specific agonist, APDC, resulted in a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential in mammillary body neurons, likely resulting from the opening of a potassium conductance. These data suggest that glutamatergic inputs to the mammillary body may be attenuated via Group II mGluRs and implicates a functional role for these receptors in memory-related circuits and broadly throughout the central nervous system. PMID:27390777

  2. The prenyl group contributes to activities of phytoestrogen 8-prenynaringenin in enhancing bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ming, Lei-Guo; Lv, Xiang; Ma, Xiao-Ni; Ge, Bao-Feng; Zhen, Ping; Song, Peng; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Hui-Ping; Xian, Cory J; Chen, Ke-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have found that 8-prenylflavonoids have a higher osteogenic activity than do flavonoids, which suggested that the 8-prenyl group may play an active role in bone-protective properties. To address this hypothesis, activities of 8-prenylnaringenin (PNG) and naringenin (NG) in osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function were compared in vitro. PNG was found to have a stronger ability than NG to improve osteoblast differentiation and osteogenic function in cultured rat calvarial osteoblasts, as demonstrated by levels of alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, calcium deposition, and the number and area of mineralized bone nodules, as well as mRNA expression of osteogenesis-related genes Bmp-2, OSX, and Runx-2. In addition, although expression of osteoclastogenic inducer receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) was not affected, that of osteoclastogenesis inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG) and consequently the OPG/RANKL ratio were increased, more potently by PNG than NG. PNG was also found to have a higher potency than NG in inhibiting the osteoclast formation in rabbit bone marrow cells and their resorptive activity, as revealed by lower numbers of osteoclasts formed, lower numbers and areas of bone resorption pits, and lower mRNA expression levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K. Furthermore, PNG induced apoptosis of mature osteoclasts at a higher degree and at an earlier time than did NG. These results indicate that the 8-prenyl group plays an important role and contributes to the higher bone-protective activity of PNG in comparison with NG. PMID:23389955

  3. A Comparative Investigation of the Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Practices and Psychodrama on Adolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Zeynep; Gokcakan, Zafer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate whether cognitive-behavioral group practices and psychodrama decrease adolescent aggression. This is a quasi-experimental, pre-post and follow up study with two experiments and one control group. The Aggression Scale (Buss & Warren, 2000) adapted to Turkish by Can (2002) was administered as a pretest to…

  4. Bovine serum albumin with glycated carboxyl groups shows membrane-perturbing activities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shin-Yi; Chen, Ying-Jung; Kao, Pei-Hsiu; Chang, Long-Sen

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study aimed to investigate whether glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed novel activities on the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated BSA (Man-BSA) was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-d-mannopyranoside. In contrast to BSA, Man-BSA notably induced membrane permeability of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC)/egg yolk sphingomyelin (EYSM)/cholesterol (Chol) and EYPC/EYSM vesicles. Noticeably, Man-BSA induced the fusion of EYPC/EYSM/Chol vesicles, but not of EYPC/EYSM vesicles. Although BSA and Man-BSA showed similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-bound conformation of Man-BSA was distinct from that of BSA. Moreover, Man-BSA adopted distinct structure upon binding with the EYPC/EYSM/Chol and EYPC/EYSM vesicles. Man-BSA could induce the fusion of EYPC/EYSM/Chol vesicles with K562 and MCF-7 cells, while Man-BSA greatly induced the leakage of Chol-depleted K562 and MCF-7 cells. The modified BSA prepared by conjugating carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-d-glucopyranoside also showed membrane-perturbing activities. Collectively, our data indicate that conjugation of carboxyl groups with monosaccharide generates functional BSA with membrane-perturbing activities on the lipid-water interface. PMID:25449061

  5. [Factors associated with the participation of elderly people in group educational activities].

    PubMed

    Dias, Flavia Aparecida; Tavares, Darlene Mara dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    This study sought to characterize the elderly and their participation in group educational activities, and to verify the sociodemographic and health factors associated with non-participation. It was a cross-sectional survey carried out with 2,142 elderly individuals, using descriptive analysis, Student's t-test and logistical regression (p<0.05). In both groups, the majority of participants were women, 60 - 70 years of age, married with an income of one minimum salary. The elderly participants predominately showed 1-4 years of education, with non-participants 4 - 8. The morbidities most cited by the elderly who participated in educational activities were: hypertension and vision problems. Among non-participants, vision and spinal problems prevailed. In both groups, the greatest percentage was 1 - 3 incapacities. The age range of 80 years and above was associated with a greater chance of non-participation in activities. It is necessary to plan actions that favor participation, thereby contributing to monitor their health conditions. PMID:24015464

  6. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  7. Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

  8. A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

  9. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab')2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  10. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab′)2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  11. A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of commonly used South asian herbs.

    PubMed

    Waisundara, Viduranga; Yian Hoon, Lee

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant activities of curry leaves, fenugreek seeds, Indian malabar leaves, red silk cotton tree leaves, cowitch leaves, holyfruit tree leaves, and black mustard seeds were compared. Their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were investigated. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay determined the antioxidant potential of the extracts, while the ROS scavenging ability was explored in hyperglycemia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The SOD assay determined if the extracts stimulated the enzyme activity in the HUVECs. Curry leaf and fenugreek extracts had high ORAC values and superior free radical scavenging abilities compared with the rest of the extracts. The curry leaf extract had also increased the SOD activity. Fenugreek extract had not increased the SOD activity of the HUVECs. Thus, the two herbs displayed two distinct pathways of action for scavenging of ROS. PMID:24716187

  12. Comparative ability of dobutamine and exercise stress in inducing myocardial ischaemia in active patients.

    PubMed Central

    Marwick, T H; D'Hondt, A M; Mairesse, G H; Baudhuin, T; Wijns, W; Detry, J M; Melin, J A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the ability of dobutamine and exercise stress to induce myocardial ischaemia and perfusion heterogeneity under routine clinical circumstances. DESIGN--86 active patients without previous myocardial infarction were studied by dobutamine and exercise stress protocols and coronary angiography. During both tests patients underwent electrocardiography, digitised echocardiography, and perfusion scintigraphy using Tc-99m methoxybutylisonitrile (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Coronary disease defined as an ST segment depression of > or = 0.1 mV, a resting or stress induced perfusion defect, or a resting or stress induced wall motion abnormality on exercise and dobutamine stress testing. RESULTS--Dobutamine stress was submaximal in 51 patients because of ingestion of beta adrenoceptor blocking agents on the day of the test (n = 25) or failure to attain the peak dose owing to side effects (n = 28). Exercise was limited in 23 patients by non-cardiac symptoms. The peak heart rate with dobutamine was less than that attained with exercise (105 (25) v 132 (24) beats/min, P < 0.0001); the response to maximal dobutamine stress significantly exceeded that to submaximal stress. Peak blood pressure was greatest with exercise (206 (27) v 173 (25) mm Hg, P < 0.001), values at maximal and submaximal dobutamine stress being comparable. Electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemia was induced less frequently by dobutamine than exercise (32% v 77% of the 56 patients with significant coronary disease, P < 0.01), as was abnormal wall motion (54% v 88%, P < 0.001). Ischaemia was induced more readily with maximal stress of either type; thus the sensitivities of dobutamine and exercise echocardiography were comparable only in patients undergoing a maximal dobutamine testing (73% v 77%, NS). Perfusion heterogeneity was induced in 58% of patients with coronary disease at submaximal dobutamine stress, 73% at maximal dobutamine stress, and

  13. OCCUPATION OF X-RAY-SELECTED GALAXY GROUPS BY X-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Hasinger, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Miyaji, T.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; George, M. R.; Tanaka, M.; Silverman, J.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Shankar, F.

    2012-10-10

    We present the first direct measurement of the mean halo occupation distribution (HOD) of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field at z {<=} 1, based on the association of 41 XMM and 17 C-COSMOS AGNs with member galaxies of 189 X-ray-detected galaxy groups from XMM-Newton and Chandra data. We model the mean AGN occupation in the halo mass range log M{sub 200} [M{sub Sun }] = 13-14.5 with a rolling-off power law with the best-fit index {alpha} = 0.06(- 0.22; 0.36) and normalization parameter f{sub a} 0.05(0.04; 0.06). We find the mean HOD of AGNs among central galaxies to be modeled by a softened step function at log M{sub h} > log M{sub min} = 12.75(12.10, 12.95) M{sub Sun} while for the satellite AGN HOD we find a preference for an increasing AGN fraction with M{sub h} , suggesting that the average number of AGNs in satellite galaxies grows slower ({alpha}{sub s} < 0.6) than the linear proportion ({alpha}{sub s} = 1) observed for the satellite HOD of samples of galaxies. We present an estimate of the projected autocorrelation function (ACF) of galaxy groups over the range of r{sub p} = 0.1-40 h {sup -1} Mpc at (z) = 0.5. We use the large-scale clustering signal to verify the agreement between the group bias estimated by using the observed galaxy groups ACF and the value derived from the group mass estimates. We perform a measurement of the projected AGN-galaxy-group cross-correlation function, excluding from the analysis AGNs that are within galaxy groups and we model the two-halo term of the clustering signal with the mean AGN HOD based on our results.

  14. Comparative analysis of click chemistry mediated activity-based protein profiling in cell lysates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinliang; Yang, Xiaomeng; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2013-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling uses chemical probes that covalently attach to active enzyme targets. Probes with conventional tags have disadvantages, such as limited cell permeability or steric hindrance around the reactive group. A tandem labeling strategy with click chemistry is now widely used to study enzyme targets in situ and in vivo. Herein, the probes are reacted in live cells, whereas the ensuing detection by click chemistry takes place in cell lysates. We here make a comparison of the efficiency of the activity-based tandem labeling strategy by using Cu(I)-catalyzed and strain-promoted click chemistry, different ligands and different lysis conditions. PMID:24126377

  15. Tobacco Assessment in Actively Accruing National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group Program Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Erica N.; Torres, Essie; Toll, Benjamin A.; Cummings, K. Michael; Gritz, Ellen R.; Hyland, Andrew; Herbst, Roy S.; Marshall, James R.; Warren, Graham W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Substantial evidence suggests that tobacco use has adverse effects on cancer treatment outcomes; however, routine assessment of tobacco use has not been fully incorporated into standard clinical oncology practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tobacco use assessment in patients enrolled onto actively accruing cancer clinical trials. Methods Protocols and forms for 155 actively accruing trials in the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program were evaluated for tobacco use assessment at enrollment and follow-up by using a structured coding instrument. Results Of the 155 clinical trials reviewed, 45 (29%) assessed any form of tobacco use at enrollment, but only 34 (21.9%) assessed current cigarette use. Only seven trials (4.5%) assessed any form of tobacco use during follow-up. Secondhand smoke exposure was captured in 2.6% of trials at enrollment and 0.6% during follow-up. None of the trials assessed nicotine dependence or interest in quitting at any point during enrollment or treatment. Tobacco status assessment was higher in lung/head and neck trials as well as phase III trials, but there was no difference according to year of starting accrual or cooperative group. Conclusion Most actively accruing cooperative group clinical trials do not assess tobacco use, and there is no observable trend in improvement over the past 8 years. Failure to incorporate standardized tobacco assessments into NCI-funded Cooperative Group Clinical Trials will limit the ability to provide evidence-based cessation support and will limit the ability to accurately understand the precise effect of tobacco use on cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:22689794

  16. Recognition of human-vehicle interactions in group activities via multi-attributed semantic message generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2015-05-01

    Improved Situational awareness is a vital ongoing research effort for the U.S. Homeland Security for the past recent years. Many outdoor anomalous activities involve vehicles as their primary source of transportation to and from the scene where a plot is executed. Analysis of dynamics of Human-Vehicle Interaction (HVI) helps to identify correlated patterns of activities representing potential threats. The objective of this paper is bi-folded. Primarily, we discuss a method for temporal HVI events detection and verification for generation of HVI hypotheses. To effectively recognize HVI events, a Multi-attribute Vehicle Detection and Identification technique (MVDI) for detection and classification of stationary vehicles is presented. Secondly, we describe a method for identification of pertinent anomalous behaviors through analysis of state transitions between two successively detected events. Finally, we present a technique for generation of HVI semantic messages and present our experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of semantic messages for discovery of HVI in group activities.

  17. Controlled trial comparing two types of enteral nutrition in treatment of active Crohn's disease: elemental versus polymeric diet.

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, D; Cosnes, J; Le Quintrec, Y; René, E; Gendre, J P; Mignon, M

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether an elemental diet or a polymeric defined formula diet would be more effective for treating active Crohn's disease, we conducted a prospective randomised clinical trial in 30 patients with active Crohn's disease unresponsive to steroids and/or complicated by malnutrition. They received a four to six week enteral nutrition course with either an elemental diet or a polymeric diet. Clinical remission occurred in 10 of the 15 patients on elemental diet compared with 11 of the 15 patients assigned to polymeric diet. Both groups showed similar improvements in nutritional status, biological inflammation, alpha 1 antitrypsin clearance, and colonoscopic lesions (diminished in 17 out of 24 patients). Most patients relapsed during the year after discharge. We conclude that enteral nutrition, whatever the diet, is an efficient primary therapy for active Crohn's disease but does not influence the long term outcome. PMID:1773955

  18. A New Calibrated Sunspot Group Series Since 1749: Statistics of Active Day Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Lockwood, M.; Mursula, K.; Owens, M.; Solanki, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Although sunspot-number series have existed since the mid-nineteenth century, they are still the subject of intense debate, with the largest uncertainty being related to the "calibration" of the visual acuity of individual observers in the past. A daisy-chain regression method is usually applied to inter-calibrate the observers, which may lead to significant bias and error accumulation. Here we present a novel method for calibrating the visual acuity of the key observers to the reference data set of Royal Greenwich Observatory sunspot groups for the period 1900 - 1976, using the statistics of the active-day fraction. For each observer we independently evaluate their observational thresholds [ SS] defined such that the observer is assumed to miss all of the groups with an area smaller than SS and report all the groups larger than SS. Next, using a Monte-Carlo method, we construct a correction matrix for each observer from the reference data set. The correction matrices are significantly non-linear and cannot be approximated by a linear regression or proportionality. We emphasize that corrections based on a linear proportionality between annually averaged data lead to serious biases and distortions of the data. The correction matrices are applied to the original sunspot-group records reported by the observers for each day, and finally the composite corrected series is produced for the period since 1748. The corrected series is provided as supplementary material in electronic form and displays secular minima around 1800 (Dalton Minimum) and 1900 (Gleissberg Minimum), as well as the Modern Grand Maximum of activity in the second half of the twentieth century. The uniqueness of the grand maximum is confirmed for the last 250 years. We show that the adoption of a linear relationship between the data of Wolf and Wolfer results in grossly inflated group numbers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in some reconstructions.

  19. Antibacterial activity of diketopiperazines isolated from a marine fungus using t-butoxycarbonyl group as a simple tool for purification.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Bahaa El-Dien M; Rateb, Mostafa E

    2015-08-15

    Nine diketopiperazines were characterized from the culture of marine fungal isolate MR2012 which based on DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The isolated fungal metabolites 4-12 were unambiguously identified as a series of simple and re-arranged diketopiperazines by analysis of spectroscopic data. t-Butoxycarbonyl group (BOC) derivatization was used to separate the intractable mixture of 4 and 5. When all compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria, the isolated metabolites showed moderate to weak effects, while the semisynthetic derivatives 4a and 5a displayed strong activity comparable to the positive control, tetracycline against gram positive bacteria. PMID:26099531

  20. AGN POPULATION IN HICKSON COMPACT GROUPS. I. DATA AND NUCLEAR ACTIVITY CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    MartInez, M. A.; Del Olmo, A.; Perea, J.; Coziol, R. E-mail: chony@iaa.es E-mail: rcoziol@astro.ugto.mx

    2010-03-15

    We have conducted a new spectroscopic survey to characterize the nature of nuclear activity in Hickson compact group (HCG) galaxies and establish its frequency. We have obtained new intermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy for 200 member galaxies and corrected for underlying stellar population contamination using galaxy templates. Spectra for 11 additional galaxies have been acquired from the ESO and 6dF public archives, and emission-line ratios have been taken from the literature for 59 more galaxies. Here we present the results of our classification of the nuclear activity for 270 member galaxies, which belong to a well-defined sample of 64 HCGs. We found a large fraction of galaxies, 63%, with emission lines. Using standard diagnostic diagrams, 45% of the emission-line galaxies were classified as pure active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 23% as Transition Objects (TOs), and 32% as star-forming nuclei (SFNs). In the HCGs, the AGN activity appears as the most frequent activity type. Adopting the interpretation that in TOs a low-luminosity AGN coexists with circumnuclear star formation, the fraction of galaxies with an AGN could rise to 42% of the whole sample. The low frequency (20%) of SFNs confirms that there is no star formation enhancement in HCGs. After extinction correction, we found a median AGN H{alpha} luminosity of 7.1 x 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}, which implies that AGNs in HCG have a characteristically low luminosity. This result added to the fact that there is an almost complete absence of broad-line AGNs in compact groups (CGs) as found by MartInez et al. and corroborated in this study for HCGs, is consistent with very few gas left in these galaxies. In general, therefore, what may characterize the level of activity in CGs is a severe deficiency of gas.

  1. AGN Population in Hickson Compact Groups. I. Data and Nuclear Activity Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, M. A.; Del Olmo, A.; Coziol, R.; Perea, J.

    2010-03-01

    We have conducted a new spectroscopic survey to characterize the nature of nuclear activity in Hickson compact group (HCG) galaxies and establish its frequency. We have obtained new intermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy for 200 member galaxies and corrected for underlying stellar population contamination using galaxy templates. Spectra for 11 additional galaxies have been acquired from the ESO and 6dF public archives, and emission-line ratios have been taken from the literature for 59 more galaxies. Here we present the results of our classification of the nuclear activity for 270 member galaxies, which belong to a well-defined sample of 64 HCGs. We found a large fraction of galaxies, 63%, with emission lines. Using standard diagnostic diagrams, 45% of the emission-line galaxies were classified as pure active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 23% as Transition Objects (TOs), and 32% as star-forming nuclei (SFNs). In the HCGs, the AGN activity appears as the most frequent activity type. Adopting the interpretation that in TOs a low-luminosity AGN coexists with circumnuclear star formation, the fraction of galaxies with an AGN could rise to 42% of the whole sample. The low frequency (20%) of SFNs confirms that there is no star formation enhancement in HCGs. After extinction correction, we found a median AGN Hα luminosity of 7.1 × 1039 erg s-1, which implies that AGNs in HCG have a characteristically low luminosity. This result added to the fact that there is an almost complete absence of broad-line AGNs in compact groups (CGs) as found by Martínez et al. and corroborated in this study for HCGs, is consistent with very few gas left in these galaxies. In general, therefore, what may characterize the level of activity in CGs is a severe deficiency of gas.

  2. Comparative study of antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of selected edible wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Lee, Mee Yee; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the antioxidant activities (AOA) and total phenolic content (TPC) of water extracts of selected edible wild mushrooms: Pleurotus porrigens, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe conica, and Lentinus ciliatus. The AOA were evaluated against DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching (beta-CB) assays, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method for TPC. BHA was used as reference. P. porrigens showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability (90.78 +/- 0.30%) and FRAP (6.37 +/- 0.22 mM FE/100g), while Sch. commune showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) ABTS*+ inhibition activity (94.96 +/- 0.70%) and beta-CB inhibition activity (94.18 +/- 0.17%), respectively. TPC was found in a descending order of P. poriggens > L. ciliatus = Pleurotus ostreatus (cultivated) > H. conica = Sch. commune. Positive correlation was observed between the AOA and TPC. When compared to BHA (2 mM), P. porrigens showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability and reducing power, while Sch. commune showed comparable DPPH* scavenging ability and ABTS*+ inhibition activity. All the mushrooms have better ABTS*+ inhibition activity than BHA (1 mM). The beta-CB inhibition activity of BHA was significantly higher than those of edible wild mushrooms. The water extracts of edible wild mushrooms showed potent antioxidant activities compared to BHA to a certain extent. PMID:22135876

  3. Workshop on the qualitative and quantitative comparability of human and animal developmental neurotoxicity, Work Group I report: comparability of measures of developmental neurotoxicity in humans and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M E; Spear, L P

    1990-01-01

    Assessment measures used in developmental neurotoxicology are reviewed for their comparability in humans and laboratory animals, and their ability to detect comparable adverse effects across species. Compounds used for these comparisons include: substances of abuse, anticonvulsant drugs, ethanol, methylmercury, lead, PCBs, and ionizing radiation. At the level of functional category (sensory, motivational, cognitive and motor function, and social behavior), close agreement was found across species for all neurotoxic agents reviewed, particularly at high exposure levels. This was true even though the specific end points used to assess these functions often varied substantially across species. In addition, it was found that: 1) the U.S. EPA Developmental Neurotoxicology Test Battery presented at the Workshop would have identified the hazard to humans of exposure to the above compounds, although it may have underestimated human risk in some cases; 2) assessment of developmental neurotoxicity should involve evaluation of all categories of function; 3) for most compounds reviewed, the neurotoxic effects of prenatal exposure cannot be attributed to maternal toxicity, and exposure at or just below the threshold for such toxicity is an appropriate upper level for developmental neurotoxicity testing; 4) maternal exposure during the postnatal period poses a number of serious methodological problems; and 5) animal studies would better parallel human studies if more emphasis was placed on evaluation during development. PMID:2115099

  4. Metal and metalloid indicator electrodes for the non-aqueous potentiometric titration of weak acids: comparative evaluation of group III, IV and V main-group elements.

    PubMed

    Greenhow, E J; Al-Mudarris, B F

    Indicator electrodes constructed from aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, arsenic, antimony and bismuth have been evaluated for the potentiometric titration of solutions of benzoic acid in dimethylformamide and 4-methyl-2-pentanone. The aluminium, gallium, silicon and arsenic electrodes have also been evaluated for the determination of 3,5-xylenol in the same two solvents. Aluminium, gallium, indium, silicon, germanium, antimony and bismuth electrodes are superior to, or compare favourably with, a glass electrode for the determination of benzoic acid, when the criterion of efficiency is the sharpness of the end-point inflexion. In non-aqueous titrations of 3,5-xylenol, aluminium and gallium electrodes are similar in efficiency to the glass electrode for determinations in dimethylformamide solution, while the gallium electrode is superior to the glass electrode when 4-methyl-2-pentanone is the solvent. Possible relationships between the properties of the electrode element and the end-point sharpness when it is used as an indicator electrode are briefly considered. PMID:18961658

  5. Comparative Study of Antidiabetic Activity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Zinc Sulfate in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Nazarizadeh, Ali; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, antidiabetic activity and toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were investigated in diabetic rats compared to zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) with particular emphasis on oxidative stress parameters. One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two healthy and diabetic groups, randomly. Each major group was further subdivided into five subgroups and then orally supplemented with various doses of ZnO (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and ZnSO4 (30 mg/kg) for 56 consecutive days. ZnO showed greater antidiabetic activity compared to ZnSO4 evidenced by improved glucose disposal, insulin levels, and zinc status. The altered activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes as well as raised levels of lipid peroxidation and a marked reduction of total antioxidant capacity were observed in rats receiving ZnO. ZnO nanoparticles acted as a potent antidiabetic agent, however, severely elicited oxidative stress particularly at higher doses. PMID:26349687

  6. Group-specific small-subunit rRNA hybridization probes to characterize filamentous foaming in activated sludge systems.

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, F L; Ritter, W; Raskin, L

    1997-01-01

    Foaming in activated sludge systems is characterized by the formation of a thick, chocolate brown-colored scum that floats on the surface of aeration basins and secondary clarifiers. These viscous foams have been associated with the presence of filamentous mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. To aid in evaluating the microbial representation in foam, we developed and characterized group-, genus-, and species-specific oligonucleotide probes targeting the small subunit rRNA of the Mycobacterium complex, Gordona spp., and Gordona (Nocardia) amarae, respectively. The use of a universal base analog, 5-nitroindole, in oligonucleotide probe design was evaluated by comparing the characteristics of two different versions of the Mycobacterium complex probe. The temperature of dissociation of each probe was determined. Probe specificity studies with a diverse collection of 67 target and nontarget rRNAs demonstrated the specificity of the probes to the target groups. Whole-cell hybridizations with fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled probes were performed with pure cultures of various members of the Mycobacterium complex as well as with environmental samples from a full-scale activated sludge plant which experienced foaming. Quantitative membrane hybridizations with activated sludge and anaerobic digester foam showed that 15.0 to 18.3% of the total small-subunit rRNAs could be attributed to members of the Mycobacterium complex, of which a vast majority consisted of Gordona rRNA. Several G. amarae strains made up only a very small percentage of the Gordona strains present. We demonstrated that group-specific rRNA probes are useful tools for the in situ monitoring and identification of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge systems. PMID:9055425

  7. Group-specific small-subunit rRNA hybridization probes to characterize filamentous foaming in activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    de los Reyes, F L; Ritter, W; Raskin, L

    1997-03-01

    Foaming in activated sludge systems is characterized by the formation of a thick, chocolate brown-colored scum that floats on the surface of aeration basins and secondary clarifiers. These viscous foams have been associated with the presence of filamentous mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. To aid in evaluating the microbial representation in foam, we developed and characterized group-, genus-, and species-specific oligonucleotide probes targeting the small subunit rRNA of the Mycobacterium complex, Gordona spp., and Gordona (Nocardia) amarae, respectively. The use of a universal base analog, 5-nitroindole, in oligonucleotide probe design was evaluated by comparing the characteristics of two different versions of the Mycobacterium complex probe. The temperature of dissociation of each probe was determined. Probe specificity studies with a diverse collection of 67 target and nontarget rRNAs demonstrated the specificity of the probes to the target groups. Whole-cell hybridizations with fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled probes were performed with pure cultures of various members of the Mycobacterium complex as well as with environmental samples from a full-scale activated sludge plant which experienced foaming. Quantitative membrane hybridizations with activated sludge and anaerobic digester foam showed that 15.0 to 18.3% of the total small-subunit rRNAs could be attributed to members of the Mycobacterium complex, of which a vast majority consisted of Gordona rRNA. Several G. amarae strains made up only a very small percentage of the Gordona strains present. We demonstrated that group-specific rRNA probes are useful tools for the in situ monitoring and identification of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge systems. PMID:9055425

  8. Youth Group Engagement in Noncompliant Communities During Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kaduna, Nigeria, in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Audu; Mkanda, Pascal; Manneh, Fadinding; Korir, Charles; Warigon, Charity; Gali, Emmanuel; Banda, Richard; Umeh, Gregory; Nsubuga, Peter; Chevez, Ana; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. One of the major challenges being faced in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative program is persistent refusal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and harassment of vaccination team members by youths. The objective of the study was to describe the strategy of collaborating with recognized youth groups to reduce team harassment during vaccination campaigns and improve vaccination coverage in noncompliant communities. Methods. We assessed data from polio vaccination activities in OPV-refusing communities in the Igabi and Zaria local government areas (LGAs) of Kaduna State in Nigeria. We evaluated the following factors to determine trends: enhanced independent monitoring data on the proportion of children missed by vaccination activities (hereafter, “missed children”), lot quality assurance surveys, and vaccination team harassment. Results. The proportion of missed children decreased in both LGAs after the intervention. In Igabi LGA and Zaria LGA, the lowest proportions of missed children before and after the intervention decreased from 7% to 2% and from 5% to 1%, respectively. Lot quality assurance survey trends showed an improvement in immunization coverage 1 year after youth groups' engagement in both LGAs. Conclusions. Systematic engagement of youth groups has a great future in polio interruption as we approach the endgame strategy for polio eradication. It promises to be a veritable innovation in reaching chronically missed children in OPV-refusing communities. PMID:26609003

  9. Group planarian sudden mortality: Is the threshold around global geomagnetic activity ≥K6?

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Nirosha J; Karbowski, Lukasz M; Mekers, William Ft; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Sudden deaths in groups of animals have been observed by field and laboratory biologists. We have measured mortalities in large group-housed planarian during the infrequent periods of very intense geomagnetic activity. In 13 separate episodes over the last 5 y we have observed the sudden death in our laboratory of hundreds of planarian if their density was about 1 worm per cc and the global geomagnetic activity was K≥6 the day before or the day of the observation of the mortality. Such mortality never occurred in other conditions or days. Both estimates of the "magnetic moment" of a planarian in magnetic fields above this threshold of sustained magnetic flux density as well as the magnetic energy within the planarian volume predict values that could affect phenomenon associated with the total numbers of pH-dependent charges within each worm. These conditions could affect the Levin-Burr bioelectrical signals and networks that affect patterning information and sustainability in whole living systems. The establishment of a central reservoir for the report of these transient events might allow Life Scientists to more fully appreciate the impact of these pervasive global stimuli upon dense groups of animals. PMID:27066174

  10. Tag team simulation: An innovative approach for promoting active engagement of participants and observers during group simulations.

    PubMed

    Levett-Jones, Tracy; Andersen, Patrea; Reid-Searl, Kerry; Guinea, Stephen; McAllister, Margaret; Lapkin, Samuel; Palmer, Lorinda; Niddrie, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Active participation in immersive simulation experiences can result in technical and non-technical skill enhancement. However, when simulations are conducted in large groups, maintaining the interest of observers so that they do not disengage from the learning experience can be challenging. We implemented Tag Team Simulation with the aim of ensuring that both participants and observers had active and integral roles in the simulation. In this paper we outline the features of this innovative approach and provide an example of its application to a pain simulation. Evaluation was conducted using the Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale. A total of 444 year nursing students participated from a population of 536 (response rate 83%). Cronbach's alpha for the Scale was .94 indicating high internal consistency. The mean satisfaction score for participants was 4.63 compared to 4.56 for observers. An independent sample t test revealed no significant difference between these scores (t (300) = -1.414, p = 0.16). Tag team simulation is an effective approach for ensuring observers' and participants' active involvement during group-based simulations and one that is highly regarded by students. It has the potential for broad applicability across a range of leaning domains both within and beyond nursing. PMID:25936431

  11. Neuroprotective effects of selective group II mGluR activation in brain trauma and traumatic neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Movsesyan, Vilen A; Faden, Alan I

    2006-02-01

    The effects of group II mGluR activation by selective agonist (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1. 0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY379268) were examined in a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced brain injury and in primary neuronal/glial and neuronal cultures subjected to mechanical trauma. Systemic administration of LY379268 to mice at 30 min after CCI significantly improved both motor and cognitive recovery as compared with vehicle-treated control animals. LY379268 also significantly reduced cell death induced by mechanical injury in rat neuronal/glial and neuronal cultures, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. The neuroprotective effect of LY379268 in vitro was abolished by co-administration of the mGluR2/3 antagonist (s)-alpha-ethylglutamic acid (EGLU); however, co-application of selective mGluR3 antagonist beta-N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) had no significant influence in the same system. Together, these findings demonstrate the neuroprotective activity of group II mGluR activation and underscore the role of the mGluR2 subtype for this effect. PMID:16503796

  12. Comparison of Efficacy, Safety and Cost-effectiveness of Rupatadine and Olopatadine in Patients of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: A Randomized, Double-blind, Comparative, Parallel Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dakhale, Ganesh N; Wankhede, Sumit S; Mahatme, Mohini S; Hiware, Sachin K; Mishra, Dharmendra B; Dudhgaonkar, Sujata S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of chronic spontaneous urticaria. Materials and Methods: A 6-week, single-centered, randomized, double blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 60 patients were recruited and were randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 6 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were mean total symptom score (MTSS) calculated by adding the mean number of wheals (MNW) and the mean pruritus score (MPS), number of wheals, size of wheal, scale for interference of wheals with sleep (SIWS). Results: Both the drugs significantly reduced the MTSS, number of wheals, size of wheal, scale for interference of wheals with sleep, but olopatadine was found to be superior. In olopatadine group, there was significantly higher reduction in MTSS (p = 0.01), Number of wheals (P < 0.05), Size of wheals (p < 0.05), Scale for intensity of erythema (p < 0.05) and change in eosinopils count (p = 0.015) than that of rupatadine. Incidence of adverse effects was found to be less in olopatadine group when compared with rupatadine group. Cost effectiveness ratio was less in olopatadine group as compared to rupatadine group throughout the treatment. Conclusions: Olopatadine is a better choice in chronic spontaneous urticaria in comparison to rupatadine due to its better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness profile. PMID:26955097

  13. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: effect of oxygen functional groups.

    PubMed

    Vega, Esther; Lemus, Jesús; Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Palomar, José; Martin, María J

    2013-08-15

    The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions. PMID:23708449

  14. Control of nuclear activities by substrate-selective and protein-group SUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Jentsch, Stefan; Psakhye, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Reversible modification of proteins by SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) affects a large number of cellular processes. In striking contrast to the related ubiquitin pathway, only a few enzymes participate in the SUMO system, although this pathway has numerous substrates as well. Emerging evidence suggests that SUMOylation frequently targets entire groups of physically interacting proteins rather than individual proteins. Protein-group SUMOylation appears to be triggered by recruitment of SUMO ligases to preassembled protein complexes. Because SUMOylation typically affects groups of proteins that bear SUMO-interaction motifs (SIMs), protein-group SUMOylation may foster physical interactions between proteins through multiple SUMO-SIM interactions. Individual SUMO modifications may act redundantly or additively, yet they may mediate dedicated functions as well. In this review, we focus on the unorthodox principles of this pathway and give examples for SUMO-controlled nuclear activities. We propose that collective SUMOylation is typical for nuclear assemblies and argue that SUMO serves as a distinguishing mark for functionally engaged protein fractions. PMID:24016193

  15. Longitudinal comparison of a physiotherapist-led, home-based and group-based program for increasing physical activity in community-dwelling middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Freene, Nicole; Waddington, Gordon; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the longer-term effects of physical activity interventions. Here we compare a 6-month physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program to a community group exercise program over 2 years. Healthy, sedentary community-dwelling 50-65 year olds were recruited to a non-randomised community group exercise program (G, n = 93) or a physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program (HB, n = 65). Outcomes included 'sufficient' physical activity (Active Australia Survey), minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity (ActiGraph GT1M), aerobic capacity (2-min step-test), quality of life (SF-12v2), blood pressure, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Using intention-to-treat analysis, both interventions resulted in significant and sustainable increases in the number of participants achieving 'sufficient' physical activity (HB 22 v. 41%, G 22 v. 47%, P ≤ 0.001) and decreases in waist circumference (HB 90 v. 89 cm, G 93 v. 91 cm, P < 0.001) over 2 years. The home-based program was less costly (HB A$47 v. G $84 per participant) but less effective in achieving the benefits at 2 years. The physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program may be a low-cost alternative to increase physical activity levels for those not interested in, or unable to attend, a group exercise program. PMID:26509205

  16. Crowd-based breath analysis: assessing behavior, activity, exposures, and emotional response of people in groups.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan; Pleil, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A new concept for exhaled breath analysis has emerged wherein groups, or even crowds of people are simultaneously sampled in enclosed environments to detect overall trends in their activities and recent exposures. The basic idea is to correlate the temporal profile of known breath markers such as carbon dioxide, isoprene, or acetone with all other volatile organics in the air space. Those that trend similarly in time are designated as breath constituents. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop technology for assessing group based behaviors, chemical exposures or even changes in stress or mood. Applications are myriad ranging from chemical dose/toxicity screening to health and stress status for national security diagnostics. The basic technology employs real-time mass spectrometry capable of simultaneously measuring volatile chemicals and endogenous breath markers. PMID:27341381

  17. A Comparative Study of Clear Corneal Phacoemulsification with Rigid IOL Versus SICS; the Preferred Surgical Technique in Low Socio-economic group Patients of Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Smita; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Context: Low socio-economic group patients from rural areas often opt for free cataract surgeries offered by charitable organisations. SICS continues to be a time tested technique for cataract removal in such patients. In recent times, camp patients are sometimes treated by clear corneal phacoemulsification with implantation of a rigid IOL, which being more cost effective is often provided for camp patients. This study was undertaken to find out which surgical technique yielded better outcomes and was more suited for high volume camp surgery. Aim: To find the better surgical option- phacoemulsification with rigid IOL or SICS, in poor patients from rural areas. Settings and Design: A prospective randomised controlled trial of cataract patients operated by two different techniques. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twelve eyes were selected and were randomly allocated into two groups of 56 eyes each. At completion of the study, data was analysed for 52 eyes operated by clear corneal phacoemulsification and implantation of a rigid IOL, and 56 eyes operated by SICS. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test was used to calculate the p- value. Results: The results were evaluated on the following criteria. The mean post-operative astigmatism at the end of four weeks - was significantly higher in phacoemulsification group as compared to SICS group The BCVA (best corrected visual acuity) at the end of four weeks - was comparable in both groups. Subjective complaints and/ or complications: In phaco group two patients required sutures and seven had striate keratitis , while none in SICS group. Complaint of irritation was similar in both groups. Surgical time- was less for SICS group as compared to phaco group. Conclusion: SICS by virtue of being a faster surgery with more secure wound and significantly less astigmatism is a better option in camp patients from rural areas as compared to phacoemulsification with rigid IOL. PMID:25584291

  18. Comparative analysis of cholinesterase activities in food animals using modified Ellman and Michel assays

    PubMed Central

    Askar, Kasim Abass; Kudi, A. Caleb; Moody, A. John

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated correlations between modified Ellman and Michel assay methods for measuring cholinesterase (ChE) activities. It also established a foundation for the applicability of measuring ChE activities in food animal species as biochemical biomarkers for evaluating exposure to and effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Measuring ChE activities in blood and tissue is currently the most important method of confirming the diagnosis of such exposure. The study also characterized the level of ChE activity in the selected organs/tissues of these animals and determined the best organ/tissue in which to measure ChE activity. The ChE activities were found to be higher in cattle than in sheep and higher in erythrocytes than in plasma and serum. The anticoagulant heparin significantly affects AChE activity in plasma compared with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). Of the different tissues tested, the mean of ChE activities was found to be highest in tissue from liver, followed by lung, muscle, kidney, and heart for sheep and cattle. In pigs, the ChE activities tested higher in kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and heart. The highest activities of ChE were found in pigs, followed by cattle and sheep. There was no significant difference between the modified Ellman and Michel method, but the percentage coefficient of variance (%CV) values were higher when the Michel method was used. PMID:22468023

  19. Investigating temporary acyclicity in a captive group of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): Relationship between management, adrenal activity and social factors.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie L; Trotter, Jessica; Jones, Martin; Brown, Janine L; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Walker, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Routine faecal steroid monitoring has been used to aid the management of five captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) females at Chester Zoo, UK, since 2007. Progestagen analysis initially revealed synchronised oestrous cycles among all females. However, a 14- to 20-week period of temporary acyclicity subsequently occurred in three females, following several management changes (increased training, foot-care and intermittent matriarch removal for health reasons) and the initiation of pregnancy in another female. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether these management changes were related to increased adrenal activity and disruption of ovarian activity, or whether social factors may have been involved in the temporary cessation of cyclicity. Faecal samples collected every other day were analysed to investigate whether glucocorticoid metabolites were related to reproductive status (pregnant, cycling, acyclic) or management (training, foot-care, matriarch presence). Routine training and foot-care were not associated with adrenal activity; however, intensive foot-care to treat an abscess in one female was associated with increased glucocorticoid concentration. Matriarch presence influenced adrenal activity in three females, being lower when the matriarch was separated from the group at night compared to being always present. However, in the females that exhibited temporary acyclicity, there was no consistent relationship between glucocorticoids and cyclicity state. Although the results of this study do not fully explain this occurrence, the highly synchronised nature of oestrous cycles within this group, and the concurrent acyclicity in three females, raises the question of whether social factors could have been involved in the temporary disruption of ovarian activity. PMID:26393308

  20. Catalytic Ester–Amide Exchange Using Group (IV) Metal Alkoxide–Activator Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chong; Lee, Jonathan P.; Lobkovsky, Emil; Porco, John A.

    2005-01-01

    A process for preparation of amides from unactivated esters and amines has been developed using a catalytic system comprised of group (IV) metal alkoxides in conjunction with additives including 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt). In general, ester–amide exchange proceeds using a variety of structurally diverse esters and amines without azeotropic reflux to remove the alcohol byproduct. Initial mechanistic studies on the Zr(Ot-Bu)4–HOAt system revealed that the active catalyst is a novel, dimeric zirconium complex as determined by X-ray crystallography. PMID:16011366

  1. Culture, Perception, and Artistic Visualization: A Comparative Study of Children's Drawings in Three Siberian Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istomin, Kirill V.; Panáková, Jaroslava; Heady, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In a study of three indigenous and non-indigenous cultural groups in northwestern and northeastern Siberia, framed line tests and a landscape drawing task were used to examine the hypotheses that test-based assessments of context sensitivity and independence are correlated with the amount of contextual information contained in drawings, and with…

  2. Soft skills: an important asset acquired from organizing regional student group activities.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Jeroen; Meysman, Pieter; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Abeel, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of computational biology as a graduate student. It comes as no surprise that organizing ISCB-SC-related activities sometimes interferes with day-to-day research and shakes up your priority list. However, we unanimously agree that the rewards, both in the short as well as the long term, make the time spent on these extracurricular activities more than worth it. In this article, we will explain what makes this so worthwhile: soft skills. PMID:24992198

  3. Rotation and activity among solar-type stars of the Ursa Major Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David R.; Mayor, Michel

    1993-01-01

    We examine rotation and chromospheric activity among G and K dwarfs recently shown to be members of the Ursa Major Group (UMaG). Rotation periods for UMaG stars are smaller than for stars of the same colors in the Hyades, and by an amount corresponding to the Skumanich relation. Most UMaG stars have about the same level of Ca II and K emission, implying that they also have nearly uniform intrinsic rotation rates. That means that the diversity of rotation rates and levels of activity seen among solar-type stars in the Alpha Persei and Pleiades clusters has largely converged by the age of UMaG (0.3 Gyr).

  4. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  5. [The comparative study of bioelectronic brain activity at the drug and Internet-addiction].

    PubMed

    Rabadanova, A I; Abacharova, Z S

    2014-01-01

    The comparative estimation of the bioelectric brain activities at different drug (heroin, opium, toxic organic join, home chemistry) and internet addiction are studied. These data can be interest for problem of general and specific mechanism of the influence of different factors, causing the addiction, on neirofisiological and neirochemical processes. PMID:25702456

  6. Cytotoxic Activity of Pyrovalerone Derivatives, an Emerging Group of Psychostimulant Designer Cathinones.

    PubMed

    Wojcieszak, Jakub; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Woldan-Tambor, Agata; Zawilska, Jolanta B

    2016-08-01

    The growing popularity of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has aroused the concerns of public health specialists. The pyrovalerone derivatives are a branch of synthetic cathinones, a very popular group of psychostimulant NPS. Despite numerous case reports of fatal intoxications, little is known about the cytotoxicity of these substances. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the toxic properties of pyrovalerone, its highly prevalent derivative 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (3,4-MDPV) with its two major metabolites (catechol-MDPV and methylcatechol-MDPV) and the structural isomer 2,3-MDPV, together with newer members of the group, i.e., α-pyrrolidinovalerothiophenone (α-PVT) and α-pyrrolidinooctanophenone (PV9), using model human cell lines for neurons (SH-SY5Y), hepatocytes (Hep G2), and upper airway epithelium (RPMI 2650). We found that the first generation pyrovalerones (pyrovalerone, 3,4-MDPV, and 2,3-MDPV) produced a modest decrease of mitochondrial activity in the three examined cell lines, but were active in lower concentrations than methamphetamine used as a reference psychostimulant compound. Since catechol-MDPV displayed greater toxic potential than the parent compound, we suggest that the toxicity of 3,4-MDPV could be attributed to activity of this metabolite. Strikingly, the two new generation pyrovalerones, α-PVT and PV9, seem to be the most potent cytotoxic compounds: both induced highly pronounced mitochondrial dysfunction; the latter also demonstrated significant damage to cell membranes. The reported in vitro toxic activity of pyrovalerone cathinones against different cell types reinforces existing concerns regarding the health risks associated with the intake of these drugs. PMID:27295059

  7. Is Breast Pain Greater in Active Females Compared to the General Population in the UK?

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicola; Burnett, Emma; Scurr, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic and noncyclic breast pain effect up to 60% of women, decreasing the quality of life. In addition, exercise-induced breast pain (thought to be caused by tension on breast skin and fascia during breast motion) is reported in up to 72% of exercising females. These forms of breast pain may be experienced concurrently; therefore, it is hypothesized that this compound effect may cause higher breast pain prevalence and severity in active populations. This study investigated the prevalence and severity of breast pain in an active cohort, compared to a random cohort. A random sample of 234 UK females completed a self-administered survey reporting physical activity history, prevalence, severity and frequency of breast pain, breast support habits, bra satisfaction, occurrence of bra-related issues, and demographics. This sample was age-matched to a sample of active females (n = 234) from a cross-sectional survey of 1,285 female marathon runners who completed a similar survey. Breast pain prevalence was significantly lower in the active cohort (32.1%) compared to the random cohort (43.6%), however, the severity and frequency of breast pain was similar in both cohorts. Females in the active cohort undertook significantly more physical activity, were lighter, had greater nulliparous rates, greater adherence to sports bra use, but less adherence to professional bra fitting. With lower breast pain rates in the active cohort the hypothesis of a compound effect of multiple forms of breast pain causing an increase in prevalence and severity is rejected. The lower prevalence may be related to increased physical activity, reduced body mass, and increased sports bra use. Sports bra use is already recommended in the literature for symptomatic women, however, this is the first study to report that increased physical activity and weight loss may be an appropriate life style choice to reduce the prevalence of breast pain. PMID:26661830

  8. Comparative gene identification 58/α/β hydrolase domain 5 lacks lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Derek; Dinh, Anna; Kurz, Daniel; Shah, Dharika; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M.; Brasaemle, Dawn L.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58)/α/β hydrolase domain 5 (ABHD5) cause Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, characterized by excessive triacylglycerol storage in cells and tissues. CGI-58 has been identified as a coactivator of adipose TG lipase (ATGL) and a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT). We developed a molecular model of CGI-58 structure and then mutated predicted active site residues and performed LPAAT activity assays of recombinant WT and mutated CGI-58. When mutations of predicted catalytic residues failed to reduce LPAAT activity, we determined that LPAAT activity was due to a bacterial contaminant of affinity purification procedures, plsC, the sole LPAAT in Escherichia coli. Purification protocols were optimized to reduce plsC contamination, in turn reducing LPAAT activity. When CGI-58 was expressed in SM2-1(DE3) cells that lack plsC, lysates lacked LPAAT activity. Additionally, mouse CGI-58 expressed in bacteria as a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein and human CGI-58 expressed in yeast lacked LPAAT activity. Previously reported lipid binding activity of CGI-58 was revisited using protein-lipid overlays. Recombinant CGI-58 failed to bind lysophosphatidic acid, but interestingly, bound phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] and phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate [PI(5)P]. Prebinding CGI-58 with PI(3)P or PI(5)P did not alter its coactivation of ATGL in vitro. In summary, purified recombinant CGI-58 that is functional as an ATGL coactivator lacks LPAAT activity. PMID:24879803

  9. Antidiabetic Effect of an Active Components Group from Ilex kudingcha and Its Chemical Composition

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chengwu; Xie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiwen; Yu, Shanggong; Fang, Nianbai

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Ilex kudingcha are used as an ethnomedicine in the treatment of symptoms related with diabetes mellitus and obesity throughout the centuries in China. The present study investigated the antidiabetic activities of an active components group (ACG) obtained from Ilex kudingcha in alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic mice. ACG significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum glycaemic and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and glucokinase were upregulated significantly, while fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic enzyme was downregulated in diabetic mice after treatment of ACG. These findings clearly provided evidences regarding the antidiabetic potentials of ACG from Ilex kudingcha. Using LC-DAD/HR-ESI-TOF-MS, six major components were identified in ACG. They are three dicaffeoylquinic acids that have been reported previously, and three new triterpenoid saponins, which were the first time to be identified in Ilex kudingcha. It is reasonable to assume that antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha against hyperglycemia resulted from these six major components. Also, synergistic effects among their compounds may exist in the antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha. PMID:22474502

  10. A Proteomic approach to discover and compare interacting partners of Papillomavirus E2 proteins from diverse phylogenetic groups

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Moon Kyoo; Anderson, D. Eric; van Doorslaer, Koenraad; McBride, Alison A.

    2015-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are a very successful group of viruses that replicate persistently in localized regions of the stratified epithelium of their specific host. Infection results in pathologies ranging from asymptomatic infection, benign warts, to malignant carcinomas. Despite this diversity, papillomavirus genomes are small (7-8 kbp) and contain at most eight genes. To sustain the complex papillomaviral life cycle, each viral protein has multiple functions and interacts with and manipulates a plethora of cellular proteins. In this study, we use tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify host factors that interact with eleven different papillomavirus E2 proteins from diverse phylogenetic groups. The E2 proteins function in viral transcription and replication and correspondingly interact with host proteins involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling and modification, replication and RNA processing. PMID:25758368

  11. [Comparative characteristics of clinical and immunologic indicators of various groups of opisthorchiasis patients in a focus. Aboriginal population].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, S B; Ozeretskovskaia, N N; Zolotukhin, V A

    1989-01-01

    Clinical and immunological observations of people belonging to two population groups--aborigens (khanty, mansi, komi) and 40 immigrants--were performed in opisthorchiasis foci of the Tyumen region. Rapid clinical reinvasion of unimmune immigrants (in a 3-4 year period) was established; the aborigens featured subclinical invasion pattern. T-system immunity in immigrants was suppressed, while in the aboriginal group insignificant reduction of the number of T-helpers and significant increase in the number of T-suppressors, lack of apparent mobilization of humoral immunity factors--reduction of the absolute B-lymphocytes number, normal A, G immunoglobulines and CIC levels-were observed. Such T--B immune systems' ratio may indicate immune tolerance of a suppressor type. The observed indicators of aborigens' tolerance to helminths' antigens point to the necessity of differentiated approach to chemotherapy prescription (especially of the repeated courses) in the endemic invasion foci. PMID:2526919

  12. A proteomic approach to discover and compare interacting partners of papillomavirus E2 proteins from diverse phylogenetic groups.

    PubMed

    Jang, Moon Kyoo; Anderson, D Eric; van Doorslaer, Koenraad; McBride, Alison A

    2015-06-01

    Papillomaviruses are a very successful group of viruses that replicate persistently in localized regions of the stratified epithelium of their specific host. Infection results in pathologies ranging from asymptomatic infection, benign warts, to malignant carcinomas. Despite this diversity, papillomavirus genomes are small (7-8 kbp) and contain at most eight genes. To sustain the complex papillomaviral life cycle, each viral protein has multiple functions and interacts with and manipulates a plethora of cellular proteins. In this study, we use tandem affinity purification and MS to identify host factors that interact with 11 different papillomavirus E2 proteins from diverse phylogenetic groups. The E2 proteins function in viral transcription and replication and correspondingly interact with host proteins involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling and modification, replication, and RNA processing. PMID:25758368

  13. Comparing the effect of immobilization methods on the activity of lipase biocatalysts in ester hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Costa, L; Brissos, V; Lemos, F; Ribeiro, F Ramôa; Cabral, J M S

    2008-06-01

    The activity of various lipases was compared, in both free and immobilized forms, using the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenyl butyrate, which was followed with in situ UV/Vis diode array spectrophotometry. Several enzymes were used to catalyze the reaction, namely Candida antarctica lipase B and Fusarium solani pisi cutinase wildtype and three single-mutation variants. The enzymes were tested in three different forms: free, immobilized as cross-linked aggregates and supported on zeolite NaY. A simple kinetic model was used to allow a quantitative comparison of the behavior of the different catalysts. It was concluded that although immobilization reduces the activity of the enzyme, the zeolite offers a much higher specific activity when compared to the cross-linked aggregates, thus supplying a heterogeneous catalyst with promising catalytic properties. PMID:17940805

  14. Comparative evaluation of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin in children with pyrexia of varied aetiology.

    PubMed

    Kandoth, P W; Joshi, M K; Joshi, V R; Satoskar, R S

    1984-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin was compared in sixteen children with pyrexia due to upper respiratory tract infection and in twelve with fever due to other causes. All 28 children received ibuprofen (7 mg/kg of body-weight) and aspirin (15 mg/kg of body-weight) in a single dose on 2 consecutive days in a crossover manner. Rectal temperature was recorded prior to and at regular intervals up to 8 hours after drug administration. Analysis of the results indicate that ibuprofen and aspirin effectively lower temperature and the two drugs are comparable in their antipyretic activity. In conclusion, significant antipyretic activity, good tolerance profile and availability in syrup form make ibuprofen a useful substitute for aspirin in children with fever. PMID:6500169

  15. Meta-Analysis of Incremental Rehearsal Using Phi Coefficients to Compare Single-Case and Group Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Kanive, Rebecca; Parker, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study meta-analyzed single-case design (SCD) and group research regarding incremental rehearsal (IR). We used phi to meta-analyze data from 19 IR studies. Data from the SCD studies resulted in a nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP) score of 98.9% (95% CI = 97.6-100%), which resulted in a weighted phi of 0.77 (95% CI = 0.69-0.83). The group…

  16. Health and Well-Being Among the Non-religious: Atheists, Agnostics, and No Preference Compared with Religious Group Members.

    PubMed

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Hill, Peter C; Emmons, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Although recent research suggests that the proportion of the US population identifying as non-religious has been rapidly expanding over the course of the last decade, relatively little research has examined the implications of this development for health and well-being. This study uses data from a large representative survey study of religion and health in the adult US population (N = 3010) to examine group differences among religious group members (N = 2401) and three categories of non-religious individuals: atheists (N = 83), agnostics (N = 189), and those stating no religious preference (N = 329). MANCOVA was used to analyze group differences on five outcome dimensions, incorporating 27 outcome variables. Religious non-affiliates did not differ overall from affiliates in terms of physical health outcomes (although atheists and agnostics did have better health on some individual measures including BMI, number of chronic conditions, and physical limitations), but had worse positive psychological functioning characteristics, social support relationships, and health behaviors. On dimensions related to psychological well-being, atheists and agnostics tended to have worse outcomes than either those with religious affiliation or those with no religious preference. If current trends in the religious composition of the population continue, these results have implications for its future healthcare needs. PMID:26743877

  17. The role of beaded activated carbon's surface oxygen groups on irreversible adsorption of organic vapors.

    PubMed

    Jahandar Lashaki, Masoud; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher; Phillips, John H; Anderson, James E; Nichols, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of surface oxygen groups to irreversible adsorption (aka heel formation) during cyclic adsorption/regeneration of organic vapors commonly found in industrial systems, including vehicle-painting operations. For this purpose, three chemically modified activated carbon samples, including two oxygen-deficient (hydrogen-treated and heat-treated) and one oxygen-rich sample (nitric acid-treated) were prepared. The samples were tested for 5 adsorption/regeneration cycles using a mixture of nine organic compounds. For the different samples, mass balance cumulative heel was 14 and 20% higher for oxygen functionalized and hydrogen-treated samples, respectively, relative to heat-treated sample. Thermal analysis results showed heel formation due to physisorption for the oxygen-deficient samples, and weakened physisorption combined with chemisorption for the oxygen-rich sample. Chemisorption was attributed to consumption of surface oxygen groups by adsorbed species, resulting in formation of high boiling point oxidation byproducts or bonding between the adsorbates and the surface groups. Pore size distributions indicated that different pore sizes contributed to heel formation - narrow micropores (<7Å) in the oxygen-deficient samples and midsize micropores (7-12Å) in the oxygen-rich sample. The results from this study help explain the heel formation mechanism and how it relates to chemically tailored adsorbent materials. PMID:27295065

  18. Inhibition of nitrobenzene adsorption by water cluster formation at acidic oxygen functional groups on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuichi; Machida, Motoi; Tatsumoto, Hideki

    2008-06-15

    The inhibition effect of nitrobenzene adsorption by water clusters formed at the acidic groups on activated carbon was examined in aqueous and n-hexane solution. The activated carbon was oxidized with nitric acid to introduce CO complexes and then outgassed in helium flow at 1273 K to remove them completely without changing the structural properties of the carbon as a reference adsorbent. The amounts of acidic functional groups were determined by applying Boehm titration. A relative humidity of 95% was used to adsorb water onto the carbon surface. Strong adsorption of water onto the oxidized carbon can be observed by thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorption kinetic rate was estimated to be controlled by diffusion from the kinetic analysis. Significant decline in both capacity and kinetic rate for nitrobenzene adsorption onto the oxidized carbon was also observed in n-hexane solution by preadsorption of water to the carbon surface, whereas it was not detected for the outgassed carbons. These results might reveal that water molecules forming clusters at the CO complexes inhibited the entrance of nitrobenzene into the interparticles of the carbon. PMID:18440013

  19. [The suicide phenomenon and fermentative metabolic activity in strains of the Aeromonas group isolated from feces].

    PubMed

    Reina, J; Serra, A; Borrell, N; Gómez, J

    1992-11-01

    We study the "suicide" phenomena as well as metabolic pathways of mixed acids (methyl red test, MR) and butylene glycol (Voges-Proskauer, VP), in 107 strains belonging to mesophilic Aeromonas group, isolated from stools. The strains have been identified as A. hydrophila, 28 cases (26.1%), A. sobria 26 cases (24.3%) and A. caviae 53 cases (49.6%). All A. caviae strains behave homogeneously as F+, RM+ and VP-, independently of temperature (30 or 37 degrees C). A. hydrophila strains only showed their trend to "suicide" at 37 degrees C, being this behavior linked to RM test positivity. At 30 degrees C all strains were NS and RM-, keeping always positive the VP test (both temperatures). In A. sobria we have recorded changes in their behavior related to the temperature of incubation. At 37 degrees C, 57.7% were NS, whereas at 30 degrees C, 69.2% showed the same phenotype. The metabolic activity had remained stable, therefore F+ strains were VP and RM+, and NS strains were VP+ and RM-. It seems that FS is a phenotypic behavior of this bacterial group species and temperature-dependent, and also is related to a fermentative metabolic activity modulation of each of them. PMID:1489794

  20. β-Lactams Enhance Vancomycin Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Compared to Vancomycin Alone

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, Thomas J.; Ibrahim, Omar; Hall, Pamela; Sliwinski, Jora; Walraven, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin (VAN) is often used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia despite a high incidence of microbiological failure. Recent in vitro analyses of β-lactams in combination with VAN demonstrated synergistic activity against MRSA. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of combination therapy with VAN and a β-lactam (Combo) on the microbiological eradication of MRSA bacteremia compared to VAN alone. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with MRSA bacteremia who received Combo therapy or VAN alone. Microbiological eradication of MRSA, defined as a negative blood culture obtained after initiation of therapy, was used to evaluate the efficacy of each regimen. A total of 80 patients were included: 50 patients in the Combo group and 30 patients in the VAN-alone group. Microbiological eradication was achieved in 48 patients (96%) in the Combo group compared to 24 patients (80%) in the VAN-alone group (P = 0.021). In a multivariable model, the Combo treatment had a higher likelihood of achieving microbiological eradication (adjusted odds ratio, 11.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 144.3; P = 0.01). In patients with infective endocarditis (n = 22), 11/11 (100%) who received Combo therapy achieved microbiological eradication compared to 9/11 (81.8%) treated with VAN alone, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.20). Patients with MRSA bacteremia who received Combo therapy were more likely to experience microbiological eradication of MRSA than patients who received VAN alone. PMID:24145519