Science.gov

Sample records for active growing period

  1. GrowLab: Activities for Growing Minds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranis, Eve; Cohen, Joy

    As students observe plant growth, the questions that naturally arise can provide opportunities for student exploration and discovery. This guide presents a collection of activities for students in grades K-8 that turn students' questions into life sciences learning experiences. The guide contains four chapters, each with background information and…

  2. Growing and finishing performance of steers when fed recycled poultry bedding during the growing period.

    PubMed

    Capucille, D J; Poore, M H; Rogers, G M

    2004-10-01

    Sixty Angus-cross steers were used to compare the effects of recycled poultry bedding (RPB) stacking method and the inclusion of monensin in growing diets on performance. Steers were individually fed balanced, growing diets for a period of 84 d. The diets were control (CON), CON + monensin (CON+M), deep-stacked RPB (DS), DS+M, shallow-stacked RPB (SS), and SS+M. The CON diets contained corn, soybean meal, corn silage, and cottonseed hulls. In the RPB diets, 35% of the silage, cottonseed hulls, and soybean meal was replaced with RPB (as-fed basis). At the end of the growing period, 30 steers, representing all treatment groups, had liver biopsies for trace mineral analysis and ruminal fluid samples to assess pH, VFA, and ammonia concentrations. All steers had blood samples drawn at the end of the growing period for analysis of Se and urea N. Steers were transported 466.6 km to simulate shipping stress and started on a finishing diet for a 120-d period. Intake, ADG, and G:F were monitored throughout the trial. Steers fed CON diets had higher ADG, DMI, and G:F than SS, and higher ADG and G:F than DS (P < 0.05) during the growing period. Steers fed DS diets had higher DMI than SS (P < 0.05) during the growing period. Inclusion of monensin in the growing diets increased G:F and decreased DMI (P < 0.05). Steers from the RPB treatments started the finishing period at lighter BW than steers fed CON diets (P < 0.05). During the finishing period, steers fed SS diets had higher DMI than steers fed CON diets (P < 0.06), whereas steers fed DS diets were intermediate. At slaughter, steers fed CON diets had higher hot carcass weights and quality grades than steers fed SS diets (P < 0.07), whereas steers fed DS diets were intermediate. Results indicate that steers fed RPB consumed it better when processed by deep stacking before consumption, that carryover effects of RPB into the finishing phase were minimal, and inclusion of monensin did not affect consumption of RPB diets.

  3. Period-doubling and period-tripling in growing bilayered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budday, Silvia; Kuhl, Ellen; Hutchinson, John W.

    2015-10-01

    Growing layers on elastic substrates are capable of creating a wide variety of surface morphologies. Moderate growth generates a regular pattern of sinusoidal wrinkles with a homogeneous energy distribution. While the critical conditions for periodic wrinkling have been extensively studied, the rich pattern formation beyond this first instability point remains poorly understood. Here, we show that upon continuing growth, the energy progressively localizes and new complex morphologies emerge. Previous studies have often overlooked these secondary bifurcations; they have focused on large stiffness ratios between layer and substrate, where primary instabilities occur early, long before secondary instabilities emerge. We demonstrate that secondary bifurcations are particularly critical in the low stiffness ratio regime, where the critical conditions for primary and secondary instabilities move closer together. Amongst all possible secondary bifurcations, the mode of period-doubling plays a central role - it is energetically favourable over all other modes. Yet, we can numerically suppress period-doubling, by choosing boundary conditions, which favour alternative higher order modes. Our results suggest that in the low stiffness regime, pattern formation is highly sensitive to small imperfections: surface morphologies emerge rapidly, change spontaneously and quickly become immensely complex. This is a common paradigm in developmental biology. Our results have significant applications in the morphogenesis of living systems where growth is progressive and stiffness ratios are low.

  4. Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettig, Carol; Rich, Shannon; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Sanborn, Charlotte; Essery, Eve; DiMarco, Nancy; Velez, Luisa; Levy, Luba

    2006-01-01

    A diverse group of professionals associated with Texas Woman's University's Institute for Women's Health, working collaboratively with school administrators, teachers, family support teams, and family members, developed Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem, a nutrition program for young children and their families. In tracking the…

  5. About the Solar Activity Rotation Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Zadig

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evidence, from a statistical point of view, the different periods of solar activity. The well known period is that of 150-160 days, but many others were detected between 9 and 4750 days (length of solar cycle). We tabulated 49 articles revealing 231 periods. In order to explain them, different hypotheses were suggested.

  6. Effects of lighting program during the growing period and dietary fat during the laying period on broiler breeder performance.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Garlich, J D; Baughman, G R

    1989-09-01

    In two experiments, broiler breeders were grown in either of two lighting regimens, fed diets without added fat, and then fed diets with or without 5% added poultry fat during the subsequent laying period. In Experiment 1 half the birds were subjected to decreasing daylength using daylight (800 lx) and half were subjected to 9 h of incandescent light (20 lx) to 20 wk of age. In Experiment 2 the lighting regimen was either an 8-h photoperiod supplied by daylight (800 lx) or an 8-h photoperiod supplied by incandescent light (20 lx) to 20 wk of age. Added dietary fat produced significantly higher egg weight (Experiments 1 and 2), egg production (Experiment 2), and significantly lower fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs (Experiments 1 and 2). Short photoperiods (8 or 9 h) provided by incandescent light produced significantly higher fertility (Experiments 1 and 2) and hatchability of fertile eggs (Experiment 2), and significantly lower egg specific gravity, shell percentage (Experiment 1), egg weight, and eggshell weight (Experiment 2). Effects on fertility may be related to higher female body weight during lay due to daylight rearing or added fat, or relative changes in light intensity at photostimulation.

  7. Evaluation of activity of epiphyseal plates in growing males and females.

    PubMed

    Yang, K-T A; Yang, A D

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the age-related activity of the epiphyseal plates, a retrospective study of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scans was undertaken. The study comprised 81 males and 46 females aged 2 weeks to 24 years. The total percentage (%) whole-body (ratio of total physis activity to whole-body activity) and the regional % whole-body (ratio of physis activity of one region to whole-body activity) were derived. The ratio of physis activity of one region to the total physis activity was defined as % physis. Before age 12, total physis activity was found to contribute about 10% to whole-body activity. All total and regional % whole-body activities followed sigmoid curves with age. The differences of the parameters (transition centers and widths) suggested that there might be a later and longer period for the disappearance of physis activity in males than in females. For all the regions, % physis changed little with age until after puberty. At age <1, the proportion of bone activity in the body was about 30-35% for skull, 20-25% for lower limbs, and 5-15% for the rest of the regions. The maximal changes during growth occurred in the skull and the lower limbs. The age-related changes of physis activity during growth reflect a combination of the potential of bone to grow and the processes of bone growth and bone turnover. Bone scintigraphy is useful in understanding the changes of physis activity during growth.

  8. Periodic substorm activity in the geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Williams, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    On 19 May 1978 an anusual series of events is observed with the Quadrispherical LEPEDEA on board the ISEE-1 satellite in the Earth's geomagnetic tail. For 13 hours periodic bursts of both ions and electrons are seen in all the particle detectors on the spacecraft. On this day periodic activity is also seen on the ground, where multiple intensifications of the electrojets are observed. At the same time the latitudinal component of the interplanetary magnetic field shows a number of strong southward deflections. It is concluded that an extended period of substorm activity is occurring, which causes repeated thinnings and recoveries of the plasma sheet. These are detected by ISEE, which is situated in the plasma sheet boundary layer, as periodic dropouts and reappearances of the plasma. Comparisons of the observations at ISEE with those at IMP-8, which for a time is engulfed by the plasma sheet, indicate that the activity is relatively localized in spatial extent. For this series of events it is clear that a global approach to magnetospheric dynamics, e.g., reconnection, is inappropriate.

  9. Activities to Grow On: Buttons, Beads, and Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzolis, Amy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and beads as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a bead stringing activity. (SM)

  10. Effects of vegetative-periodic-induced rhizosphere variation on the uptake and translocation of metals in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steudel growing in the Sun Island Wetland.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jieting; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Yang, Jixian; Li, Shiyang; Li, Zhe

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the vegetative periodic effect of rhizosphere on the patterns of metal bioaccumulation, the concentrations of Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in the corresponding rhizosphere soil and tissues of Phragmites australis growing in the Sun Island wetland (Harbin, China) were compared. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in roots were higher than in shoots, suggesting that roots are the primary accumulation organs for these metals and there exists an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance. In contrast, the rest of the metals showed an opposite trend, suggesting that they were not restricted in roots. Harvesting would particularly be an effective method to remove Mn from the environment. The concentrations of metals in shoots were generally higher in autumn than in summer, suggesting that Ph. australis possesses an efficient root-to-shoot translocation system, which is activated at the end of the growing season and allows more metals into the senescent tissues. Furthermore, metal bioaccumulation of Ph. australis was affected by vegetative periodic variation through the changing of physicochemical and microbial conditions. The rhizospheric microbial characteristics were significantly related to the concentrations of Mg, K, Zn, Fe and Cu, suggesting that microbial influence on metal accumulation is specific and selective, not eurytopic.

  11. Ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in monitor lizards: males grow for a longer period, but not at a faster rate.

    PubMed

    Frynta, Daniel; Frýdlová, Petra; Hnízdo, Jan; Simková, Olga; Cikánová, Veronika; Velenský, Petr

    2010-12-01

    Monitor lizards belong to the largest and the most sexually dimorphic lizards in terms of size, making this group an ideal model for studies analyzing ontogenetic causes of sexual dimorphism. Understanding of these ontogenetic factors is essential to the current discussion concerning patterns of sexual dimorphism in animals. We examined the ontogenetic trajectories of body weight and snout-vent length to analyze the emergence of sexual size dimorphism. Experimental animals were 22 males and 13 females of mangrove-dwelling monitors (Varanus indicus) hatched at the Prague Zoo. They were regularly weighed and measured up to the age of 33-40 months, and subsequently sexed by ultrasonographic imaging. The logistic growth equation was used to describe and analyze the observed growth patterns. Our results confirm considerable sexual size dimorphism in the mangrove monitor. The mean asymptotic body weight of males was nearly three times higher than that of females. As the body size of male and female hatchlings is almost equal, and the growth rate parameter (K) of the logistic growth equation as well as the absolute growth rate up to the age of 12 months do not differ between the sexes, size differences between fully grown males and females should be attributed to timing of the postnatal growth. Males continue to grow several months after they reach the age when the growth of females is already reduced. Therefore, the sexual size dimorphism emerges and sharply increases at this period.

  12. 28 CFR 5.801 - Activity beyond 10-day period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity beyond 10-day period. 5.801... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.801 Activity beyond 10-day period. A registrant who has within the 10-day period filed an amendment to his registration statement pursuant to a Notice...

  13. 28 CFR 5.801 - Activity beyond 10-day period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activity beyond 10-day period. 5.801... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.801 Activity beyond 10-day period. A registrant who has within the 10-day period filed an amendment to his registration statement pursuant to a Notice...

  14. 28 CFR 5.801 - Activity beyond 10-day period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activity beyond 10-day period. 5.801... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.801 Activity beyond 10-day period. A registrant who has within the 10-day period filed an amendment to his registration statement pursuant to a Notice...

  15. 28 CFR 5.801 - Activity beyond 10-day period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activity beyond 10-day period. 5.801... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.801 Activity beyond 10-day period. A registrant who has within the 10-day period filed an amendment to his registration statement pursuant to a Notice...

  16. 28 CFR 5.801 - Activity beyond 10-day period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activity beyond 10-day period. 5.801... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.801 Activity beyond 10-day period. A registrant who has within the 10-day period filed an amendment to his registration statement pursuant to a Notice...

  17. Phenology Shifts at Start vs. End of Growing Season in Temperate Vegetation Over the Northern Hemisphere for the Period 1982-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Gim, Hyeon-Ju; Brown, Molley E.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in vegetative growing seasons are dominant indicators of the dynamic response of ecosystems to climate change. Therefore, knowledge of growing seasons over the past decades is essential to predict ecosystem changes. In this study, the long-term changes in the growing seasons of temperate vegetation over the Northern Hemisphere were examined by analyzing satellite-measured normalized difference vegetation index and reanalysis temperature during 1982 2008. Results showed that the length of the growing season (LOS) increased over the analysis period; however, the role of changes at the start of the growing season (SOS) and at the end of the growing season (EOS) differed depending on the time period. On a hemispheric scale, SOS advanced by 5.2 days in the early period (1982-1999) but advanced by only 0.2 days in the later period (2000-2008). EOS was delayed by 4.3 days in the early period, and it was further delayed by another 2.3 days in the later period. The difference between SOS and EOS in the later period was due to less warming during the preseason (January-April) before SOS compared with the magnitude of warming in the preseason (June September) before EOS. At a regional scale, delayed EOS in later periods was shown. In North America, EOS was delayed by 8.1 days in the early period and delayed by another 1.3 days in the later period. In Europe, the delayed EOS by 8.2 days was more significant than the advanced SOS by 3.2 days in the later period. However, in East Asia, the overall increase in LOS during the early period was weakened in the later period. Admitting regional heterogeneity, changes in hemispheric features suggest that the longer-lasting vegetation growth in recent decades can be attributed to extended leaf senescence in autumn rather than earlier spring leaf-out. Keywords: climate change, growing season, NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), Northern Hemisphere, phenology,

  18. Promoting Physical Activity in Secondary Schools: Growing Expectations, "Same Old" Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Duncombe, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There are growing expectations on schools to promote health and physical activity and helping schools to effectively do so is considered a priority. This paper reports on selected findings from a research project that was concerned with supporting secondary schools in the effective promotion of physical activity and establishing their needs in…

  19. Periodic Properties and Inquiry: Student Mental Models Observed during a Periodic Table Puzzle Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kathleen G.; Long, George R.; Briggs, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The mental models of both novice and advanced chemistry students were observed while the students performed a periodic table activity. The mental model framework seems to be an effective way of analyzing student behavior during learning activities. The analysis suggests that students do not recognize periodic trends through the examination of…

  20. The universal bundling activity of AtVLN4 in diffusely growing cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Fei; Zhang, Yi; Ren, Haiyun

    2011-09-01

    We recently reported that AtVLN4, a member of villin/gelsolin/fragmin superfamily in Arabidopsis thaliana, participated in root hair growth through its actin bundling activity. To further understand the functions of AtVLN4, we investigated its in vivo expression pattern and roles in diffusely growing cells. Transcription analysis of AtVLN4 and detection of AtVLN 4 promoter-GUS activity consistently indicated that AtVLN4 had a universal expression pattern and was preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues. Observation of actin structures labeled by GFP-fABD2 revealed that there were less actin bundles in many diffusely growing cell types in atvln4-1 seedlings than in wild-type seedlings. Pharmacological studies by treatment with Latrunculin B showed that the actin filaments were much easier to be disrupted in diffusely growing cells of atvln4-1 seedlings. Collectively, these results demonstrate that AtVLN4 has a universal actin bundling activity in diffusely growing cells just like that in the tip growing cell, root hairs.

  1. [Effects of growing time on Panax ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chun-ping; Yang, Li-min; Ma, Feng-min

    2014-12-01

    Using the field sampling and indoor soil cultivation methods, the dynamic of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass with three cultivated ages was studied to provide a theory basis for illustrating mechanism of continuous cropping obstacles of ginseng. The results showed that ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass accumulation were inhibited observably by growing time. The soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition and soil nitrification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microorganism were inhibited significantly (P <0.05), in contrast to the control soil uncultivated ginseng (R0). And the inhibition was gradual augmentation with the number of growing years. The soil microbial activity of 3a ginseng soil (R3) was the lowest, and its activity of soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition, soil ammonification and soil nitrification was lower than that in R0 with 56.31%, 86.71% and 90. 53% , respectively. The soil ammonification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial was significantly promoted compared with R0. The promotion was improved during the early growing time, while the promotion was decreased with the number of growing years. The soil ammonification of R1, R2 and R3 were lower than that in R0 with 32.43%, 80.54% and 66.64% separately. The SMB-C and SMB-N in ginseng rhizosphere soil had a decreased tendency with the number of growing years. The SMB-C difference among 3 cultivated ages was significant, while the SMB-N was not. The SMB of R3 was the lowest. Compared with R0, the SMB-C and the SMB-N were significantly reduced 77.30% and 69.36%. It was considered by integrated analysis that the leading factor of continuous cropping obstacle in ginseng was the changes of the rhizosphere soil microbial species, number and activity as well as the micro-ecological imbalance of rhizosphere soil caused by the accumulation of ginseng rhizosphere secretions.

  2. Water activity of poultry litter: Relationship to moisture content during a grow-out.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; McAuley, Jim; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Poultry grown on litter floors are in contact with their own waste products. The waste material needs to be carefully managed to reduce food safety risks and to provide conditions that are comfortable and safe for the birds. Water activity (Aw) is an important thermodynamic property that has been shown to be more closely related to microbial, chemical and physical properties of natural products than moisture content. In poultry litter, Aw is relevant for understanding microbial activity; litter handling and rheological properties; and relationships between in-shed relative humidity and litter moisture content. We measured the Aw of poultry litter collected throughout a meat chicken grow-out (from fresh pine shavings bedding material to day 52) and over a range of litter moisture content (10-60%). The Aw increased non-linearly from 0.71 to 1.0, and reached a value of 0.95 when litter moisture content was only 22-33%. Accumulation of manure during the grow-out reduced Aw for the same moisture content. These results are relevant for making decisions regarding litter re-use in multiple grow-outs as well as setting targets for litter moisture content to minimise odour, microbial risks and to ensure necessary litter physical conditions are maintained during a grow-out. Methods to predict Aw in poultry litter from moisture content are proposed.

  3. PM J03338+3320: Long-period superhumps in growing phase following a separate precursor outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; de Miguel, Enrique; Stein, William; Maeda, Yutaka; Littlefield, Colin; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Vanmunster, Tonny; Dvorak, Shawn; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Kalinicheva, Eugenia S.; Pickard, Roger D.; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Cook, Lewis M.; Itoh, Hiroshi; Muyllaert, Eddy

    2016-08-01

    We observed the first-ever recorded outburst of PM J03338+3320, the cataclysmic variable selected by proper-motion survey. The outburst was composed of a precursor and the main superoutburst. The precursor outburst occurred at least 5 d before the maximum of the main superoutburst. Despite this separation, long-period superhumps were continuously seen between the precursor and main superoutburst. The period of these superhumps is longer than its orbital period by 6.0(1)% and can be interpreted to reflect the dynamical precession rate at the 3 : 1 resonance for a mass ratio of 0.172(4). These superhumps smoothly evolved into those in the main superoutburst. These observations provide the clearest evidence that the 3 : 1 resonance is triggered by the precursor outburst, even if it is well separated, and the resonance eventually causes the main superoutburst as predicted by the thermaltidal instability model. The presence of superhumps well before the superoutburst cannot be explained by alternative models (the enhanced mass-transfer model and the pure thermal instability one) and the present observations clearly support the thermaltidal instability model.

  4. Vitrified sheep isolated secondary follicles are able to grow and form antrum after a short period of in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Franciele Osmarini; Chaves, Roberta Nogueira; de Lima, Laritza Ferreira; Araújo, Valdevane Rocha; Brito, Ivina Rocha; Souza, Carlos Eduardo Azevedo; Donato, Mariana Aragão Matos; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Dinnyes, Andras; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; de Figueiredo, José Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    The risk of reintroducing malignant cells after ovarian graft into patients following post-cancer treatment is an obstacle for clinical applications (autotransplantation). In this context, in vitro follicle culture would be an alternative to transplantation in order to minimize such risks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the development of secondary follicles after vitrification in isolated form (without stroma) with vitrification in in situ form (within fragments of ovarian tissue). Follicles were first isolated from ovarian fragments from mixed-breed ewes and then vitrified; these comprised the Follicle-Vitrification group (Follicle-Vit), or fragments of ovarian tissue were first vitrified, followed by isolation of the follicles, resulting in the Tissue-Vitrification group (Tissue-Vit). Control and vitrified groups were submitted to in vitro culture (6 days) and follicular morphology, viability, antrum formation, follicle and oocyte diameter, growth rate, ultrastructural characteristics and cell proliferation were evaluated. The percentages of morphologically normal follicles and antrum formation were similar among groups. Follicular viability and oocyte diameter were similar between Follicle-Vit and Tissue-Vit. The follicular diameter and growth rate of Follicle-Vit were similar to the Control, while those of Tissue-Vit were significantly lower compared to the Control. Both vitrified groups had an augmented rate of granulosa cellular proliferation compared to Control. Secondary follicles can be successfully vitrified before or after isolation from the ovarian tissue without impairing their ability to survive and grow during in vitro culture.

  5. Secular period decreasing of detached chromospherically active binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chang Qing; Zhang, Xiao Bin; Deng, Li Cai; Luo, Yang Ping; Luo, Zhi Quan; Yang, Shu Zheng

    2010-05-01

    The long-term orbital period changes of a large sample of detached chromospherically active binaries (CABs) were studied. Eleven such systems were found to be undergoing secular period decreases with the rates of -6.3×10-9 to -1.1×10-6 days per year. The period decreasing rates are found to vary depending on the orbital period. The longer the orbital period is, the more rapidly the period decreases. Following Stepien (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 274:1019, 1995), the period decreasing rate predicted by angular momentum loss (AML) caused by magnetic wind is computed for each system. A comparison between the observed and calculated period decreasing rates shows that the former values are obviously larger than the latter by 1-3 orders of magnitude. It suggests that the magnetic wind is not likely the determinant mechanism driving the AML in these systems. Finally, the orbital angular momentum (AM) and the rate of AML, dot{J} , are computed for each system. It shows that the AM have a similar change with the orbital period like d P/d t does, but logdot{J}/J presents no strict changing with the kinematical ages.

  6. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Durán, Jorge; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M; Campbell, John L; Christenson, Lynn M; Driscoll, Charles T; Fahey, Timothy J; Fisk, Melany C; Mitchell, Myron J; Templer, Pamela H

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity during the growing season. Soils from lower elevation plots, which accumulated less snow and experienced more soil temperature variability during the winter (and likely more freeze/thaw events), had less extractable inorganic nitrogen (N), lower rates of microbial N production via potential net N mineralization and nitrification, and higher potential microbial respiration during the growing season. Potential nitrate production rates during the growing season were particularly sensitive to changes in winter snow pack accumulation and winter soil temperature variability, especially in spring. Effects of elevation and winter conditions on N transformation rates differed from those on potential microbial respiration, suggesting that N-related processes might respond differently to winter climate change in northern hardwood forests than C-related processes.

  7. Secular period decreasing of 17 detached chromospherically active binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, C. Q.; Luo, Y. P.; Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.; Luo, Z. Q.; Yang, S. Z.

    2008-10-01

    The long-term orbital period changes of detached chromospheric active binaries were surveyed. 17 of such systems are found to be undergoing secular period decreasing with the rates (dP/dt) of -3.05 × 10-9 to -3.77 × 10-5 days per year. The longer the orbital period, the more rapidly the period decreases. Following Stepien (1995), the period decreasing rate due to the angular momentum loss (AML) caused by magnetic wind is computed for each system. A comparison shows that the observed dP/dt's are obviously higher than that of the theoretical predictions by 1-3 orders of magnitude. It suggests that the magnetic wind is not likely the determinant mechanism driving the AML in close binaries.

  8. Waves in active and passive periodic structures - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1976-01-01

    The theory and recent applications of waves in periodic structures are reviewed. Both the Floquet and coupled waves approach are analyzed in some detail. The theoretical part of the paper includes wave propagation in unbounded and bounded active or passive periodic media, wave scattering from periodic boundaries, source radiation (dipole, Cerenkov, transition, and Smith-Purcell) in periodic media, and pulse transmission through a periodic slab. The applications part covers the recent development in a variety of fields: distributed feedback oscillators, filters, mode converters, couplers, second-harmonic generators, deflectors, modulators, and transducers in the fields of integrated optics and integrated surface acoustics. Work on insect compound eyes, mechanical structures, ocean waves, pulse compressions, temperature waves, and cholesteric liquid crystals, and particles interaction with crystals is briefly reviewed, especially in the case of zeolite crystals and superlattices. Recent advances in fabrication techniques for very fine gratings are also covered.

  9. The modest but growing Brazilian presence in psychiatric, psychobiological and mental health research: assessment of the 1998-2002 period.

    PubMed

    Bressan, R A; Gerolin, J; Mari, J J

    2005-05-01

    The objective of the present survey was to assess the Brazilian scientific production in psychiatry, psychobiology, and mental health during the 1998-2002 period. The universities' graduate programs concentrate the vast majority of the scientific production in Brazil. We assessed the annual reports from the graduate programs to the Brazilian Ministry of Education concerning master's and doctoral theses and the articles published in journals indexed by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI). There are nine Master's and Doctoral graduate programs dedicated to research in psychiatry, neuropsychiatry, psychobiology, and mental health in the country, seven being located in southern states. During the 5-year period, from 1998 to 2002, 186 students received their doctorate degree (37/year). The programs published 637 articles in journals indexed by ISI, the majority of them in journals with an impact factor higher than 2. The research advisors' productivity varied among graduate programs, ranging from 0.6 to 2.0 articles per year in ISI-indexed journals. Despite the substantial barriers faced by the Brazilian scientific community (mainly financial and writing difficulties), Brazil's scientific mental health production is on the rise. The number of articles published in ISI-indexed journals has doubled without a significant increase in the number of graduate theses, suggesting that there was an improvement in both the quality of the scientific production and the productivity of the graduate programs. Based on these data, it is reasonable to predict a tendency to an increase in production over the next few years.

  10. Active Control of Linear Periodic System with Two Unstable Modes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    tV;;;.~II.~9 - B ~ZV ~- p1 . ,,~ >. ~ ACTIVE CONTROL OF LINEAR PERIODIC SYSTEM WITH TWO UNSTABLE MODES THESIS by Gregory E. Myers, B.S.E. 2nd Lt...PERIODIC SYSTEM WITH TWO UNSTABLE MODES THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University...December 1982 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited -ow PREFACE This thesis is a continuation of the work done by Yeakel in the control of

  11. Malassezia globosa tends to grow actively in summer conditions more than other cutaneous Malassezia species.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Takeoka, Shiori; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2012-07-01

    Malassezia globosa is a major pathogen of Malassezia folliculitis (MF) and the predominant species on human skin. The aim of this study was to clarify the differences between M. globosa and other cutaneous Malassezia species, M. restricta, M. dermatis, M. sympodialis and M. furfur. The optimum growth temperature, effects of compounds of sweat and free fatty acids on growth, and lipase activities of five cutaneous Malassezia species were determined. The growth of M. globosa was promoted strongly by the compounds of sweat and high temperature unlike that of other cutaneous Malassezia species. This result clarified that M. globosa tended to grow actively in summer conditions more than other cutaneous Malassezia species. Furthermore, M. globosa showed high lipase activity. We consider these characteristics of M. globosa to relate to the pathogenesis of MF.

  12. Periodicities in the north-south asymmetry of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizoso, G.; Ballester, J. L.

    1989-09-01

    A Blackman-Tukey power spectrum is performed on the values of the north-south asymmetry in the sudden disappearance of solar prominences, and the results are reported. The findings confirm the proposed existence of a periodicity of around 11 years and fails to confirm another short periodicity of around 2.3 years. The results of the power spectrum performed using values of the flare number and flare index north-south asymmetry provide a significant peak of 3.1-3.2 years. This short periodicity could be related to those found by Ramanuja Rao (1973) in several indices of solar activity.

  13. Growing up Active: A Study into Physical Activity in Long Day Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashmore, Aaron W.; Jones, Sandra C.

    2008-01-01

    The child care center is an ideal setting in which to implement strategies to promote physical activity and healthy weight, but there is a paucity of empirical evidence on factors that influence physical activity in these settings. The current study gathered initial qualitative data to explore these factors. Child care workers from five long day…

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra growing wild in Libya.

    PubMed

    Giweli, Abdulhmid; Džamić, Ana M; Soković, Marina; Ristić, Mihailo S; Marin, Petar D

    2012-04-26

    The composition of essential oil isolated from Satureja thymbra, growing wild in Libya, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was characterized by γ-terpinene (39.23%), thymol (25.16%), p-cymene (7.17%) and carvacrol (4.18%) as the major constituents. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. It possessed strong antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.0967 mg/mL). The essential oil was also screened for its antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial and eight fungal species, showing excellent antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms used, in particular against the fungi. The oil of S. thymbra showed bacteriostatic activity at 0.001-0.1 mg/mL and was bactericidal at 0.002-0.2 mg/mL; fungistatic effects at 0.001-0.025 mg/mL and fungicidal effects at 0.001-0.1 mg/mL. The main constituents thymol, carvacrol and γ-terpinene also showed strong antimicrobial activity. The commercial fungicide bifonazole showed much lower antifungal activity than the tested oil.

  15. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  16. Phenotypic diversity and amylolytic activity of fast growing rhizobia from pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Paulo Ivan Fernandes; de Lima, Andréa Aparecida; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Tuão Gava, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Paulo Jansen; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated 26 pigeonpea rhizobial isolates according to their cultural characteristics, intrinsic antibiotic resistance, salt and temperature tolerance, carbon source utilization and amylolytic activity. The cultural characterization showed that the majority of them presented the ability to acidify the YMA. Among the 27 isolates evaluated, 25 were able to grow when incubated at 42° C and 11 showed tolerance to 3% (w/v) of NaCl in YMA medium. The patterns of carbon sources utilization was very diverse among the isolates. It was observed the capacity of three strains to metabolize all the carbon sources evaluated and a total of 42% of the bacterial isolates was able to grow in the culture medium supplemented with at least, six carbon sources. The carbon sources mannitol (control) and sucrose were metabilized by all isolates evaluated. The profile of intrinsic resistance to antibiotics showed that the isolates were mostly resistant to streptomycin and ampicillin, but susceptible to kanamycin and chloranphenicol. High amylolytic activity of, at least, four isolates was also demonstrated, especially for isolated 47.3b, which showed the highest enzymatic index. These results indicate the metabolic versatility of the pigeonpea rhizobia, and indicates the isolate 47.3b to further studies regarding the amylase production and characterization. PMID:24031992

  17. Magnetic activity and orbital period variation of the short-period eclipsing binary DV Psc

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, Qing-feng; Zhang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Xi-liang

    2014-03-01

    We present six new BVR{sub c}I{sub c} CCD light curves of a short-period RS CVn binary DV Psc obtained in 2010-2012. The light curve distortions change on both short and long timescales, which is explained by two starspots on the primary component. Moreover, five new flare events were detected and the flare ratio of DV Psc is about 0.082 flares per hour. There is a possible relation between the phases (longitude) of the flares and starspots for all of the available data of late-type binaries, which implies a correlation of the stellar activity of the spots and flares. The cyclic oscillation, with a period of 4.9 ± 0.4 yr, may result from the magnetic activity cycle, identified by the variability of Max. I-Max. II. Until now, there were no spectroscopic studies of chromospheric activity indicators of the H{sub β} and H{sub γ} lines for DV Psc. Our observations of these indicators show that DV Psc is active, with excess emissions. The updated O – C diagram with an observing time span of about 15 yr shows an upward parabola, which indicates a secular increase in the orbital period of DV Psc. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = 2.0×10{sup –7} days yr{sup –1}, which might be explained by the angular momentum exchanges or mass transfer from the secondary to primary component.

  18. Sensitivity of Active and Passive Microwave Observations to Soil Moisture during Growing Corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, J.; Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Liu, P.; De Roo, R. D.; England, A. W.; Nagarajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) in the root zone is a key factor governing water and energy fluxes at the land surface and its accurate knowledge is critical to predictions of weather and near-term climate, nutrient cycles, crop-yield, and ecosystem productivity. Microwave observations, such as those at L-band, are highly sensitive to soil moisture in the upper few centimeters (near-surface). The two satellite-based missions dedicated to soil moisture estimation include, the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the planned NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) [4] mission. The SMAP mission will include active and passive sensors at L-band to provide global observations of SM, with a repeat coverage of every 2-3 days. These observations can significantly improve root zone soil moisture estimates through data assimilation into land surface models (LSMs). Both the active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave sensors measure radiation quantities that are functions of soil dielectric constant and exhibit similar sensitivities to SM. In addition to the SM sensitivity, radar backscatter is highly sensitive to roughness of soil surface and scattering within the vegetation. These effects may produce a much larger dynamic range in backscatter than that produced due to SM changes alone. In this study, we discuss the field observations of active and passive signatures of growing corn at L-band from several seasons during the tenth Microwave, Water and Energy Balance Experiment (MicroWEX-10) conducted in North Central Florida, and to understand the sensitivity of these signatures to soil moisture under dynamic vegetation conditions. The MicroWEXs are a series of season-long field experiments conducted during the growing seasons of sweet corn, cotton, and energy cane over the past six years (for example, [22]). The corn was planted on July 5 and harvested on September 23, 2011 during MicroWEX-10. The size of the field was 0.04 km2 and the soils

  19. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico.

  20. 21 CFR 26.38 - Other transition period activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other transition period activities. 26.38 Section 26.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  1. 21 CFR 26.38 - Other transition period activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other transition period activities. 26.38 Section 26.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  2. 21 CFR 26.38 - Other transition period activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other transition period activities. 26.38 Section 26.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  3. 21 CFR 26.38 - Other transition period activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other transition period activities. 26.38 Section 26.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  4. Physical Activity in High School during "Free-Time" Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Sá, Carla; Ribeiro, José; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth physical activity (PA) in free-time periods during high school days and their contribution to total PA. Differences in terms of sex, age, body mass index and school level were assessed in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants totalled 213 (135 girls), aged 14.6 ± 1.7, from two different…

  5. Determination of the Rotation Periods of Solar Active Longitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyusnina, L. A.

    2010-02-01

    There are two types of active longitudes (ALs) in terms of the distribution of sunspot areas: long-lived and intra-cyclic ALs. The rotation period of the long-lived ALs has been determined by a new method in this paper. The method is based on the property of ALs to be maintained over several cycles of solar activity. The daily values of sunspot areas for 1878 - 2005 are analyzed. It is shown that the AL positions remain almost constant over a period of about ten cycles, from cycle 13 to cycle 22. The rotation period was found to be 27.965 days during this period. The dispersion in AL positions is about 26° from cycle to cycle, which is half of the dispersion observed in the Carrington system. The ALs in the growth phase of the activity cycle are more stable and pronounced. The excess in solar activity in the ALs over adjacent longitudinal intervals is about 12 - 14%. It is shown that only one long-lived AL can be observed at one time on the Sun, as a rule.

  6. 21 CFR 26.38 - Other transition period activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other transition period activities. 26.38 Section 26.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  7. The Fenwei rift and its recent periodic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Ming

    1987-02-01

    The Fenwei rift on the southern sector of the Jin—Shaan rift system of China is marked by a crescent-shaped valley 600 km in length and 30-90 km in width depressed up to 10 km and filled with about 7000 m of Cenozoic deposits, bounded on both northern and southern sides by majestic mountain ranges. The geometry of the rift valley is characterized by six branch depressions and five intervening swells extending east-northeastward in a dextral en-echelon pattern and bounded on both sides by abrupt topographic slopes reflecting the underlying faults. These are typically a system of growth faults having downthrows ranging from 800 m to 10 km and dipping toward the centre of the valley forming an asymmetric graben structure. The geometry, kinematics and evolution of these faults have had controlling influences on the neotectonic movement of the rift and its recent periodic activity as the present overall form of the rift valley. Estimates of the amount of extension across the rift for various recent geological periods were obtained from calculations made on the fault separation of corresponding stratigraphie horizons. The total amount of extension in response to tensile stresses, acting in a direction varying from 25° NW on the west to 70° NW on the northeast is estimated to be 9065 m, since the beginning of the rift formation in the Eocene whereas the rate of extension in the Recent is 4.5 mm/yr and in modern times it is 8-24 mm/yr. The amount of left-lateral displacement across the rift during various stages of its development was also calculated from the observed effects of strike-slip movement on the drainage system. The left-lateral offset since the mid-Pleistocene is approximately 7170 m and the offset rate in modern times is 6 mm/yr. These estimates suggest that the Fenwei rift has been a place of intense neotectonic activity. Details of more recent activity of the rift were investigated in terms of the various rift-related phenomena such as seismic events

  8. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth.

  9. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), but feed intake was stimulated by cLEPR ECD immunization (P < 0.05). The treatment also upregulated the gene expression levels of lepR, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (ACC2), and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in liver, abdominal fat, and breast muscle (P < 0.05) but decreased fasn expression levels (P < 0.01). Apart from that of lepR, the expression of appetite-regulating genes, such as orexigenic genes, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), were upregulated (P < 0.01), whereas the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was downregulated in the hypothalamic tissue of cLEPR-immunized pullets (P < 0.01). Blood concentrations of metabolic molecules, such as glucose, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein, were significantly decreased in cLEPR-immunized pullets but those of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein increased. These results demonstrate that antibodies to membrane proximal cLEPR ECD enhance cLEPR signal transduction, which stimulates metabolism and reduces fat deposition in chickens.

  10. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rijnen, M M J A; Verstegen, M W A; Heetkamp, M J W; Schrama, J W

    2003-05-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five diets contained solvent-extracted coconut meal (SECM) and five diets contained soybean hulls (SBH) as the main fDF source. On an as-fed basis, pigs received 3.5, 13.2, 23.0, 32.7, or 42.4 g x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) of SECM or SBH. A total of 280 crossbred growing pigs were used, divided into clusters of 14 pigs each. Pigs were group-housed and fed at 2.5 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. All clusters were fed similar amounts of NE, ileal-digestible protein and amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Consequently, DMI differed among diets because NE content decreased with increasing DF content. After a 32-d preliminary period, HP was measured per cluster during a 7-d experimental period in environmentally controlled respiration chambers. Behavior of the pigs was recorded using time-lapse video recordings during two different days within the experimental period. Intake of digestible starch and fDF was different (P < 0.001) among diets, whereas intake of digestible CP was similar among diets. On average, pigs spent 153 min standing, 42 min sitting, 202 min lying on their chest, and 1,043 min lying on their flanks each day. Pigs fed SECM diets spent, on average, less time (P < 0.05) lying on their chest than pigs fed SBH diets. Total time spent on physical activity (i.e., standing plus sitting, 195 min/d) was not affected by diet. Total HP and resting HP were affected by diet and were on average lower (P < 0.01) for pigs fed SECM diets than for pigs fed SBH diets. Activity-related heat production (AHP) averaged 65 kJ x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) and was not affected by diet. There was a linear relationship (P < 0.001) between fDF intake and HP, but there was no relationship

  11. Comparative study of volatile oil content and antimicrobial activity of pecan cultivars growing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Hawary, Seham S; Zaghloul, Soumaya S; El Halawany, Ali M; El Bishbishy, Mahitab H

    2013-11-01

    The volatile oils obtained from the leaves of four pecan cultivars growing in Egypt were evaluated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. The selected cultivars (cv.) were Carya illinoinensis (Wangneh.) K. Koch. cv. Wichita, C. illinoinensis cv. Western Schley, C. illinoinensis cv. Cherokee, and C. illinoinensis cv. Sioux. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the volatile oils from samples of the different cultivars differ in composition and percentage of their components. β-Curcumene was found as the major constituent of the cv. Wichita oil, whereas germacrene D was the major component of cv. Sioux, cv. Cherokee, and cv. Western Schley. The antimicrobial activity was assayed using the Kirby-Bauer Method by measuring the zone of inhibition of growth. All volatile oils displayed an antimicrobial activity against the tested bacterial strains. On the other hand, only the volatile oil of cv. Wichita showed an antifungal effect on Aspergillus flavus. This work has identified candidates of volatile oils for future in vivo studies to develop antibiotic substitutes for the diminution of human and animal pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, the variations of the volatile oil components and antimicrobial potencies of the different studied cultivars, necessitate identifying the cultivars used in future studies.

  12. Periodic changes of the activity of processes in Jupiter's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    Variations of the Earth jovimagnetic latitude on Jupiter are preferred in solar-driven changes of reflective properties of clouds and haze on Jupiter. Because of the orbit eccentricity (e=0,048450) the northern hemisphere receives 21% greater solar energy flow to the atmosphere, because Jupiter is in the perihelia near the time of the summer solstice. Results of our studies showed that the ratio of the brightness of the northern and southern tropical and temperate regions is evident factor of the photometric activity of the Jupiter's atmospheric processes. The obtained from the analysis of observational data for the period from 1962 to 2015 existence of variations of activity factor of the planet hemispheres with a period of 11.86 years has allowed us to talk about an existence of the seasonal reconstruction of the physical parameters of Jupiter's atmosphere.

  13. Production benefits of the crossbreeding of indigenous and non-indigenous ducks--growing and laying period body weight and production performance.

    PubMed

    Padhi, Mahendra Kumar

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate different crosses and purebreds ducks in respect to various economic traits and to estimate different crossbreeding genetic parameters, a 3 x 3 complete diallel cross involving indigenous duck (DD), Khaki Campbell (KK) and White Pekin (WW) were used to produce three purebreds (DD, KK, WW) three crossbreds (DK, DW, KW) and three reciprocals (KD, WD, WK). A total of 609 ducklings produced were reared on deep litter and the females (316 in number) were evaluated for growing and laying period body weight along with the production performance traits. Different crossbreeding genetic parameters were estimated for different traits. All the traits in respect to body weight gain during growing and laying period and different production traits including laying house mortality rate showed significant (p period mortality rate was only significant (p

  14. Hysteretic dynamics of active particles in a periodic orienting field

    PubMed Central

    Romensky, Maksym; Scholz, Dimitri; Lobaskin, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Active motion of living organisms and artificial self-propelling particles has been an area of intense research at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics. Significant progress in understanding these phenomena has been related to the observation that dynamic self-organization in active systems has much in common with ordering in equilibrium condensed matter such as spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. The velocities of active particles may behave similar to magnetic dipoles and develop global alignment, although interactions between the individuals might be completely different. In this work, we show that the dynamics of active particles in external fields can also be described in a way that resembles equilibrium condensed matter. It follows simple general laws, which are independent of the microscopic details of the system. The dynamics is revealed through hysteresis of the mean velocity of active particles subjected to a periodic orienting field. The hysteresis is measured in computer simulations and experiments on unicellular organisms. We find that the ability of the particles to follow the field scales with the ratio of the field variation period to the particles' orientational relaxation time, which, in turn, is related to the particle self-propulsion power and the energy dissipation rate. The collective behaviour of the particles due to aligning interactions manifests itself at low frequencies via increased persistence of the swarm motion when compared with motion of an individual. By contrast, at high field frequencies, the active group fails to develop the alignment and tends to behave like a set of independent individuals even in the presence of interactions. We also report on asymptotic laws for the hysteretic dynamics of active particles, which resemble those in magnetic systems. The generality of the assumptions in the underlying model suggests that the observed laws might apply to a variety of dynamic phenomena from the motion of

  15. Dayside Auroral Activity During Solar Maximum and Minimum Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawie, M.; Fasel, G. J.; Flicker, J.; Angelo, A.; Bender, S.; Alyami, M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Sigernes, F.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Green, D.

    2014-12-01

    It is well documented that the dayside auroral oval shifts equatorward when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz-component turns southward [Burch, 1973; Akasofu, 1977; Horwitz and Akasofu, 1977; Sandholt et al., 1986, 1988]. During these periods of oval expansion dayside transients are observed to move away from the poleward edge of the auroral oval and drift poleward. These poleward-moving auroral forms are believed to be ionospheric signatures of dayside merging. The dayside auroral oval usually begins to contract when the interplanetary magnetic field turns sharply northward, Bz>0. Eighteen years of meridian scanning photometer (MSP) data from the Kjell Henriksen Observatory in Longyearbyen, Norway are analyzed. During the boreal winter the Sun is several degrees below the horizon. This permits optical observations throughout the daytime period. The MSP Data is selected two hours before and after local noon in Longyearbeyn. Solar wind data (solar wind pressure and speed, along with the IMF Bx, By, Bz components) are collected for each interval and combined with the MSP observations. This data is then separated using solar maximum and minimum periods. Auroral activity (oval expansions and contractions along with the frequency and number of poleward-moving auroral forms) is documented for both solar maximum and minimum periods.

  16. Mercuric reductase activity and evidence of broad-spectrum mercury resistance among clinical isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Steingrube, V.A.; Wallace, R.J. Jr.; Steele, L.C.; Pang, Y.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Resistance to mercury was evaluated in 356 rapidly growing mycobacteria belonging to eight taxonomic groups. Resistance to inorganic Hg2+ ranged from 0% among the unnamed third biovariant complex of Mycobacterium fortuitum to 83% among M. chelonae-like organisms. With cell extracts and 203Hg(NO3)2 as the substrate, mercuric reductase (HgRe) activity was demonstrable in six of eight taxonomic groups. HgRe activity was inducible and required NADPH or NADH and a thiol donor for optimai activity. Species with HgRe activity were also resistant to organomercurial compounds, including phenylmercuric acetate. Attempts at intraspecies and intragenus transfer of HgRe activity by conjugation or transformation were unsuccessful. Mercury resistance is common in rapidly growing mycobacteria and appears to function via the same inducible enzyme systems already defined in other bacterial species. This system offers potential as a strain marker for epidemiologic investigations and for studying genetic systems in rapidly growing mycobacteria.

  17. Exploiting periodicity to extract the atrial activity in atrial arrhythmias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llinares, Raul; Igual, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation disorders are one of the main arrhythmias of the elderly. The atrial and ventricular activities are decoupled during an atrial fibrillation episode, and very rapid and irregular waves replace the usual atrial P-wave in a normal sinus rhythm electrocardiogram (ECG). The estimation of these wavelets is a must for clinical analysis. We propose a new approach to this problem focused on the quasiperiodicity of these wavelets. Atrial activity is characterized by a main atrial rhythm in the interval 3-12 Hz. It enables us to establish the problem as the separation of the original sources from the instantaneous linear combination of them recorded in the ECG or the extraction of only the atrial component exploiting the quasiperiodic feature of the atrial signal. This methodology implies the previous estimation of such main atrial period. We present two algorithms that separate and extract the atrial rhythm starting from a prior estimation of the main atrial frequency. The first one is an algebraic method based on the maximization of a cost function that measures the periodicity. The other one is an adaptive algorithm that exploits the decorrelation of the atrial and other signals diagonalizing the correlation matrices at multiple lags of the period of atrial activity. The algorithms are applied successfully to synthetic and real data. In simulated ECGs, the average correlation index obtained was 0.811 and 0.847, respectively. In real ECGs, the accuracy of the results was validated using spectral and temporal parameters. The average peak frequency and spectral concentration obtained were 5.550 and 5.554 Hz and 56.3 and 54.4%, respectively, and the kurtosis was 0.266 and 0.695. For validation purposes, we compared the proposed algorithms with established methods, obtaining better results for simulated and real registers.

  18. Climate change in winter versus the growing-season leads to different effects on soil microbial activity in northern hardwood forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, P. O.; Templer, P. H.; Finzi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mean winter air temperatures have risen by approximately 2.5˚ C per decade over the last fifty years in the northeastern U.S., reducing the maximum depth of winter snowpack by approximately 26 cm over this period and the duration of winter snow cover by 3.6 to 4.2 days per decade. Forest soils in this region are projected to experience a greater number of freeze-thaw cycles and lower minimum winter soil temperatures as the depth and duration of winter snow cover declines in the next century. Climate change is likely to result not only in lower soil temperatures during winter, but also higher soil temperatures during the growing-season. We conducted two complementary experiments to determine how colder soils in winter and warmer soils in the growing-season affect microbial activity in hardwood forests at Harvard Forest, MA and Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH. A combination of removing snow via shoveling and buried heating cables were used to induce freeze-thaw events during winter and to warm soils 5˚C above ambient temperatures during the growing-season. Increasing the depth and duration of soil frost via snow-removal resulted in short-term reductions in soil nitrogen (N) production via microbial proteolytic enzyme activity and net N mineralization following snowmelt, prior to tree leaf-out. Declining mass specific rates of carbon (C) and N mineralization associated with five years of snow removal at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest may be an indication of microbial physiological adaptation to winter climate change. Freeze-thaw cycles during winter reduced microbial extracellular enzyme activity and the temperature sensitivity of microbial C and N mineralization during the growing-season, potentially offsetting nutrient and soil C losses due to soil warming in the growing-season. Our multiple experimental approaches show that winter climate change is likely to contribute to reduced microbial activity in northern hardwood forests.

  19. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Olli; Haakana, Piia; Pesola, Arto J; Häkkinen, Keijo; Rantalainen, Timo; Havu, Marko; Pullinen, Teemu; Finni, Taija

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg) were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours). EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC)) during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC)). During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC) (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s) which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC)). Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min). Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC) than men (p<0.05). In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  20. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of ansu apricot oil growing wild in north Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping

    2011-07-01

    Ansu apricots growing wild in north Xinjiang are recognised as being one of the major wild-plant resources in China. In order to improve the level of comprehensive utilisation and the number of cultivated apricot varieties, the chemical composition of ansu apricot oil was analysed by capillary GC-MS and elucidated based on the standard mass spectral data; the antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Seven components of ansu apricots oil were identified, and the total unsaturated fatty acid (FA) (TUFA) and total essential FA (TEFA) contents of the ansu apricot oil were found to be 90.35 g/100 g and 48.93 g/100 g, respectively. The scavenging capacity of the ansu apricots oil in the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system performed better than in the DPPH radical system. The IC₅₀ values of the ansu apricot oil for the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system were 0.15 mg mL⁻¹ and 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, respectively: stronger than that of the control (ascorbic acid). In the DPPH system, the IC₅₀ value of the ansu apricot oil was 0.50 mg mL⁻¹, and the IC₅₀ value of ascorbic acid was 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, but within the selected dosage, the highest scavenging capacity of ansu apricot oil was higher than the control. The results obtained in this study clearly suggest that ansu apricot oil is a natural source of antioxidants and could serve as a functional food ingredient with potential application in food products and thus provide related health benefits.

  1. Active DNA demethylation at enhancers during the vertebrate phylotypic period.

    PubMed

    Bogdanović, Ozren; Smits, Arne H; de la Calle Mustienes, Elisa; Tena, Juan J; Ford, Ethan; Williams, Ruth; Senanayake, Upeka; Schultz, Matthew D; Hontelez, Saartje; van Kruijsbergen, Ila; Rayon, Teresa; Gnerlich, Felix; Carell, Thomas; Veenstra, Gert Jan C; Manzanares, Miguel; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Ecker, Joseph R; Vermeulen, Michiel; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Lister, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The vertebrate body plan and organs are shaped during a conserved embryonic phase called the phylotypic stage. However, the mechanisms that guide the epigenome through this transition and their evolutionary conservation remain elusive. Here we report widespread DNA demethylation of enhancers during the phylotypic period in zebrafish, Xenopus tropicalis and mouse. These enhancers are linked to developmental genes that display coordinated transcriptional and epigenomic changes in the diverse vertebrates during embryogenesis. Binding of Tet proteins to (hydroxy)methylated DNA and enrichment of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in these regions implicated active DNA demethylation in this process. Furthermore, loss of function of Tet1, Tet2 and Tet3 in zebrafish reduced chromatin accessibility and increased methylation levels specifically at these enhancers, indicative of DNA methylation being an upstream regulator of phylotypic enhancer function. Overall, our study highlights a regulatory module associated with the most conserved phase of vertebrate embryogenesis and suggests an ancient developmental role for Tet dioxygenases.

  2. Effects of periodic stimulation on an overly activated neuronal circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Okyu; Kim, Kiwoong; Park, Sungwon; Moon, Hie-Tae

    2011-08-01

    Motivated by therapeutic deep brain stimulation, we carried out a model study on the effects of periodic stimulation on an overly activated neuronal circuit. Our neuronal circuit, modeled as a small-world network of noisy Hodgkin-Huxley neurons, is controlled to undergo the mechanism of coherence resonance to exhibit spontaneous synchronization of neuronal firing. This state of energy burst is then directly modulated by a chain of electric pulses. Our study shows that (i) the stimulation blocks the synchronization by generating traveling waves, (ii) only the pulse with proper frequency can block the synchronization, and (iii) the effects of stimulation are completely reversible. It is also found that the stimulation is effective only when the network maintains fairly good structural regularity.

  3. Periodic cardiovascular and ventilatory activity during midazolam sedation.

    PubMed

    Galletly, D C; Williams, T B; Robinson, B J

    1996-04-01

    We have examined the effects of sedation with midazolam 0.1 mg kg-1 and reversal with flumazenil 0.5 mg on beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) variability (HRV), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), finger photoplethysmograph amplitude (PLA) and impedence pneumography in eight volunteers. With the onset of sedation there was a small decrease in SAP and increase in HR (ns). Spectral analysis of the HR time series showed reductions in the proportion of power in the high (> 0.15 Hz) frequency "ventilatory" band consistent with midazolam causing vagolysis. During sedation, low frequency (< 0.05 Hz) oscillations of PLA, HR, SAP and ventilation were observed. These were thought to be secondary to activity of coupled cardiorespiratory neurones within the brain stem and the ventilatory periodicity appeared similar to that observed during the early stages of sleep. The diminished high frequency and increased low frequency oscillations induced by midazolam sedation were reversed by administration of flumazenil.

  4. A periodically active pulsar giving insight into magnetospheric physics.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Lyne, A G; O'Brien, J T; Jordan, C A; Lorimer, D R

    2006-04-28

    PSR B1931+24 (J1933+2421) behaves as an ordinary isolated radio pulsar during active phases that are 5 to 10 days long. However, when the radio emission ceases, it switches off in less than 10 seconds and remains undetectable for the next 25 to 35 days, then switches on again. This pattern repeats quasi-periodically. The origin of this behavior is unclear. Even more remarkably, the pulsar rotation slows down 50% faster when it is on than when it is off. This indicates a massive increase in magnetospheric currents when the pulsar switches on, proving that pulsar wind plays a substantial role in pulsar spin-down. This allows us, for the first time, to estimate the magnetospheric currents in a pulsar magnetosphere during the occurrence of radio emission.

  5. UV Chromospheric Activity in Cool, Short-Period Contact Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    We have completed our analysis of the IUE spectra of the short-period contact binary OO Aql. OO Aql is a rare W UMa-type eclipsing binary in which the two solar-type stars may have only recently evolved into contact. The binary has an unusually high mass ratio (0.84), and a relatively long orbital period (0.506 d) for its spectral type (mid-G). Twelve ultraviolet spectra of OO Aql were obtained in 1988 with the IUE satellite, including a series of consecutive observations that cover nearly a complete orbital cycle. Chromospheric activity is studied by means of the Mg II h+k emission at 2800 A. The Mg II emission is found to vary, even when the emission is normalized to the adjacent continuum flux. This variation may be correlated with orbital phase in the 1988 observations. It also appears that the normalized Mg H emission varies with time, as seen in spectra obtained at two different epochs in 1988 and when compared with two spectra obtained several years earlier. The level of chromospheric activity in OO Aql is less than that of other W UMa-type binaries of similar colors, but this is attributed to its early stage of contact binary evolution. Ultraviolet light curves were composed from measurements of the ultraviolet continuum in the spectra. These were analyzed along with visible light curves of OO Aql to determine the system parameters. The large wavelength range in the light curves enabled a well-constrained fit to a cool spot in the system. A paper on these results is scheduled for publication in the February 2001 issue of the Astronomical Journal.

  6. Chlordecone disappearance in tissues of growing goats after a one month decontamination period--effect of body fatness on chlordecone retention.

    PubMed

    Lastel, Marie-Laure; Lerch, Sylvain; Fournier, Agnès; Jurjanz, Stefan; Mahieu, Maurice; Archimède, Harry; Feidt, Cyril; Rychen, Guido

    2016-02-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine pesticide whose extended use led to the contamination of at least 20% of agricultural soils from the French West Indies. Livestock reared on polluted areas are involuntary contaminated by CLD and their level of contamination may exceed the threshold values set by the European Union. Thus, characterizing the CLD behaviour in farm animals appear as a real issue in terms of food safety for local populations. The aim of this experiment was (i) to characterize the CLD disappearance in various tissues after exposure cessation and (ii) to evaluate the potential effect of body fatness on this process. Two groups of eight growing goats were submitted to either a basal diet or a high energy diet for 50 days before being intravenously contaminated with 1 mg CLD kg(-1) body weight. Two days after CLD contamination, half of the kids of each experimental group were slaughtered in order to determine pollutant levels in the serum, liver, adipose tissues, and empty carcass. The remaining animals were submitted to a 30-day decontamination period before slaughtering and measurements as described above. The implemented nutritional plan resulted in both groups of kids with significant differences in terms of body fatness. CLD was mainly concentrated in the liver of animals as described in the literature. It was found also in kids' empty carcass and adipose tissues; however its levels in the empty carcass (muscles and bones) were unexpected since they were higher than in fat. These results indicate that the lipophilic pollutant CLD is found mainly in liver but also in muscles and fat. Concerning the animals' depuration, a 30-d decontamination period was sufficient to observe a decrease of CLD levels by more than 75% in both experimental groups and neither CLD concentrations nor CLD amounts were significantly affected by kids' body fatness.

  7. Views of Growing Methane Emissions near Oil and Natural Gas Activity: Satellite, Aircraft, and Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollonige, D. E.; Thompson, A. M.; Diskin, G. S.; Hannigan, J. W.; Nussbaumer, E.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the discrepancies between current top-down and bottom-up estimates, additional methane (CH4) measurements are necessary for regions surrounding growing oil and natural gas (ONG) development. We have evaluated satellite measurements of CH4 in US regions with ONG operations for their application as "top-down" constraints (part of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST) project). For validation of the satellite instruments' sensitivities to emitted gases, we focus on regions where the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) campaign deployed ground and aircraft measurements in Maryland (2011), California and Texas (2013), and Colorado (2014). The largest CH4 signals were observed in the Greater Green River and Powder River Basins using Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Representative Tropospheric Volume Mixing Ratio (RTVMR) measurements. A long-term comparison between a ground remote-sensing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at Boulder and TES for 2010-2013 shows good correlation and differences ranging 2.5-5% for their yearly distribution of total column CH4. To determine any correlation between lower/mid-tropospheric CH4 (where a thermal IR sensor, such as TES, is most sensitive) and near-surface/boundary CH4 (where sources emit), we analyze the variability of DISCOVER-AQ aircraft profiles using principal component analysis and assess the correlation between near-surface (0-2 km) and mid-tropospheric (>2 km) CH4 concentrations. Using these relationships, we estimate near-surface CH4 using mid-tropospheric satellite measurements based on the partial column amounts within vertical layers with a linear regression. From this analysis, we will demonstrate whether the uncertainties of satellite-estimated near-surface CH4 are comparable to observed variability near ONG activity. These results will assist validation of satellite instrument

  8. Long-Period ULF Wave Activity in the Cusp Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Belakhovsky, V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kozlovsky, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare simultaneous observations of long-period ULF wave activity from the Svalbard/IMAGE and Greenland fluxgate magnetometer profiles covering the expected cusp geomagnetic latitudes. Irregular Pulsations at Cusp Latitudes (IPCL) and narrow-band Pc5 waves are found to be a ubiquitous element of ULF activity in the dayside high-latitude region. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of the return signal of the SuperDARN radar covering the Svalbard archipelago, predictions of empirical cusp models, and augmented whenever possible by DMSP identification of magnetospheric boundary domains. The meridional spatial structure of IPCL/Pc5 pulsation spectral power has been found to have a localized latitudinal peak, but not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. Possible mechanisms and their relevance to observational data are discussed. The occurrence of IPCL and Pc5 waves in the dayside boundary layers is a challenge to modelers, because so far their mechanism has not been firmly identified.

  9. Correlation between erythropoietic activity and body growth rate in hypertransfused polycythemic growing rats as the result of an erythropoietin-dependent operating mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Bozzini, C.E.; Alippi, R.M.; Barcelo, A.C.; Caro, J.

    1989-02-01

    The established relationship between erythropoietic activity and body growth rate in the polycythemic growing rat could be the result of either an erythropoietin (EPO)-dependent or an EPO-independent operating mechanism. The present study was thus undertaken to elucidate the nature of the aforementioned mechanism by assessing the ratio between plasma immunoreactive EPO (iEPO) concentration and erythropoietic activity in young hypertransfused rats for different body growth rates. Red blood cell (RBC)-59Fe uptake was about 75% in 21-day-old rats; it rapidly decreased with time when the animals were placed on a protein-free diet, approaching a level of about 1% by the 10th day of protein starvation. Over the same period plasma iEPO decreased from 55 mU/ml to 7 mU/ml. Body growth rate was 0. Following this ''protein depletion period'' the rats received diets containing different amounts of casein (''protein repletion period'') added isocalorically to the protein-free diet to elicit a rise in body growth rate. Statistically significant relationships (p less than 0.001) were found between dietary casein concentration and body growth rate (r = 0.991), dietary casein concentration and RBC-59Fe uptake (r = 0.991), dietary casein concentration and plasma iEPO level (r = 0.992), body growth rate and RBC-59Fe (r = 0.986), and body growth rate and plasma iEPO level (r = 0.994) in hypertransfused polycythemic rats during the protein repletion period. These findings suggest that the correlation between erythropoietic activity and growth rate in the growing rat is the result of an erythropoietin-dependent operating mechanism, which appears to be independent of the ratio tissue oxygen supply/tissue oxygen demand.

  10. Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Brake, J

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen

  11. Cytochalasin-like activity in cultured aorta smooth muscle cells (ASMC) is increased in extracts of growing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Magargal, W.W.

    1987-05-01

    A cytochalasin-like protein, present in cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts, is increased in cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus. They find similar activity present in ASMC. Confluent cultured porcine and rat, ASMC, were homogenized in Buffer A and centrifuged at 200,000g for 35 min. Resulting extracts reduced the low shear viscosity of F-actin. To determine whether the activity alters during the growth of non-transformed cells, cultured rat ASMC were plated at 2 x 10/sup 4/ cells/cm/sup 2/ in medium plus 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). After 3 days actively growing cells (by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation) were either scraped into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or fed media plus 1% FBS. Three days later the fed cells were scraped into PBS (nongrowing, /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation). Cells in PBS were pelleted, homogenized in Buffer A, and centrifuged as above. Extracts from the growing and nongrowing cells reduced the low shear viscosity of actin. However, the ED/sub 50/ for growing cells was 8..mu..g and 15..mu..g for nongrowing cells. These results support those obtained with normal and transformed CEF's. This evidence indicates a relationship between cytochalasin-like activity and the growth state of cells in culture.

  12. Nutritional, Biophysical and Physiological Characteristics of Wild Rocket Genotypes As Affected by Soilless Cultivation System, Salinity Level of Nutrient Solution and Growing Period.

    PubMed

    Bonasia, Anna; Lazzizera, Corrado; Elia, Antonio; Conversa, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of defining the best management of nutrient solution (NS) in a soilless system for obtaining high quality baby-leaf rocket, the present study focuses on two wild rocket genotypes ("Nature" and "Naturelle"), grown in a greenhouse under two Southern Italy growing conditions-autumn-winter (AW) and winter-spring (WS)-using two soilless cultivation systems (SCS)-at two electrical conductivity values (EC) of NS. The SCSs used were the Floating System (FS) and Ebb and Flow System (EFS) and the EC values were 2.5 and 3.5 dS m(-1) (EC2.5; EC3.5) for the AW cycle and 3.5 and 4.5 dS m(-1) (EC3.5; EC4.5) for the WS cycle. The yield, bio-physical, physiological and nutritional characteristics were evaluated. Higher fresh (FY) (2.25 vs. 1.50 kg m(-2)) and dry (DY) (230.6 vs. 106.1 g m(-2)) weight yield, leaf firmness (dry matter, 104.3 vs. 83.2 g kg(-1) FW; specific leaf area, 34.8 vs. 24.2 g cm(-2)) and antioxidant compounds (vitamin C, 239.0 vs. 152.7 mg kg(-1) FW; total phenols, 997 vs. 450 mg GAE mg kg(-1) FW; total glucosinulates-GLSs, 1,078.8 vs. 405.7 mg kg(-1) DW; total antioxidant capacity-TAC, 11,534 vs. 8,637 μmol eq trolox kg(-1) FW) and lower nitrates (1,470 vs. 3,460 mg kg(-1) FW) were obtained under WS conditions. The seasonal differences were evident on the GLS profile: some aliphatic GLSs (gluconapoleiferin, glucobrassicanapin) and indolic 4-OH-glucobrassicin were only expressed in WS conditions, while indolic glucobrassicin was only detected in the AW period. Compared with EFS, FS improved leaf firmness, visual quality, antioxidant content (TAC, +11.6%) and reduced nitrate leaf accumulation (-37%). "Naturelle" performed better than "Nature" in terms of yield, visual quality and nutritional profile, with differences more evident under less favorable climatic conditions and when the cultivars were grown in FS. Compared to EC2.5, the EC3.5 treatment did not affect DY while enhancing firmness, visual quality, and antioxidant compounds (TAC, +8%), and

  13. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  14. Optimal periodic disturbance reduction for active noise cancelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, C. E.; de Callafon, R. A.; Dunens, E.; Bargerhuff, R.; Bash, C. E.

    2007-08-01

    The design of an optimal internal model-based (IMB) controller by extending standard discrete time optimal control theory for IMB controllers is described. The optimal observer and state feedback gains of the IMB controller are given via the solution of discrete time algebraic Riccati equations. The design method is applied to an acoustic system that is subjected to disturbances from a server fan. Periodic disturbances from the server fan appear as harmonics of the fundamental frequency of the fan. Parametric models for the plant and non-periodic part of the disturbance are identified from experimental data. An internal model is designed in discrete time and the internal model principle is used to design a feedback controller that rejects periodic disturbances in the acoustic system. The controller is implemented in real-time and successfully attenuates the first four harmonics of the fan noise.

  15. The Green Pages Environmental Education Activities K-12: Gardens for Young Growing Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Describes several gardening activities that can be kept simple or used as a foundation for more in-depth projects. Activities include setting up an indoor garden spot, making compost which helps students understand the terms "decompose" and "compost", watching plants drink in which students measure water movement in plants, making herb gardens,…

  16. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  17. Induction and activation of meiosis and subsequent parthenogenetic development of growing pig oocytes using calcium ionophore A23187.

    PubMed

    Sedmíková, Markéta; Burdová, Jana; Petr, Jaroslav; Etrych, Milan; Rozinek, Jirí; Jílek, Frantisek

    2003-12-01

    The pig ovary contains a large number of growing oocytes, which do not mature in vitro and cannot be readily used in various biotechnologies. This study was conducted to determine the possibility of inducing meiotic maturation in growing pig oocytes with an internal diameter of 110 microm, which had developed partial meiotic competence. Most of these oocytes spontaneously stopped maturation at the metaphase I stage (68%); a limited number proceeded to the metaphase II stage (26%). Treatment with calcium ionophore A23187 (50 microM for 5 or 10 min) after 24h in vitro culture overcame the block at the metaphase I stage, and treated growing pig oocytes matured to the metaphase II stage (66%). Oocytes in which maturation had been induced by calcium ionophore were again treated with calcium ionophore. Up to 58% of the treated oocytes were activated. Parthenogenetic development in oocytes treated with ionophore for meiosis induction and activation was very limited. The portion which reached morula stage did not exceed 8% and at most 3% developed to the blastocyst stage.

  18. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analyses of Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae), naturally growing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Hediat M.H.; Marraiki, Najat

    2009-01-01

    Polygonum aviculare (Polygonaceae) is an herb commonly distributed in Mediterranean coastal regions in Egypt and used in folkloric medicine. Organic and aqueous solvent extracts and fractions of P. aviculare were investigated for antimicrobial activities on several microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Phytochemical constituents of air-dried powered plant parts were extracted using aqueous and organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, chloroform and water). Antimicrobial activity of the concentrated extracts was evaluated by determination of the diameter of inhibition zone against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi using paper disc diffusion method. Results of the phytochemical studies revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and sesquiterpenes and the extracts were active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Chloroform extract gave very good and excellent antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria and good activity against all tested fungi except Candida albicans. Structural spectroscopic analysis that was carried out on the active substances in the chloroform extract led to the identification of panicudine (6-hydroxy-11-deoxy-13 dehydrohetisane). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of panicudine indicated significant activity against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. Panicudine displayed considerable activity against the tested fungi with the exception of C. albicans. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was unaffected after exposure to different heat treatments, but was reduced at alkaline pH. Studies of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of panicudine on the tested organisms showed that the lowest MIC and the MBC were demonstrated against Salmonella paratyphi, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi and the highest MIC and MBC were against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23961059

  19. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season

    PubMed Central

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of legume seeds with Rhizobium affects soil microbial community and processes, especially in the rhizosphere. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on microbial activity in the faba bean rhizosphere during the growing season in a field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol derived from loess. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds were non-inoculated (NI) or inoculated (I) with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and sown. The rhizosphere soil was analyzed for the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, urease, protease and acid phosphomonoesterase, and functional diversity (catabolic potential) using the Average Well Color Development, Shannon-Weaver, and Richness indices following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog EcoPlate™. The analyses were done on three occasions corresponding to the growth stages of: 5–6 leaf, flowering, and pod formation. The enzymatic activities were higher in I than NI (p < 0.05) throughout the growing season. However, none of the functional diversity indices differed significantly under both treatments, regardless of the growth stage. This work showed that the functional diversity of the microbial communities was a less sensitive tool than enzyme activities in assessment of rhizobial inoculation effects on rhizosphere microbial activity. PMID:27213363

  20. The effect of the neural activity on topological properties of growing neural networks.

    PubMed

    Gafarov, F M; Gafarova, V R

    2016-09-01

    The connectivity structure in cortical networks defines how information is transmitted and processed, and it is a source of the complex spatiotemporal patterns of network's development, and the process of creation and deletion of connections is continuous in the whole life of the organism. In this paper, we study how neural activity influences the growth process in neural networks. By using a two-dimensional activity-dependent growth model we demonstrated the neural network growth process from disconnected neurons to fully connected networks. For making quantitative investigation of the network's activity influence on its topological properties we compared it with the random growth network not depending on network's activity. By using the random graphs theory methods for the analysis of the network's connections structure it is shown that the growth in neural networks results in the formation of a well-known "small-world" network.

  1. Interaction Activities in the Foreign Classroom, or How to Grow a Tulip-Rose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Christina Bratt; Selekman, Howard R.

    1976-01-01

    A report is made on the use of foreign language for spontaneous communication in an elementary language class. Four correction-free, peer communicative/interaction activities are outlined according to procedures, objectives, and evaluations. (Author/RM)

  2. Visualizing in situ translational activity for identifying and sorting slow-growing archaeal−bacterial consortia

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Connon, Stephanie A.; Goudeau, Danielle; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Woyke, Tanja; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the biogeochemical roles of microorganisms in the environment, it is important to determine when and under which conditions they are metabolically active. Bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) can reveal active cells by tracking the incorporation of synthetic amino acids into newly synthesized proteins. The phylogenetic identity of translationally active cells can be determined by combining BONCAT with rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (BONCAT-FISH). In theory, BONCAT-labeled cells could be isolated with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BONCAT-FACS) for subsequent genetic analyses. Here, in the first application, to our knowledge, of BONCAT-FISH and BONCAT-FACS within an environmental context, we probe the translational activity of microbial consortia catalyzing the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a dominant sink of methane in the ocean. These consortia, which typically are composed of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria, have been difficult to study due to their slow in situ growth rates, and fundamental questions remain about their ecology and diversity of interactions occurring between ANME and associated partners. Our activity-correlated analyses of >16,400 microbial aggregates provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that AOM consortia affiliated with all five major ANME clades are concurrently active under controlled conditions. Surprisingly, sorting of individual BONCAT-labeled consortia followed by whole-genome amplification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed previously unrecognized interactions of ANME with members of the poorly understood phylum Verrucomicrobia. This finding, together with our observation that ANME-associated Verrucomicrobia are found in a variety of geographically distinct methane seep environments, suggests a broader range of symbiotic relationships within AOM consortia than previously thought. PMID:27357680

  3. Nutritional, Biophysical and Physiological Characteristics of Wild Rocket Genotypes As Affected by Soilless Cultivation System, Salinity Level of Nutrient Solution and Growing Period

    PubMed Central

    Bonasia, Anna; Lazzizera, Corrado; Elia, Antonio; Conversa, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of defining the best management of nutrient solution (NS) in a soilless system for obtaining high quality baby-leaf rocket, the present study focuses on two wild rocket genotypes (“Nature” and “Naturelle”), grown in a greenhouse under two Southern Italy growing conditions—autumn-winter (AW) and winter-spring (WS)—using two soilless cultivation systems (SCS)—at two electrical conductivity values (EC) of NS. The SCSs used were the Floating System (FS) and Ebb and Flow System (EFS) and the EC values were 2.5 and 3.5 dS m−1 (EC2.5; EC3.5) for the AW cycle and 3.5 and 4.5 dS m−1 (EC3.5; EC4.5) for the WS cycle. The yield, bio-physical, physiological and nutritional characteristics were evaluated. Higher fresh (FY) (2.25 vs. 1.50 kg m−2) and dry (DY) (230.6 vs. 106.1 g m−2) weight yield, leaf firmness (dry matter, 104.3 vs. 83.2 g kg−1 FW; specific leaf area, 34.8 vs. 24.2 g cm−2) and antioxidant compounds (vitamin C, 239.0 vs. 152.7 mg kg−1 FW; total phenols, 997 vs. 450 mg GAE mg kg−1 FW; total glucosinulates-GLSs, 1,078.8 vs. 405.7 mg kg−1 DW; total antioxidant capacity-TAC, 11,534 vs. 8,637 μmol eq trolox kg−1 FW) and lower nitrates (1,470 vs. 3,460 mg kg−1 FW) were obtained under WS conditions. The seasonal differences were evident on the GLS profile: some aliphatic GLSs (gluconapoleiferin, glucobrassicanapin) and indolic 4-OH-glucobrassicin were only expressed in WS conditions, while indolic glucobrassicin was only detected in the AW period. Compared with EFS, FS improved leaf firmness, visual quality, antioxidant content (TAC, +11.6%) and reduced nitrate leaf accumulation (−37%). “Naturelle” performed better than “Nature” in terms of yield, visual quality and nutritional profile, with differences more evident under less favorable climatic conditions and when the cultivars were grown in FS. Compared to EC2.5, the EC3.5 treatment did not affect DY while enhancing firmness, visual quality, and antioxidant

  4. Trace elements and activity of antioxidative enzymes in Cistus ladanifer L. growing on an abandoned mine area.

    PubMed

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Nabais, Cristina; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2009-10-01

    The Mediterranean shrub Cistus ladanifer grows naturally in São Domingos (Portugal), an abandoned copper mine. High levels of trace elements in plants can generate oxidative stress increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare As, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and the activity of the soluble and cell wall ionically bounded forms of the enzymes catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in leaves of C. ladanifer, collected in spring and summer, growing on São Domingos mine and on a non-contaminated area (Pomarão). São Domingos soils showed high total concentrations of As (2.6 g kg(-1)) and Pb (7.3 g kg(-1)) however the available fraction represented less than 1.5% of the total. C. ladanifer population from mine showed tolerance to Pb and Zn, which attain in leaves concentrations considered toxic for plants. The enzymatic activity of catalase, peroxidise and superoxide dismutase varied with plant populations and seasons, although with no particular trend, being specific to each trace element and enzyme cell localization. Catalase activity was evenly distributed between the soluble and ionically bounded forms, whereas the ionically bounded form of peroxidase predominated relatively to total activity, and the opposite was observed for superoxide dismutase. Spring and summer leaves from the two areas presented enzymatic activities in both fractions except to peroxidase soluble activities in leaves collected in summer. C. ladanifer enzymatic activity seems to be related with the co-existence of different stress factors (trace elements concentration, temperature, UV radiation and drought). The survival and growth of this species on contaminated mining soils is due to the presence of effective antioxidant enzyme-based defence systems.

  5. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of different parts of Tribulus terrestris L. growing in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayati, Firas A.; Al-Mola, Hassan F.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of organic and aqueous extracts from fruits, leaves and roots of Tribulus terrestris L., an Iraqi medicinal plant used as urinary anti-infective in folk medicine, was examined against 11 species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using microdilution method in 96 multiwell microtiter plates. All the extracts from the different parts of the plant showed antimicrobial activity against most tested microorganisms. The most active extract against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was ethanol extract from the fruits with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.15 mg/ml against B. subtilis, B. cereus, P. vulgaris and C. diphtheriae. In addition, the same extract from the same plant part demonstrated the strongest antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC value of 0.15 mg/ml. PMID:18257138

  6. Growing into Greatness: A Study of a Local History Group of Active-Retired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Trudy; Byrne, Brid; Harris, Phyllis; Lalor, Maureen; O'Connor, Maura; O'Reilly, Kathleen; Quinn, Frank; Forde, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Research in Canada on the learning needs of older people looked at such issues as how to cope with changes in society, the need to make a contribution and the need to be influential. The White Paper on Adult Education "Learning for Life" notes that strategies for active ageing stress the critical importance of access to learning as a key…

  7. rRNA promoter activity in the fast-growing bacterium Vibrio natriegens.

    PubMed

    Aiyar, Sarah E; Gaal, Tamas; Gourse, Richard L

    2002-03-01

    The bacterium Vibrio natriegens can double with a generation time of less than 10 min (R. G. Eagon, J. Bacteriol. 83:736-737, 1962), a growth rate that requires an extremely high rate of protein synthesis. We show here that V. natriegens' high potential for protein synthesis results from an increase in ribosome numbers with increasing growth rate, as has been found for other bacteria. We show that V. natriegens contains a large number of rRNA operons, and its rRNA promoters are extremely strong. The V. natriegens rRNA core promoters are at least as active in vitro as Escherichia coli rRNA core promoters with either E. coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) or V. natriegens RNAP, and they are activated by UP elements, as in E. coli. In addition, the E. coli transcription factor Fis activated V. natriegens rrn P1 promoters in vitro. We conclude that the high capacity for ribosome synthesis in V. natriegens results from a high capacity for rRNA transcription, and the high capacity for rRNA transcription results, at least in part, from the same factors that contribute most to high rates of rRNA transcription in E. coli, i.e., high gene dose and strong activation by UP elements and Fis.

  8. Inequity outside the Classroom: Growing Class Differences in Participation in Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snellman, Kaisa; Silva, Jennifer M.; Putnam, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on research that shows that extracurricular activities help cultivate the skills, connections, and knowledge that prepare children for lifelong success. They add, however, that low-income students are increasingly being excluded from participating. Struggling with budget cuts and deficits, many school districts…

  9. Community shifts of actively growing lake bacteria after N-acetyl-glucosamine addition: improving the BrdU-FACS method.

    PubMed

    Tada, Yuya; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2014-02-01

    In aquatic environments, community dynamics of bacteria, especially actively growing bacteria (AGB), are tightly linked with dissolved organic matter (DOM) quantity and quality. We analyzed the community dynamics of DNA-synthesizing and accordingly AGB by linking an improved bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry approach with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BrdU-FACS). FACS-sorted cells of even oligotrophic ecosystems in winter were characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. In incubation experiments, we examined community shifts of AGB in response to the addition of N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG), one of the most abundant aminosugars in aquatic systems. Our improved BrdU-FACS analysis revealed that AGB winter communities of oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (northeastern Germany) substantially differ from those of total bacteria and consist of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Candidatus OP10 and Chloroflexi. AGB populations with different BrdU-fluorescence intensities and cell sizes represented different phylotypes suggesting that single-cell growth potential varies at the taxon level. NAG incubation experiments demonstrated that a variety of widespread taxa related to Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi actively grow in the presence of NAG. The BrdU-FACS approach enables detailed phylogenetic studies of AGB and, thus, to identify those phylotypes which are potential key players in aquatic DOM cycling.

  10. [SCREENING OF WILD SPREAD AND CULTIVATED OF BUXUS SPECIES GROWING IN GEORGIA ON THE CONTENT OF ALKALOIDS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY].

    PubMed

    Vachnadze, N; Mchedlidze, Q; Novikova, J; Suladze, T; Vachnadze, V

    2016-07-01

    Georgian flora is represented by about 4150 plant species. Many important alkaloid-containing plant species and among of them are species Buxus L. of genus in Adjara. The aims of the research were: sequential screening of the plants for the consistence of alkaloids; Study of anatomical characteristics of Buxus colchica Pojark. and revealing of specific pharmacological activity of steroidal alkaloids. The objects of research were B. colchica, B. balearika and B. sempervirens, growing in Adjara (Georgia), collected in active phase of flowering of the plants. There were revealed 370 species of alkaloid containing plants. Sum of alkaloids and crude aqueous extract have spasmolitic and antihistaminic activity. Experimental anatomical research of diagnostic characteristics of the bines showed the existence of monocyclic transient system with fiber like tracheids, dorsoventral mesophyll of the leaves; the structure for the upper part of epidermis is linear and the lower part is curved, type of stomata is paracitic.

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Scabiosa arenaria Forssk: growing wild in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Besbes, Malek; Omri, Amel; Cheraif, Imed; Daami, Mejda; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Mastouri, Maha; Aouni, Mahjoub; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2012-04-01

    The essential oils isolated from three organs, i.e., fruits, stems and leaves, and flowers, of the endemic North African plant Scabiosa arenaria Forssk. were screened for their chemical composition, as well as their possible antibacterial, anticandidal, and antifungal properties. According to the GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, 61 (99.26% of the total oil composition), 79 (98.43%), and 51 compounds (99.9%) were identified in the three oils, respectively. While α-thujone (34.39%), camphor (17.48%), and β-thujone (15.29%) constituted the major compounds of the fruit oil, chrysanthenone (23.43%), together with camphor (12.98%) and α-thujone (10.7%), were the main constituents of the stem and leaf oil. In the case of the flower oil, also chrysanthenone (38.52%), camphor (11.75%), and α-thujone (9.5%) were identified as the major compounds. Furthermore, the isolated oils were tested against 16 Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, four Candida species, and nine phytopathogenic fungal strains. It was found that the oils exhibited interesting antibacterial and anticandidal activities, comparable to those of thymol, which was used as positive control, but no activity against the phytopathogenic fungal strains was observed.

  12. How faceted liquid droplets grow tails: from surface topology to active motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloutskin, Eli

    Among all possible shapes of a volume V, a sphere has the smallest surface area A. Therefore, liquid droplets are spherical, minimizing their interfacial energy γA for a given interfacial tension γ > 0 . This talk will demonstrate that liquid oil (alkane) droplets in water, stabilized by a common surfactant can be temperature-tuned to adopt icosahedral and other faceted shapes, above the bulk melting temperature of the oil. Although emulsions have been studied for centuries no faceted liquid droplets have ever been reported. The formation of an icosahedral shape is attributed to the interplay between γ and the elastic properties of the interfacial monomolecular layer, which crystallizes here 10-15K above bulk melting, leaving the droplet's bulk liquid. The icosahedral symmetry is dictated by twelve five-fold topological defects, forming within the hexagonally-packed interfacial crystalline monolayer. Moreover, we demonstrate that upon further cooling this `interfacial freezing' effect makes γ transiently switch its sign, leading to a spontaneous splitting of droplets and an active growth of their surface area, reminiscent of the classical spontaneous emulsification, yet driven by completely different physics. The observed phenomena allow deeper insights to be gained into the fundamentals of molecular elasticity and open new vitas for a wide range of novel nanotechnological applications, from self-assembly of complex shapes to new delivery strategies in bio-medicine. Acknowledgment is made to the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for support of this research and to the Kahn Foundation for the purchase of equipment.

  13. Antinociceptive activity of extracts and secondary metabolites from wild growing and micropropagated plants of Renealmia alpinia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Betancur, Isabel; Cortés, Natalie; Benjumea, Dora; Osorio, Edison; León, Francisco; Cutler, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Renealmia alpinia is native to the American continent and can be found from Mexico to Brazil, and in the Caribbean islands. It is known as “matandrea” in Colombia, and it has been commonly used in traditional medicine to treat painful diseases and ailments. Based on its traditional uses, it is of interest to evaluate the pharmacologic effects of this plant and its secondary metabolites. Materials and methods Methanol and aqueous extracts of wild and micropropagated R. alpinia (leaves) were obtained and chemically compared by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). The antinociceptive activity of these extracts was examined using an in vivo assay (Siegmund test). Additionally, the dichloromethane extract of R. alpinia was fractionated and pure compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods. The structure elucidation of isolated compounds was performed by NMR experiments and spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. Purified compounds were evaluated for their in vitro binding affinity for opioids and cannabinoids receptors. Results The dichloromethane extract of the plant’s aerial part afforded sinostrobin (1), naringenin 7,4′-dimethyl ether (2), 2′,6′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone (3), 4-methoxy-6-(2-phenylethenyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (4), naringenin 7-methyl ether (5) and 3,5-heptanediol, 1,7-diphenyl (6), which were isolated using chromatographic methods. Their chemical structures were established by physical and spectroscopic techniques. The antinociceptive effects observed in mice by extracts of wild and micropropagated plants were similar. The compounds isolated from R. alpinia do not show affinity to opioid or cannabinoid receptors. Conclusion Aqueous and methanol extracts of R. alpinia provide antinociceptive and analgesic effects in an in vivo model. These results contribute additional insight as to why this plant is traditionally used for pain management. Also, this is the first

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Blue Light against Nosocomial Wound Pathogens Growing Planktonically and as Mature Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Thwaite, Joanne E.; Burt, Rebecca; Laws, Thomas R.; Raguse, Marina; Moeller, Ralf; Webber, Mark A.; Oppenheim, Beryl A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The blue wavelengths within the visible light spectrum are intrinisically antimicrobial and can photodynamically inactivate the cells of a wide spectrum of bacteria (Gram positive and negative) and fungi. Furthermore, blue light is equally effective against both drug-sensitive and -resistant members of target species and is less detrimental to mammalian cells than is UV radiation. Blue light is currently used for treating acnes vulgaris and Helicobacter pylori infections; the utility for decontamination and treatment of wound infections is in its infancy. Furthermore, limited studies have been performed on bacterial biofilms, the key growth mode of bacteria involved in clinical infections. Here we report the findings of a multicenter in vitro study performed to assess the antimicrobial activity of 400-nm blue light against bacteria in both planktonic and biofilm growth modes. Blue light was tested against a panel of 34 bacterial isolates (clinical and type strains) comprising Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. All planktonic-phase bacteria were susceptible to blue light treatment, with the majority (71%) demonstrating a ≥5-log10 decrease in viability after 15 to 30 min of exposure (54 J/cm2 to 108 J/cm2). Bacterial biofilms were also highly susceptible to blue light, with significant reduction in seeding observed for all isolates at all levels of exposure. These results warrant further investigation of blue light as a novel decontamination strategy for the nosocomial environment, as well as additional wider decontamination applications. IMPORTANCE Blue light shows great promise as a novel decontamination strategy for the nosocomial environment, as well as additional wider decontamination applications (e.g., wound closure during surgery). This warrants further

  15. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Pinus halepensis Miller growing in West Northern of Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Fekih, Nadia; Allali, Hocine; Merghache, Salima; Chaïb, Faïza; Merghache, Djamila; El Amine, Mohamed; Djabou, Nassim; Muselli, Alain; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find new bioactive natural products, the chemical composition and to sudy the antibacterial activity of essential oil components extracted from the aerial parts of the Algerian aromatic plant Pinus halepensis Miller (P. halepensis) (needles, twigs and buds). Methods The essential oil used in this study was isolated by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus according to the European Pharmacopoeia. The chemical composition was investigated using GC-retention indices (RI) and GC-MS. Results Forty-nine compounds, representing 97.9% of the total collective oil, were identified. Essential oil was dominated by hydrocarbon compounds (80.6%) especially monoterpenes (65.5%). The major compounds from ten oils stations were: myrcene (15.2%-32.0%), α-pinene (12.2%-24.5%), E-β-caryophyllene (7.0%-17.1%), terpinolene (1.8%-13.3%), 2-phenyl ethyl isovalerate (4.8%-10.9%), terpinene-4-ol (1.0%-8.2 %) and sabinene (1.5%-6.3%). The intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of P. halepensis aerial parts essential oils from ten Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Essential oil samples were clustered in 2 groups by hierarchical cluster analysis, according to their chemical composition. The essential oil revealed an interesting antimicrobial effect against Lysteria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions These results suggest that the essential oil from P. halepensis may be a new potential source as natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  16. Risks of hormonally active pharmaceuticals to amphibians: a growing concern regarding progestagens.

    PubMed

    Säfholm, Moa; Ribbenstedt, Anton; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

    2014-11-19

    Most amphibians breed in water, including the terrestrial species, and may therefore be exposed to water-borne pharmaceuticals during critical phases of the reproductive cycle, i.e. sex differentiation and gamete maturation. The objectives of this paper were to (i) review available literature regarding adverse effects of hormonally active pharmaceuticals on amphibians, with special reference to environmentally relevant exposure levels and (ii) expand the knowledge on toxicity of progestagens in amphibians by determining effects of norethindrone (NET) and progesterone (P) exposure to 0, 1, 10 or 100 ng l(-1) (nominal) on oogenesis in the test species Xenopus tropicalis. Very little information was found on toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of pharmaceuticals on amphibians. Research has shown that environmental concentrations (1.8 ng l(-1)) of the pharmaceutical oestrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) cause developmental reproductive toxicity involving impaired spermatogenesis in frogs. Recently, it was found that the progestagen levonorgestrel (LNG) inhibited oogenesis in frogs by interrupting the formation of vitellogenic oocytes at an environmentally relevant concentration (1.3 ng l(-1)). Results from the present study revealed that 1 ng NET l(-1) and 10 ng P l(-1) caused reduced proportions of vitellogenic oocytes and increased proportions of previtellogenic oocytes compared with the controls, thereby indicating inhibited vitellogenesis. Hence, the available literature shows that the oestrogen EE2 and the progestagens LNG, NET and P impair reproductive functions in amphibians at environmentally relevant exposure concentrations. The progestagens are of particular concern given their prevalence, the range of compounds and that several of them (LNG, NET and P) share the same target (oogenesis) at environmental exposure concentrations, indicating a risk for adverse effects on fertility in exposed wild amphibians.

  17. Risks of hormonally active pharmaceuticals to amphibians: a growing concern regarding progestagens

    PubMed Central

    Säfholm, Moa; Ribbenstedt, Anton; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Most amphibians breed in water, including the terrestrial species, and may therefore be exposed to water-borne pharmaceuticals during critical phases of the reproductive cycle, i.e. sex differentiation and gamete maturation. The objectives of this paper were to (i) review available literature regarding adverse effects of hormonally active pharmaceuticals on amphibians, with special reference to environmentally relevant exposure levels and (ii) expand the knowledge on toxicity of progestagens in amphibians by determining effects of norethindrone (NET) and progesterone (P) exposure to 0, 1, 10 or 100 ng l−1 (nominal) on oogenesis in the test species Xenopus tropicalis. Very little information was found on toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of pharmaceuticals on amphibians. Research has shown that environmental concentrations (1.8 ng l−1) of the pharmaceutical oestrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) cause developmental reproductive toxicity involving impaired spermatogenesis in frogs. Recently, it was found that the progestagen levonorgestrel (LNG) inhibited oogenesis in frogs by interrupting the formation of vitellogenic oocytes at an environmentally relevant concentration (1.3 ng l−1). Results from the present study revealed that 1 ng NET l−1 and 10 ng P l−1 caused reduced proportions of vitellogenic oocytes and increased proportions of previtellogenic oocytes compared with the controls, thereby indicating inhibited vitellogenesis. Hence, the available literature shows that the oestrogen EE2 and the progestagens LNG, NET and P impair reproductive functions in amphibians at environmentally relevant exposure concentrations. The progestagens are of particular concern given their prevalence, the range of compounds and that several of them (LNG, NET and P) share the same target (oogenesis) at environmental exposure concentrations, indicating a risk for adverse effects on fertility in exposed wild amphibians. PMID:25405966

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Madona; El Beyrouthy, Marc; Ouaini, Naïm; Iriti, Marcello; Eparvier, Véronique; Stien, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The essential oils (EOs) isolated from the leaves and twigs of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon were characterized, and their antimicrobial activity and antiradical capacity were evaluated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterium, a yeast, and a dermatophyte with the broth microdilution technique. A total of 28 constituents was identified and accounted for 90.1 and 95.6% of the twig and leaf EO composition, respectively. Both EOs were essentially composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (46.7 and 59.6% for twig and leaf EOs, resp.) and sesquiterpenes (39.4 and 32.1%, resp.). The main components were α-pinene, α-cedrol, and δ-car-3-ene. The J. excelsa EOs did not show any antiradical potential, but revealed interesting in vitro antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum (MICs of 64 and 128 μg/ml, resp.). The three major compounds were tested separately and in combination according to their respective amounts in the oil. δ-Car-3-ene was the most active component and is undoubtedly one of the constituents driving the antifungal activity of J. excelsa essential oil, even though synergies are probably involved.

  19. n-3 LC-PUFA deposition efficiency and appetite-regulating hormones are modulated by the dietary lipid source during rainbow trout grow-out and finishing periods.

    PubMed

    Francis, D S; Thanuthong, T; Senadheera, S P S D; Paolucci, M; Coccia, E; De Silva, S S; Turchini, G M

    2014-04-01

    Largely attributable to concerns surrounding sustainability, the utilisation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich (n-3 LC-PUFA) fish oils in aquafeeds for farmed fish species is an increasingly concerning issue. Therefore, strategies to maximise the deposition efficiency of these key health beneficial fatty acids are being investigated. The present study examined the effects of four vegetable-based dietary lipid sources (linseed, olive, palm and sunflower oil) on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and the circulating blood plasma concentrations of the appetite-regulating hormones, leptin and ghrelin, during the grow-out and finishing phases in rainbow trout culture. Minimal detrimental effects were noted in fish performance; however, major modifications were apparent in tissue fatty acid compositions, which generally reflected that of the diet. These modifications diminished somewhat following the fish oil finishing phase, but longer-lasting effects remained evident. The fatty acid composition of the alternative oils was demonstrated to have a modulatory effect on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and on the key endocrine hormones involved in appetite regulation, growth and feed intake during both the grow-out and finishing phases. In particular, n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil diet) appeared to 'spare' the catabolism of n-3 LC-PUFA and, as such, resulted in the highest retention of these fatty acids, ultimately highlighting new nutritional approaches to maximise the maintenance of the qualitative benefits of fish oils when they are used in feeds for aquaculture species.

  20. Endothelial Dysfunction and Blood Viscosity Inpatients with Unstable Angina in Different Periods of a Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshina, S. S.; Tokaeva, L. K.; Dolgova, E. M.; Afanas'yeva, T. N.; Strelnikova, O. A.

    The origin of hemorheologic and endothelial defects in patients with unstable angina (comparing with healthy persons) is determined by a solar activity period: the blood viscosity increases in a period of high solar activity in the vessels of small, medium and macro diameters, a local decompensate dysfunction of small vessels endothelium had been fixed (microcirculation area). In the period of a low solar activity there is an increase of a blood viscosity in vessels of all diameters, generalized subcompensated endothelial dysfunction is developed (on the background of the III phase blood clotting activating). In the period of a high solar activity a higher blood viscosity had been fixed, comparing with the period of a low solar activity.

  1. Effects of grass forage species and long-term period of low quality forage diet feeding on growth performance, nutrient utilization and microbial nitrogen yield in growing wether lambs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Hye; Choi, Ki-Choon; Song, Sang-Houn; Ichinohe, Toshiyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Six growing lambs were used to evaluate the feeding value of two forage-based diets in a long-term feeding period by measuring body weight (BW) gain, digestibility, nitrogen (N) retention and microbial N (MBN) yield. The animals were fed imported low-quality timothy hay (TH) with concentrate diet (THD) or imported low-quality Italian ryegrass straw (IR) with concentrate diet (IRD) for 9 months. The forages were offered at 2% BW, and concentrate was fed at 40% of forage intake. The BW gain averaged 82.6 and 66.2 g/day for THD and IRD, respectively, without showing significant difference. Average forage intake (% BW) was significantly greater for IR than for TH, although it was not affected by feeding periods. The digestibility did not differ between diets or periods. The numerically greater (P = 0.06) ratio of retained N to absorbed N for IRD than that for THD was prominent. Neither diet nor period had significant effect on MBN supply and efficiency of MBN synthesis. The results suggest that the IR-based diet can be also used for long-term periods of feeding to growing ruminant animals as a grass hay-based diet without any detrimental effects on nutrient utilization and growth performance.

  2. Gardening: A Growing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    While Americans are as eager as ever to beautify their homes and yards with attractive landscaping, more and more gardeners are looking to the practical aspects of gardening--raising plants for food and choosing easy-care ornamental plants that are friendly to the environment. For some gardeners, raising their own food is a lifestyle choice. With…

  3. Cosmic X-ray surveys of distant active galaxies. The demographics, physics, and ecology of growing supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    We review results from cosmic X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the past years that have dramatically improved our understanding of growing supermassive black holes in the distant universe. First, we discuss the utility of such surveys for AGN investigations and the capabilities of the missions making these surveys, emphasizing Chandra, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR. Second, we briefly describe the main cosmic X-ray surveys, the essential roles of complementary multiwavelength data, and how AGNs are selected from these surveys. We then review key results from these surveys on the AGN population and its evolution ("demographics"), the physical processes operating in AGNs ("physics"), and the interactions between AGNs and their environments ("ecology"). We conclude by describing some significant unresolved questions and prospects for advancing the field.

  4. Effects of Different Growing Regions on Quality Characteristics, Bioactive Compound Contents, and Antioxidant Activity of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Thi, Nhuan Do

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growing regions on quality characteristics, total bioactive compound contents, and in vitro antioxidant activity in aronia. Aronia grown in 3 different regions (Sangjoo, Ulju, and Youngcheon) in Korea was obtained and used fresh or as a freeze-dried powder. No statistically significant differences were observed for moisture, ash, crude lipid, and crude protein contents in aronia sampled from the 3 different regions. Aronia grown in Sangjoo had the highest total acid content and the lowest sugar content and pH value. Conversely, aronia grown in Youngcheon possessed the lowest total acid content and the highest sugar content and pH value. Aronia grown in Sangjoo possessed relatively high levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as high antioxidant activity in comparison with aronia produced in other regions. Aronia grown in Youngcheon scored the highest for taste and overall acceptability in sensory evaluations, which may be related to the high sugar content and pH, and the low total acidity of the fruits. It is possible that higher sugar contents and pH, and lower total acidity in the aronia grown in Youngcheon result in more preferable sensory characteristics. However, they also contain relatively low levels of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and have low antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays. PMID:27752502

  5. Effects of Different Growing Regions on Quality Characteristics, Bioactive Compound Contents, and Antioxidant Activity of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Thi, Nhuan Do

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growing regions on quality characteristics, total bioactive compound contents, and in vitro antioxidant activity in aronia. Aronia grown in 3 different regions (Sangjoo, Ulju, and Youngcheon) in Korea was obtained and used fresh or as a freeze-dried powder. No statistically significant differences were observed for moisture, ash, crude lipid, and crude protein contents in aronia sampled from the 3 different regions. Aronia grown in Sangjoo had the highest total acid content and the lowest sugar content and pH value. Conversely, aronia grown in Youngcheon possessed the lowest total acid content and the highest sugar content and pH value. Aronia grown in Sangjoo possessed relatively high levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as high antioxidant activity in comparison with aronia produced in other regions. Aronia grown in Youngcheon scored the highest for taste and overall acceptability in sensory evaluations, which may be related to the high sugar content and pH, and the low total acidity of the fruits. It is possible that higher sugar contents and pH, and lower total acidity in the aronia grown in Youngcheon result in more preferable sensory characteristics. However, they also contain relatively low levels of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and have low antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays.

  6. Crystal growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neville, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    One objective is to demonstrate the way crystals grow and how they affect the behavior of material. Another objective is to compare the growth of crystals in metals and nonmetals. The procedures, which involve a supersaturated solution of a salt that will separate into crystals on cooling and the pouring off of an eutectic solution to expose the crystals formed by a solid solution when an alloy of two metals forms a solid and eutectic solution on cooling, are described.

  7. Postnatal growth hormone deficiency in growing rats causes marked decline in the activity of spinal cord acetylcholinesterase but not butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Koohestani, Faezeh; Brown, Chester M; Meisami, Esmail

    2012-11-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) deficiency on the developmental changes in the abundance and activity of cholinesterase enzymes were studied in the developing spinal cord (SC) of postnatal rats by measuring the specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a marker for cholinergic neurons and their synaptic compartments, and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), a marker for glial cells and neurovascular cells. Specific activities of these two enzymes were measured in SC tissue of 21- and 90 day-old (P21, weaning age; P90, young adulthood) GH deficient spontaneous dwarf (SpDwf) mutant rats which lack anterior pituitary and circulating plasma GH, and were compared with SC tissue of normal age-matched control animals. Assays were carried out for AChE and BuChE activity in the presence of their specific chemical inhibitors, BW284C51 and iso-OMPA, respectively. Results revealed that mean AChE activity was markedly and significantly reduced [28% at P21, 49% at P90, (p<0.01)] in the SC of GH deficient rats compared to age-matched controls. GH deficiency had a higher and more significant effect on AChE activity of the older (P90) rats than the younger ones (P21) ones. In contrast, BuChE activity in SC showed no significant changes in GH deficient rats at either of the two ages studied. Results imply that, in the absence of pituitary GH, the postnatal proliferation of cholinergic synapses in the rat SC, a CNS structure, where AChE activity is abundant, is markedly reduced during both the pre- and postweaning periods; more so in the postweaning than preweaning ages. In contrast, the absence of any effects on BuChE activity implies that GH does not affect the development of non-neuronal elements, e.g., glia, as much as the neuronal and synaptic compartments of the developing rat SC.

  8. Antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm growing Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengjun; Dong, Jiachen; Xia, Yiru; Shu, Rong

    2017-03-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm modes of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The effects on planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were evaluated by growth curve determination and MTT assay, respectively. Then, colony forming unit (CFU) counting, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and real-time PCR were performed to further investigate the actions of DHA and EPA on exponential phase-S. mutans. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to detect the influences on mature biofilms. The MICs of DHA and EPA against S. mutans were 100 μM and 50 μM, respectively; the MBC of both compounds was 100 μM. In the presence of 12.5 μM-100 μM DHA or EPA, the planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were reduced in varying degrees. For exponential-phase S. mutans, the viable counts, the bacterial membranes and the biofilm-associated gene expression were damaged by 100 μM DHA or EPA treatment. For 1-day-old biofilms, the thickness was decreased and the proportion of membrane-damaged bacteria was increased in the presence of 100 μM DHA or EPA. These results indicated that, DHA and EPA possessed antibacterial activities against planktonic and biofilm growing S. mutans.

  9. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oil of Leaves of Malus domestica Growing in Western Himalaya (India)

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Mayanka; Mann, Tavleen S.; Kumar, Dharmesh; Agnihotri, Vijai K.; Singh, Bikram

    2012-01-01

    Light pale-colored volatile oil was obtained from fresh leaves of Malus domestica tree, growing in Dhauladhar range of Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India), with characteristic eucalyptol dominant fragrance. The oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono-, sesqui-, di-terpenes, phenolics, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Seventeen compounds accounting for nearly 95.3% of the oil were characterized with the help of capillary GC, GC-MS, and NMR. Major compounds of the oil were characterized as eucalyptol (43.7%), phytol (11.5%), α-farnesene (9.6%), and pentacosane (7.6%). Cytotoxicity of essential oil of leaves of M. domestica was evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. The essential oil of leaves of M. domestica, tested against three cancer cell lines, namely, C-6 (glioma cells), A549 (human lung carcinoma), CHOK1 (Chinese hamster ovary cells), and THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell). The highest activity showed by essential oil on C-6 cell lines (98.2%) at concentration of 2000 μg/ml compared to control. It is the first paper in literature to exploit the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of leaves essential oil of M. domestica. PMID:22619691

  10. Active-treatment effects of the Forsus fatigue resistant device during comprehensive Class II correction in growing patients

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Giorgio; Alvetro, Lisa; Defraia, Efisio; Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanc

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the active-treatment effects of the Forsus fatigue resistant device (Forsus) during comprehensive correction of Class II malocclusion in growing patients. Methods Fifty-four patients (mean age, 12.5 ± 1.2 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion were consecutively treated with fixed app-liances in combination with Forsus. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at the beginning of the fixed treatment (T1), Forsus insertion (T2), its removal (T3), and end of the comprehensive therapy (T4). Statistical comparisons were carried out by repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). Results The overall therapeutic effects were mainly dentoalveolar and occurred mostly during the active treatment with Forsus (T2-T3, mean duration = 0.5 ± 0.1 years). The overjet and overbite decreased significantly (-3.5 and -1.5 mm, respectively) and the molar relationship improved by 4.3 mm. These changes were associated with significant retroclination of the maxillary incisors (-3.1°), proclination and intrusion of the mandibular incisors (+5.0° and -1.5 mm, respectively), and mesialization of the mandibular molars (+2.0 mm). Conclusions Forsus had mainly dentoalveolar effects and contributed largely to the overall therapeutic outcome. PMID:24892027

  11. Synergistic activity of rifampicin and ethambutol against slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria is currently of questionable clinical significance.

    PubMed

    van Ingen, Jakko; Hoefsloot, Wouter; Mouton, Johan W; Boeree, Martin J; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-07-01

    A key issue in the treatment of disease caused by slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria is the limited association between in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of rifampicin and ethambutol alone and the in vivo outcome of treatment with these drugs. Combined susceptibility testing to rifampicin and ethambutol could provide a more realistic view of the efficacy of these drugs. In this study, Mycobacterium avium (n = 5), Mycobacterium chimaera (n = 6), Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 4), Mycobacterium xenopi (n = 4), Mycobacterium malmoense (n = 3) and Mycobacterium simiae (n = 2) clinical isolates were selected and the MICs of rifampicin and ethambutol alone and in combination were measured using the Middlebrook 7H10 agar dilution method. Synergy was defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index ≤ 0.5. Rifampicin and ethambutol showed synergistic activity against the majority of M. avium (4/5), M. chimaera (5/6) and M. intracellulare (3/4) isolates and 1 of 2 eligible M. malmoense isolates. No synergistic activity was measured against M. xenopi and M. simiae. Synergy was neither universal for all species nor for all isolates of one species; it thus needs to be tested for rather than assumed. Even if this synergy exists in vivo, it is questionable whether the MICs to the combined drugs can be overcome by the drug exposure attained by current regimens at the recommended dosages. New dosing strategies for rifampicin and ethambutol should be studied to increase the exposure to these drugs and thus maximise their impact.

  12. Transcription regulation of gene expression in rat brown adipose tissue in response to unloading or 2G loading during growing period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Hitomi, Y.; Kawano, F.; Ohira, Y.; Kizaki, T.; Nakano, N.; Sakurai, T.; Izawa, T.; Suzuki, K.; Sudoh, M.; Roy, R. R.; Ohno, H.

    2007-05-01

    The effects were investigated of long-term unloading and macrogravity on the expression of 15 genes at the mRNA levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT) from rat pups, particularly focusing on uncoupling protein (UCP) family, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoenzymes, and antioxidant enzymes. The animals in the unloaded group (a simulation model of spaceflight) were hindlimb-unloaded by tail suspension between postnatal day 4 and month 3, followed by 2-mo ambulation recovery. Moreover, centrifugation at 2G (an imitation of the hypergravity effects) was performed during the same period as the unloading, also followed by 2-mo ambulation recovery (adaptation to 1G from 2G). Compared with the age-matched control group, significantly lower expression levels of mRNA for UCP2, iNOS, and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD) in BAT were observed immediately after unloading, but not immediately after exposure to 2G. During 2-mo ambulation recovery from both extreme conditions, the expression of mRNA for Mn-SOD was enhanced, suggesting an increase in oxidative stress. These findings suggest that both micro- and macrogravity may have some influence upon the function of BAT, and that changes in the BAT function may be involved in the mechanisms subserving adaptation to such extreme conditions by what humans have to be faced with during the spaceflight and return to 1G.

  13. The novel Solanum tuberosum calcium dependent protein kinase, StCDPK3, is expressed in actively growing organs.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Verónica; Bialer, Magalí; Santin, Franco; Lin, Tian; Hannapel, David J; Ulloa, Rita M

    2012-12-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are key components of calcium regulated signaling cascades in plants. In this work, isoform StCDPK3 from Solanum tuberosum was studied and fully described. StCDPK3 encodes a 63 kDa protein with an N-terminal variable domain (NTV), rich in prolines and glutamines, which presents myristoylation and palmitoylation consensus sites and a PEST sequence indicative of rapid protein degradation. StCDPK3 gene (circa 11 kb) is localized in chromosome 3, shares the eight exons and seven introns structure with other isoforms from subgroup IIa and contains an additional intron in the 5'UTR region. StCDPK3 expression is ubiquitous being transcripts more abundant in early elongating stolons (ES), leaves and roots, however isoform specific antibodies only detected the protein in leaf particulate extracts. The recombinant 6xHis-StCDPK3 is an active kinase that differs in its kinetic parameters and calcium requirements from StCDPK1 and 2 isoforms. In vitro, StCDPK3 undergoes autophosphorylation regardless of the addition of calcium. The StCDPK3 promoter region (circa 1,800 bp) was subcloned by genome walking and fused to GUS. Light and ABRE responsive elements were identified in the promoter region as well as elements associated to expression in roots. StCDPK3 expression was enhanced by ABA while GA decreased it. Potato transgenic lines harboring StCDPK3 promoter∷GUS construct were generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated plant transformation. Promoter activity was detected in leaves, root tips and branching points, early ES, tuber eyes and developing sprouts indicating that StCDPK3 is expressed in actively growing organs.

  14. Modeling the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity values.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina; Fernández, Pablo S; George, Susan; Pin, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The dynamic model for the growth of a bacterial population described by Baranyi and Roberts (J. Baranyi and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was applied to model the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity (a(w)) values. To model the duration of the lag phase, the dependence of the parameter h(0), which quantifies the amount of work done during the lag period, on the previous and current environmental conditions was determined experimentally. This parameter depended not only on the magnitude of the change between the previous and current environmental conditions but also on the current growth conditions. In an exponentially growing population, any change in the environment requiring a certain amount of work to adapt to the new conditions initiated a lag period that lasted until that work was finished. Observations for several scenarios in which exponential growth was halted by a sudden change in the temperature and/or a(w) were in good agreement with predictions. When a population already in a lag period was subjected to environmental fluctuations, the system was reset with a new lag phase. The work to be done during the new lag phase was estimated to be the workload due to the environmental change plus the unfinished workload from the uncompleted previous lag phase.

  15. Modeling the Lag Period and Exponential Growth of Listeria monocytogenes under Conditions of Fluctuating Temperature and Water Activity Values▿

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina; Fernández, Pablo S.; George, Susan; Pin, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model for the growth of a bacterial population described by Baranyi and Roberts (J. Baranyi and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was applied to model the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity (aw) values. To model the duration of the lag phase, the dependence of the parameter h0, which quantifies the amount of work done during the lag period, on the previous and current environmental conditions was determined experimentally. This parameter depended not only on the magnitude of the change between the previous and current environmental conditions but also on the current growth conditions. In an exponentially growing population, any change in the environment requiring a certain amount of work to adapt to the new conditions initiated a lag period that lasted until that work was finished. Observations for several scenarios in which exponential growth was halted by a sudden change in the temperature and/or aw were in good agreement with predictions. When a population already in a lag period was subjected to environmental fluctuations, the system was reset with a new lag phase. The work to be done during the new lag phase was estimated to be the workload due to the environmental change plus the unfinished workload from the uncompleted previous lag phase. PMID:20208022

  16. Interactive effects of dietary adaptation period length and titration diet type on apparent ileal phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus retention in growing broilers.

    PubMed

    Perryman, K R; Cattley, R C; Masey O'Neill, H V; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different corn titration diets and dietary adaptation period length (DAPL) on intestinal histology, apparent ileal P digestibility (AIPD), and apparent P retention (APR) in Ross × Ross 708 male broilers from 20 to 24 d of age. It was hypothesized that purified ingredients in nutrient-deficient titration diets may affect P availability with varying DAPL. In experiment 1, 1,152 broilers were utilized in a 3 × 3 factorial treatment structure with 3 diets (control, 25% corn titration diet [25CTD], or 75% corn titration diet [75CTD]) and 3 DAPL (0, 24, or 72 h). Experiment 2 was conducted with 576 broilers as a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with 4 diets (control, 25CTD, 75CTD, or nitrogen-free diet [NFD]) and 3 DAPL (24, 48, or 72 h). All diets contained purified ingredients except for the control diet, which had the same formulation as the common starter and served as a control for DAPL. The NFD diet was fed as a highly purified protein-free diet. Broilers were fed a common diet until 19 d of age and then transferred to experimental diets at 20 d of age. In experiment 1, diet type did not affect (P > 0.05) intestinal histology. However, diet type and DAPL each influenced (P.≤.0.001) diet AIPD. Higher (P.≤.0.001) AIPD was measured for the control diet compared with the 75CDT, and the 25CTD had the lowest AIPD. Following a 24 h DAPL, AIPD was higher (P.≤.0.001) than after a DAPL of 0 or 72 h. In experiment 2, diet type × DAPL interactions (P.≤.0.001) were observed for APR of the control diet, 75CTD, and NFD, but not the 25CTD. Because APR of the control diet was affected by varying DAPL, factors other than differences in diet type may have been responsible for inconsistencies in the measure of P availability. Furthermore, no clear evidence was observed that broilers were able to adapt to P-deficient diets by increasing APR or AIPD. In conclusion, a standard DAPL should be established as a means to

  17. [Study on the separation process of pharmacological active total alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. growing in Georgia].

    PubMed

    Bozhadze, A D; Vachnadze, V Iu; Dzhokhadze, M S; Berashvili, D T; Bakuridze, A Dzh

    2013-04-01

    In present article was studied the separation process of pharmacological active total alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. growing in Georgia. Alkaloids were extracted from medicinal herbal material and separated by liquid extraction, diluents gas and a microfiltration through membrane equipment. The obtained A1, A2, A3 fractions were analyzed by GC/MS method; in all cases separation proceeds by the principle of extraction of the target alkaloids. It was concluded that the A1 is enriched with α and β cryptopins, and protopin, but homochelidonine and chelidonine are in low contents. As accompanying alkaloid is identified dihydrosanguinarine as an artifact; the A2 is enriched with the maximum contents of stylopine and protopin, but the poor contents of chelidonine and homochelidonine; the A3 is enriched with α and β cryptopins and maximum content of chelidonine. Extraction of alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. proceeds selectively, but depending on a way of separation of the total alkaloids allows varying qualitative and quantitative consistence of the final product.

  18. Volatile constituents and antioxidant activity of peel, flowers and leaf oils of Citrus aurantium L. growing in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sarrou, Eirini; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis

    2013-09-02

    The volatile constituents of the essential oils of the peel, flower (neroli) and leaves (petitgrain) of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) growing in Greece were studied by GC-MS. The analytical procedures enabled the quantitative determination of 31 components. More specifically, the components of the essential oils identified were: twelve in the peel, twenty-six in the flowers, and twenty and sixteen in old and young leaves, respectively. The major constituents of the different parts of Citrus aurantium L. essential oils were: β-pinene (0.62%-19.08%), limonene (0.53%-94.67%), trans-β-ocimene (3.11%-6.06%), linalool (0.76%-58.21%), and α-terpineol (0.13%-12.89%). The DPPH test demonstrated that the essential oils in the old leaves had the maximum antioxidant activity, followed by the flowers, young leaves and the peel in that order. This study updates the data in the literature on the essential oils of bitter orange, and provides information on the composition of the oils for a further evaluation of this product.

  19. [Trials to eliminate the sex odor of growing boars through active immunization with an androstenone-protein conjugate].

    PubMed

    Fliess, F R; Kaiser, H; Bergfeld, J

    1980-01-01

    Determination of immunogenicity in rabbit was followed by the use of 5 alpha-Androst-16-en-3-on cattle serum albumin conjugate (AC-) in Freund's adjuvant for active immunisation of young growing boars against boar pheromone. Two experiments were undertaken. Five boars, aged 140 days, were involved in the first experiment. They received six AC- doses in intervals of 14 days (4 mg, 5 mg, 6 mg, 7 mg, 8 mg, 9 mg). Each of the doses was applied to four points, two of them subcutaneous and two intramuscular. In the second experiment, four boars, aged 121 days, received 40 mg AC- each in eight applications, among them three injections in intervals of one week, followed by a pause of two weeks, another three injections again in intervals of one week, and two injections in intervals of four weeks. Another group of four animals received 20 mg AC- in four applications in intervals of four weeks. Five control boars were included in the first experiment and four in the second. Immune response of the experimental animals was detected neither by immunoelectrophoresis nor by radio-immuno-assay. Pheromones in fat samples were determined by means of gas chromatography during treatment and after slaughter. They were increased in some of the cases, albeit not significantly. The nuclear diameters of the interstitional cells of Leydig in testicular sections differed but little, with no significance being recorded.

  20. Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC₅₀ values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied.

  1. Community structures of actively growing bacteria shift along a north-south transect in the western North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Akito; Hamasaki, Koji

    2008-04-01

    Bacterial community structures and their activities in the ocean are tightly coupled with organic matter fluxes and thus control ocean biogeochemical cycles. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), halogenated nucleoside and thymidine analogue, has been recently used to monitor actively growing bacteria (AGB) in natural environments. We labelled DNA of proliferating cells in seawater bacterial assemblages with BrdU and determined community structures of the bacteria that were possible key species in mediating biochemical reactions in the ocean. Surface seawater samples were collected along a north-south transect in the North Pacific in October 2003 and subjected to BrdU magnetic beads immunocapture and PCR-DGGE (BUMP-DGGE) analysis. Change of BrdU-incorporated community structures reflected the change of water masses along a north-south transect from subarctic to subtropical gyres in the North Pacific. We identified 25 bands referred to AGB as BrdU-incorporated phylotypes, belonging to Alphaproteobacteria (5 bands), Betaproteobacteria (1 band), Gammaproteobacteria (4 bands), Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group bacteria (5 bands), Gram-positive bacteria (6 bands), and Cyanobacteria (4 bands). BrdU-incorporated phylotypes belonging to Vibrionales, Alteromonadales and Gram-positive bacteria appeared only at sampling stations in a subtropical gyre, while those belonging to Roseobacter-related bacteria and CFB group bacteria appeared at the stations in both subarctic and subtropical gyres. Our result revealed phylogenetic affiliation of AGB and their dynamic change along with north-south environmental gradients in open oceans. Different species of AGB utilize different amount and kinds of substrates, which can affect the change of organic matter fluxes along transect.

  2. Testing anti-fungal activity of a soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, E. V.; Kozlov, V. A.; Khizhnyak, S. V.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu

    2009-10-01

    The object of this research is to study a soil-like substrate (SLS) to grow plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). Wheat and rice straw were used as raw materials to prepare SLS. Anti-fungal activity of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris sorokiniana, a plant-pathogenic fungus which causes wheat root rot was studied. Experiments were conducted with SLS samples, using natural soil and sand as controls. Infecting the substrates, was performed at two levels: the first level was done with wheat seeds carrying B. sorokiniana and the second level with seeds and additional conidia of B. sorokiniana from an outside source. We measured wheat disease incidence and severity in two crop plantings. Lowest disease incidence values were obtained from the second planting, SLS: 26% and 41% at the first and the second infection levels, respectively. For soil the values were 60% and 82%, respectively, and for sand they were 67% and 74%, respectively. Wheat root rot in the second crop planting on SLS, at both infection levels was considerably less severe (9% and 13%, respectively) than on natural soil (20% and 33%) and sand (22% and 32%). SLS significantly suppressed the germination of B. sorokiniana conidia. Conidia germination was 5% in aqueous SLS suspension, and 18% in clean water. No significant differences were found regarding the impact on conidia germination between the SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw. The anti-fungal activity in SLS increased because of the presence of worms. SLS also contained bacteria stimulating and inhibiting B. sorokiniana growth.

  3. Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on insect metamorphosis; (2) activities focusing on insect life cycles and how insects change from egg to adult; and (3) student materials (ready-to-copy games, puzzles, coloring pages, worksheets, and/or mazes). Each activity includes objective(s), recommended age levels, subject area(s), list of materials…

  4. Anti-plasmodial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants growing in the Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sardinia is a Mediterranean area endemic for malaria up to the last century. During a screening study to evaluate the anti-plasmodial activity of some aromatic plants traditionally used in Sardinia, Myrtus communis (myrtle, Myrtaceae), Satureja thymbra (savory, Lamiaceae), and Thymus herba-barona (caraway thyme, Lamiaceae) were collected in three vegetative periods: before, during and after flowering. Methods The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation, fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and analysed by GC-FID-MS. Total oil and three main fractions were tested on D10 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Larvicidal and adulticidal activities were tested on Anopheles gambiae susceptible strains. Results The essential oil of savory, rich in thymol, was the most effective against P. falciparum with an inhibitory activity independent from the time of collection (IC50 17–26 μg/ml on D10 and 9–11 μg/ml on W2). Upon fractionation, fraction 1 was enriched in mono-sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons; fraction 2 in thymol (73-83%); and fraction 3 contained thymol, carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol, with a different composition depending on the time of collection. Thymol-enriched fractions were the most active on both strains (IC50 20–22 μg/ml on D10 and 8–10 μg/ml on W2) and thymol was confirmed as mainly responsible for this activity (IC50 19.7± 3.0 and 10.6 ± 2.0 μg/ml on D10 and W2, respectively). The essential oil of S. thymbra L. showed also larvicidal and adulticidal activities. The larvicidal activity, expressed as LC50, was 0.15 ± 0.002; 0.21 ± 0.13; and 0.15 ± 0.09 μg/ml (mean ± sd) depending on the time of collection: before, during and after flowering, respectively. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the use of essential oils for treating malaria and fighting the vector at both the larval and adult stages. These findings open the possibility for further investigation aimed at

  5. Direct observation of single stationary-phase bacteria reveals a surprisingly long period of constant protein production activity

    PubMed Central

    Gefen, Orit; Fridman, Ofer; Ronin, Irine; Balaban, Nathalie Q.

    2014-01-01

    Exponentially growing bacteria are rarely found in the wild, as microorganisms tend to spend most of their lifetime at stationary phase. Despite this general prevalence of stationary-phase bacteria, they are as yet poorly characterized. Our goal was to quantitatively study this phase by direct observation of single bacteria as they enter into stationary phase and by monitoring their activity over several days during growth arrest. For this purpose, we devised an experimental procedure for starving single Escherichia coli bacteria in microfluidic devices and measured their activity by monitoring the production rate of fluorescent proteins. When amino acids were the sole carbon source, the production rate decreased by an order of magnitude upon entry into stationary phase. We found that, even while growth-arrested, bacteria continued to produce proteins at a surprisingly constant rate over several days. Our identification of this newly observed period of constant activity in nongrowing cells, designated as constant activity stationary phase, makes possible the conduction of assays that require constant protein expression over time, and are therefore difficult to perform under exponential growth conditions. Moreover, we show that exogenous protein expression bears no fitness cost on the regrowth of the population when starvation ends. Further characterization of constant activity stationary phase—a phase where nongrowing bacteria can be quantitatively studied over several days in a reproducible manner—should contribute to a better understanding of this ubiquitous but overlooked physiological state of bacteria in nature. PMID:24344288

  6. 38 CFR 21.46 - Veteran ordered to active duty; extension of basic period of eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Periods of Eligibility § 21.46 Veteran ordered to active... active duty under 10 U.S.C. 688, 12301(a), 12301(d), 12301(g), 12302, or 12304, the veteran's basic... months. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3103(e); sec. 308(h), Pub. L. 107-330, 116 Stat. 2829)...

  7. Muscular power, neuromuscular activation, and performance in shot put athletes at preseason and at competition period.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Thomas A; Terzis, Gerasimos; Boudolos, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Georgios

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in shot put performance, muscular power, and neuromuscular activation of the lower extremities, between the preseason and the competition period, in skilled shot put athletes using the rotational technique. Shot put performance was assessed at the start of the pre-season period as well as after 12 weeks, at the competition period, in nine shot putters. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right vastus lateralis muscle was recorded during all shot put trials. Maximum squat strength (1RM) and mechanical parameters during the countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force platform were also determined at pre-season and at competition period. Shot put performance increased 4.7% (p < 0.05), while 1RM squat increased 6.5% (p < 0.025). EMG activity during the delivery phase was increased significantly (p < 0.025) after the training period. Shot put performance was significantly related with muscular power and takeoff velocity during the CMJ, at competition period (r = 0.66, p < 0.05 and 0.70, p < 0.05), but not with maximum vertical force. One RM squat was not related significantly with shot put performance. These results suggest that muscular power of the lower extremities is a better predictor of rotational shot put performance than absolute muscular strength in skilled athletes, at least during the competition period.

  8. SO{sub 2} oxidation in a periodically operated trickle bed: Comparison of activated carbon catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joong Kee; Hudgins, R.R.; Silveston, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    Catalytic activities of two different activated carbons, BPL{trademark} and Centaur{trademark} catalysts (Calgon Carbon Corp.), were compared in a periodically operated trickle-bed reactor for SO{sub 2} oxidation by varying the cycle period and split. In an effort to characterize the carbon surface, differential thermogravimetric analysis and TPD were used to observe oxygen functional groups. The Centaur catalyst, which appears to have a more suitable density of oxygen functional groups, has the higher catalytic activity for SO{sub 2} oxidation. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  10. Source mechanism of very-long-period signals accompanying dome growth activity at Merapi volcano, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hidayat, D.; Chouet, B.; Voight, B.; Dawson, P.; Ratdomopurbo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Very-long-period (VLP) pulses with period of 6-7s, displaying similar waveforms, were identified in 1998 from broadband seismographs around the summit crater. These pulses accompanied most of multiphase (MP) earthquakes, a type of long-period event locally defined at Merapi Volcano. Source mechanisms for several VLP pulses were examined by applying moment tensor inversion to the waveform data. Solutions were consistent with a crack striking ???70?? and dipping ???50?? SW, 100m under the active dome, suggest pressurized gas transport involving accumulation and sudden release of 10-60 m3 of gas in the crack over a 6s interval.

  11. Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incident AIDS using calendar period as an instrumental variable.

    PubMed

    Cain, Lauren E; Cole, Stephen R; Greenland, Sander; Brown, Todd T; Chmiel, Joan S; Kingsley, Lawrence; Detels, Roger

    2009-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) researchers often use calendar periods as an imperfect proxy for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) when estimating the effect of HAART on HIV disease progression. The authors report on 614 HIV-positive homosexual men followed from 1984 to 2007 in 4 US cities. During 5,321 person-years, 268 of 614 men incurred acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, 49 died, and 90 were lost to follow-up. Comparing the pre-HAART calendar period (<1996) with the HAART calendar period (>or=1996) resulted in a naive rate ratio of 3.62 (95% confidence limits: 2.67, 4.92). However, this estimate is likely biased because of misclassification of HAART use by calendar period. Simple calendar period approaches may circumvent confounding by indication at the cost of inducing exposure misclassification. To correct this misclassification, the authors propose an instrumental-variable estimator analogous to ones previously used for noncompliance corrections in randomized clinical trials. When the pre-HAART calendar period was compared with the HAART calendar period, the instrumental-variable rate ratio was 5.02 (95% confidence limits: 3.45, 7.31), 39% higher than the naive result. Weighting by the inverse probability of calendar period given age at seroconversion, race/ethnicity, and time since seroconversion did not appreciably alter the results. These methods may help resolve discrepancies between observational and randomized evidence.

  12. Grow Beasts: Growing Mathematical Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roddy, Mark; Behrend, Kat

    2015-01-01

    What do you do when you want to get your Stage 3 students authentically and enthusiastically engaged in the active construction of their understanding and fluency with measurement, data collection, representation and interpretation? How do you enable them to make choices about their learning, to measure with purpose, to record and organise the…

  13. Hilbert-Huang transform analysis of periodicities in the last two solar activity cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotkov, D. Y.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigated periodicities associated with the last two-and-a-half solar activity cycles with the novel Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method. Raw data signals of five different observational proxies: the 10.7 cm radio flux intensity, the helioseismic frequency shift, and the sunspot area signals recorded from the whole solar disc, and separately from the Northern and Southern hemispheres, were expanded into a set of intrinsic modes with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition technique. Instant and mean periods of each empirical mode were obtained with the use of the Hilbert transform applied independently to each separate mode. The periodicities were allocated to three distinct groups: short-term variations (with periods shorter than 0.5 yr), quasi-biennial oscillations (with typical periods from 0.5 yr to 3.9 yr), and longer periodicities, e.g. such as the 11 yr cycle. All periodicities detected in the examined solar cycles 22-24 are consistent with the well-known results found in the earlier solar epochs. We have demonstrated that the HHT method is a good tool for characterizing periodicities in the helioseismic data, which are necessarily relatively limited in terms of their time resolution. Periodicities obtained using the helioseismic data are, nevertheless, consistent with those found in other proxies. Since helioseismic oscillations are sensitive to the solar interior, this indicates that the behaviour of surface and atmospheric magnetic activity reflects that of the Sun's internal magnetic field. All identified intrinsic modes are seen to have clear amplitude modulation highly correlated with the 11 yr cycle. This amplitude modulation is most pronounced in the short-period modes. The short-term periodicities were found to be multiples of the shortest period, of 25 d. This ordering of the short-term periodicities is consistent with the previous findings. Signatures of the north-south asymmetry were detected in the individual hemisphere sunspot area

  14. High endocytotic activity occurs periodically in the endplate region of denervated mouse striated muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, G; Tågerud, S

    1995-08-01

    High endocytotic activity after denervation of skeletal muscle occurs in a proportion of muscle fibers (both slow and fast fiber types) in the endplate region. The present study was performed in order to examine if a periodicity in the endocytotic activity could explain why the process is not observed in all fibers at a given time. Three markers, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), rhodamine B isothiocyanate-labeled dextran, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran were used to demonstrate endocytotic activity of muscle fibers of the denervated mouse hemidiaphragm in vivo. Acetylcholine esterase staining was used in conjunction with HRP uptake to determine the proportion of denervated muscle fibers with endocytotic activity in the endplate region at any one time. The results show that 25-50% of the muscle fibers display high endocytotic activity in the endplate region at a given time 10 days after denervation. The existence of a periodicity in this endocytotic activity is suggested by results obtained using two different endocytotic markers administered at time intervals of 0-7 days. We conclude that loss of contact with the innervating motorneuron induces a high endocytotic activity which occurs periodically in the perisynaptic region of skeletal muscle fibers.

  15. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN…

  16. Periodic variations in the activity of Comet P/Halley during the 1985/1986 apparition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schleicher, David G.; Millis, Robert L.; Thompson, Don T.; Birch, Peter V.; Martin, Ralph; Tholen, David J.; Piscitelli, Joseph R.; Lark, Neil L.; Hammel, Heidi B.

    1990-01-01

    A search for periodic variation in the production of gas and dust by Comet Halley has been performed using narrowband photometric measurements from four sites - Lowell Observatory, Mauna Kea Observatory, Perth Observatory, and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The method of phase dispersion minimization was applied to observations made during 164 observing nights between September 1985 and June 1986. A clear-cut variation, with a period near 7.4 days, was present throughout the postperihelion window. Less conclusive evidence of a similar period has been found in the pre-perihelion data. No indication of a shorter period or of strong sporadic activity exists in the data. The observations require that Halley's nucleus returns to essentially the same orientation with respect to the sun approximately every 7.4 days except for longer-timescale seasonal evolution. This fact precludes certain proposed models of nuclear motion.

  17. Periodic variations in the activity of Comet P/Halley during the 1985/1986 apparition

    SciTech Connect

    Schleicher, D.G.; Millis, R.L.; Thompson, D.T.; Birch, P.V.; Martin, R.; Tholen, D.J.; Piscitelli, J.R.; Lark, N.L.; Hammel, H.B. Perth Observatory, Bickley Hawaii Univ., Honolulu Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA JPL, Pasadena, CA )

    1990-09-01

    A search for periodic variation in the production of gas and dust by Comet Halley has been performed using narrowband photometric measurements from four sites - Lowell Observatory, Mauna Kea Observatory, Perth Observatory, and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The method of phase dispersion minimization was applied to observations made during 164 observing nights between September 1985 and June 1986. A clear-cut variation, with a period near 7.4 days, was present throughout the postperihelion window. Less conclusive evidence of a similar period has been found in the pre-perihelion data. No indication of a shorter period or of strong sporadic activity exists in the data. The observations require that Halley's nucleus returns to essentially the same orientation with respect to the sun approximately every 7.4 days except for longer-timescale seasonal evolution. This fact precludes certain proposed models of nuclear motion. 53 refs.

  18. Functions of delay-period activity in the prefrontal cortex and mnemonic scotomas revisited

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is one of key concepts to understand functions of the prefrontal cortex. Delay-period activity is an important neural correlate to understand the role of WM in prefrontal functions. The importance of delay-period activity is that this activity can encode not only visuospatial information but also a variety of information including non-spatial visual features, auditory and tactile stimuli, task rules, expected reward, and numerical quantity. This activity also participates in a variety of information processing including sensory-to-motor information transformation. These mnemonic features of delay-period activity enable to perform various important operations that the prefrontal cortex participates in, such as executive controls, and therefore, support the notion that WM is an important function to understand prefrontal functions. On the other hand, although experiments using manual versions of the delayed-response task had revealed many important findings, an oculomotor version of this task enabled us to use multiple cue positions, exclude postural orientation during the delay period, and further prove the importance of mnemonic functions of the prefrontal cortex. In addition, monkeys with unilateral lesions exhibited specific impairment only in the performance of memory-guided saccades directed toward visual cues in the visual field contralateral to the lesioned hemisphere. This result indicates that memories for visuospatial coordinates in each hemifield are processed primarily in the contralateral prefrontal cortex. This result further strengthened the idea of mnemonic functions of the prefrontal cortex. Thus, the mnemonic functions of the prefrontal cortex and delay-period activity may not need to be reconsidered, but should be emphasized. PMID:25698942

  19. Functions of delay-period activity in the prefrontal cortex and mnemonic scotomas revisited.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is one of key concepts to understand functions of the prefrontal cortex. Delay-period activity is an important neural correlate to understand the role of WM in prefrontal functions. The importance of delay-period activity is that this activity can encode not only visuospatial information but also a variety of information including non-spatial visual features, auditory and tactile stimuli, task rules, expected reward, and numerical quantity. This activity also participates in a variety of information processing including sensory-to-motor information transformation. These mnemonic features of delay-period activity enable to perform various important operations that the prefrontal cortex participates in, such as executive controls, and therefore, support the notion that WM is an important function to understand prefrontal functions. On the other hand, although experiments using manual versions of the delayed-response task had revealed many important findings, an oculomotor version of this task enabled us to use multiple cue positions, exclude postural orientation during the delay period, and further prove the importance of mnemonic functions of the prefrontal cortex. In addition, monkeys with unilateral lesions exhibited specific impairment only in the performance of memory-guided saccades directed toward visual cues in the visual field contralateral to the lesioned hemisphere. This result indicates that memories for visuospatial coordinates in each hemifield are processed primarily in the contralateral prefrontal cortex. This result further strengthened the idea of mnemonic functions of the prefrontal cortex. Thus, the mnemonic functions of the prefrontal cortex and delay-period activity may not need to be reconsidered, but should be emphasized.

  20. Pulsed Light Stimulation Increases Boundary Preference and Periodicity of Episodic Motor Activity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shuang; Xiao, Chengfeng; Robertson, R. Meldrum

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the therapeutic benefits of long-term sensory stimulation for improving cognitive abilities and motor performance of stroke patients. The rationale is that such stimulation would activate mechanisms of neural plasticity to promote enhanced coordination and associated circuit functions. Experimental approaches to characterize such mechanisms are needed. Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most attractive model organisms to investigate neural mechanisms responsible for stimulation-induced behaviors with its powerful accessibility to genetic analysis. In this study, the effect of chronic sensory stimulation (pulsed light stimulation) on motor activity in w1118 flies was investigated. Flies were exposed to a chronic pulsed light stimulation protocol prior to testing their performance in a standard locomotion assay. Flies responded to pulsed light stimulation with increased boundary preference and travel distance in a circular arena. In addition, pulsed light stimulation increased the power of extracellular electrical activity, leading to the enhancement of periodic electrical activity which was associated with a centrally-generated motor pattern (struggling behavior). In contrast, such periodic events were largely missing in w1118 flies without pulsed light treatment. These data suggest that the sensory stimulation induced a response in motor activity associated with the modifications of electrical activity in the central nervous system (CNS). Finally, without pulsed light treatment, the wild-type genetic background was associated with the occurrence of the periodic activity in wild-type Canton S (CS) flies, and w+ modulated the consistency of periodicity. We conclude that pulsed light stimulation modifies behavioral and electrophysiological activities in w1118 flies. These data provide a foundation for future research on the genetic mechanisms of neural plasticity underlying such behavioral modification. PMID:27684063

  1. An Activation Energy Experiment for a Second-Order Reaction in a Single Laboratory Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barile, Raymond C.; Michiels, Leo P.

    1983-01-01

    Describes modification of a chemical reaction to a single 4 1/2-hour laboratory period. Reaction kinetics between 2, 4-initrochlorobenzene and piperidine to form 2, 4-dinitrophenyl-piperidine and piperidinium hydrochloride are followed conductometrically at three temperatures to obtain data to calculate activation parameters. (Author/JN)

  2. 75 FR 48553 - Supplement to Commission Procedures During Periods of Emergency Operations Requiring Activation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 376 Supplement to Commission Procedures During Periods of Emergency Operations Requiring Activation of Continuity of Operations Plan Issued August 5, 2010....

  3. The period of the somite segmentation clock is sensitive to Notch activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woong; Matsui, Takaaki; Yamao, Masataka; Ishibashi, Makoto; Tamada, Kota; Takumi, Toru; Kohno, Kenji; Oba, Shigeyuki; Ishii, Shin; Sakumura, Yuichi; Bessho, Yasumasa

    2011-01-01

    The number of vertebrae is defined strictly for a given species and depends on the number of somites, which are the earliest metameric structures that form in development. Somites are formed by sequential segmentation. The periodicity of somite segmentation is orchestrated by the synchronous oscillation of gene expression in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), termed the “somite segmentation clock,” in which Notch signaling plays a crucial role. Here we show that the clock period is sensitive to Notch activity, which is fine-tuned by its feedback regulator, Notch-regulated ankyrin repeat protein (Nrarp), and that Nrarp is essential for forming the proper number and morphology of axial skeleton components. Null-mutant mice for Nrarp have fewer vertebrae and have defective morphologies. Notch activity is enhanced in the PSM of the Nrarp−/– embryo, where the ∼2-h segmentation period is extended by 5 min, thereby forming fewer somites and their resultant vertebrae. Reduced Notch activity partially rescues the Nrarp−/– phenotype in the number of somites, but not in morphology. Therefore we propose that the period of the somite segmentation clock is sensitive to Notch activity and that Nrarp plays essential roles in the morphology of vertebrae and ribs. PMID:21795391

  4. Periodicity and Hemispheric Phase Relationship in High-Latitude Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qixiu

    2008-05-01

    The counts of the monthly averaged polar faculae, from observations of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), are examined by using linear and nonlinear approaches to find the periodicity characteristics of the polar faculae in the northern and southern hemispheres and the phase relationship between them. Both the cross-wavelet transform (XWT) and wavelet coherence (WTC) indicate the prominent period with 95% confidence level, namely the Schwabe cycle of about 11 years. The Schwabe cycle is in phase in the two hemispheres. Within the 11-year frequency band, there is a small phase difference during the period of 1966 - 1975 when the activity of polar faculae in the northern hemisphere slightly leads the one in the southern hemisphere. A cross-recurrence plot analysis and the line of synchronization (LOS) extracted from the cross-recurrence plot show further the phase difference between the two hemispheres. The LOS deviates significantly from the main diagonal during the period of 1965 - 1970 and LOS >0, showing that the activity of polar faculae in the northern hemisphere leads in phase, which is in accordance with XWT and WTC analyses. Moreover, asynchronization is highest (about 30 months) during this period.

  5. Periodic patterning of the Drosophila eye is stabilized by the diffusible activator Scabrous

    PubMed Central

    Gavish, Avishai; Shwartz, Arkadi; Weizman, Abraham; Schejter, Eyal; Shilo, Ben-Zion; Barkai, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Generation of periodic patterns is fundamental to the differentiation of multiple tissues during development. How such patterns form robustly is still unclear. The Drosophila eye comprises ∼750 units, whose crystalline order is set during differentiation of the eye imaginal disc: an activation wave sweeping across the disc is coupled to lateral inhibition, sequentially selecting pro-neural cells. Using mathematical modelling, here we show that this template-based lateral inhibition is highly sensitive to spatial variations in biochemical parameters and cell sizes. We reveal the basis of this sensitivity, and suggest that it can be overcome by assuming a short-range diffusible activator. Clonal experiments identify Scabrous, a previously implicated inhibitor, as the predicted activator. Our results reveal the mechanism by which periodic patterning in the fly eye is stabilized against spatial variations, highlighting how the need to maintain robustness shapes the design of patterning circuits. PMID:26876750

  6. Periodicity Signatures of Lightcurves of Active Comets in Non-Principal-Axis Rotational States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Mueller, Beatrice E. A.; Barrera, Jose G.

    2016-10-01

    There are two comets (1P/Halley, 103P/Hartley 2) that are unambiguously in non-principal-axis (NPA) rotational states in addition to a few more comets that are candidates for NPA rotation. Considering this fact, and the ambiguities associated with how to accurately interpret the periodicity signatures seen in lightcurves of active comets, we have started an investigation to identify and characterize the periodicity signatures present in simulated lightcurves of active comets. We carried out aperture photometry of simulated cometary comae to generate model lightcurves and analyzed them with Fourier techniques to identify their periodicity signatures. These signatures were then compared with the input component periods of the respective NPA rotational states facilitating the identification of how these periodicity signatures are related to different component periods of the NPA rotation. Ultimately, we also expect this study to shed light on why only a small fraction of periodic comets is in NPA rotational states, whereas theory indicates a large fraction of them should be in NPA states (e.g., Jewitt 1999, EMP, 79, 35). We explore the parameter space with respect to different rotational states, different orientations for the total rotational angular momentum vector, and different locations on the nucleus for the source region(s). As for special cases, we also investigate potential NPA rotational states representative of comet 103P/Hartley2, the cometary target of the EPOXI mission. The initial results from our investigation will be presented at the meeting. The NASA DDAP Program supports this work through grant NNX15AL66G.

  7. Frequency-specific electrocorticographic correlates of working memory delay period fMRI activity.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Faraz; Tandon, Nitin; Tertel, Kathrin; Pieters, Thomas A; Disano, Michael A; Ellmore, Timothy M

    2011-06-01

    Electrocorticography (ECoG) and functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI) have been used previously to measure brain activity during working memory delay periods. These studies have separately reported oscillation changes in the theta (4-8 Hz) band and BOLD-fMRI increases during delay periods when information is maintained in memory. However, it is not known how intracranial cortical field potential (CFP) changes relate to BOLD-fMRI responses during delay periods. To answer this question, fMRI was obtained from six epilepsy patients during a visual working memory task. Then, following subdural macroelectrode implant, continuous ECoG was used to record CFPs during the same task. Time-frequency analyses showed delay period gamma band oscillation amplitude increases on electrodes located near fMRI activity, while in the theta band changes were higher for electrodes located away from fMRI activation. The amplitude of the ECoG gamma band response was significantly positively correlated with the fMRI response, while a negative correlation was found for the theta band. The findings are consistent with previous reports of local field potential (LFP) coupling in the gamma band with BOLD-fMRI responses during visual stimulation in monkeys, but are novel in that the relationship reported here persists after the disappearance of visual stimuli while information is being maintained in memory. We conclude that there is a relationship between BOLD-fMRI increases and human working memory delay period gamma oscillation increases and theta decreases. The spectral profile change provides a basis for comparison of working memory delay period BOLD-fMRI with field potential recordings in animals and other human intracranial EEG studies.

  8. Prefrontal activity during response inhibition decreases over time in the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Bannbers, Elin; Gingnell, Malin; Engman, Jonas; Morell, Arvid; Sylvén, Sara; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kask, Kristiina; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Wikström, Johan; Poromaa, Inger Sundström

    2013-03-15

    The postpartum period is characterized by complex hormonal changes, but human imaging studies in the postpartum period have thus far predominantly focused on the neural correlates of maternal behavior or postpartum depression, whereas longitudinal studies on neural correlates of cognitive function across the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. The aim of this study was to longitudinally examine response inhibition, as a measure of executive function, during the postpartum period and its neural correlates in healthy postpartum women and non-postpartum controls. Thirteen healthy postpartum women underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a Go/NoGo task. The first assessment was made within 48 h of delivery, and the second at 4-7 weeks postpartum. In addition, 13 healthy women examined twice during the menstrual cycle were included as non-postpartum controls. In postpartum women region of interest analyses revealed task-related decreased activations in the right inferior frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and bilateral precentral gyri at the late postpartum assessment. Generally, postpartum women displayed lower activity during response inhibition in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and precentral gyri compared to non-postpartum controls. No differences in performance on the Go/NoGo task were found between time-points or between groups. In conclusion, this study has discovered that brain activity in prefrontal areas during a response inhibition task decreases throughout the course of the first postpartum weeks and is lower than in non-postpartum controls. Further studies on the normal adaptive brain activity changes that occur during the postpartum period are warranted.

  9. Monitoring and validating the temporal dynamics of interday streamflow from two upland head micro-watersheds with different vegetative conditions during dry periods of the growing season in the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Deutscher, Jan; Kupec, Petr

    2014-06-01

    At present, dynamic land use, climate change, and growing needs for fresh water are increasing the demand on the ecosystem effects of forest vegetation. Mountainous areas are at the forefront of scientific interest in European forest ecology and forest hydrology. Although uplands cover a significant area of the Czech Republic and other countries and are often covered with forest formations, they do not receive an appropriate amount of attention. Therefore, two experimental upland head micro-watersheds in the Bohemian Massif were selected for study because they display similar natural conditions, but different vegetative conditions (forest versus meadow). During the 2011 growing season, short-term streamflow measurements were carried out at the discharge profiles of both catchments and were evaluated in relation to climatic data (rainfall and temperature). The basic premise was that the streamflow in a forested catchment must exhibit different temporal dynamics compared to that in treeless areas and that these differences can be attributed to the effects of woody vegetation. These conclusions were drawn from measurements performed during dry periods lasting several days. A decreasing streamflow trend during the day part of the day (0900-1900 hours) was observed in both localities. The decrease reached approx. 44 % of the initial morning streamflow (0.24 dm(3) s(-1) day(-1)) in the treeless catchment and approx. 20 % (0.19 dm(3) s(-1) day(-1)) in the forested catchment. At night (1900-0900 hours), the streamflow in the forested catchment increased back to its initial level, whereas the streamflow in the treeless catchment stagnated or slowly decreased. We attribute these differences to the ecosystem effects of woody vegetation and its capacity to control water loss during the day. This type of vegetation can also function as a water source for the hydrographic network during the night.

  10. Context-dependent spatially periodic activity in the human entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Nadasdy, Zoltan; Nguyen, T Peter; Török, Ágoston; Shen, Jason Y; Briggs, Deborah E; Modur, Pradeep N; Buchanan, Robert J

    2017-04-10

    The spatially periodic activity of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of the rodent, primate, and human provides a coordinate system that, together with the hippocampus, informs an individual of its location relative to the environment and encodes the memory of that location. Among the most defining features of grid-cell activity are the 60° rotational symmetry of grids and preservation of grid scale across environments. Grid cells, however, do display a limited degree of adaptation to environments. It remains unclear if this level of environment invariance generalizes to human grid-cell analogs, where the relative contribution of visual input to the multimodal sensory input of the EC is significantly larger than in rodents. Patients diagnosed with nontractable epilepsy who were implanted with entorhinal cortical electrodes performing virtual navigation tasks to memorized locations enabled us to investigate associations between grid-like patterns and environment. Here, we report that the activity of human entorhinal cortical neurons exhibits adaptive scaling in grid period, grid orientation, and rotational symmetry in close association with changes in environment size, shape, and visual cues, suggesting scale invariance of the frequency, rather than the wavelength, of spatially periodic activity. Our results demonstrate that neurons in the human EC represent space with an enhanced flexibility relative to neurons in rodents because they are endowed with adaptive scalability and context dependency.

  11. Generalized proportional integral control for periodic signals under active disturbance rejection approach.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Romero, John; Ramos, Germán A; Coral-Enriquez, Horacio

    2014-11-01

    Conventional repetitive control has proven to be an effective strategy to reject/track periodic signals with constant frequency; however, it shows poor performance in varying frequency applications. This paper proposes an active disturbance rejection methodology applied to a large class of uncertain flat systems for the tracking and rejection of periodic signals, in which the possibilities of the generalized proportional integral (GPI) observer-based control to address repetitive control problems are studied. In the proposed scheme, model uncertainties and external disturbances are lumped together in a general additive disturbance input that is estimated and rejected on-line. An illustrative case study of mechatronic nature is considered. Experimental results show that the proposed GPI observer-based control successfully rejects periodic disturbances even under varying speed conditions.

  12. Comprehensive model for the nucleus of Periodic Comet Tempel 2 and its activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive synergistic physical model for the nucleus of Periodic Comet Tempel 2 was developed on the basis of observations carried out in 1988. The model includes the best possible estimates of the comet's bulk properties (including the dimensions and the approximate shape), information on its state of rotation, and the characterization of its activity. The model is shown to be consistent with all lines of evidence that are currently available, including relevant information from earlier apparitions.

  13. The problem of the periodicity of the epidemic process. [solar activity effects on diphtheria outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yagodinskiy, V. N.; Konovalenko, Z. P.; Druzhinin, I. P.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of data from epidemics makes it possible to determine their principal causes, governed by environmental factors (solar activity, etc.) The results of an analysis of the periodicity of the epidemic process in the case of diphtheria are presented which was conducted with the aid of autocorrelation and spectral methods of analysis. Numerical data (annual figures) are used on the dynamics of diphtheria in 50 regions (points) with a total duration of 2,777 years.

  14. [The activity of nonspecific bone marrow and spleen suppressors in the latent period of tumor growth].

    PubMed

    Ogreba, V I; Kusmartsev, S A; Vasil'ev, N V

    1988-01-01

    Female A/Sn mice aged 2-3 and 11-14 months (with spontaneous adenocarcinomas of the mammary gland and tumor-free) and C57Bl/6 mice were followed after treatment with DMBA. Suppressor cells were tested for the ability to inhibit in vivo antibody responses to sheep erythrocytes by adoptively syngeneically transferred cells. It was demonstrated that the activity of nonspecific suppressors of the bone marrow and spleen increases considerably in the precancer period.

  15. Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Induces Period-Doubling Cascades and Chaos in a Cold Thermoreceptor Model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kesheng; Maidana, Jean P; Caviedes, Mauricio; Quero, Daniel; Aguirre, Pablo; Orio, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe and analyze the chaotic behavior of a conductance-based neuronal bursting model. This is a model with a reduced number of variables, yet it retains biophysical plausibility. Inspired by the activity of cold thermoreceptors, the model contains a persistent Sodium current, a Calcium-activated Potassium current and a hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) that drive a slow subthreshold oscillation. Driven by this oscillation, a fast subsystem (fast Sodium and Potassium currents) fires action potentials in a periodic fashion. Depending on the parameters, this model can generate a variety of firing patterns that includes bursting, regular tonic and polymodal firing. Here we show that the transitions between different firing patterns are often accompanied by a range of chaotic firing, as suggested by an irregular, non-periodic firing pattern. To confirm this, we measure the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the voltage trajectories, and the Lyapunov exponent and Lempel-Ziv's complexity of the ISI time series. The four-variable slow system (without spiking) also generates chaotic behavior, and bifurcation analysis shows that this is often originated by period doubling cascades. Either with or without spikes, chaos is no longer generated when the Ih is removed from the system. As the model is biologically plausible with biophysically meaningful parameters, we propose it as a useful tool to understand chaotic dynamics in neurons.

  16. Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Induces Period-Doubling Cascades and Chaos in a Cold Thermoreceptor Model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kesheng; Maidana, Jean P.; Caviedes, Mauricio; Quero, Daniel; Aguirre, Pablo; Orio, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe and analyze the chaotic behavior of a conductance-based neuronal bursting model. This is a model with a reduced number of variables, yet it retains biophysical plausibility. Inspired by the activity of cold thermoreceptors, the model contains a persistent Sodium current, a Calcium-activated Potassium current and a hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) that drive a slow subthreshold oscillation. Driven by this oscillation, a fast subsystem (fast Sodium and Potassium currents) fires action potentials in a periodic fashion. Depending on the parameters, this model can generate a variety of firing patterns that includes bursting, regular tonic and polymodal firing. Here we show that the transitions between different firing patterns are often accompanied by a range of chaotic firing, as suggested by an irregular, non-periodic firing pattern. To confirm this, we measure the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the voltage trajectories, and the Lyapunov exponent and Lempel-Ziv's complexity of the ISI time series. The four-variable slow system (without spiking) also generates chaotic behavior, and bifurcation analysis shows that this is often originated by period doubling cascades. Either with or without spikes, chaos is no longer generated when the Ih is removed from the system. As the model is biologically plausible with biophysically meaningful parameters, we propose it as a useful tool to understand chaotic dynamics in neurons. PMID:28344550

  17. Longitudinal Distribution of Solar Magnetic Fields and Activity During the Ending and Starting Periods of Activity Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumba, V.; Garcia, A.; Klvaňa, M.

    2000-10-01

    Studying the appearance of active regions during periods of solar activity minima, we observed that the magnetic fields of active regions belonging to the old and new cycle were mutually related. This was the reason we decided to investigate the relation of the old and new cycle activity during the two last minima in more detail. We examined the distribution of both activities in heliographic longitude, because the patterns of such distribution change substantially during the time of the minimum, and we studied their relation to the distribution and development of the global (background) magnetic field. We observed that the active regions of the old and new cycles tended to concentrate in the same active longitudes. The sources of their magnetic fluxes seem to have the same heliographic longitude. The beginning of the new cycle activity, occurring at the very beginning to a very weak degree in the equatorial zone, and then proceeding to higher latitudes, occurs in the magnetic field remnants of the old cycle activity. During the transition phase, a relatively large number of small active regions is produced by both cycles.

  18. The periodicities of Solar Magnetic Activity with the Wavelet Coherence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel

    The origin, behavior and evolution of the solar magnetic field is one of the main challenges of observational and theoretical solar physics. Up to now the Dynamo theory gives us the best approach to the problem. However, it is not yet able to predict many features of the solar activity, which seems not to be strictly a periodical phenomenon. Among the indicators of solar magnetic variability there is the 11-years cycle of sunspots, as well as the solar magnetic cycle of 22 years (the Hale cycle). In order to provide more elements to the Dynamo theory that could help it in the predicting task, we analyze here the plausible existence of other periodicities associated with the solar magnetic field. In this preliminary work we use historical data (sunspots and aurora borealis), proxies (10 Be and 14 C) and modern instrumental data (Coronal Holes, Cosmic Rays, sunspots, flare indexes and solar radio flux at 10.7 cm). To find relationships between different time-frequency series we have employed the Wavelet Coherence technique: this technique indicates if two time-series of solar activity have the same periodicities in a given time interval. If so, it determines whether such relation is a linear one or not. Such a powerful tool indicates that, if some periodicity at a given frequency has a confidence level below 95%, it appears very lessened or does not appear in the Wavelet Spectral Analysis, such periodicity does not exist. Our results show that the so called Glaisberg cycle of 80-90 years and the periodicity of 205 years (the Suess cycle) do not exist. It can be speculated that such fictitious periodicities have been the result of using the Fourier transform with series with are not of stationary nature, as it is the case of the Be10 and C14 series. In contrast we confirm the presence of periodicities of 1.3, 1.7, quasi-triennial, quasi-quinquennial, Shawabe-cycle, Gale-cycle 60, 120 and 240 years.

  19. Sera from cancer patients contain two oscillating ECTO-NOX activities with different period lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Sui; Morre, Dorothy M.; Morre, D. James

    2003-01-01

    ECTO-NOX protein's are cell surface-associated and growth-related hydroquinone oxidases with both protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity and the capacity to oxidize NAD(P)H. The activities of these ECTO-NOX proteins are not steady state but fluctuate to create a repeating pattern of oscillations. Two forms of ECTO-NOX activities have been distinguished. The constitutive ECTO-NOX (CNOX), is hormone responsive and refractory to quinone-site inhibitors. A tumor-associated NOX (tNOX) is unregulated, refractory to hormones and growth factors and responds to quinone-site inhibitors. CNOX proteins are widely distributed and exhibit oscillations in enzymatic activity with a period length of 24 min. tNOX proteins are cancer specific and exhibit oscillations with a period length of about 22 min. Our findings now demonstrate the presence of the novel oscillating tNOX activity in sera of patients with cancer whereas the constitutive NOX of non-cancer cells is present in sera of both cancer patients and healthy volunteers. We conclude that ECTO-NOX proteins in sera exhibit oscillatory characteristics similar to those of ECTO-NOX forms of the cell surface.

  20. Active longitudes in the period of overlap of 11-year cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramynin, A. P.; Mikhalina, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    It is shown that "active longitudes" for the sunspots of old and new cycles manifest themselves approximately in the same longitudinal intervals and remain for several 11-year cycles. To be more accurate, they vanish in some cycles but then appear again at the same longitudinal intervals in the other cycles. The entire period is characterized by a total of four active longitudes. The old-cycle sunspots observed at low equatorial latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are characterized by a shift by ≈180°, which indicates antipodality of the active longitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In the case of highlatitude sunspots (new-cycle sunspots), the best correlation is observed for the shift of ≈90°. There is supposedly a dependence of the rotation speed of active longitudes on the secular cycle.

  1. High school chemistry students' learning of the elements, structure, and periodicity of the periodic table: Contributions of inquiry-based activities and exemplary graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddy, Knight Phares, Jr.

    The main research question of this study was: How do selected high school chemistry students' understandings of the elements, structure, and periodicity of the Periodic Table change as they participate in a unit study consisting of inquiry-based activities emphasizing construction of innovative science graphics? The research question was answered using a multiple case study/mixed model design which employed elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies during data collection and analyses. The unit study was conducted over a six-week period with 11th -grade students enrolled in a chemistry class. A purposive sample of six students from the class was selected to participate in interviews and concept map coconstruction (Wandersee & Abrams, 1993) periodically across the study. The progress of the selected students of the case study was compared to the progress of the class as a whole. The students of the case study were also compared to a group of high school chemistry students at a comparative school. The results show that the students from both schools left traditional instruction on the periodic table (lecture and textbook activities) with a very limited understanding of the topic. It also revealed that the inquiry-based, visual approach of the unit study helped students make significant conceptual progress in their understanding of the periodic table. The pictorial periodic table (which features photographs of the elements), used in conjunction with the graphic technique of data mapping, enhanced students understanding of the patterns of the physical properties of the elements on the periodic table. The graphic technique of compound mapping helped students learn reactivity patterns between types and groups of elements on the periodic table. The recreation of the periodic table with element cards created from the pictorial periodic table helped students progress in their understanding of periodicity and its key concepts. The Periodic Table Literacy

  2. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 08 (PERIODS 1-5 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is divided into two parts: Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collects information on the child's activities at home over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into five time periods over the 48-hr monitoring inter...

  3. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 09 (PERIODS 1-4 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is divided into two parts: Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collects information on the child's activities at home over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into four time periods over the 48-hr monitoring inter...

  4. Ozonated saline shows activity against planktonic and biofilm growing Staphylococcus aureus in vitro: a potential irrigant for infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Al-Saadi, Hayder; Potapova, Inga; Rochford, Edward Tj; Moriarty, Thomas F; Messmer, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Infections associated with deep wounds require extensive surgical and medical care. New adjunctive treatments are required to aid in the eradication of the bacterial biofilms found on infected wounds and, in particular, any underlying hardware. Ozone has been used as a safe and efficient disinfectant in water treatment plants for many years. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-biofilm potential of ozonated saline against biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, a microorganism commonly implicated in wound infections. A custom-made bacterial biofilm bioreactor was used to grow S. aureus biofilms on discs of medical grade titanium alloy. An ozone generator was connected in-line and biofilms and planktonic bacteria were exposed to ozone in saline. Cytotoxicity was assessed against primary ovine osteoblasts in the same system. In tests against planktonic S. aureus, a 99% reduction in bacterial numbers was detected within 15 minutes of exposure. S. aureus biofilms were significantly more resistant to ozone, although complete eradication of the biofilm was eventually achieved within 5 hours. Ozonated saline was not found to be cytotoxic to primary ovine osteoblasts. Ozonated saline may be suitable as an adjuvant therapy to treat patients as an instillation fluid for wound irrigation and sterilisation.

  5. Hurricane intensification along United States coast suppressed during active hurricane periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossin, James P.

    2017-01-01

    The North Atlantic ocean/atmosphere environment exhibits pronounced interdecadal variability that is known to strongly modulate Atlantic hurricane activity. Variability in sea surface temperature (SST) is correlated with hurricane variability through its relationship with the genesis and thermodynamic potential intensity of hurricanes. Another key factor that governs the genesis and intensity of hurricanes is ambient environmental vertical wind shear (VWS). Warmer SSTs generally correlate with more frequent genesis and greater potential intensity, while VWS inhibits genesis and prevents any hurricanes that do form from reaching their potential intensity. When averaged over the main hurricane-development region in the Atlantic, SST and VWS co-vary inversely, so that the two factors act in concert to either enhance or inhibit basin-wide hurricane activity. Here I show, however, that conditions conducive to greater basin-wide Atlantic hurricane activity occur together with conditions for more probable weakening of hurricanes near the United States coast. Thus, the VWS and SST form a protective barrier along the United States coast during periods of heightened basin-wide hurricane activity. Conversely, during the most-recent period of basin-wide quiescence, hurricanes (and particularly major hurricanes) near the United States coast, although substantially less frequent, exhibited much greater variability in their rate of intensification, and were much more likely to intensify rapidly. Such heightened variability poses greater challenges to operational forecasting and, consequently, greater coastal risk during hurricane events.

  6. Activity of 50 Long-period Comets Beyond 5.2 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Csák, B.; Kelemen, J.; Marschalkó, G.; Pál, A.; Szakáts, R.; Szalai, T.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Székely, P.; Vida, K.; Vinkó, J.; Kiss, L. L.

    2016-12-01

    Remote investigations of ancient matter in the solar system have traditionally been carried out through observations of long-period (LP) comets, which are less affected by solar irradiation than their short-period counterparts orbiting much closer to the Sun. Here we summarize the results of our decade-long survey of the distant activity of LP comets. We found that the most important separation in the data set is based on the dynamical nature of the objects. Dynamically new comets are characterized by a higher level of activity on average: the most active new comets in our sample can be characterized by Afρ values >3-4, higher than those for our most active returning comets. New comets develop more symmetric comae, suggesting a generally isotropic outflow. In contrast to this, the comae of recurrent comets can be less symmetrical, ocassionally exhibiting negative slope parameters, which suggest sudden variations in matter production. The morphological appearance of the observed comets is rather diverse. A surprisingly large fraction of the comets have long, tenuous tails, but the presence of impressive tails does not show a clear correlation with the brightness of the comets.

  7. LATINFOODS activities and challenges during the period of 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; de Pablo, Saturnino; Samman, Norma; Salazar de Ariza, Julieta; Masson, Lilia; de Nüñez, Leticia G; Wenzel de Menezes, Elizabete

    2014-09-01

    The Latin American Network of Food Composition Data System (LATINFOODS) is the regional data center of the global network "International Network on Food Data Systems" (INFOODS) co-sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations University (UNU). The aim of this work is to provide information on the main activities held and challenges during the period 2009- 2012. The activities included: network organization, technological development, research, web site modification, database location, publication of new food composition tables, organization and participation in scientific activities, assistance and training. During this period, new strategic alliances where food composition is key were developed. This promoted more activities and strengthen working links in the region. The main challenges were: 1) to improve and update the regional database 2) to improve the national capacities for generating and compiling data to elaborate and update the national food composition tables 3) to establish and implement the database software in branches; 4) to reach technical and financial sustainability. Despite the fact that the network has a dynamic structure consolidated, trained and experienced members, a database of regional food composition, specialized tools and documents; more support for sustainability and progress is required.

  8. Hurricane intensification along United States coast suppressed during active hurricane periods.

    PubMed

    Kossin, James P

    2017-01-19

    The North Atlantic ocean/atmosphere environment exhibits pronounced interdecadal variability that is known to strongly modulate Atlantic hurricane activity. Variability in sea surface temperature (SST) is correlated with hurricane variability through its relationship with the genesis and thermodynamic potential intensity of hurricanes. Another key factor that governs the genesis and intensity of hurricanes is ambient environmental vertical wind shear (VWS). Warmer SSTs generally correlate with more frequent genesis and greater potential intensity, while VWS inhibits genesis and prevents any hurricanes that do form from reaching their potential intensity. When averaged over the main hurricane-development region in the Atlantic, SST and VWS co-vary inversely, so that the two factors act in concert to either enhance or inhibit basin-wide hurricane activity. Here I show, however, that conditions conducive to greater basin-wide Atlantic hurricane activity occur together with conditions for more probable weakening of hurricanes near the United States coast. Thus, the VWS and SST form a protective barrier along the United States coast during periods of heightened basin-wide hurricane activity. Conversely, during the most-recent period of basin-wide quiescence, hurricanes (and particularly major hurricanes) near the United States coast, although substantially less frequent, exhibited much greater variability in their rate of intensification, and were much more likely to intensify rapidly. Such heightened variability poses greater challenges to operational forecasting and, consequently, greater coastal risk during hurricane events.

  9. Substorms observations during two geomagnetically active periods in March 2012 and March 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guineva, V.; Despirak, I.; Kozelov, B.

    2016-05-01

    In this work two events of strong geomagnetic activity were examined: the period 7-17 March 2012, which is one of the most disturbed periods during the ascending phase of Solar Cycle 24, and the severe geomagnetic storm on 17-20 March 2015. During the first period four consecutive magnetic storms occurred on 7, 9, 12, and 15 March. These storms were caused by Sheath, MC and HSS, and the detailed scenarios for the storms were different. The second event is a storm of fourth level with Kp = 8, the strongest one during the last four years, the so-called "St. Patrick's Day 2015 Event". A geomagnetic storm of such intensity was observed in September 2011. Our analysis was based on the 10-s sampled IMAGE magnetometers data, the 1-min sampled OMNI solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data and observations of the Multiscale Aurora Imaging Network (MAIN) in Apatity. The particularities in the behaviours of substorms connected with different storms during these two interesting strongly disturbed periods are discussed.

  10. Thrombolysis with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during early postpartum period: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Munetoshi; Nishida, Makoto

    2017-02-21

    Thromboembolic events are one of the leading causes of maternal death during the postpartum period. Postpartum thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is controversial because the treatment may lead to massive bleeding. Data centralization may be beneficial for analyzing the safety and effectiveness of systemic thrombolysis during the early postpartum period. We performed a computerized MEDLINE and EMBASE search. We collected data for 13 cases of systemic thrombolytic therapy during the early postpartum period, when limiting the early postpartum period to 48 hours after delivery. Blood transfusion was necessary in all cases except for one (12/13; 92%). In seven cases (7/13; 54%), a large amount of blood was required for transfusion. Subsequent laparotomy to control bleeding was required in five cases (5/13; 38%), including three cases of hysterectomy and two cases of hematoma removal, all of which involved cesarean delivery. In cases of transvaginal delivery, there was no report of laparotomy. The occurrence of severe bleeding was high in relation to cesarean section, compared with vaginal deliveries. Using rt-PA in relation to cesarean section might be worth avoiding. However, the paucity of data in the literature makes it difficult to assess the ultimate outcomes and safety of this treatment.

  11. Invertase activity of intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on sugar cane molasses. 1. Steady-state continuous culture tests

    SciTech Connect

    Vitolo, M.; Vairo, M.L.R.; Borzani, W.

    1985-08-01

    During the steady-state continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sugar cane blackstrap molasses under different experimental conditions, oscillatory variations of the invertase activity of the intact yeast cells were observed. The continuous morphological changes of the cells wall and of the periplasmic space affecting the interaction between invertase and sucrose molecules could be responsible by the observed oscillatory phenomena. The average invertase activity at the steady state is linearly correlated to the cell's growth rate.

  12. Activity-dependent PSA expression regulates inhibitory maturation and onset of critical period plasticity.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Graziella; Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Kuhlman, Sandra J; Fu, Yu; Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Wu, Cai Zhi; Rutishauser, Urs; Maffei, Lamberto; Huang, Z Josh

    2007-12-01

    Functional maturation of GABAergic innervation in the developing visual cortex is regulated by neural activity and sensory inputs and in turn influences the critical period of ocular dominance plasticity. Here we show that polysialic acid (PSA), presented by the neural cell adhesion molecule, has a role in the maturation of GABAergic innervation and ocular dominance plasticity. Concentrations of PSA significantly decline shortly after eye opening in the adolescent mouse visual cortex; this decline is hindered by visual deprivation. The developmental and activity-dependent regulation of PSA expression is inversely correlated with the maturation of GABAergic innervation. Premature removal of PSA in visual cortex results in precocious maturation of perisomatic innervation by basket interneurons, enhanced inhibitory synaptic transmission, and earlier onset of ocular dominance plasticity. The developmental and activity-dependent decline of PSA expression therefore regulates the timing of the maturation of GABAergic inhibition and the onset of ocular dominance plasticity.

  13. Radical-scavenging activity of natural methoxyphenols vs. synthetic ones using the induction period method.

    PubMed

    Kadoma, Yoshinori; Atsumi, Toshiko; Okada, Norihisa; Ishihara, Mariko; Yokoe, Ichiro; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

    2007-02-03

    The radical-scavenging activities of the synthetic antioxidants 2-allyl-4-X-phenol (X = NO2, Cl, Br, OCH3, COCH3, CH3, t-(CH3)3, C6H5) and 2,4-dimethoxyphenol, and the natural antioxidants eugenol and isoeugenol, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) by measuring their anti-1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity and the induction period for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO). 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol and 2,4-dimethoxy-phenol scavenged not only oxygen-centered radicals (PhCOO*) derived from BPO, but also carbon-centered radicals (R*) derived from the AIBN and DPPH radical much more efficiently, in comparison with eugenol and isoeugenol. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol may be useful for its lower prooxidative activity.

  14. Community level predictors of physical activity among women in the preconception period.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Sun, Haichun; Flory, Sara B; DeBate, Rita; Daley, Ellen M; Thompson, Erika; Bleck, Jennifer; Merrell, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Although physical activity is a key behavior targeted during the preconception period given its significant impact on pregnancy/birth outcomes and psychological well-being, few women meet national guidelines. While intrapersonal factors influencing physical activity among this population have been studied, community factors remain unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine community level predictors of physical activity among preconception women. Data from Add Health were limited to women (Wave III; age 18-28; n = 7,596) and excluded respondents who were pregnant, physically disabled, and missing data. The outcome variable was ≥5 instances of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 1 week. Community predictor variables included neighborhood-level structural and social determinants (e.g., socio-demographic composition; landscape diversity; urbanization; access to resources; crime; vehicle availability). Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds of engaging in ≥5 instances of MVPA. Few women (26 %) reported ≥5 instances of MVPA in 1 week. Adjusted multilevel analysis revealed women in the preconception period were more likely to report high MVPA when living in communities with larger population densities (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.02-1.77) and median household income greater than $50,000 (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.06-1.66). Additionally, a significant inverse trend was found between high MVPA and proportion of the community without a high school diploma. Findings suggest that neighborhood composition may have an impact on preconception physical activity status. Implications include increased efforts targeting community conditions for facilitating physical activity; ultimately, improving health among women and subsequent offspring.

  15. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  16. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  17. Methane Activation by 5 d Transition Metals: Energetics, Mechanisms, and Periodic Trends.

    PubMed

    Armentrout, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    Although it has been known for almost three decades that several 5d transition-metal cations will activate methane at room temperature, a more detailed examination of these reactions across the periodic table has only recently been completed. In this Minireview, we compare and contrast studies of the kinetic energy dependence of these reactions as studied using guided-ion-beam tandem mass spectrometry. Thermochemistry for the various products observed (MH(+) , MH2(+) , MC(+) , MCH(+) , MCH2(+) , and MCH3(+) ) are collected and periodic trends evaluated and discussed. The mechanisms for the reactions as elucidated by synergistic quantum chemical calculations are also reviewed. Recent spectroscopic evidence for the structures of the MCH2(+) dehydrogenation products are discussed as well.

  18. PERIOD CHANGES AND FOUR-COLOR LIGHT CURVES OF ACTIVE CONTACT BINARY VW BOOTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.; Li, L.-J.

    2011-05-15

    The secured four-color light curves of VW Boo were analyzed with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney code. It is confirmed that VW Boo is a shallow W-type contact binary system with a degree of contact factor f = 10.8%({+-} 0.5%). Two dark spots were found on the massive cool component this time. They cause an unequal depth of the two maxima. A period investigation based on all available visual, photographic, CCD, and photoelectric data shows that the period of the system includes a long-term decrease (dP/dt = -1.454 x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}) and an oscillation (A{sub 3} = 0.0059 days; T{sub 3} = 25.96 years). These may be caused by mass transfer, angular momentum loss, and cyclic magnetic activity.

  19. Composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils from three Origanum species growing wild in Lebanon and Greece.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Conforti, Filomena; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils from Origanum dictamnus, Origanum libanoticum and Origanum microphyllum were analysed by GC-MS, finding carvacrol, p-cymene, linalool, γ-terpinene and terpinen-4-ol as major components. The antioxidant activity by the DPPH and FRAP tests and the antiproliferative activity against two human cancer cell lines, LoVo and HepG2, were investigated, showing that the essential oil of O. dictamnus was statistically the most inhibitory on both the cell lines, while all the oils exerted a weak antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the samples were tested against 10 Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; all the oils were active on Gram-positive bacteria but O. dictamnus essential oil was the most effective (MIC = 25-50 μg/mL), showing also a good activity against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli (MIC = 50 μg/mL). Data suggest that these essential oils and particularly O. dictamnus oil could be used as valuable new flavours with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products.

  20. Periodic Estrogen Receptor-Beta Activation: A Novel Approach to Prevent Ischemic Brain Damage.

    PubMed

    Cue, Lauren; Diaz, Francisca; Briegel, Karoline J; Patel, Hersila H; Raval, Ami P

    2015-10-01

    In women, the risk for cerebral ischemia climbs rapidly after menopause. At menopause, production of ovarian hormones; i.e., progesterone and estrogen, slowly diminishes. Estrogen has been suggested to confer natural protection to premenopausal women from ischemic stroke and some of its debilitating consequences. This notion is also strongly supported by laboratory studies showing that a continuous chronic 17β-estradiol (E2; a potent estrogen) regimen protects brain from ischemic injury. However, concerns regarding the safety of the continuous intake of E2 were raised by the failed translation to the clinic. Recent studies demonstrated that repetitive periodic E2 pretreatments, in contrast to continuous E2 treatment, provided neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia in ovariectomized rats. Periodic E2 pretreatment protects hippocampal neurons through activation of estrogen receptor subtype beta (ER-β). Apart from neuroprotection, periodic activation of ER-β in ovariectomized rats significantly improves hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Difficulties in learning and memory loss are the major consequence of ischemic brain damage. Periodic ER-β agonist pretreatment may provide pharmacological access to a protective state against ischemic stroke and its debilitating consequences. The use of ER-β-selective agonists constitutes a safer target for future research than ER-α agonist or E2, inasmuch as it lacks the ability to stimulate the proliferation of breast or endometrial tissue. In this review, we highlight ER-β signaling as a guide for future translational research to reduce cognitive decline and cerebral ischemia incidents/impact in post-menopausal women, while avoiding the side effects produced by chronic E2 treatment.

  1. Variables associated with active and inactive behavior during the after-school period.

    PubMed

    Wickel, Eric

    2013-05-01

    This study analyzed time-use interviews to report levels of active and inactive behavior during the after-school period (3-6 pm). Interviews were conducted on random days from three separate seasons during third and fourth grade. Youth with at least two interviews during third (356 completed 2 interviews; 506 completed 3 interviews [9 yrs; 50% boys]) and fourth (186 completed 2 interviews; 768 completed 3 interviews [10 yrs; 50% boys]) grade were included to report levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity, inactive screen time, inactive nonscreen time, and travel by location and who the activity was undertaken with. Reporting time outside the home and with peers (single or group) was related to higher levels of MVPA. While inside the home, screen and nonscreen proportions were comparable (38% and 40%, respectively), despite unique patterns (screen: boys > girls; nonscreen: girls > boys). Reporting time with both parents was associated with more nonscreen time; whereas reporting time with peer groups was associated with lower screen time. Understanding active and inactive patterns of children's behavior outside of school hours can be very important in contributing toward the development of innovative interventions for increasing physical activity.

  2. Detection of (in)activity periods in human body motion using inertial sensors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved.

  3. Detection of (In)activity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M.; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved. PMID:22778613

  4. L-band active/passive time series measurements over a growing season usign the COMRAD ground-based SMAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scheduled to launch in October 2014, NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide high-resolution global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days. These new measurements of the hydrological condition of the Earth’s surface will build on data from European Spa...

  5. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT) Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas

    PubMed Central

    Koenig-Robert, Roger; VanRullen, Rufin; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging), a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI. PMID:26691722

  6. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT) Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas.

    PubMed

    Koenig-Robert, Roger; VanRullen, Rufin; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging), a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI.

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Demirci, Betül; Yeşilada, Erdem; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2009-07-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the dried leaves and flowers of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas were separately identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. The main components were alpha-fenchone (41.9 +/- 1.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.6 +/- 0.8%), camphor (12.1 +/- 0.5%), and viridiflorol (4.1 +/- 0.4%) in the leaves; and alpha-fenchone (39.2 +/- 0.9%), myrtenyl acetate (9.5 +/- 0.4%), alpha-pinene (6.1 +/- 0.09%), camphor (5.9 +/- 0.05%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8 +/- 0.1%) in the flowers. Overall, 55 and 66 constituents were identified in the leaf and flower essential oils representing more than 90% and 94% of the total, respectively. In addition, the essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticandidal activities by broth microdilution. The flower essential oil was found to be relatively more active than the leaf oil towards the tested pathogenic microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to the flower oil (MIC = 31.2 microg/mL). The oils, evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity using a TLC-DPPH assay, were inactive at a concentration of 2 mg/mL.

  8. Motivations for active commuting: a qualitative investigation of the period of home or work relocation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Promoting walking or cycling to work (active commuting) could help to increase population physical activity levels. According to the habit discontinuity and residential self-selection hypotheses, moving home or workplace is a period when people (re)assess, and may be more likely to change, their travel behavior. Research in this area is dominated by the use of quantitative research methods, but qualitative approaches can provide in-depth insight into the experiences and processes of travel behavior change. This qualitative study aimed to explore experiences and motivations regarding travel behavior around the period of relocation, in an effort to understand how active commuting might be promoted more effectively. Methods Participants were recruited from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort in the UK. Commuters who had moved home, workplace or both between 2009 and 2010 were identified, and a purposive sample was invited to participate in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences of, and travel behavior before and after, relocating. A grounded theory approach was taken to analysis. Results Twenty-six commuters participated. Participants were motivated by convenience, speed, cost and reliability when selecting modes of travel for commuting. Physical activity was not a primary motivation, but incidental increases in physical activity were described and valued in association with active commuting, the use of public transport and the use of park-and-ride facilities. Conclusions Emphasizing and improving the relative convenience, cost, speed and reliability of active commuting may be a more promising approach to promoting its uptake than emphasizing the health benefits, at least around the time of relocation. Providing good quality public transport and free car parking within walking or cycling distance of major employment sites may encourage the inclusion of active travel in the journey to work, particularly for people who live too

  9. PERIOD CHANGES AND FOUR-COLOR LIGHT CURVES OF THE ACTIVE OVERCONTACT BINARY V396 MONOCEROTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Qian, S.-B.; Liao, W.-P.; He, J.-J.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Li, L.-J.; Zhao, E.-G. E-mail: LiuL@ynao.ac.cn

    2011-02-15

    This paper analyzes the first obtained four-color light curves of V396 Mon using the 2003 version of the W-D code. It is confirmed that V396 Mon is a shallow W-type contact binary system with a mass ratio q = 2.554({+-}0.004) and a degree of contact factor f = 18.9%({+-}1.2%). A period investigation based on all available data shows that the period of the system includes a long-term decrease (dP/dt = -8.57 x 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}) and an oscillation (A{sub 3} = 0.0160 day, T{sub 3} = 42.4 yr). They are caused by angular momentum loss and light-time effect, respectively. The suspect third body is possibly a small M-type star (about 0.31 solar mass). Though some observations indicate that this system has strong magnetic activity, by our analysis we found that the Applegate mechanism cannot explain the periodic changes. This binary is an especially important system according to Qian's statistics of contact binaries as its mass ratio lies near the proposed pivot point about which the physical structure of contact binaries supposedly oscillates.

  10. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  11. Patient prognosis based on feature extraction, selection and classification of EEG periodic activity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Alain; García-Zapirain, Begoña; Maestro Saiz, Iratxe; Yurrebaso Santamaría, Izaskun

    2015-01-01

    Periodic activity in electroencephalography (PA-EEG) is shown as comprising a series of repetitive wave patterns that may appear in different cerebral regions and are due to many different pathologies. The diagnosis based on PA-EEG is an arduous task for experts in Clinical Neurophysiology, being mainly based on other clinical features of patients. Considering this difficulty in the diagnosis it is also very complicated to establish the prognosis of patients who present PA-EEG. The goal of this paper is to propose a method capable of determining patient prognosis based on characteristics of the PA-EEG activity. The approach, based on a parallel classification architecture and a majority vote system has proven successful by obtaining a success rate of 81.94% in the classification of patient prognosis of our database.

  12. A theory of the transition to critical period plasticity: inhibition selectively suppresses spontaneous activity.

    PubMed

    Toyoizumi, Taro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Yazaki-Sugiyama, Yoko; Atapour, Nafiseh; Hensch, Takao K; Miller, Kenneth D

    2013-10-02

    What causes critical periods (CPs) to open? For the best-studied case, ocular dominance plasticity in primary visual cortex in response to monocular deprivation (MD), the maturation of inhibition is necessary and sufficient. How does inhibition open the CP? We present a theory: the transition from pre-CP to CP plasticity arises because inhibition preferentially suppresses responses to spontaneous relative to visually driven input activity, switching learning cues from internal to external sources. This differs from previous proposals in (1) arguing that the CP can open without changes in plasticity mechanisms when activity patterns become more sensitive to sensory experience through circuit development, and (2) explaining not simply a transition from no plasticity to plasticity, but a change in outcome of MD-induced plasticity from pre-CP to CP. More broadly, hierarchical organization of sensory-motor pathways may develop through a cascade of CPs induced as circuit maturation progresses from "lower" to "higher" cortical areas.

  13. Denudation of Actively Growing Mountain Ranges in the Foreland of NE Tibet Inferred From in- Situ Produced Cosmogenic Be-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, L.; Hetzel, R.; Tao, M.; Li, X.

    2007-12-01

    At the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau ranges bounded by active thrust faults offer the unique opportunity to study the competing effects of uplift and erosion during the early stages of mountain building. Owing to along- strike variations in relief, slope, and lithology, these ranges are an ideal target for studying the influence of topography, lithology, and active faulting on denudation. Here we report spatially-averaged erosion rates for catchments situated along two of these ranges based on Be-10 concentrations of quartz in stream sediments. The Yumu Shan and the western Long Shou Shan are about 60 km long and their overall shape as well as the presence of wind gaps illustrates their vertical-lateral growth during Plio-Quaternary thrust faulting (Hetzel et al. 2004a). Erosion rates determined so far for 20 small catchments are variable and range from 20 to 550 mm/kyr. The observed variability results from at least three factors: (1) the erosion rate in catchments exposing the same lithology is positively correlated with relief and mean slope, (2) weakly consolidated Cretaceous sediments generally erode faster than low-grade Paleozoic bedrock, and (3) the erosion rate seems to decrease from the centre of the fault-bounded ranges towards their propagating tips. As rates of thrust faulting and rock uplift in the region (600-1200 mm/kyr; Hetzel et al., 2004a, b) exceed the denudation rates, the active growth of mountains and the lateral growth of Tibet has not yet come to rest. References Hetzel, R., Tao, M., Niedermann, S., Strecker, M.R., Ivy-Ochs, S., Kubik, P.W., Gao, B. (2004a). Implications of the fault scaling law for the growth of topography: Mountain ranges in the broken foreland of NE Tibet, Terra Nova 16, 157-162. Hetzel, R., Tao, M., Stokes, S., Niedermann, S., Ivy-Ochs, S., Gao, B., Strecker, M.R., Kubik, P.W. (2004b). Late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rate of the Zhangye thrust (Qilian Shan, China) and implications for the active growth of the

  14. Generalized investigation of the rotation-activity relation: favoring rotation period instead of Rossby number

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, A.; Passegger, V. M.; Schüssler, M.

    2014-10-20

    Magnetic activity in Sun-like and low-mass stars causes X-ray coronal emission which is stronger for more rapidly rotating stars. This relation is often interpreted in terms of the Rossby number, i.e., the ratio of rotation period to convective overturn time. We reconsider this interpretation on the basis of the observed X-ray emission and rotation periods of 821 stars with masses below 1.4 M {sub ☉}. A generalized analysis of the relation between X-ray luminosity normalized by bolometric luminosity, L {sub X}/L {sub bol}, and combinations of rotational period, P, and stellar radius, R, shows that the Rossby formulation does not provide the solution with minimal scatter. Instead, we find that the relation L {sub X}/L {sub bol}∝P {sup –2} R {sup –4} optimally describes the non-saturated fraction of the stars. This relation is equivalent to L {sub X}∝P {sup –2}, indicating that the rotation period alone determines the total X-ray emission. Since L {sub X} is directly related to the magnetic flux at the stellar surface, this means that the surface flux is determined solely by the star's rotation and is independent of other stellar parameters. While a formulation in terms of a Rossby number would be consistent with these results if the convective overturn time scales exactly as L{sub bol}{sup −1/2}, our generalized approach emphasizes the need to test a broader range of mechanisms for dynamo action in cool stars.

  15. Active immunization against ghrelin decreases weight gain and alters plasma concentrations of growth hormone in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Vizcarra, J A; Kirby, J D; Kim, S K; Galyean, M L

    2007-08-01

    Ghrelin has been implicated in the control of food intake and in the long-term regulation of body weight. We theorize that preventing the ability of ghrelin to interact with its receptors, would eventually lead to decreased appetite and thereby decrease body weight gain. To test our hypothesis, pigs were actively immunized against ghrelin. Ghrelin((1-10)) was conjugated to BSA and emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant and diethylaminoethyl-dextran. Primary immunization was given at 19 weeks of age (WOA), with booster immunizations given 20 and 40 days after primary immunization. Body weight (BW) and plasma samples were collected weekly beginning at 19 WOA, and feed intake was measured daily. Fourteen days after primary immunization, the percentage of bound (125)I-ghrelin in plasma from immunized pigs was increased compared with control animals (P<0.001). Voluntary feed intake was decreased more than 15% in animals that were actively immunized against ghrelin compared with controls. By the end of the experiment, immunized pigs weighed 10% less than control animals (P<0.1). Concentrations of GH were increased (P<0.05) in immunized pigs. Apoptosis was not observed in post-mortem samples obtained from the fundic region of the stomach. Our observations suggest that immunization against ghrelin induces mild anorexia. This procedure could potentially be used as a treatment to control caloric intake and obesity.

  16. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    PubMed Central

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Crespo, Juan M.; García, Sabrina S.; Zapiola, José M.; Luna, María F.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  17. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Origanum libanoticum, Origanum ehrenbergii, and Origanum syriacum Growing Wild in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Al Hafi, Monay; El Beyrouthy, Marc; Ouaini, Naim; Stien, Didier; Rutledge, Douglas; Chaillou, Sylvain

    2016-05-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of the aerial parts of Origanum libanoticum and Origanum ehrenbergii, endemic to Lebanon, and Origanum syriacum, endemic to the Levantine, were obtained by distillation with a Clevenger apparatus. GC and GC/MS allowed identification of 96.4%, 93.5%, and 95.2% of their constituents, respectively. Carvacrol was the major component of both O. syriacum EO (79%) and O. ehrenbergii EO (60.8%). This compound was absent in O. libanoticum EO and the major compounds were β-caryophyllene (26.8%), caryophyllene oxide (22.6%), and germacrene D (17.2%). The assessment of their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and six pathogenic bacteria revealed that O. libanoticum EO was inactive, while O. syriacum and O. ehrenbergii showed moderate antimicrobial activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations varying from 400 to 1200 μg/ml. These results support the traditional use of these last two species in traditional herbal preparations in Lebanon.

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus peuce (Pinaceae) growing wild in R. Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Karapandzova, Marija; Stefkova, Gjose; Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Trajkovska-Dokik, Elena; Kaftandzieva, Ana; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils isolated from twigs with needles (T+N) and from twigs without needles (T-N) from wild Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae), from three different locations in R. Macedonia, were investigated. Essential oil yields of T+N ranged from 7.5 mL/kg to 12.5 mL/kg and for T-N from 13.8 mL/kg to 17.3 mL/kg. GC/FID/MS analysis of the essential oils revealed eighty-four components, representing 93.7-95.7% and 91.2-92.0% of the T+N and T-N oils, respectively. The major components in T+N and T-N oils were monoterpenes: α-pinene (23.8-39.9%, 21.2-23.3%), camphene (2.2-5.5%, 0.7-2.0%), β-pinene (10.1-17.1%, 8.2-16.4%), myrcene (1.2-1.41%, 1.6-2.5%), limonene+β-phellandrene (6.8-14.0%, 8.8-23.6%) and bornyl acetate (2.3-6.9%, 1.1-3.4%), followed by the sesquiterpenes: trans-(E)-caryophyllene (3.6-4.3%, 3.2-7.3%), germacrene D (7.1-9.5%, 5.0-10.3%) and δ-cadinene (2.1-3.1%, 3.3-4.2%, respectively). Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disk diffusion and broth dilution methods against 13 bacterial isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. T-N essential oils showed antimicrobial activity toward Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Candida albicans as well as Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter spp. and Haemophilus influenzae. The antimicrobial activity of T+N essential oils was greater, especially against Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pyogenes, Enterococcus and Candida albicans, followed by Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all tested essential oils ranged from 15-125 μL/mL. Summarizing the obtained results, the antimicrobial activity of Pinus peuce T+N and T-N essential oils collected from different localities in R. Macedonia varied considerably. These alterations in the

  19. Very Long Period Seismicity Accompanying Increasing Shallower Activity at Cotopaxi Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, G.; Molina Polania, C. I.; Ruiz, M. C.; Kumagai, H.; Hernandez, S.; Plain, M.; Mothes, P. A.; Yepez, M.; Barrington, C.; Hidalgo, S.

    2015-12-01

    Cotopaxi is an andesitic stratovolcano, located in the highland region of Ecuador, which renewed its activity in April 2015, showing an increased number of volcano-tectonic (VT), long-period (LP), very long period events (VLP), and tremors. The VLP events were recorded in several episodes between 2002 and 2014, and have been interpreted as volumetric changes due to the release of gas and subsequent pressure drop and recovery in the magma intrusion. The two peaks of VLP seismicity in June 2002 and April 2015 preceded an increase of surficial activity (fumarolic increase) and the deformation data during those episodes suggested a small intrusion of magma beneath the volcano.Using polarization analysis, we found that most of these events were located at 2-3 km depth beneath the volcano summit, while the deformation data suggests the intrusion is deeper (5-10 km deep). Using tiltmeter data, Mogi point source modelling on successive periods of inflation and deflation show a significant shallowing of sources since the end of May 2015, matching the recent very large spike in SO2 emissions (~3000 t/d). From mid-February until the gas emission spikes in May 2015, Mogi source modelling has indicated inflation/deflation events at 11 to 10 km depth, having shallowed to a depth of between 8 and 7 km after the SO2 emission increase. Shallow source volumes suggested by deformation indicate values of 4 - 31x106 m3, with the most recent, most shallow inflation currently at 8x106 m3.

  20. The snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum grows faster and is more active in the shade, independent of food quality.

    PubMed

    Liess, A; Lange, K

    2011-09-01

    Ecological stoichiometry has advanced food web ecology by emphasising the importance of food quality over food quantity for herbivores. Here, we focus on the effects of abiotic factors such as nutrients and light (known to influence food quality) on grazer growth rates. As model organism we used the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum that is native to New Zealand but invasive elsewhere. In a stream channel experiment in New Zealand, we manipulated light (two levels) and nutrients (four levels) to achieve a range of primary producer carbon: nutrient ratios and added mudsnails (3 densities + ungrazed control) to 128 periphyton covered stream channels in a 2 × 4 × 4 full factorial design. We measured snail growth rate and activity, food quality and nutritional imbalance, to test the predictions that (1) less light and more nutrients increase periphyton food quality and thus snail growth rates, and (2) less crowding leads to higher food availability and thus higher snail growth rates. We found that snail growth rates were higher under low light than under high light intensities and this difference increased with increasing nutrient addition. These changes in growth rate were not mediated by food quality in terms of periphyton nutrient ratios. Furthermore, experimental treatments strongly affected snail behaviour. Snails grazed more actively in the low light treatments, and thus it is more likely that snail growth rates were directly affected by light levels, maybe as a result of innate predator avoidance behaviour or as a reaction to high UV intensities. We conclude that in our stream channels snail growth rate was limited by factors other than food quality and quantity such as UV exposure, algal defences or the relatively low ambient water temperature.

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus activity and climate parameters during a 12-year period.

    PubMed

    Sirimi, Natalia; Miligkos, Michael; Koutouzi, Foteini; Petridou, Evi; Siahanidou, Tania; Michos, Athanasios

    2016-06-01

    The epidemic pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during long periods and the factors that determine seasonality are not well studied. In order to correlate the RSV epidemic activity with climate parameters, we conducted a retrospective study of children (0-14 year) who were hospitalized because of respiratory tract infection and had an RSV test performed in the major tertiary pediatric hospital of Greece during a 12-year period (2002-2013). Daily data regarding temperature and humidity were obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service. A total of 2030/7516 (27%) children were tested positive for RSV infection. Among RSV positive children 1945/2030 (95.8%) were infants <1 year. A peak of RSV activity was measured in years 2002, 2003, and 2006 (>35% positive). The RSV season in our area spanned from December to April, with higher incidence during January through March. The peak monthly RSV incidence was observed during February with mean temperature 10.34 °C and mean relative humidity 69.16%. Regarding climate conditions, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between monthly RSV activity and mean monthly relative humidity (rho = 0.66, P-value = 0.02), whereas a negative correlation was found with mean monthly temperature (rho = -0.81, P-value = 0.002). However, in the multivariable analysis, only the effect of mean monthly temperature remained statistically significant (IRR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.80). Further understanding of RSV seasonality in different geographic areas would be important in order to timely implement preventing strategies with immunoprophylaxis or future RSV vaccines.

  2. Exploring the benefits of growing bioenergy crops to activate lead-contaminated agricultural land: a case study on sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Fen; Huang, Chin-Yuan; Chen, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Sheng-Chien; Lin, Yung-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Phytoremediation is the most environmentally friendly remediation technology for heavy metal contaminated soil. However, the phytoremediation approach requires a long time to yield results, and the plants used must be economically profitable to maintain the sustainability of the process. Because high levels of bioethanol can be produced from sweet potatoes, an experiment was conducted by planting sweet potatoes in a lead-contaminated site to observe their growth and lead-uptake capacity, thereby enabling the evaluation of the phytoremediation efficiency of sweet potatoes. The lead content in the soil was approximately 6000 mg kg(-1), and the phytoavailable Pb content was 1766 mg kg(-1). Three starch-rich sweet potato varieties, Tainung No. 10 (TNG-10), Tainung No. 31 (TNG-31), and Tainung No. 57 (TNG-57), were used in the experiment. The results indicated that TNG-10, TNG-31, and TNG-57 had fresh root tuber yields of 94.5, 133.0, and 47.5 ton ha(-1) year(-1), produced 9450, 13,297, and 4748 L ha(-1) year(-1) of bioethanol, and removed 2.68, 7.73, and 3.22 kg ha(-1) year(-1) of lead, respectively. TNG-31 yielded the highest bioethanol production and the highest lead removal in the lead-contaminated site. Therefore, implementing phytoremediation by planting TNG-31 would decrease lead content and generate income, thereby rendering the sustainable and applicable activation of contaminated soil possible.

  3. Volatile oil constituents and antibacterial activity of different parts of Falcaria vulgaris Bernh. growing wild in two localities from Iran.

    PubMed

    Shafaghat, A

    2011-02-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the flower, leaf and stem of Falcaria vulgaris Bernh., which is endemic to Iran, were analysed by GC and GC/MS (samples were from two different localities: A from Ardabil and B from Khalkhal). α-Pinene was the major constituent in all the three oils (flower, leaf and stem) from sample A (43.8%, 33.0% and 50.9%, respectively). The oil of F. vulgaris flower was characterised by a higher amount of β-caryophyllene (25.2%) and 1,8-cineole (12.8%) among the eight components comprising 96.2% of the total oil detected. α-Terpinyl acetate (23.2%) and limonene (14.4%) predominated in the leaf oil. In the oils of sample B, α-pinene (16.1% in the flower oil, 31.5% in the leaf oil and 34.5% in the stem oil) was the major compound. Limonene (14.2%) and germacrene D (32.1%) were also the main constituents found in the leaf oil from sample B. α-Terpinyl acetate (21.9% in the leaf oil) and limonene (29.8% in stem oil) were the other major compounds obtained from this sample. Antibacterial activity was determined by the measurement of growth inhibitory zones.

  4. Ancient cellular structures and modern humans: change of survival strategies before prolonged low solar activity period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragulskaya, Mariya; Rudenchik, Evgeniy; Gromozova, Elena; Voychuk, Sergei; Kachur, Tatiana

    The study of biotropic effects of modern space weather carries the information about the rhythms and features of adaptation of early biological systems to the outer space influence. The influence of cosmic rays, ultraviolet waves and geomagnetic field on early life has its signs in modern biosphere processes. These phenomena could be experimentally studied on present-day biological objects. Particularly inorganic polyphosphates, so-called "fossil molecules", attracts special attention as the most ancient molecules which arose in inanimate nature and have been accompanying biological objects at all stages of evolution. Polyphosphates-containing graves of yeast's cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Y-517, , from the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms was studied by daily measurements during 2000-2013 years. The IZMIRAN daily data base of physiological parameters dynamics during 2000-2013 years were analyzed simultaneously (25 people). The analysis showed significant simultaneous changes of the statistical parameters of the studied biological systems in 2004 -2006. The similarity of simultaneous changes of adaptation strategies of human organism and the cell structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the 23-24 cycles of solar activity are discussed. This phenomenon could be due to a replacement of bio-effective parameters of space weather during the change from 23rd to 24th solar activity cycle and nonstandard geophysical peculiarities of the 24th solar activity cycle. It could be suggested that the observed similarity arose as the optimization of evolution selection of the living systems in expectation of probable prolonged period of low solar activity (4-6 cycles of solar activity).

  5. The Impact of Level of Solar Activity on Mortality by Cause in Longtime Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolska, Katerina

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this presentation is to show the dependence of the intensity of mortality in the Czech Republic, according to the chosen causes of death according to ICD-10, on the solar activity during the increasing and decreasing phase of the solar cycle No.23 in the period 1994-2011. We use the methods of multivariate statistical analysis. The typology of time profiles for the causes of death is identified with the help of cluster analysis using time. The solar activity is represented by the indices R, Kp, F10.7 and Dst, and also by the height of the F2 layer and TEC for the Czech Republic. There are investigated groups of causes of death according to ICD-10 II. Neoplasms, VI. Diseases of the nervous system, XII. Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue and XVII. Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities. The correlation between the intensity of mortality from cardiovascular disease e.g. I21 (acute myocardial infarction) and I64 (stroke) and birth defect e.g. Q91 (Edwards' and Pataus' syndrom) and the solar activity parameters is discovered, as well as a stronger dependence on the height of the F2 layer and TEC. We also explored the influence of the above parameters on mortality by causes on degenerative diseases. Typology of time profiles for these causes of death are identified by cluster analysis using time and have found large differences between diagnoses.

  6. Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function1 2

    PubMed Central

    Leksrisompong, N.; Romero-Sanchez, H.; Oviedo-Rondón, E. O.; Brake, J.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen

  7. Diurnal anisotropy of cosmic rays during intensive solar activity for the period 2001-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezari, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.

    2016-07-01

    The diurnal variation of cosmic ray intensity, based on the records of two neutron monitor stations at Athens (Greece) and Oulu (Finland) for the time period 2001 to 2014, is studied. This period covers the maximum and the descending phase of the solar cycle 23, the minimum of the solar cycles 23/24 and the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24.These two stations differ in their geographic latitude and magnetic threshold rigidity. The amplitude and phase of the diurnal anisotropy vectors have been calculated on annual and monthly basis. From our analysis it is resulted that there is a different behaviour in the characteristics of the diurnal anisotropy during the different phases of the solar cycle, depended on the solar magnetic field polarity, but also during extreme events of solar activity, such as Ground Level Enhancements and cosmic ray events, such as Forbush decreases and magnetospheric events. These results may be useful to Space Weather forecasting and especially to Biomagnetic studies.

  8. A new solar activity parameter and the strength of 5-cycle periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Z. L.

    2006-10-01

    A weak 5-cycle periodicity ( r = -0.64) is found in the maximum amplitudes of the modern era sunspot cycles (11-23), slightly stronger than the 8-cycle (Gleissberg) periodicity ( r = 0.60). We propose a new parameter called 'effective duration', defined as the total sunspot numbers in a cycle divided by the maximum amplitude. This parameter has two advantages: one is that it is almost independent of the exact definition of minimum timing; another is that the maximum amplitude is found to be highly correlated ( r = 0.86) with this parameter five cycles before, when applied to the smoothed monthly mean sunspot numbers in modern era. Implied is that this parameter carries some information of the amplitude five cycles later, and may become one of the parameters to study solar activity and the theory of solar dynamo. With the relationship above, the amplitude of cycle 24 is estimated to be 115.7 ± 19.7, where the error is the standard error.

  9. Periodic and quiescent solar activity effects in the low ionosphere, using SAVNET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, F. C. P.; Raulin, J.-P.; Gavilan, H. R.; Kaufmann, P.; Raymundo, T. E.

    2010-10-01

    Important results have been acquired using the measurements of VLF amplitude and phase signals from the South America VLF Network (SAVNET) stations. This network is an international project coordinated by CRAAM, Brazil in cooperation with Peru and Argentina. It started operating in April 2006, and now counts on eight stations (Atibaia, Palmas, Santa Maria and Estaça~o Antártica Comandante Ferraz in Brazil; Piura, Punta-Lobos and Ica, in Peru; CASLEO, in Argentina). Researches, through the last decades, have demonstrated the versatility of the VLF technique for many scientific and technological purposes. In this work, we summarize some recent results using SAVNET data base. We have obtained daily maximum diurnal amplitude time series that exhibited behavior patterns in different time scales: 1) 1ong term variations indicating the solar activity level control of the low ionosphere; 2) characteristic periods of alternated slow and fast variations, the former being related to solar illumination conditions, and the latter that have been associated with the winter anomaly at high latitudes; 3) 27-days period related to the solar rotation and consequently associated to the solar Lyman-α radiation flux variations, reinforcing earlier theories about the importance of this spectral line for the D-region formation. Finally, we conclude presenting preliminary results of simulation using LWPC, which showed very good agreement at times of observed modal amplitude minima for a given VLF propagation path.

  10. On the Connection Between Solar Activity and Low-Latitude Aurorae in the Period 1715 - 1860

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Curto, J. J.

    2006-11-01

    Observations of aurorae borealis at low latitudes are very rare and are clearly associated with strong geomagnetic storms. Morphologically, they are characterized by a diffuse red colour with no rapid motions. The main aim of this paper is to analyse two hitherto ignored aurorae that were observed at two low-latitude sites, Tenerife (28°N 18°W) and Mexico City (19°N 99°W), in 1770 and 1789, respectively. These observations can give supplementary information about the level of solar activity at those times where direct solar observations were rather scarce. Studying also the behaviour of the heliosphere during this period using different proxies, we find that the open magnetic field better describes auroral occurrences. The variation over time in geomagnetic latitude at the two sites is also calculated.

  11. Global transcription regulation by DNA topoisomerase I in exponentially growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells: activation of telomere-proximal genes by TOP1 deletion.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Luca; Russo, Alessandra; Chillemi, Giovanni; Bueno, Susana; Cavalieri, Duccio; Capranico, Giovanni

    2008-03-21

    To establish the cellular functions of DNA topoisomerase I-B (Top1p) at a global level, we have determined the expression profiles and histone modification patterns affected by TOP1 gene deletion (DeltaTOP1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In exponentially growing cells, DeltaTOP1 specifically increases transcription of telomere-proximal genes and decreases glucose utilization and energy production pathways. Immunoprecipitation data demonstrate that Top1p can bind to and is catalytically active at telomeric DNA repeats, and that both DeltaTOP1 and an inactive Y727F Top1p mutant increase H4 histone acetylation at telomere-proximal regions. Interestingly, while the Y727F mutation has no influence on enzyme recruitment to chromatin sites, it has a marked effect on H4 K16 acetylation at subtelomeric regions. The Top1p mutation also increases H3 histone K4 dimethylation, which has been associated with gene transcription, at 3' termini of subtelomeric genes. No major effect of DeltaTOP1 or mutation was detected on Sir3p recruitment; however, DeltaTOP1 has an effect on transcript levels of genes known to regulate telomeric silencing. Thus, the findings indicate that Top1p activity can favor both a repressed chromatin organization and a reduced gene expression level at telomere-proximal regions in yeast. As telomere-proximal regions are known to be enriched for stress-activated genes, our findings show that Top1p can optimize transcript levels for cell growth in exponentially growing cells under a synthetic medium with glucose.

  12. Detailed investigation of Long-Period activity at Campi Flegrei by Convolutive Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, P.; De Lauro, E.; De Martino, S.; Falanga, M.

    2016-04-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of seismic signals continuously recorded at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the entire year 2006. The radiation pattern associated with the Long-Period energy release is investigated. We adopt an innovative Independent Component Analysis algorithm for convolutive seismic series adapted and improved to give automatic procedures for detecting seismic events often buried in the high-level ambient noise. The extracted waveforms characterized by an improved signal-to-noise ratio allows the recognition of Long-Period precursors, evidencing that the seismic activity accompanying the mini-uplift crisis (in 2006), which climaxed in the three days from 26-28 October, had already started at the beginning of the month of October and lasted until mid of November. Hence, a more complete seismic catalog is then provided which can be used to properly quantify the seismic energy release. To better ground our results, we first check the robustness of the method by comparing it with other blind source separation methods based on higher order statistics; secondly, we reconstruct the radiation patterns of the extracted Long-Period events in order to link the individuated signals directly to the sources. We take advantage from Convolutive Independent Component Analysis that provides basic signals along the three directions of motion so that a direct polarization analysis can be performed with no other filtering procedures. We show that the extracted signals are mainly composed of P waves with radial polarization pointing to the seismic source of the main LP swarm, i.e. a small area in the Solfatara, also in the case of the small-events, that both precede and follow the main activity. From a dynamical point of view, they can be described by two degrees of freedom, indicating a low-level of complexity associated with the vibrations from a superficial hydrothermal system. Our results allow us to move towards a full description of the complexity of

  13. The influence of periodized resistance training on recreationally active males with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joel K; Shepherd, Tyrell R; Kell, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    The most common musculoskeletal health issue is chronic nonspecific low back pain (CLBP). CLBP increases pain and disability, which reduces quality of life (QoL). Generally, pain, disability, and QoL are improved with a moderate volume and intensity of physical activity. Recently, periodized resistance training (PRT) was shown to be effective at improving CLBP in sedentary young, middle-age, and older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if PRT would increase strength, reduce pain and disability, and improve QoL in recreationally active, moderately trained middle- and older-age males. Forty-five male subjects were divided according to age into 1 of 3 groups: (a) middle-age exercise (ME), (b) old-age exercise (OE), or (c) control (C). All subjects suffered from CLBP and were considered to be moderately trained, participating in recreational ice hockey for 60 minutes, 2 times per wk(-1) for ∼5 months/year along with other recreational activities. The study ran for 16 weeks (3-week familiarization and 13 weeks of testing and PRT) with 5 repetition maximum testing at baseline and weeks 8 and 12. The PRT program systematically and progressively overloaded all major muscle groups (whole-body workout). The results indicate that middle- and old-age recreationally active males with CLBP respond similarly in magnitude to PRT, with improvements in all outcome measures (strength, pain, disability, QoL) across all time points of the study. Clinical significance (≥ 25%) in outcome measures was reached on most variables for the ME and OE groups. The results suggest that PRT may be effectively applied as rehabilitation for moderately trained recreational athletes with CLBP.

  14. Expression of plasminogen activator-related genes in the adipose tissue of lactating dairy sheep in the early post-weaning period.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, G; Lampidonis, A D; Laliotis, G P; Bizelis, I; Politis, I

    2012-06-01

    There is growing evidence that plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is expressed in adipose tissue and its expression is implicated in inflammation that accompanies obesity-associated diseases. The physiological role of other genes implicated in the plasminogen-activating cascade such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), u-PA receptor (u-PAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) in ovine adipose tissue remains unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in the expression of four plasminogen activator (PA)-related genes during the early post-weaning period in dairy ewes. A total of 21 subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained from seven lactating dairy ewes of the Chios breed at weeks 1, 2 and 4 after weaning. Results indicated that expression of all PA-related genes was detected in most of the samples examined. Greatest expression of u-PAR corresponded to highest (week 1), while greatest expression of PAI-2 corresponded to lowest (week 4) rate of lipolysis, as indicated by the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase, in the ovine adipose tissue. There were no significant differences in the expression of the other two PA-related genes (u-PA, PAI-1) throughout the experimental period. Plasminogen activator-related genes are not expressed in a coordinated manner in the adipose tissue of lactating dairy sheep in the early post-weaning period. In conclusion, adipose tissue mobilization is correlated with highest expression of u-PAR and lowest expression of PAI-2.

  15. Reduced Motor Cortex Activity during Movement Preparation following a Period of Motor Skill Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; Holmes, Paul; Di Russo, Francesco; Loporto, Michela; Smith, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Experts in a skill produce movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) of smaller amplitude and later onset than novices. This may indicate that, following long-term training, experts require less effort to plan motor skill performance. However, no longitudinal evidence exists to support this claim. To address this, EEG was used to study the effect of motor skill training on cortical activity related to motor planning. Ten non-musicians took part in a 5-week training study learning to play guitar. At week 1, the MRCP was recorded from motor areas whilst participants played the G Major scale. Following a period of practice of the scale, the MRCP was recorded again at week 5. Results showed that the amplitude of the later pre-movement components were smaller at week 5 compared to week 1. This may indicate that, following training, less activity at motor cortex sites is involved in motor skill preparation. This supports claims for a more efficient motor preparation following motor skill training. PMID:23251647

  16. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  17. Beyond blow-up in excitatory integrate and fire neuronal networks: Refractory period and spontaneous activity.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, María J; Perthame, Benoît

    2014-06-07

    The Network Noisy Leaky Integrate and Fire equation is among the simplest model allowing for a self-consistent description of neural networks and gives a rule to determine the probability to find a neuron at the potential v. However, its mathematical structure is still poorly understood and, concerning its solutions, very few results are available. In the midst of them, a recent result shows blow-up in finite time for fully excitatory networks. The intuitive explanation is that each firing neuron induces a discharge of the others; thus increases the activity and consequently the discharge rate of the full network. In order to better understand the details of the phenomena and show that the equation is more complex and fruitful than expected, we analyze further the model. We extend the finite time blow-up result to the case when neurons, after firing, enter a refractory state for a given period of time. We also show that spontaneous activity may occur when, additionally, randomness is included on the firing potential VF in regimes where blow-up occurs for a fixed value of VF.

  18. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-24

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. (14)C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m(2).yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  19. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities. PMID:26907560

  20. Wave-Wave Interactions in the Stratosphere: Observations during Quiet and Active Wintertime Periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anne K.; Gille, John C.; Lyjak, Lawrence V.

    1984-02-01

    Using satellite data from the Nimbus 7 LIMS instrument, a previous study by Smith showed that interactions among planetary waves 1, 2 and 3 in the stratosphere were significant during January 1979. That month was characterized by an exceptionally large wave 1 amplitude in the stratosphere. The present study extends the analysis to the period November 1978-March 1979 to determine the conditions under which wave-wave interactions have a significant effect on variations in wave activity and on wave-mean flow interactions. A quantitative measure of how wave-wave interactions affect the wave activity of zonal waves 1 and 2 is obtained from the potential enstrophy budget.The results demonstrate that the relative importance of wave-wave versus wave-mean flow interactions depends on the magnitude of the eddy mean wind and potential vorticity relative to the zonal means. When the zonal mean wind is weak, a relatively small amplitude wave tends to behave nonlinearly, whereas when the mean wind is strong, only large amplitude waves are significantly nonlinear. In the 1978-79 winter, the zonal mean wind was weaker and wave-wave interactions were more important in middle and late winter than during November-December.Further evidence is presented that the vacillation between waves 1 and 2, which has been observed in the winter stratosphere of both hemispheres, is as strongly influenced by wave-wave interactions in the stratosphere as by variations in the forcing from the troposphere.

  1. Periodic Repolarisation Dynamics: A Natural Probe of the Ventricular Response to Sympathetic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rizas, Konstantinos D; Hamm, Wolfgang; Kääb, Stefan; Schmidt, Georg; Bauer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Periodic repolarisation dynamics (PRD) refers to low-frequency (≤0.1Hz) modulations of cardiac repolarisation instability. Spontaneous PRD can be assessed non-invasively from 3D high-resolution resting ECGs. Physiological and experimental studies have indicated that PRD correlates with efferent sympathetic nerve activity, which clusters in low-frequency bursts. PRD is increased by physiological provocations that lead to an enhancement of sympathetic activity, whereas it is suppressed by pharmacological β-blockade. Electrophysiological studies revealed that PRD occurs independently from heart rate variability. Increased PRD under resting conditions is a strong predictor of mortality in post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) patients, yielding independent prognostic value from left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), heart rate variability, the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score and other established risk markers. The predictive value of PRD is particularly strong in post-MI patients with preserved LVEF (>35 %) in whom it identifies a new high-risk group of patients. The upcoming Implantable Cardiac Monitors in High-Risk Post-Infarction Patients with Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction and Moderately Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (SMART-MI) trial will test prophylactic strategies in high-risk post-MI patients with LVEF 36–50 % identified by PRD and deceleration capacity of heart rate (NCT02594488). PMID:27403291

  2. Periodic Analysis of Solar Activity and its Link with the Arctic Oscillation Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Weizheng; Li, Yanfang; Li, Chun; Du, Ling; Huang, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Based on spectrum analysis, we provide the arithmetic expressions of the quasi 11 yr cycle, 110 yr century cycle of relative sunspot numbers, and quasi 22 yr cycle of solar magnetic field polarity. Based on a comparative analysis of the monthly average geopotential height, geopotential height anomaly, and temperature anomaly of the northern hemisphere at locations with an air pressure of 500 hPa during the positive and negative phases of AO (Arctic Oscillation), one can see that the abnormal warming period in the Arctic region corresponds to the negative phase of AO, while the anomalous cold period corresponds to its positive phase. This shows that the abnormal change in the Arctic region is an important factor in determining the anomalies of AO. In accordance with the analysis performed using the successive filtering method, one can see that the AO phenomenon occurring in January shows a clear quasi 88 yr century cycle and quasi 22 yr decadal cycle, which are closely related to solar activities. The results of our comparative analysis show that there is a close inverse relationship between the solar activities (especially the solar magnetic field index changes) and the changes in the 22 yr cycle of the AO occurring in January, and that the two trends are basically opposite of each other. That is to say, in most cases after the solar magnetic index MI rises from the lowest value, the solar magnetic field turns from north to south, and the high-energy particle flow entering the Earth's magnetosphere increases to heat the polar atmosphere, thus causing the AO to drop from the highest value; after the solar magnetic index MI drops from the highest value, the solar magnetic field turns from south to north, and the solar high-energy particle flow passes through the top of the Earth's magnetosphere rather than entering it to heat the polar atmosphere. Thus the polar temperature drops, causing the AO to rise from the lowest value. In summary, the variance contribution

  3. Periodic analysis of solar activity and its link with the Arctic oscillation phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Weizheng; Li, Chun; Du, Ling; Huang, Fei; Li, Yanfang

    2014-12-01

    Based on spectrum analysis, we provide the arithmetic expressions of the quasi 11 yr cycle, 110 yr century cycle of relative sunspot numbers, and quasi 22 yr cycle of solar magnetic field polarity. Based on a comparative analysis of the monthly average geopotential height, geopotential height anomaly, and temperature anomaly of the northern hemisphere at locations with an air pressure of 500 HPa during the positive and negative phases of AO (Arctic Oscillation), one can see that the abnormal warming period in the Arctic region corresponds to the negative phase of AO, while the anomalous cold period corresponds to its positive phase. This shows that the abnormal change in the Arctic region is an important factor in determining the anomalies of AO. In accordance with the analysis performed using the successive filtering method, one can see that the AO phenomenon occurring in January shows a clear quasi 88 yr century cycle and quasi 22 yr decadal cycle, which are closely related to solar activities. The results of our comparative analysis show that there is a close inverse relationship between the solar activities (especially the solar magnetic field index changes) and the changes in the 22 yr cycle of the AO occurring in January, and that the two trends are basically opposite of each other. That is to say, in most cases after the solar magnetic index MI rises from the lowest value, the solar magnetic field turns from north to south, and the high-energy particle flow entering the Earth's magnetosphere increases to heat the polar atmosphere, thus causing the AO to drop from the highest value; after the solar magnetic index MI drops from the highest value, the solar magnetic field turns from south to north, and the solar high-energy particle flow passes through the top of the Earth's magnetosphere rather than entering it to heat the polar atmosphere. Thus the polar temperature drops, causing the AO to rise from the lowest value. In summary, the variance contribution

  4. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of fruits, veget...

  5. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form collects information on the child's activities at the day care center over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into three time periods over the 48-monitoring interval. The Food Survey collects information on the frequency and types of frui...

  6. Postnatal methylmercury exposure induces hyperlocomotor activity and cerebellar oxidative stress in mice: dependence on the neurodevelopmental period.

    PubMed

    Stringari, James; Meotti, Flávia C; Souza, Diogo O; Santos, Adair R S; Farina, Marcelo

    2006-04-01

    During the early postnatal period the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to external agents. The present study aims at the investigation of critical phases where methylmercury (MeHg) induces cerebellar toxicity during the suckling period in mice. Animals were treated with daily subcutaneous injections of MeHg (7 mg/kg of body weight) during four different periods (5 days each) at the early postnatal period: postnatal day (PND) 1-5, PND 6-10, PND 11-15, or PND 16-20. A control group was treated with daily subcutaneous injections of a 150 mM NaCl solution (10 ml/kg of body weight). Subjects exposed to MeHg at different postnatal periods were littermate. At PND 35, behavioral tests were performed to evaluate spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field and motor performance in the rotarod task. Biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress (levels of glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, as well as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity) were evaluated in cerebellum. Hyperlocomotor activity and high levels of cerebellar thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were observed in animals exposed to MeHg during the PND 11-15 or PND 16-20 periods. Cerebellar glutathione reductase activity decreased in MeHg-exposed animals. Cerebellar glutathione peroxidase activity was also decreased after MeHg exposure and the lowest enzymatic activity was found in animals exposed to MeHg during the later days of the suckling period. In addition, low levels of cerebellar glutathione were found in animals exposed to MeHg during the PND 16-20 period. The present results show that the postnatal exposure to MeHg during the second half of the suckling period causes hyperlocomotor activity in mice and point to this phase as a critical developmental stage where mouse cerebellum is a vulnerable target for the neurotoxic and pro-oxidative effects of MeHg.

  7. Stress response and cardiac activity of term and preterm calves in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Christina; Aurich, Jörg; Trenk, Lisa; Ille, Natascha; Drillich, Marc; Pohl, Werner; Aurich, Christine

    2016-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis of gestational age affecting fetal cardiac activity and the stress response at birth. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability variables, SD of the beat-to-beat interval and root mean square of successive beat-to-beat differences, and postnatal salivary cortisol concentration were studied in calves born at term (Term, n = 7, gestation length 286.3 ± 2.1 days) or after induction of parturition (Preterm, n = 7, gestation length 279.6 ± 0.2 days). Observation periods covered the last month of gestation (phase A), the last hours before birth including the first stage of labor (phase B), and the neonatal period (phase C). Fetal HR decreased in phase A (P < 0.001) and did not differ between groups. During phase B, HR increased (P < 0.05) and was higher in Preterm than in Term calves in phases B (P < 0.05) and C (P < 0.01). In Term calves, heart rate variability increased from Day 6 until birth (P < 0.05). At birth, SD of the beat-to-beat interval was higher in Term than in Preterm calves (P < 0.01). On Day 1 after birth (phase C), HR accelerations were more frequent in Term than Preterm calves (P < 0.01), whereas decelerations were more frequent in Preterm calves (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration increased postnatally (P < 0.001) and was correlated with gestation length (r ≥ 0.68, P < 0.01). Because of a certain degree of immaturity, the ability to cope with the stress of birth may be impaired in calves born 1 week before term.

  8. The IRC7 gene encodes cysteine desulphydrase activity and confers on yeast the ability to grow on cysteine as a nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Margarita; Gardner, Richard C

    2015-07-01

    Although cysteine desulphydrase activity has been purified and characterized from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the gene encoding this activity in vivo has never been defined. We show that the full-length IRC7 gene, encoded by the YFR055W open reading frame, encodes a protein with cysteine desulphydrase activity. Irc7p purified to homogeneity is able to utilize l-cysteine as a substrate, producing pyruvate and hydrogen sulphide as products of the reaction. Purified Irc7p also utilized l-cystine and some other cysteine conjugates, but not l-cystathionine or l-methionine, as substrates. We further show that, in vivo, the IRC7 gene is both necessary and sufficient for yeast to grow on l-cysteine as a nitrogen source, and that overexpression of the gene results in increased H2 S production. Strains overexpressing IRC7 are also hypersensitive to a toxic analogue, S-ethyl-l-cysteine. While IRC7 has been identified as playing a critical role in converting cysteine conjugates to volatile thiols that are important in wine aroma, its biological role in yeast cells is likely to involve regulation of cysteine and redox homeostasis.

  9. Observations of long-period oscillations of the solar active regions in the visible and UV spectral intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlatov, A. G.; Dormidontov, D. V.; Chernov, Ya. O.

    2016-12-01

    The variation of intensity in spectral line wings, which was obtained from observations of the patrol telescope at the Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of the Pulkovo Observatory, Russian Academy of Science (KMAS) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) space observatory, are considered. A series of observations lasting a few hours near the solar active regions, in which both short- and longperiod oscillations were observed simultaneously during 2014-2015, are analyzed. It is found out that oscillations with a period of 3-5 min can exist at one time and in one place with oscillations with a period of about 100 min. The amplitude of long-period oscillations can be comparable with that for short-period oscillations. The conditions for excitation of the wave processes are considered. Oscillations with a period of 100 min have a weak dependence on the area of the active region.

  10. Ghrelin, insulin and pancreatic activity in the peri-weaning period of goat kids.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Pinotti, L; Rapetti, L; Rosi, F

    2011-02-01

    Two groups of 3-day-old Saanen goat kids (MILK and WMIX) were studied in order to investigate the effect of weaning on plasma ghrelin and insulin and on pancreatic activity. MILK kids received goat milk to age 50 days; WMIX kids were initially fed milk but started weaning at 30 days and were completely weaned by 48 days. Dry matter intake and body weights were recorded, and plasma samples were analysed for metabolites, ghrelin, insulin, leptin and α-amylase. At 50 days, all the animals were slaughtered, pancreas samples were analysed for α-amylase, zymogen, DNA and ribosomal capacity (RNA/zymogen). Seven days after the beginning of the weaning program, dry matter intake in the WMIX group began to decrease in relation to the MILK group. Nonetheless, body weight did not differ throughout the study period. Weaning significantly decreased plasma levels of glucose, amino acids, urea and insulin, but increased creatinine and ghrelin. In weaning kids ghrelin secretion may help minimize the negative consequences of the new diet on dry matter intake. Pancreatic zymogen and ribosomal capacity did not differ between the groups, whereas pancreatic amylase activity was over three times higher in MILK than WMIX kids even though the former had no dietary starch. This finding could be a consequence of lower pancreatic secretion of amylase in the MILK group due to the lack of dietary starch, resulting in pancreatic accumulation, but could also be due to higher plasma insulin in the MILK group, suggesting a role for insulin in the functional development of the pancreas in weaning goats.

  11. A ∼ 3.8 hr PERIODICITY FROM AN ULTRASOFT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS CANDIDATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Godet, Olivier; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier

    2013-10-10

    Very few galactic nuclei are found to show significant X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). After carefully modeling the noise continuum, we find that the ∼3.8 hr QPO in the ultrasoft active galactic nucleus candidate 2XMM J123103.2+110648 was significantly detected (∼5σ) in two XMM-Newton observations in 2005, but not in the one in 2003. The QPO root mean square (rms) is very high and increases from ∼25% in 0.2-0.5 keV to ∼50% in 1-2 keV. The QPO probably corresponds to the low-frequency type in Galactic black hole X-ray binaries, considering its large rms and the probably low mass (∼10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}) of the black hole in the nucleus. We also fit the soft X-ray spectra from the three XMM-Newton observations and find that they can be described with either pure thermal disk emission or optically thick low-temperature Comptonization. We see no clear X-ray emission from the two Swift observations in 2013, indicating lower source fluxes than those in XMM-Newton observations.

  12. Is there long-range memory in solar activity on timescales shorter than the sunspot period?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, M.; Rypdal, K.

    2012-04-01

    The sunspot number (SSN), the total solar irradiance (TSI), a TSI reconstruction, and the solar flare index (SFI) are analyzed for long-range persistence (LRP). Standard Hurst analysis yields H ≈ 0.9, which suggests strong LRP. However, solar activity time series are nonstationary because of the almost-periodic 11 year smooth component, and the analysis does not give the correct H for the stochastic component. Better estimates are obtained by detrended fluctuation analysis, but estimates are biased and errors are large because of the short time records. These time series can be modeled as a stochastic process of the form x(t) = y(t) + σy(t)wH(t), where y(t) is the smooth component and wH(t) is a stationary fractional noise with Hurst exponent H. From ensembles of numerical solutions to the stochastic model and application of Bayes' theorem, we can obtain bias and error bars on H and also a test of the hypothesis that a process is uncorrelated (H = 1/2). The conclusions from the present data sets are that SSN, TSI, and TSI reconstruction almost certainly are long-range persistent, but with the most probable value H ≈ 0.7. The SFI process, however, is either very weakly persistent (H < 0.6) or completely uncorrelated on timescales longer than a few solar rotations. Differences between stochastic properties of the TSI and its reconstruction indicate some error in the reconstruction scheme.

  13. Sodium periodate-induced human suppressor cells for polyclonal B cell activation.

    PubMed

    Goust, J M

    1982-09-01

    Sodium periodate (SP) induces proliferation of mature T cells. In this study, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) pretreated for 10 minutes at room temperature with increasing concentrations (0.1 to 5 mM) of SP before culture for 7 days in the presence of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of IgG production, contrasting with an increase in 3H-thymidine uptake. When MNC from 70 normal individuals were pretreated with 1 and 2 mM SP, IgG production in culture was suppressed by 46.8 +/- 4.5% and 60.4 +/- 4.4% (mean +/- S.E.M.), respectively, as compared to IgG synthesis in the presence of PWM alone. Longitudinal studies of MNC obtained from the same normal individuals over 6-10 months showed similar degrees of suppression, indicating that the level of SP-inducible suppressor cell activity remains relatively constant, although the degree of suppression varies among normal persons. Both T cells and monocytes were required for PWM-driven IgG production and for SP-induced suppression. A soluble factor elaborated by SP-treated monocytes was also able to suppress IgG production. This model should provide useful information about abnormal regulation of IgG synthesis in various pathological conditions.

  14. Soay rams target reproductive activity towards promiscuous females' optimal insemination period.

    PubMed

    Preston, B T; Stevenson, I R; Wilson, K

    2003-10-07

    Female promiscuity is thought to have resulted in the evolution of male behaviours that confer advantages in the sperm competition that ensues. In mammalian species, males can gain a post-copulatory advantage in this sperm 'raffle' by inseminating females at the optimal time relative to ovulation, leading to the prediction that males should preferentially associate and copulate with females at these times. To the best of our knowledge, we provide the first high-resolution test of this prediction using feral Soay sheep, which have a mating system characterized by male competition for access to highly promiscuous females. We find that competitive males time their mate guarding (and hence copulations) to occur close to the optimal insemination period (OIP), when females are also increasingly likely to 'cooperate' with copulation attempts. Subordinate males practice an alternative mating tactic, where they break the integrity of the consort pair and force copulations on females. The timing of these forced copulations is also targeted towards the OIP. We thus provide quantitative evidence that female promiscuity has resulted in the evolution of reproductive strategies in which males 'load' the sperm raffle by targeting their mating activity towards female OIPs, when the probability of sperm-competition success is at its greatest.

  15. Periodic variation in the geomagnetic activity - A study based on the Ap index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Gonzalez, Alicia L. C.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Dutra, Severino L. G.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1993-01-01

    The monthly and daily samples of the Ap index for the interval from 1932 through 1982 were studied using the power spectrum technique. Results obtained for Bartel's period (about 27 days), the semiannual period, the dual-peak solar cycle distribution of geomagnetic storms, and certain other medium-scale periodicities are examined in detail. In addition, results on the cumulative occurrence number of storms per decade as a function of the Ap and Dst indices for the storm are presented.

  16. Interactive effects of UV radiation and reduced precipitation on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and the antioxidant activity of naturally growing Arbutus unedo plants.

    PubMed

    Nenadis, Nikolaos; Llorens, Laura; Koufogianni, Agathi; Díaz, Laura; Font, Joan; Gonzalez, Josep Abel; Verdaguer, Dolors

    2015-12-01

    The effects of UV radiation and rainfall reduction on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and antioxidant activity of the Mediterranean shrub Arbutus unedo were studied. Naturally growing plants of A. unedo were submitted to 97% UV-B reduction (UVA), 95% UV-A+UV-B reduction (UV0) or near-ambient UV levels (UVBA) under two precipitation regimes (natural rainfall or 10-30% rainfall reduction). Total phenol, flavonol and flavanol contents, levels of eight phenols and antioxidant activity [DPPH(●) radical scavenging and Cu (II) reducing capacity] were measured in sun-exposed leaves at the end of four consecutive seasons. Results showed a significant seasonal variation in the leaf content of phenols of A. unedo, with the lowest values found in spring and the highest in autumn and/or winter. Leaf ontogenetic development and/or a possible effect of low temperatures in autumn/winter may account for such findings. Regardless of the watering regime and the sampling date, plant exposure to UV-B radiation decreased the total flavanol content of leaves, while it increased the leaf content in quercitrin (the most abundant quercetin derivative identified). By contrast, UV-A radiation increased the leaf content of theogallin, a gallic acid derivative. Other phenolic compounds (two quercetin derivatives, one of them being avicularin, and one kaempferol derivative, juglanin), as well as the antioxidant activity of the leaves, showed different responses to UV radiation depending on the precipitation regime. Surprisingly, reduced rainfall significantly decreased the total amount of quantified quercetin derivatives as well as the DPPH scavenging activity in A. unedo leaves. To conclude, present findings indicate that leaves of A. unedo can be a good source of antioxidants throughout the year, but especially in autumn and winter.

  17. Active tuning of vibration and wave propagation in elastic beams with periodically placed piezoelectric actuator/sensor pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengming; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Liu, Chunchuan

    2017-04-01

    A novel strategy is proposed to actively tune the vibration and wave propagation properties in elastic beams. By periodically placing the piezoelectric actuator/sensor pairs along the beam axis, an active periodic beam structure which exhibits special vibration and wave propagation properties such as the frequency pass-bands and stop-bands (or band-gaps) is developed. Hamilton's principle is applied to establish the equations of motion of the sub-beam elements i.e. the unit-cells, bonded by the piezoelectric patches. A negative proportional feedback control strategy is employed to design the controllers which can provide a positive active stiffness to the beam for a positive feedback control gain, which can increase the stability of the structural system. By means of the added positive active stiffness, the periodicity or the band-gap property of the beam with periodically placed piezoelectric patches can be actively tuned. From the investigation, it is shown that better band-gap characteristics can be achieved by using the negative proportional feedback control. The band-gaps can be obviously broadened by properly increasing the control gain, and they can also be greatly enlarged by appropriately designing the structural sizes of the controllers. The control voltages applied on the piezoelectric actuators are in reasonable and controllable ranges, especially, they are very low in the band-gaps. Thus, the vibration and wave propagation behaviors of the elastic beam can be actively controlled by the periodically placed piezoelectric patches.

  18. Matching Element Symbols with State Abbreviations: A Fun Activity for Browsing the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelk, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented in which students are challenged to find matches between the United States two-letter postal abbreviations for states and chemical element symbols. The activity aims to lessen negative apprehensions students might have when the periodic table of the elements with its more than 100 combinations of letters is first…

  19. Genetic correlation between the pre-adult developmental period and locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K H; Teramura, K; Muraoka, S; Okada, Y; Miyatake, T

    2013-04-01

    Biological clocks regulate various behavioural and physiological traits; slower circadian clocks are expected to slow down the development, suggesting a potential genetic correlation between the developmental period and circadian rhythm. However, a correlation between natural genetic variations in the developmental period and circadian rhythm has only been found in Bactrocera cucurbitae. The number of genetic factors that contribute to this genetic correlation is largely unclear. In this study, to examine whether natural genetic variations in the developmental period and circadian rhythm are correlated in Drosophila melanogaster, we performed an artificial disruptive selection on the developmental periods using wild-type strains and evaluated the circadian rhythms of the selected lines. To investigate whether multiple genetic factors mediate the genetic correlation, we reanalyzed previously published genome-wide deficiency screening data based on DrosDel isogenic deficiency strains and evaluated the effect of 438 genomic deficiencies on the developmental periods. We then randomly selected 32 genomic deficiencies with significant effects on the developmental periods and tested their effects on circadian rhythms. As a result, we found a significant response to selection for longer developmental periods and their correlated effects on circadian rhythms of the selected lines. We also found that 18 genomic regions had significant effects on the developmental periods and circadian rhythms, indicating their potential for mediating the genetic correlation between the developmental period and circadian rhythm. The novel findings of our study might lead to a better understanding of how this correlation is regulated genetically in broader taxonomic groups.

  20. Effects of Adrenergic Receptor Activation and Blockade on the Systolic Preejection Period, Heart Rate, and Arterial Pressure in Man

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Willard S.; Schoenfeld, Clyde D.; Weissler, Arnold M.

    1967-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that alterations in the duration of the systolic preejection period can be used to estimate adrenergic influences on the human left ventricle. The preejection period was determined from high speed, simultaneous recordings of the phonocardiogram, carotid pulse tracing, and electrocardiogram. The preejection period was shortened by isoproterenol, epinephrine, and moderate doses of norepinephrine—all of which activate beta adrenergic receptors—and by cedilanid-D. It was unaltered by changes in heart rate induced by atropine and right atrial electrical pacing. Beta adrenergic receptor blockade by propranolol abolished the shortening effects of the three catecholamines but did not inhibit that due to cedilanid-D. Vasoconstriction, both alpha adrenergic (epinephrine and norepinephrine after propranolol) and nonadrenergic (angiotensin), prolonged the preejection period. Most of the shortening of the preejection period by beta adrenergic receptor activating agents and cedilanid-D and all of the prolongation accompanying pharmacologic vasoconstriction occurred after the onset of the first heart sound, thereby excluding changes in electrical-mechanical delay as a major factor in the observed preejection period responses. Shortening of the preejection period by beta adrenergic activity induced with isoproterenol was dose-related. Increasing doses of propranolol produced parallel shifts to the right in the isoproterenol dose-response curve. In 37 normal resting subjects intravenous propranolol (10 mg) prolonged the preejection period an average of 10 (SE ± 1) msec. In six patients with psychogenic sinus tachycardia and a patient with a pheochromocytoma the presence of excessive beta adrenergic influences on the left ventricle was demonstrated by the finding of an initially short preejection period which responded with an abnormally great prolongation to beta adrenergic receptor blockade. Images PMID:4294053

  1. Seed-induced growing various TiO₂ nanostructures on g-C₃N₄ nanosheets with much enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongli; Wang, Jinshu; Yang, Yilong; Zhang, Yan; He, Di; An, Qier; Cao, Guozhong

    2015-07-15

    In this study, we provide a seed-induced solvothermal method to grow various TiO2 nanostructures on the surfaces of g-C3N4, such as 0D nanoparticles, 1D nanowires 2D nanosheets and 3D mesoporous nanocrystals. We show that the "seeding" endows g-C3N4 with anchoring sites toward the heterogeneous nucleation growth of TiO2, and the distribution of the loaded TiO2 can be controlled by tuning the amount of nucleation in the dispersion. Among synthesized nanostructures, seed-grown Meso-TiO2/g-C3N4 hybrids exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity upon visible light irradiation using methyl orange and phenol as probe organics, which are about 2-4 times and 29-37 times as high as those of direct-grown Meso-TiO2/g-C3N4 without seeding and bare g-C3N4 for degradation of MO and phenol, respectively. The enhancement of photocatalysis can be ascribed to the adequate separation of photogenerated electrons at the heterojunction interfaces and dominant contribution of photoinduced holes mainly caused by the well-constructed nano- architectures.

  2. A CAD system for nodule detection in low-dose lung CTs based on region growing and a new active contour model

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, R.; De Carlo, F.; Gargano, G.; Tangaro, S.; Cascio, D.; Catanzariti, E.; Cerello, P.; Cheran, S. C.; Delogu, P.; De Mitri, I.; Fulcheri, C.; Grosso, D.; Retico, A.; Squarcia, S.; Tommasi, E.; Golosio, Bruno

    2007-12-15

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the selection of lung nodules in computer tomography (CT) images is presented. The system is based on region growing (RG) algorithms and a new active contour model (ACM), implementing a local convex hull, able to draw the correct contour of the lung parenchyma and to include the pleural nodules. The CAD consists of three steps: (1) the lung parenchymal volume is segmented by means of a RG algorithm; the pleural nodules are included through the new ACM technique; (2) a RG algorithm is iteratively applied to the previously segmented volume in order to detect the candidate nodules; (3) a double-threshold cut and a neural network are applied to reduce the false positives (FPs). After having set the parameters on a clinical CT, the system works on whole scans, without the need for any manual selection. The CT database was recorded at the Pisa center of the ITALUNG-CT trial, the first Italian randomized controlled trial for the screening of the lung cancer. The detection rate of the system is 88.5% with 6.6 FPs/CT on 15 CT scans (about 4700 sectional images) with 26 nodules: 15 internal and 11 pleural. A reduction to 2.47 FPs/CT is achieved at 80% efficiency.

  3. Are there physical links between Saturn's magnetospheric planetary period oscillations, neutral atmosphere circulation, and thunderstorm activity? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provan, G.; Cowley, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Suggestions that the planetary period oscillations (PPOs) observed in Saturn's magnetosphere may be driven or influenced by neutral atmospheric perturbations, motivates an exploratory comparison of PPO rotation periods with available tropospheric and stratospheric determinations. Non-polar atmospheric rotation periods occupy the range ~10.2-10.7 h associated with the latitudinal jet structure, are similar north and south, and independent of season, while PPO periods lie in a narrower partly overlapping range ~10.6-10.8 h, are persistently shorter north than south, and undergo a seasonal cycle. In this cycle, widely-separated north-south PPO periods during southern summer converge across equinox to values lying within the atmospheric west jet band, remaining well-separated from east jet periods. Closest convergence occurred one year post-equinox, contemporaneously with the switch in seasonal thunderstorm activity from southern to northern hemispheres. Since most large-scale atmospheric phenomena are related to the west jets, rotating with closely similar periods, they also rotate with periods close to the PPOs under post-equinoctial conditions, but not otherwise. Specifically, post-equinox northern PPOs rotate with a period close to the southern thunderstorms, as well as the north polar spot and hexagon features, while the post equinox southern PPOs rotate with a period close to the pre-equinox northern ';string of pearls' and the first co-located post-equinox northern thunderstorm, the Great White Spot event. However, even under these conditions no consistent correspondences in period are found at a detailed level, which taken together with the lack of correspondence at other times, does not suggest a direct physical link exists between these phenomena.

  4. Saturn's magnetospheric planetary period oscillations, neutral atmosphere circulation, and thunderstorm activity: Implications, or otherwise, for physical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, S. W. H.; Provan, G.

    2013-11-01

    that the planetary period oscillations (PPOs) observed in Saturn's magnetosphere may be driven or influenced by neutral atmospheric perturbations motivate an exploratory comparison of PPO rotation periods with available tropospheric and stratospheric determinations. Nonpolar atmospheric rotation periods occupy the range ~10.2-10.7 h associated with the latitudinal jet structure, are similar north and south, and are independent of season, while PPO periods lie in a narrower partly overlapping range ~10.6-10.8 h, are persistently shorter north than south, and undergo a seasonal cycle. In this cycle, widely separated north-south PPO periods during southern summer converge across equinox to values lying within the atmospheric west jet band, remaining well-separated from east jet periods. Closest convergence occurred 1 year post equinox, contemporaneously with the switch in seasonal thunderstorm activity from Southern to Northern Hemispheres. Since most large-scale atmospheric phenomena are related to the west jets, rotating with closely similar periods, they also rotate with periods close to the PPOs under post equinoctial conditions but not otherwise. Specifically, post equinox northern PPOs rotate with a period close to the southern thunderstorms, as well as the north polar spot and hexagon features, while the post equinox southern PPOs rotate with a period close to the pre-equinox northern "string of pearls" and the first colocated post equinox northern thunderstorm, the Great White Spot event. However, even under these conditions, no consistent correspondences in period are found at a detailed level, which taken together with the lack of correspondence at other times does not suggest a direct physical link exists between these phenomena.

  5. THE FIRST KINEMATIC DETERMINATION OF MILLION-YEAR PRECESSION PERIOD OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, B. P.; Li, Y. P.; Zhang, H. C.

    2011-06-20

    Short precession periods like the 164 day period of SS433 can be well determined by observations of timescales longer or much longer than the precession period. However, this does not work for sources with precession periods of millions of years. This Letter utilizes the particular morphologies of X-shaped sources, so that the three-dimensional kinematics of lobes can be obtained. Thus, for the first time, the million-year precession period of X-shaped sources by an observer on the Earth can be determined elegantly: 6.1 {+-} 1.5 Myr, 1.8 {+-} 0.5 Myr, and 3.2 {+-} 1.2 Myr for 3C52, 3C223.1, and 4C12.03, respectively. The result naturally explains the asymmetry displayed in the morphology of these sources, and the effect of propagation time on the diversity of morphologies is well demonstrated. The precession period may originate from long-term effects of a binary supermassive black hole system, which is a potential source of gravitational wave radiation.

  6. [Interaction of spiral and flat periodic autowaves in an active medium].

    PubMed

    Ermakova, E A; Krinskiĭ, V I; Panfilov, A V; Pertsov, A M

    1986-01-01

    Interaction between the rotating wave and a periodic external source in the model of Fitz Hugh--Nagumo type was computed. When the periods of the external source are longer than the rotation period of the spiral wave (T greater than Ts) the external source does not affect the spiral wave. At T less than Ts autowave synchronization effects are observed. The oscillation period predetermined by the external source is set in all the points of the medium except the neighbourhood of the spiral wave. The dislocation (wavebreak) persists in the medium drifting slowly at the angle to the wave vector of the flat waves. After the external source is eliminated, the spiral wave with the original period restores from this dislocation. When the dislocation reaches the interface, it disappears. In this case after the switching off of the external source the resting state is established. A theory of the drift is proposed which connects the drift velocity with the nucleus size and the rotation period of spiral wave.

  7. Drift zonal plasma ionospheric in the Brazilian sector during a period of extreme low solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Tardelli-Coelho, Flavia Elaine

    2016-07-01

    The zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma irregularities of large scale were analyzed; these irregularities were observed using optical emission techniques OI 630.0 nm obtained by photometers imagers installed in two locations on the campus of Urbanova UNIVAP in São José dos Campos - SP designated SJC and Campus ULBRA in Palmas - TO cited as PAL. Data were collected from five years, from 2006 to 2010, low solar activity period. Of the total of 337 nights in SJC and 329 nights in PAL analyzed were selected a total of 18 nights of significant plasma bubble occurrences, 9 nights in SJC and 9 nights in PAL, and studied under two conditions: considering fixed altitude of 280 km OI emission layer of 630.0 nm and calculating the height of this variable layer over each night analyzed. To find these varying altitudes along each night we were assisted with the analysis of CADI digital ionosonde data operating in conjunction with the imaging photometer in its observatory. The radio data available in digisonde allowed to do the analysis on 12 variables altitudes of 18 nights studied for fixed altitude; this occurred because of scattering present in ionograms for those nights and times, due to the presence of plasma bubbles in the study through the of the observatory zenith. Quantitative analysis determined the drift velocity zone for each of the analyzed bubbles 18 nights during the given fixed height and 12 nights evaluating varying altitudes along each night. The means were obtained nights analyzed in each observatory for both methods; SJC in the average velocities is derived from the plasma zone 9 nights bubbles analyzed in the method is fixed altitude 84 ± 18 m / s in the case of PAL the average velocities found is 87 ± 12 m / s. In the other case with variable altitude emission to SJC 8 nights analyzed, we reached a mean value of 87 ± 12 m / s, and for PAL, 4 of 9 nights initially selected, the average speed of the zonal drift plasma bubbles were found 85

  8. Elevated CO2 further lengthens growing season under warming conditions.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Fox, Melissa; Steltzer, Heidi; Trlica, M J; McMaster, Gregory S; Andales, Allan A; LeCain, Dan R; Morgan, Jack A

    2014-06-12

    Observations of a longer growing season through earlier plant growth in temperate to polar regions have been thought to be a response to climate warming. However, data from experimental warming studies indicate that many species that initiate leaf growth and flowering earlier also reach seed maturation and senesce earlier, shortening their active and reproductive periods. A conceptual model to explain this apparent contradiction, and an analysis of the effect of elevated CO2--which can delay annual life cycle events--on changing season length, have not been tested. Here we show that experimental warming in a temperate grassland led to a longer growing season through earlier leaf emergence by the first species to leaf, often a grass, and constant or delayed senescence by other species that were the last to senesce, supporting the conceptual model. Elevated CO2 further extended growing, but not reproductive, season length in the warmed grassland by conserving water, which enabled most species to remain active longer. Our results suggest that a longer growing season, especially in years or biomes where water is a limiting factor, is not due to warming alone, but also to higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations that extend the active period of plant annual life cycles.

  9. Uplift and denudation rates of an actively growing mountain range inferred from in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be: the Yumu Shan (NE Tibetan Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, L.; Hetzel, R.; Minxing, T.; Li, X.; Guo, J.

    2009-04-01

    Located in the foreland of the Quilian Shan (NE Tibet), the Yumu Shan is an isolated mountain range bounded by an active NW-SE striking thrust fault. Geomorphic and structural features such as fault scarps and wind gaps suggest that the ~70 km long range is actively growing (Hetzel et al., 2004; Tapponnier et al., 1990), hence the tectonic uplift should exceed the rate of denudation. Here we quantify the rate of these two competing processes using in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be. Catchment-wide denudation rates are derived from 10Be concentrations in stream sediments, whereas rock uplift rates are obtained by combining scarp topographic profiles with dating of geomorphic surfaces deformed by active thrust faults at the Yumu Shan mountain front. Both denudation and rock uplift rates integrate over a similar temporal scale (~10-100 ka) and thus over many earthquake cycles. Our data document that catchment wide-denudation rates vary from ~100 to ~400 mm ka-1 as a function of morphology and lithology, while rock uplift takes place at the rate of ~0.7 mm ka-1. The difference between these values confirms that the Yumu Shan is in a topographic pre-steady state and in accordance with geomorphic and structural features. Tectonic features indicate that over few millions of years the Yumu Shan may rise to a similar height as the main ranges of the Qilian Shan farther south, which have peaks with elevations between ~5 and ~5.5 km. References: Hetzel R., Tao M., Niedermann S., Strecker M.R., Ivy-Ochs S., Kubik P.W., Gao B. (2004). Implications of the fault scaling law for the growth of topography: Mountain ranges in the broken foreland of NE Tibet, Terra Nova, 16, 157-162. Tapponnier P., Meyer B., Avouac J.P., Peltzer G., Gaudemer Y., Guo S., Xiang H., Yin K., Chen Z., Cai S., Dai H. (1990). Active thrusting and folding in the Quilian Shan, and decoupling between upper crust and mantle in northeastern Tibet, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 97, 382-403.

  10. Growing Pains (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Growing ... > For Parents > Growing Pains Print A A A What's in ...

  11. Wave-wave interactions in the stratosphere - Observations during quiet and active wintertime periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. K.; Gille, J. C.; Lyjak, L. V.

    1984-01-01

    Smith (1983) has demonstrated that wave-wave interactions among planetary waves 1, 2, and 3 were important during the month of January 1979, a period characterized by extremely large wave 1 amplitudes in the stratosphere. In the present investigation, the same analysis is applied to the period November 1978 through March 1979 with the aim to determine the conditions under which wave-wave interactions were important. Attention is given to enstrophy budget calculations, the wave 1/wave 2 vacillation, a quantitative measure of wave-wave interactions, and examples of wave-wave interactions during several periods. It is found that the vacillation between waves 1 and 2 has no clear relationship to the tropopause forcing as represented by the 300 mb amplitude.

  12. Variation in testicular histology of the spiny tailed lizard Uromastyx aegyptius microlepis during hibernation and active periods.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2008-06-15

    The testicular histology of the lizard, Uromastyx aegyptius microlepis were varied considerably during hibernation and activity periods, reaching maximum values in summer. The onset of winter induces testicular regression, reduced testis size, testis diameter, diameter and epithelial height of the seminiferous tubules and epididymal epithelial height. Animals exhibit testicular recrudescence during late winter (February and March) and maximum testicular volume occurred during June. The period of maximal testicular volume was positively correlated with increasing ambient temperature. The summer season induces the testicular activity in contrast with the winter season in which the activity decreased and the testes were collapsed. Spermatocytogenesis is active in early spring and the major portion of the seminiferous epithelium comprises spermatids in various stages of maturation and their luminae were filled with spermatozoa. The size of the interstitial cells is direct correlated with changes occurring in epididymis and seminiferous epithelium. Most interstitial cell nuclei show clear regression when spermatocytogenesis were diminishes.

  13. Summary of Geotail Funding Activities. [Period of Performance: 03/1999 - 02/2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This final report summarizes results of Geotail project monitoring Earth's magnetotail during funding period. Compares project's transport statistics to those of International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) and Ion Release Module (IRM). Program established relations between disruption and flow events, and made observations on the nature of electric field fluctuations and plasma sheet flows.

  14. Individual Literacy Activities with Hearing-Impaired Children in the Preschool Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasu, H. Pelin

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize sight words, phonological awareness, syntax, semantics, and pragmatic skills begins to develop during the preschool period, and is important for formal reading education. The purpose of this study was to define individualized studies that support the development of literacy skills among hearing-impaired preschool children.…

  15. Chinese Wild-Growing Vitis amurensis ICE1 and ICE2 Encode MYC-Type bHLH Transcription Activators that Regulate Cold Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weirong; Jiao, Yuntong; Li, Ruimin; Zhang, Ningbo; Xiao, Dongming; Ding, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhenping

    2014-01-01

    Winter hardiness is an important trait for grapevine breeders and producers, so identification of the regulatory mechanisms involved in cold acclimation is of great potential value. The work presented here involves the identification of two grapevine ICE gene homologs, VaICE1 and VaICE2, from an extremely cold-tolerant accession of Chinese wild-growing Vitis amurnensis, which are phylogenetically related to other plant ICE1 genes. These two structurally different ICE proteins contain previously reported ICE-specific amino acid motifs, the bHLH-ZIP domain and the S-rich motif. Expression analysis revealed that VaICE1 is constitutively expressed but affected by cold stress, unlike VaICE2 that shows not such changed expression as a consequence of cold treatment. Both genes serve as transcription factors, potentiating the transactivation activities in yeasts and the corresponding proteins localized to the nucleus following transient expression in onion epidermal cells. Overexpression of either VaICE1 or VaICE2 in Arabidopsis increase freezing tolerance in nonacclimated plants. Moreover, we show that they result in multiple biochemical changes that were associated with cold acclimation: VaICE1/2-overexpressing plants had evaluated levels of proline, reduced contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased levels of electrolyte leakage. The expression of downstream cold responsive genes of CBF1, COR15A, and COR47 were significantly induced in Arabidopsis transgenically overexpressing VaICE1 or VaICE2 upon cold stress. VaICE2, but not VaICE1 overexpression induced KIN1 expression under cold-acclimation conditions. Our results suggest that VaICE1 and VaICE2 act as key regulators at an early step in the transcriptional cascade controlling freezing tolerance, and modulate the expression levels of various low-temperature associated genes involved in the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) pathway. PMID:25019620

  16. The solar magnetic activity band interaction and instabilities that shape quasi-periodic variability

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Leamon, Robert J.; Krista, Larisza D.; Title, Alan M.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Riley, Pete; Harder, Jerald W.; Kopp, Greg; Snow, Martin; Woods, Thomas N.; Kasper, Justin C.; Stevens, Michael L.; Ulrich, Roger K.

    2015-01-01

    Solar magnetism displays a host of variational timescales of which the enigmatic 11-year sunspot cycle is most prominent. Recent work has demonstrated that the sunspot cycle can be explained in terms of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction between the overlapping activity bands of the 22-year magnetic polarity cycle. Those activity bands appear to be driven by the rotation of the Sun's deep interior. Here we deduce that activity band interaction can qualitatively explain the ‘Gnevyshev Gap'—a well-established feature of flare and sunspot occurrence. Strong quasi-annual variability in the number of flares, coronal mass ejections, the radiative and particulate environment of the heliosphere is also observed. We infer that this secondary variability is driven by surges of magnetism from the activity bands. Understanding the formation, interaction and instability of these activity bands will considerably improve forecast capability in space weather and solar activity over a range of timescales. PMID:25849045

  17. The solar magnetic activity band interaction and instabilities that shape quasi-periodic variability.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott W; Leamon, Robert J; Krista, Larisza D; Title, Alan M; Hudson, Hugh S; Riley, Pete; Harder, Jerald W; Kopp, Greg; Snow, Martin; Woods, Thomas N; Kasper, Justin C; Stevens, Michael L; Ulrich, Roger K

    2015-04-07

    Solar magnetism displays a host of variational timescales of which the enigmatic 11-year sunspot cycle is most prominent. Recent work has demonstrated that the sunspot cycle can be explained in terms of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction between the overlapping activity bands of the 22-year magnetic polarity cycle. Those activity bands appear to be driven by the rotation of the Sun's deep interior. Here we deduce that activity band interaction can qualitatively explain the 'Gnevyshev Gap'—a well-established feature of flare and sunspot occurrence. Strong quasi-annual variability in the number of flares, coronal mass ejections, the radiative and particulate environment of the heliosphere is also observed. We infer that this secondary variability is driven by surges of magnetism from the activity bands. Understanding the formation, interaction and instability of these activity bands will considerably improve forecast capability in space weather and solar activity over a range of timescales.

  18. Apparatus for growing crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

  19. How Your Baby Grows

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Pregnancy week by week Pregnancy week by week Week by week Videos Swipe to advance Learn ... grows each week during pregnancy. Pick your week. Weeks 1-2 Conception (also called fertilization) usually happens ...

  20. The Growing Human Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  1. Activity and mortality among aged persons over an eight-year period.

    PubMed

    Lee, D J; Markides, K S

    1990-01-01

    The influence of level of activity examined with data from an eight-year (1976 to 1984) longitudinal study of 508 older Mexican Americans and Anglos. Over the study interval, 119 subjects were confirmed to have died. Activity was a significant predictor of mortality at the univariate level. However, when age, gender, education, marital status, ethnicity, and self-rated health were controlled for in the analysis, activity was not a significant predictor of mortality. The popular notion that an active life among elderly persons might lead to extended longevity was not supported by these data.

  2. Comparative activity of peroxidase-antibody conjugates with periodate and glutaraldehyde coupling according to an enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Tresca, J P; Ricoux, R; Pontet, M; Engler, R

    1995-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase is often used as an antibody-coupled enzyme and several procedures have been developed to obtain IgG-peroxidase conjugates. The most widely used are coupling with periodate or glutaraldehyde. To compare the efficiency of these methods, the authors conducted periodate coupling or glutaraldehyde coupling in one or two steps, using the same batches of peroxidase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and anti-CRP monoclonal antibodies to develop a specially sensitive Elisa for CRP. Comparison of immunoenzymatic activities showed that periodate-mediated conjugation was much more efficient, because the activity of the coupling products was about 100 times greater than that of the products obtained after one or two-step conjugation with glutaraldehyde. The lower coupling efficiency observed with glutaraldehyde was not due to inactivation of the coupling agent or to a possible decrease in the affinity of the conjugates for CRP due to the coupling procedure. The differences in efficiency can be ascribed to the fact that periodate induced more coupling sites than glutaraldehyde. Periodate is therefore a better coupling agent for preparing conjugates to be used in Elisa or related techniques, in which conjugate size does not hinder accessibility to the antigen.

  3. [Louse infestation of the red marmot, Marmota caudata, during its active period].

    PubMed

    Sosnina, E F; Davydov, G S

    1975-01-01

    2213 lice of Neohaematopinus palaearctcus Ols. were collected from 152 of 865 examined specimens of Marmota caudata Geoffr. from different vertical zones of Tadjikistan. The long-tailed marmot is characterized by a moderate or poor infestation with lice. In the subalpine zone, where the number and density of these animals in rather high, the infestation rate is greater than that in the brushwood zone. In spring after hibernation the infestation of M. caudata is very low. Within the reporoduction period the infestation with lice increases, the latter begin to reproduce intensively. During the preparation for hibernation the infestation rate falls due to a less intensive reproduction of lice. There are no distinct differences in the infestation rate of long-tailed marmots belonging to different age groups since there are constant contacts between the individuals of the colony. Only reproducing females live together with brood by themselves, differ in moulting periods and in a greater intensity of invasion during reproduction.

  4. Growing America's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  5. ISEE 1 observations of thermal plasma in the vicinity of the plasmasphere during periods of quieting magnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Baugher, C. R.; Chappell, C. R.; Shelley, E. G.; Young, D. T.; Anderson, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of thermal plasma behavior in the vicinity of the plasmasphere during periods of quieting magnetic activity was conducted by combining thermal ion observations made with the plasma composition experiment on ISEE 1 with plasma density profiles obtained from plasma frequency measurements made with the same satellite's plasma wave experiment. During periods in which the magnetic activity quiets, the two regions characterized by H(+):He(+):O(+) (isotropic) and H(+):O(+):He(+) (field-aligned) ion species distributions (in order of dominance) are separated by a new region in which low-energy H(+) and He(+) are found flowing along the magnetic field lines. At other times, following quieting magnetic activity, distributions having peak fluxes at 90 deg pitch angle are observed in this region.

  6. ISEE 1 observations of thermal plasma in the vicinity of the plasmasphere during periods of quieting magnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Baugher, C. R.; Chappell, C. R.; Shelley, E. G.; Young, D. T.; Anderson, R. R.

    1981-11-01

    An investigation of thermal plasma behavior in the vicinity of the plasmasphere during periods of quieting magnetic activity was conducted by combining thermal ion observations made with the plasma composition experiment on ISEE 1 with plasma density profiles obtained from plasma frequency measurements made with the same satellite's plasma wave experiment. During periods in which the magnetic activity quiets, the two regions characterized by H(+):He(+):O(+) (isotropic) and H(+):O(+):He(+) (field-aligned) ion species distributions (in order of dominance) are separated by a new region in which low-energy H(+) and He(+) are found flowing along the magnetic field lines. At other times, following quieting magnetic activity, distributions having peak fluxes at 90 deg pitch angle are observed in this region.

  7. Long-lived, long-period radial velocity variations in Aldebaran: A planetary companion and stellar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzes, A. P.; Cochran, W. D.; Endl, M.; Guenther, E. W.; MacQueen, P.; Hartmann, M.; Zechmeister, M.; Han, I.; Lee, B.-C.; Walker, G. A. H.; Yang, S.; Larson, A. M.; Kim, K.-M.; Mkrtichian, , D. E.; Döllinger, M.; Simon, , A. E.; Girardi, L.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: We investigate the nature of the long-period radial velocity variations in α Tau first reported over 20 yr ago. Methods: We analyzed precise stellar radial velocity measurements for α Tau spanning over 30 yr. An examination of the Hα and Ca II λ8662 spectral lines, and Hipparcos photometry was also done to help discern the nature of the long-period radial velocity variations. Results: Our radial velocity data show that the long-period, low amplitude radial velocity variations are long-lived and coherent. Furthermore, Hα equivalent width measurements and Hipparcos photometry show no significant variations with this period. Another investigation of this star established that there was no variability in the spectral line shapes with the radial velocity period. An orbital solution results in a period of P = 628.96 ± 0.90 d, eccentricity, e = 0.10 ± 0.05, and a radial velocity amplitude, K = 142.1 ± 7.2 m s-1. Evolutionary tracks yield a stellar mass of 1.13 ± 0.11 M⊙, which corresponds to a minimum companion mass of 6.47 ± 0.53 MJup with an orbital semi-major axis of a = 1.46 ± 0.27 AU. After removing the orbital motion of the companion, an additional period of ≈520 d is found in the radial velocity data, but only in some time spans. A similar period is found in the variations in the equivalent width of Hα and Ca II. Variations at one-third of this period are also found in the spectral line bisector measurements. The ~520 d period is interpreted as the rotation modulation by stellar surface structure. Its presence, however, may not be long-lived, and it only appears in epochs of the radial velocity data separated by ~10 yr. This might be due to an activity cycle. Conclusions: The data presented here provide further evidence of a planetary companion to α Tau, as well as activity-related radial velocity variations. Based in part on observations obtained at the 2-m-Alfred Jensch Telescope at the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg and the

  8. Improved clipped periodic optimal control for semi-active harmonic disturbance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couillard, Maxime; Micheau, Philippe; Masson, Patrice

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach for harmonic disturbance rejection using semi-active vibration control. The approach is illustrated through application to the problem of maximizing the energy dissipated by a semi-active damper under harmonic excitation. In order to establish a baseline for the evaluation of the performance of the semi-active damper, the effectiveness of the optimal passive and active cases are first presented. The study then examines the ability of the clipped optimal control (or clipping control) approach to improve the energy dissipation capacity of the semi-active damper over the optimal passive damper. An approximate solution to the nonlinear dynamic problem, obtained using the method of averaging, and a time integration based numerical method indicate that this approach improves the energy dissipated by the semi-active damper over the optimal passive damper. The approach presented in this paper intends to further "improve", or "fine tune", the control parameters given by the clipped optimal control approach. This is done using an approximated solution of the problem and an appropriate optimization algorithm. Results clearly indicate that this new approach provides significant improvement on energy dissipation over the clipped optimal control approach for the semi-active damper.

  9. On the Total Energy Deposition Between Periodically Occurring Activations of the Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F., Jr.; Germany, G. A.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Winglee, R. W.

    1998-01-01

    Total energy deposition in the northern latitudes is used in models to determine the state of the magnetosphere. It is known that on occasion, a series of intensifications of the aurora occur that are regularly spaced. The energy profile of the total energy deposited reflects this occurance. What can be said of the state of the magnetosphere based on these profiles. We present the result of a study which looks at several of these periods when a series of intensifications occur. Conclusions as to what the magnetosphere may be doing are presented.

  10. Inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) in human ovary in vitro results in increased activation of primordial follicles but compromises development of growing follicles.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Marie; Kinnell, Hazel L; Anderson, Richard A; Telfer, Evelyn E

    2014-08-01

    In the mammalian ovary a small number of follicles are steadily recruited from the quiescent pool to undergo development. Follicle loss, maintenance and growth are strictly controlled by complex molecular interactions including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signalling pathway. Stimulation of PI3K promotes phosphorylation of Akt resulting in follicle survival and activation of growth whereas this pathway is suppressed by the actions of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dipotassium bisperoxo(5-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxyl)oxovanadate (bpV), a reversible inhibitor of PTEN, on the activation, survival and development of human ovarian follicles in vitro. Biopsied ovarian tissue fragments were obtained from 17 women aged 23-46 years and exposed to 1 µM bpV(HOpic) (n = 146) or control medium (n = 128) for 24 h. Media were then replaced with control medium and all tissue incubated for a further 5 days. Ovarian tissue from each treatment group was fixed after the initial 24 h culture period and phosphorylated Akt was quantified by western blotting. After 6 days incubation all tissue fragments were inspected under light microscopy and any secondary follicles ≥100 µm isolated. Isolated follicles were cultured individually in control medium supplemented with 100 ng/ml recombinant human activin A. Tissue fragments without follicles suitable for isolation were fixed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. During 6 days culture, follicle activation occurred in tissue samples from both treatment groups but with significantly more follicles progressing to the secondary stage of development in the presence of 1 µM bpV(HOpic) compared with control (31 versus 16%; P < 0.05). Increased activation was associated with increased Akt phosphorylation and increased nuclear export of FOXO3. However isolated and cultured follicles that had been exposed to bpV(HOpic) showed

  11. Committee Opinion No. 650 Summary: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.

  12. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 650: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.

  13. RNA-seq-mediated transcriptome analysis of actively growing and winter dormant shoots identifies non-deciduous habit of evergreen tree tea during winters.

    PubMed

    Paul, Asosii; Jha, Ashwani; Bhardwaj, Shruti; Singh, Sewa; Shankar, Ravi; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-08-04

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a perennial tree which undergoes winter dormancy and unlike deciduous trees, the species does not shed its leaves during winters. The present work dissected the molecular processes operating in the leaves during the period of active growth and winter dormancy through transcriptome analysis to understand a long-standing question: why should tea be a non-deciduous species? Analyses of 24,700 unigenes obtained from 57,767 primarily assembled transcripts showed (i) operation of mechanisms of winter tolerance, (ii) down-regulation of genes involved in growth, development, protein synthesis and cell division, and (iii) inhibition of leaf abscission due to modulation of senescence related processes during winter dormancy in tea. These senescence related processes exhibited modulation to favour leaf abscission (i) in deciduous Populus tremula during winters, and (ii) also in tea but under osmotic stress during which leaves also abscise. These results validated the relevance of the identified senescence related processes for leaf abscission and suggested their operation when in need in tea.

  14. Zumba: From Secondary Physical Education Classes to Adulthood Workouts: Staying up to Date with the Growing Trends of Physical Activity in and out of the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Lindsey; Hall, Amber; Barney, David

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the background of Zumba, the need for it as a result of its growing popularity, the national standards it supports, and the necessary steps that need to be taken to properly implement Zumba in physical education programs. When taking a closer look at the standards that Zumba supports, it is evident that Zumba can serve as a…

  15. Dietary Zinc Reduces Osteoclast Resorption Activities and Increases Markers of Osteoblast Differentiation, Matrix Maturation, and Mineralization in the Long Bones of Growing Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional influence of zinc (Zn) on markers of bone extracellular matrix (ECM) resorption and mineralization was investigated in growing rats. Thirty male weanling rats were randomly assigned to consume AIN-93G based diets containing 2.5, 5, 7.5, 15, or 30 µg Zn/g diet for 24 d. Femur Zn incre...

  16. Obesity reduces bone density through activation of PPAR gamma and suppression of Wnt/Beta-Catenin in rapidly growing male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between obesity and skeletal development remains largely ambiguous. In this report, total enteral nutrition (TEN) was used to feed growing male rats intragastrically, with a high 45% fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We found that fat mass was increased (P<0.05) compared to rats fed...

  17. Comparative epigenomics in distantly related teleost species identifies conserved cis-regulatory nodes active during the vertebrate phylotypic period

    PubMed Central

    Tena, Juan J.; González-Aguilera, Cristina; Fernández-Miñán, Ana; Vázquez-Marín, Javier; Parra-Acero, Helena; Cross, Joe W.; Rigby, Peter W.J.; Carvajal, Jaime J.; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Gómez-Skarmeta, José L.; Martínez-Morales, Juan R.

    2014-01-01

    The complex relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny has been the subject of attention and controversy since von Baer’s formulations in the 19th century. The classic concept that embryogenesis progresses from clade general features to species-specific characters has often been revisited. It has become accepted that embryos from a clade show maximum morphological similarity at the so-called phylotypic period (i.e., during mid-embryogenesis). According to the hourglass model, body plan conservation would depend on constrained molecular mechanisms operating at this period. More recently, comparative transcriptomic analyses have provided conclusive evidence that such molecular constraints exist. Examining cis-regulatory architecture during the phylotypic period is essential to understand the evolutionary source of body plan stability. Here we compare transcriptomes and key epigenetic marks (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac) from medaka (Oryzias latipes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), two distantly related teleosts separated by an evolutionary distance of 115–200 Myr. We show that comparison of transcriptome profiles correlates with anatomical similarities and heterochronies observed at the phylotypic stage. Through comparative epigenomics, we uncover a pool of conserved regulatory regions (≈700), which are active during the vertebrate phylotypic period in both species. Moreover, we show that their neighboring genes encode mainly transcription factors with fundamental roles in tissue specification. We postulate that these regulatory regions, active in both teleost genomes, represent key constrained nodes of the gene networks that sustain the vertebrate body plan. PMID:24709821

  18. Comparative epigenomics in distantly related teleost species identifies conserved cis-regulatory nodes active during the vertebrate phylotypic period.

    PubMed

    Tena, Juan J; González-Aguilera, Cristina; Fernández-Miñán, Ana; Vázquez-Marín, Javier; Parra-Acero, Helena; Cross, Joe W; Rigby, Peter W J; Carvajal, Jaime J; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Gómez-Skarmeta, José L; Martínez-Morales, Juan R

    2014-07-01

    The complex relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny has been the subject of attention and controversy since von Baer's formulations in the 19th century. The classic concept that embryogenesis progresses from clade general features to species-specific characters has often been revisited. It has become accepted that embryos from a clade show maximum morphological similarity at the so-called phylotypic period (i.e., during mid-embryogenesis). According to the hourglass model, body plan conservation would depend on constrained molecular mechanisms operating at this period. More recently, comparative transcriptomic analyses have provided conclusive evidence that such molecular constraints exist. Examining cis-regulatory architecture during the phylotypic period is essential to understand the evolutionary source of body plan stability. Here we compare transcriptomes and key epigenetic marks (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac) from medaka (Oryzias latipes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), two distantly related teleosts separated by an evolutionary distance of 115-200 Myr. We show that comparison of transcriptome profiles correlates with anatomical similarities and heterochronies observed at the phylotypic stage. Through comparative epigenomics, we uncover a pool of conserved regulatory regions (≈700), which are active during the vertebrate phylotypic period in both species. Moreover, we show that their neighboring genes encode mainly transcription factors with fundamental roles in tissue specification. We postulate that these regulatory regions, active in both teleost genomes, represent key constrained nodes of the gene networks that sustain the vertebrate body plan.

  19. Association of Masseter Muscle Activities during Awake and Sleep Periods with Self-Reported Anxiety, Depression, and Somatic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Shehryar N; Iwasaki, Laura R; Dunford, Robert; Nickel, Jeffrey C; McCall, Willard; Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

    2015-01-01

    Aim and background The objective of this study was to determine if duty factors (DF) of low-magnitude MMA during awake and sleep periods were associated with self-reports of anxiety, depression, and somatic symptoms, and if so, whether or not any associations were modified by gender or the presence of pain. Limited information is currently available in the literature regarding the association of low-magnitude masseter muscle activities (MMA) in habitual environmental settings and the presence of psychological symptoms. Materials and methods Sixty-eight consenting participants were classified using the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders examination and validated self-reporting psychological symptom evaluation questionnaires. Each subject also had masseter electromyography recordings during standardized biting tasks in 2 laboratory sessions to calibrate the in-field MMA collected during 3 awake and 3 sleep periods. Results During awake periods, subjects with self-reported depression and somatic symptoms had statistically high odds of having higher DF of low-magnitude MMA (defined by ≥ 75th percentile of sample). The association between high DF of low-magnitude MMA and self-reported depression symptoms was significantly augmented among male participants, whereas, the association between high DF of low-magnitude MMA and self-reported somatic symptoms was significantly increased among female participants without pain. Conclusion These pilot data support associations of low-magnitude masseter muscle activities with self-reported depression and somatic symptoms during awake periods. PMID:26709387

  20. [The antioxidant enzyme activity in mouse liver mitochondria after nanosecond pulsed periodic X-ray exposure].

    PubMed

    Kniazeva, I R; Ivanov, V V; Bol'shakov, M A; Zharkova, L P; Kereia, A V; Kutenkov, O P; Rostov, V V

    2013-01-01

    The effect of repetitive pulsed X-ray (4 ns pulse duration, 300 kV accelerating voltage; 2.5 kA electron beam current) on the antioxidant enzyme activity in mouse liver mitochondria has been investigated. The mitochondrial suspension was exposed to single 4000 pulse X-ray radiation with repetition rates ranging between 10 and 22 pps (pulsed dose was 0.3-1.8 x 10(-6) Gy/pulse, the total absorbed dose following a single exposure was 7.2 x 10(-3) Gy). It was shown that a short-time exposure to X-ray radiation changes the antioxidant enzyme activity in mouse liver mitochondria. The greatest effect was observed in the changes of the activity of the metal-containing enzymes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The effect depends on the pulse repetition frequency and radiation dose.

  1. Assessment of pain during rest and during activities in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Larissa Coelho; Rosatti, Silvio Fernando Castro; Hortense, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective to assess the intensity and site of pain after Cardiac Surgery through sternotomy during rest and while performing five activities. Method descriptive study with a prospective cohort design. A total of 48 individuals participated in the study. A Multidimensional Scale for Pain Assessment was used. Results postoperative pain from cardiac surgery was moderate during rest and decreased over time. Pain was also moderate during activities performed on the 1st and 2nd postoperative days and decreased from the 3rd postoperative day, with the exception of coughing, which diminished only on the 6th postoperative day. Coughing, turning over, deep breathing and rest are presented in decreased order of intensity. The region of the sternum was the most frequently reported site of pain. Conclusion the assessment of pain in the individuals who underwent cardiac surgery during rest and during activities is extremely important to adapt management and avoid postoperative complications and delayed surgical recovery. PMID:24553714

  2. Genetic basis of incidence and period length of circadian rhythm for locomotor activity in populations of a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Harano, T; Miyatake, T

    2010-09-01

    Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in a wide variety of organisms, although their genetic variation has been analyzed in only a few species. We found genetic differences in the circadian rhythm of adult locomotor activity among strains of the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis, which differed in origin and have been maintained in isolation. All beetles in some strains clearly had free-running rhythms in constant darkness whereas most beetles in other strains were arrhythmic. The period of free-running rhythm varied from approximately 19 to 23 h between the strains. F(1) males from reciprocal crosses among strains with different periods of circadian rhythms had circadian periods that were intermediate between their parental strains. Segregation of the circadian rhythm appeared in the F(2) generation. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in the period length of circadian rhythm is explained by a major autosomal gene with additive effects and no dominance. This hypothesis was supported by the joint scaling test for the free-running period in the F(1) and F(2) generations. We discuss possible causes for genetic variation in circadian rhythm in the C. chinensis strains in terms of random factors and selection.

  3. Changes in Nutrient Intakes of Conditioned Men during a 5-Day Period of Increased Physical Activity and Other Stresses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP nutrition minerals energy balanQe vitamins 19...Introduction and urinary constituents of 16 Navy servicemen were obtained before and during a period of 113 It is an axiom that proper nutrition will...deprivation. Psychological stresses included verbal confrontations, perform- Key words: Nutrition >- Energy balance -- Vita- ance anxiety, and activities with

  4. State Research Coordinating Unit Activities for the Period July 1, 1972--December 31, 1972. Semiannual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In an alphabetical listing by States, the report summarizes the research activities of the State Research Coordinating Units (RCU's) conducted under Section 131 (6) of Part C of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 during the first six months of fiscal year 1973. The report's purpose is to provide information that will assist States to be…

  5. Analysis of the Influence of Adolescence Period Sport Activities on Emphatic Tendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acet, Mehmet; Karademir, Tamer; Gökçiçek, Sercan

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to find out how the empathic tendency levels of adolescent high school students were shaped in terms of sport activities and some variables. The study group includes a total of 1868 students, 866 females and 1002 males, between the ages 14 and 18 who were studying in different high schools (science high school, vocational…

  6. The Effect of the New Copyright Law on the Interlibrary Loan Activity Involving Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steuben, John

    Since 1954 when Congress authorized the Copyright Office to prepare a series of studies to serve as background for revision hearings, copyright has been one of the major issues in librarianship. Although the impact that the New Copyright Law will have on interlibrary loan activity is yet to be determined, there is a need to know whether present…

  7. Effects of quebracho tannin extract (Schinopsis balansae Engl.) and activated charcoal on nitrogen balance, rumen microbial protein synthesis and faecal composition of growing Boer goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindi, Amal; Dickhoefer, Uta; Schlecht, Eva; Sundrum, Albert; Schiborra, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Under irrigated arid conditions, organic fertiliser rich in slowly decomposable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) is needed for soil fertility maintenance. Feeding ruminants with condensed tannins will lower ruminal protein degradation, reduce urinary N excretion and might increase the faecal fraction of slowly decomposable N. Supplementation with activated charcoal (AC) might enrich manure with slowly degrading C. Therefore, we investigated the effects of feeding quebracho tannin extract (QTE) and AC on the N balance of goats, the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (EMPS) and the composition of faeces. The feeding trial comprised three periods; in each period, 12 male Boer goats (28 ± 3.9 kg live weight) were assigned to six treatments: a Control diet (per kg diet 500 g grass hay and 500 g concentrate) and to further five treatments the Control diet was supplemented with QTE (20 g and 40 g/kg; diets QTE2 and QTE4, respectively), with AC (15 g and 30 g/kg, diets AC1.5 and AC3.0, respectively) and a mixture of QTE (20 g/kg) plus AC (15 g/kg) (diet QTEAC). In addition to the N balance, EMPS was calculated from daily excretions of purine derivatives, and the composition of faecal N was determined. There was no effect of QTE and AC supplementation on the intake of organic matter (OM), N and fibre, but apparent total tract digestibility of OM was reduced (p = 0.035). Feeding QTE induced a shift in N excretion from urine to faeces (p ≤ 0.001) without altering N retention. Total N excretion tended to decrease with QTE treatments (p = 0.053), but EMPS was not different between treatments. Faecal C excretion was higher in QTE and AC treatments (p = 0.001) compared with the Control, while the composition of faecal N differed only in concentration of undigested dietary N (p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that QTE can be included into diets of goats up to 40 g/kg, without affecting N utilisation, but simultaneously increasing the

  8. A periodicity of approximately 1 hour in X-ray emission from the active galaxy RE J1034+396.

    PubMed

    Gierliński, Marek; Middleton, Matthew; Ward, Martin; Done, Chris

    2008-09-18

    Active galactic nuclei and quasars are thought to be scaled-up versions of Galactic black hole binaries, powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes with masses of 10(6)-10(9) M[symbol: see text], as opposed to the approximately 10 M [symbol: see text] in binaries (here M [symbol: see text] is the solar mass). One example of the similarities between these two types of systems is the characteristic rapid X-ray variability seen from the accretion flow. The power spectrum of this variability in black hole binaries consists of a broad noise with multiple quasi-periodic oscillations superimposed on it. Although the broad noise component has been observed in many active galactic nuclei, there have hitherto been no significant detections of quasi-periodic oscillations. Here we report the discovery of an approximately 1-hour X-ray periodicity in a bright active galaxy, RE J1034+396. The signal is highly statistically significant (at the 5.6 sigma level) and very coherent, with quality factor Q > 16. The X-ray modulation arises from the direct vicinity of the black hole.

  9. Growing old: a psychoanalyst's point of view.

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, Danielle

    2009-08-01

    With the help of clinical examples, the author shows that psychoanalysis or psychotherapy after the age of 70 can be a fascinating experience, one that enables patients to reconstruct their internal history in such a way that their final years can be given their rightful place in the overall journey through life. Often it will be a matter of going beyond the conflict between paralysing time with the illusion of keeping death at bay and taking the transient nature of life into account in order to perceive its true flavour. We can grow old passively, juxtaposing different periods of our life without linking them together, thereby creating the illusion of time without end; or we can grow old actively, integrating the different phases of our life into a coherent historical narrative. This representation of time leaves the door open for experiences which the author calls 'small seconds of eternity'. We can all experience such moments when we are deeply moved - joyfully or painfully - by something, so that we perceive another quality of time that goes beyond its chronological dimension without all the same negating it. Helping elderly people to identify these seconds of eternity and catch hold of them can be an invaluable experience for them. Perhaps we need to see our life unfold through the chronology of its different phases in order to discover, second by second, how to express on an everyday basis something of which we have had an inkling in some second of eternity.

  10. Effects of long-period solar activity fluctuation on temperature and pressure of the terrestrial atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubashev, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    The present state of research on the influence of solar sunspot activity on tropospheric temperature and pressure is reviewed. The existence of an 11-year temperature cycle of 5 different types is affirmed. A cyclic change in atmospheric pressure, deducing characteristic changes between 11-year cycles is discussed. The existence of 80-year and 5-to-6-year cycles of temperature is established, and physical causes for birth are suggested.

  11. Maintenance of Iron Status in Healthy Men during an Extended Period of Stress and Physical Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    scribed elsewhere who engage in physical training with low re- and physical activity in healthy men. a serves and marginal dietary iron intakes (6. 12. 28...116 ± 84 to 202 ± 106 /g/L (P > 0.05). Ade- is unclear whether the changes in iron metabolism persist during quate dietary iron, initiation of...the entire 8-wk training course. Beaumont Army Medical Center, El Paso, TX (phase 4). Differ- The average daily energy and protein intakes , determined

  12. Characterization of very-long-period seismicity accompanying summit activity at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i: 2007-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Phillip; Chouet, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Eruptive activity returned to the summit region of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i with the formation of the “Overlook crater” within the Halema'uma'u Crater in March 2008. The new crater continued to grow through episodic collapse of the crater walls and as of late 2013 had grown into an approximately elliptical opening with dimensions of ~ 160 × 215 m extending to a depth of ~ 200 m. Occasional weak explosive events and a persistent gas plume continued to occur through 2013. Lava was first observed in the new crater in September 2008, and through 2009 the lava level remained deep in the crater and was only occasionally observed. Since early 2010 a lava lake with fluctuating level within the Overlook crater has been nearly continuously present, and has reached to within 22 m of the Overlook crater rim. Volcanic activity at Kīlauea Volcano is episodic at all time scales and the characterization of very-long-period seismicity in the band 2–100 s for the years 2007–2013 illuminates a portion of this broad spectrum of volcanic behavior. Three types of very-long-period events have been observed over this time and each is associated with distinct processes. Type 1 events are associated with vigorous degassing and occurred primarily between 2007 and 2009. Type 2 events are associated with rockfalls onto the lava lake and occurred primarily after early 2010. Both of these event types are induced by pressure and momentum changes at the top of the magma column that are transmitted downward to a source centroid ~ 1 km below the northeast corner of the Halema'uma'u Crater where the energy couples to the solid Earth at a geometrical discontinuity in the underlying dike system. Type 3 events are not related to surficial phenomena but are associated with transients in mass transfer that occur within the dike system. Very-long-period tremor has also accompanied the return of eruptive activity, with increasing amplitude associated with hours- to months-long changes in gas

  13. Methodology affects measures of phosphorus availability in growing broilers. 2. Effects of calcium feeding strategy and dietary adaptation period length on phytate hydrolysis at different locations in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Perryman, K R; Masey O'Neill, H V; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2016-09-06

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary adaptation period length (DAPL; 0, 24, and 48 h) and Ca feeding strategy (0.35% or 1.4:1 Ca:P ratio) on apparent phytate P (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexakis dihydrogen phosphate; IP6) hydrolysis (AIP6H) and apparent digestibility (AΣIPD) of the sum of all inositol phosphate esters (ΣIP) of corn-titration diets at 3 locations (proventriculus/gizzard [Pro/Giz], jejunum, and distal ileum) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Four hundred thirty-two Ross × Ross 708 male broilers were placed into 36 battery cages and fed a common starter diet until 18 d of age. Eight semipurified diets and a control diet for DAPL were fed from 19 to 21 d of age. Digesta were collected at each location from 4 birds per pen after each DAPL. Diets formulated with a 1.4:1 Ca:P ratio had higher (P < 0.001) AIP6H and AΣIPD when measured in the jejunum and ileum, but no differences were observed in the Pro/Giz. No interaction effects between DAPL and sampling location were observed for AIP6H and AΣIPD of the control diet. Conversely, interactive effects (P < 0.05) were measured for AIP6H and AΣIPD of the corn-titration diets. The highest values for both AIP6H (73.9%) and AΣIPD (80.7%) were measured in the Pro/Giz after 24 h. Phytate hydrolysis and AΣIPD were similar regardless of DAPL when sampled from the distal ileum. Concentrations of TiO2, IP6 and ΣIP also varied (P < 0.05) in response to DAPL and sampling location. Variability was likely due to inconsistencies in the flow of inositol phosphate esters and TiO2 through the GIT, specifically the Pro/Giz. Therefore, the use of TiO2 as an inert marker may have limitations when determining the hydrolysis and digestibility of phytate esters.

  14. Methodology affects measures of phosphorus availability in growing broilers: Effects of calcium feeding strategy and dietary adaptation period length on true ileal phosphorus digestibility and predicted endogenous phosphorus losses.

    PubMed

    Perryman, K R; Masey O'Neill, H V; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2016-09-02

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Ca feeding strategy and dietary adaptation period length (DAPL) on the apparent ileal P digestibility (AIPD) and apparent ileal myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexakis dihydrogen phosphate (IP6) hydrolysis (AIIP6H) of corn titration diets. Nine hundred sixty Ross × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were placed into 80 battery cages. Broilers received a common starter diet until 18 d of age and then were fed one of 10 experimental treatments from 19 to 21 d of age. Nine diets were formulated to evaluate 5 corn inclusion concentrations (15, 30, 45, 60, or 75%) and 2 Ca feeding strategies (fixed at 0.35% or 1.4:1 Ca:P) after 3 DAPL (zero, 24, and 48 h). As a control for DAPL, one treatment group received the common starter diet for the duration of the experiment. Broilers consuming the control diet had higher (P < 0.001) BW gain and feed intake than broilers fed the corn titration diets. Apparent ileal P digestibility of the control diet was affected (P = 0.038) by DAPL. For diets formulated with a 1.4:1 Ca:P ratio, negative linear effects (P < 0.05) on AIPD and AIIP6H were observed with increasing corn. Conversely, for diets formulated with 0.35% Ca, positive linear effects (P < 0.05) were measured for AIPD after a 48 DAPL while no linear or quadratic effects (P > 0.05) were measured for AIPD or AIIP6H for other DAPL. Broilers fed diets formulated with 1.4:1 Ca:P had variable (P < 0.05) true ileal P digestibility (TIPD; 32.2, 15.1, and 35.4%) and negative endogenous P losses (EPL; -190, -499, and -262 mg/kg DM intake) for zero, 24, and 48 h DAPL, respectively. Conversely, TIPD values (41.2, 39.1, and 47.3%) were similar (P > 0.05) and EPL were positive (102, 197, and 154 mg/kg DM intake), regardless of DAPL, for broilers fed diets formulated with 0.35% Ca. These data demonstrated that formulating diets with a 1.4:1 Ca:P ratio affected AIPD of the titration diets, shifting the regression line and predicted

  15. [Changed accumulation of active ingredient in different localities and growth period of Hemsleya zhejiangensis (Cucurbitaceae)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wang-Wei; Lei, Zu-Pei; Wang, Wei-Min; Liang, Wei-qing; Zhou, Wei-Qing; Jin, Xiao-Feng

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the content of moisture, ethanol-soluble extractives, total saponins and polysaccharide of different tuber samples of Hemsleya zhejiangensis, from different localities, years and seasons, were detected based upon Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 version. The samples of roots, stems and leaves in summer were detected as well. The results are mainly as follows. (1)With tuber quality increasing, the content of total saponins increased and then decreased. The individual quality of tubers getting 594.06 g, the content of total saponins reached the peak. (2) The content of active ingredients in different localities was significantly different, and the population of Wuyanling had the maximum content of total saponins and polysaccharide. (3) The content of active ingredients revealed stability between the years 2012 and 2013, but the content of polysaccharide was significantly different. The content in 2012 was higher than that of 2013. (4) The content of active ingredients reached the peak in autumn, which was the best harvest season. (5) Among different component content detection of nutritional organs, tubers had the maximum content of ethanol-soluble extractives, total saponins and polysaccharide. Leaves also contained higher content of ethanol-soluble extractives and total saponins than roots and stems. All of these provide theoretical basis for plant, harvest and production of H. zhejiangensis, which is an endemic, rare, and endangered medicinal plants.

  16. Auditory Exostoses, Infracranial Skeleto-Muscular Changes And Maritime Activities In Classical Period Thasos Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agelarakis, A.; Serpanos, Y. C.

    Acquired external ear exostoses are an auditory disorder presumably associated with prolonged or repeated exposure to cold aquatic activities. At the ancient necropolis of Thasos, Greece, a low prevalence of auditory exostoses has been documented in one adult male out of an initially larger number of individuals from the ancient necropolis of Thasos, although the city-state was renowned in antiquity for the strength and dependency on its fleet and its seafaring activities in the Aegean and the Black Sea as supported by historical and archaeological records. In addition to auditory exostoses, this individual showed distinct similarities of infracranial axial and appendicular skeletal changes of skeleto-muscular robustness, trauma, and degenerative manifestations to a select sample of 16 males out of 57 individuals interred in proximal contextual associations near the shoreline which may comprise a pattern of occupational conditions when juxtaposed to the context of the larger skeletal population studied at Thasos so far. This study also presents comparative ethnographic information relative to occupational changes documented among a surviving group of wooden boat craftsmen on Thasos, comprising nine male individuals of diverse age-subgroups and intra-trade specializations. It is proposed that the low incidence of external auditory exostoses from ancient Thasos may not necessarily reflect issues of preservation or population sample, but rather the specificity of activities within the domain of specific maritime occupations.

  17. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 09 (PERIODS 1-4 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collected information on the child’s activities at home over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into four time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The F...

  18. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 08 (PERIODS 1-5 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collected information on the child’s activities at home over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into five time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The F...

  19. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 09 (PERIODS 1-4 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the Child Activity Diary and Food Survey for CTEPP-OH. The Child Activity Diary collected information on the child’s activities at home over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into four time periods over the 48-h monitoring in...

  20. Growing Old in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglind, Hans

    This document contains the bases of lectures delivered in Florida by a visiting Stockholm University sociology professor. The first chapter, "Growing Old in Sweden," includes information on the income, standard of living, and quality of services available to the elderly in that country. That information is presented within the changing…

  1. Growing into Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Harvey; Robbins, Pam

    2005-01-01

    New school principals have the necessity to lead at the very time they are learning the ropes of their new jobs. Some essential themes are identified that can guide new principals into growing in their new leadership roles, which are presented and discussed.

  2. Growing through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  3. Growing Up with "1984."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  4. Families on the Grow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Irene K.; Phillips, Marjorie M.

    This correspondence course was designed to help parents better understand their growing children and themselves as parents. The introduction briefly sketches the importance of the family in child development. Each of the five illustrated lessons contains 7 to 12 pages on one aspect of family life. Each lesson contains a set of objectives, a…

  5. Growing Vegetables. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes farm operations and some activities in the lives of six vegetable farmers throughout the United States. The booklet visits the tomato growing of Carl Schneider and his partners and the lettuce growing farm of Norman Martella, both in California. It then includes brief accounts of…

  6. The persistence of the NWA effect during the low solar activity period 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakowski, N.; Hoque, M. M.; Kriegel, M.; Patidar, V.

    2015-10-01

    The ionospheric Nighttime Winter Anomaly (NWA) was first reported more than three decades ago based on total electron content (TEC) and vertical sounding data. The aim of this paper is to provide further evidence that the NWA effect is a persistent feature in the Northern Hemisphere at the American and in the Southern Hemisphere at the Asian longitude sector under low solar activity conditions. The analysis of ground-based GPS derived TEC and peak electron density data from radio occultation measurements on Formosat-3/COSMIC satellites confirms and further supports the findings published in earlier NWA papers. So it has been confirmed and further specified that the NWA appears at longitude sectors where the displacement between the geomagnetic and the geographic equator maximizes. Here NWA peaks at around 40°-50° geomagnetic midlatitude supporting the idea that wind-induced plasma uplifting in the conjugated summer hemisphere is the main driving force for the accumulation of ionospheric plasma in the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere. In parallel, the midsummer nighttime anomaly (MSNA) is caused at the local ionosphere. Simultaneously, interhemispheric coupling causes severe downward plasma fluxes in the conjugated winter hemisphere during night causing the NWA at low solar activity. With increasing solar activity, the downward plasma fluxes lose their impact due to the much stronger increasing background ionization that masks the NWA. It is assumed that MSNA and related special anomalies such as the Weddell Sea Anomaly and the Okhotsk Sea Anomaly are closely related to the NWA via enhanced wind-induced uplifting of the ionosphere.

  7. The association between physical activity and maternal sleep during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Vladutiu, Catherine J; Evenson, Kelly R; Borodulin, Katja; Deng, Yu; Dole, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved sleep quality and duration in the general population, but its effect on sleep in postpartum women is unknown. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hours/week of self-reported domain-specific and overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep quality and duration at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of 530 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study. MVPA was not associated with sleep quality or duration at 3-months postpartum. At 12-months postpartum, a 1 h/week increase in recreational MVPA was associated with higher odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (odds ratio, OR 1.14; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 1.03-1.27) and a 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA was associated with lower odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88-0.99). A 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA (OR 1.08, 95 % CI 1.00-1.16) was associated with higher odds of long sleep duration and 1 h/week increases in indoor household (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.01-1.18) and overall MVPA (OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07) were associated with higher odds of short (vs. normal) sleep duration. Comparing 3-months postpartum to 12-months postpartum, increased work MVPA was associated with good sleep quality (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.12-5.15) and increased indoor household MVPA was associated with short sleep duration (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.05-3.27) as measured at 12-months postpartum. Selected domains of MVPA and their longitudinal increases were associated with sleep quality and duration at 12-months postpartum. Additional research is needed to elucidate whether physical activity can improve postpartum sleep.

  8. Removing sensory input disrupts spinal locomotor activity in the early postnatal period

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, JeanMarie; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Motor patterns driving rhythmic movements of our lower limbs during walking are generated by groups of neurons within the spinal cord, called central pattern generators (CPGs). After suffering a spinal cord injury (SCI), many descending fibers from our brain are severed or become nonfunctional which leaves the spinal CPG network without its initiating drive. Recent studies are focusing on the importance of maintaining sensory stimulation to the legs on SCI patients as a way to initiate and control the CPG locomotor network. We began assessing the role of sensory feedback to the locomotor CPG network by using a neonatal mouse spinal cord preparation were the lower limbs are still attached. Removing sensory feedback coming from the hindlimbs by way of a lower lumbar transection or by ventral root denervation revealed a positive correlation in the ability of sensory input deprivation to disrupt ongoing locomotor activity on older versus younger animals. The differences in the motor responses as a function of age could be correlated with the loss of excitatory activity from sensory afferents. Continued studies on this field could eventually provide key information that translates in the design of novel therapeutic strategies to treat patients that have suffered a SCI. PMID:24043359

  9. The SLT2(MPK1) MAP kinase is activated during periods of polarized cell growth in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Zarzov, P; Mazzoni, C; Mann, C

    1996-01-01

    The SLT2(MPK1) mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pa thway has been implicated in several biological processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the regulation of cytoskeletal and cell wall structure, polarized cell growth, and response to nutrient availability, hypo-osmotic shock and heat shock. We examined the conditions under which the SLT2 pathway is activated. We found that the SLT2 kinase is tyrosine phosphorylated and activated during periods in which yeast cells are undergoing polarized cell growth, namely during bud formation of vegetative cell division and during projection formation upon treatment with mating pheromone. BCK1(SLK1), a MEK kinase, is required for SLT2 activation in both of these situations. Upstream of BCK1(SLK1), we found that the STE20 kinase was required for SLT2 activation by mating pheromone, but was unnecessary for its activation during the vegetative cell cycle. Finally, SLT2 activation during vegetative growth was partially dependent on CDC28 in that the stimulation of SLT2 tyrosine phosphorylation was significantly reduced directly after a temperature shift in cdc28 ts mutants. Our data are consistent with a role for SLT2 in promoting polarized cell growth. Images PMID:8598209

  10. The dynamics and morphology of the Main Ionospheric Trough during storm active periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przepiórka, Dorota; Matyjasiak, Barbara; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    2015-04-01

    Mid-latitude trough, or Main Ionospheric Trough (MIT) lies on the equatorward edge of the auroral oval and plays a role as a boundary layer between the region of closed and open magnetic field lines. Here the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling processes can be studied because MIT is controlled by both Earth's magnetic field and the IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field). MIT is well known from its magnetic storm phase dependence. With the storm onset the structure moves to lower latitudes. It narrows and deepens with the increase of the storm. During recovery phase the intensification of the electromagnetic emissions and energetic particle precipitation can be observed within the latitudes of MIT, what may explain the high variability of the trough location and shape in that time. Analysed magnetic storms have fallen into solar activity minimum, nevertheless causing strong modifications in Earth's plasma environment.

  11. A new tool for radiation exposure calculations in aircraft flights during disturbed solar activity periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalis, Pavlos; Tezari, Anastasia; Gerontidou, Maria; Mavromichalaki, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles can penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and interact with its molecules, which can cause atmospheric showers of secondary particles that are detected by ground based neutron monitor detectors. The cascades are of great importance for the study of the radiation exposure of aircraft crews. A new Geant4 software application is presented based on DYASTIMA (Dynamic Atmospheric Shower Tracking Interactive Model Application), which calculates the effective dose that aviators may receive in different flight scenarios characterized by different altitudes and different flight routes, during quiet and disturbed solar and cosmic ray activity. The concept is based on Monte Carlo simulations by using phantoms for the aircraft and the aviator and experimenting with different shielding materials.

  12. The Genome-Wide Influence on Human BMI Depends on Physical Activity, Life Course, and Historical Period.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guang; Liu, Hexuan; Wang, Ling; Shen, Haipeng; Hu, Wen

    2015-10-01

    In this analysis, guided by an evolutionary framework, we investigate how the human genome as a whole interacts with historical period, age, and physical activity to influence body mass index (BMI). The genomic influence is estimated by (1) heritability or the proportion of variance in BMI explained by genome-wide genotype data, and (2) the random effects or the best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data on BMI. Data were used from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) in the United States. The study was initiated in 1948, and the obesity data were collected repeatedly over the subsequent decades. The analyses draw analysis samples from a pool of >8,000 individuals in the FHS. The hypothesis testing based on Pitman test, permutation Pitman test, F test, and permutation F test produces three sets of significant findings. First, the genomic influence on BMI is substantially larger after the mid-1980s than in the few decades before the mid-1980s within each age group of 21-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60. Second, the genomic influence on BMI weakens as one ages across the life course, or the genomic influence on BMI tends to be more important during reproductive ages than after reproductive ages within each of the two historical periods. Third, within the age group of 21-50 and not in the age group of >50, the genomic influence on BMI among physically active individuals is substantially smaller than the influence on those who are not physically active. In summary, this study provides evidence that the influence of human genome as a whole on obesity depends on historical period, age, and level of physical activity.

  13. Solar EUV Variability from FISM and SDO/EVE During Solar Minimum, Active, and Flaring Time Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Living With a Star (LWS) Focus Science Team has identified three periods of different solar activity levels for which they will be determining the Earth's Ionosphere and Thermosphere response. Not only will the team be comparing individual models (e.g. FLIP, T1MEGCM, GLOW) outcome driven by the various levels of solar activity, but the models themselves will also be compared. These models all rely on the input solar EUV (0.1 -190 nm) irradiance to drive the variability. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard provide the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provide the most accurate quantification of these irradiances. Presented and discussed are how much the solar EUV irradiance changes during these three scenarios, both as a function of activity and wavelength.

  14. Investigation of the Activity of the Nucleus of Seyfert Galaxy NGC 7469 during the Observation Period from 1990 TO 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugolkova, L. S.; Artamonov, B. P.

    We combine many published photometrical observations of the Seyfert Galaxy (SG) NGC 7469 and also new results from Hubble Space Telescope which can be used for future research of some properties of the activity of the nuclear of the SG. A drift of the activity maximum from 1997 to 1998 is observed with an increased of the wave length similarly to some blazars in radio range. Analyzing the surface photometry according to data obtained both at the Maidanak observatory and HST data an intensity asymmetry at the SG central region image is observed at different periods. The existence of a second component might be supposed. The radius of the active region itself inside the SG kernel is 40-50 parsec.

  15. Does chronic physical activity level modify the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period?

    PubMed

    Kurti, Stephanie P; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Chapes, Stephen K; Teeman, Colby S; Cull, Brooke J; Emerson, Sam R; Levitt, Morton H; Smith, Joshua R; Harms, Craig A

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that a single high-fat meal (HFM) leads to increased airway inflammation. However, exercise is a natural anti-inflammatory and may modify postprandial airway inflammation. The postprandial airway inflammatory response is likely to be modified by chronic physical activity (PA) level. This study investigated whether chronic PA modifies the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period in both insufficiently active and active subjects. Thirty-nine nonasthmatic subjects (20 active, 13 males/7 females) who exceeded PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-vigorous PA/week) and 19 insufficiently active (6 males/13 females) underwent an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake. Subjects were then randomized to a condition (COND), either remaining sedentary (CON) or exercising (EX) post-HFM. Exercise was performed at the heart rate corresponding to 60% peak oxygen uptake on a treadmill for 1 h post-HFM (63% fat, 10 kcal/kg body weight). Blood lipids and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO: marker of airway inflammation) were measured at baseline and 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. Sputum differential cell counts were performed at baseline and 4 h post-HFM. The mean eNO response for all groups increased at 2 h post-HFM (∼6%) and returned to baseline by 4 h (p = 0.03). There was a time × COND interaction (p = 0.04), where EX had a greater eNO response at 4 h compared with CON. Sputum neutrophils increased at 4 h post-HFM (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that airway inflammation occurs after an HFM when exercise is performed in the postprandial period, regardless of habitual activity level.

  16. A model of microbial activity in lake sediments in response to periodic water-column mixing.

    PubMed

    Gantzer, Charles J; Stefan, Heinz G

    2003-07-01

    Under stagnant conditions, the mass transport of a soluble substrate from a lake's water column to the sediment/water interface is limited by molecular diffusion. Stagnant conditions coupled with a continuing sediment biological demand create a substrate depletion zone above the sediment/water interface. The frequency at which the substrate depletion zone is destroyed by internal seiches and other intermittent flow phenomena influences the time-averaged substrate concentration at the sediment/water interface. A more frequent mixing results in a greater time-averaged interface concentration and consequently affects the amount of microbial biomass that can be supported in the lake sediments and the flux of the substrate into the sediment. A one-dimensional, two-substrate model is used to examine the impact of mixing frequency on the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in lake sediments. In the model, sulfate is supplied from the water column, while acetate is generated within the sediments. Mass transport to and within the sediments is by molecular diffusion except for instantaneous mixing events. Between mixing events, sulfate concentration gradients form above the sediment/water interface in the diffusive boundary layer. Sulfate depletion zones can be centimeters thick. When typical biological rate and diffusion coefficients for sulfate and acetate are used as inputs, the model indicates that a more frequent water-column mixing results in greater SRB concentrations. For an assumed bulk water-column sulfate concentration of 4.8 mg x l(-1), the sediment SRB concentrations for the modeled hourly, 6-hourly, daily, and weekly mixing frequencies were 175, 136, 91, and 30 mg x m(-2), respectively. The model also predicts higher time-averaged sulfate flux rates at more frequent water-column mixing. The time-averaged sulfate flux rates for the hourly, 6-hourly, daily, and weekly mixing frequencies were 1.26, 1.13, 0.78, and 0.30 mg x m(-2)h(-1), respectively. Thus

  17. Macromolecular crystal growing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor); Herren, Blair J. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Yost, Vaughn H. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Delucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A macromolecular crystal growing system especially designed for growing crystals in the low gravity of space as well as the gravity of earth includes at least one tray assembly, a carrier assembly which receives the tray, and a refrigeration-incubation module in which the carrier assembly is received. The tray assembly includes a plurality of sealed chambers with a plastic syringe and a plug means for the double tip of the syringe provided therein. Ganging mechanisms operate the syringes and plugs simultaneously in a precise and smooth operation. Preferably, the tray assemblies are mounted on ball bearing slides for smooth operation in inserting and removing the tray assemblies into the carrier assembly. The plugging mechanism also includes a loading control mechanism. A mechanism for leaving a syringe unplugged is also provided.

  18. Molecular recognition and processing of periodic signals in cells: study of activation of membrane ATPases by alternating electric fields.

    PubMed

    Tsong, T Y

    1992-03-26

    A molecule which is immobilized, oriented or tumbling more slowly than the frequency of a periodic field, may interact with the field to produce chemical effects that are uncommon in a homogeneous solution. Among these effects are the alteration of the rate of a chemical reaction and the exchange of energy between the oscillating field and the conformation of the molecule. When certain conditions are satisfied, this exchange allows the molecule to absorb and couple the energy of the field to drive an endergonic reaction. The efficiency of energy coupling depends on field strength and frequency and on the ligand concentration. There are windows of these parameters to achieve efficient coupling. These windows can be expressed in terms of the rate constants and equilibrium constants of the catalytic reactions, and the amplitude and frequency of the periodic field. This mechanism allows cells to receive, process and transmit energy of high and medium level periodic potentials by means of membrane enzymes or receptors. A theory for the transduction of electric energy, electroconformational coupling (ECC) will be discussed. The electric field induced cation pumping activities of Na,K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase of human erythrocytes and the ATP synthetic activity of beef heart mitochondrial ATPase will then be used to test an ECC membrane transport model. For the processing of low level periodic signals, a theory of an oscillatory activation barrier (OAB), which considers resonance transduction between an oscillating field and the activation barrier of the rate limiting step in an enzymic reaction, will be discussed. The OAB mechanism successfully interprets the AC stimulated ATP hydrolysis activity of Ecto-ATPase from chicken oviduct and F0F1-ATPase from beef heart. We propose that mechanisms similar to an OAB model are adopted by cells to sense weak electric, acoustic, mechanical, concentration (i.e., chemical potential) and other types of signals, and to communicate with

  19. Growing up with Retinoblastoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Tom

    2005-01-01

    An account is given of growing up as a child blinded as a result of a cancer of the eye known as retinoblastoma. The role of his mother is brought out, variously as a source of objective knowledge, of one's personal worth, and of the worth of other people in one's community. The strengths and weaknesses of his first school in his home area and…

  20. The Circadian Clock Gene Period1 Connects the Molecular Clock to Neural Activity in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Block, Gene D.; Colwell, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The neural activity patterns of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons are dynamically regulated throughout the circadian cycle with highest levels of spontaneous action potentials during the day. These rhythms in electrical activity are critical for the function of the circadian timing system and yet the mechanisms by which the molecular clockwork drives changes in the membrane are not well understood. In this study, we sought to examine how the clock gene Period1 (Per1) regulates the electrical activity in the mouse SCN by transiently and selectively decreasing levels of PER1 through use of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. We found that this treatment effectively reduced SCN neural activity. Direct current injection to restore the normal membrane potential partially, but not completely, returned firing rate to normal levels. The antisense treatment also reduced baseline [Ca2+]i levels as measured by Fura2 imaging technique. Whole cell patch clamp recording techniques were used to examine which specific potassium currents were altered by the treatment. These recordings revealed that the large conductance [Ca2+]i-activated potassium currents were reduced in antisense-treated neurons and that blocking this current mimicked the effects of the anti-sense on SCN firing rate. These results indicate that the circadian clock gene Per1 alters firing rate in SCN neurons and raise the possibility that the large conductance [Ca2+]i-activated channel is one of the targets. PMID:26553726

  1. OBSERVING EVOLUTION IN THE SUPERGRANULAR NETWORK LENGTH SCALE DURING PERIODS OF LOW SOLAR ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Rast, Mark P.; Leamon, Robert J.; Hock, Rachel A.; Ulrich, Roger K.

    2011-03-20

    We present the initial results of an observational study into the variation of the dominant length scale of quiet solar emission: supergranulation. The distribution of magnetic elements in the lanes that from the network affects, and reflects, the radiative energy in the plasma of the upper solar chromosphere and transition region at the magnetic network boundaries forming as a result of the relentless interaction of magnetic fields and convective motions of the Suns' interior. We demonstrate that a net difference of {approx}0.5 Mm in the supergranular emission length scale occurs when comparing observation cycle 22/23 and cycle 23/24 minima. This variation in scale is reproduced in the data sets of multiple space- and ground-based instruments and using different diagnostic measures. By means of extension, we consider the variation of the supergranular length scale over multiple solar minima by analyzing a subset of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory Ca II K image record. The observations and analysis presented provide a tantalizing look at solar activity in the absence of large-scale flux emergence, offering insight into times of 'extreme' solar minimum and general behavior such as the phasing and cross-dependence of different components of the spectral irradiance. Given that the modulation of the supergranular scale imprints itself in variations of the Suns' spectral irradiance, as well as in the mass and energy transport into the entire outer atmosphere, this preliminary investigation is an important step in understanding the impact of the quiet Sun on the heliospheric system.

  2. Observing Evolution in the Supergranular Network Length Scale During Periods of Low Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Leamon, Robert J.; Hock, Rachel A.; Rast, Mark P.; Ulrich, Roger K.

    2011-03-01

    We present the initial results of an observational study into the variation of the dominant length scale of quiet solar emission: supergranulation. The distribution of magnetic elements in the lanes that from the network affects, and reflects, the radiative energy in the plasma of the upper solar chromosphere and transition region at the magnetic network boundaries forming as a result of the relentless interaction of magnetic fields and convective motions of the Suns' interior. We demonstrate that a net difference of ~0.5 Mm in the supergranular emission length scale occurs when comparing observation cycle 22/23 and cycle 23/24 minima. This variation in scale is reproduced in the data sets of multiple space- and ground-based instruments and using different diagnostic measures. By means of extension, we consider the variation of the supergranular length scale over multiple solar minima by analyzing a subset of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory Ca II K image record. The observations and analysis presented provide a tantalizing look at solar activity in the absence of large-scale flux emergence, offering insight into times of "extreme" solar minimum and general behavior such as the phasing and cross-dependence of different components of the spectral irradiance. Given that the modulation of the supergranular scale imprints itself in variations of the Suns' spectral irradiance, as well as in the mass and energy transport into the entire outer atmosphere, this preliminary investigation is an important step in understanding the impact of the quiet Sun on the heliospheric system.

  3. Mining Claim Activity on Federal Land for the Period 1976 through 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Previous reports on mining claim records provided information and statistics (number of claims) using data from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Mining Claim Recordation System. Since that time, BLM converted their mining claim data to the Legacy Repost 2000 system (LR2000). This report describes a process to extract similar statistical data about mining claims from LR2000 data using different software and procedures than were used in the earlier work. A major difference between this process and the previous work is that every section that has a mining claim record is assigned a value. This is done by proportioning a claim between each section in which it is recorded. Also, the mining claim data in this report includes all BLM records, not just the western states. LR2000 mining claim database tables for the United States were provided by BLM in text format and imported into a Microsoft? Access2000 database in January, 2004. Data from two tables in the BLM LR2000 database were summarized through a series of database queries to determine a number that represents active mining claims in each Public Land Survey (PLS) section for each of the years from 1976 to 2002. For most of the area, spatial databases are also provided. The spatial databases are only configured to work with the statistics provided in the non-spatial data files. They are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller (for example, 1:250,000).

  4. Periodicity and global exponential stability of generalized Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with discontinuous activations and mixed delays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongshu; Huang, Lihong

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the periodic dynamical behaviors for a class of general Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with discontinuous right-hand sides, time-varying and distributed delays. By means of retarded differential inclusions theory and the fixed point theorem of multi-valued maps, the existence of periodic solutions for the neural networks is obtained. After that, we derive some sufficient conditions for the global exponential stability and convergence of the neural networks, in terms of nonsmooth analysis theory with generalized Lyapunov approach. Without assuming the boundedness (or the growth condition) and monotonicity of the discontinuous neuron activation functions, our results will also be valid. Moreover, our results extend previous works not only on discrete time-varying and distributed delayed neural networks with continuous or even Lipschitz continuous activations, but also on discrete time-varying and distributed delayed neural networks with discontinuous activations. We give some numerical examples to show the applicability and effectiveness of our main results.

  5. Acute effects of antagonist static stretching in the inter-set rest period on repetition performance and muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Humberto; Maia, Marianna de Freitas; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; Costa, Pablo B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of antagonist passive static stretching (AS) during the inter-set rest period on repetition performance and muscle activation. Ten trained men (22.4 ± 0.9 years) participated in this study. Two protocols were adopted: Passive recovery (PR)--three sets to repetition failure were performed for the seated row (SR) with two-minute rest interval between sets without pre-exercise stretching; AS--forty seconds of stretching was applied to pectoralis major prior to each set of SR. Significant increases in the number of repetitions were noted under AS compared with PR (p < 0.05). Significant increases on latissimus dorsi (p = 0.002) and biceps brachii (p = 0.001) muscle activity were noted inter-sets under the AS compared with the PR condition. Therefore, the AS adopted during the inter-set rest period may enhance repetition performance and activation of agonist muscles in an acute manner.

  6. Prospective Associations Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance Among Older Adults Across an 11-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Data from a fixed cohort of 1160 participants who were aged 67 years or older in 1996 and followed for 11 years were included. Cognitive performance (outcome) was assessed using 5 questions from the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Physical activity (exposure) was self-reported as number of sessions per week. The latent growth model was used to examine associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. Results With multivariate adjustment, higher initial levels of physical activity were significantly associated with better initial cognitive performance (standardized coefficient β = 0.17). A higher level of physical activity at baseline (1996) was significantly related to slower decline in cognitive performance, as compared with a lower level of activity (β = 0.22). The association between changes in physical activity and changes in cognitive performance was stronger (β = 0.36) than the previous 2 associations. The effect remained after excluding participants with cognitive decline before baseline. Conclusions Physical activity in later life is associated with slower age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22343329

  7. High-purity germanium crystal growing

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    The germanium crystals used for the fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors are required to have a purity and crystalline perfection which is unsurpassed by any other solid material. These crystals should not have a net electrically active impurity concentration greater than 10/sup 10/cm/sup -3/ and be essentially free of charge trapping defects. Such perfect crystals of germanium can be grown only because of the highly favorable chemical and physical properties of this element. However, ten years of laboratory scale and commercial experience has still not made the production of such crystals routine. The origin and control of many impurities and electrically active defect complexes is now fairly well understood but regular production is often interrupted for long periods due to the difficulty of achieving the required high purity or to charge trapping in detectors made from crystals seemingly grown under the required conditions. The compromises involved in the selection of zone refining and crystal grower parts and ambients is discussed and the difficulty in controlling the purity of key elements in the process is emphasized. The consequences of growing in a hydrogen ambient are discussed in detail and it is shown how complexes of neutral defects produce electrically active centers.

  8. Effects of gas periodic stimulation on key enzyme activity in gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation (GDD-SSF).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongzhang; Shao, Meixue; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-03-05

    The heat and mass transfer have been proved to be the important factors in air pressure pulsation for cellulase production. However, as process of enzyme secretion, the cellulase formation has not been studied in the view of microorganism metabolism and metabolic key enzyme activity under air pressure pulsation condition. Two fermentation methods in ATPase activity, cellulase productivity, weight lose rate and membrane permeability were systematically compared. Results indicated that gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation had no obviously effect on cell membrane permeability. However, the relation between ATPase activity and weight loss rate was linearly dependent with r=0.9784. Meanwhile, the results also implied that gas periodic stimulation had apparently strengthened microbial metabolism through increasing ATPase activity during gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation, resulting in motivating the production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei YG3. Therefore, the increase of ATPase activity would be another crucial factor to strengthen fermentation process for cellulase production under gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation.

  9. Active suppression of intestinal CD4+TCRαβ+ T-lymphocyte maturation during the postnatal period

    PubMed Central

    Torow, Natalia; Yu, Kai; Hassani, Kasra; Freitag, Jenny; Schulz, Olga; Basic, Marijana; Brennecke, Anne; Sparwasser, Tim; Wagner, Norbert; Bleich, André; Lochner, Matthias; Weiss, Siegfried; Förster, Reinhold; Pabst, Oliver; Hornef, Mathias W.

    2015-01-01

    Priming of the mucosal immune system during the postnatal period substantially influences host–microbial interaction and susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases in adult life. The underlying mechanisms are ill defined. Here we show that shortly after birth, CD4 T cells populate preformed lymphoid structures in the small intestine and quickly acquire a distinct transcriptional profile. T-cell recruitment is independent of microbial colonization and innate or adaptive immune stimulation but requires β7 integrin expression. Surprisingly, neonatal CD4 T cells remain immature throughout the postnatal period under homeostatic conditions but undergo maturation and gain effector function on barrier disruption. Maternal SIgA and regulatory T cells act in concert to prevent immune stimulation and maintain the immature phenotype of CD4 T cells in the postnatal intestine during homeostasis. Active suppression of CD4 T-cell maturation during the postnatal period might contribute to prevent auto-reactivity, sustain a broad TCR repertoire and establish life-long immune homeostasis. PMID:26195040

  10. A novel biliary stent coated with silver nanoparticles prolongs the unobstructed period and survival via anti-bacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fuchun; Ren, Zhigang; Chai, Qinming; Cui, Guangying; Jiang, Li; Chen, Hanjian; Feng, Zhiying; Chen, Xinhua; Ji, Jian; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Weilin; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Symptomatic biliary stricture causes life-threatening complications, such as jaundice, recurrent cholangitis and secondary biliary cirrhosis. Fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMSs) are gaining acceptance for treatments of benign biliary stricture and palliative management of malignant biliary obstructions. However, the high rate of FCSEMS obstruction limits their clinic use. In this study, we developed a novel biliary stent coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and investigated its efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. We first identified properties of the AgNP complex using ultraviolet detection. The AgNP complex was stable without AgNP agglomeration, and Ag abundance was correspondingly increased with an increased bilayer number. The AgNP biliary stent demonstrated good performance in the spin-assembly method based on topographic observation. The AgNP biliary stent also exhibited a long-term anti-coagulation effect and a slow process of Ag+ release. In vitro anti-bacteria experiments indicated that the AgNP biliary stent exhibited high-efficiency anti-bacterial activity for both short- and long-term periods. Importantly, application of the AgNP biliary stent significantly prolonged the unobstructed period of the biliary system and improved survival in preclinical studies as a result of its anti-microbial activity and decreased granular tissue formation on the surface of the anastomotic biliary, providing a novel and effective treatment strategy for symptomatic biliary strictures. PMID:26883081

  11. Distribution and at-sea activity of a nocturnal seabird, the Bulwer's petrel Bulweria bulwerii, during the incubation period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Maria P.; Romero, Joana; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Catry, Teresa; Pollet, Ingrid L.; Catry, Paulo

    2016-07-01

    Bulwer's petrels are nocturnal seabirds that mostly prey on mesopelagic fauna. As aerial foragers and shallow divers, their feeding opportunities are limited by near-surface availability of their prey, which is highly variable both temporally (reflecting diurnal and lunar cycles) and spatially. Here we studied how Bulwer's petrels cope with these constraints by analysing their at-sea distribution and activity during the incubation period. We tracked the movements of 20 birds from Selvagem Grande (NE Atlantic) during a complete lunar cycle, and recorded 30 foraging trips that lasted 11 days on average. Birds were both distributed around the colony and in waters close to the Azorean archipelago (mid-Atlantic) located 1700 km away, and were significantly more active at night (especially just after sunset and before sunrise), when mesopelagic fauna is also closer to the sea surface due to their diel vertical migrations. Bulwer's petrels spent significantly more time flying during moonlight, although the effect of the moon was relatively weak (ca. 10-15% difference between moonlit and dark periods of the night), and not obvious when birds were foraging in mid-Atlantic waters, which were also targeted more often during full-moon. These results reveal key adaptations of the Bulwer's petrel to the highly dynamic ecology of its mesopelagic prey.

  12. M Dwarf Activity in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey: First Catalog and Rotation Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kado-Fong, E.; Williams, P. K. G.; Mann, A. W.; Berger, E.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Rest, A.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-12-01

    We report on an ongoing project to investigate activity in the M dwarf stellar population observed by the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1-MDS). Using a custom-built pipeline, we refine an initial sample of ˜4 million sources in PS1-MDS to a sample of 184,148 candidate cool stars using color cuts. Motivated by the well-known relationship between rotation and stellar activity, we use a multiband periodogram analysis and visual vetting to identify 270 sources that are likely rotating M dwarfs. We derive a new set of polynomials relating M dwarf PS1 colors to fundamental stellar parameters and use them to estimate the masses, distances, effective temperatures, and bolometric luminosities of our sample. We present a catalog containing these values, our measured rotation periods, and cross-matches to other surveys. Our final sample spans periods of ≲1-130 days in stars with estimated effective temperatures of ˜2700-4000 K. Twenty-two of our sources have X-ray cross-matches, and they are found to be relatively X-ray bright as would be expected from selection effects. Our data set provides evidence that Kepler-based searches have not been sensitive to very slowly rotating stars (P rot ≳ 70 day), implying that the observed emergence of very slow rotators in studies of low-mass stars may be a systematic effect. We also see a lack of low-amplitude (<2%) variability in objects with intermediate (10-40 day) rotation periods, which, considered in conjunction with other observational results, may be a signpost of a loss of magnetic complexity associated with a phase of rapid spin-down in intermediate-age M dwarfs. This work represents just a first step in exploring stellar variability in data from the PS1-MDS and, in the farther future, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  13. Growing Effective Strength without Growing End Strength: Operational Utilization of the Reserve Component during Training Periods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-13

    kept RC training separate from operational missions. The laws and policies now allow and advocate utilizing the RC to augment operations while in a...allow and advocate utilizing the RC to augment operations while in a training status, but DoD must consolidate and codify guidance to... realities . Unfortunately, DoD does not always get to dictate which operations to execute, and the enemy always gets a vote. Likewise, elected leaders

  14. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Wild Growing Aromatic Plant Species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Wedge, David E; Wanner, Jürgen; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, the essential oils' chemical compositions are given. The main components of Skimmia laureola oil were linalool and linalyl acetate whereas sabinene was found as the main compound for Juniperus macropoda essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed highest activity of S. laureola oil against all tested bacteria, followed by J. macropoda oil. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose causing plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Juniperus macropoda essential oil indicated higher antifungal activity against all three pathogens than S. laureola oil. Both essential oils showed biting deterrent activity above solvent control but low larvicidal activity.

  15. Geothermal Grows Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  16. Sleep to grow smart?

    PubMed

    Volk, Carina; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is undisputable an essential part of our life, if we do not sleep enough we feel the consequences the next day. The importance of sleep for healthy brain functioning has been well studied in adults, but less is known for the role of sleep in the paediatric age. Childhood and adolescence is a critical phase for brain development. The increased need for sleep during this developmental phase fosters the growing recognition for a central role of sleep during development. In this review we summarize the findings that demonstrate a close relationship between sleep and brain maturation, discuss the consequences of insufficient sleep during childhood and adolescence and outline initial attempts that have been made in order to improve sleep in this age range.

  17. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  18. Insights in public health: Is the gap growing? Patterns in poverty-related disparities in nutrition and physical activity in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Buchthal, Vanessa

    2014-10-01

    A recent Harvard study on national dietary trends found that the gap in healthy dietary behaviors between low-income and middle/upper-income Americans widened between 2000 and 2010. Hawai'i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2001-2009 on differences in obesity-related behaviors between moderate-high income, low-income, and poverty-level Hawai'i residents were examined to explore whether Hawai'i data on obesity-related behaviors reflected this national trend. While most differences between groups were not statistically significant, a consistent pattern was seen across all measures that suggested a growing gap between low-income and moderate/high income Hawai'i residents. Data from community studies on pedestrian injury, park use, transportation, and healthy food access were examined. This data suggests that individuals residing in low-income neighborhoods in Hawai'i experience higher barriers to the adoption of healthier behaviors. Further data is needed to document poverty-related gaps in the adoption of health behaviors among youth and within Hawai'i's ethnic groups, communities and geographic areas.

  19. Ion Frequency Landscape in Growing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Pietruszka, Mariusz; Haduch-Sendecka, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    It has been interesting that nearly all of the ion activities that have been analysed thus far have exhibited oscillations that are tightly coupled to growth. Here, we present discrete Fourier transform (DFT) spectra with a finite sampling of tip-growing cells and organs that were obtained from voltage measurements of the elongating coleoptiles of maize in situ. The electromotive force (EMF) oscillations (~ 0.1 μV) were measured in a simple but highly sensitive resistor–inductor circuit (RL circuit), in which the solenoid was initially placed at the tip of the specimen and then was moved thus changing its position in relation to growth (EMF can be measured first at the tip, then at the sub-apical part and finally at the shank). The influx- and efflux-induced oscillations of Ca2+, along with H+, K+ and Cl- were densely sampled (preserving the Nyquist theorem in order to ‘grasp the structure’ of the pulse), the logarithmic amplitude of pulse spectrum was calculated, and the detected frequencies, which displayed a periodic sequence of pulses, were compared with the literature data. A band of life vital individual pulses was obtained in a single run of the experiment, which not only allowed the fundamental frequencies (and intensities of the processes) to be determined but also permitted the phase relations of the various transport processes in the plasma membrane and tonoplast to be established. A discrete (quantised) frequency spectrum was achieved for a growing plant for the first time, while all of the metabolic and enzymatic functions of the life cell cycle were preserved using this totally non-invasive treatment. PMID:26445131

  20. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils from Pimpinellatragium Vill. subsp. glauca (C. Presl.) C. Brullo & Brullo (Apiaceae) growing wild in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio; Spadaro, Vivienne; Scialaba, Anna; Senatore, Felice; Oliviero, Filomena

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems hydrodistilled from Pimpinella tragium Vill, subsp. glauca were characterised by GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The C-12 nor-sesquiterpenes are the principal class of metabolites (56.6-70.6%) among which geijerene (28.9÷49.3%) and pregeijerene (10÷19.1%) predominate. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration values indicate that oil obtained from the stems is the most active for antimicrobial activities and the sample with the biggest antioxidant capacity is the flower oil.

  1. Periodic-shRNA molecules are capable of gene silencing, cytotoxicity and innate immune activation in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shopsowitz, Kevin E.; Wu, Connie; Liu, Gina; Dreaden, Erik C.; Hammond, Paula T.

    2016-01-01

    Large dsRNA molecules can cause potent cytotoxic and immunostimulatory effects through the activation of pattern recognition receptors; however, synthetic versions of these molecules are mostly limited to simple sequences like poly-I:C and poly-A:U. Here we show that large RNA molecules generated by rolling circle transcription fold into periodic-shRNA (p-shRNA) structures and cause potent cytotoxicity and gene silencing when delivered to cancer cells. We determined structural requirements for the dumbbell templates used to synthesize p-shRNA, and showed that these molecules likely adopt a co-transcriptionally folded structure. The cytotoxicity of p-shRNA was robustly observed across four different cancer cell lines using two different delivery systems. Despite having a considerably different folded structure than conventional dsRNA, the cytotoxicity of p-shRNA was either equal to or substantially greater than that of poly-I:C depending on the delivery vehicle. Furthermore, p-shRNA caused greater NF-κB activation in SKOV3 cells compared to poly-I:C, indicating that it is a powerful activator of innate immunity. The tuneable sequence and combined gene silencing, immunostimulatory and cytotoxic capacity of p-shRNA make it an attractive platform for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26704983

  2. Quasi-Periodic Slow Earthquakes and Their Association With Magmatic Activity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Foster, J. H.; Sandwell, D.; Poland, M.; Myer, D.; Wolfe, C.; Patrick, M.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1998 the mobile south flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i, has been the site of multiple slow earthquake (SE) events recorded principally with continuous GPS. One spatially coincident family of these SEs exhibited a high degree of periodicity (774 +/- 7 days) from 1998 to 2005 suggesting the next SE would be in mid-March, 2007. In fact, no anomalous deformation occurred there until the June 17 Father's day dike intrusion that caused up to 1m of opening along Kilauea's east rift zone. We analyzed deformation related to the Father's day event using GPS, tilt, ALOS and Envisat interferometry, microseismicity, and elastic dislocation modeling. Our analysis reveals significant motions of far-field sites that cannot be explained by dike-related deformation and that are very similar to previous SE displacements of the same sites, strongly suggesting that a SE occurred. Inclusion of this event in the overall time series yields SE repeat times of 798 +/- 50 days, apparently maintaining the quasi- periodicity of the Kilauea events. Furthermore, the timing of dike- and SE-related deformation and stress modeling suggest the Father's day dike triggered the slow earthquake. We explore the connection between magmatism and SEs at Kilauea and find a potential correlation between SE-timing and eruptive activity since 2000. This suggests the possibility that a mechanistic understanding of Kilauea SEs may require consideration of magmatic processes in addition to fault zone processes.

  3. Targeted SPECT/CT Imaging of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in the Evaluation of Remodeling Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts Implanted in a Growing Lamb Model

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, Mitchel R.; Naito, Yuji; Maxfield, Mark W.; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Tara, Shuhei; Chan, Chung; Rocco, Kevin A.; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Sinusas, Albert J.; Breuer, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) The clinical translation of tissue-engineered vascular grafts has been demonstrated in children. The remodeling of biodegradable, cell-seeded scaffolds to functional neovessels is partially attributed to matrix metalloproteinases. Noninvasive assessment of matrix metalloproteinase activity may indicate graft remodeling and elucidate the progression of neovessel formation. Therefore, matrix metalloproteinase activity was evaluated in grafts implanted in lambs using in vivo and ex vivo hybrid imaging. Graft growth and remodeling was quantified using in vivo X-ray computed tomography angiography. Methods Cell-seeded and unseeded scaffolds were implanted in lambs (n=5) as inferior vena cava interposition grafts. At 2 and 6 months post-implantation, in vivo angiography assessed graft morphology. In vivo and ex vivo single photon emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging was performed with a radiolabeled compound targeting matrix metalloproteinase activity at 6 months. Neotissue was examined at 6 months using qualitative histologic and immunohistochemical staining and quantitative biochemical analysis. Results Seeded grafts demonstrated significant luminal and longitudinal growth from 2 to 6 months. In vivo imaging revealed subjectively higher matrix metalloproteinase activity in grafts vs. native tissue. Ex vivo imaging confirmed a quantitative increase in matrix metalloproteinase activity and demonstrated higher activity in unseeded vs. seeded grafts. Glycosaminoglycan content was increased in seeded grafts vs. unseeded grafts, without significant differences in collagen content. Conclusions Matrix metalloproteinase activity remains elevated in tissue-engineered grafts 6 months post-implantation and may indicate remodeling. Optimization of in vivo imaging to noninvasively evaluate matrix metalloproteinase activity may assist in serial assessment of vascular graft remodeling. PMID:24952823

  4. Screening chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from Origanum syriacum L. growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alma, Mehmet Hakki; Mavi, Ahmet; Yildirim, Ali; Digrak, Metin; Hirata, Toshifumi

    2003-12-01

    In the present study, essential oil from the leaves of Syrian oreganum [Origanum syriacum L. (Lauraceae)] grown in Turkish state forests of the Dortyol district, Turkey, was obtained by steam distillation. The chemical composition of oil was analysed by GC and GC-MS, and was found to contain 49.02% monoterpenes, 36.60% oxygenated monoterpenes and 12.59% sesquiterpenes. The major components are as follows: gamma-terpinene, carvacrol, p-cymene and beta-caryophyllene. Subsequently, the reducing power, antioxidant and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities of the essential oil were studied. The reducing power was compared with ascorbic acid, and the other activities were compared with 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol (BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene). The results showed that the activities were concentration dependent. The antioxidant activities of the oil were slightly lower than those of ascorbic acid or BHT, so the oil can be considered an effective natural antioxidant. Antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Origanum syriacum was also determined on 16 microorganisms tested using the agar-disc diffusion method, and showed antimicrobial activity against 13 of these.

  5. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of Kythera earthquake of 12th January, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Asteriadis, G.; Spatalas, S. D.; Pikridas, Ch.

    2007-07-01

    TEC variations over a particular site sustain variations of different causality, global (earth revolution, earth rotation, earth-tides, variations of the geomagnetic field etc.) or local (atmospheric or underground explosions, earthquakes, volcanoes etc. A lot of work has been done by a great number of researchers on the characteristics of ionospheric variations according to their causality (wave - length, attenuation and velocity and way of propagation). In order that TEC variations over a particular site be used as earthquake precursory diagnostic a concrete sense of the interrelation of TEC variations over different sites as well as their respond of the geomagnetic field variations would be of great interest. In this paper the TEC data of eight GPS stations of the EUREF network (AUT1, Thessaloniki and TUC2, Crete in Greece, MAT, Matera and LAMP, Lampedusa in Italy, GAIA in Portugal, RABT in Rabat, EVPA, Evpatoria in Ukrain and TRAB, Trabson in Turkey) were analyzed using wavelet analysis in order to detect any frequency dependence of the correlation of TEC over different stations. In the same time frequency dependence of Dst and TEC variations are searched in order to detect any correlation. The main conclusion of this analysis is that the constituents of TEC variation with periods <3h are more suitable in searching for earthquake precursors. On the base of this conclusion the analyzed TEC series are searched for possible precursory phenomena. Variation in TEC constituents with periods <3h over the stations AUT1 and TUC2 occurred ±10days of the seismic activity may be attributed to this tectonic activity.

  6. FASTSAT-HSV01 Synergistic Observations of the Magnetospheric Response During Active Periods: MINI-ME, PISA and TTI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Collier, Michael R.; Rowland, Douglas E.; Sigwarth, John B.; Boudreaux, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the complex processes within the inner magnetosphere of Earth particularly during storm periods requires coordinated observations of the particle and field environment using both in-situ and remote sensing techniques. In fact in order to gain a better understanding of our Heliophysics and potentially improve our space weather forecasting capabilities, new observation mission approaches and new instrument technologies which can provide both cost effective and robust regular observations of magnetospheric activity and other space weather related phenomenon are necessary. As part of the effort to demonstrate new instrument techniques and achieve necessary coordinated observation missions, NASA's Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite Huntsville 01 mission (FASTSAT-HSVOI) scheduled for launch in 2010 will afford a highly synergistic solution which satisfies payload mission opportunities and launch requirements as well as contributing iri the near term to our improved understanding of Heliophysics. NASA's FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft on the DoD Space Test Program-S26 (STP-S26) Mission is a multi-payload mission executed by the DoD Space Test Program (STP) at the Space Development and Test Wing (SDTW), Kirtland AFB, NM. and is an example of a responsive and economical breakthrough in providing new possibilities for small space technology-driven and research missions. FASTSAT-HSV is a unique spacecraft platform that can carry multiple small instruments or experiments to low-Earth orbit on a wide range of expendable launch vehicles for a fraction of the cost traditionally required for such missions. The FASTSAT-HSV01 mission allows NASA to mature and transition a technical capability to industry while increasing low-cost access to space for small science and technology (ST) payloads. The FASTSAT-HSV01 payload includes three NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) new technology built instruments that will study the terrestrial space environment and

  7. FASTSAT-HSV01 synergistic observations of the magnetospheric response during active periods: MINI-ME, PISA and TTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Joseph; Collier, Michael; Rowland, Douglas; Sigwarth, John; Boudreaux, Mark

    Understanding the complex processes within the inner magnetosphere of Earth particularly during storm periods requires coordinated observations of the particle and field environment using both in-situ and remote sensing techniques. In fact in order to gain a better understand-ing of our Heliophysics and potentially improve our space weather forecasting capabilities, new observation mission approaches and new instrument technologies which can provide both cost effective and robust regular observations of magnetospheric activity and other space weather related phenomenon are necessary. As part of the effort to demonstrate new instrument tech-niques and achieve necessary coordinated observation missions, NASA's Fast Affordable Sci-ence and Technology Satellite Huntsville 01 mission (FASTSAT-HSV01) scheduled for launch in 2010 will afford a highly synergistic solution which satisfies payload mission opportunities and launch requirements as well as contributing in the near term to our improved understanding of Heliophysics. NASA's FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft on the DoD Space Test Program-S26 (STP-S26) Mission is a multi-payload mission executed by the DoD Space Test Program (STP) at the Space Development and Test Wing (SDTW), Kirtland AFB, NM. and is an example of a responsive and economical breakthrough in providing new possibilities for small space technology-driven and research missions. FASTSAT-HSV is a unique spacecraft platform that can carry multiple small instruments or experiments to low-Earth orbit on a wide range of expendable launch vehicles for a fraction of the cost traditionally required for such missions. The FASTSAT-HSV01 mission allows NASA to mature and transition a technical capability to industry while increasing low-cost access to space for small science and technology (ST) payloads. The FASTSAT-HSV01 payload includes three NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) new technology built instruments that will study the terrestrial space environment and

  8. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in Pinus mugo needles growing at elevated stands in the mountains, and their photochemical efficiency of PSII.

    PubMed

    Miszalski, Zbigniew; Libik, Marta; Surówka, Ewa; Niewiadomska, Ewa

    2005-08-01

    Pinus mugo needles were sampled at different altitudes (1420, 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l.) to analyse levels of oxidative stress and changes in maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that almost all superoxide dismutase activity represented Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and only 4-6% represents Mn superoxide dismutase. In extracts from plants sampled at 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l., lower activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase was found. Comparing these data with immunoblots, it can be concluded that the differences in superoxide dismutase activity was related to protein amount. In needles from higher altitudes, a decrease in catalase activity was detected, as opposed to the protein amount, which was higher in needles from the higher stands. Considering the decrease in catalase and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activities in needles collected at 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l., we suggest that higher levels of oxidative stress may induce changes in photochemical efficiency of PSII.

  9. Growing for different ends.

    PubMed

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation.

  10. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  11. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from fifteen Eucalyptus species growing in the Korbous and Jbel Abderrahman arboreta (North East Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Elaissi, Ameur; Rouis, Zyed; Mabrouk, Samia; Salah, Karima Bel Haj; Aouni, Mahjoub; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Farhat, Farhat; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2012-03-12

    The essential oils of fifteen Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman and Korbous arboreta (North East Tunisia) were screened for their antibacterial activities by the agar disc diffusion method. Eighteen major components as identified by GC/FID and GC/MS were selected for a study of the chemical and biological activity variability. The main one was 1,8-cineole, followed by spathulenol, trans-pinocarveol, α-pinene, p-cymene, globulol, cryptone, β-phellandrene, viridiflorol, borneol, limonene and isospathulenol. The chemical principal component analysis identified five species groups and subgroups, where each group constituted a chemotype, however that of the values of zone diameter of the inhibition (zdi) identified six groups of Eucalyptus oils, characterized by their antibacterial inhibition ability. The strongest activity was shown by E. platypus oil against Enterococcus faecalis and by E. lamannii oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A correlation between the levels of some major components and the antibacterial activities was observed.

  12. Astronomy for a Better World: IAU Office of Astronomy for Development Activities to Grow and Advance Astronomy Education and Research at Universities in the Developing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Kolenberg, Katrien

    2016-10-01

    In 2012, the International Astronomical Union (IAU), through its Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD), established the three Task Forces which drive global activities using astronomy as a tool to stimulate development. These Task Forces are: (i) Astronomy for Universities and Research; (ii) Astronomy for Children and Schools; and (iii) Astronomy for the Public.

  13. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from wild growing aromatic plant species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous ...

  14. Seeing How Money Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, James

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity designed to help students connect the ideas of linear growth and exponential growth through graphs of the future value of accounts that earn simple interest and accounts that earn compound interest. Includes worksheets and solutions. (KHR)

  15. Our Growing Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lener, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Discusses population growth in the U.S. and questions the appropriate time to teach about environmental protection to elementary school students. Introduces activities on conservation, natural resources, and endangered species. (YDS)

  16. Garbage Grows Great Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittain, Alexander N.

    1996-01-01

    Describes activities in which students explore composting. Enables students to learn that all organic material returns naturally to the earth through a process of decomposition that involves many living organisms. (JRH)

  17. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of ...

  18. How Do Galaxies Grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    Astronomers have caught multiple massive galaxies in the act of merging about 4 billion years ago. This discovery, made possible by combining the power of the best ground- and space-based telescopes, uniquely supports the favoured theory of how galaxies form. ESO PR Photo 24/08 ESO PR Photo 24/08 Merging Galaxies in Groups How do galaxies form? The most widely accepted answer to this fundamental question is the model of 'hierarchical formation', a step-wise process in which small galaxies merge to build larger ones. One can think of the galaxies forming in a similar way to how streams merge to form rivers, and how these rivers, in turn, merge to form an even larger river. This theoretical model predicts that massive galaxies grow through many merging events in their lifetime. But when did their cosmological growth spurts finish? When did the most massive galaxies get most of their mass? To answer these questions, astronomers study massive galaxies in clusters, the cosmological equivalent of cities filled with galaxies. "Whether the brightest galaxies in clusters grew substantially in the last few billion years is intensely debated. Our observations show that in this time, these galaxies have increased their mass by 50%," says Kim-Vy Tran from the University of Zürich, Switzerland, who led the research. The astronomers made use of a large ensemble of telescopes and instruments, including ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Hubble Space Telescope, to study in great detail galaxies located 4 billion light-years away. These galaxies lie in an extraordinary system made of four galaxy groups that will assemble into a cluster. In particular, the team took images with VIMOS and spectra with FORS2, both instruments on the VLT. From these and other observations, the astronomers could identify a total of 198 galaxies belonging to these four groups. The brightest galaxies in each group contain between 100 and 1000 billion of stars, a property that makes them comparable

  19. Growing Galaxies Gently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  20. Experience and activity-dependent maturation of perisomatic GABAergic innervation in primary visual cortex during a postnatal critical period.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Di Cristo, Graziella; Higashiyama, Hiroyuki; Knott, Graham W; Kuhlman, Sandra J; Welker, Egbert; Huang, Z Josh

    2004-10-27

    The neocortical GABAergic network consists of diverse interneuron cell types that display distinct physiological properties and target their innervations to subcellular compartments of principal neurons. Inhibition directed toward the soma and proximal dendrites is crucial in regulating the output of pyramidal neurons, but the development of perisomatic innervation is poorly understood because of the lack of specific synaptic markers. In the primary visual cortex, for example, it is unknown whether, and to what extent, the formation and maturation of perisomatic synapses are intrinsic to cortical circuits or are regulated by sensory experience. Using bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice that label a defined class of perisomatic synapses with green fluorescent protein, here we show that perisomatic innervation developed during a protracted postnatal period after eye opening. Maturation of perisomatic innervation was significantly retarded by visual deprivation during the third, but not the fifth, postnatal week, implicating an important role for sensory input. To examine the role of cortical intrinsic mechanisms, we developed a method to visualize perisomatic synapses from single basket interneurons in cortical organotypic cultures. Characteristic perisomatic synapses formed through a stereotyped process, involving the extension of distinct terminal branches and proliferation of perisomatic boutons. Neuronal spiking in organotypic cultures was necessary for the proliferation of boutons and the extension, but not the maintenance, of terminal branches. Together, our results suggest that although the formation of perisomatic synapses is intrinsic to the cortex, visual experience can influence the maturation and pattern of perisomatic innervation during a postnatal critical period by modulating the level of neural activity within cortical circuits.

  1. Long-period oscillations of active region patterns: least-squares mapping on second-order curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumbadze, G.; Shergelashvili, B. M.; Kukhianidze, V.; Ramishvili, G.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Khodachenko, M.; Gurgenashvili, E.; Poedts, S.; De Causmaecker, P.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Active regions (ARs) are the main sources of variety in solar dynamic events. Automated detection and identification tools need to be developed for solar features for a deeper understanding of the solar cycle. Of particular interest here are the dynamical properties of the ARs, regardless of their internal structure and sunspot distribution. Aims: We studied the oscillatory dynamics of two ARs: NOAA 11327 and NOAA 11726 using two different methods of pattern recognition. Methods: We developed a novel method of automated AR border detection and compared it to an existing method for the proof-of-concept. The first method uses least-squares fitting on the smallest ellipse enclosing the AR, while the second method applies regression on the convex hull. Results: After processing the data, we found that the axes and the inclination angle of the ellipse and the convex hull oscillate in time. These oscillations are interpreted as the second harmonic of the standing long-period kink oscillations (with the node at the apex) of the magnetic flux tube connecting the two main sunspots of the ARs. We also found that the inclination angles oscillate with characteristic periods of 4.9 h in AR 11726 and 4.6 h in AR 11327. In addition, we discovered that the lengths of the pattern axes in the ARs oscillate with similar characteristic periods and these oscillations might be ascribed to standing global flute modes. Conclusions: In both ARs we have estimated the distribution of the phase speed magnitude along the magnetic tubes (along the two main spots) by interpreting the obtained oscillation of the inclination angle as the standing second harmonic kink mode. After comparing the obtained results for fast and slow kink modes, we conclude that both of these modes are good candidates to explain the observed oscillations of the AR inclination angles, as in the high plasma β regime the phase speeds of these modes are comparable and on the order of the Alfvén speed. Based on the

  2. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum fontanesii (Apiaceae) Growing Wild in Sicily and its Activity on Microorganisms Affecting Historical Art Crafts.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Federica; Senatore, Felice

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodistillation of the flowers (BpFI) of and fruits (BpFr) of Bupleurumfontanesii Guss. ex Caruel gave two oils that were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main components were α-elemol (16.7%), caryophyllene oxide (16.4%) and heptacosane (15.9%) in BpFl, and spathulenol (16.8%), caryophylladienol I (13.2%) and α-elemol (12.8%) in BpFr. A good antimicrobial activity against several microorganisms, including Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger, all infesting historical art craft, was also determined.

  3. Composition of the Essential Oil of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo Growing Wild in Sicily and its Activity on Microorganisms Affecting Historical Art Crafts.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Federica; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of the aerial parts of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo collected in Sicily were analyzed by gas-chromatography-flame-ionization detection and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen compounds were identified in the oil and the main components were found to be (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (28.1%), (Z)-chrysanthenyl acetate (23.8%), (E)-β-farnesene (9.6%), dimethyl trisulfide (9.6%), camphor (7.4%), methyl allyl disulfide (6.8%) and 1-methyl-3-allyl trisulfide (5.8%). The essential oil showed good antimicrobial activity against 11 strains of test microorganisms, including several species infesting historical material.

  4. Never Stop Growing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Learning is a lifelong process. That's something career and technical educators are always telling their students, but through their professional development activities they are also practicing what they are preaching. Why is professional development so important? According to the U.S. Department of Education initiative "Building Bridges: The…

  5. Growing without Schooling, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffer, Susannah, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These six bimonthly issues focus on home schooling, providing parents in the United States and other nations with ideas, activities, research, and resources to teach their children at home. Each issue contains short news items and reports on home schooling, letters from parents, letter on the challenges and concerns of home schooling, a focus…

  6. See How They Grow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Marlin Robert

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities which encourage students to develop and test hypotheses related to the effects of changing environmental factors on plant growth. Uniform (fair) testing and careful observation and measurement, supplemented by graphing, are emphasized as important in reaching valid conclusions. (JM)

  7. Hovenia dulcis Thunb Extract and Its Ingredient Methyl Vanillate Activate Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway and Increase Bone Mass in Growing or Ovariectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Shin, Wookjin; Zahoor, Muhammad; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Min, Do Sik; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a potential target for development of anabolic agents to treat osteoporosis because of its role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, there is no clinically available anti-osteoporosis drug that targets this Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In this study, we screened a library of aqueous extracts of 350 plants and identified Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HDT) extract as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator. HDT extract induced osteogenic differentiation of calvarial osteoblasts without cytotoxicity. In addition, HDT extract increased femoral bone mass without inducing significant weight changes in normal mice. In addition, thickness and area of femoral cortical bone were also significantly increased by the HDT extract. Methyl vanillate (MV), one of the ingredients in HDT, also activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro. MV rescued trabecular or cortical femoral bone loss in the ovariectomized mice without inducing any significant weight changes or abnormality in liver tissue when administrated orally. Thus, natural HDT extract and its ingredient MV are potential anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis. PMID:24465596

  8. Mineral Type and Solution Chemistry Affect the Structure and Composition of Actively Growing Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture and 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L C; Colin, Y; Turpault, M-P; Uroz, S

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how minerals affect bacterial communities and their in situ activities in relation to environmental conditions are central issues in soil microbial ecology, as minerals represent essential reservoirs of inorganic nutrients for the biosphere. To determine the impact of mineral type and solution chemistry on soil bacterial communities, we compared the diversity, composition, and functional abilities of a soil bacterial community incubated in presence/absence of different mineral types (apatite, biotite, obsidian). Microcosms were prepared containing different liquid culture media devoid of particular essential nutrients, the nutrients provided only in the introduced minerals and therefore only available to the microbial community through mineral dissolution by biotic and/or abiotic processes. By combining functional screening of bacterial isolates and community analysis by bromodeoxyuridine DNA immunocapture and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we demonstrated that bacterial communities were mainly impacted by the solution chemistry at the taxonomic level and by the mineral type at the functional level. Metabolically active bacterial communities varied with solution chemistry and mineral type. Burkholderia were significantly enriched in the obsidian treatment compared to the biotite treatment and were the most effective isolates at solubilizing phosphorous or mobilizing iron, in all the treatments. A detailed analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the OTUs or isolated strains assigned as Burkholderia in our study showed high homology with effective mineral-weathering bacteria previously recovered from the same experimental site.

  9. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  10. Horizontal flow fields in and around a small active region. The transition period between flux emergence and decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Kuckein, C.; González Manrique, S. J.; Sobotka, M.; Bello González, N.; Hoch, S.; Diercke, A.; Kummerow, P.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados, M.; Feller, A.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Löhner-Böttcher, J.; Nicklas, H.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Schubert, M.; Sigwarth, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The solar magnetic field is responsible for all aspects of solar activity. Thus, emergence of magnetic flux at the surface is the first manifestation of the ensuing solar activity. Aims: Combining high-resolution and synoptic observations aims to provide a comprehensive description of flux emergence at photospheric level and of the growth process that eventually leads to a mature active region. Methods: The small active region NOAA 12118 emerged on 2014 July 17 and was observed one day later with the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope on 2014 July 18. High-resolution time-series of blue continuum and G-band images acquired in the blue imaging channel (BIC) of the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI) were complemented by synoptic line-of-sight magnetograms and continuum images obtained with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Horizontal proper motions and horizontal plasma velocities were computed with local correlation tracking (LCT) and the differential affine velocity estimator (DAVE), respectively. Morphological image processing was employed to measure the photometric and magnetic area, magnetic flux, and the separation profile of the emerging flux region during its evolution. Results: The computed growth rates for photometric area, magnetic area, and magnetic flux are about twice as high as the respective decay rates. The space-time diagram using HMI magnetograms of five days provides a comprehensive view of growth and decay. It traces a leaf-like structure, which is determined by the initial separation of the two polarities, a rapid expansion phase, a time when the spread stalls, and a period when the region slowly shrinks again. The separation rate of 0.26 km s-1 is highest in the initial stage, and it decreases when the separation comes to a halt. Horizontal plasma velocities computed at four evolutionary stages indicate a changing pattern of inflows. In LCT maps we find persistent flow patterns

  11. Growing with the wind

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Maximiliano J; Acevedo, Julieta M; Wappner, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    In this Extra View we comment on our recent work on Sudestada1 (Sud1), a Drosophila 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenase that belongs to the Ribosomal Oxygenase (ROX) subfamily. Sud1 is required for normal growth in Drosophila, and is conserved in yeast and mammals. We reported that Sud1 hydroxylates the ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23), and that its loss of function restricts growth and provokes activation of the unfolded protein response, apoptosis and autophagy. In this Extra View we speculate on the role that RPS23 hydroxylation might play in stop codon recognition and on the possible link between Sud1 loss-of-function and activation of the Unfolded Protein Response, Stress Granules formation and growth impairment. PMID:25482726

  12. Plane of nutrition during the preweaning period but not the grower phase influences the neutrophil activity of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, B S; Cobb, C J; Sellers, M D; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Earleywine, T J; Ballou, M A

    2013-01-01

    .6 kg of DM of the same concentrate per head per day. All calves were fed alfalfa hay (16.2% CP; DM basis) ad libitum. Overall, average daily gain was greater in HPN calves than LPN calves. No differences were noticed for concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, glucose, neutrophil L-selectin expression, percentage of neutrophils producing OB, and plasma haptoglobin concentration between the 2 planes of nutrition. In summary, intake and performance were improved in calves fed the HPN than calves fed the LPN in both experiments. The neutrophil responses of calves fed an LPN were more active during the preweaning period than calves fed an HPN; however, this response was not observed during the immediate postweaning period or the grower phase.

  13. Identification and localization of gastrointestinal hormones in the skin of the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana during periods of activity and hibernation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Zhou, Naizhen; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ruidong; Zhang, Shengzhou

    2014-10-01

    Amphibian skin and its secretions contain a wide variety of biogenic amines and biologically active peptides, some of which are either identical or highly homologous to gastrointestinal hormones (GHs) of higher vertebrates. This study investigated the distribution density and immunoreactive (IR) intensity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and glucagon (GLU) IR cells in the skin of the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana during periods of activity and hibernation. The results indicated that the six types of GHs were all present in the bullfrog skin and were most predominant in the epidermis and mucous glands. In dorsal skin, the density of the GHs-IR cells in mucous glands was higher than that in epidermis except for GAS-IR cells. In ventral skin, the density of 5-HT, PP and NPY-IR cells in mucous glands was also higher than that in the epidermis. During hibernation, the density of the six types of GHs-IR cells and the IR intensity of GAS, SS, NPY and GLU-IR cells in the epidermis of dorsal skin increased significantly. The IR intensity of SS, PP and NPY-IR cells in granular glands of ventral skin also increased significantly during hibernation. These results suggested that multiple types of GHs-IR cells present in the skin of R. catesbeiana, may play important roles in the regulation of the physiological functions of skin. Also, adaptive changes in the density and IR intensity of GHs-IR cells occurred during hibernation.

  14. Formaldehyde removal by common indoor plant species and various growing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogan, Ahu; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2011-05-01

    Three porous materials (growstone, expanded clay and activated carbon) were evaluated as hydroponic growing media and for their individual ability to remove the indoor volatile organic compound formaldehyde under three conditions: growing medium alone, dry medium in a pot, and wet medium in a pot. The total percent-reduction of formaldehyde by each growing media was evaluated over a 10-h period. In all cases, activated carbon achieved the highest removal under the three conditions studied with average percent reductions measured at about 98%. Four common interior plants: Hedera helix (English ivy), Chrysanthemum morifolium (pot mum), Dieffenbachia compacta (dump cane) and Epipremnum aureum (golden pathos) growing in growstone were then tested for their ability to remove formaldehyde. The removal capacity of the aerial plant parts (AP), the root zone (RZ) and the entire plant (EP) growing in growstone were determined by exposing the relevant parts to gaseous formaldehyde (˜2000 μg m -3) in a closed chamber over a 24-h period. The removal efficiency between species and plant parts were compared by determining the time interval required to decrease about 2/3 of the total formaldehyde concentration reduction, T 2/3. The T 2/3 measured were 23, 30, 34 and 56 min for EP of C. morifolium, E. aureum, D. compacta and H. helix, respectively. The formaldehyde removal by the root zone was found to be more rapid than the removal by the aerial plant parts.

  15. Fast Optical Variability of a Naked-eye Burst—Manifestation of the Periodic Activity of an Internal Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskin, G.; Karpov, S.; Bondar, S.; Greco, G.; Guarnieri, A.; Bartolini, C.; Piccioni, A.

    2010-08-01

    We imaged the position of the naked-eye burst, GRB080319B, before, during, and after its gamma-ray activity with sub-second temporal resolution using the TORTORA wide-field camera. The burst optical prompt emission, which reached 5.3 mag, has been detected, and its periodic optical variability has been discovered in the form of four equidistant flashes with a duration of several seconds. We also detected a strong correlation (r ≈ 0.82) between optical and gamma-ray light curves with a 2 s delay of the optical emission with respect to the gamma-ray emission. The revealed temporal structure of the optical light curve in comparison with the gamma-ray light curve can be interpreted in the framework of the model of shell collisions in the ejecta containing a significant neutron component. All observed emission features reflect the non-stationary behavior of the burst internal engine—supposedly, a hyperaccreting solar-mass black hole formed in the collapse of a massive stellar core.

  16. Distribution of endocrine cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhou, Naizhen; Wang, Chaolin; Wu, Xiaobing

    2014-10-01

    The digestive tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body; the distribution pattern of endocrine cells varies with different pathological and physiological states. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distributed density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period by immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The results indicated that 5-HT-IR cells were distributed throughout the entire digestive tract, which were most predominant in duodenum and jejunum. The density increased significantly in stomach and duodenum during hibernation. GAS-IR cells were limited in small stomach and small intestine. The density decreased significantly in small stomach during hibernation, while increased in duodenum. What's more, most of the endocrine cells in duodenum were generally spindle shaped with long cytoplasmic processes ending in the lumen during hibernation. SS-IR cells were limited in stomach and small stomach. The density increased in stomach while decreased in small stomach during hibernation, meanwhile, fewer IR cells occurred in small intestine. VIP-IR cells occurred in stomach and small stomach. The density decreased in small stomach, while increased in stomach during hibernation. These results indicated that the endocrine cells in different parts of digestive tract varied differently during hibernation, their changes were adaptive response to the hibernation.

  17. FAST OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF A NAKED-EYE BURST-MANIFESTATION OF THE PERIODIC ACTIVITY OF AN INTERNAL ENGINE

    SciTech Connect

    Beskin, G.; Karpov, S.; Bondar, S.; Greco, G.; Guarnieri, A.; Bartolini, C.; Piccioni, A.

    2010-08-10

    We imaged the position of the naked-eye burst, GRB080319B, before, during, and after its gamma-ray activity with sub-second temporal resolution using the TORTORA wide-field camera. The burst optical prompt emission, which reached 5.3 mag, has been detected, and its periodic optical variability has been discovered in the form of four equidistant flashes with a duration of several seconds. We also detected a strong correlation (r {approx} 0.82) between optical and gamma-ray light curves with a 2 s delay of the optical emission with respect to the gamma-ray emission. The revealed temporal structure of the optical light curve in comparison with the gamma-ray light curve can be interpreted in the framework of the model of shell collisions in the ejecta containing a significant neutron component. All observed emission features reflect the non-stationary behavior of the burst internal engine-supposedly, a hyperaccreting solar-mass black hole formed in the collapse of a massive stellar core.

  18. The effects of a reformer Pilates program on body composition and morphological characteristics in active women after a detraining period.

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; López-Plaza, Daniel; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the effects of a reformer Pilates program on the anthropometry, body composition, and somatotype of active adult women after a short non-exercise period. Twenty-eight women (mean age: 40.21 ± standard deviation of 8.12 years old) with one to three years of reformer Pilates experience participated in the study. The women participated in a reformer Pilates program for 16 weeks (one hour, twice per week) after 4 weeks of detraining (summer holidays) in 2012. The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry full profile was assessed before and after the intervention program. Significant decreases (p ≤ 0.05) from pre- to post-program were observed for triceps, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf skinfold thicknesses, six and eight skinfold thickness sums, forearm and ankle girths, waist/hip ratio, endomorphy, and fat mass. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) were observed for corrected arm, corrected calf girths, and muscle mass. Generally, women showed a mesomorphic endomorph (endomorphy predominant) and mesomorph-endomorph (endomorphy and mesomorphy predominant) in the pre- and posttests, respectively. In conclusion, the practice of reformer Pilates was associated with healthy changes in anthropometric parameters, body composition, and somatotype in Pilates-experienced women after 4 weeks of no physical exercise.

  19. HST WFC3/IR OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS HOST GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2: SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES GROW IN DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Treister, Ezequiel; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Simmons, Brooke; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2011-02-01

    We present the rest-frame optical morphologies of active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxies at 1.5 < z < 3, using near-infrared imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, the first such study of AGN host galaxies at these redshifts. The AGNs are X-ray-selected from the Chandra Deep Field South and have typical luminosities of 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}

  20. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Said, Mansour S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Yahya, Mohammed M.; Rafatullah, Syed; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O.; Khaled, Jamal M.; Alatar, Abdulrahman; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Baser, Husnu C.

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO) (0.2 mL/kg) in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0%) of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and p-cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP) and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. PMID:27293452

  1. Linking Expression of Fructan Active Enzymes, Cell Wall Invertases and Sucrose Transporters with Fructan Profiles in Growing Taproot of Chicory (Cichorium intybus): Impact of Hormonal and Environmental Cues

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hongbin; Bausewein, Anja; Steininger, Heike; Su, Tao; Zhao, Hongbo; Harms, Karsten; Greiner, Steffen; Rausch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In chicory taproot, the inulin-type fructans serve as carbohydrate reserve. Inulin metabolism is mediated by fructan active enzymes (FAZYs): sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; fructan synthesis), fructan:fructan-1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT; fructan synthesis and degradation), and fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEH1/2a/2b; fructan degradation). In developing taproot, fructan synthesis is affected by source-to-sink sucrose transport and sink unloading. In the present study, expression of FAZYs, sucrose transporter and CWI isoforms, vacuolar invertase and sucrose synthase was determined in leaf blade, petiole and taproot of young chicory plants (taproot diameter: 2 cm) and compared with taproot fructan profiles for the following scenarios: (i) N-starvation, (ii) abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, (iii) ethylene treatment (via 1-aminoyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid [ACC]), and (iv) cold treatment. Both N-starvation and ABA treatment induced an increase in taproot oligofructans. However, while under N-starvation this increase reflected de novo synthesis, under ABA treatment gene expression profiles indicated a role for both de novo synthesis and degradation of long-chain fructans. Conversely, under ACC and cold treatment oligofructans slightly decreased, correlating with reduced expression of 1-SST and 1-FFT and increased expression of FEHs and VI. Distinct SUT and CWI expression profiles were observed, indicating a functional alignment of SUT and CWI expression with taproot fructan metabolism under different source-sink scenarios. PMID:27994611

  2. Coherent periodic activity in excitatory Erdös-Renyi neural networks: the role of network connectivity.

    PubMed

    Tattini, Lorenzo; Olmi, Simona; Torcini, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the role of connectivity in promoting coherent activity in excitatory neural networks. In particular, we would like to understand if the onset of collective oscillations can be related to a minimal average connectivity and how this critical connectivity depends on the number of neurons in the networks. For these purposes, we consider an excitatory random network of leaky integrate-and-fire pulse coupled neurons. The neurons are connected as in a directed Erdös-Renyi graph with average connectivity scaling as a power law with the number of neurons in the network. The scaling is controlled by a parameter γ, which allows to pass from massively connected to sparse networks and therefore to modify the topology of the system. At a macroscopic level, we observe two distinct dynamical phases: an asynchronous state corresponding to a desynchronized dynamics of the neurons and a regime of partial synchronization (PS) associated with a coherent periodic activity of the network. At low connectivity, the system is in an asynchronous state, while PS emerges above a certain critical average connectivity (c). For sufficiently large networks, (c) saturates to a constant value suggesting that a minimal average connectivity is sufficient to observe coherent activity in systems of any size irrespectively of the kind of considered network: sparse or massively connected. However, this value depends on the nature of the synapses: reliable or unreliable. For unreliable synapses, the critical value required to observe the onset of macroscopic behaviors is noticeably smaller than for reliable synaptic transmission. Due to the disorder present in the system, for finite number of neurons we have inhomogeneities in the neuronal behaviors, inducing a weak form of chaos, which vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. In such a limit, the disordered systems exhibit regular (non chaotic) dynamics and their properties correspond to that of a homogeneous

  3. Coherent periodic activity in excitatory Erdös-Renyi neural networks: The role of network connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattini, Lorenzo; Olmi, Simona; Torcini, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the role of connectivity in promoting coherent activity in excitatory neural networks. In particular, we would like to understand if the onset of collective oscillations can be related to a minimal average connectivity and how this critical connectivity depends on the number of neurons in the networks. For these purposes, we consider an excitatory random network of leaky integrate-and-fire pulse coupled neurons. The neurons are connected as in a directed Erdös-Renyi graph with average connectivity scaling as a power law with the number of neurons in the network. The scaling is controlled by a parameter γ, which allows to pass from massively connected to sparse networks and therefore to modify the topology of the system. At a macroscopic level, we observe two distinct dynamical phases: an asynchronous state corresponding to a desynchronized dynamics of the neurons and a regime of partial synchronization (PS) associated with a coherent periodic activity of the network. At low connectivity, the system is in an asynchronous state, while PS emerges above a certain critical average connectivity c. For sufficiently large networks, c saturates to a constant value suggesting that a minimal average connectivity is sufficient to observe coherent activity in systems of any size irrespectively of the kind of considered network: sparse or massively connected. However, this value depends on the nature of the synapses: reliable or unreliable. For unreliable synapses, the critical value required to observe the onset of macroscopic behaviors is noticeably smaller than for reliable synaptic transmission. Due to the disorder present in the system, for finite number of neurons we have inhomogeneities in the neuronal behaviors, inducing a weak form of chaos, which vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. In such a limit, the disordered systems exhibit regular (non chaotic) dynamics and their properties correspond to that of a homogeneous fully

  4. Disrupted coupling of gating charge displacement to Na+ current activation for DIIS4 mutations in hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Wentao; Rybalchenko, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    Missense mutations at arginine residues in the S4 voltage-sensor domains of NaV1.4 are an established cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis, an inherited disorder of skeletal muscle involving recurrent episodes of weakness in conjunction with low serum K+. Expression studies in oocytes have revealed anomalous, hyperpolarization-activated gating pore currents in mutant channels. This aberrant gating pore conductance creates a small inward current at the resting potential that is thought to contribute to susceptibility to depolarization in low K+ during attacks of weakness. A critical component of this hypothesis is the magnitude of the gating pore conductance relative to other conductances that are active at the resting potential in mammalian muscle: large enough to favor episodes of paradoxical depolarization in low K+, yet not so large as to permanently depolarize the fiber. To improve the estimate of the specific conductance for the gating pore in affected muscle, we sequentially measured Na+ current through the channel pore, gating pore current, and gating charge displacement in oocytes expressing R669H, R672G, or wild-type NaV1.4 channels. The relative conductance of the gating pore to that of the pore domain pathway for Na+ was 0.03%, which implies a specific conductance in muscle from heterozygous patients of ∼10 µS/cm2 or 1% of the total resting conductance. Unexpectedly, our data also revealed a substantial decoupling between gating charge displacement and peak Na+ current for both R669H and R672G mutant channels. This decoupling predicts a reduced Na+ current density in affected muscle, consistent with the observations that the maximal dV/dt and peak amplitude of the action potential are reduced in fibers from patients with R672G and in a knock-in mouse model of R669H. The defective coupling between gating charge displacement and channel activation identifies a previously unappreciated mechanism that contributes to the reduced excitability of affected

  5. Composition of the essential oils and antibacterial activities of Hymenocrater yazdianus, Stachys obtusicrena and Nepeta asterotricha three Labiatae herbs growing wild in Iran.

    PubMed

    Masoudi, Shiva; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Mohebat, Razieh; Mosslemin, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from leaves of Hymenocrater yazdianus Rech.f., flowers of Stachys obtusicrena Boiss., and stems and flowers of Nepeta asterotricha Rech.f., which are endemic to Iran, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-five components of the leaf oil of H. yazdianus were characterized, representing 95.1% of the total components detected. The major constituents were identified as 1,8-cineole (17.6%), beta-caryophyllene (13.9%), alpha-pinene (10.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (10.4%). Germacrene-D (37.5%) and alpha-bisabolol (23.5%) were the main components among the twenty constituents characterized in the flower oil of S. obtusicrena, representing 90.8% of the total components detected. Thirty-five compounds representing 93.0% of the stem oil of N. asterotrica were identified among which terpinen-4-ol (22.8%) and gamma-terpinene (14.1%) were the major ones. The flower oil of the species was characterized by higher amounts of terpinen-4-ol (24.8%), 4a alpha, 7a beta-nepetalactone (18.2%) and 1,8-cineole (11.6%) among the thirty-three components comprising 98.5% of the total oil detected. The antibacterial activity of the stem, leaf and flower oils of Hymenocrater yazdianus, Stachys obtusicrena and Nepeta asterotricha against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were determined using the MIC method. The growth inhibitory zone (mm) was also measured.

  6. Is magma cooling responsible for the periodic activity of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy; Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Neuberg, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    After 400 years of quiescence, Soufrière Hills volcano on Montserrat (SHV) started erupting in 1995. Ongoing deformation and sulphur dioxide emission demonstrate that this volcanic systems is still restless, however, after 5 years of inactivity it remains unclear whether magma extrusion will restart. Also, if such periodically observed activity at SHV will restart, can we use past monitoring data to attempt to forecast the reawakening of this volcano? Cooling of volatile saturated magma leads to crystallisation, the formation of gas bubbles and expansion. Such volumetric variations are not only potentially responsible for deformation signals observed at the surface (Caricchi et al., 2014), but also lead to pressurisation of the magmatic reservoir and eventually renewed magma extrusion (Tait et al., 1989). We postulate that volcanic activity observed at SHM over the last 20 years could be essentially the result of the unavoidable progressive cooling of a magmatic body, which was probably assembled over thousands of years and experienced internal segregation of eruptible lenses of magma (Christopher et al., 2015). To test this hypothesis, we performed thermal modelling to test if the cooling of a shallow magma body emplaced since 1990 could account for the monitoring signals observed at SHV. The results show that progressive cooling of a 4km3 volume of melt could explain the deformation rate currently observed. Using the deformation rate obtained from the modelling for the first 15 years of cooling, a reservoir volume of about 13 km3 (Paulatto et al., 2012) and a critical value of overpressure of 10 MPa, it would have taken approximately only 3 years to pressurise the reservoir to the critical pressure and restart magma extrusion. This is in agreement with the time interval between previous pauses at SHV before 2010. Considering the current deformation rates, we speculate that magma extrusion could restart in 6-8 years after the end of the last event in 2010, hence

  7. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  8. Growing up as a Young Artist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    "Growing Up as a Young Artist" is an illustrated book assignment that involves researching family scrapbooks, photo albums and films, and inquiring about family anecdotes for clues to one's artistic roots. Students creatively reflect on their early memories of imaginative events, as each page is filled with memories of creative activities they…

  9. Growing evening primroses (Oenothera)

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Stephan; Köhl, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The model plant Oenothera has contributed significantly to the biological sciences and it dominated the early development of plant genetics, cytogenetics, and evolutionary biology. The great advantage of using Oenothera as a model system is a large body of genetic, cytological, morphological, and ecological information collected over more than a century. The Oenothera system offers a well-studied taxonomy, population structure, and ecology. Cytogenetics and formal genetics at the population level are extensively developed, providing an excellent basis to study evolutionary questions. Further, Oenothera is grown as an oil seed crop for the production of essential fatty acids (gamma-linoleic acid) and is considered to be a medicinal plant due to its many pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, such as ellagitannins. Although Oenothera has been cultivated as a laboratory organism since the end of the 19th century, there is a substantial lack of literature dealing with modern greenhouse techniques for the genus. This review compiles an overview about the growth requirements for the genus Oenothera, with a special focus on its genetically best-studied subsections Oenothera and Munzia. Requirements for greenhouse, field, and agronomic cultures are presented, together with information on substrate types, pest control, as well as vegetative and seed propagation, cross pollination, harvest, and seed storage. Particular aspects like germination, bolting, and flowering induction in taxonomically diverse material are reviewed. Methods recommended are supported by ecological and experimental data. An overview of the possibilities for wide hybridization and polyploidy induction in the genus is given. Germplasm resources are referenced. In summary, a comprehensive guideline for successful laboratory cultivation of Oenothera species is provided. PMID:24592268

  10. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  11. [The health status and morbidity in the crew members of submarines at different periods of combat training activity].

    PubMed

    Bortnovskiĭ, V N; Myznikov, I L

    1993-09-01

    It was found out in the result of complex examination of health status of 2020 enlisted men from 65 submarine crews of the North Fleet, that the inflammatory and infectious morbidity during the post-cruise period was considerably higher than during seagoing period. This morbidity was characterized by seasonal outbreaks. As for the types of the immune dependency, there were no seasonal changes. The peak of infectious morbidity coincides with the pre-cruise preparative period and post-cruise recreation due to "mixing" of the crews and diminishing of the non-specific resistance of an organism.

  12. Depression and suicidality during the postpartum period after first time deliveries, active component service women and dependent spouses, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Do, Tai; Hu, Zheng; Otto, Jean; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    Although suicide is a leading cause of death among new mothers during the postpartum period, there has been limited research on self-harm in the postpartum period and associated risk factors. One potential risk factor for suicidality (completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicide ideation including thoughts of self harm) during the postpartum period is postpartum depression (PPD). In this study of women who gave birth for the first time between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011, 5,267 (9.9% of all who delivered) active component service women and 10,301 (8.2%) dependent spouses received incident PPD diagnoses during the one year postpartum period; 213 (0.4%) service women and 221 (0.2%) dependent spouses were diagnosed with incident suicidality. After adjusting for the effects of other covariates, service women with PPD had 42.2 times the odds to be diagnosed with suicidality in the postpartum period compared to service women without PPD; dependent spouses with PPD had 14.5 times the odds compared to those without PPD. The findings of this report suggest that a history of mental disorders was common among service women and dependent spouses with PPD in the postpartum period, and, in turn, PPD was a strong predictor for suicidality in the postpartum period. These results emphasize the importance of PPD screening during the postpartum period. They also suggest that additional focused screening for suicidal behavior among those already diagnosed with PPD may be warranted.

  13. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  14. Acute effects of hindlimb unweighting on satellite cells of growing skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Edward; Darr, Kevin C.; Macius, Allison

    1994-01-01

    The proliferative behavior of satellite cells in growing rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles was examined at short periods after initiation of hindlimb unweighting. Mitotic activity of satellite cells in both muscles decreased below weight-bearing control levels within 24 h of initiation of hindlimb unweighting. This satellite cell response was equal to or greater than 48 h before any atrophic morphological changes that take place in the muscles. Suppression of mitotic activity was most severe in the soleus muscle where continuous infusion of label demonstrated that virtually all mitotic activity was abolished between 3 and 5 days. The results of this study suggest that satellite cell mitotic activity is a sensitive indicator of primary atrophic changes occurring in growing myofibers and may be a predictor of future morphological changes.

  15. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Gongming; Shen, Nan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Huiqing; Xu, Nanwei; Zhou, Dong; Nong, Luming; Ren, Kewei

    2016-01-15

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade.

  16. Growing plants on atoll soils

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    year. Except on the driest of atolls, air temperature and humidity range only within limits set by the surrounding sea. There are no cold seasons, no frosts, no cold soils, no dry winds, and no periodic plagues of insects or diseases moving from miles away. Problems of soil drainage or salinity are few and easily recognized. Nor are there problems with acid soils, soil crusting, or erosion that challenge cultivators in many other areas. On the contrary, some of the black soils at the center of wide islands rank with the best soils of Russia and the American Midwest, except for their shortage of potassium and the uncertainties of rainfall. Some of these atoll soils contain more total nitrogen than many of the world's most productive agricultural soils and, in some, the total phosphorus content is so high as to be almost unbelievable--two to five tons of the element per acre. Certainly, problems exist in growing plants on atolls. There are also some special concerns not encountered in other environments, such as the wind and salt spray near shore. The two major physical limitations, however, are inadequate rainfall in some years and in many places, and soil fertility limitations. The alkaline or ''limy'' make-up of atoll soils means that a few plant nutrients, especially iron, limit growth of many introduced plants, and this is difficult to correct. As elsewhere in the world, many--but not all--atoll soils lack enough nitrogen and/or phosphorus for high yield, and all lack sufficient potassium. There is no practical way of overcoming drought except by use of tolerant plants such as coconut (ni) and Pandanus (bob), plus collection and careful use of whatever water is available. There are opportunities to overcome nutritional limitations mentioned above, first, by intensive use of all organic debris and household wastes in small gardens and, second, by use of commercial fertilizers. Imported fertilizers are expensive, certainly, but much less so on a family basis than the

  17. Rotational Periods and Starspot Activity of Young Solar-Type Dwarfs in the Open Cluster IC 4665

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allain, S.; Bouvier, J.; Prosser, C.; Marschall, L. A.; Laaksonen, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a V-band photometric monitoring survey of 15 late-type dwarfs in the young open cluster IC 4665. Low-amplitude periodic light variations are found for 8 stars and ascribed to the modulation by starspots that cover typically a few percent of the stellar disk. Periods range from 0.6 to 3.7 d, translating to equatorial velocities between 13 and 93 km/s. That no period longer than 4 d was detected suggests a relative paucity of extremely slow rotators (V(sub eq) much less than 10 km/s) among late-type dwarfs in IC 4665. The fractional number of slow rotators in IC 4665 is similar to that of Alpha Per cluster, suggesting that IC 4665 is close in age to Alpha Per (approx. 50 Myr).

  18. Stepwise drying of Lake Turkana at the end of the African Humid Period: a forced regression modulated by solar activity variations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutz, Alexis; Schuster, Mathieu

    2016-12-01

    Although the timing of the termination of the African Humid Period (AHP) is now relatively well established, the modes and controlling factors of this drying are still debated. Here, through a geomorphological approach, we characterize the regression of Lake Turkana at the end of the AHP. We show that lake level fall during this period was not continuous but rather stepwise and consisted of five episodes of rapid lake level fall separated by episodes marked by slower rates of lake level fall. Whereas the overall regressive trend reflects a decrease in regional precipitations linked to the gradual reduction in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, itself controlled by orbital precession, we focus discussion on the origin of the five periods of accelerated lake level fall. We propose that these periods are due to temporary reductions in rainfall across the Lake Turkana area associated with repeated westward displacement of the Congo Air Boundary (CAB) during solar activity minima.

  19. [Issues and perspectives for the development of innovative activities in pharmacy under conditions of a transition period].

    PubMed

    Posylkina, O V; Timaniuk, V N; Gladukh, E V

    2003-01-01

    An analysis was performed of the innovatory activities status in Ukraine and in its pharmaceutical sector. Consideration is given to causes of slackening of innovatory processes. Based on the studies made a system of measures is proposed designed to build up a scientific-and-technical potential and activization of innovatory activity in pharmacy.

  20. Birth of space plant growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashinskiy, A.; Nechitaylo, G.

    1983-01-01

    The attempts, and successes, to grow plants in space, and get them to fully develop, bloom and produce seeds using orchids are presented. The psychological advantages of the presence of plants onboard space vehicles and space stations is indicated.

  1. Sociology: The growing climate divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Andrew J.

    2011-07-01

    Climate change has reached the level of a 'scientific consensus', but is not yet a 'social consensus'. New analysis highlights that a growing divide between liberals and conservatives in the American public is a major obstacle to achieving this end.

  2. Method for growing plants aeroponically.

    PubMed

    Zobel, R W; Del Tredici, P; Torrey, J G

    1976-03-01

    A simple, inexpensive system for growing plants with their roots bathed in nutrient mist is described. The aeroponics system uses a spinner from a home humidifier to propel nutrient solution into a polyethylene-lined plywood box atop which plants are supported on plastic light-fixture "egg crating." Success in growing a number of herbaceous and woody species, including nodulated legumes and nonlegumes, is reported.

  3. Trapezius muscle activity and body movement at the beginning and the end of a workday and during the lunch period in female office employees

    PubMed Central

    NICOLETTI, Corinne; LÄUBLI, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the activity of the trapezius muscle and the arm acceleration during the course of a workday in office employees. It was examined if there are significant changes in trapezius muscle activity in the afternoon compared to the morning work period and relationships to the level of arm acceleration during lunchtime. Nineteen female office employees were recruited. A one hour period of the work in the morning, afternoon, and lunchtime were compared. The measures of the trapezius muscle activity and muscle rest time (TR) did not significantly differ between working in the morning (TR: median 10%; range 1%–49) or working in the afternoon (TR: median 18%; range 2%–34%). The 90th percentile of arm acceleration during lunch time significantly correlated with less trapezius muscle activity in the afternoon compared to the morning values (RT: Spearman R=0.80; p<0.01). Differences in the duration and level of trapezius muscle activity were bigger between the subjects than between different work periods or between lunchtime and work. Furthermore it seems that higher arm accelerations during lunch may be beneficial in reducing trapezius activity in the afternoon compared to the morning values. PMID:28090066

  4. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Excitation of dynamic chaos in a monolithic ring chip laser upon periodic modulation of mechanical stresses in the active element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Nikolai V.; Sidorov, S. S.; Pashinin, Pavel P.; Firsov, V. V.; Chekina, S. N.

    2004-04-01

    The peculiarities of nonlinear dynamics of solid-state bidirectional ring Nd:YAG chip lasers are studied theoretically and experimentally during periodic modulation of mechanical stresses in the active element. It is shown that modulation of mechanical stresses is an effective method for exciting dynamic chaos in a monolithic chip laser.

  5. 18 CFR 376.209 - Procedures during periods of emergency requiring activation of the Continuity of Operations Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Internet Web site, the Transmission Provide may, for 30 days, also delay compliance with the requirements of § 358.4(a)(2) of this chapter to post this information on the OASIS or Internet Web site, as... approval of proposed rates; (7) Period ending 60 days prior to the Electric Reliability Organization's...

  6. Alcohol and lithium have opposing effects on the period and phase of the behavioral free-running activity rhythm.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Nara F; Carlson, Karen N; Amaral, Danielle N; Logan, Ryan W; Seggio, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Bipolar patients have a high prevalence of comorbid alcohol use and abuse disorders, while chronic alcohol drinking may increase the presence and severity of certain symptoms of bipolar disorder. As such, there may be many individuals that are prescribed lithium to alleviate the manic symptoms of bipolar disorder, but also drink alcohol concurrently. In addition, both alcoholics and individuals with bipolar disorder often exhibit disruptions to their sleep-wake cycles and other circadian rhythms. Interestingly, both ethanol and lithium are known to alter both the period and the phase of free-running rhythms in mammals. While lithium is known to lengthen the period, ethanol seems to shorten the period and attenuate the responses to acute light pulses. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether ethanol and lithium have opposing effects on the circadian pacemaker when administered together. C57BL/6J mice were provided drinking solutions containing lithium, alcohol, or both, and their free-running rhythms along with their response to photic phase shifts were investigated. Mice treated with lithium displayed period lengthening, which was almost completely negated when ethanol was added. Moreover, ethanol significantly attenuated light-induced phase delays while the addition of lithium partially restored this response. These results indicate that alcohol and lithium have opposing effects on behavioral circadian rhythms. Individuals with bipolar disorder who are prescribed lithium and who drink alcohol might be inadvertently altering their sleep and circadian cycles, which may exacerbate their symptoms.

  7. Why Does Escherichia coli Grow More Slowly on Glucosamine than on N-Acetylglucosamine? Effects of Enzyme Levels and Allosteric Activation of GlcN6P Deaminase (NagB) on Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Añorve, Laura I.; Calcagno, Mario L.; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    Wild-type Escherichia coli grows more slowly on glucosamine (GlcN) than on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) as a sole source of carbon. Both sugars are transported by the phosphotransferase system, and their 6-phospho derivatives are produced. The subsequent catabolism of the sugars requires the allosteric enzyme glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase, which is encoded by nagB, and degradation of GlcNAc also requires the nagA-encoded enzyme, N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc6P) deacetylase. We investigated various factors which could affect growth on GlcN and GlcNAc, including the rate of GlcN uptake, the level of induction of the nag operon, and differential allosteric activation of GlcN6P deaminase. We found that for strains carrying a wild-type deaminase (nagB) gene, increasing the level of the NagB protein or the rate of GlcN uptake increased the growth rate, which showed that both enzyme induction and sugar transport were limiting. A set of point mutations in nagB that are known to affect the allosteric behavior of GlcN6P deaminase in vitro were transferred to the nagB gene on the Escherichia coli chromosome, and their effects on the growth rates were measured. Mutants in which the substrate-induced positive cooperativity of NagB was reduced or abolished grew even more slowly on GlcN than on GlcNAc or did not grow at all on GlcN. Increasing the amount of the deaminase by using a nagC or nagA mutation to derepress the nag operon improved growth. For some mutants, a nagA mutation, which caused the accumulation of the allosteric activator GlcNAc6P and permitted allosteric activation, had a stronger effect than nagC. The effects of the mutations on growth in vivo are discussed in light of their in vitro kinetics. PMID:15838023

  8. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana: Annual report for the period 1 November 1984 to 31 December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Groat, C.G.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities carried out by Louisiana State University (LSU) under US Department of Energy Contract FC07-85NV10425 for the period 1 November 1984 through 31 December 1986. Other aspects of the LSU technical support program completed under prior contracts were covered in final form in reports preceding this one. During the contract period, the Louisiana Geological Survey, aided by subcontractors, monitored microseismic activity, land-surface subsidence, and surface and ground-water quality at three designed geopressured-geothermal test well sites in Louisiana and Texas. Don Stevenson supervised microseismic monitoring activities, and Drukell Trahan coordinated water quality and land-surface subsidence studies. This is a progress report in the sense that it discusses program components, provides raw data, and presents preliminary interpretations. The environmental monitoring program continues and will be the subject of subsequent annual reports.

  9. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Growing Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    AlHarby, Saleh W.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the adult patients are thoroughly studied and published in orthopedic literature. Until recently, little was known about similar injuries in skeletally growing patients. The more frequent involvement of this age group in various athletic activities and the improved diagnostic modalities have increased the awareness and interest of ACL injuries in skeletally immature patients. ACL reconstruction in growing skeleton is controversial and carries some risks to the tibial and femoral growth plate. A guarded approach to ACL reconstruction is recommended in skeletally immature patients. Modification of activity of ACL injured young patient, proper rehabilitation and prudent planning of adolescent age ACL reconstruction carries the least risks of growth plate violation. PMID:21475528

  10. Parasites grow larger in faster growing fish hosts.

    PubMed

    Barber, Iain

    2005-02-01

    Parasites depend on host-derived energy for growth and development, and so are potentially affected by the host's ability to acquire nutrients under competitive foraging scenarios. Although parasites might be expected to grow faster in hosts that are better at acquiring nutrients from natural ecosystems, it is also possible that the most competitive hosts are better at countering infections, if they have an improved immune response or are able to limit the availability of nutrients to parasites. I first quantified the ability of uninfected three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus to compete in groups for sequentially-presented food items, and then exposed either the best or worst competitors to infective stages of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Fish were subsequently raised in their original groups, under competitive feeding regimes, for 96 days, after which fish and parasite growth was determined. Unexpectedly, pre-exposure host competitive ability had no effect on susceptibility to infection, or on post-infection growth rate. Furthermore, despite a 120-fold variation in parasite mass at the end of the study, pre-infection competitive ability was not related to parasite growth. The closest predictor of parasite mass was body size-corrected host growth rate, indicating that the fastest growing fish developed the largest parasites. Faster growing hosts therefore apparently provide ideal environments for growing parasites. This finding has important implications for ecology and aquaculture.

  11. Disruption of CLOCK-BMAL1 Transcriptional Activity Is Responsible for Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor–Mediated Regulation of Period1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Can-Xin; Krager, Stacey L.; Liao, Duan-Fang; Tischkau, Shelley A.

    2010-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a period-aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear transporter-simple minded domain transcription factor that shares structural similarity with circadian clock genes and readily interacts with components of the molecular clock. Activation of AhR by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alters behavioral circadian rhythms and represses the Period1 (Per1) gene in murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Per1 expression is driven by circadian locomotor activity cycles kaput-brain muscle ARNT-like (CLOCK-BMAL1)–dependent activation of Eboxes in the Per1 promoter. We hypothesized that the effects of AhR activation on the circadian clock are mediated by disruption of CLOCK-BMAL1 function and subsequent Per1 gene suppression. Effects of AhR activation on rhythmic Per1 transcripts were examined in livers of mice after treatment with the AhR agonist, TCDD; the molecular mechanisms of Per1 repression by AhR were determined in hepatoma cells using TCDD and β-napthoflavone as AhR activators. This study reports, for the first time, that AhR activation by TCDD alters the Per1 rhythm in the mouse liver and that Per1 gene suppression depends upon the presence of AhR. Furthermore, AhR interaction with BMAL1 attenuates CLOCK-BMAL1 activity and decreases CLOCK binding at Ebox1 and Ebox3 in the Per1 promoter. Taken together, these data suggest that AhR activation represses Per1 through disrupting CLOCK-BMAL1 activity, producing dysregulation of rhythmic Per1 gene expression. These data define alteration of the Per1 rhythm as novel signaling events downstream of AhR activation. Downregulation of Per1 could contribute to metabolic disease, cancer, and other detrimental effects resulting from exposure to certain environmental pollutants. PMID:20106950

  12. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture.

  13. Alternating Periods of High and Low-Entropy Neural Ensemble Activity During Image Processing in the Primary Visual Cortex of Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Li, Qiwei; Shi, Li; Jiao, Liucheng

    2016-01-01

    The response properties of individual neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) are among the most thoroughly described in the mammalian central nervous system, but they reveal less about higher-order processes like visual perception. Neural activity is highly nonlinear and non-stationary over time, greatly complicating the relationships among the spatiotemporal characteristics of visual stimuli, local field potential (LFP) signal components, and the underlying neuronal activity patterns. We applied discrete wavelet transformation to detect new features of the LFP that may better describe the association between visual input and neural ensemble activity. The relative wavelet energy (RWE), wavelet entropy (WS), and the mean WS were computed from LFPs recorded in rat V1 during three distinct visual stimuli: low ambient light, a uniform grey computer screen, and simple pictures of common scenes. The time evolution of the RWE within the γ band (31-62.5 Hz) was the dominant component over certain periods during visual stimulation. Mean WS decreased with increasing complexity of the visual image, and the time-dependent WS alternated between periods of highly ordered and disordered population activity. In conclusion, these alternating periods of high and low WS may correspond to different aspects of visual processing, such as feature extraction and perception.

  14. Alternating Periods of High and Low-Entropy Neural Ensemble Activity During Image Processing in the Primary Visual Cortex of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Li, Qiwei; Shi, Li; Jiao, Liucheng

    2016-01-01

    The response properties of individual neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) are among the most thoroughly described in the mammalian central nervous system, but they reveal less about higher-order processes like visual perception. Neural activity is highly nonlinear and non-stationary over time, greatly complicating the relationships among the spatiotemporal characteristics of visual stimuli, local field potential (LFP) signal components, and the underlying neuronal activity patterns. We applied discrete wavelet transformation to detect new features of the LFP that may better describe the association between visual input and neural ensemble activity. The relative wavelet energy (RWE), wavelet entropy (WS), and the mean WS were computed from LFPs recorded in rat V1 during three distinct visual stimuli: low ambient light, a uniform grey computer screen, and simple pictures of common scenes. The time evolution of the RWE within the γ band (31-62.5 Hz) was the dominant component over certain periods during visual stimulation. Mean WS decreased with increasing complexity of the visual image, and the time-dependent WS alternated between periods of highly ordered and disordered population activity. In conclusion, these alternating periods of high and low WS may correspond to different aspects of visual processing, such as feature extraction and perception. PMID:27347219

  15. EROD activity and antioxidant defenses of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) after an in vivo chronic hydrocarbon pollution followed by a post-exposure period.

    PubMed

    Danion, Morgane; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lamour, François; Quentel, Claire

    2014-12-01

    Chronic concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been commonly detected in international estuaries ecosystems. Reliable indicators still need to be found in order to properly assess the impact of PAHs in fish. After an in vivo chronic exposure to hydrocarbons, the enzymatic activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and the antioxidant defense system were assessed in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. A total of 45 fish were exposed to the water-soluble fraction of Arabian crude oil, similar to a complex pollution by hydrocarbons chronically observed in situ, while 45 other control fish sustained the same experimental conditions in clean seawater. Fish samples were made after a 21-day exposure period and after a 15-day recovery period in clean fresh water. Throughout the experiment, liver EROD activity was significantly higher in contaminated fish than in control fish. In addition, nonenzymatic (total glutathione) and enzymatic (GPx, SOD, and CAT) antioxidant defense parameters measured in liver were not significantly different in fish. Furthermore, in gills, glutathione content had significantly increased while SOD activity had significantly decreased in contaminated fish compared to controls. On the other hand, CAT and GPx activities were not affected. Chronic exposure to PAHs disturbing the first step (SOD) and inhibiting the second step (GPx and CAT) could induce oxidative stress in tissues by the formation of oxygen radicals. After the postexposure period, there was no significant difference between control and contaminated fish in any of the antioxidant defense parameters measured in gills, attesting to the reversibility of the effects.

  16. [Growing old as a woman].

    PubMed

    Boyer-Weinmann, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Growing old as a woman. Since Diderot, a classic writer, and his friend Sophie Volland with whom he corresponded, debated the difference between the "handsome old man" and "beautiful old age", or a hypothetical "beautiful old woman", the representations of growing old have changed, to the benefit of women. Has the considerable contribution of female writers to the debate played a role? In what ways does literature, through its figurations of the ages of life, provide a valuable perspective of the contemporary mutations of the view of old age?

  17. Calmodulin modulates the delay period between release of calcium from internal stores and activation of calcium influx via endogenous TRP1 channels.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Luis; Sampieri, Alicia

    2002-11-01

    In the present study we have explored the role of calmodulin (CaM) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) in the communication process activated after the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the activation of calcium influx via endogenous TRP1 channels from Chinese hamster ovary cells. Experiments using combined rapid confocal calcium and electrophysiology measurements uncovered a consistent delay of around 900 ms between the first detectable calcium released from the ER and the activation of the calcium current. This delay was evident with two different methods used to release calcium from the ER: either the blockade of the microsomal calcium ATPase with thapsigargin or activation of bradykinin receptors linked to the IP(3) cascade. Direct application of IP(3) or a peptide from the NH(2)-terminal region of the IP(3)R activated store operated calcium, reducing the delay period. Introduction of CaM into the cell via the patch pipette increased the delay period from 900 +/- 100 ms to 10 +/- 2.1 s (n = 18). Furthermore, the use of selective CaM antagonists W7 and trifluoperazine maleate resulted in a substantial reduction of the delay period to 200 +/- 100 ms with 5 microm trifluoperazine maleate (n = 16) and 150 +/- 50 ms with 500 nm W7 (n = 22). CaM reduced also the current density activated by thapsigargin or brandykinin to about 60% from control. The CaM antagonists did not affect significantly the current density. The results presented here are consistent with an antagonistic effect of IP(3)R and CaM for the activation of store operated calcium after depletion of the ER. The functional competition between the activating effect of IP(3)R and the inhibiting effect of CaM may modulate the delay period between the release of calcium from the ER and the activation of calcium influx observed in different cells, as well as the amount of current activated after depletion of the ER.

  18. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  19. Differential roles of delay-period neural activity in the monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in visual–haptic crossmodal working memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liping; Li, Xianchun; Hsiao, Steven S.; Lenz, Fred A.; Bodner, Mark; Zhou, Yong-Di

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that neurons of monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) integrate information across modalities and maintain it throughout the delay period of working-memory (WM) tasks. However, the mechanisms of this temporal integration in the DLPFC are still poorly understood. In the present study, to further elucidate the role of the DLPFC in crossmodal WM, we trained monkeys to perform visuo–haptic (VH) crossmodal and haptic–haptic (HH) unimodal WM tasks. The neuronal activity recorded in the DLPFC in the delay period of both tasks indicates that the early-delay differential activity probably is related to the encoding of sample information with different strengths depending on task modality, that the late-delay differential activity reflects the associated (modality-independent) action component of haptic choice in both tasks (that is, the anticipation of the behavioral choice and/or active recall and maintenance of sample information for subsequent action), and that the sustained whole-delay differential activity likely bridges and integrates the sensory and action components. In addition, the VH late-delay differential activity was significantly diminished when the haptic choice was not required. Taken together, the results show that, in addition to the whole-delay differential activity, DLPFC neurons also show early- and late-delay differential activities. These previously unidentified findings indicate that DLPFC is capable of (i) holding the coded sample information (e.g., visual or tactile information) in the early-delay activity, (ii) retrieving the abstract information (orientations) of the sample (whether the sample has been haptic or visual) and holding it in the late-delay activity, and (iii) preparing for behavioral choice acting on that abstract information. PMID:25540412

  20. Differential roles of delay-period neural activity in the monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in visual-haptic crossmodal working memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Li, Xianchun; Hsiao, Steven S; Lenz, Fred A; Bodner, Mark; Zhou, Yong-Di; Fuster, Joaquín M

    2015-01-13

    Previous studies have shown that neurons of monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) integrate information across modalities and maintain it throughout the delay period of working-memory (WM) tasks. However, the mechanisms of this temporal integration in the DLPFC are still poorly understood. In the present study, to further elucidate the role of the DLPFC in crossmodal WM, we trained monkeys to perform visuo-haptic (VH) crossmodal and haptic-haptic (HH) unimodal WM tasks. The neuronal activity recorded in the DLPFC in the delay period of both tasks indicates that the early-delay differential activity probably is related to the encoding of sample information with different strengths depending on task modality, that the late-delay differential activity reflects the associated (modality-independent) action component of haptic choice in both tasks (that is, the anticipation of the behavioral choice and/or active recall and maintenance of sample information for subsequent action), and that the sustained whole-delay differential activity likely bridges and integrates the sensory and action components. In addition, the VH late-delay differential activity was significantly diminished when the haptic choice was not required. Taken together, the results show that, in addition to the whole-delay differential activity, DLPFC neurons also show early- and late-delay differential activities. These previously unidentified findings indicate that DLPFC is capable of (i) holding the coded sample information (e.g., visual or tactile information) in the early-delay activity, (ii) retrieving the abstract information (orientations) of the sample (whether the sample has been haptic or visual) and holding it in the late-delay activity, and (iii) preparing for behavioral choice acting on that abstract information.

  1. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  2. The Effect of Active versus Passive Recovery Periods during High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Local Tissue Oxygenation in 18 – 30 Year Old Sedentary Men

    PubMed Central

    Kerhervé, Hugo A.; Askew, Christopher D.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods. Methods Twelve sedentary males (mean ± SD; age 23 ± 3 yr) completed three conditions on a cycle ergometer: 1) HIIT with passive recovery periods between four bouts (HIITPASS) 2) HIIT with active recovery periods between four bouts (HIITACT) 3) HIITACT with four HIIT bouts replaced with passive periods (REC). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius (GN) muscles and the pre-frontal cortex (FH), oxygen consumption (VO2), power output and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during the three conditions. Results There was a significant increase in HHb at VL during bouts 2 (p = 0.017), 3 (p = 0.035) and 4 (p = 0.035) in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS. Mean power output was significantly lower in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS (p < 0.001). There was a significant main effect for site in both HIITPASS (p = 0.029) and HIITACT (p = 0.005). There were no significant differences in VO2 and HR between HIITPASS and HIITACT. Conclusions The increase in HHb at VL and the lower mean power output during HIITACT could indicate that a higher level of deoxygenation contributes to decreased mechanical power in sedentary participants. The significant differences in HHb between sites indicates the specificity of oxygen utilisation. PMID:27677081

  3. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  4. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  5. Growing Crystals for Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    Unidirectional solidification yields bulk crystals with compositional homogeneity. Unidirectionaly crystal-growth furnace assembly travels vertically so crystal grows upward from bottom tapered end of ampoule. Separately controlled furnaces used for hot (upper) and cold (lower) zones. New process produces ingots with radial compositional homogeneity suitable for fabricating infrared detectors.

  6. Colleges' Earmarks Grow, Amid Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Hermes, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    A record-breaking number of Congressional pork-barrel projects this year has loaded college and university plates with more earmarks than ever before, despite growing worries that the noncompetitive grants undermine the American scientific enterprise, and in spite of promises by some lawmakers to cut back. An analysis by "The Chronicle" shows that…

  7. Growing Ideas, 1990-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranis, Eve, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This series of journals includes volumes 1-4 of "Growing Ideas," a journal of garden-based learning. Each issue provides instructional ideas, horticultural information and a forum for exchange among teachers using classroom gardening to stimulate learning. Ideas in each issue are separated into three sections. The "Green Tips"…

  8. How Does Your Garlic Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Fearing, Vickie

    1993-01-01

    Garlic is an ideal plant for the elementary classroom. It grows rapidly in water without aeration for several weeks and remains relatively free of microbial contamination. Simple experiments with garlic purchased at grocery stores can illustrate various aspects of plant growth. (PR)

  9. Organization of growing random networks

    SciTech Connect

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  10. Consequences of Growing Up Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    The consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children are explored. This book is organized with a primary focus on research findings and a secondary concern with policy implications. The chapters are: (1) "Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth" (Jeanne…

  11. Extreme Mechanics of Growing Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Growth is a distinguishing feature of all living things. Unlike standard materials, living matter can autonomously respond to alterations in its environment. As a result of a continuous ultrastructural turnover and renewal of cells and extracellular matrix, living matter can undergo extreme changes in composition, size, and shape within the order of months, weeks, or days. While hard matter typically adapts by increasing its density to grow strong, soft matter adapts by increasing its volume to grow large. Here we provide a state-of-the-art review of growing matter, and compare existing mathematical models for growth and remodeling of living systems. Applications are plentiful ranging from plant growth to tumor growth, from asthma in the lungs to restenosis in the vasculature, from plastic to reconstructive surgery, and from skeletal muscle adaptation to heart failure. Using these examples, we discuss current challenges and potential future directions. We hope to initiate critical discussions around the biophysical modeling of growing matter as a powerful tool to better understand biological systems in health and disease. This research has been supported by the NSF CAREER award CMMI 0952021.

  12. Growing an Emerging Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  13. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  14. Growing Up in Interracial Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Philip; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Provides excerpts from personal accounts presented at a 1984 conference on the needs of children of interracial families: "Communicating is the Key" (Philip Spivey); "Growing Up with an Asian American Heritage" (Clarence L. Chen); "An Hispanic Perspective on Biracial, Bicultural Families" (Irma Garcia Rose); and…

  15. In vitro activity of tea-tree oil against clinical skin isolates of meticillin-resistant and -sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci growing planktonically and as biofilms.

    PubMed

    Brady, Aaron; Loughlin, Ryan; Gilpin, Deirdre; Kearney, Paddy; Tunney, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus [meticillin-resistant (MRSA) and meticillin-sensitive (MSSA)] and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), which respectively form part of the transient and commensal skin flora, to tea-tree oil (TTO) was compared using broth microdilution and quantitative in vitro time-kill test methods. MRSA and MSSA isolates were significantly less susceptible than CoNS isolates, as measured by both MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration. A significant decrease in the mean viable count of all isolates in comparison with the control was seen at each time interval in time-kill assays. However, the only significant difference in the overall mean log10 reduction in viable count between the groups of isolates was between CoNS and MSSA at 3 h, with CoNS isolates demonstrating a significantly lower mean reduction. To provide a better simulation of in vivo conditions on the skin, where bacteria are reported to grow as microcolonies encased in glycocalyx, the bactericidal activity of TTO against isolates grown as biofilms was also compared. Biofilms formed by MSSA and MRSA isolates were completely eradicated following exposure to 5 % TTO for 1 h. In contrast, of the biofilms formed by the nine CoNS isolates tested, only five were completely killed, although a reduction in viable count was apparent for the other four isolates. These results suggest that TTO exerts a greater bactericidal activity against biofilm-grown MRSA and MSSA isolates than against some biofilm-grown CoNS isolates.

  16. Size-dependent active effect of cadmium telluride quantum dots on luminol-potassium periodate chemiluminescence system for levodopa detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbo; Cui, Lijuan; Han, Suqin; Hao, Fang

    2015-06-01

    It was found that cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes can have a great sensitizing effect on chemiluminescence (CL) emission from luminol-potassium periodate (KIO4) system. Levodopa, a widely prescribed drug in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, could inhibit luminol-KIO4-CdTe QDs CL reaction in alkaline solution. The inhibited CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of levodopa in the range from 8.0 nM to 10.0 μM. The detection limit was 3.8 nM. This method has been successfully applied to determine levodopa in pharmaceutical preparation and human urine and plasma samples with recoveries of 94.1-105.4%. This was the first work for inhibition effect determination of levodopa using a QD-based CL method.

  17. Primary structure of a novel neuropeptide isolated from the corpora cardiaca of periodical cicadas having adipokinetic and hypertrehalosemic activities.

    PubMed

    Raina, A; Pannell, L; Kochansky, J; Jaffe, H

    1995-09-01

    A new neuropeptide hormone was isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the periodical cicadas, Magicicada species. Primary structure of the peptide as determined by a combination of automated Edman degradation after enzymatic deblocking with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase and mass spectrometry is: pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp-Gly-Asn-NH2. Synthetic peptide assayed in the green stink bug Nezara viridula caused a 112% increase in hemolymph lipids at a dose of 0.625 pmol, and a 67% increase in hemolymph carbohydrates at a dose of 2.5 pmol. Based on these results we designate this peptide, a first from order Homoptera, as Magicicada species-adipokinetic hormone (Mcsp-AKH).

  18. EEG frequency tagging using ultra-slow periodic heat stimulation of the skin reveals cortical activity specifically related to C fiber thermonociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Colon, Elisabeth; Liberati, Giulia; Mouraux, André

    2017-01-01

    The recording of event-related brain potentials triggered by a transient heat stimulus is used extensively to study nociception and diagnose lesions or dysfunctions of the nociceptive system in humans. However, these responses are related exclusively to the activation of a specific subclass of nociceptive afferents: quickly-adapting thermonociceptors. In fact, except if the activation of Aδ fibers is avoided or if A fibers are blocked, these responses specifically reflect activity triggered by the activation of Type 2 quickly-adapting A fiber mechano-heat nociceptors (AMH-2). Here, we propose a novel method to isolate, in the human electroencephalogram (EEG), cortical activity related to the sustained periodic activation of heat-sensitive thermonociceptors, using very slow (0.2 Hz) and long-lasting (75 s) sinusoidal heat stimulation of the skin between baseline and 50°C. In a first experiment, we show that when such long-lasting thermal stimuli are applied to the hand dorsum of healthy volunteers, the slow rises and decreases of skin temperature elicit a consistent periodic EEG response at 0.2 Hz and its harmonics, as well as a periodic modulation of the magnitude of theta, alpha and beta band EEG oscillations. In a second experiment, we demonstrate using an A fiber block that these EEG responses are predominantly conveyed by unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors. The proposed approach constitutes a novel mean to study C fiber function in humans, and to explore the cortical processing of tonic heat pain in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27871921

  19. EEG frequency tagging using ultra-slow periodic heat stimulation of the skin reveals cortical activity specifically related to C fiber thermonociceptors.

    PubMed

    Colon, Elisabeth; Liberati, Giulia; Mouraux, André

    2017-02-01

    The recording of event-related brain potentials triggered by a transient heat stimulus is used extensively to study nociception and diagnose lesions or dysfunctions of the nociceptive system in humans. However, these responses are related exclusively to the activation of a specific subclass of nociceptive afferents: quickly-adapting thermonociceptors. In fact, except if the activation of Aδ fibers is avoided or if A fibers are blocked, these responses specifically reflect activity triggered by the activation of Type 2 quickly-adapting A fiber mechano-heat nociceptors (AMH-2). Here, we propose a novel method to isolate, in the human electroencephalogram (EEG), cortical activity related to the sustained periodic activation of heat-sensitive thermonociceptors, using very slow (0.2Hz) and long-lasting (75s) sinusoidal heat stimulation of the skin between baseline and 50°C. In a first experiment, we show that when such long-lasting thermal stimuli are applied to the hand dorsum of healthy volunteers, the slow rises and decreases of skin temperature elicit a consistent periodic EEG response at 0.2Hz and its harmonics, as well as a periodic modulation of the magnitude of theta, alpha and beta band EEG oscillations. In a second experiment, we demonstrate using an A fiber block that these EEG responses are predominantly conveyed by unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors. The proposed approach constitutes a novel mean to study C fiber function in humans, and to explore the cortical processing of tonic heat pain in physiological and pathological conditions.

  20. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Asteriadis, G.; Spatalas, S. D.; Pikridas, C.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper the Total Electron Content (TEC) data of eight Global Positioning System (GPS) stations of the EUREF network (AUT1, Thessaloniki, TUC2, Crete in Greece, MATE, Matera, LAMP, Lampedusa in Italy, GAIA, in Portugal, RABT, Rabat, EVPA, Evpatoria in Ukrain and TRAB, Trabson in Turkey) were analysed using wavelet analysis in order to detect any frequency dependence of the correlation between TEC over different stations. In the same time frequency dependence of Dst (Global geomagnetic field disturbances) and TEC variations over each GPS station are searched in order to detect any correlation between them. The main conclusion of this analysis is that the components of TEC variation with periods <3 h are more suitable in searching for earthquake precursors. On the base of this conclusion the analyzed TEC series are searched for possible precursory phenomena on the occasion of the seismic activity of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece. An exalting (i.e. an increase in the amplitude) of variations with periods up to the tidal ones (period of 6 h,8 h,12 h) may be observed a month before and during the seismic activity over the stations TUC2 and AUT1 and may be attributed to this tectonic activity. Statistical properties of the 1.5 h component of the Total Vertical Electron Content (TVEC) over the nearest GPS stations (TUC2 and AUT1) of the areas of the seismic activity indicate that this component present characteristic exalting in the time period of 15 days before the shock.

  1. [Bioelectrical activity and evacuation function of the gastric stump in an early period after different means of gastric resection and variations in the formation of anastomoses].

    PubMed

    Kapustin, B B; Khalimov, E V

    2003-01-01

    The results of the stomach resection on the occasion of stomach and duodenal ulcer were analyzed. Bioelectric activity of the stomach stump was studied in a comparative aspect, and early recovery of the motor function of the resected stomach after the formation of pyloroimitating gastroduodenal anastomoses was shown. Revealed roentgenologic mechanisms of the evacuator function of the stomach stump let us determine evacuation types for the early postoperative period. The formation of pyloroimitating gastroduodenal anastomoses is functionally advantageous.

  2. USDA Human Nutrition Research and Education Activities. A Report to Congress Covering the Period January-December 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Jacqueline; And Others

    This document is the sixth annual, legislatively mandated report on the human nutrition research and education activities of the United States Department of Agriculture for fiscal year 1992 in which directions and highlights are emphasized. The report contains six sections. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 covers human nutrition research…

  3. 18 CFR 376.209 - Procedures during periods of emergency requiring activation of the Continuity of Operations Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Commission has activated the Plan. The Commission's alternative Web site (http://www.fercalt.gov.... The alternative Web site will act as a resource for the press, industry, and general public. An... Commission's headquarters constituted, and appropriate modifications made to the alternative Web site....

  4. Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW): A Family-Centered, Community-Based Obesity Prevention Randomized Controlled Trial for Preschool Child-Parent Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Po’e, Eli K.; Heerman, William J.; Mistry, Rishi S.; Barkin, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) is a randomized controlled trial that tests the efficacy of a family-centered, community-based, behavioral intervention to prevent childhood obesity among preschool-aged children. Focusing on parent-child pairs, GROW utilizes a multi-level framework, which accounts for macro (i.e., built-environment) and micro (i.e., genetics) level systems that contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic. Six hundred parent-child pairs will be randomized to a 3-year healthy lifestyle intervention or a 3-year school readiness program. Eligible children are enrolled between ages 3 and 5, are from minority communities, and are not obese. The principal site for the GROW intervention is local community recreation centers and libraries. The primary outcome is childhood Body Mass Index (BMI) trajectory at the end of the three-year study period. In addition to other anthropometric measurements, mediators and moderators of growth are considered, including genetics, accelerometry, and diet recall. GROW is a staged intensity intervention, consisting of intensive, maintenance, and sustainability phases. Throughout the study, parents build skills in nutrition, physical activity, and parenting, concurrently forming new social networks. Participants are taught goal-setting, self-monitoring, and problem solving techniques to facilitate sustainable behavior change. The GROW curriculum uses low health literacy communication and social media to communicate key health messages. The control arm is administered to both control and intervention participants. By conducting this trial in public community centers, and by implementing a family-centered approach to sustainable healthy childhood growth, we aim to develop an exportable community-based intervention to address the expanding public health crisis of pediatric obesity. PMID:24012890

  5. Radiation environment due to galactic and solar cosmic rays during manned mission to Mars in the periods between maximum and minimum solar activity cycles.

    PubMed

    Pissarenko, N F

    1994-10-01

    A possibility of a manned mission to Mars without exceeding the current radiation standards is very doubtful during the periods of minimum solar activity since the dose equivalent due to galactic cosmic rays exceeds currently recommended standards even inside a radiation shelter with an equivalent of 30 g cm-2 aluminum. The radiation situation at the time of maximum solar activity is determined by the occurrence of major solar proton events which are exceedingly difficult to forecast. This paper discusses the radiation environment during a manned mission to Mars in the years between minimum and maximum solar activity when the galactic cosmic ray intensity is considerably reduced, but the solar flare activity has not yet maximized.

  6. Sensitivity of measurements of regional brain activation with oxygen-15-water and PET to time of stimulation and period of image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Mullani, N.; Gould, L.K.; Adler, S.S.; Gatley, S.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of oxygen-15- (15O) water uptake with positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive technique to monitor regional brain activation secondary to stimulation paradigms. In order to investigate data acquisition times that show maximal changes in regional activation and to assess the optimal time for stimulus presentation, we investigated 10 controls with 15O-water and PET during baseline and stroboscopic light stimulation. Sequential scans were done varying the time of stimulus presentation. The images were reconstructed using three different periods of data acquisition: uptake phase (initial 30-35 sec), washout phase (40 sec following peak activity in brain), and total activity (3 min). The images reconstructed during the uptake phase showed the largest changes in occipital cortex from stimulation. Maximal changes in occipital cortex were obtained when the visual stimulus was maintained during the uptake phase only.

  7. Conditioned reflex activity of rats at later periods after the end of flight aboard the Kosmos-605 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livshits, N. N.; Meyzerov, Y. S.; Apanasenko, Z. I.; Kuznetsova, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The aftereffects of spaceflight on the higher nervous activity of rats were studied. A five lane maze with a feeding terminal was used to check such factors as transfer of experience, the habit and speed of reaching the goal in the maze, long term memory, and the dynamics of errors. During the 3rd-7th postflight week, functional disturbances in the rat HNA were manifested in the deterioration of the capacity for the transfer of experience and for locating the feeding compartment in the maze, thus indicating a general decrease of work capacity. The increased number of errors and failures pointed to exhaustion of higher nervous processes and to the weakened functional activity of the brain.

  8. Oxytocin- and aluminium fluoride-induced phospholipase C activity and prostaglandin F2 alpha secretion during the ovine luteolytic period.

    PubMed

    Graf, G A; Burns, P D; Silvia, W J

    1998-03-01

    A series of studies was conducted to characterize changes in components of the cell signalling cascade that mediates oxytocin-induced prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) synthesis at the onset of luteolysis in sheep. In the first experiment, caruncular tissue was dissected from 20 ewes on days 12-15 of the oestrous cycle, and incubated for the measurement of phospholipase C (PLC) activity or secretion of PGF2 alpha. Activation of GTP-binding proteins with aluminium fluoride stimulated both inositol phosphate accumulation and PGF2 alpha secretion on all days examined. However, oxytocin did not stimulate PLC activity or PGF2 alpha accumulation until day 13. While the ability of oxytocin to stimulate PLC activity increased after day 13, oxytocin-induced PGF2 alpha secretion declined slightly from day 13 to 15, suggesting that cell signalling components downstream from PLC modulate the response to oxytocin after day 13. Oxytocin failed to stimulate PGF2 alpha synthesis on day 14 after oestrus. Secretion of endogenous luteal oxytocin may have rendered uterine tissues collected on day 14 refractory to oxytocin in vitro. Therefore, a second study was conducted in ovariectomized, steroid replaced ewes. Ovarian steroids were administered to mimic endogenous changes in progesterone and oestradiol. The temporal patterns of PGF2 alpha synthesis in response to oxytocin and pharmacological agents were similar to uterine tissues from cyclic ewes in the first experiment; however, the magnitude of the response was less. These data suggest that oxytocin receptors are absent or are not coupled to PLC until day 13 after oestrus.

  9. Coherence Effects in L-Band Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Quasi-Periodic Corn Canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, Cuneyt; Lang, Roger H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their highly random nature, vegetation canopies can be modeled using the incoherent transport theory for active and passive remote sensing applications. Agricultural vegetation canopies however are generally more structured than natural vegetation. The inherent row structure in agricultural canopies induces coherence effects disregarded by the transport theory. The objective of this study is to demonstrate, via Monte-Carlo simulations, these coherence effects on L-band scattering and thermal emission from corn canopies consisting of only stalks.

  10. [Activity of various oxidases and transaminases in the rat liver in the readaptation period after hypokinesia up to 30 days].

    PubMed

    Potapov, P P

    1990-01-01

    The activity of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinic dehydrogenase in readaptation after 15-day hypokinesia was within normal limits, whereas following 30-day hypokinesia it was enhanced on days 11-15. Pyruvate dehydrogenase exhibited hyperactivity in the end of readaptation week 2 both in 15- and 30-day hypokinesia which resulted in rat liver hyperactivity of glutamate dehydrogenase and transaminases. Normal levels of the latter were recorded on readaptation day 12-19.

  11. Parvalbumin expression in visual cortical interneurons depends on neuronal activity and TrkB ligands during an Early period of postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Patz, Silke; Grabert, Jochen; Gorba, Thorsten; Wirth, Marcus J; Wahle, Petra

    2004-03-01

    The differentiation of cortical interneurons is controlled by environmental factors. Here, we describe the role of activity and neurotrophins in regulating parvalbumin (PARV) expression using organotypic cultures (OTC) of rat visual cortex as model system. In OTC, PARV expression was dramatically delayed. The organotypic proportion of approximately 6% PARV neurons was not established before 50-70 DIV, whereas in vivo all neurons are present until P20. Thalamic afferents increased cortical PARV mRNA in OTC, but not to the age-matched in vivo level. During the first 10 DIV, BDNF and NT-4 accelerated PARV mRNA expression in a Trk receptor and MEK2 dependent manner. The BDNF action required PI3 kinase signalling. PARV expression required activity. The proportion of neurons which managed to up-regulate PARV was inversely related to the duration of early transient periods of activity deprivation. Long-term activity-deprived OTC completely failed to up-regulate PARV mRNA. Both TrkB ligands failed to promote PARV expression in activity-deprived OTC. However, a few basket and chandelier neurons were observed, suggesting that the development of class-specific morphological features is activity-independent. Once established, PARV expression became resistant to late-onset activity deprivation. In conclusion, PARV expression depended on activity and TrkB ligands which appear to prime the PARV expression already before its developmental onset.

  12. Growing season surface water loading of fecal indicator organisms within a rural watershed.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A; Hebb, D; Jamieson, R; Gordon, R; Benedict, K; Fuller, K; Stratton, G W; Madani, A

    2009-03-01

    The loading of microbial contaminants was examined within the Thomas Brook watershed, a 784 ha mixed land-use catchment located in the headwaters of the Cornwallis River drainage basin (Nova Scotia, Canada). The objectives were to: (i) examine spatial and temporal characteristics of fecal bacteria loading during the growing season from five subwatersheds, and (ii) develop areal fecal indicator organism export coefficients for rural landscapes. Fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations and stream flow were monitored at five locations in the watershed over six consecutive growing seasons (May-Oct, 2001-2006). A nested watershed monitoring approach was used to determine bacterial loading from distinct source types (residential vs. agricultural) during both baseflow and stormflow periods. Areal bacterial loading rates increased in each nested watershed moving downstream through the watershed and were highest in the three subcatchments dominated by agricultural activities. Upper watershed bacterial loading throughout the growing season from an agricultural subcatchment (Growing Season Avg 8.92 x 10(10) CFU ha(-1)) was consistently higher than a residential subcatchment (Growing Season Avg 8.43 x 10(9) CFU ha(-1)). As expected, annual average stormflow bacterial loads were higher than baseflow loads, however baseflow loads still comprised between 14 and 35% of the growing season bacterial loads in the five subwatersheds. Fecal bacteria loads were greater during years with higher annual precipitation. A positive linear relationship was observed between E. coli and TSS loading during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons when both parameters were monitored, indicating that the processes of sediment transport and bacterial transport are linked. It is anticipated that computed areal microbial loading coefficients will be useful in developing watershed management plans. More intensive sampling during stormflow events is recommended for

  13. Assessing Temporal Effect of Economic Activity on Freight Volumes with Two-Period Cross-Sectional Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2012-01-01

    The most comprehensive publicly available freight databases are the Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) and the FHWA s Freight Analysis Framework (FAF). These two sources contain dollar value and weight of freight movements at high geographic levels, such as state or metropolitan areas. Due to the difficulty in obtaining freight data at lower geographies various practitioners and researchers have been suggesting to estimate freight models based on aggregate data. Following these recent practices, a methodology to estimate a nationwide production and attraction models for U.S. domestic trade of goods is presented. To this end, a CFS s data set provided by U.S. Census Bureau and composed of two-nonconsecutive year period (2002 and 2007) of movements of goods between U.S. states for 27 industry sectors was used. The state payroll by industry sector, obtained from the County Business Patterns of the U.S. Census, was the variable used to estimate freight generation models. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the temporal stability and predictability of the proposed aggregate models. The results indicate that the payroll alone explains a significant portion of the freight production and attraction at the state level. However, such simplification in the model process did not result in reasonable predictions of freight for a future year horizon. It is recommended that time-dependent factors (e.g. variables related to changes industry productivity) affecting freight demand should be considered in the modeling process.

  14. Ground-based Solar Observations and Plasma Bubbles in Brazilian Sector During a Period of Extreme Low Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardelli-Coelho, F.; Abalde, J. R.; Tardelli, A.; de Abreu, A. J.

    2016-04-01

    Studies presented on the relation of the Sun-Earth system are currently of great importance. Ionospheric irregularities in the F-region, caused by geomagnetic storms have significant and adverse effects on the Earth. The recent advancement in technological techniques for monitoring space weather has facilitated these studies. The focus of this study was to determine whether a geomagnetic storm interfered with the generation, propagation, and durability of plasma bubbles that occurred over a period of solar minimum in two cities in the Brazilian sector, São José dos Campos - SP, designated SJC, (23.21°S, 45.86°W; dip latitude 17.6°S), low-latitude region and near the south crest of the ionospheric equatorial anomaly; and Palmas - TO, called PAL (10.28°S, 48.33°W; dip latitude 6.7°S), near the magnetic equator, located in the geographical South, tropical region and the hemisphere opposite the magnetic equator. This study was conducted with data analysis of five years (2006-2010) for SJC and four years (2007-2010) for PAL, considering the 24th solar cycle, using an all-sky imaging photometer operating with interference filters in OI 630.0 nm emission resulting from dissociative recombination process that occurs at an altitude of 250-300 km (F-region).

  15. Effects of physical and mental task demands on cervical and upper limb muscle activity and physiological responses during computer tasks and recovery periods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuling; Szeto, Grace P Y; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2011-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of physical and mental workload during computer tasks on muscle activity and physiological measures. Activity in cervical postural muscles and distal forearm muscles, heart rate and blood pressure were compared among three tasks and rest periods of 15 min each in an experimental study design. Fourteen healthy pain-free adults participated (7 males, mean age = 23.2 ± 3.0 years) and the tasks were: (1) copy-typing ("typing"), (2) typing at progressively faster speed ("pacing"), (3) mental arithmetic plus fast typing ("subtraction"). Typing task was performed first, followed by the other two tasks in a random order. Median muscle activity (50th percentile) was examined in 5-min intervals during each task and each rest period, and statistically significant differences in the "time" factor (within task) and time × task factors was found in bilateral cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius muscles. In contrast, distal forearm muscle activity did not show any significant differences among three tasks. All muscles showed reduced activity to about the baseline level within first 5 min of the rest periods. Heart rate and blood pressure showed significant differences during tasks compared to baseline, and diastolic pressure was significantly higher in the subtraction than pacing task. The results suggest that cervical postural muscles had higher reactivity than forearm muscles to high mental workload tasks, and cervical muscles were also more reactive to tasks with high physical demand compared to high mental workload. Heart rate and blood pressure seemed to respond similarly to high physical and mental workloads.

  16. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) is a disorder of innate immunity and Th1 activation responsive to IL-1 blockade.

    PubMed

    Stojanov, Silvia; Lapidus, Sivia; Chitkara, Puja; Feder, Henry; Salazar, Juan C; Fleisher, Thomas A; Brown, Margaret R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Ward, Michael M; Colbert, Robert A; Sun, Hong-Wei; Wood, Geryl M; Barham, Beverly K; Jones, Anne; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Athreya, Balu; Barron, Karyl S; Kastner, Daniel L

    2011-04-26

    The syndrome of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) is the most common periodic fever disease in children. However, the pathogenesis is unknown. Using a systems biology approach we analyzed blood samples from PFAPA patients whose genetic testing excluded hereditary periodic fevers (HPFs), and from healthy children and pediatric HPF patients. Gene expression profiling could clearly distinguish PFAPA flares from asymptomatic intervals, HPF flares, and healthy controls. During PFAPA attacks, complement (C1QB, C2, SERPING1), IL-1-related (IL-1B, IL-1RN, CASP1, IL18RAP), and IFN-induced (AIM2, IP-10/CXCL10) genes were significantly overexpressed, but T cell-associated transcripts (CD3, CD8B) were down-regulated. On the protein level, PFAPA flares were accompanied by significantly increased serum levels of chemokines for activated T lymphocytes (IP-10/CXCL10, MIG/CXCL9), G-CSF, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-18, IL-6). PFAPA flares also manifested a relative lymphopenia. Activated CD4(+)/CD25(+) T-lymphocyte counts correlated negatively with serum concentrations of IP-10/CXCL10, whereas CD4(+)/HLA-DR(+) T lymphocyte counts correlated positively with serum concentrations of the counterregulatory IL-1 receptor antagonist. Based on the evidence for IL-1β activation in PFAPA flares, we treated five PFAPA patients with a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist. All patients showed a prompt clinical and IP-10/CXCL10 response. Our data suggest an environmentally triggered activation of complement and IL-1β/-18 during PFAPA flares, with induction of Th1-chemokines and subsequent retention of activated T cells in peripheral tissues. IL-1 inhibition may thus be beneficial for treatment of PFAPA attacks, with IP-10/CXCL10 serving as a potential biomarker.

  17. Two New Long-period Giant Planets from the McDonald Observatory Planet Search and Two Stars with Long-period Radial Velocity Signals Related to Stellar Activity Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endl, Michael; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Robertson, Paul; Meschiari, Stefano; Ramirez, Ivan; Shetrone, Matthew; Gullikson, Kevin; Johnson, Marshall C.; Wittenmyer, Robert; Horner, Jonathan; Ciardi, David R.; Horch, Elliott; Simon, Attila E.; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark; Caldwell, Caroline; Castanheira, Barbara G.

    2016-02-01

    We report the detection of two new long-period giant planets orbiting the stars HD 95872 and HD 162004 (ψ1 Dra B) by the McDonald Observatory planet search. The planet HD 95872b has a minimum mass of 4.6 {M}{{Jup}} and an orbital semimajor axis of 5.2 AU. The giant planet ψ1 Dra Bb has a minimum mass of 1.5 {M}{{Jup}} and an orbital semimajor axis of 4.4 AU. Both of these planets qualify as Jupiter analogs. These results are based on over one and a half decades of precise radial velocity (RV) measurements collected by our program using the McDonald Observatory Tull Coude spectrograph at the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope. In the case of ψ1 Dra B we also detect a long-term nonlinear trend in our data that indicates the presence of an additional giant planet, similar to the Jupiter-Saturn pair. The primary of the binary star system, ψ1 Dra A, exhibits a very large amplitude RV variation due to another stellar companion. We detect this additional member using speckle imaging. We also report two cases—HD 10086 and HD 102870 (β Virginis)—of significant RV variation consistent with the presence of a planet, but that are probably caused by stellar activity, rather than reflexive Keplerian motion. These two cases stress the importance of monitoring the magnetic activity level of a target star, as long-term activity cycles can mimic the presence of a Jupiter-analog planet.

  18. Region-specific depression of striatal activity in Wistar rat by modest ethanol consumption over a ten-month period.

    PubMed

    Adermark, L; Jonsson, S; Söderpalm, B; Ericson, M

    2013-06-01

    The nucleus accumbens (nAc) is the primary target for the mesolimbic dopamine system and a key brain region for the reinforcing effects displayed by drugs of abuse, including ethanol. During the transition from recreational to compulsive consumption of reinforcing drugs, however, the dorsal striatum seems to be recruited. Understanding how synaptic activity is altered in a sub-region specific manner in the striatum during the course of long-term drug consumption thus could be essential for understanding the long-lasting changes produced by addictive substances, including ethanol. Here we evaluated synaptic activity in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens, nAc) of single-housed Wistar rats consuming water, or water and ethanol, for up to 10 months. Even though ethanol intake was moderate, it was sufficient to decrease input/output function in response to stimulation intensity in the DLS, while recorded population spike (PS) amplitudes in the nAc were unaffected. Striatal disinhibition induced by the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline had a slower onset in rats that had consumed ethanol for 2 months, and was significantly depressed in slices from rats that had consumed ethanol for 4 months. Bicuculline-induced disinhibition in the nAc, on the other hand, was not significantly altered by long-term ethanol intake. Changes in PS amplitude induced by taurine or the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine were not significantly altered by ethanol in any brain region. Even though input/output function was not significantly affected by age, there was a significant decline in antagonist-induced disinhibition in brain slices from aged rats. The data presented here suggest that even modest consumption of ethanol is sufficient to alter neurotransmission in the striatum, while synaptic activity appears to be relatively well-preserved in the nAc during the course of long-term ethanol consumption.

  19. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  20. Silicone Granulomas, a Growing Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Curreri, Alexis T.; Taylor, Gina A.; Burris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    The formation of granulomas is known to be a possible adverse effect of liquid silicone administration, used for soft tissue augmentation. Its plumping effects provide enhancement of certain body parts, such as the lips, hips, and buttocks. The desire for enhancement, perhaps influenced by popular culture and an unrealistic standard of beauty, leads individuals to seek silicone injections. There is a growing population of women and men receiving injections by unlicensed, unskilled “practitioners” not related to the healthcare profession. Complications under such circumstances are not uncommon, particularly the emergence of silicone granulomas, and the authors’ medical center has seen an increase in such cases. In this case report, the authors illustrate a young patient with significant complications from her silicone injections, review current therapies for silicone granulomas, and discuss this growing medical problem. PMID:27386046

  1. [Effect of intensive motor activity in different periods of time on the human functional state and efficiency].

    PubMed

    Bakulin, V S; Makarov, V I; Solopov, I N

    2009-01-01

    Effects of heavy physical work on gas-energy exchange, cardiac activity, thermal condition, nervous system and the subjective status were evaluated in 43 athletes in the morning, afternoon and evening. It was shown that same muscular work done at the ambient temperature of 17 +/- 1 degrees C, relative humidity of 65 +/- 3% and air flow of 0.3 +/- 0.1 m/s requires a significantly higher straining of the body functions in the evening hours (after 06.00 p.m.).

  2. Carbonaceous Matter in Growing Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. V.; Stangl, C. M.; Horan, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nanoparticles constitute the greatest portion of ambient aerosol loading by number. A major source of atmospheric nanoparticles is new particle formation (NPF), a gas to particle conversion process whereby clusters nucleate from gas phase precursors to form clusters on the order of one or a few nanometers and then grow rapidly to climatically relevant sizes. A substantial fraction of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are thought to arise from NPF. In order to better predict the frequency, growth rates, and climatic impacts of NPF, knowledge of the chemical mechanisms by which nucleated nanoparticles grow is needed. The two main contributors to particle growth are (neutralized) sulfate and carbonaceous matter. Particle growth by sulfuric acid condensation is generally well understood, though uncertainty remains about the extent of base neutralization and the relative roles of ammonia and amines. Much less is known about carbonaceous matter, and field measurements suggest that nitrogen-containing species are important. In this presentation, recent work by our group will be described that uses a combination of ambient measurements, laboratory experiments and computational work to study carbonaceous matter in growing nanoparticles. These studies span a range of particle sizes from the initial adsorption of molecules onto a nanometer-size ammonium bisulfate seed cluster to reactions in particles that are large enough to support condensed-phase chemistry.

  3. Post-weaning living with parents during juvenile period alters locomotor activity, social and parental behaviors in mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruiyong; Song, Zhenzhen; Tai, Fadao; Wang, Lu; Kong, Lingzhe; Wang, Jianli

    2013-09-01

    Neonatal parental care plays an important role in the development of offspring behavior, but little is known about the effect of post-weaning contact between offspring and parents on locomotory, social and parental behavior. Here, we explore this concept using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). Voles were assigned to live with parents and siblings from the same litter until 45d (natural dispersal time in the field) or to live with siblings from the same litter after weaning at 21d (normally weaned time, the control). At 70d of age, behaviors were recorded in open field and social interaction tests, and parental care toward their own offspring was measured. Results show that voles that live with parents post-weaning engaged in less locomotory activity and rearing behavior in the open field test, less sniffing of novel individuals and displayed more parental care, compared to voles that did not continue to live with their parents. These findings demonstrate that parent-offspring interaction post-weaning alters locomotory activity, social behavior and parental behavior of offspring at adulthood.

  4. General trends in the change in solar activity indices in the period from the late XX to early XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruevich, E. A.; Yakunina, G. V.

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of observations of the indices of the sunspot numbers (SSN from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)), the radio-emission flux at a wavelength of 10.7 cm ( F 10.7), and the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) in cycles 22-24. We have found that the ratio of the observed values SSNobs to the calculated ones SSNsyn (from the regression relations between SSN and F 10.7) decreases after 1990 by 20-25%, rather than by 35%, as was supposed earlier. The characteristics of the most widely used SSN index, such as the decrease in sunspot numbers and magnetic field strength in small and medium spots, do not change in complete correspondence to the expected scenario of the solar activity development predicted from the flux F 10.7 in cycles 23 and 24; they also cannot be fully explained by an additional minimum of the secular cycle. We also showed that the observed SSN changes lead to an increase of the Total Solar Irradiance in activity cycles 23-24 as compared to that in cycle 22.

  5. Identifying Factors Associated With Dropout During Prerandomization Run-in Period From an mHealth Physical Activity Education Study: The mPED Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Caryl; Haskell, William; Arai, Shoshana; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background The mobile phone-based physical activity education (mPED) trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating a mobile phone-delivered physical activity intervention for women. The study includes a run-in period to maximize the internal validity of the intervention trial, but little is known about factors related to successful run-in completion, and thus about potential threats to external validity. Objective Objectives of this study are (1) to determine the timing of dropout during the run-in period, reasons for dropout, optimum run-in duration, and relevant run-in components, and (2) to identify predictors of failure to complete the run-in period. Methods A total of 318 physically inactive women met preliminary eligibility criteria and were enrolled in the study between May 2011 and April 2014. A 3-week run-in period was required prior to randomization and included using a mobile phone app and wearing a pedometer. Cross-sectional analysis identified predictors of dropout. Results Out of 318 participants, 108 (34.0%) dropped out prior to randomization, with poor adherence using the study equipment being the most common reason. Median failure time was 17 days into the run-in period. In univariate analyses, nonrandomized participants were younger, had lower income, were less likely to drive regularly, were less likely to have used a pedometer prior to the study, were generally less healthy, had less self-efficacy for physical activity, and reported more depressive symptoms than randomized participants. In multivariate competing risks models, not driving regularly in the past month and not having used a pedometer prior to the study were significantly associated with failure to be randomized (P=.04 and .006, respectively), controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, shift work, and use of a study-provided mobile phone. Conclusions Regular driving and past pedometer use were associated with reduced dropout during the prerandomization run-in period

  6. Hyperlocomotor activity and stress vulnerability during adulthood induced by social isolation after early weaning are prevented by voluntary running exercise before normal weaning period.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Junko; Ogawa, Yuko; Owada, Yuji; Ishikawa, Akinori

    2014-05-01

    In rodents, the disruption of social-rearing conditions before normal weaning induces emotional behavioral abnormalities, such as anxiety, motor activity dysregulation, and stress vulnerability. The beneficial effects of exercise after normal weaning on emotional regulation have been well documented. However, effects of exercise before normal weaning on emotion have not been reported. We examined whether voluntary wheel running (R) during social isolation after early weaning (early weaning/isolation; EI) from postnatal day (PD) 14-30 could prevent EI-induced emotional behavioral abnormalities in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with control rats reared with their dam and siblings until PD30, rats performed R during EI (EI+R) and EI rats demonstrated greater locomotion and lower grooming activity in the open-field test (OFT) during the juvenile period. Juvenile EI ± R rats showed greater learned helplessness (LH) after exposure to inescapable stress (IS; electric foot shock) than IS-exposed control and EI rats. In contrast, EI rats showed increased locomotion in the OFT and LH after exposure to IS compared with control rats during adulthood; this was not observed in EI ± R rats. Both EI and EI ± R rats exhibited greater rearing activity in the OFT than controls during adulthood. EI did not increase anxiety in the OFT and elevated plus-maze. These results suggested that R during EI until normal weaning prevented some of the EI-induced behavioral abnormalities, including hyperlocomotor activity and greater LH, during adulthood but not in the juvenile period.

  7. Thirteen-day periodicity and the center-to-limb dependence of UV, EUV, and X-ray emission of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, R. F.; Puga, L. C.

    1990-12-01

    This paper discusses the satellite and ground-based observatons of 13- to 14-day quasi-periodicity ('the 13-day periodicity') in the full-disk solar UV fluxes, with an emphasis on the wavelength dependence in the X-ray, EUV, and UV range. It is shown that the 13-day periodicity is uniformly strong at most wavelengths in the 1750-2900 A range, where the flux originates from the upper photosphere, the temperature minimum, and the lower chromosphere and is moderately strong for lines from the chromosphere, such as the Mg II h and k absorption lines, the He I absorption line, the EUV emission lines of H L-beta, He I, and He II, and in the chromospheric Ca-K plage index P. It is also shown that simple models can explain qualitatively the wavelength-dependent characteristics of the 13-day periodicity in terms of the average solar central angle dependence of the active region emission.

  8. Effects of dietary fats on learning, pain threshold, thermoregulation and motor activity in rats: interaction with the length of feeding period.

    PubMed

    Yehuda, S; Carasso, R L

    1987-02-01

    The effects of both a semisynthetic diet containing 20% fat from various sources (soybean oil, sunflower oil and lard) and a control diet on learning capacity, motor activity, pain threshold and thermoregulation were studied in rats which were fed on these diets for various lengths of feeding periods (1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks). Two weeks feeding period of soybean oil source induced an improvement in learning capacity, which was further enhanced by increasing the length of the feeding period. A 3-week feeding period was required to obtain an increase in the pain threshold, by which time the rats were also protected from d-amphetamine induced hypothermia. The analgesia induced by the diet is naloxone-dependent. None of the other diets, including the sunflower oil diet, which is richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids, differed from control diet. While the mode of action of this diet is still unknown, the effects of the soybean oil source diet cannot be attributed to nutritional factors such as changes in energy consumption or body weight.

  9. 78 FR 48637 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods... related to the proposed rule, ``Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for...), we published a proposed rule entitled ``Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and...

  10. 78 FR 11611 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Period... proposed rule on ``Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human... comments should be identified with the title ``Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and...

  11. 78 FR 69605 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods... Register of January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3504), entitled ``Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing and... a proposed rule entitled ``Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of...

  12. Short-term planetary-scale interactions over the tropics and midlatitudes during northern winter. I - Contrasts between active and inactive periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C.-P.; Lau, K. M.

    1982-01-01

    Objectively analyzed 200 mb winds of four winters are used to study the short-term (several days) teleconnections between planetary-scale circulation components over the monsoon region. The composited structures suggest that during very actively northeasterly monsoon (surge) periods, the midlatitude and tropical circulation components vary in a coherent way. The jet streak and local Hadley circulation over East Asia, the divergent flow over the maritime continent, and the equatorial Walker circulations over the Pacific and Indian Oceans all strengthen steadily, while the secondary jet streak over West Asia weakens. During inactive (break) periods the midlatitude circulation components all exhibit reversed changes, while the variations in the tropics are less coherent, although still showing reversed tendencies. The results basically verify the short-term teleconnection model proposed by Chang and Lau (1980), but more complex processes in the acceleration of the midlatitude jet streaks are indicated. In addition, the contrast between the very active and break monsoon periods suggests the relative importance of tropical versus midlatitudinal forcings in different regions of the monsoon circulation.

  13. Waves of ratcheting cancer cells in growing tumor tissue layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Taeseok; Kwon, Tae; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Kyoung; CenterCell Dynamics Team

    2015-03-01

    Over many years researchers have shown that the mechanical forces generated by, and acting on, tissues influence the way they grow, develop and migrate. As for cancer research goes, understanding the role of these forces may even be as influential as deciphering the relevant genetic and molecular basis. Often the key issues in the field of cancer mechanics are to understand the interplay of mechanics and chemistry. In this study, we discuss very intriguing population density waves observed in slowly proliferating of tumor cell layers. The temporal periods are around 4 hr and their wavelength is in the order of 1 mm. Tumor cell layer, which is initially plated in a small disk area, expands as a band of tumor cells is ``ratcheting'' in concert in radially outward direction. By adding Cytochalasin D and Latrunculin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, or Mytomycin, a chemotherapeutic agent, we could halt and modulate the wave activities reversibly. The observed waves are visually quite similar to those of chemotaxing dictyostelium discodium amoeba population, which are driven by nonlinear chemical reaction-diffusion waves of cAMP. So far, we have not been able to show any relevant chemo-attractants inducing the collective behavior of these tumor cells. Researchers have been investigating how forces from both within and outside developing cancer cells interact in intricate feedback loops. This work reports the example of periodic density waves of tumor cells with an explanation purely based on nonlinear mechanics.

  14. Self-sustained non-periodic activity in networks of spiking neurons: the contribution of local and long-range connections and dynamic synapses.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Peter; Wiles, Janet

    2010-09-01

    Cortical dynamics show self-sustained activity which is complex and non-periodic. Assemblies of neurons show transient coupling exhibiting both integration and segregation without entering a seizure state. Models to date have demonstrated these properties but have required external input to maintain activity. Here we propose a spiking network model that incorporates a novel combination of both local and long-range connectivity and dynamic synapses (which we call the LLDS network) and we present explorations of the network's micro and macro behaviour. At the micro level, the LLDS network exhibits self-sustained activity which is complex and non-periodic and shows transient coupling between assemblies in different network regions. At the macro level, the power spectrum of the derived EEG, calculated from the summed membrane potentials, shows a power-law-like distribution similar to that recorded from human EEG. We systematically explored parameter combinations to map the variety of behavioural regimes and found that network connectivity and synaptic mechanisms significantly impact the dynamics. The complex sustained behaviour occupies a transition region in parameter space between two types of non-complex activity state, a synchronised high firing rate regime, resembling seizure, for low connectivity, and repetitive activation of a single network assembly for high connectivity. Networks without synaptic dynamics show only transient complex behaviour. We conclude that local and long-range connectivity and short-term synaptic dynamics are together sufficient to support complex persistent activity. The ability to craft such persistent dynamics in a spiking network model creates new opportunities to study neural processing, learning, injury and disease in nervous systems.

  15. Does chronic physical activity level modify the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the post-prandial period?

    PubMed Central

    Kurti, Stephanie P.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Chapes, Stephen K.; Teeman, Colby S.; Cull, Brooke J.; Emerson, Sam R.; Levitt, Morton H.; Smith, Joshua R.; Harms, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that a single high-fat meal (HFM) leads to increased airway inflammation. However exercise is a natural anti-inflammatory and may modify post-prandial airway inflammation. The post-prandial airway inflammatory response is likely to be modified by chronic physical activity (PA) level. Purpose To investigate whether chronic PA modifies the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the post-prandial period in both insufficiently active and active subjects. Methods Thirty-nine non-asthmatic subjects (twenty active (ACT), 13M/7F) who exceeded PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-vigorous PA/week) and (nineteen insufficiently active (IN), 6M/13F) underwent an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion to determine VO2peak. Subjects were then randomized to a condition (COND), either remaining sedentary (CON) or exercising (EX) post-HFM. Exercise was performed at the heart rate corresponding to 60% VO2peak on a treadmill one-hour post-HFM (63% fat, 10kcal/kgbw). Blood lipids and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO: marker of airway inflammation) were measured at baseline, 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. Sputum differential cell counts were performed at baseline and 4 h post-HFM. Results The mean eNO response for all groups increased at 2 h post-HFM (∼6%) and returned to baseline by 4 h (p=0.03). There was a time*COND interaction (p=0.04), where EX had a greater eNO response at 4 hours compared to CON. Sputum neutrophils increased at 4 hours post-HFM (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that airway inflammation occurs after a HFM when exercise is performed in the postprandial period, regardless of habitual activity level. PMID:28121185

  16. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  17. Preventing obesity in infants: the Growing healthy feasibility trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Russell, Catherine Georgina; Ong, Kok-leong; Taki, Sarah; Elliot, Roz; Azadi, Leva; Lymer, Sharyn; Taylor, Rachael; Lynch, John; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Askew, Deborah; Litterbach, Eloise Kate; J Campbell, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is an important period for establishing behaviours that will affect weight gain and health across the life course. Early feeding choices, including breast and/or formula, timing of introduction of solids, physical activity and electronic media use among infants and young children are considered likely determinants of childhood obesity. Parents play a primary role in shaping these behaviours through parental modelling, feeding styles, and the food and physical activity environments provided. Children from low socio-economic backgrounds have higher rates of obesity, making early intervention particularly important. However, such families are often more difficult to reach and may be less likely to participate in traditional programs that support healthy behaviours. Parents across all socio-demographic groups frequently access primary health care (PHC) services, including nurses in community health services and general medical practices, providing unparalleled opportunity for engagement to influence family behaviours. One emerging and promising area that might maximise engagement at a low cost is the provision of support for healthy parenting through electronic media such as the Internet or smart phones. The Growing healthy study explores the feasibility of delivering such support via primary health care services. Methods This paper describes the Growing healthy study, a non-randomised quasi experimental study examining the feasibility of an intervention delivered via a smartphone app (or website) for parents living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, for promoting infant feeding and parenting behaviours that promote healthy rather than excessive weight gain. Participants will be recruited via their primary health care practitioner and followed until their infant is 9 months old. Data will be collected via web-based questionnaires and the data collected inherently by the app itself. Ethics and dissemination This study received

  18. Physical activity, heart rate variability-based stress and recovery, and subjective stress during a 9-month study period.

    PubMed

    Föhr, T; Tolvanen, A; Myllymäki, T; Järvelä-Reijonen, E; Peuhkuri, K; Rantala, S; Kolehmainen, M; Korpela, R; Lappalainen, R; Ermes, M; Puttonen, S; Rusko, H; Kujala, U M

    2016-03-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery with subjective stress in a longitudinal setting. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2) ) and psychologically distressed (≥3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 work days. Subjective stress was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale and PA level with a questionnaire. Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 10 weeks post intervention, and at the 36-week follow-up. We adopted a latent growth model to investigate the initial level and change in PA, objective stress and recovery, and subjective stress at the three measurement time points. The results showed that initial levels of PA (P < 0.001) and objective stress (P = 0.001) and recovery (P < 0.01) were associated with the change in subjective stress. The results persisted after adjustment for intervention group. The present results suggest that high PA and objectively assessed low stress and good recovery have positive effects on changes in subjective stress in the long-term.

  19. The postpartum period in dromedary camels: uterine involution, ovarian activity, hormonal changes, and response to GnRH treatment.

    PubMed

    Derar, R; Ali, A; Al-Sobayil, F A

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the time for complete uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activity in postpartum dromedary camels, relative to hormonal changes. A total of six females were examined by ultrasonography twice weekly starting 3d after parturition. GnRH was administered when the follicles reached ≥0.9cm diameter. Blood samples were collected for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that the mean intervals for complete involution of the previously gravid horn, non-gravid horn, and cervix were 34.33±3.9, 29.01±0.81, and 28.71±1.51d, respectively. After GnRH treatment (Days 17-34), five of the six camels had ovulated. The corpus luteum was detected by Day 4.1±1.6 after GnRH treatment and lasted for 6±1.1d. Serum progesterone (P4) was basal and increased only after GnRH treatment. Serum estradiol 17-β (E2) peaked twice: when a large follicle was detected and 8.5±2.8d post-GnRH treatment. The serum FSH pattern was biphasic, with two peaks just before the recruitment of small follicles and 4.67±4.1d after GnRH treatment. The five ovulating females were mated; two conceived after the first service and three after the second service. The interval from calving to conception was 78.16±3.71d. It was concluded that in dromedary camels, involution of the uterus is completed by the 5th week postpartum, these camels are highly responsive to early GnRH treatment, and they can be mated between the 5th and 6th week after parturition with encouraging conception rates.

  20. CYP3A activity based on plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol during the early postpartum period has an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takafumi; Kubono, Naoko; Ishida, Takuya; Deguchi, Shuhei; Sugihara, Masahisa; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Kawakami, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol as an endogenous marker of CYP3A4/5 activity in early postpartum women and its impact on the plasma disposition of amlodipine. Twenty-seven early postpartum women treated with amlodipine for pregnancy-induced hypertension were enrolled. The plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum and in non-perinatal women were evaluated. The predose plasma concentration of amlodipine was determined at steady state. The medians of the plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol concentration at day 0-3 and 8-21 after delivery were 146 and 161 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol between the postpartum periods. The plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum women were significantly higher than those in non-perinatal women. A large individual variability was observed in the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine in early postpartum women. A weak negative correlation was observed between the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine and the plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol. In conclusion, early postpartum women possessed higher CYP3A activity based on plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol and had a large pharmacokinetic variability in amlodipine. CYP3A activity during the early postpartum period had an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine.

  1. Growing Hemorrhagic Choroidal Fissure Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Gelal, Fazıl; Gurkan, Gokhan; Feran, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal fissure cysts are often incidentally discovered. They are usually asymptomatic. The authors report a case of growing and hemorrhagic choroidal fissure cyst which was treated surgically. A 22-year-old female presented with headache. Cranial MRI showed a left-sided choroidal fissure cyst. Follow-up MRI showed that the size of the cyst had increased gradually. Twenty months later, the patient was admitted to our emergency department with severe headache. MRI and CT showed an intracystic hematoma. Although such cysts usually have a benign course without symptoms and progression, they may rarely present with intracystic hemorrhage, enlargement of the cyst and increasing symptomatology. PMID:26962426

  2. Universal properties of growing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Derrida, B.

    2004-09-01

    Networks growing according to the rule that every new node has a probability pk of being attached to k preexisting nodes, have a universal phase diagram and exhibit power-law decays of the distribution of cluster sizes in the non-percolating phase. The percolation transition is continuous but of infinite order and the size of the giant component is infinitely differentiable at the transition (though of course non-analytic). At the transition the average cluster size (of the finite components) is discontinuous.

  3. Regulation of cAMP-induced arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, Period1, and MKP-1 gene expression by mitogen-activated protein kinases in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Chansard, Mathieu; Iwahana, Eiko; Liang, Jian; Fukuhara, Chiaki

    2005-10-03

    In rodent pineal glands, sympathetic innervation, which leads to norepinephrine release, is a key process in the circadian regulation of physiology and certain gene expressions. It has been shown that gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the melatonin synthesis arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aa-Nat), circadian clock gene Period1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphtase-1 (MKP-1), is controlled mainly by a norepinephrine-beta-adrenergic receptor-cAMP signaling cascade in the rat pineal gland. To further dissect the signaling cascades that regulate those gene expressions, we examined whether MAPKs are involved in cAMP-induced gene expression. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that one of the three MAPKs, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was expressed in the pineal, and was phosphorylated by cAMP analogue stimulation with a peak 20 min after start of the stimulation, in vitro. A specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 (Anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one1,9-pyrazoloanthrone), but not its negative control (N1-Methyl-1,9-pyrazoloanthrone), significantly reduced cAMP-stimulated Aa-Nat, Period1, and MKP-1 mRNA levels. Although another MAPK, p38(MAPK), has also been shown to be activated by cAMP stimulation, a p38(MAPK) inhibitor, SB203580 (4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole, HCl), showed no effect on cAMP-induced Aa-Nat and Period1 mRNA levels; whereas SB203580, but not its negative analogue SB202474 (4-Ethyl-2(p-methoxyphenyl)-5-(4'-pyridyl)-IH-imidazole, DiHCl), significantly reduced cAMP-induced MKP-1 mRNA levels. Taken together, our data suggest that cAMP-induced Aa-Nat and Period1 are likely to be mediated by activation of JNK, whereas MKP-1 may be mediated by both p38(MAPK) and JNK activations.

  4. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains KidsHealth > For Kids > What a Pain! Kids and ... something doctors call growing pains . What Are Growing Pains? Growing pains aren't a disease. You probably ...

  5. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains KidsHealth > For Kids > What a Pain! Kids and ... something doctors call growing pains . What Are Growing Pains? Growing pains aren't a disease. You probably ...

  6. Cosmic Rays trajectory reconstruction in the Earth Magnetosphere: External Field models importance during the last solar active period (from 2011 to 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandi, Davide; Della Torre, Stefano; Pensotti, Simonetta; Bobik, Pavol; Kudela, Karel; Rancoita, Pier Giorgio; Gervasi, Massimo; Jeroen Boschini, Matteo; Rozza, Davide; La vacca, Giuseppe; Tacconi, Mauro

    Geomagsphere is a backtracing code for Cosmic Rays trajectory reconstruction in the Earth Magnetosphere that has been developed with last models of Internal (IGRF-11) and External (Tsyganenko 1996 and 2005) field components. This backtracing technique was used to separate Primary Cosmic Rays Particles, in case of allowed trajectory, from Secondary particles, in case of forbidden trajectory. We compared Magnetic Field measurements with and without the external field model with satellite data in past periods, in particular GOES (1998) and CLUSTER (2004) data. For both periods TS05 reproduces the magnetc field components with good accuracy. The specificity of the TS05 model, designed for solar storms, was tested comparing it with data taken by CLUSTER during the last solar active period (from 2011 to 2013) During Solar Flares (occurred march and May 2012), the usage of such an external field has a relevavant impact on fraction of AMS-02 cosmic rays identified as trapped and secondary particles, especially in high geomagnetic latitudes, as was expecte by some previous simulations, in comparison with the Internal Field only.

  7. Diel periodicity of pheromone release by females of Planococcus citri and Planococcus ficus and the temporal flight activity of their conspecific males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi-Zada, Anat; Fefer, Daniela; David, Maayan; Eliyahu, Miriam; Franco, José Carlos; Protasov, Alex; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-08-01

    The diel periodicity of sex pheromone release was monitored in two mealybug species, Planococcus citri and Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae), using sequential SPME/GCMS analysis. A maximal release of 2 ng/h pheromone by 9-12-day-old P. citri females occurred 1-2 h before the beginning of photophase. The highest release of pheromone by P. ficus females was 1-2 ng/2 h of 10-20-day-old females, approximately 2 h after the beginning of photophase. Mating resulted in termination of the pheromone release in both mealybug species. The temporal flight activity of the males was monitored in rearing chambers using pheromone baited delta traps. Males of both P. citri and P. ficus displayed the same flight pattern and began flying at 06:00 hours when the light was turned on, reaching a peak during the first and second hour of the photophase. Our results suggest that other biparental mealybug species display also diel periodicities of maximal pheromone release and response. Direct evaluation of the diel periodicity of the pheromone release by the automatic sequential analysis is convenient and will be very helpful in optimizing the airborne collection and identification of other unknown mealybug pheromones and to study the calling behavior of females. Considering this behavior pattern may help to develop more effective pheromone-based management strategies against mealybugs.

  8. Diel periodicity of pheromone release by females of Planococcus citri and Planococcus ficus and the temporal flight activity of their conspecific males.

    PubMed

    Levi-Zada, Anat; Fefer, Daniela; David, Maayan; Eliyahu, Miriam; Franco, José Carlos; Protasov, Alex; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-08-01

    The diel periodicity of sex pheromone release was monitored in two mealybug species, Planococcus citri and Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae), using sequential SPME/GCMS analysis. A maximal release of 2 ng/h pheromone by 9-12-day-old P. citri females occurred 1-2 h before the beginning of photophase. The highest release of pheromone by P. ficus females was 1-2 ng/2 h of 10-20-day-old females, approximately 2 h after the beginning of photophase. Mating resulted in termination of the pheromone release in both mealybug species. The temporal flight activity of the males was monitored in rearing chambers using pheromone baited delta traps. Males of both P. citri and P. ficus displayed the same flight pattern and began flying at 06:00 hours when the light was turned on, reaching a peak during the first and second hour of the photophase. Our results suggest that other biparental mealybug species display also diel periodicities of maximal pheromone release and response. Direct evaluation of the diel periodicity of the pheromone release by the automatic sequential analysis is convenient and will be very helpful in optimizing the airborne collection and identification of other unknown mealybug pheromones and to study the calling behavior of females. Considering this behavior pattern may help to develop more effective pheromone-based management strategies against mealybugs.

  9. Out-of-body-like experiences are more probable in people with elevated complex partial epileptic-like signs during periods of enhanced geomagnetic activity: a nonlinear effect.

    PubMed

    Persinger, M A

    1995-04-01

    The ratings of subjective experiences of the self "leaving" or of being detached from the body were obtained (over a 3-yr. period) for a total of 128 men and women who had been exposed only once to an experimental setting which enhances the awareness of cognitive processes. As hypothesized, the individuals who exhibited the greatest proportion of complex partial epileptic-like signs also reported the most intense experiences of detachment from the body; however, these occurred primarily when the geomagnetic activity on the day of the experiment exceeded about 15 nT but was less than about 45 nT. Geomagnetic activity for the day after or the three days before the experiment was not associated with these experiences. The effect was equivalent to a correlation coefficient (eta) of .38.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA levels are modified by dietary n-3 fatty acid restriction and energy restriction in the brain and liver of growing rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Without dietary sources of long chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA;18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) impacts ALA conversion to DHA. We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces LCn-3 content in growing rats ...

  11. Impact of health beliefs, social support and self-efficacy on physical activity and dietary habits during the post-partum period after gestational diabetes mellitus: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance of variable severity occurring or diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Numerous epidemiological studies show that this disorder affects between 1 and 18% of pregnancies, depending on the ethnicity of the populations studied, the diagnostic criteria, or the body mass index (BMI). Its incidence is constantly rising worldwide. Patients with GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the months after delivery. For this reason, GDM patients are encouraged to practice specific health behaviors (dietary habits, physical activity) during the postpartum period. It is important to identify the factors that may impact adherence to these behaviors. Methods/Design A targeted sample size of 200 eligible pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM will be enrolled in this prospective, cohort study. They will be recruited from 30-36 weeks of gestation as part of their diabetes consultation in Geneva University Hospital (GUH) maternity unit. Psychosocial variables that could impact adherence to health behaviors in the postpartum period (behavioral intentions, risk perceptions, general knowledge about diabetes, health beliefs, social support, self-efficacy) will be evaluated using specific tools at the end of pregnancy, at 6 weeks postpartum and at 6 months postpartum. Multiple regression analyses will be performed on SPSS. Discussion For the first time in Europe, the objective of this research is to study in women with very recent GDM the link between dietary habits, physical activity levels, and psychosocial and cognitive factors possibly involved in the adoption of health behaviors in the postpartum period. These factors have been identified in the literature, but to date have never been combined in a single study. The study will allow a predictive theoretical model of health behavior to be established and used as a basis for reflection to optimize interventions carried out on

  12. Growing crystals from eutectic melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    Inverted Bridgman Method yields crystals of higher homogeneity and better structure than those grown by ordinary Bridgman method. Process controls thermotransport by holding molten alloy in known temperature for known period of time. Rapid cooling quenches in state of segregation. Method is applicable to other eutectiferous systems where thermotransport is appreciable.

  13. The Different Child Grows Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egg, Maria

    Designed for parents and friends of the mentally handicapped, the text deals with the periods of youth, adolescence, and adulthood. Areas discussed are attitudes toward handicapped children, incidence, growth, puberty, sex education, marriage, travel training, emotional maturity, and the role of the institution. Also of concern are the problems of…

  14. How to grow great leaders.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A

    2004-12-01

    Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work

  15. Multi-proxy sedimentary record from Lake Ghirla (N-Italy) reveals hydro-climatic variations and periods of anthropogenic activities during the past 13 kyrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Stefanie B.; Gilli, Adrian; Sessions, Alex L.

    2016-04-01

    Lake Ghirla is a small lake that lies in the southern foothills of the Central Alps near the Swiss-Italian border. Climatically, the region is influenced by North Atlantic and Mediterranean weather systems and is frequently affected by severe storm tracks causing heavy precipitation. The catchment with Permian granites and gneisses contains Pb in amounts significant for mining as well as less important concentrations of Cu, As and U. This sensitive setting makes Lake Ghirla a promising site to reconstruct hydro-climatic variations and to track human activity by means of elevated heavy metal concentrations in the lake sediments. The recovered sediment core comprises the entire Younger Dryas-Holocene time period and was analyzed for (i) sedimentological changes to identify flood deposits, for (ii) the hydrogen isotopic composition of terrestrial plant waxes (plant-wax D/H) to constrain hydro-climatic changes, and for (iii) variations of the elemental composition (XRF core scanning, ICP-MS) to understand anthropogenic impacts. During the past 13 kyrs, we observe a high variability of floods with peak periods appearing at ~11, 10.6-8.2, 6-4.9, 2.8-2.7, 2.6-2.4, 1.2-1 and 0.4-0.1 (LIA) cal kyr BP. From a hydro-climatic perspective, the most remarkable result from the plant-wax D/H data is that the Younger Dryas is characterized by no significant change and that the 2.8-2.7 kyr BP and LIA intervals show an increase of plant-wax D/H values. Hence, during these three cool climatic periods temperature effects cannot be solely responsible for plant-wax D/H variation. The southward migration of the westerly storm tracks above the North Atlantic due to climate cooling must have led to a more southern and thus isotopically enriched moisture source for the southern Alps. This moisture-source change likely counter-balanced or even over-rode the temperature-driven isotope effect. Increased sedimentary Cu concentrations at 3.8-3.3 kyr BP are the first evidence for the presence of

  16. Effects of prenatal morphine on hypothalamic metabolism of neurotransmitters and gonadal and adrenal activities, during the early postnatal period in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lesage, J; Bernet, F; Montel, V; Dupouy, J P

    1996-06-01

    It is noteworthy that exposure to opiates during fetal development results in permanent changes in adults related to morphological, behavioral and biochemical measures; however little is known concerning the effects of such drugs in early postnatal life. We investigated in newborn rats the effects of prenatal morphine-exposure on both-the hypothalamic metabolism of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5 HT) and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal and adrenal axes. In a previous study performed in newborns of untreated mothers, we reported some sex-dependent changes in the metabolism of NE, 5 HT and NPY in the hypothalamus and an early activation of the gonadostimulating function and of the corticostimulating one. In control newborns from saline-treated mothers, a slight increase in the hypothalamic metabolism of NE (males) and 5 HT (males and females) was observed and it was comparable in both sexes. On the other hand, the hypothalamic content of NPY was unaffected in early postnatal period in newborn males as well as in females. These changes observed on hypothalamic metabolisms are temporally correlated with the early postnatal activation of the corticostimulating function in neonates of both sexes and that of the gonadostimulating one, mainly in males. Prenatal morphine exposure altered the hypothalamic metabolism of 5 HT which was increased mainly in newborn females but did not affect either the metabolism of NE or the NPY content of the hypothalamus. The more drastic effect of the prenatal morphine treatment is the atrophy and hypoactivity of the adrenals in newborns of both sexes at birth time and during the early postnatal period. In contrast morphine did not impair postnatal surge of the plasma testosterone level in male pups as well as late and slight increase of plasma estradiol in female ones.

  17. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Asteriadis, G.; Spatalas, S. D.; Pikridas, Ch.

    2008-04-01

    TEC variations over a particular site sustain variations of different causality, global (earth revolution, earth rotation, earth-tides, variations of the geomagnetic field etc.) or local (atmospheric or underground explosions, earthquakes, volcanoes etc. A lot of work has been done by a great number of researchers on the characteristics of ionospheric variations according to their causality (wave - length, attenuation and velocity and way of propagation). In order that TEC variations over a particular site be used as earthquake precursory diagnostic a concrete sense of the interrelation of TEC variations over different sites as well as their respond of the geomagnetic field variations would be of great interest. In this paper the TEC data of eight GPS stations of the EUREF network (AUT1, Thessaloniki and TUC2, Crete in Greece, MAT, Matera and LAMP, Lampedusa in Italy, GAIA in Portugal, RABT in Rabat, EVPA, Evpatoria in Ukrain and TRAB, Trabson in Turkey) were analyzed using wavelet and DFTanalysis in order to detect any frequency dependence of the correlation of TEC over different stations. In the same time, frequency dependence of Dst and TEC variations are searched in order to detect any correlation. The main conclusion of this analysis is that the constituents of TEC variation with periods <3h are more suitable in searching for earthquake precursors. On the base of this conclusion the analyzed TEC series are searched for possible precursory phenomena, during the seismic activity of the last quarter of 2005, in the area of Greece. Variation in TEC constituents with periods <3h over the stations AUT1 and TUC2 occurred ±10days of the seismic activity may be attributed to this tectonic activity.

  18. Flight Safety Aircraft Risk: A Growing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the need to have appropriate criteria for protection of aircraft from debris resulting from the flight termination of a malfunctioning space booster. There have been several sequences of events that have interacted to bring us to the current risk management problem. With the advent of the US initiative to have common flight safety analysis processes and criteria, it was recognized that the traditional aircraft protection approach was inadequate. It did not consider the added public concern for catastrophic events. While the probability may have been small for downing a large commercial passenger plane, the public outrage if it happened would not be adequately measured by the individual risk to passengers nor the collective (societal risk) presented by a single airplane. Over a period of a number of years the US has developed and evolved a criterion to address catastrophic risk protection. Beginning in the same time period, it was recognized the assertion that all debris with masses greater than one gram were lethal to aircraft was unduly conservative. Over this same period initiatives have been developed to refine aircraft vulnerability models. There were, however, two significant unconservative assumptions that were made in the early years. It was presumed that significant risk to aircraft could only occur in the launch area. In addition, aircraft risk assessments, when they were made were based on debris lists designed to protect people on the ground (typically debris with an impact kinetic energy greater than 11 ft-lb). Good debris lists for aircraft protection do not yet exist. However, it has become increasingly clear that even with partial breakup lists large regions were required from which aircraft flight would be restricted using the normal exclusion approaches. We provide a review of these events and an indication of the way forward.

  19. Grow Your Own Copper Deposit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Timothy John

    2009-01-01

    Crystals are beautiful structures--yet they occur naturally in dirty and remote places. In the inquiry-based activity described here, students will enjoy the process of creating their own crystals and using microscopes to examine them. It demonstrates the process of mineral concentration and deposition. Upon completing this activity, students…

  20. Impact of infection control activities on the rate of needle stick injuries at a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan over a period of six years: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Accidental exposure to blood and body fluids is frequent among health care workers. They are at high risk of nosocomial transmission of blood borne pathogens due to injuries caused by used sharps. We are reporting impact of surveillance and educational program on the rate of needle stick injuries among health care workers at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods At Aga Khan University Hospital sharp injuries are reported to infection control office. To reduce these incidents a quality improvement project was inducted in the year 2005. Health care workers were educated; surveillance data from 2002 to 2007 was analyzed and compared with various risk factors. Results During study period 1382 incidents were reported. Junior doctors sustained highest number of injuries (n = 394; 28.5%) followed by registered nurses (n = 283; 20.4%). Highest number of incidents was reported during blood collection (19%). An increasing trend was observed in the pre intervention years (2002–04). However noticeable fall was noted in the post intervention period that is in year 2006 and 2007. Major decline was noted among nurses (from 13 to 5 NSI/100 FTE/year). By relating and comparing the rates with various activities directly linked with the use of syringes a significant reduction in incidents were found including; hospital admissions (p-value 0.01), surgeries and procedures performed (p = 0.01), specimens collected in the laboratory (p = 0.001) and patients visits in clinics (p = 0.01). Conclusion We report significant reduction in needle stick injuries especially during post intervention study period. This is being achieved by constant emphasis on improving awareness by regular educational sessions, implemented as a quality improvement project. PMID:19480683