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Sample records for active hand exercises

  1. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Hand and Finger Exercises  Place your palm flat on a table. Raise and lower your fingers one ... times for ____ seconds.  Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  2. Comparison of muscle activation using various hand positions during the push-up exercise.

    PubMed

    Cogley, Robert M; Archambault, Teasha A; Fibeger, Jon F; Koverman, Mandy M; Youdas, James W; Hollman, John H

    2005-08-01

    Popular fitness literature suggests that varied hand placements during push-ups may isolate different muscles. Scientific literature, however, offers scant evidence that varied hand placements elicit different muscle responses. This study examined whether different levels of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles are required to perform push-ups from each of 3 different hand positions: shoulder width base, wide base, and narrow base hand placements. Forty subjects, 11 men and 29 women, performed 1 repetition of each push-up. The EMG activity for subjects' dominant arm pectoralis major and triceps brachii was recorded using surface electrodes. The EMG activity was greater in both muscle groups during push-ups performed from the narrow base hand position compared with the wide base position (p < 0.05). This study suggests that, if a goal is to induce greater muscle activation during exercise, then push-ups should be performed with hands in a narrow base position compared with a wide base position.

  3. Effects of hand and knee positions on muscular activity during trunk extension exercise with the Roman chair.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-yeon; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-12-01

    This experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of hand and knee positions on muscular activity during back extension exercises with the Roman chair. Eighteen asymptomatic male amateur athletes performed four prone back extension exercises with two hand positions (crossed-arms and behind-the-head), and two knee positions (extended knee and 90° flexed knee). Surface electromyography (sEMG) was performed to collect data from the lower trapezius (LT), latissimus dorsi (LD), erector spinae in the T12 paraspinal region (ES-T12), erector spinae at the L3 level (ES-L3), gluteus maximus (GM), and biceps femoris (BF). Two-way repeated analysis of variance with two within-subject factors (two hand positions and two knee positions) was used to determine the significance of differences between the exercise conditions, and which hand and knee positions resulted in greater activation with exercise variation. The root mean square sEMG values were normalized using the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and represented as the % of the maximum EMG (%mEMG). There was no significant interaction between knee and hand positions in the %mEMG data. The results showed that the hand position affected the normalized activation of LT; the behind-the-head position resulted in significantly greater muscle activation than the crossed-arms hand position (P<0.05). The activations of the LD, ES-T10, ES-L4, and GM were greater in the 90° flexed-knee position compared to the extended-knee position (P<0.05). Although back extension exercise using the Roman chair has been shown to effectively activate the extensor musculature, our results indicated that changing the knee and hand positions could activate specific muscles differently. To achieve greater activation of trunk extensor muscle during extension exercise with the Roman chair, the flexed-knee position is a useful means of increasing resistance.

  4. Promoting Female Students' Learning Motivation towards Science by Exercising Hands-On Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen-jin, Kuo; Chia-ju, Liu; Shi-an, Leou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design different hands-on science activities and investigate which activities could better promote female students' learning motivation towards science. This study conducted three types of science activities which contains nine hands-on activities, an experience scale and a learning motivation scale for data…

  5. EMG activity of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles during the different phases of the push-up plus exercise on different support surfaces and different hand positions.

    PubMed

    Gioftsos, George; Arvanitidis, Michail; Tsimouris, Dimitrios; Kanellopoulos, Assimakis; Paras, George; Trigkas, Panagiotis; Sakellari, Vasiliki

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The appropriate exercise prescription is crucial for achieving scapular stability and providing successful rehabilitation, and the Push-up Plus (PuP) exercise has an important role in shoulder rehabilitation. Consequently, this study examined the effect of support surface stability, hand positioning, and phase of exercise, on the trapezius and serratus anterior muscle contractions as well as on the EMG ratio of the upper/lower trapezius. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male volunteers participated in this study. The subjects performed the PuP exercise on stable and unstable supporting surfaces with three different hand orientations. During the PuP exercise, the muscle activities of the upper (UT) and lower (LT) trapezius, as well as the serratus anterior (SA) were measured and expressed as percentages of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). [Results] The EMG activities of UT and LT were statistically greater during the push-up phase compared to the plus phase of the exercise. The contrary was recorded for the activity of the SA. SA was affected by the support surface as well as by the hand positioning. [Conclusion] The results suggest that different phases of the PuP exercise require different muscle stability actions with corresponding activations of appropriate muscle fibers. A detailed prescription of the required phase of the exercise can more effectively activate the scapula-thoracic musculature.

  6. EMG activity of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles during the different phases of the push-up plus exercise on different support surfaces and different hand positions

    PubMed Central

    Gioftsos, George; Arvanitidis, Michail; Tsimouris, Dimitrios; Kanellopoulos, Assimakis; Paras, George; Trigkas, Panagiotis; Sakellari, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The appropriate exercise prescription is crucial for achieving scapular stability and providing successful rehabilitation, and the Push-up Plus (PuP) exercise has an important role in shoulder rehabilitation. Consequently, this study examined the effect of support surface stability, hand positioning, and phase of exercise, on the trapezius and serratus anterior muscle contractions as well as on the EMG ratio of the upper/lower trapezius. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male volunteers participated in this study. The subjects performed the PuP exercise on stable and unstable supporting surfaces with three different hand orientations. During the PuP exercise, the muscle activities of the upper (UT) and lower (LT) trapezius, as well as the serratus anterior (SA) were measured and expressed as percentages of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). [Results] The EMG activities of UT and LT were statistically greater during the push-up phase compared to the plus phase of the exercise. The contrary was recorded for the activity of the SA. SA was affected by the support surface as well as by the hand positioning. [Conclusion] The results suggest that different phases of the PuP exercise require different muscle stability actions with corresponding activations of appropriate muscle fibers. A detailed prescription of the required phase of the exercise can more effectively activate the scapula-thoracic musculature. PMID:27512278

  7. Hand Swelling during Exercise: A Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Edema What causes hand swelling during exercise? I walk several times a week, and my fingers get puffy to the ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/edema/expert-answers/hand-swelling/FAQ-20058255 . Mayo Clinic ...

  8. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  9. A systematic review into the effectiveness of hand exercise therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bergstra, S A; Murgia, A; Te Velde, A F; Caljouw, S R

    2014-11-01

    Hand exercises are often part of the treatment of hand rheumatoid arthritis; however, it is still unclear whether and what type of exercises is effective in the treatment of this condition. Therefore, a systematic review into the effectiveness of hand exercises in the treatment of hand rheumatoid arthritis has been performed. Studies were identified in the literature databases by predefined search criteria. The eight included studies are peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 and 2014. Hand exercises differed between studies, but always included resistance and/or active range of motion exercises. Grip strength in various grip types (power grip, key pinch, precision pinch and tripod pinch) was found to improve by hand exercise therapy without having adverse effects on pain or disease activity. Adaptations in the range of motion in response to hand exercise therapy were less pronounced. There appears to be some transfer from the improvements on the body functioning level to the level of daily functioning, with the largest improvements found on grip ability. With regard to the intervention content, there was some evidence in favour of a longer therapy duration and a higher therapy intensity. No conclusions could be drawn on the effectiveness of the different types of exercises. Collectively, the studies indicate that hand exercises may have positive effects on strength and some aspects of daily functioning without aggravating disease activity or pain, although caution should be taken for subjects in the exacerbation period.

  10. Therapeutic hand-exercising device with cycling pressure value

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthlome, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Device exercises hands of persons whose fingers are generally straight and need to be flexed inward toward palms of hands. Device is extremely simple in design, which reduces costs, and fits all hand sizes. Patient can instantly free hand from device by pulling flap free from wrist of straps.

  11. Investigating Plants: Hands-On, Low-Cost Laboratory Exercises in Plant Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Thomas R.; Johnson, Marty

    This manual describes 14 hands-on exercises for middle school introductory biology courses that are designed to allow all students to be involved in self-discoveries about life and plant life in particular. The exercises were developed to supplement normal classroom activities by allowing students to initiate ongoing projects to investigate the…

  12. The effect of a long-term exercise programme on the rheumatoid hand.

    PubMed

    Brighton, S W; Lubbe, J E; van der Merwe, C A

    1993-05-01

    Forty-four female patients with sero-positive active RA participated in a 48-month trial to assess the effect of simple hand exercises. Twenty-two patients in the test group were given a daily exercise regime of six exercises. The control group were not given any exercises. At the end of 48 months there was a statistically significant improvement in grip strength (P < 0.0001) and pincer grip strength (P < 0.0005) in the test group. There was a significant deterioration in the control group (P < 0.0000). A simple exercise programme is beneficial for the rheumatoid hand as far as grip and pincer grip strength are concerned.

  13. Exercises for Keeping Pianists' Hands in Top Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Some pianists have idiosyncratic ways of keeping their hands and fingers relaxed. Glenn Gould, for example, religiously soaked his digits in hot water before performing or recording. While the jury is still out on the effectiveness of Gould's routine, there are plenty of other exercises and practices that will keep a pianist's fingers limber.…

  14. Effect of hand-arm exercise on venous blood constituents during leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, N.; Silver, J. E.; Greenawalt, S.; Kravik, S. E.; Geelen, G.

    1985-01-01

    Contributions by ancillary hand and arm actions to the changes in blood constituents effected by leg exercises on cycle ergometer were assessed. Static or dynamic hand-arm exercises were added to the leg exercise (50 percent VO2 peak)-only control regimens for the subjects (19-27 yr old men) in the two experimental groups. Antecubital venous blood was analyzed at times 0, 15, and 30 min (T0, T15, and T30) for serum Na(+), K(+), osmolality, albumin, total CA(2+), and glucose; blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, and lactic acid; and change in plasma volume. Only glucose and lactate values were affected by additional arm exercise. Glucose decreased 4 percent at T15 and T30 after static exercise, and by 2 percent at T15 (with no change at T30) after dynamic arm exercise. Conversely, lactic acid increased by 20 percent at T30 after static exercise, and by 14 percent by T15 and 6 percent at T30 after dynamic arm exercise. It is concluded that additional arm movements, performed usually when gripping the handle-bar on the cycle ergometer, could introduce significant errors in measured venous concentrations of glucose and lactate in the leg-exercised subjects.

  15. Hand tremor and activity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konigsberg, E.

    1975-01-01

    System detects hand tremor and activity and transmitting signals over distance of at least 3 meters to receiver system. Designed for use in studies of effect of fatigue on individual's judgement or reaction time, sensor is installed within mounting of finger-ring; no external wiring or power source is needed.

  16. Joint protection and hand exercises for hand osteoarthritis: an economic evaluation comparing methods for the analysis of factorial trials

    PubMed Central

    Oppong, Raymond; Nicholls, Elaine; Whitehurst, David G. T.; Hill, Susan; Hammond, Alison; Hay, Elaine M.; Dziedzic, Krysia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of joint protection and hand exercises for the management of hand OA is not well established. The primary aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness (cost-utility) of these management options. In addition, given the absence of consensus regarding the conduct of economic evaluation alongside factorial trials, we compare different analytical methodologies. Methods. A trial-based economic evaluation to assess the cost-utility of joint protection only, hand exercises only and joint protection plus hand exercises compared with leaflet and advice was undertaken over a 12 month period from a UK National Health Service perspective. Patient-level mean costs and mean quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated for each trial arm. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were constructed. The base case analysis used a within-the-table analysis methodology. Two further methods were explored: the at-the-margins approach and a regression-based approach with or without an interaction term. Results. Mean costs (QALYs) were £58.46 (s.d. 0.662) for leaflet and advice, £92.12 (s.d. 0.659) for joint protection, £64.51 (s.d. 0.681) for hand exercises and £112.38 (s.d. 0.658) for joint protection plus hand exercises. In the base case, hand exercises were the cost-effective option, with an ICER of £318 per QALY gained. Hand exercises remained the most cost-effective management strategy when adopting alternative methodological approaches. Conclusion. This is the first trial evaluating the cost-effectiveness of occupational therapy-supported approaches to self-management for hand OA. Our findings showed that hand exercises were the most cost-effective option. PMID:25339642

  17. Effect of various hand position widths on scapular stabilizing muscles during the push-up plus exercise in healthy people

    PubMed Central

    Batbayar, Yanjinsuren; Uga, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Rie; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various hand position widths during the push-up plus (PUP) exercise on the activity of the scapular stabilizing muscles and other upper-extremity muscles involved in the exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Nine healthy men participated in our study. The PUP exercise was performed on a stable surface in seven different hand positions, namely shoulder width (SW), and narrower SW (NSW) and wider SW (WSW) at 10%, 20%, and 30%. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities and muscle ratio of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius, lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, latissimus dorsi (LD), and triceps muscles. [Results] The SA and LD muscle activities significantly decreased in the 30% NSW and 20% WSW hand positions, respectively. The UT/LT muscle ratio significantly increased in the 30% WSW hand position. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that during the PUP exercise, the SW hand position should be used. In the 30% NSW hand position, the SA muscle activity decreased, and the UT/ LT ratio increased in the 30% WSW hand position. PMID:26357442

  18. Laboratory Exercise on Active Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…

  19. Influence of dynamic hand-grip exercise on acetone in gas emanating from human skin.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kenji; Funada, Toshiaki; Kikuchi, Maasa; Ohkuwa, Tetsuo; Itoh, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Tsuda, Takao

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dynamic hand-grip exercise on skin-gas acetone concentration. The subjects for this experiment were seven healthy males. In the first experiment, to ascertain the reproducibility of the results for the skin-gas acetone concentration test, the skin gas was collected four times from one subject. In the second experiment, all subjects performed three different types of exercise (Exercises I-III) for a duration of 60 s. Exercise I was performed at 10 kg with one contraction every 3 s. Exercise II was 30 kg with one contraction every 3 s. Exercise III was 10 kg with one contraction per second. Acetone concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. In the first experiment, reasonable reproducibility was obtained in measurements of skin-gas acetone concentration during the hand-grip exercise. In the second experiment, acetone concentration in skin gas during hand-grip exercise II was significantly higher than the basal level. Although skin-gas acetone levels increased in all subjects during exercises I and III, a significant difference was not found. No significant difference was found in skin-gas acetone concentration during dynamic hand-grip exercise among exercises I, II, and III. This study confirmed that skin-gas acetone levels increase during dynamic hand-grip exercise.

  20. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss - activity; Weight loss - exercise; Obesity - activity ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...

  1. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  2. Exercise programme with telephone follow-up for people with hand osteoarthritis – protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal diseases in an adult population and may have a large influence on an individual’s functioning, health-related quality of life and participation in society. Several studies have demonstrated that exercises may reduce pain and improve functioning in people with knee OA, with a similar effect suggested for hip OA. For hand OA, available research is very limited and shows conflicting results, and high-quality randomised controlled trials are warranted. This paper outlines the protocol for a randomised controlled trial that aims to determine the effect of an exercise intervention on self-reported hand activity performance in people with hand OA. Methods Participants with physician-confirmed hand OA according to the ACR clinical criteria are being recruited from two Norwegian OA cohorts: the population-based “Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker Study” (MUST) OA cohort, and the hospital-based Oslo Hand OA cohort. Participants are randomised into an intervention- or control group. The control group receives “usual care”, whereas the intervention group receives a 12-week exercise intervention. The intervention group attends four group sessions and is instructed to perform the exercise program three times a week at home. Adherence will be captured using self-report. During the eight weeks with no group sessions, the intervention group receives a weekly telephone call. The assessments and group sessions are being conducted locally in Ullensaker Municipality and at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo. Outcomes are collected at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome measure is self-reported hand activity performance at 3 months post-randomisation, as measured by the Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis (FIHOA); and a patient-generated measure of disability, the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS). Secondary outcome measures are self-reported OA symptoms (e.g. pain

  3. Technology and Engineering Education Students' Perceptions of Hands-On and Hands-Off Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sianez, David M.; Fugere, Madeleine A.; Lennon, Carter A.

    2010-01-01

    Technology and engineering education students responded to a survey regarding hands-on and hands-off activities. First, the students listed hands-on and hands-off activities and what characterized the two types of activities. Activities such as building or assembling something as well as working manually with tools were viewed as hands-on. Passive…

  4. Three Simple Hands-On Soil Exercises Extension Professionals Can Incorporate into Natural Sciences Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinschmidt, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The importance of healthy soil and of conveying the importance of soils starts by conveying a few basic concepts of soil science cannot be overstated. This article provides three hands-on exercises Extension professionals can add to natural resources or Master Gardener education curricula. These natural sciences exercises are easy to prepare for…

  5. Exercise and activity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with the ... your child's preferences and abilities. Individual activities include swimming, running, skiing, or biking. Group sports are another ...

  6. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2012 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  7. Stay active and exercise - arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your overall health and sense of well-being. Exercise keeps your muscles strong and increases your range ... Water exercises may be the best exercise for your arthritis. Swimming laps, water aerobics, or even just walking in ...

  8. Effects of isotonic and isometric hand exercises on pain, hand functions, dexterity and quality of life in women with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dogu, Beril; Sirzai, Hulya; Yilmaz, Figen; Polat, Basak; Kuran, Banu

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of 6-week-long isotonic and isometric hand exercises on pain, hand functions, dexterity and quality of life in women diagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our secondary objective was to assess the changes in handgrip strength and disease activity. This randomized, parallel, single-blinded 6-week intervention study enrolled 52 female patients between 40 and 70 years of age, who were diagnosed with RA according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, had disease duration of at least 1 year and had a stage 1-3 disease according to Steinbrocker's functional evaluation scale. Patients were randomized into isotonics and isometrics groups. Exercises were performed on sixth week. All patients were applied wax therapy in the first 2 weeks. Their pain was assessed with visual analog scale (VAS), their hand functions with Duruöz Hand Index (DHI), dexterity with nine hole peg test (NHPT) and quality of life with Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life questionnaire (RAQoL). Dominant and non-dominant handgrip strengths (HS) were measured. Disease activity was determined by disease activity score (DAS 28). We evaluated the difference in the above parameters between baseline and 6 weeks by Wilcoxon paired t test. The study was completed with 47 patients (isotonics n = 23; isometrics n = 24). VAS, DHI, NHPT, and RAQoL scores significantly improved in both groups by the end of 6th week compared to the baseline scores of the study (for isotonics p = 0.036, p = 0.002; p = 0.0001, p = 0.003; for isometrics p = 0.021, p = 0.002, p = 0.005, p = 0.01, respectively). DAS 28 scores decreased in both exercise groups (p = 0.002; p = 0.0001, respectively), while isometrics showed a significant increase in dominant HS (p = 0.029), and isotonics showed a significant increase in non-dominant HS (p = 0.013). This study showed that isometric and isotonic hand exercises decrease pain and disease activity and improve hand functions

  9. Skin vascular response in the hand during sinusoidal exercise in physically trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko

    2003-09-01

    The effect of physical training on the cutaneous vascular response during transient exercise load is unclear. We determined the phase response and amplitude response of cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) in the hand during sinusoidal exercise in endurance exercise-trained and untrained subjects. Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer with a sinusoidal load for 32 min. The load variation ranged from 10% [23 (1) W in the trained group, 19 (1) W in the untrained group] to 60% [137 (4) W, 114 (6) W] of peak O(2) uptake, and five different time periods (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 min) were selected. Skin blood flow in the dorsal hand and palm were monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry. CVC was evaluated from the ratio of blood flow to mean arterial pressure. During sinusoidal exercise, the amplitude of CVC was smaller in the dorsal hand than palm for shorter periods (1, 2, and 4 min) ( P<0.05). The phase lag of CVC was smaller in the dorsal hand than palm for longer periods (8 and 16 min) ( P<0.05). The amplitude response did not differ significantly between the two groups. The phase lag of CVC in the dorsal hand ( P<0.05) and palm ( P=0.06) was larger in the trained group than untrained group. These findings suggest that glabrous and nonglabrous skin vascular responses in the hand differ during transient exercise load, and physically trained subjects show a slower vascular response in the two skin areas to exercise stimulation than do untrained subjects.

  10. Propagation of Action Potentials: An Active Participation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsten, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Describes an active participation exercise that demonstrates the propagation of action potentials (the ability to transmit information through the neural network, dependent upon chemical interactions in the brain). Students assume the structure and function of the network by lining up around the room and communicating through hand signals and…

  11. Cancer, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin C; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2012-10-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underlying the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, and many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. The specific dose of exercise needed to optimize primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment remains to be elucidated.

  12. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  13. Comparison of anterior gluteus medius fiber activation during general exercises and PNF exercises

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Sung-kwang; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed during the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises compared with the general hip abductor strengthening exercises. The anterior gluteus medius fibers exhibited greater activity during pattern 2 exercises compared with any other type of exercise. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pattern 2 exercises can selectively activate anterior gluteus medius fibers. PMID:28356634

  14. Comparison of anterior gluteus medius fiber activation during general exercises and PNF exercises.

    PubMed

    Ju, Sung-Kwang; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed during the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises compared with the general hip abductor strengthening exercises. The anterior gluteus medius fibers exhibited greater activity during pattern 2 exercises compared with any other type of exercise. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pattern 2 exercises can selectively activate anterior gluteus medius fibers.

  15. The short-term effect of gloving in combination with Traditional Thai Massage, heat, and stretching exercise to improve hand mobility in scleroderma patients

    PubMed Central

    Vannajak, Kunavut; Boonprakob, Yodchai; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Ungpansattawong, Supunnee; Nanagara, Ratanavadee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic, multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by autoimmune activation, microvascular endothelium damage, and excessive collagen proliferation. The most affected hand presents claw hand deformity and microvascular disease. Deformed hands can cause functional disability and decrease the quality of life. A daily home program can improve mobility of scleroderma patients. Objective: We sought to determine the effect of a daily home exercise program on hand mobility among scleroderma patients. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized control trial. Twenty-eight participants were divided into two groups, both of which received the same daily home treatment: Group 1 with gloves (n = 14) and Group 2 without gloves (n = 14). The 2-week daily home program combined traditional Thai massage (TTM) with stretching exercises and heat. Hand mobility was assessed using hand mobility in scleroderma (HAMIS). The study was conducted in patients who were already on vasodilator drugs. Results: Both groups showed a significant improvement in hand mobility after 2 weeks of daily home exercise program (P < 0.05). Wearing the glove, however, resulted in better thumb mobility. Conclusions: A daily home exercise program improved hand mobility among patients with scleroderma and wearing gloves may improve thumb mobility. PMID:24812476

  16. Hand-cycling: an active form of wheeled mobility, recreation, and sports.

    PubMed

    Hettinga, F J; Valent, L; Groen, W; van Drongelen, S; de Groot, S; van der Woude, L H V

    2010-02-01

    By studying exercise and performance in hand-cycling in both activities of daily living and in Paralympic sport settings, new insights can be gained for rehabilitation practice, adapted physical activity, and sports. This review looks into the pros and cons of hand-cycling in both rehabilitation and optimal sports performance settings as suggested from the current-but still limited-scientific literature and experimentation. Despite the limited evidence-base and the diversity of study approaches and methodologies, this study suggests an important role for hand-cycling during and after rehabilitation, and in wheeled mobility recreation and sports. An approach that combines biomechanical, physiological, and psychosocial elements may lead to a better understanding of the benefits of hand-cycling and of the fundamentals of exercise in rehabilitation, activities of daily living, and sports.

  17. Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    There is a general belief that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on mood and anxiety and a great number of studies describe an association of physical activity and general well-being, mood and anxiety. In line, intervention studies describe an anxiolytic and antidepressive activity of exercise in healthy subjects and patients. However, the majority of published studies have substantial methodological shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to critically review the currently available literature with respect to (1) the association of physical activity, exercise and the prevalence and incidence of depression and anxiety disorders and (2) the potential therapeutic activity of exercise training in patients with depression or anxiety disorders. Although the association of physical activity and the prevalence of mental disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders have been repeatedly described, only few studies examined the association of physical activity and mental disorders prospectively. Reduced incidence rates of depression and (some) anxiety disorders in exercising subjects raise the question whether exercise may be used in the prevention of some mental disorders. Besides case series and small uncontrolled studies, recent well controlled studies suggest that exercise training may be clinically effective, at least in major depression and panic disorder. Although, the evidence for positive effects of exercise and exercise training on depression and anxiety is growing, the clinical use, at least as an adjunct to established treatment approaches like psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, is still at the beginning. Further studies on the clinical effects of exercise, interaction with standard treatment approaches and details on the optimal type, intensity, frequency and duration may further support the clinical administration in patients. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge on how to best deal with depression and anxiety related symptoms

  18. Filipino Older Adults’ Beliefs About Exercise Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D.; Serafica, Reimund C.; Tse, Alice

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study explored how the older traditional Filipino adults 65 years old and above living in Honolulu, Hawaii, describe their beliefs regarding exercise activity. The location of this research setting is unique because a blending of traditional Filipino culture exists within an acculturated social setting. The Filipino older adults who have relocated to this U.S. location may have also stayed close to their own cultural traditions. METHODOLOGIES A perception of exercise activity was generated through the lens of 47 participants using qualitative methodology. FINDINGS While focusing on the older adults’ beliefs about exercise activity, it became evident that exercise may have been seen as a proxy measure of physical activity. The study revealed four main domains: balancing barriers against benefits; engaging capabilities; intervening factors; and defining exercise. The data suggest that the four themes are juxtaposed among each other, with overarching social obligations to the kin group governing the older adults’ engagement in what constitutes structured exercise by Western definition. IMPLICATIONS Further investigation is needed to conceptualize what types of physical activities traditional Filipino elders perceive as exercise, and whether these activities fall into the Western definition of exercise. PMID:22029767

  19. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Managing Activities and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Managing Activities and Exercise On this Page Avoiding Extremes Developing an Activity ... recent manageable level of activity. Strength and Conditioning Exercises Strength and conditioning exercises are an important component ...

  20. Strengthening and stretching for rheumatoid arthritis of the hand (SARAH): design of a randomised controlled trial of a hand and upper limb exercise intervention - ISRCTN89936343

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) commonly affects the hands and wrists with inflammation, deformity, pain, weakness and restricted mobility leading to reduced function. The effectiveness of exercise for RA hands is uncertain, although evidence from small scale studies is promising. The Strengthening And Stretching for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand (SARAH) trial is a pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial evaluating the clinical and cost effectiveness of adding an optimised exercise programme for hands and upper limbs to best practice usual care for patients with RA. Methods/design 480 participants with problematic RA hands will be recruited through 17 NHS trusts. Treatments will be provided by physiotherapists and occupational therapists. Participants will be individually randomised to receive either best practice usual care (joint protection advice, general exercise advice, functional splinting and assistive devices) or best practice usual care supplemented with an individualised exercise programme of strengthening and stretching exercises. The study assessors will be blinded to treatment allocation and will follow participants up at four and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the Hand function subscale of the Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire, and secondary outcomes include hand and wrist impairment measures, quality of life, and resource use. Economic and qualitative studies will also be carried out in parallel. Discussion This paper describes the design and development of a trial protocol of a complex intervention study based in therapy out-patient departments. The findings will provide evidence to support or refute the use of an optimised exercise programme for RA of the hand in addition to best practice usual care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89936343 PMID:23176133

  1. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p < 0.01). Non-exercise moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, decreased on aerobic exercise days (-148 ± 161 kcal/d; p = 0.03). There was no change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  2. The Geriatric Hand: Correlation of Hand-Muscle Function and Activity Restriction in Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incel, Nurgul Arinci; Sezgin, Melek; As, Ismet; Cimen, Ozlem Bolgen; Sahin, Gunsah

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the importance of hand manipulation in activities of daily living (ADL), deterioration of hand function because of various factors reduces quality and independence of life of the geriatric population. The aim of this study was to identify age-induced changes in manual function and to quantify the correlations between hand-muscle…

  3. [Exercise, physical activity and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Canabal Torres, M Y

    1992-02-01

    Vigorous regular exercise is a recommended inclusion in the management of diabetes of persons with diabetes of both types, regardless of age. Benefits can be identified in the physiological (improved cardiovascular fitness, flexibility and muscle toning; in the metabolic and hormonal processes for energy production), as well as psychosocial realms (self-esteem, stress management, socialization opportunities). Considerations of the risks (hyper or hypoglicemia, ketoacidosis, neuropathies or complications os cardiac risks), and contraindications (unplanned weight training in cases with proliferative retinopathy, hypertensión, uncontrolled diabetes) must be part of the exercise prescription and implemmentation. Exercise programs must be fun, varied and comply with exercise physiology principles such as gradual progression in intensity or target heart rate, recommended frequency and duration, regular hydration, and warm-ups and cooling routines. Regular vigorous physical education, sports, regular exercise and active recreational activities can be part of a healthy lifestyle of persons with diabetes.

  4. Hands-On Activities and Their Influence on Students' Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstermann, Nina; Grube, Dietmar; Bogeholz, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of hands-on activities on students' interest. We researched whether students with experience in specific hands-on activities show higher interest in these activities than students without experience. Furthermore, the relationship between the quality of the hands-on experience and interest in the respective…

  5. Self management, joint protection and exercises in hand osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial with cost effectiveness analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of occupational therapy (OT) approaches in the management of hand osteoarthritis (OA). Joint protection and hand exercises have been proposed by European guidelines, however the clinical and cost effectiveness of each intervention is unknown. This multicentre two-by-two factorial randomised controlled trial aims to address the following questions: • Is joint protection delivered by an OT more effective in reducing hand pain and disability than no joint protection in people with hand OA in primary care? • Are hand exercises delivered by an OT more effective in reducing hand pain and disability than no hand exercises in people with hand OA in primary care? • Which of the four management approaches explored within the study (leaflet and advice, joint protection, hand exercise, or joint protection and hand exercise combined) provides the most cost-effective use of health care resources Methods/Design Participants aged 50 years and over registered at three general practices in North Staffordshire and Cheshire will be mailed a health survey questionnaire (estimated mailing sample n = 9,500). Those fulfilling the eligibility criteria on the health survey questionnaire will be invited to attend a clinical assessment to assess for the presence of hand or thumb base OA using the ACR criteria. Eligible participants will be randomised to one of four groups: leaflet and advice; joint protection (looking after your joints); hand exercises; or joint protection and hand exercises combined (estimated n = 252). The primary outcome measure will be the OARSI/OMERACT responder criteria combining hand pain and disability (measured using the AUSCAN) and global improvement, 6 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes will also be collected for example pain, functional limitation and quality of life. Outcomes will be collected at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months post-randomisation. The main analysis will

  6. Exercise Sandals Increase Lower Extremity Electromyographic Activity During Functional Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Christopher J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Anecdotal evidence suggests that use of Exercise Sandals results in a number of positive clinical outcomes. However, little research has been conducted to determine their efficacy objectively. Our purposes were to determine the effect of Exercise Sandals on lower leg electromyography (EMG) during activities in the Exercise Sandals and to compare EMG associated with Exercise Sandals with traditional lower extremity rehabilitation exercises. Design and Setting: Two within-subjects, repeated-measures designs were used to identify differences in lower extremity EMG: (1) between activities with and without Exercise Sandals and (2) between Exercise Sandals activities and traditional rehabilitation activities. All data were collected in the Sports Medicine Research Laboratory. Subjects: Eighteen subjects involved in rehabilitation using Exercise Sandals for at least 2 weeks within the year before data collection. Measurements: Mean EMG amplitudes from the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, soleus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles were measured during single-leg stance, side stepping, and “high knees,” all performed with and without the Exercise Sandals, as well as single-leg stance on a foam surface and T-band kicks in the sagittal and frontal planes. Results: Exercise Sandals increased lower leg EMG activity, particularly in the ankle invertors and evertors. Also, activities involving the Exercise Sandals resulted in EMG activity similar to or exceeding that associated with traditional ankle-rehabilitation exercises. Conclusions: These results, coupled with the fact that Exercise Sandals are used in a functional closed kinetic chain manner, suggest that they are an effective means of increasing lower extremity muscle activity. PMID:14608427

  7. Hands-on Activities and Their Influence on Students' Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstermann, Nina; Grube, Dietmar; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2010-11-01

    This study investigates the influence of hands-on activities on students’ interest. We researched whether students with experience in specific hands-on activities show higher interest in these activities than students without experience. Furthermore, the relationship between the quality of the hands-on experience and interest in the respective activity was examined. In total, 28 typical hands-on activities of biology education were considered. The activities were divided into the categories experimentation, dissection, work with microscopes, and classification. A total of 141 students from the 11th grade completed questionnaires on interest in the hands-on activities, their experience with each activity, and the quality of the respective experience. Students’ interest in experimenting, working with microscopes, dissecting and classifying tends to benefit from performing hands-on activities. However, findings indicated that the performance of various hands-on activities can influence students’ interest differently. For seven hands-on activities, we identified a positive effect of hands-on experience on interest, while in one case, practical work appeared to have influenced students’ interest negatively. However, for most hands-on activities, no effect of experience on interest was found. The quality of hands-on experiences showed positive correlations with interest in the respective hands-on activities. Therefore, this paper argues in favour of designing biology lessons that allow for experiences with hands-on activities that also interest students. Our findings underline the necessity of investigating the effects of various hands-on activities in a differentiated manner.

  8. MUSCLE ACTIVATION PATTERNS DURING SUSPENSION TRAINING EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sean; Ruffin, Elise; Brewer, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Background Suspension training (ST) has been utilized over exercises performed on a stable surface to train multiple muscle groups simultaneously to increase muscle activation and joint stability. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether ST augments muscle activation compared to similar exercises performed on a stable surface. Study Design Cross-sectional study Methods Twenty-five healthy adults (male: 16; women: 9; BMI: 23.50 ± 2.48 kg/m2) had 16 pre-amplified wireless surface EMG electrodes placed bilaterally on: the pectoralis major (PM), middle deltoid (MD), serratus anterior (SA), obliques (OB), rectus abdominis (RA), gluteus maximus (GM), erector spinae (ES), and middle trapezius/rhomboids (MT). Each participant performed reference isometric exercises (Sorensen test, push-up, sit-up, and inverted row) to establish a baseline muscle contraction. Muscle activation was assessed during the following exercises: ST bridge, ST push-up, ST inverted row, ST plank, floor bridge, floor push-up, floor row, and floor plank. The root mean square (RMS) of each side for every muscle was averaged for data analysis. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) for each exercise with post-hoc comparisons were performed to compare muscle activation between each ST exercise and its stable surface counterpart. Results MANOVAs for all exercise comparisons showed statistically significant greater muscle activation in at least one muscle group during the ST condition. Post-hoc analyses revealed a statistically significant increase in muscle activation for the following muscles during the plank: OB (p = 0.021); Push-up: PM (p = 0.002), RA (p<0.0001), OB (p = 0.019), MT (p<0.0001), and ES (p = 0.006); Row: MD (p = 0.016), RA (p = 0.059), and OB (p = 0.027); and Bridge: RA (p = 0.013) and ES (p<0.0001). Conclusions Performing ST exercises increases muscle activation of selected muscles when compared to exercises performed on a stable surface. Level of

  9. Is "Activity" as Good as Exercise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Researchers have long understood the relationship between exercise and cardiovascular fitness, but now they are looking into the potential of activity as the key to health. Activity is seen by the federal government as a way to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases. (Author/MT)

  10. Development of virtual reality exercise of hand motion assist robot for rehabilitation therapy by patient self-motion control.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Satoshi; Nishimoto, Yutaka; Abe, Motoyuki; Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Ito, Satoshi; Ishigure, Yasuhiko; Mizumoto, Jun; Ojika, Takeo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a virtual reality-enhanced hand rehabilitation support system with a symmetric master-slave motion assistant for independent rehabilitation therapies. Our aim is to provide fine motion exercise for a hand and fingers, which allows the impaired hand of a patient to be driven by his or her healthy hand on the opposite side. Since most disabilities caused by cerebral vascular accidents or bone fractures are hemiplegic, we adopted a symmetric master-slave motion assistant system in which the impaired hand is driven by the healthy hand on the opposite side. A VR environment displaying an effective exercise was created in consideration of system's characteristic. To verify the effectiveness of this system, a clinical test was executed by applying to six patients.

  11. How to Read Scientific Research Articles: A Hands-On Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogucka, Roxanne; Wood, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate students are generally unfamiliar with scientific literature. Further, students experience frustration when they read research articles the way they read textbooks, from beginning to end. Using a team-based active learning exercise, an instruction librarian and colleagues at University of Texas at Austin introduce nutritional…

  12. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  13. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  14. Estimation of Exercise Intensity in “Exercise and Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro

    To maintain or promote the health condition of elderly citizens is quite important for Japan. Given the circumstances, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has established the standards for the activities and exercises for promoting the health, and quantitatively determined the exercise intensity on 107 items of activities. This exercise intensity, however, requires recording the type and the duration of the activity to be calculated. In this paper, the exercise intensities are estimated using 3D accelerometer for 25 daily activities. As the result, the exercise intensities were estimated to be within the root mean square error of 0.83 METs for all 25 activities.

  15. Development and delivery of an exercise intervention for rheumatoid arthritis: strengthening and stretching for rheumatoid arthritis of the hand (SARAH) trial.

    PubMed

    Heine, P J; Williams, M A; Williamson, E; Bridle, C; Adams, J; O'Brien, A; Evans, D; Lamb, S E

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a hand exercise intervention for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as part of a large multi-centred randomised controlled trial in a U.K. National Health Service (NHS) setting. Participants are eligible if diagnosed with RA according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, have a history of disease activity, functional deficit or impairment in the hand and/or wrist, and have been on a stable medication regime for at least 3 months. The intervention development was informed by the current evidence base, published guidelines, clinician and expert opinion, and a pilot study. The exercise programme targets known, potentially modifiable physical impairments of the hand with 5 exercise sessions and a home exercise component over a 12 week period. The intervention will be provided to 240 participants along with usual care. A further 240 will receive usual care only as part of the control arm. Specific details of the treatments delivered are described. [ISRCTN no: 89936343].

  16. The geriatric hand: correlation of hand-muscle function and activity restriction in elderly.

    PubMed

    Incel, Nurgul Arinci; Sezgin, Melek; As, Ismet; Cimen, Ozlem Bolgen; Sahin, Gunsah

    2009-09-01

    On the basis of the importance of hand manipulation in activities of daily living (ADL), deterioration of hand function because of various factors reduces quality and independence of life of the geriatric population. The aim of this study was to identify age-induced changes in manual function and to quantify the correlations between hand-muscle function and activity restriction in the geriatric age group, through grip and pinch measurements and a set of questionnaires. Twenty-four geriatric (aged 65-79 years) volunteers participated in the study. Bilateral grip and pinch strengths have been recorded. To document impairment of manual functions, self-estimated hand function, Duruöz and Dreiser hand indices, Geriatrics-Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (GERI-AIMS) manual dexterity questionnaires have been completed. Activity restriction and quality of life of these patients were inquired with short form (SF)-36 and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scores. Grip and pinch strengths correlated best with Duruöz and Dreiser indices. Similarly, SF-36 and IADL had higher correlation coefficients for Duruöz and Dreiser indices. A very good correlation between IADL and SF-36 was calculated too. Male and female participants revealed statistically significant differences for grip and pinch strengths as well as self-estimated hand function and SF-36. Another result was that none of our parameters, including grip strength and SF-36 had differed significantly between the 65-70 and 70-79 years age subgroups. However, grip strength displayed statistically significant lower values when compared with young adult mean values of a previous study. Our data in this study support the hypothesis that hand-muscle function correlates with functional dependency in the elderly. Manual function can be determined by grip strength in addition to multiple available functional tools. In this study, Dreiser and Duruöz hand function indices were the best to correlate with ADL and

  17. The determinants of physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, R K; Sallis, J F; Orenstein, D R

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation and delivery of physical activity and exercise programs appear impeded by the substantial numbers of Americans who are unwilling or unable to participate regularly in physical activity. As a step toward identifying effective interventions, we reviewed available research on determinants relating to the adoption and maintenance of physical activity. We categorized determinants as personal, environmental, or characteristic of the exercise. We have considered supervised participation separately from spontaneous activity in the general population. A wide variety of determinants, populations, and settings have been studied within diverse research traditions and disciplines. This diversity and the varied interpretation of the data hinder our clearly summarizing the existing knowledge. Although we provide some directions for future study and program evaluation, there is a need for research that tests hypotheses derived from theoretical models and that has clear implications for intervention programs. We still need to explore whether general theories of health behavior or approaches relating to specific exercises or activities can be used to predict adoption and maintenance of physical activity. PMID:3920714

  18. An Active Learning Exercise for Product Design from an Operations Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Stephen; Baker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Product design is a topic that is regularly covered in introductory operations management courses. However, a pedagogical challenge exists related to the presentation of introductory-level product design in a way that promotes active learning. The hands-on exercise presented in this article provides instructors with an activity that gives students…

  19. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... How much physical activity should I do each week? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend ... 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week, along with muscle-strengthening activities on 2 days ...

  20. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living with Chronic Lung Disease Common Feelings Anxiety Depression Sleep Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  1. Hands On Physical Science Activities for Middle Schools. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Salvator S.

    This book was written on the premise that learning science should be fun and rewarding. The teacher may use it as the foundation for an extended middle school curriculum spanning more than one year or to supplement an existing curriculum with individual sections or exercises from the book. The activities have been organized and designed in a…

  2. Effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid and abdominal muscle activity during curl-up exercises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Moon, Dong-Chul; Hong, Ki-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), and external oblique (EO) muscle activity during a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up with neck flexion restriction. [Subjects] In total, 13 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] All subjects performed a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up exercise in which neck flexion was restricted by the subject's hand. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the SCM, RA, and EO during the curl-up. [Results] There was significantly lower EMG activity of the SCM during the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction compared to the traditional curl-up exercise. Conversely, the activity of the RA and EO muscles was significantly higher in the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction than in the traditional curl-up exercise. [Conclusion] Neck flexion restriction is recommended to prevent excessive activation of superficial cervical flexors during the curl-up exercise.

  3. Effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid and abdominal muscle activity during curl-up exercises

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Moon, Dong-Chul; Hong, Ki-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), and external oblique (EO) muscle activity during a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up with neck flexion restriction. [Subjects] In total, 13 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] All subjects performed a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up exercise in which neck flexion was restricted by the subject’s hand. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the SCM, RA, and EO during the curl-up. [Results] There was significantly lower EMG activity of the SCM during the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction compared to the traditional curl-up exercise. Conversely, the activity of the RA and EO muscles was significantly higher in the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction than in the traditional curl-up exercise. [Conclusion] Neck flexion restriction is recommended to prevent excessive activation of superficial cervical flexors during the curl-up exercise. PMID:26957735

  4. Innovative Hands-on Activities for Middle School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    This paper contains some hands-on activities that relate science to art and language arts. The focus is placed on middle schools and activities engage students in the discovery that chemicals are used to draw and color. Students also read and write poetry and literature that employ science-related topics. A number of spin-off activities are…

  5. Hands-On Environmental Education Activities for K-6 Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Donald G.; Eshbaugh, Stephen H.

    This environmental education workbook is aimed at helping kindergarten through 6th-grade teachers and contains hands-on activities directly targeted toward a particular age group, with equal distribution to each grade. Subject area descriptions and several multicultural activities are also included. Each activity lists the title, subject taught,…

  6. Effects of exercise pressor reflex activation on carotid baroreflex function during exercise in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, K. M.; Fadel, P. J.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Smith, S. A.; Querry, R. G.; Raven, P. B.; Secher, N. H.

    2001-01-01

    1. This investigation was designed to determine the contribution of the exercise pressor reflex to the resetting of the carotid baroreflex during exercise. 2. Ten subjects performed 3.5 min of static one-legged exercise (20 % maximal voluntary contraction) and 7 min dynamic cycling (20 % maximal oxygen uptake) under two conditions: control (no intervention) and with the application of medical anti-shock (MAS) trousers inflated to 100 mmHg (to activate the exercise pressor reflex). Carotid baroreflex function was determined at rest and during exercise using a rapid neck pressure/neck suction technique. 3. During exercise, the application of MAS trousers (MAS condition) increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma noradrenaline concentration (dynamic exercise only) and perceived exertion (dynamic exercise only) when compared to control (P < 0.05). No effect of the MAS condition was evident at rest. The MAS condition had no effect on heart rate (HR), plasma lactate and adrenaline concentrations or oxygen uptake at rest and during exercise. The carotid baroreflex stimulus-response curve was reset upward on the response arm and rightward to a higher operating pressure by control exercise without alterations in gain. Activation of the exercise pressor reflex by MAS trousers further reset carotid baroreflex control of MAP, as indicated by the upward and rightward relocation of the curve. However, carotid baroreflex control of HR was only shifted rightward to higher operating pressures by MAS trousers. The sensitivity of the carotid baroreflex was unaltered by exercise pressor reflex activation. 4. These findings suggest that during dynamic and static exercise the exercise pressor reflex is capable of actively resetting carotid baroreflex control of mean arterial pressure; however, it would appear only to modulate carotid baroreflex control of heart rate.

  7. Exercise and physical activity among healthy elderly Iranians.

    PubMed

    Abolfazl, Rahimi; Monireh, Anoosheh; Fazlollah, Ahmadi; Mahshid, Foroughan

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of elderly Iranians regarding exercise. Sixteen healthy elderly people participated in semi-structured interviews conducted in 2009 in Tehran, Iran. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the participants' experiences and perceptions regarding physical activity. Five main categories were studied: 1). kinds of exercise activities, 2). common activities, 3). engaging in reasonable activities, 4). barriers to physical activity, and 5). effects of exercising on life. Distinctive themes within each of the categories were identified. The findings of this study show the current perceptions regarding physical activity and exercise in elderly Iranians.

  8. Exercise Do's and Don'ts: Guidelines for Fitness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Sharon

    Many common exercises are contraindicated due to their potential for injury relative to benefit produced. Specific contraindicated exercises are discussed, and safer, more effective exercises are recommended. Current stretching and toning guidelines are also given which apply to all fitness activities. (Author)

  9. Exercising for Two. What's Safe for the Active Pregnant Woman?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Clinical experience and recent research challenge the current standards of exercise duration and intensity for pregnant women. By carefully assessing patients' self-monitoring techniques, physicians can work with active women to create safe exercise programs during pregnancy. Safety guidelines for developing home exercise programs are included.…

  10. Comparison of two-hand kettlebell exercise and graded treadmill walking: effectiveness as a stimulus for cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Thomas, James F; Larson, Kurtis L; Hollander, Daniel B; Kraemer, Robert R

    2014-04-01

    Prevailing interest in the use of kettlebell (KB) exercises for rehabilitation and improvement of muscular strength has led to several recent studies, some suggesting that KB exercise may be useful for improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether KB exercise would produce similar cardiovascular stress to that of walking and thus provide an additional exercise mode for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. It was hypothesized that a moderate-intensity, continuous KB protocol, would produce similar metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses as a brisk bout of graded treadmill (TM) walking, but greater rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten novice volunteers (5 men, 5 women) completed a preliminary session to determine body composition and VO2max and to familiarize participants with standardized KB exercise technique. Subsequently, they completed a 30-minute KB session that included 3 continuous 10-minute sets of 10 KB swings followed by 10 sumo deadlifts, with 3-minute rests between 10-minute exercise periods. The third session was a 30-minute TM regimen that began at the walking speed and 4% grade that matched the VO2 from the KB session and included 3-minute rest intervals after 10-minute TM exercise periods. VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, kcal·min, and blood pressure were similar for KB and moderate-intensity TM exercise, but RPE and heart rate were greater during KB exercise. Data indicate that a KB routine consisting of 2-hand swings and sumo deadlifts with 3-minute rest periods produces similar metabolic responses to those of a moderate-intensity TM walking protocol designed for the improvement of aerobic fitness.

  11. A hand speed-duty cycle equation for estimating the ACGIH hand activity level rating.

    PubMed

    Akkas, Oguz; Azari, David P; Chen, Chia-Hsiung Eric; Hu, Yu Hen; Ulin, Sheryl S; Armstrong, Thomas J; Rempel, David; Radwin, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    An equation was developed for estimating hand activity level (HAL) directly from tracked root mean square (RMS) hand speed (S) and duty cycle (D). Table lookup, equation or marker-less video tracking can estimate HAL from motion/exertion frequency (F) and D. Since automatically estimating F is sometimes complex, HAL may be more readily assessed using S. Hands from 33 videos originally used for the HAL rating were tracked to estimate S, scaled relative to hand breadth (HB), and single-frame analysis was used to measure D. Since HBs were unknown, a Monte Carlo method was employed for iteratively estimating the regression coefficients from US Army anthropometry survey data. The equation: HAL = 10[e(-15:87+0:02D+2:25 ln S)/(1+e(-15:87+0:02D+2:25 ln S)], R(2) = 0.97, had a residual range ± 0.5 HAL. The S equation superiorly fits the Latko et al. ( 1997 ) data and predicted independently observed HAL values (Harris 2011) better (MSE = 0.16) than the F equation (MSE = 1.28).

  12. A Hands-on Exercise in Building Darcy Tubes to Improve Student Understanding of Groundwater Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching undergraduate students about sustainability typically includes discussions of water resources and the flow of groundwater in aquifers. Understanding the flow of groundwater is a fundamental step for students, but one that can easily get mired in equations (e.g., Darcy's Law). In an effort to transform Darcy's Law, which describes flow of fluid through a porous medium, from an abstract concept to a hands-on experiment, I had undergraduate students build working "Darcy tubes" and calculate hydraulic conductivity during a three-hour lab period. At the beginning of the lab period, I presented the students with the materials: three pairs of plastic soda bottles with straight sides, glass tubing, pantyhose (for screens), rubber hosing, sieved sand in three grain sizes (1-2 mm, 0.5-1.0 mm, and 0.25-0.5 mm), and various types of tape and adhesive. After we discussed the basic design of a Darcy tube (inlet and outlet, with two piezometers), the students went to work. Real-time problem-solving was an integral (and exciting) part of the exercise. Within two hours, they had built three Darcy tubes, each filled with a different sand size. The students determined the cross-sectional area of each tube (A) and the distance between the two piezometers (L). We then ran the experiments, using tinted water so that we could more easily tell when the sand in the tubes was saturated. We measured discharge (Q) through the tube and marked the height of the water in each piezometer to calculate difference in hydraulic head (Δh). With the data we had collected, the students were able to calculate hydraulic conductivity (K) using a simple form of Darcy's Law: Q = -KA (Δh/L). Despite the simplicity of the Darcy tubes, the students' K values were reasonable for the sediment types that we used. Student comments on the Darcy tube exercise were overwhelmingly positive. The Darcy tubes could be used in a subsequent lab period for exploration of more advanced concepts, such as

  13. Systematic review of core muscle activity during physical fitness exercises.

    PubMed

    Martuscello, Jason M; Nuzzo, James L; Ashley, Candi D; Campbell, Bill I; Orriola, John J; Mayer, John M

    2013-06-01

    A consensus has not been reached among strength and conditioning specialists regarding what physical fitness exercises are most effective to stimulate activity of the core muscles. Thus, the purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 3 core muscles (lumbar multifidus, transverse abdominis, quadratus lumborum) during physical fitness exercises in healthy adults. CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PubMed, SPORTdiscus, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant articles using a search strategy designed by the investigators. Seventeen studies enrolling 252 participants met the review's inclusion/exclusion criteria. Physical fitness exercises were partitioned into 5 major types: traditional core, core stability, ball/device, free weight, and noncore free weight. Strength of evidence was assessed and summarized for comparisons among exercise types. The major findings of this review with moderate levels of evidence indicate that lumbar multifidus EMG activity is greater during free weight exercises compared with ball/device exercises and is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. Transverse abdominis EMG activity is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. No studies were uncovered for quadratus lumborum EMG activity during physical fitness exercises. The available evidence suggests that strength and conditioning specialists should focus on implementing multijoint free weight exercises, rather than core-specific exercises, to adequately train the core muscles in their athletes and clients.

  14. Exercise Counts: How Many Calories Will Your Activity Burn?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Eat Healthy and Get Active Get Active Exercise Activity Calculator How many calories will your activity ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News and Stories Glossary For Health Care Professionals ...

  15. Demographic and Regional Determinants of Participation in Specific Exercise Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-28

    Health and Physical Readiness Program. Questionnaires included self-report measures of the frequency and duration of 10 common exercise activities and... exercise behavior was assessed as the estimated frequency and duration of participation in each of ten types of physical activity . The recall method of...acceptable 6 method in the present study (3). The physical activities were aerobic dance/ exercise class, baseball, basketball, bicycling, calisthenics

  16. [The effects of exercise and sports activities on bone and joint morbidities.

    PubMed

    Yoshiya, Shinichi

    Exercise and sports activities can afford mechanical stimuli to the bone and joint tissues which are required to maintain the tissue properties. Moreover, physical exercise is an important part of the management of bone and joint morbidities such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and low back pain. On the other hand, excessive mechanical load involved in exercise and sports activities can be harmful potentially causing overuse injuries of the musculoskeletal tissues. Especially, safety margin for the amount of acceptable mechanical stress is narrow in the elderly due to preexisting musculoskeletal problems. Preparticipation medical checkup and construction of appropriate exercise program based on the physical assessment are mandatory to prevent overload applied to the bone and joint tissues.

  17. Corticomuscular coherence analysis on hand movement distinction for active rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xinxin; Xiao, Siyuan; Qi, Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yiwen; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    Active rehabilitation involves patient's voluntary thoughts as the control signals of restore device to assist stroke rehabilitation. Although restoration of hand opening stands importantly in patient's daily life, it is difficult to distinguish the voluntary finger extension from thumb adduction and finger flexion using stroke patients' electroencephalography (EMG) on single muscle activity. We propose to implement corticomuscular coherence analysis on electroencephalography (EEG) and EMG signals on Extensor Digitorum to extract their intention involved in hand opening. EEG and EMG signals of 8 subjects are simultaneously collected when executing 4 hand movement tasks (finger extension, thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest). We explore the spatial and temporal distribution of the coherence and observe statistically significant corticomuscular coherence appearing at left motor cortical area and different patterns within beta frequency range for 4 movement tasks. Linear discriminate analysis is applied on the coherence pattern to distinguish finger extension from thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest. The classification results are greater than those by EEG only. The results indicate the possibility to detect voluntary hand opening based on coherence analysis between single muscle EMG signal and single EEG channel located in motor cortical area, which potentially helps active hand rehabilitation for stroke patients.

  18. International exercise on 124Sb activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Chauvenet, B; Bé, M-M; Amiot, M-N; Bobin, C; Lépy, M-C; Branger, T; Lanièce, I; Luca, A; Sahagia, M; Wätjen, A C; Kossert, K; Ott, O; Nähle, O; Dryák, P; Sochorovà, J; Kovar, P; Auerbach, P; Altzitzoglou, T; Pommé, S; Sibbens, G; Van Ammel, R; Paepen, J; Iwahara, A; Delgado, J U; Poledna, R; da Silva, C J; Johansson, L; Stroak, A; Bailat, C; Nedjadi, Y; Spring, P

    2010-01-01

    An international exercise, registered as EUROMET project no. 907, was launched to measure both the activity of a solution of (124)Sb and the photon emission intensities of its decay. The same solution was sent by LNE-LNHB to eight participating laboratories. In order to identify possible biases, the participants were asked to use all possible activity measurement methods available in their laboratory and then to determine their reference value for comparison. Thus, measurement results from 4pibeta-gamma coincidence/anti-coincidence counting, CIEMAT/NIST liquid-scintillation counting, 4pigamma counting with well-type ionization chambers and well-type crystal detectors were given. The results are compared and show a maximum discrepancy of about 1.6%: possible explanations are proposed.

  19. Multisensory Integration in the Virtual Hand Illusion with Active Movement

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Satoru; Hachimura, Kozaburo

    2016-01-01

    Improving the sense of immersion is one of the core issues in virtual reality. Perceptual illusions of ownership can be perceived over a virtual body in a multisensory virtual reality environment. Rubber Hand and Virtual Hand Illusions showed that body ownership can be manipulated by applying suitable visual and tactile stimulation. In this study, we investigate the effects of multisensory integration in the Virtual Hand Illusion with active movement. A virtual xylophone playing system which can interactively provide synchronous visual, tactile, and auditory stimulation was constructed. We conducted two experiments regarding different movement conditions and different sensory stimulations. Our results demonstrate that multisensory integration with free active movement can improve the sense of immersion in virtual reality. PMID:27847822

  20. Primary motor cortex activity is elevated with incremental exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Brümmer, V; Schneider, S; Strüder, H K; Askew, C D

    2011-05-05

    While the effects of exercise on brain cortical activity from pre-to post-exercise have been thoroughly evaluated, few studies have investigated the change in activity during exercise. As such, it is not clear to what extent changes in exercise intensity influence brain cortical activity. Furthermore, due to the difficulty in using brain-imaging methods during complex whole-body movements like cycling, it is unclear to what extent the activity in specific brain areas is altered with incremental exercise intensity over time. Latterly, active electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes combined with source localization methods allow for the assessment of brain activity, measured as EEG current density, within specific cortical regions. The present study aimed to investigate the application of this method during exercise on a cycle ergometer, and to investigate the effect of increasing exercise intensity on the magnitude and location of any changes in electrocortical current density. Subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test until subjective exhaustion. Current density of the EEG recordings during each test stage, as well as before and after exercise, was determined. Spatial changes in current density were localized using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to three regions of interest; the primary motor cortex, primary sensory cortex and prefrontal cortex, and were expressed relative to current density within the local lobe. It was demonstrated that the relative current density of the primary motor cortex was intensified with increasing exercise intensity, whereas activity of the primary sensory cortex and that of the prefrontal cortex were not altered with exercise. The results indicate that the combined active EEG/LORETA method allows for the recording of brain cortical activity during complex movements and incremental exercise. These findings indicate that primary motor cortex activity is elevated with incremental exercise intensity

  1. Cerebral Activations Related to Writing and Drawing with Each Hand

    PubMed Central

    Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; van der Hoorn, Anouk; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Writing is a sequential motor action based on sensorimotor integration in visuospatial and linguistic functional domains. To test the hypothesis of lateralized circuitry concerning spatial and language components involved in such action, we employed an fMRI paradigm including writing and drawing with each hand. In this way, writing-related contributions of dorsal and ventral premotor regions in each hemisphere were assessed, together with effects in wider distributed circuitry. Given a right-hemisphere dominance for spatial action, right dorsal premotor cortex dominance was expected in left-hand writing while dominance of the left ventral premotor cortex was expected during right-hand writing. Methods Sixteen healthy right-handed subjects were scanned during audition-guided writing of short sentences and simple figure drawing without visual feedback. Tapping with a pencil served as a basic control task for the two higher-order motor conditions. Activation differences were assessed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). Results Writing and drawing showed parietal-premotor and posterior inferior temporal activations in both hemispheres when compared to tapping. Drawing activations were rather symmetrical for each hand. Activations in left- and right-hand writing were left-hemisphere dominant, while right dorsal premotor activation only occurred in left-hand writing, supporting a spatial motor contribution of particularly the right hemisphere. Writing contrasted to drawing revealed left-sided activations in the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex, Broca’s area, pre-Supplementary Motor Area and posterior middle and inferior temporal gyri, without parietal activation. Discussion The audition-driven postero-inferior temporal activations indicated retrieval of virtual visual form characteristics in writing and drawing, with additional activation concerning word form in the left hemisphere. Similar parietal processing in writing and drawing pointed at a

  2. Active-Learning Exercises for Consumer Behavior Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents 13 active-learning activities designed for use in consumer behavior courses. The exercises involve students in brief activities, such as analysis of persuasion techniques in advertising, and follow-up discussion. Reports that students found the exercises enjoyable and worthwhile. (CFR)

  3. Core Muscle Activity, Exercise Preference, and Perceived Exertion during Core Exercise with Elastic Resistance versus Machine.

    PubMed

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus D; Calatayud, Joaquin; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26-67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG) measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG) to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36-64] versus 32% [95% CI 18-46] nEMG) was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64-90] versus 54% [95% CI 40-67] nEMG). For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10) was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88-6.72]) and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81-6.59]). Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance.

  4. Core Muscle Activity, Exercise Preference, and Perceived Exertion during Core Exercise with Elastic Resistance versus Machine

    PubMed Central

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Calatayud, Joaquin; Andersen, Lars L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26–67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG) measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG) to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36–64] versus 32% [95% CI 18–46] nEMG) was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64–90] versus 54% [95% CI 40–67] nEMG). For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10) was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88–6.72]) and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81–6.59]). Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance. PMID:26557405

  5. Effect of Exercise on Bubble Activity during Diving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11088 TITLE: Effect of Exercise on Bubble Activity during Diving...following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO11059 thru ADP011100 UNCLASSIFIED 34-1 Effect of Exercise on Bubble Activity ...York, Ontario M3M 3B9 CANADA Exercise Science Department, Concordia University and Department of Physical Education, McGill University Montreal

  6. Sympathetic Activation is Associated with Exercise Limitation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Helge; Folle, Jan; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Herrmann, Peter; Heusser, Karsten; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Andreas, Stefan; Raupach, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Exercise intolerance, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and reduced daily activity are central in COPD patients and closely related to quality of life and prognosis. Studies assessing muscle exercise have revealed an increase in sympathetic outflow as a link to muscle hypoperfusion and exercise limitation. Our primary hypothesis was that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) correlates with exercise limitation in COPD. MSNA was evaluated at rest and during dynamic or static handgrip exercise. Additionally, we assessed heart rate, blood pressure, CO2 tension, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and breathing frequency. Ergospirometry was performed to evaluate exercise capacity. We assessed MSNA of 14 COPD patients and 8 controls. In patients, MSNA was negatively correlated with peak oxygen uptake (VO2% pred) (r = -0.597; p = 0.040). During dynamic or static handgrip exercise, patients exhibited a significant increase in MSNA, which was not observed in the control group. The increase in MSNA during dynamic handgrip was highly negatively correlated with peak exercise capacity in Watts (w) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2/kg) (r = -0.853; p = 0.002 and r = -0.881; p = 0.002, respectively). Our study reveals an association between increased MSNA and limited exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Furthermore, we found an increased sympathetic response to moderate physical exercise (handgrip), which may contribute to exercise intolerance in COPD.

  7. Hands-On Astrophysics, 680 Hands at a Time: Lab Activities in Big Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, H.

    1996-12-01

    In brief: it is possible to have students do experiments in very large lecture classes. Evaluations show it works. Hands-on science, while traditional in many other disciplines, has not played a large role in astronomy teaching, though many of the concepts we deal with such as heat and pressure can be explored with simple experiments. 340 students in a large lecture class did an experiment with drink bottles, ice, warm water, and baggies to explore the dependence of pressure on temperature. They worked together in approximately 100 groups, working through a teaching sequence which included both a classic demonstration done by the instructor and a hands-on activity where they did the experiment themselves. This activity was carried out in a rather challenging setting: a large lecture room with fixed seats and no plumbing. Handling and disposing of the materials was only modestly more challenging than teaching a regular class. Student evaluations and student performance on exam questions demonstrated that the activity was successful. This research was part of DISCUS (Delaware Innovative Science/Math Collaborative for Undergraduate Success), an initiative supported by the Delaware Department of Public Instruction and the National Science Foundation (DUE-9553787).

  8. Teaching about Culture, Ethnicity, & Diversity. Exercises and Planned Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singelis, Theodore M., Ed.

    This book is a resource for teachers that contains 28 exercises and planned activities designed by individual authors that can be used to teach about culture, ethnicity, and diversity. The exercises and activities are appropriate for graduate, college, and even advanced high school students in such classes as cross-cultural psychology,…

  9. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  10. Brain cortical activation during guitar-induced hand dystonia studied by functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Pujol, J; Roset-Llobet, J; Rosinés-Cubells, D; Deus, J; Narberhaus, B; Valls-Solé, J; Capdevila, A; Pascual-Leone, A

    2000-09-01

    Focal hand dystonia in musicians is a strongly task-related movement disorder. Typically, symptoms become apparent only when players execute specific overpracticed skilled exercises on their instrument. We therefore examined five guitarists with functional MRI during dystonic symptom provocation by means of an adapted guitar inside the magnet. The activation patterns obtained in comparable nondystonic guitarists and in the study patients when performing normal-hand exercise served as references. A 1.5-T system equipped with echo-speed gradients and single-shot echoplanar imaging software was used. Data acquisition was centered on the cortical motor system encompassed in eight contiguous slices. Dystonic musicians compared with both control situations showed a significantly larger activation of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex that contrasted with a conspicuous bilateral underactivation of premotor areas. Our results coincide with studies of other dystonia types in that they show an abnormal recruitment of cortical areas involved in the control of voluntary movement. However, they do suggest that the primary sensorimotor cortex, rather than being underactive in idiopathic dystonic patients, may be overactive when tested during full expression of the task-induced movement disorder.

  11. Enhancement of parkinsonian rigidity with contralateral hand activation

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Douglas; Hanson, Nicholas; Threlkeld, A. Joseph; Fang, Xiang; Xia, Ruiping

    2011-01-01

    Objective Quantify the enhancement of parkinsonian rigidity associated with a contralateral activation maneuver. Methods Twelve subjects with PD and eight controls participated in the study protocol. Subjects’ tested hand was displaced by a servo-motor throughout wrist flexion and extension motions of 60° without and with a concurrent gripping activation in the contralateral hand, referred to as passive and active conditions, respectively. Subjects with PD were tested in both OFF-Med and ON-Med states. Rigidity was quantified by integrating torque with position during both flexion and extension (torque resistance). ANOVA was performed to assess the effect of contralateral activation on rigidity. Results PD patients had significantly (0.038) enhanced torque resistance in OFF-Med compared to healthy controls and ON-MED. In the Active condition, differences in torque resistance were magnified (p=0.002). Medication substantially reduced differences in torque resistance between controls and PD patients in the passive and active conditions. Conclusions A contralateral activation maneuver substantially increases rigidity in patients with PD, specifically the OFF-MED state. Rigidity is reduced with the application of dopaminergic medication, even with the presence of a contralateral activation maneuver. Significance These data support the use of a contralateral activation maneuver as a tool in the diagnosis of PD. PMID:21330199

  12. Gaining a Better Understanding of Estuarine Circulation and Improving Data Visualization Skills Through a Hands-on Contouring Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Kenna, T. C.

    2008-12-01

    The creation and accurate interpretation of graphs is becoming a lost art among students. The availability of numerous graphing software programs makes the act of graphing data easy but does not necessarily aide students in interpreting complex visual data. This is especially true for contour maps; which have become a critical skill in the earth sciences and everyday life. In multiple classes, we have incorporated a large-scale, hands-on, contouring exercise of temperature, salinity, and density data collected in the Hudson River Estuary. The exercise allows students to learn first-hand how to plot, analyze, and present three dimensional data. As part of a day-long sampling expedition aboard an 80' research vessel, students deploy a water profiling instrument (Seabird CTD). Data are collected along a transect between the Verrazano and George Washington Bridges. The data are then processed and binned at 0.5 meter intervals. The processed data is then used during a later laboratory period for the contouring exercise. In class, students work in groups of 2 to 4 people and are provided with the data, a set of contouring instructions, a piece of large (3' x 3') graph paper, a ruler, and a set of colored markers. We then let the groups work together to determine the details of the graphs. Important steps along the way are talking to the students about X and Y scales, interpolation, and choices of contour intervals and colors. Frustration and bottlenecks are common at the beginning when students are unsure how to even begin with the raw data. At some point during the exercise, students start to understand the contour concept and each group usually produces a finished contour map in an hour or so. Interestingly, the groups take pride in the coloring portion of the contouring as it indicates successful interpretation of the data. The exercise concludes with each group presenting and discussing their contour plot. In almost every case, the hands-on graphing has improved the

  13. Promoting Physical Activity through Hand-Held Computer Technology

    PubMed Central

    King, Abby C.; Ahn, David K.; Oliveira, Brian M.; Atienza, Audie A.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Efforts to achieve population-wide increases in walking and similar moderate-intensity physical activities potentially can be enhanced through relevant applications of state-of-the-art interactive communication technologies. Yet few systematic efforts to evaluate the efficacy of hand-held computers and similar devices for enhancing physical activity levels have occurred. The purpose of this first-generation study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hand-held computer (i.e., personal digital assistant [PDA]) for increasing moderate intensity or more vigorous (MOD+) physical activity levels over 8 weeks in mid-life and older adults relative to a standard information control arm. Design Randomized, controlled 8-week experiment. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2006-2007. Setting/Participants Community-based study of 37 healthy, initially underactive adults aged 50 years and older who were randomized and completed the 8-week study (intervention=19, control=18). Intervention Participants received an instructional session and a PDA programmed to monitor their physical activity levels twice per day and provide daily and weekly individualized feedback, goal setting, and support. Controls received standard, age-appropriate written physical activity educational materials. Main Outcome Measure Physical activity was assessed via the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire at baseline and 8 weeks. Results Relative to controls, intervention participants reported significantly greater 8-week mean estimated caloric expenditure levels and minutes per week in MOD+ activity (p<0.04). Satisfaction with the PDA was reasonably high in this largely PDA-naive sample. Conclusions Results from this first-generation study indicate that hand-held computers may be effective tools for increasing initial physical activity levels among underactive adults. PMID:18201644

  14. Biomarkers of physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Gonzalo; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Palacios, Nieves; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Aznar, Susana; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Traditionally, biomarkers have been of interest in sports in order to measure performance, progress in training and for identifying overtraining. During the last years, growing interest is set on biomarkers aiming at evaluating health-related aspects which can be modulated by regular physical activity and sport. The value or concentration of a biomarker depends on many factors, as the training status of the subject, the degree of fatigue and the type, intensity and duration of exercise, apart from age and sex. Most of the biomarkers are measured in blood, urine and saliva. One of the main limitations for biochemical biomarkers is that reference values for blood concentration of biomarkers specifically adapted to physically active people and athletes are lacking. Concentrations can differ widely from normal reference ranges. Therefore, it is important to adapt reference values as much as possible and to control each subject regularly, in order to establish his/her own reference scale. Other useful biomarkers are body composition (specifically muscle mass, fat mass, weight), physical fitness (cardiovascular capacity, strength, agility, flexibility), heart rate and blood pressure. Depending on the aim, one or several biomarkers should be measured. It may differ if it is for research purpose, for the follow up of training or to prevent risks. For this review, we will get deeper into the biomarkers used to identify the degree of physical fitness, chronic stress, overtraining, cardiovascular risk, oxidative stress and inflammation.

  15. Exercise in Treating Hypertension: Tailoring Therapies for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chintanadilok, Jirayos

    2002-01-01

    Exercise can be definitive therapy for some, and adjunctive therapy for many, people with hypertension, though people with secondary hypertension may not derive as much benefit. Low-to- moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can help with mild hypertension and reduce drug dosages in more severe cases. For active patients requiring medication,…

  16. Physical exercise and cardiac autonomic activity in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kaninika; Krishna, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Regular exercise is known to improve health and maintain physical fitness. The heart rate response to exercise reflects autonomic control of heart and has shown to predict cardiovascular prognosis. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to study the effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic activity. Thirty two healthy adult men in the age group of 18-25 years with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited from different physical fitness centers, who were undergoing regular exercise for past 3 months. Resting ECG was recorded for 5 minutes and analyzed for frequency analysis of HRV. HRV parameters of the subjects were compared with fifty age and BMI matched subjects who were not undergoing any exercise program. Physical activity level of all subjects was assessed by using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. The exercising (E) subjects were found to have a lesser heart rate (73.27 ± 8.6 vs 74.41 ± 8.59) compared to non-exercising (NE) group, which was not significant. No significant difference was found in frequency domain parameters of HRV between exercising and non-exercising group with LF (47.12 ± 19.17 vs 43.55 ± 16.66), HF (41.03 ± 17.65 vs 46.03 ± 15.89) and LF/HF (1.61 ± 1.16 vs 1.22 ± 0.93) respectively. Physical activity level was significantly different between the two groups (4175 ± 1481.53 vs 1176.4?1103.83, p<0.001). This study showed 3 months of exercise did not have any effect on cardiac autonomic activity despite the difference in physical activity.

  17. Exercise effects on activities of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase and adenine nucleotides hydrolysis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ben, Juliana; Soares, Flávia Mahatma Schneider; Cechetti, Fernanda; Vuaden, Fernanda Cenci; Bonan, Carla Denise; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Wyse, Angela Terezinha de Souza

    2009-12-11

    Hormone deficiency following ovariectomy causes activation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that has been related to cognitive deficits in experimental animals. Considering that physical exercise presents neuroprotector effects, we decide to investigate whether exercise training would affect enzyme activation in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as well as adenosine nucleotide hydrolysis in synaptosomes from cerebral cortex of ovariectomized rats. Female adult Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: sham (submitted to surgery without removal of the ovaries), exercise, ovariectomized (Ovx) and Ovx plus exercise. Thirty days after surgery, animals were submitted to one month of exercise training, three times per week. After, rats were euthanized, blood serum was collected and hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected. Data demonstrated that exercise reversed the activation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities both in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy decreased AMP hydrolysis in cerebral cortex and did not alter adenine nucleotides hydrolysis in blood serum. Exercise per se decreased ADP and AMP hydrolysis in cerebral cortex. On the other hand, AMP hydrolysis in blood serum was increased by exercise in ovariectomized adult rats. Present data support that physical exercise might have beneficial effects and constitute a therapeutic alternative to hormone replacement therapy for estrogen deprivation.

  18. Creative Exercises for Cultivation of Creative Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoba, Toshio; An, Hiroshi; Ozasa, Toshihiro; Masutani, Yasuhiro; Mori, Koji; Yasutomi, Masanori; Yoshida, Haruyuki

    “Creative Exercise” is one of the most important articles in the course of technology educations at the universities and the colleges. In this paper, some trials for the creative exercises developed in Osaka Electro-Communication University are introduced ; those are (1) exercises in “Creative Design Engineering”, (2) studies and educations on robots, (3) executive plan of rescue-robot contest, and (4) supporting system for application for the qualifying examinations. Their results and effectiveness are also discussed.

  19. Witnessing Evolution First Hand: A K-12 Laboratory Exercise in Genetics & Evolution Using "Drosophila"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Caiti S. S.; Manzano-Winkler, Brenda; Hunter, Mika J.; Noor, Juliet K. F.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a laboratory exercise that leverages student interest in genetics to observe and understand evolution by natural selection. Students begin with white-eyed fruit fly populations, to which they introduce a single advantageous variant (one male with red eyes). The superior health and vision associated with having the red-eye-color allele…

  20. Affordable Hands-On DNA Sequencing and Genotyping: An Exercise for Teaching DNA Analysis to Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kushani; Thomas, Shelby; Stein, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe a 5-week laboratory exercise for undergraduate biology and biochemistry students in which students learn to sequence DNA and to genotype their DNA for selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Students use miniaturized DNA sequencing gels that require approximately 8 min to run. The students perform G, A, T, C…

  1. Hand Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Exercises (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Assisted Arm Range of Motion Exercises (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Active Hand Exercises 积极的手部练习 - 简体中文 ( ...

  2. The Exercise and Environmental Physiology of Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, S. A.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, D. G.; Simonson, S. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Over the history of human expansion into space, extravehicular activity (EVA) has become indispensable for both daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. The physiological factors involved in the performance of extensive EVA, necessary for construction and maintenance of the International Space Station and during future human interplanetary missions, require further examination. An understanding of the physiological aspects of exercise and thermoregulation in the EVA environment will help to insure the health, safety, and efficiency of working astronauts. To that end, this review will focus on the interaction of the exercise and environmental aspects of EVA, as well as exercise during spaceflight and ground-based simulations such as bed-rest deconditioning. It will examine inflight exercise thermoregulation, and exercise, muscular strength, supine vs. seated exercise, exercise thermoregulation, and exercise in a hypobaric environment. Due to the paucity of data from controlled human research in this area, it is clear that more scientific studies are needed to insure safe and efficient extravehicular activity.

  3. Hands-on astronomy activities for the elementary school

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, T.E.; Horne, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    We held a series of astronomy workshops for local school teachers using astronomy activities from a course we give for Elementary Education majors. The school teachers provide us with feedback about successes and failures. Then we try the revised activities in the classroom. Via this in-service and pre-service feedback, the astronomy laboratory activities in the course have been completely revised over the last three years. The activities we use are almost entirely hands-on. The activities include use of log book (or journal) for describing outside-of-class observations of sunsets, phases of the moon, portable sundial, and the somewhat unique method we use to teach the constellations. In addition, all laboratory activity records are kept in the log book. Laboratory activities cover the use of fists to measure degrees, constellations, phases of the moon, relative distances and size of planets, Invent an Alien, lenses, images and telescopes, and the making of a comet. In our poster, based roughly on the theme of the seasons, we will describe a portable, multi-user sundial, length of the day display using newspaper data, two temperature/season activities, and a model demonstration of why the sundial shadows behave as they do.

  4. DefEX: Hands-On Cyber Defense Exercise for Undergraduate Students

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    1]. The traditional forensics methodology consists of acquiring evidence without altering the original media, analyzing the data to produce the...response investigation and a traditional forensic analysis of the physical hard drive. The exercise setup consisted of a Windows XP SP1 virtual machine...alley where students found the “treasure”, a package of silver and gold chocolate candies and a surprise pizza and bowling party. The key

  5. Fluorescence Assay for Evaluating Microbicidal Activity of Hand Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gigosos, Rosa M.; Mariscal-Lopez, Eloisa; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    We developed a fluorescent β-d-glucuronidase activity (BGA)-based assay for detecting and quantifying Escherichia coli in samples to assess the biocide efficacy of hand antiseptics. The fluorescence level is proportional to the number of viable E. coli organisms present. We compared our assay results to those of the E. coli plate count method specified by the European standard for testing hygienic hand rub disinfectant products (EN1500). The plate count method requires excessive handling and materials and is not valid if the number of organisms per plate is too low or high for counting in many of the samples. We optimized the fluorescent assay based on the cleavage of 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide by adding 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucuronide, a nonfluorogenic BGA substrate, to induce glucuronidase activity and reduce assay time. Furthermore, our method can be automated and eliminates the need for multiple dilutions. Fluorescence was temporally monitored, and the time required to reach a specific value of fluorescence was correlated with the initial number of viable E. coli organisms on the samples. There was a positive correlation (P < 0.05) with a high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.82) between the E. coli counts by plate count and fluorescence methods. Reported effects in fluorescent BGA were compared to the EN1500 plate count method with five hand disinfectants. We found our method more advantageous, because it was as sensitive as the EN1500 method, requires less time to complete, and is less expensive and less laborious than conventional plating techniques. PMID:26276114

  6. The birthday card exercise: Replicating research as active learning.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Dana

    2016-10-14

    One means to uncover common attitudes toward aging and older adults is to perform content analyses of popular print media forms such as newspapers, magazines, and even greeting cards. This active learning activity involves small groups of undergraduate students replicating, in a limited way, elements of a published research study on the messages conveyed by age-related birthday cards. In the exercise, each group of students is asked to analyze a set of 15 different birthday cards and to share qualitative and quantitative findings with classmates before submitting a written "discussion section" on their results to the instructor. The author demonstrates how this exercise, because it is aligned with key course learning outcomes as well as with coursework preceding and following the activity, is integrated into the overall learning environment of the course. Comments on student findings, the potential benefits of and modifications to the exercise, and the transferability of the exercise to other course contexts are also provided.

  7. A Hands-On Exercise Improves Understanding of the Standard Error of the Mean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most difficult concepts for statistics students is the standard error of the mean. To improve understanding of this concept, 1 group of students used a hands-on procedure to sample from small populations representing either a true or false null hypothesis. The distribution of 120 sample means (n = 3) from each population had standard…

  8. Global cortical activity predicts shape of hand during grasping

    PubMed Central

    Agashe, Harshavardhan A.; Paek, Andrew Y.; Zhang, Yuhang; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that the amplitude of cortical field potentials is modulated in the time domain by grasping kinematics. However, it is unknown if these low frequency modulations persist and contain enough information to decode grasp kinematics in macro-scale activity measured at the scalp via electroencephalography (EEG). Further, it is unclear as to whether joint angle velocities or movement synergies are the optimal kinematics spaces to decode. In this offline decoding study, we infer from human EEG, hand joint angular velocities as well as synergistic trajectories as subjects perform natural reach-to-grasp movements. Decoding accuracy, measured as the correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and actual movement kinematics, was r = 0.49 ± 0.02 across 15 hand joints. Across the first three kinematic synergies, decoding accuracies were r = 0.59 ± 0.04, 0.47 ± 0.06, and 0.32 ± 0.05. The spatial-temporal pattern of EEG channel recruitment showed early involvement of contralateral frontal-central scalp areas followed by later activation of central electrodes over primary sensorimotor cortical areas. Information content in EEG about the grasp type peaked at 250 ms after movement onset. The high decoding accuracies in this study are significant not only as evidence for time-domain modulation in macro-scale brain activity, but for the field of brain-machine interfaces as well. Our decoding strategy, which harnesses the neural “symphony” as opposed to local members of the neural ensemble (as in intracranial approaches), may provide a means of extracting information about motor intent for grasping without the need for penetrating electrodes and suggests that it may be soon possible to develop non-invasive neural interfaces for the control of prosthetic limbs. PMID:25914616

  9. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation.

  10. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... overdoing it for almost anyone. Much like with eating disorders, many people who engage in compulsive exercise do ... compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany an eating disorder, the two often go hand in hand. In ...

  11. Effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle activity during dynamic hug exercise.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle during dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Ten men aged 22-32 years were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed dynamic hug exercise at different shoulder flexion angles and under resistance weight conditions. Serratus anterior muscle activities were measured by using the surface electromyographic system during the dynamic hug exercises. After performing the exercise, each subject described the exercise intensity by using the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. [Results] The normalized serratus anterior muscle activity increased significantly in the order of Conditions 1 and 4 < Condition 3 < Condition 2. The Borg RPE scale increased significantly in the order of Condition 1 < Condition 2 < Condition 3 < Condition 4. [Conclusion] The results suggest that dynamic hug exercise with the use of a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device is an effective scapular stability exercise.

  12. Effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle activity during dynamic hug exercise

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle during dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Ten men aged 22–32 years were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed dynamic hug exercise at different shoulder flexion angles and under resistance weight conditions. Serratus anterior muscle activities were measured by using the surface electromyographic system during the dynamic hug exercises. After performing the exercise, each subject described the exercise intensity by using the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. [Results] The normalized serratus anterior muscle activity increased significantly in the order of Conditions 1 and 4 < Condition 3 < Condition 2. The Borg RPE scale increased significantly in the order of Condition 1 < Condition 2 < Condition 3 < Condition 4. [Conclusion] The results suggest that dynamic hug exercise with the use of a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device is an effective scapular stability exercise. PMID:26957774

  13. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-01-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness. PMID:26171383

  14. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness.

  15. A comparison of assessment methods of hand activity and force for use in calculating the ACGIH(R) hand activity level (HAL) TLV(R).

    PubMed

    Wurzelbacher, Steve; Burt, Susan; Crombie, Ken; Ramsey, Jessica; Luo, Lian; Allee, Steve; Jin, Yan

    2010-07-01

    This article compares several methods that were used for determining hand activity level and force in a large prospective ergonomics study. The first goal of this analysis was to determine the degree of correlation between hand activity/ force ratings using different assessment methods. The second goal was to determine if the hand activity/force methods were functionally equivalent for the purpose of calculating the ACGIH(R) hand activity level (HAL) threshold limit value (TLV(R)). A final goal was to investigate reasons for potential differences between methods. More than 700 task analyses were conducted on 484 workers at three study locations. Hand activity was assessed by two methods, including a trained observer on site using a 10-point visual analog scale for hand activity level and by offsite video analysis of the same task to calculate the frequency of exertions and the work/recovery ratio. Hand force was assessed by two on-site methods: ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) using a modified Borg CR-10 scale by a trained observer and RPE by the worker performing the task. The two methods for assessing hand activity level were correlated (Spearman rank = 0.49) and produced main TLV result categories (below Action Limit, Action Limit, TLV) with percent of exact agreement ranging from 71 to 91% and weighted Kappa ranging from 0.61 to 0.75. The two RPE methods for assessing hand force were correlated (Spearman rank ranging from 0.47 to 0.69) and produced TLVs with percent of exact agreement ranging from 64 to 83% and weighted Kappa ranging from 0.52 to 0.62. Differences between methods may be explained by a number of task and subject variables that were significantly associated with higher levels of hand activity and force. In summary, this study found substantial agreement between two methods for assessing hand activity level and moderate agreement between two methods for assessing hand force.

  16. Lumbar paraspinal electromyographic activity during trunk extension exercises on two types of exercise machines.

    PubMed

    Walsworth, M

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare lumbar paraspinal muscle activity during trunk extension exercises on two lumbar extension machines with different types of pelvic stabilization mechanisms. Thirteen healthy male (n = 9) and female (n = 4) volunteers aged 21-24 (22.6 +/- 1.4) were recruited in a university setting. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded bilaterally from the L3-4 paraspinal region during trunk extension exercises performed on two different exercise machines. One machine, the MedX, has a complex pelvic stabilization mechanism. The other machine, the Cybex, has a relatively simple pelvic stabilization mechanism. There was no significant difference between lumbar paraspinal electromyographic activity during trunk extension on the MedX compared to the Cybex dynamic variable resistance trunk extension machine. These results suggest that a complex pelvic stabilization mechanism does not significantly enhance the level of activation of the lumbar paraspinal muscles during lumbar extension exercises. Thus, a less expensive trunk extension machine with a less sophisticated pelvic stabilization mechanism, such as the Cybex, can be used to train the lumbar paraspinal muscles. This is important to rehabilitation clinicians because these machines are often more readily available and easier for patients to use. Further research is warranted to determine the applicability of these findings to a patient population.

  17. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion).

  18. Relationship between hand-skill exercises and other admissions criteria and students' performance in dental school.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Cheramie, Toby

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of correlations between dental admissions criteria, including a chalk carving exercise, and students' subsequent academic performance. The retrospective cohort study examined the records of dental students at Louisiana State University Health Science Center School of Dentistry for the years 1998 to 2008. Only those students who could be categorized into the following four groups were included: 1) those who graduated in the top 10% of their class, 2) those who graduated in the bottom 10% of their class, 3) those who repeated a year of dental school, and 4) those who were dismissed or resigned. The study sample consisted of 176 students: 62 in the first group, 62 in the second group, 25 in the third group, and 27 in the fourth group. Data collected were each student's undergraduate grade point average (GPA); chalk carving score; undergraduate biology, chemistry, physics (BCP) GPA; Dental Admission Test (DAT) Academic Average; Perceptual Ability Test (PAT) score of the DAT; total DAT score; grade in preclinical operative dentistry class; grade in morphology and occlusion class; and dental school GPA at graduation. The results showed that only the undergraduate GPA and BCP GPA were significantly higher for students in the top 10% of their class than for other groups. The only positive correlation involving the chalk carving scores was with the preclinical operative dentistry course grade. This study thus found limited correlations between this institution's admissions criteria and its students' success in dental school.

  19. Affordable hands-on DNA sequencing and genotyping: an exercise for teaching DNA analysis to undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kushani; Thomas, Shelby; Stein, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe a 5-week laboratory exercise for undergraduate biology and biochemistry students in which students learn to sequence DNA and to genotype their DNA for selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Students use miniaturized DNA sequencing gels that require approximately 8 min to run. The students perform G, A, T, C Sanger sequencing reactions. They prepare and run the gels, perform Southern blots (which require only 10 min), and detect sequencing ladders using a colorimetric detection system. Students enlarge their sequencing ladders from digital images of their small nylon membranes, and read the sequence manually. They compare their reads with the actual DNA sequence using BLAST2. After mastering the DNA sequencing system, students prepare their own DNA from a cheek swab, polymerase chain reaction-amplify a region of their DNA that encompasses a SNP of interest, and perform sequencing to determine their genotype at the SNP position. A family pedigree can also be constructed. The SNP chosen by the instructor was rs17822931, which is in the ABCC11 gene and is the determinant of human earwax type. Genotypes at the rs178229931 site vary in different ethnic populations.

  20. Promoting Physical Activity and Exercise among Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    This Digest discusses the importance of and ways to foster activity and exercise in children. Following an introduction, the Digest is organized into four sections. The first section deals with the significant health benefits of physical activity, including: reduction in chronic disease risk; lowered risk of colon cancer; increase in bone density;…

  1. Teaching Sociological Theory through Active Learning: The Irrigation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Mellisa

    2005-01-01

    For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…

  2. A threat to a virtual hand elicits motor cortex activation.

    PubMed

    González-Franco, Mar; Peck, Tabitha C; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Slater, Mel

    2014-03-01

    We report an experiment where participants observed an attack on their virtual body as experienced in an immersive virtual reality (IVR) system. Participants sat by a table with their right hand resting upon it. In IVR, they saw a virtual table that was registered with the real one, and they had a virtual body that substituted their real body seen from a first person perspective. The virtual right hand was collocated with their real right hand. Event-related brain potentials were recorded in two conditions, one where the participant's virtual hand was attacked with a knife and a control condition where the knife only struck the virtual table. Significantly greater P450 potentials were obtained in the attack condition confirming our expectations that participants had a strong illusion of the virtual hand being their own, which was also strongly supported by questionnaire responses. Higher levels of subjective virtual hand ownership correlated with larger P450 amplitudes. Mu-rhythm event-related desynchronization in the motor cortex and readiness potential (C3-C4) negativity were clearly observed when the virtual hand was threatened-as would be expected, if the real hand was threatened and the participant tried to avoid harm. Our results support the idea that event-related potentials may provide a promising non-subjective measure of virtual embodiment. They also support previous experiments on pain observation and are placed into context of similar experiments and studies of body perception and body ownership within cognitive neuroscience.

  3. Brain Activation Associated with Practiced Left Hand Mirror Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, T.; Arzouan, Y.; Karni, A.; Manor, D.

    2013-01-01

    Mirror writing occurs in healthy children, in various pathologies and occasionally in healthy adults. There are only scant experimental data on the underlying brain processes. Eight, right-handed, healthy young adults were scanned (BOLD-fMRI) before and after practicing left-hand mirror-writing (lh-MW) over seven sessions. They wrote dictated…

  4. Strenuous physical exercise inhibits granulocyte activation induced by high altitude.

    PubMed

    Choukèr, Alexander; Demetz, Florian; Martignoni, André; Smith, Leslie; Setzer, Florian; Bauer, Andreas; Hölzl, Joseph; Peter, Klaus; Christ, Frank; Thiel, Manfred

    2005-02-01

    To test the hypothesis of whether strenuous physical exercise inhibits neutrophils that can get activated by hypobaric hypoxia, we analyzed the effects of both high altitude and strenuous exercise alone and in combination on potentially cytotoxic functions of granulocytes in healthy volunteers (n = 12 men; average age 27.6 yr; range 24-38 yr). To this end, a field study was prospectively performed with an open-labeled within-subject design comprising three protocols. Protocol I (high altitude) involved a helicopter ascent, overnight stay at 3,196 m, and descent on the following day. Protocol II (physical exercise) involved hiking below an altitude of 2,100 m with repetitive ascents amounting to a total ascent to that of protocol III. Protocol III (combination of physical exercise and high altitude) involved climbing from 1,416 to 3,196 m, stay overnight, and descent on the following day. In protocol I, number of granulocytes did not change, but potentially cytotoxic functions of cells (CD18 expression and superoxide production) were early and significantly upregulated. In protocol II, subjects developed granulocytosis, but functions of cells were inhibited. In protocol III, granulocytosis occurred at higher values than those observed under protocol II. Potentially cytotoxic functions of cells, however, were strongly inhibited again. In conclusion, high altitude alone, even moderate in extent, can activate potentially cytotoxic functions of circulating granulocytes. Strenuous physical exercise strongly inhibits this activation, which may give protection from an otherwise inflammatory injury.

  5. Physical activity and exercise after stoma surgery: overcoming the barriers.

    PubMed

    Russell, Sarah

    2017-03-09

    This article presents the results from a large nationwide survey completed in 2016 that investigated the physical health and wellbeing of people living with stomas in the UK. In particular, the survey looked at physical activity and exercise, general attitudes and opinions about exercise, whether or not advice about physical activity had been received and other general questions about parastomal hernia and quality of life. There were 2631 respondents making it one of the largest known surveys to date. The findings were concerning yet unsurprising, highlighting a trend toward inactivity after stoma surgery and a fear of exercise in general. People also seem to have poor knowledge about appropriate activities, with many suggesting that the fear of developing a parastomal hernia is a major barrier to activity. Unsurprisingly, those who have a stoma owing to cancer seem to fare worse, reporting even lower levels of physical activity and worse quality of life compared to those with other conditions. This indicates that people who have a combination of a cancer diagnosis and also a stoma may need more specific or additional support in the longer term. The most concerning finding, however, was that the majority of patients could not recall being given any advice about exercise or physical activity by their nurse or surgeon. While this survey presents some initial findings, it raises questions for further research and work. It also highlights a significantly neglected area in both research and support for stoma patients and the health professionals caring for them.

  6. Regional brain activity and strenuous exercise: predicting affective responses using EEG asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric E; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2007-05-01

    Previous research using the model proposed by Davidson has shown that resting frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry can predict affective responses to aerobic exercise at moderate intensities. Specifically, greater relative left frontal activity has been shown to predict positive affect (i.e., energy) following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if resting frontal EEG asymmetry would predict affective responses following strenuous exercise. Thirty participants (13 women, 17 men) completed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill. EEG was recorded prior to exercise. Affect was measured by the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List prior to the graded exercise test, immediately following, 10 and 20-min following exercise. Greater relative left frontal activity predicted tiredness and calmness during recovery from exercise, but not tension or energy. Tiredness and calmness following exercise covaried, suggesting that tiredness following exercise might not have been linked with displeasure. These findings offer further support for the link between EEG asymmetry and affective responses to exercise.

  7. How active gaze informs the hand in sequential pointing movements.

    PubMed

    Wilmut, Kate; Wann, John P; Brown, Janice H

    2006-11-01

    Visual information is vital for fast and accurate hand movements. It has been demonstrated that allowing free eye movements results in greater accuracy than when the eyes maintain centrally fixed. Three explanations as to why free gaze improves accuracy are: shifting gaze to a target allows visual feedback in guiding the hand to the target (feedback loop), shifting gaze generates ocular-proprioception which can be used to update a movement (feedback-feedforward), or efference copy could be used to direct hand movements (feedforward). In this experiment we used a double-step task and manipulated the utility of ocular-proprioceptive feedback from eye to head position by removing the second target during the saccade. We confirm the advantage of free gaze for sequential movements with a double-step pointing task and document eye-hand lead times of approximately 200 ms for both initial movements and secondary movements. The observation that participants move gaze well ahead of the current hand target dismisses foveal feedback as a major contribution. We argue for a feedforward model based on eye movement efference as the major factor in enabling accurate hand movements. The results with the double-step target task also suggest the need for some buffering of efference and ocular-proprioceptive signals to cope with the situation where the eye has moved to a location ahead of the current target for the hand movement. We estimate that this buffer period may range between 120 and 200 ms without significant impact on hand movement accuracy.

  8. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, Stephenie A.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, David G.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  9. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  10. Taking Exercise: Cultural Diversity and Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Doune; Abbott, Rebecca; Knez, Kelly; Nelson, Alison

    2009-01-01

    "Taking exercise", whether it be recreational walking, participating in club sport, or joining in a physical education (PE) lesson, is a culturally loaded behaviour. We all see, do and talk about physical activity differently, yet, there has been relatively little research or theorising around difference in race, ethnicity, cultural…

  11. Contribution of Structured Exercise Class Participation and Informal Walking for Exercise to Daily Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, C.; Jones, G. R.; Myers, A. M.; Paterson, D. H.; Ecclestone, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physical activity and exercise habits of independent-living older adults from a structured exercise program, noting the contribution of formal and informal exercise participation relative to total daily physical activity measured using pedometer and daily activity logs. Participation in structured exercise was an important contributor…

  12. Unilateral Left-Hand Contractions Produce Widespread Depression of Cortical Activity after Their Execution.

    PubMed

    Cross-Villasana, Fernando; Gröpel, Peter; Doppelmayr, Michael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The execution of unilateral hand contractions before performance has been reported to produce behavioral aftereffects in various tasks. These effects have been regularly attributed to an induced shift in activation asymmetry to the contralateral hemisphere produced by the contractions. An alternative explanation proposes a generalized state of reduced bilateral cortical activity following unilateral hand contractions. The current experiment contrasted the above explanation models and tested the state of cortical activity after the termination of unilateral hand contractions. Twenty right-handed participants performed hand contractions in two blocks, one for each hand. Using electroencephalogram (EEG), the broad alpha band and its asymmetry between hemispheres before, during, and after hand contractions were analyzed. During contractions, significant bilateral decrease in alpha amplitudes (indicating cortical activation) emerged for both hands around sensory-motor regions. After contractions, alpha amplitudes increased significantly over the whole scalp when compared to baseline, but only for the left hand. No modulation of hemispheric asymmetry was observed at any phase. The results suggest that unilateral hand contractions produce a state of reduced cortical activity after their termination, which is more pronounced if the left hand was used. Consequently, we propose that the reduced cortical activity (and not the persistent activation asymmetry) may facilitate engagement in subsequent behavior, probably due to preventing interference from other, nonessential cortical regions.

  13. Exercise as a mediator of hepcidin activity in athletes.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Iron is a trace mineral used by the body in many physiological processes that are essential for athletic performance. However, it is common that an athlete's iron stores are compromised via several well-established exercise-related mechanisms such as hemolysis, hematuria, sweating and gastrointestinal bleeding. Recently, however, a new mechanism for athletics-induced iron deficiency has been proposed, involving the influence of physical activity on the post-exercise hepcidin response. Hepcidin is a liver-produced hormone that regulates iron metabolism in the gut and macrophages. This hormone has become the focus of recent investigations into altered iron metabolism in athletes, and may be a mitigating factor implicated in athletics-induced iron deficiency. This review attempts to summarize and disseminate the collective knowledge currently held regarding exercise and hepcidin expression, in addition to suggesting the direction for future research in this area.

  14. Hand function and performance of daily activities in systemic lupus erythematosus: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Malcus Johnsson, P; Sandqvist, G; Nilsson, J-Å; Bengtsson, A A; Sturfelt, G; Nived, O

    2015-07-01

    This clinical study was performed to investigate hand problems in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in comparison with healthy controls, and to explore problems in the performance of daily activities related to these hand problems, in order to objectify findings from a previous mail survey. We also investigated whether a simple hand test could detect hand problems in SLE. All individuals, 71 with SLE and 71 healthy controls, were examined for manifestations in body structures and body functions of the hands with a study-specific protocol. The simple hand test was performed by all the individuals and the arthritis impact measurement scale (AIMS 2) questionnaire was completed by the SLE individuals. In the SLE group, 58% had some kind of difficulty in the simple hand test, compared with 8% in the control group. Fifty percent of the SLE individuals experienced problems in performing daily activities due to hand deficits. Pain in the hands, reduced strength and dexterity, Raynaud's phenomenon and trigger finger were the most prominent body functions affecting the performance of daily activities. Deficits in hand function are common in SLE and affect the performance of daily activities. The simple hand test may be a useful tool in detecting hand problems.

  15. 78 FR 35098 - Proposed Information Collection (Hand and Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Hand and Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (Hand or Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any.... Title: Hand and Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-7. OMB Control Number:...

  16. Comparison of Active and Electrostimulated Recovery Strategies After Fatiguing Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vanderthommen, Marc; Makrof, Souleyma; Demoulin, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare an electrostimulated to an active recovery strategy after a submaximal isometric fatiguing exercise. Nineteen healthy men completed three sessions (separated by at least 4 weeks) which included a knee extensors provocation exercise consisting of 3 sets of 25 isometric contractions. Contraction intensity level was fixed respectively at 60%, 55% and 50% of previously determined maximal voluntary contraction for the first, second and third sets. This provocation exercise was followed by either an active (AR) recovery (25 min pedaling on a cycle ergometer), an electrostimulated (ESR) recovery (25-min continuous and non-tetanic (5 Hz) stimulation of the quadriceps) or a strictly passive recovery (PR). Peak torques of knee extensors and subjective perception of muscle pain (VAS, 0-10) were evaluated before (pre-ex), immediately after the provocation exercise (post-ex), after the recovery period (post-rec), as well as 75 minutes (1h15) and one day (24h) after the exercise bout. Time course of peak torque was similar among the different recovery modes: ~ 75% of initial values at post-ex, ~ 90% at post-rec and at 1h15. At 24h, peak torque reached a level close to baseline values (PR: 99.1 ± 10.7%, AR: 105.3 ± 12.2%, ESR: 104.4 ± 10.5%). VAS muscle pain scores decreased rapidly between post-ex and post-rec (p < 0.001); there were no significant differences between the three recovery modes (p = 0.64). In conclusion, following a submaximal isometric knee extension exercise, neither electrostimulated nor active recovery strategies significantly improved the time course of muscle function recovery. Key points Three sets of submaximal isometric contractions at 60%, 55% and 50% of MVC induced an early fatigue without DOMS but did not lead to exhaustion. In comparison with passive recovery, active and electrostimulated recovery did not lead to significantly higher MVC torques 24h after the exercise bout. No significant differences were

  17. The exercise prescription: a tool to improve physical activity.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Edward M; Kennedy, Mary A

    2012-11-01

    The current epidemic of sedentary behavior is a serious public health issue that requires the attention of the medical community. Although the benefits of physical activity are well established, research indicates that Americans are not heeding the message, and new strategies are warranted to bring about change in this arena. The health care community can and should play a key role in this movement. Patients respect their physicians as credible sources of information and look to them for health-related guidance. Unfortunately, many physicians are not talking to their patients about physical activity and are missing a unique opportunity to raise awareness about its benefits. Exercise needs to be discussed as a serious form of treatment, similar to medication, and should be thoughtfully prescribed to every patient. Physicians need to be familiar with the level of exercise necessary to achieve health benefits as defined by the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Furthermore, they should be competent in their ability to identify a patient's level of risk for starting or increasing exercise and provide guidance on the frequency, intensity, time, and type of activity necessary to safely elicit maximal health benefits. These basic competencies can be easily understood by physicians and incorporated into their practices. Resources have been established to help support physicians in this process. Physiatrists are uniquely positioned to lead the effort for change in this area because they are well-established proponents of exercise and are trained to prescribe therapeutic exercise to address the complex medical issues of their patients. This skill-set should be used for every patient in an effort to reduce the widespread prevalence of the "chronic disease" physical inactivity.

  18. HandSight: Supporting Everyday Activities through Touch-Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    10 training samples per hand region. This could be perceived as overly burdensome by some users. As a comparison, the Apple Fingerprint Recognition...New York, NY, USA, 2005), 106–113. [25] Labati, R.D., Piuri, V. and Scotti, F. 2015. Touchless Fingerprint Biometrics. CRC Press. [26] Li, F.C.Y

  19. 76 FR 59664 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement For Divert Activities and Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commomwealth of The Northern Mariana Islands AGENCY: Headquarters Pacific... Divert Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The proposed divert activities and exercises would involve airfield improvements designed to provide additional...

  20. Older women's personal goals and exercise activity: an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Saajanaho, Milla; Viljanen, Anne; Read, Sanna; Rantakokko, Merja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jylhä, Marja; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the associations of personal goals with exercise activity, as well as the relationships between exercise-related and other personal goals, among older women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used with a sample of 308 women ages 66-79 at baseline. Women who reported exercise-related personal goals were 4 times as likely to report high exercise activity at baseline than those who did not report exercise-related goals. Longitudinal results were parallel. Goals related to cultural activities, as well as to busying oneself around the home, coincided with exercise-related goals, whereas goals related to own and other people's health and independent living lowered the odds of having exercise-related goals. Helping older adults to set realistic exercise-related goals that are compatible with their other life goals may yield an increase in their exercise activity, but this should be evaluated in a controlled trial.

  1. Perception of hand movement by mirror reflection evokes brain activation in the motor cortex contralateral to a non-moving hand.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Ranjan; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated whether perception of hand movement via mirror reflection evokes activation in the motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the non-moving hand (the M1 ipsilateral to the moving hand). Continuous electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 14 participants while they performed unimanual extension-flexion hand movements in direct view and mirror view conditions. We measured the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) as a marker of M1 activation in both conditions. Both the direct and mirror view conditions produced LRPs, with the mirror view conditions revealing clear activation in M1 contralateral to the non-moving hand (ipsilateral to the moving hand) during both flexion and extension phases. This unambiguous demonstration of M1 activation in association with a non-moving hand (which is visually-perceived as moving), suggests that perception of movement can directly lead to M1 activation.

  2. Activation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle is dependent on exercise intensity and AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Schwalm, Céline; Jamart, Cécile; Benoit, Nicolas; Naslain, Damien; Prémont, Christophe; Prévet, Jérémy; Van Thienen, Ruud; Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-08-01

    In humans, nutrient deprivation and extreme endurance exercise both activate autophagy. We hypothesized that cumulating fasting and cycling exercise would potentiate activation of autophagy in skeletal muscle. Well-trained athletes were divided into control (n = 8), low-intensity (LI, n = 8), and high-intensity (HI, n = 7) exercise groups and submitted to fed and fasting sessions. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before, at the end, and 1 h after a 2 h LI or HI bout of exercise. Phosphorylation of ULK1(Ser317) was higher after exercise (P < 0.001). In both the fed and the fasted states, LC3bII protein level and LC3bII/I were decreased after LI and HI (P < 0.05), while p62/SQSTM1 was decreased only 1 h after HI (P < 0.05), indicating an increased autophagic flux after HI. The autophagic transcriptional program was also activated, as evidenced by the increased level of LC3b, p62/SQSTM1, GabarapL1, and Cathepsin L mRNAs observed after HI but not after LI. The increased autophagic flux after HI exercise could be due to increased AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) activity, as both AMPKα(Thr172) and ACC(Ser79) had a higher phosphorylation state after HI (P < 0.001). In summary, the most effective strategy to activate autophagy in human skeletal muscle seems to rely on exercise intensity more than diet.

  3. Brain activation associated with practiced left hand mirror writing.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, T; Arzouan, Y; Karni, A; Manor, D

    2013-04-01

    Mirror writing occurs in healthy children, in various pathologies and occasionally in healthy adults. There are only scant experimental data on the underlying brain processes. Eight, right-handed, healthy young adults were scanned (BOLD-fMRI) before and after practicing left-hand mirror-writing (lh-MW) over seven sessions. They wrote dictated words, using either the right hand with regularly oriented writing or lh-MW. An MRI compatible stylus-point recording system was used and online visual feedback was provided. Practice resulted in increased speed and readability of lh-MW but the number of movement segments was unchanged. Post-training signal increases occurred in visual, right lateral and medial premotor areas, and in right anterior and posterior peri-sylvian areas corresponding to language areas. These results suggest that lh-MW may constitute a latent ability that can be reinstated by a relatively brief practice experience. Concurrently, right hemisphere language processing areas may emerge, reflecting perhaps a reduction in trans-hemispheric suppression.

  4. Facilitation of quadriceps activation is impaired following eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Hedayatpour, N; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Falla, D

    2014-04-01

    Contracting the knee flexor muscles immediately before a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extension increases the maximal force that the extensor muscles can exert. It is hypothesized that this phenomenon can be impaired by muscle fiber damage following eccentric exercise [delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)]. This study investigates the effect of eccentric exercise and DOMS on knee extension MVC immediately following a reciprocal-resisted knee flexion contraction. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the knee extensors and flexors of 12 healthy men during knee extension MVCs performed in a reciprocal (maximal knee extension preceded by resisted knee flexion), and nonreciprocal condition (preceded by relaxation of the knee flexors). At baseline, knee extension MVC force was greater during the reciprocal condition (P < 0.001), whereas immediately after, 24 and 48 h after eccentric exercise, the MVC force was not different between conditions. Similarly, at baseline, the EMG amplitude of the quadriceps during the MVC was larger for the reciprocal condition (P < 0.001). However, immediately after, 24 and 48 h postexercise the EMG amplitude was similar between conditions. In conclusion, eccentric exercise abolished the facilitation of force production for the knee extensors, which normally occurs when maximum knee extension is preceded by activation of the knee flexors.

  5. State anxiety reduction and exercise: does hemispheric activation reflect such changes?

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, S J; Landers, D M

    1994-08-01

    Acute bouts of aerobic exercise have been consistently associated with significant reductions in anxiety, but explanations for this effect remain elusive. The cerebral lateralization hypothesis predicts that anxiety reductions would be caused by a postexercise decrease in anterior right, relative to left, hemisphere activation. A sample of 19 right-handed males ran at 75% of their VO2max for 30 min on a treadmill. Electroencephalogram (EEG; F3, F4, T3, T4) and state anxiety were collected before and following exercise. Compared with preexercise, anxiety was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced at 10, 20, and 30 min postexercise. Preexercise EEG alpha asymmetry was significantly related to trait anxiety and also predicted a significant amount of variance (30%; P = 0.008) in postexercise anxiety reduction. From pre- to postexercise, the relative activation of the left frontal area increased with respect to the homologous right frontal site. Within-subject correlations for the change in anxiety with corresponding EEG changes were small but in line with theoretical predictions. It is concluded that the cerebral lateralization hypothesis remains tenable for explaining anxiety reductions associated with exercise.

  6. The Effects of Stress on Physical Activity and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and physical activity (PA) are believed to be reciprocally related; however, most research examining the relationship between these constructs is devoted to the study of exercise and/or PA as an instrument to mitigate distress. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the literature investigating the influence of stress on indicators of PA and exercise. Methods A systematic search of Web of Science, Pub-Med, and SPORTDiscus was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants. Search terms included “stress”, “exercise”, and “physical activity”. A rating scale (0–9) modified for this study was utilized to assess the quality of all studies with multiple time points. Results The literature search found 168 studies that examined the influence of stress on PA. Studies varied widely in their theoretical orientation and included perceived stress, distress, life events, job strain, role strain, and work–family conflict but not lifetime cumulative adversity. To more clearly address the question, prospective studies (n = 55) were considered for further review, the majority of which indicated that psychological stress predicts less PA (behavioral inhibition) and/or exercise or more sedentary behavior (76.4 %). Both objective (i.e., life events) and subjective (i.e., distress) measures of stress related to reduced PA. Prospective studies investigating the effects of objective markers of stress nearly all agreed (six of seven studies) that stress has a negative effect on PA. This was true for research examining (a) PA at periods of objectively varying levels of stress (i.e., final examinations vs. a control time point) and (b) chronically stressed populations (e.g., caregivers, parents of children with a cancer diagnosis) that were less likely to be active than controls over time. Studies examining older adults (>50 years), cohorts with both men and women, and larger sample sizes (n > 100) were more likely

  7. Regions: A Hands-On Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Edward J.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines an exercise dealing with the geographic concept of regions. Suggests this activity as a means of relating theory to students' personal understanding of the world. Provides a lesson plan which helps students appreciate the concept of region as an analytic tool through a "hands-on" exercise. (KO)

  8. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI): Inital Observations and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Yingst, R. A.; Minitti, M. E.; Robinson, M. L.; Kennedy, M. R.; Lipkaman, L. J.; Jensen, E. H.; Anderson, R. C.; Bean, K. M.; Beegle, L. W.; Carsten, J. L.; Collins, C. L.; Cooper, B.; Deen, R. G.; Gupta, S.

    2013-01-01

    MAHLI (Mars Hand Lens Imager) is a 2-megapixel focusable macro lens color camera on the turret on Curiosity's robotic arm. The investigation centers on stratigraphy, grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials at Curiosity's Gale robotic field site. MAHLI acquires focused images at working distances of 2.1 cm to infinity; for reference, at 2.1 cm the scale is 14 microns/pixel; at 6.9 cm it is 31 microns/pixel, like the Spirit and Opportunity Microscopic Imager (MI) cameras.

  9. THE EFFECT OF DOUBLE VERSUS SINGLE OSCILLATING EXERCISE DEVICES ON TRUNK AND LIMB MUSCLE ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shruti; Button, Duane C.; Basset, Fabien A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Proper strengthening of the core and upper extremities is important for muscular health, performance, and rehabilitation. Exercise devices have been developed that attempt to disrupt the center of gravity in order to activate the trunk stabilizing muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the trunk and shoulder girdle muscle activation with double and single oscillating exercise devices (DOD and SOD respectively) in various planes. Methods: Twelve male subjects performed three interventions using both devices under randomized conditions: single-handed vertical orientation of DOD and SOD to produce 1) medio-lateral oscillation in the frontal plane 2) dorso-ventral oscillation in the sagittal plane and 3) single-handed horizontal orientation for superior and inferior oscillation in the transverse plane. Electromyographic (EMG) activity during the interventions of the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, forearm flexors as well as lower abdominal and back stabilizer muscles was collected, and were normalized to maximal voluntary contractions. A two way repeated measures ANOVA (2x3) was conducted to assess the influence of the devices and movement planes on muscle activation. Results: The DOD provided 35.9%, 40.8%, and 52.3% greater anterior deltoid, transverse abdominus (TA)/internal oblique (IO) and lumbo-sacral erector spinae (LSES) activation than did the SOD respectively. Effect size calculations revealed that these differences were of moderate to large magnitude (0.86, 0.48, and 0.61 respectively). There were no significant differences in muscular activation achieved between devices for the triceps brachii, biceps brachii and forearm flexor muscles. Exercise in the transverse plane resulted in 30.5%, 29.5%, and 19.5% greater activation than the sagittal and 21.8%, 17.2%, and 26.3% greater activation than the frontal plane for the anterior deltoid, TA/IO and LSES respectively. Conclusions: A DOD demonstrated greater

  10. 76 FR 78673 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Exercise Information System (EXIS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Exercise Information System (EXIS) AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... burden for the TSA Exercise Information System (EXIS). EXIS is a web portal designed to...

  11. Change in trunk muscle activities with prone bridge exercise in patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yong-soo; Park, Seol; Kweon, Mi-Gyong; Park, Ji-won

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three different bridge exercises on internal oblique, external oblique, transverse abdominis, and erector spinae activities. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five subjects with chronic low back pain participated in this study. The training outcome was evaluated with three different testing methods: supine bridge exercise, supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and prone bridge exercise. The activities of the transverse abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] There were significant differences in the internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae according to the three kinds of bridging exercises. The internal oblique, external oblique and transverse abdominis activities were highest in the prone bridge exercise, followed by those in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and supine bridge exercises. The activity of erector spine was highest in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise followed by the supine bridge exercise and prone bridge exercise. [Conclusion] These results suggest that prone bridge exercise is more effective than conventional supine bridge exercise and supine bridge on Swiss ball in increasing trunk muscle activity of chronic low back pain patients. PMID:26957771

  12. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes.

  13. Exercise and Physical Activity Recommendations for People with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Balemans, Astrid C.J.; Hurvitz, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and its promotion, as well as the avoidance of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Guidelines for typically developing youth and adults published by the World Health Organization and American College of Sports Medicine are available. However, detailed recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviour have not been established for children, adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents the first CP-specific PA and exercise recommendations. The recommendations are based on (1) a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature, (2) expert opinion and (3) extensive clinical experience. The evidence supporting these recommendations are based on randomized controlled trials and observational studies involving children, adolescents and adults with CP, and buttressed by the previous guidelines for the general population. These recommendations may be used to guide healthcare providers on exercise and daily PA prescription for individuals with CP. PMID:26853808

  14. Exercise-induced stem cell activation and its implication for cardiovascular and skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patrick; Brixius, Klara; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    A number of publications have provided evidence that exercise and physical activity are linked to the activation, mobilization, and differentiation of various types of stem cells. Exercise may improve organ regeneration and function. This review summarizes mechanisms by which exercise contributes to stem cell-induced regeneration in the cardiovascular and the skeletal muscle system. In addition, it discusses whether exercise may improve and support stem cell transplantation in situations of cardiovascular disease or muscular dystrophy.

  15. Analysis of surface EMG activation in hand percussion playing depending on the grasping type and the tempo.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Soo Ji; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Yoo, Ga Eul

    2015-08-01

    Although instrument playing-based training has been repeatedly reported to improve functional hand movements including grasping, the attempts to present quantitative information on physiological mechanism of grasping have been relatively insufficient to determine the type and the intensity of the exercises involved. This study aimed to examine the muscle activation during hand percussion playing depending on the grasping type and the playing tempo. A total of twelve healthy older adults with a mean age of 71.5 years participated in this study. Surface electrodes were placed on three grasping-related muscles: Flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor digitorum, and flexor pollicis brevis. Participants were instructed to play with the egg shaker, paddle drum mallet and clave involving different types of grasp at three different tempi (i.e., 80, 100, and 120 bpm) and sEMG data were collected during each playing. Significantly greater muscle activation was generated with the small sphere type of egg shaker, compared to the handle type of paddle drum mallet and the small cylinder type of clave. Playing at faster tempo also elicited significantly greater muscle activation than at slower tempo. With regard to the rise time of muscle activation, while tempo significantly affected the rise time, the time to peak muscle did not significantly change depending on the grasping type. This study confirmed that grasping pattern and the tempo of movement significantly influence the muscular activation of grasping involved in instrument playing. Based on these results, clinical implication for instrument selection and structured instrument playing would be suggested.

  16. How Do Learning Outcomes, Assessments and Student Engagement in a Fully Online Geoscience Laboratory Compare to Those Of The Original Hands-on Exercise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    In a third year geoscience elective for BSc majors, we adapted several active f2f learning strategies for an equivalent fully online version of the course. In particular, we converted a hands-on laboratory including analysis and interpretation of hand-specimens, sketching results and peer-to-peer discussion of scientific implications. This study compares learning outcomes in both formats and describes resources that make engaging, effective and efficient learning experiences for large classes in an asynchronous online environment. Our two hypotheses are: 1) a hands-on geology lab exercise can be converted for efficient fully online use without sacrificing feedback and assessment opportunities; 2) students find either the f2f or DE versions equally effective and enjoyable as learning experiences. Key components are an authentic context, interactive resources including sketching, strategies that enable efficient assessment and feedback on solo and group work, and asynchronous yet productive interaction with peers. Students in the f2f class handle real rock and fossil specimens, work with peers in the lab and classroom, and deliver most results including annotated figures on paper. DE students complete identical tasks using interactive high resolution figures and videos of specimens. Solo work is first delivered for automated assessment and feedback, then students engage asynchronously in small groups to improve results and discuss implications. Chronostratigraphy and other interpretations are sketched on prepared template images using a simple open-source sketching app that ensures equal access and consistent results that are efficient to assess by peers and instructors. Learning outcomes based on subsequent quizzes, sketches, and lab results (paper for f2f students and automated data entry for DE students), show that f2f and online students demonstrate knowledge and scientific interpretations of comparable quality. Effective engagement and group work are

  17. Hands-On Environmental Science Activities. Teacher's Edition. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutscher, Eugene

    The ability of students to go beyond facts and to think critically, while at the same time enjoying and valuing the learning process, is fundamental to science and environmentalism. This book provides enrichment activities for the science curriculum that provide concrete connections with important world events. Each activity is self-contained and…

  18. Deserts: Information and Hands-On Activities. Interactive Geography Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robin

    This book is designed to introduce students to a variety of fascinating desert ecosystems through a series of learning activities including games, graphs, experiments, and crafts. Each section contains an information section along with student activities and worksheets. The section topics are sand, scorpions, and snow; scenic sculpture; desert…

  19. Hands-On Activities for Fourth and Fifth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Mary C.

    1990-01-01

    Three activities--"Earth's Orbit and the Four Seasons,""Observing Rabbits," and "Solutes, Solvents, and Solutions"--are described. Included in each are background information, a list of materials, key questions, teacher preparation, teacher introduction, procedure, and follow-up activities. (CW)

  20. Metabolic signals and innate immune activation in obesity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excess energy intake has led to an increased prevalence of obesity which constitutes a major risk factor for several co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Intensive research during the last two decades has revealed that a characteristic feature of obesity linking it to insulin resistance is the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation being indicative of activation of the innate immune system. Recent evidence suggests that activation of the innate immune system in the course of obesity is mediated by metabolic signals, such as free fatty acids (FFAs), being elevated in many obese subjects, through activation of pattern recognition receptors thereby leading to stimulation of critical inflammatory signaling cascades, like IκBα kinase/nuclear factor-κB (IKK/NF- κB), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway, that interfere with insulin signaling. Exercise is one of the main prescribed interventions in obesity management improving insulin sensitivity and reducing obesity- induced chronic inflammation. This review summarizes current knowledge of the cellular recognition mechanisms for FFAs, the inflammatory signaling pathways triggered by excess FFAs in obesity and the counteractive effects of both acute and chronic exercise on obesity-induced activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. A deeper understanding of the effects of exercise on inflammatory signaling pathways in obesity is useful to optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of obesity and its comorbidities.

  1. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  2. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture.

  3. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  4. [Impact of physical activity and exercise on bone health in the life course : a review].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, D; Hebestreit, A; Ahrens, W

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise are important determinants for metabolic and cardiovascular health. They also play an important role for bone health in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. This review summarizes results from observational and intervention studies which evaluated the association between physical activity/exercise and bone health in different life course stages. In childhood and adolescence, physical activity and exercise induce improved bone accrual. In adulthood, mainly in postmenopausal women, long-term exercise programs reduce age-related bone loss. Especially weight-bearing activities seem to have an important osteogenic effect. Children and adolescent show a higher bone accrual until 5 years after cessation of an exercise program compared to their peers, who do not participate in an exercise program. In contrast, adults who quit exercising have a higher decrease in bone stiffness compared to adults who never exercised. This effect was particularly seen in postmenopausal women. Continuous physical activity and exercise over the life course and the implementation of exercise programs in schools and community-based intervention programs can help prevent or even reduce osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures. Due to the lack of prospective longitudinal studies, the supposed long-term sustainable protective effect of physical activity and exercise in childhood and adolescent on bone health in later adulthood is not well established.

  5. Classification of upper limb motions from around-shoulder muscle activities: hand biofeedback.

    PubMed

    González, Jose; Horiuchi, Yuse; Yu, Wenwei

    2010-05-28

    Mining information from EMG signals to detect complex motion intention has attracted growing research attention, especially for upper-limb prosthetic hand applications. In most of the studies, recordings of forearm muscle activities were used as the signal sources, from which the intention of wrist and hand motions were detected using pattern recognition technology. However, most daily-life upper limb activities need coordination of the shoulder-arm-hand complex, therefore, relying only on the local information to recognize the body coordinated motion has many disadvantages because natural continuous arm-hand motions can't be realized. Also, achieving a dynamical coupling between the user and the prosthesis will not be possible. This study objective was to investigate whether it is possible to associate the around-shoulder muscles' Electromyogram (EMG) activities with the different hand grips and arm directions movements. Experiments were conducted to record the EMG of different arm and hand motions and the data were analyzed to decide the contribution of each sensor, in order to distinguish the arm-hand motions as a function of the reaching time. Results showed that it is possible to differentiate hand grips and arm position while doing a reaching and grasping task. Also, these results are of great importance as one step to achieve a close loop dynamical coupling between the user and the prosthesis.

  6. Relationship between speed and EEG activity during imagined and executed hand movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Han; Perdoni, Christopher; He, Bin

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between primary motor cortex and movement kinematics has been shown in nonhuman primate studies of hand reaching or drawing tasks. Studies have demonstrated that the neural activities accompanying or immediately preceding the movement encode the direction, speed and other information. Here we investigated the relationship between the kinematics of imagined and actual hand movement, i.e. the clenching speed, and the EEG activity in ten human subjects. Study participants were asked to perform and imagine clenching of the left hand and right hand at various speeds. The EEG activity in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (18-28 Hz) frequency bands were found to be linearly correlated with the speed of imagery clenching. Similar parametric modulation was also found during the execution of hand movements. A single equation relating the EEG activity to the speed and the hand (left versus right) was developed. This equation, which contained a linear independent combination of the two parameters, described the time-varying neural activity during the tasks. Based on the model, a regression approach was developed to decode the two parameters from the multiple-channel EEG signals. We demonstrated the continuous decoding of dynamic hand and speed information of the imagined clenching. In particular, the time-varying clenching speed was reconstructed in a bell-shaped profile. Our findings suggest an application to providing continuous and complex control of noninvasive brain-computer interface for movement-impaired paralytics.

  7. Small Wonders. Hands-On Science Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Peggy K.

    Children are natural scientists and are constantly questioning and challenging the world around them. This book is designed to help preschool and primary teachers see the science in common things. It is a book of manipulative activities that are designed to nurture a child's natural curiosity as well as integrate science with other areas.…

  8. The Timber Wolf: Hands-On Activities for Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Donald G.; Oh, Bobbie S.

    The focus of this manual is the timber wolf and its experience in the United States. The activities are designed to enable students to gain a factual understanding of the timber wolf, question any misinformation they have learned regarding wolves, and learn to appreciate the wolf as a creature of nature rather than fear it as a creature of fairy…

  9. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  10. Do changes in energy intake and non-exercise physical activity affect exercise-induced weight loss? Midwest Exercise Trial-2

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare energy intake, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), non-exercise energy expenditure (NEEx), resting metabolic rate (RMR), non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), and sedentary time between participants with weight loss <5% (non-responders) vs. ≥5% (responders) in response to exercise. Methods Overweight/obese (BMI 25–40 kg/m2), adults (18–30 yrs.) were randomized to exercise: 5 day/week, 400 or 600 kcal/session, 10 months. Results Forty participants responded and 34 did not respond to the exercise protocol. Non-responder energy intake was higher vs. responders, significant only in men (p=0.034). TDEE increased only in responders (p=0.001). NEEx increased in responders and decreased in non-responders, significant only in men (p=0.045). There were no within or between-group differences for change in RMR. NEPA increased in responders and decreased in non-responders (group-by-time interactions: total sample, p=0.049; men, p=0.016). Sedentary time decreased in both groups, significant only in men. Conclusion Men who did not lose weight in response to exercise (<5%) had higher energy intake and lower NEEx compared to men losing ≥5%. No significant differences in any parameters assessed were observed between women who lost <5% vs. those losing ≥5. Factors associated with the weight loss response to exercise in women warrant additional investigation. PMID:26193059

  11. The enhanced cortical activation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation during hand movements.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether tDCS applied on the primary motor cortex (M1) in company with hand movements could enhance cortical activation, using functional MRI (fMRI). Twelve right-handed normal subjects were recruited. Real tDCS and sham tDCS with hand movements were applied during fMRI scanning. Subjects performed grasp-release hand movements at a metronome-guided frequency of 1Hz, while direct current with 1.0mA was delivered to the primary motor cortex. The averaged cortical map and the intensity index were compared between real tDCS with hand movements and sham tDCS with hand movements. Our result showed that cortical activation on the primary sensorimotor cortex was observed under both of two conditions; real tDCS with hand movements and sham tDCS with hand movements. Voxel count and peak intensity were 365.10±227.23 and 5.66±1.97, respectively, in the left primary sensorimotor cortex during real tDCS with right hand movements; in contrast, those were 182.20±117.88 and 4.12±0.88, respectively, during sham tDCS with right hand movements. Significant differences in voxel count and peak intensity were observed between real tDCS and sham tDCS (p<0.05). We found that anodal tDCS application during motor task enhanced cortical activation on the underlying targeted motor cortex, compared with the same motor task without tDCS. Therefore, it seemed that tDCS induced more cortical activity and modulated brain function when concurrently applied with motor task.

  12. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    PubMed

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Proctor, David N; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Minson, Christopher T; Nigg, Claudio R; Salem, George J; Skinner, James S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.

  13. Effects of isometric hip movements on electromyographic activities of the trunk muscles during plank exercises.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Myoung-Joo; Yoon, So-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isometric hip adduction and abduction on trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects performed the traditional plank exercise (TP), plank exercise with isometric hip adduction (PHAD), and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction (PHAB) by using an elastic band. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) were measured during the 3 plank exercises by using an Electromyography system. [Results] Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities were significantly greater during plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction than during traditional plank exercise. Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities did not differ between the plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction conditions. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that loaded isometric hip movements may be a useful strategy to increase trunk muscle activity during plank exercises.

  14. Effects of isometric hip movements on electromyographic activities of the trunk muscles during plank exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Myoung-Joo; Yoon, So-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isometric hip adduction and abduction on trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects performed the traditional plank exercise (TP), plank exercise with isometric hip adduction (PHAD), and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction (PHAB) by using an elastic band. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) were measured during the 3 plank exercises by using an Electromyography system. [Results] Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities were significantly greater during plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction than during traditional plank exercise. Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities did not differ between the plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction conditions. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that loaded isometric hip movements may be a useful strategy to increase trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. PMID:27630435

  15. Activity limitations and participation restrictions in women with hand osteoarthritis: patients' descriptions and associations between dimensions of functioning

    PubMed Central

    Kjeken, I; Dagfinrud, H; Slatkowsky-Christ..., B; Mowinckel, P; Uhlig, T; Kvien, T; Finset, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the functional consequences of hand osteoarthritis, and analyse associations between personal factors, hand impairment, activity limitations, and participation restrictions within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Methods: 87 women with hand osteoarthritis completed a clinical examination including recording of sociodemographic data, measures of hand impairment, and completion of self reported health status measures. The function subscale of the AUSCAN Osteoarthritis Hand Index was used as a measure of hand related activity limitations, while the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to describe and measure activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual. The study variables were categorised using the dimensions in the ICF framework and analysed using bivariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Results: The patients described problems in many domains of activity and participation. The most frequently described hand related problems were activities requiring considerable grip strength combined with twisting of the hands. On the impairment level, the patients had reduced grip force and joint mobility in the hands, and resisted motion was painful. Regression analyses showed that hand related activity limitations were associated with measures of hand impairment, while activity and participation (as measured by the COPM) were more strongly associated with personal factors than with hand impairment. Conclusions: Hand osteoarthritis has important functional consequences in terms of pain, reduced hand mobility and grip force, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Rehabilitation programmes should therefore be multidisciplinary and multidimensional, focusing on hand function, occupational performance, and coping strategies. PMID:15829571

  16. Shoulder muscle activity and function in common shoulder rehabilitation exercises.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Yamashiro, Kyle; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2009-01-01

    , posterior tilt and ER. The serratus anterior also helps stabilize the medial border and inferior angle of the scapular, preventing scapular IR (winging) and anterior tilt. If normal scapular movements are disrupted by abnormal scapular muscle firing patterns, weakness, fatigue, or injury, the shoulder complex functions less efficiency and injury risk increases. Scapula position and humeral rotation can affect injury risk during humeral elevation. Compared with scapular protraction, scapular retraction has been shown to both increase subacromial space width and enhance supraspinatus force production during humeral elevation. Moreover, scapular IR and scapular anterior tilt, both of which decrease subacromial space width and increase impingement risk, are greater when performing scaption with IR ('empty can') compared with scaption with ER ('full can'). There are several exercises in the literature that exhibit high to very high activity from the rotator cuff, deltoids and scapular muscles, such as prone horizontal abduction at 100 degrees abduction with ER, flexion and abduction with ER, 'full can' and 'empty can', D1 and D2 diagonal pattern flexion and extension, ER and IR at 0 degrees and 90 degrees abduction, standing extension from 90-0 degrees , a variety of weight-bearing upper extremity exercises, such as the push-up, standing scapular dynamic hug, forward scapular punch, and rowing type exercises. Supraspinatus activity is similar between 'empty can' and 'full can' exercises, although the 'full can' results in less risk of subacromial impingement. Infraspinatus and subscapularis activity have generally been reported to be higher in the 'full can' compared with the 'empty can', while posterior deltoid activity has been reported to be higher in the 'empty can' than the 'full can'.

  17. Clinical significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in patients with exercise-induced ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, K.; Kurata, C.; Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.; Rydzewski, A.; Takada, Y.; Takada, A. )

    1990-10-01

    To assess the fibrinolytic system in patients with exercise-induced ischemia and its relation to ischemia and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), 47 patients with CAD confirmed by results of coronary angiography underwent symptom-limited multistage exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. All patients with CAD had exercise-induced ischemia as assessed from thallium-201 images. Pre- and peak exercise blood samples from each patient and preexercise blood samples from control subjects were assayed for several fibrinolytic components and were also assayed for plasma adrenaline. The extent of ischemia was defined as delta visual uptake score (total visual uptake score in delayed images minus total visual uptake score in initial images) and the severity of CAD as the number of diseased vessels. In the basal condition, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity was significantly higher in patients with exercise-induced ischemia as compared to control subjects (p less than 0.01), although there were no significant differences in other fibrinolytic variables between the two groups. Moreover, PAI activity in the basal condition displayed a significantly positive correlation with the extent of ischemia (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01). Patients with exercise-induced ischemia were divided into two groups (24 with single-vessel disease and 23 with multivessel disease). There were no significant differences in coronary risk factors, hemodynamics, or plasma adrenaline levels during exercise between single-vessel and multivessel disease except that delta visual uptake score was significantly higher in multivessel disease (p less than 0.01).

  18. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms.

  19. Non-Exercise Estimation of VO[subscript 2]max Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) as well as sub-maximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO[subscript…

  20. Activity Book. Fitting in Fitness: An Integrated Approach to Health, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Bruce; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This integrated unit focuses on healthy hearts and how to use exercise and nutrition to be "heart smart" for life. The unit includes activities on heart function, exercise, workouts, family activities, nutrition, cholesterol, and food labels. The activities help develop research techniques, thinking skills, and cooperative learning…

  1. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesloh, Miranda; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize hand strength, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Three types of data were collected: hand grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch, wider three different conditions: bare-handed, gloved with no Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG), and glove with TMG. In addition, during the gloved conditions, subjects were tested when unpressurized and pressurized (43 psi). As a percentage of bare-hand strength, the TMG condition showed reduction in grip strength to 55% unpressurized and 46% pressurized. Without the TMG, grip strength increased to 66% unpressurized and 58% pressurized of bare-hand strength. For lateral pinch strength, the reduction in strength was the same for both pressure conditions and with and without the TMG, about 8.5% of bare-hand Pulp-2 pinch strength with no TMG showed an increase to 122% unpressurized and 115% pressurized of bare-hand strength. While wearing the TMG, pulp-2 pinch strength was 115% of bare-hand strength for both pressure conditions.

  2. Effects of active recovery on autonomic and haemodynamic responses after aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Soares, Antonio H G; Oliveira, Tiago P; Cavalcante, Bruno R; Farah, Breno Q; Lima, Aluísio H R A; Cucato, Gabriel G; Cardoso, Crivaldo G; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of active recovery on autonomic and haemodynamic responses after exercise in healthy adults. Nineteen healthy young male individuals underwent two experimental sessions: exercise with active recovery (AR) and exercise with passive recovery (PR). The exercise sessions comprised three phases: warm-up (5 min), exercise phase (cycle ergometer, 30 min, intensity between 60 and 70% of the heart rate reserve) and recovery (5 min). In the AR, the subjects remained cycling in the recovery phase at intensity between 30% and 35% of heart rate reserve, while in the PR, the subjects stopped the exercise after finishing the exercise phase. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and over the 30 min after the interventions. There were no differences for systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate and rate pressure product between active and passive recovery sessions. Also, all heart rate variability parameters changed similarly after exercise with passive or active recovery sessions. In summary, exercise with active recovery does not affect the autonomic and haemodynamic responses after moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in healthy young male individuals.

  3. Effects of physical activity on exercise tests and respiratory function

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y; Macera, C; Addy, C; Sy, F; Wieland, D; Blair, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Exercise is an important component of pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic lung disease. Objective: To explore the role of physical activity in maintaining cardiac and respiratory function in healthy people. Methods: Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by a maximal treadmill test (MTT), and respiratory function was tested by spirometry. The cross sectional study included data from 24 536 healthy persons who were examined at the Cooper Clinic between 1971 and 1995; the longitudinal study included data from 5707 healthy persons who had an initial visit between 1971 and 1995 and a subsequent visit during the next five years. All participants were aged 25–55 years and completed a cardiorespiratory test and a medical questionnaire. Results: In the cross sectional study, after controlling for covariates, being active and not being a recent smoker were associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory function in both men and women. In the follow up study, persons who remained or became active had better MTT than persons who remained or became sedentary. Men who remained active had higher forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) than the other groups. Smoking was related to lower cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory function. Conclusions: Physical activity and non-smoking or smoking cessation is associated with maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness. Change in physical activity habits is associated with change in cardiorespiratory fitness, but respiratory function contributed little to this association during a five year follow up. PMID:14665592

  4. Effect of pilates mat exercises and conventional exercise programmes on transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis activity: pilot randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Critchley, Duncan J; Pierson, Zoe; Battersby, Gemma

    2011-04-01

    Pilates training is said to increase Transversus abdominis (TrA) and Obliquus internus (OI) activation during exercise and functional activities. 34 Pain-free health club members with no Pilates experience, mean (SD) age 30(7) years, were randomised to Pilates mat exercises or strength training. Participants exercised unsupervised twice-weekly for eight weeks. TrA and OI thickness (a proxy for muscle activity at the low-medium efforts of our exercises) were measured with ultrasound pre- and post-training during Pilates exercises 'Imprint' (an abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre) and 'Hundreds A' (lying supine, arms slightly raised, hips and knees flexed to 90°) and 'Hundreds B' (as A, with neck flexion) and functional postures sitting and standing. Pilates participants had increased TrA thickness in Hundreds A [all values mean (SD) mm]: 3.7(1.3) pre-intervention, 4.7(1.1) post-intervention (P = 0.007); and decreased OI muscle thickness during Imprint: 11.7(2.8) pre-intervention, 10.8(3.5) post-intervention (P = 0.008). Strength training participants had greater OI thickness during Imprint (P = 0.014), Hundreds A (P = 0.018) and Hundreds B (P = 0.004) than Pilates participants post-intervention. There were no changes in muscle thickness at rest or during functional postures. Pilates training appears to increase TrA activity but only when performing Pilates exercises. Further research is required into Pilates in clinical populations and how to increase deep abdominal activation during functional activities.

  5. Current perspectives on physical activity and exercise for youth with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pivovarov, Jacklyn A; Taplin, Craig E; Riddell, Michael C

    2015-06-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) for youth with diabetes improves cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone health, insulin sensitivity, and psychosocial well-being. However many youth with diabetes or pre-diabetes fail to meet minimum PA guidelines and a large percentage of youth with diabetes are overweight or obese. Active youth with type 1 diabetes tend to have lower HbA1c levels and reduced insulin needs, whereas activity in adolescents at-risk for type 2 diabetes improves various measures of metabolism and body composition. Insulin and nutrient adjustments for exercise in type 1 diabetes is complex because of varied responses to exercise type and because of the different times of day that exercise is performed. This review highlights the benefits of exercise and the established barriers to exercise participation in the pediatric diabetes population. A new exercise management algorithm for insulin and carbohydrate intake strategies for active youth with type 1 diabetes is presented.

  6. The acute effect of neuromuscular activation in resistance exercise on human skeletal muscle with the interpolated twitch technique

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Yeon; Yoon, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to perform a quantitative assessment of neuromechanical adaptation in skeletal muscles and to propose the scientific underpinnings of the acute effects induced by resistance exercise. [Subjects] The subjects in this study were 11 healthy adult men in their 20s who had no orthopedic history at the time of the study. To examine any signs of resistance exercise-induced changes in the ankle plantar flexor, the subjects were directed to perform a standing barbell calf raise routine. [Methods] Subjects were to carry a load equal to their weights and to perform five sets of ten repetitions. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, resting twitch torque, muscle inhibition, root mean square of muscular activation, contraction time, and half relaxation time were analyzed by synchronizing a dynamometer, an electrical stimulator, and an electromyography system. [Results] The maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque appeared to decline, but the change was not statistically significant. The decline of resting twitch torque, on the other hand, was found to be statistically significant. Muscle inhibition and root mean square of muscular activation were both reduced, but both changes were not statistically significant. Lastly, contraction time and half relaxation time both statistically decreased significantly after resistance exercise. [Conclusion] These results indicate that the acute effects of resistance exercise have a greater impact on the peripheral mechanical system itself, rather than on neurological factors, in terms of the generation of muscle force. PMID:26504316

  7. The acute effect of neuromuscular activation in resistance exercise on human skeletal muscle with the interpolated twitch technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Yeon; Yoon, Wan-Young

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to perform a quantitative assessment of neuromechanical adaptation in skeletal muscles and to propose the scientific underpinnings of the acute effects induced by resistance exercise. [Subjects] The subjects in this study were 11 healthy adult men in their 20s who had no orthopedic history at the time of the study. To examine any signs of resistance exercise-induced changes in the ankle plantar flexor, the subjects were directed to perform a standing barbell calf raise routine. [Methods] Subjects were to carry a load equal to their weights and to perform five sets of ten repetitions. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, resting twitch torque, muscle inhibition, root mean square of muscular activation, contraction time, and half relaxation time were analyzed by synchronizing a dynamometer, an electrical stimulator, and an electromyography system. [Results] The maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque appeared to decline, but the change was not statistically significant. The decline of resting twitch torque, on the other hand, was found to be statistically significant. Muscle inhibition and root mean square of muscular activation were both reduced, but both changes were not statistically significant. Lastly, contraction time and half relaxation time both statistically decreased significantly after resistance exercise. [Conclusion] These results indicate that the acute effects of resistance exercise have a greater impact on the peripheral mechanical system itself, rather than on neurological factors, in terms of the generation of muscle force.

  8. The effects of inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise on chronic stroke patients’ respiratory muscle activation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, KyoChul; Hwan, Park Seung; Park, KwangYong

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise on chronic stroke patients’ respiratory muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] All experimental subjects performed exercises five times per week for four weeks. Thirty chronic stroke patients were randomly assign to an experimental group of 15 patients and a control group of 15 patients. The experimental group underwent exercises consisting of basic exercise treatment for 15 minutes and inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise for 15 minutes and the control group underwent exercises consisting of basic exercise treatment for 15 minutes and auto-med exercise for 15 minutes. The activation levels of respiratory muscles were measured before and after the experiment using MP 150WSW to obtain the results of the experiment. [Results] In the present study, when the pulmonary functions of the experimental group and the control group before and after the experiment were compared, whereas the experimental group showed significant differences in all sections. In the verification of intergroup differences between the experimental group and the control group before and after the experiment. [Conclusion] The respiratory rehabilitation exercise is considered to be capable of inducing positive effects on stroke patients’ respiratory muscles through diaphragm breathing exercise and lip puckering breathing exercise. PMID:28356632

  9. An Analysis of Muscle Activities of Healthy Women during Pilates Exercises in a Prone Position.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Shim, Jemyung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Haroo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the activities of the back and hip muscles during Pilates exercises conducted in a prone position. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy women volunteers who had practiced at a Pilates center for more than three months. [Methods] The subjects performed three Pilates exercises. To examine muscle activity during the exercises, 8-channel surface electromyography (Noraxon USA, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) was used. The surface electrodes were attached to the bilateral latissimus dorsi muscle, multifidus muscle, gluteus maximus, and semitendinous muscle. Three Pilates back exercises were compared: (1) double leg kick (DLK), (2) swimming (SW), and (3) leg beat (LB). Electrical muscle activation was normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess the differences in activation levels among the exercises. [Results] The activity of the multifidus muscle was significantly high for the SW (52.3±11.0, 50.9±9.8) and LB exercises(51.8±12.8, 48.3±13.9) and the activity of the semitendinosus muscle was higher for the LB exercise (49.2±8.7, 52.9±9.3) than for the DLK and SW exercises. [Conclusion] These results may provide basic material for when Pilates exercises are performed in a prone position and may be useful information on clinical Pilates for rehabilitation programs.

  10. The effects of horseback riding simulator exercises on the muscle activity of the lower extremities according to changes in arm posture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of horseback riding simulator exercise on the muscle activities of the lower extremities according to changes in arm posture. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 normal adult males and females. [Methods] The horseback riding simulator exercise used a horseback riding simulator device; two arm postures were used, posture 1 (holding the handle of the device) and posture 2 (crossing both arms, with both hands on the shoulders). Electromyography was used to compare the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and hip adductors in the lower extremities. [Results] Posture 2 had significantly higher muscle activity than posture 1. [Conclusion] Posture 2, which entailed crossing both arms with both hands on the shoulders, was an effective intervention for improved muscle activity in the hip adductors. PMID:26504280

  11. The relation of hand functions with radiological damage and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Birtane, Murat; Kabayel, Derya Demirbag; Uzunca, Kaan; Unlu, Ercument; Tastekin, Nurettin

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate specifically the correlation of hand functions determined by Duruoz hand index (DHI) with radiological findings and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Forty-eight RA patients were evaluated with DHI questionnaire, disease activity score (DAS) 28 and modified Larsen scoring method. Correlation between DAS-28 and DHI was assessed in all the patients. Mean DHI scores were compared between patients in remission (DAS-28 < 2.6) and patients who have more or less disease activity (DAS-28 >or= 2.6). To exclude the probable conflicting effect of disease activity on hand functions, the correlation between radiological scores and DHI was investigated only in patients with remission. There was a positive correlation between DAS-28 and DHI in all patients group (r = 0.434, P < 0.002). No correlation between the radiological scores of any joint groups and DHI could be found in patients with remission. Hand functions seemed to be affected prominently from disease activity. Radiological scores demonstrating joint damage were not in relation with hand functions.

  12. Plasma lactic dehydrogenase activities in men during bed rest with exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.

  13. Comparison of Lower Limb Muscle Activity during Eccentric and Concentric Exercises in Runners with Achilles Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jaeho

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify changes in muscle activation by comparing muscle activities of the affected side (AS) and non-affected side (NAS) during eccentric and concentric exercises in runners with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. [Subjects] The study included 18 participants consisting of men and women with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in a single leg who had more than 1 year of running experience. [Methods] All subjects performed concentric and eccentric exercise with the Achilles tendon moving from full plantar flexion to full dorsiflexion for 8 seconds, and electromyography data was obtained. [Results] All muscles examined showed a significant increase in %maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with concentric exercise compared with eccentric exercise. Compared with the NAS, the AS showed significant increases in %MVC of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius. All interaction effects of exercise methods and injuries showed statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] Runners with Achilles tendinopathy show increases in medial gastrocnemius activity when performing eccentric exercise. PMID:25276014

  14. Non-exercise physical activity in agricultural and urban people.

    PubMed

    Levine, James A; McCrady, Shelly K; Boyne, Sandra; Smith, Joanne; Cargill, Kathryn; Forrester, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    With evidence that urbanisation is associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, this article compares daily physical activity between rural and urban dwellers. Specifically, it examines habitual daily activity levels, non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and energy expenditure in agricultural and urban Jamaicans and urban North Americans. Ambulation was 60 per cent greater in rural Jamaicans than in the urban dwellers (4675 ± 2261 versus 2940 ± 1120 ambulation-attributed arbitrary units (AU)/day; P = 0.001). Levels of ambulation in lean urban Jamaicans were similar to those in lean urban North Americans, whereas obese urban dwellers walked less than their lean urban counterparts (2198 ± 516 versus 2793 ± 774 AU/day; P = 0.01). The data with respect to daily sitting mirrored the walking data; obese Americans sat for almost four hours more each day than rural Jamaicans (562 ± 78 versus 336 ± 68 minutes/day; P < 0.001). Urbanisation is associated with low levels of daily activity and NEAT.

  15. A Hands-On Activity Incorporating the Threefold Representation on Limiting Reactant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonza´lez-Sa´nchez, Ange´lica M.; Ortiz-Nieves, Edgardo L.; Medina, Zuleikra

    2014-01-01

    Many students share the common belief that the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction is the reactant in the smallest quantity of material. To help students overcome this difficulty a hands-on activity for the limiting reactant concept was developed. The activity incorporates the three levels of representation (macroscopic, submicroscopic, and…

  16. The Art and Science Connection: Hands-on Activities for Intermediate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Kimberley

    Most people think that the artist and the scientist live in two totally different worlds. However, art and science are only two different ways of understanding and knowing the world. To help intermediate students make a connection between art and science, a collection of hands-on activities have been developed. By engaging in these activities that…

  17. CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO PESTICIDE HAND LOADINGS FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of children's activities in leading to pesticide exposure was evaluated by comparing pesticide loadings on the hands of children with the activities of the same children observed over a 4 hour period. Ten children ranging in age from 24-55 months were videotaped on the s...

  18. Pi in the Sky: Hands-on Mathematical Activities for Teaching Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pethoud, Robert

    This book of activities was designed to provide students with the opportunity to create mental models of concepts in astronomy while using simple, homemade tools. In addition, these sequential, hands-on activities are to help students see how scientific knowledge is obtained. The introduction describes the rationale for the book and describes the…

  19. The Art and Science Connection. Hands-On Activities for Primary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Kimberley

    Most people think that the artist and the scientist live in two totally different worlds. However, art and science are only two different ways of understanding and knowing the world. To help primary students make a connection between art and science, a collection of hands-on activities have been developed. By engaging in these activities that…

  20. Alignment of Hands-On STEM Engagement Activities with Positive STEM Dispositions in Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in…

  1. Turning Routine Exercises into Activities That Teach Inquiry: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorée, Suzanne Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    How can we teach inquiry? In this paper, I offer practical techniques for teaching inquiry effectively using activities built from routine textbook exercises with minimal advanced preparation, including rephrasing exercises as questions, creating activities that inspire students to make conjectures, and asking for counterexamples to reasonable,…

  2. Changes in Short-Term Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise of University Personal Wellness Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Mick G.; Shaddox, Lea Ann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes toward physical activity and exercise of university students enrolled in Personal Wellness classes. 1,625 undergraduate students completed the Attitudes Toward Exercise and Physical Activity (ATEPA) inventory on the first and last day of the class. Paired-samples t test results comparing the mean pretest ATEPA…

  3. Positionality and Active Learning: Confronting Privilege in Field-Exercise Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankins, Katherine B.; Yarbrough, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    University instructors are increasingly drawing on active learning exercises to engender critical thinking skills among students. In this article, we introduce the design and implementation of an active learning exercise about mobility and transportation that we assigned in an introductory human geography class at the University of Georgia. The…

  4. Active range of motion outcomes after reconstruction of burned wrist and hand deformities.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Ahmed M; Mahboub, Tarek A; Ibrahim Fouad, Amr; Azari, Kodi; Khalil, Haitham H; McCarthy, James E

    2016-06-01

    This works aim is to evaluate the efficacy of skin grafts and flaps in reconstruction of post-burn hand and wrist deformities. A prospective study of 57 burn contractures of the wrist and dorsum of the hand was performed. Flaps were used only if there was a non-vascularized structure after contracture release, otherwise a skin graft was used. Active range of motion (ROM) was used to assess hand function. The extension deformity cohort uniformly underwent skin graft following contracture release with a mean improvement of 71 degrees (p<0.0001). The flexion deformity cohort was treated with either skin grafts (8 patients) or flaps (9 patients) with a mean improvement of 44 degrees (p<0.0001). Skin grafts suffice for dorsal hand contractures to restore functional wrist ROM. For flexion contractures, flaps were more likely for contractures >6 months. Early release of burn contracture is advisable to avoid deep structure contracture.

  5. Gaze and hand position effects on finger-movement-related human brain activation.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Patrick; Sanes, Jerome N

    2009-02-01

    Humans commonly use their hands to move and to interact with their environment by processing visual and proprioceptive information to determine the location of a goal-object and the initial hand position. It remains elusive, however, how the human brain fully uses this sensory information to generate accurate movements. In monkeys, it appears that frontal and parietal areas use and combine gaze and hand signals to generate movements, whereas in humans, prior work has separately assessed how the brain uses these two signals. Here we investigated whether and how the human brain integrates gaze orientation and hand position during simple visually triggered finger tapping. We hypothesized that parietal, frontal, and subcortical regions involved in movement production would also exhibit modulation of movement-related activation as a function of gaze and hand positions. We used functional MRI to measure brain activation while healthy young adults performed a visually cued finger movement and fixed gaze at each of three locations and held the arm in two different configurations. We found several areas that exhibited activation related to a mixture of these hand and gaze positions; these included the sensory-motor cortex, supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate, and left cerebellum. We also found regions within the left insula, left cuneus, left midcingulate gyrus, left putamen, and right tempo-occipital junction with activation driven only by gaze orientation. Finally, clusters with hand position effects were found in the cerebellum bilaterally. Our results indicate that these areas integrate at least two signals to perform visual-motor actions and that these could be used to subserve sensory-motor transformations.

  6. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts

  7. Sex differences in brain cholinergic activity in MSG-obese rats submitted to exercise.

    PubMed

    Sagae, Sara Cristina; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Raineki, Charlis; Balbo, Sandra Lucinei; Marques da Silva, Ana Carla

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is an epidemic disease most commonly caused by a combination of increased energy intake and lack of physical activity. The cholinergic system has been shown to be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Moreover, physical exercise promotes a reduction of fat pads and body mass by increasing energy expenditure, but also influences the cholinergic system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction between physical exercise (swimming) and central cholinergic activity in rats treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG, a model for obesity) during infancy. Our results show that MSG treatment is able to induce obesity in male and female rats. Specifically, MSG-treated rats presented a reduced body mass and nasoanal length, and increased perigonadal and retroperitoneal fat pads in relation to the body mass. Physical exercise was able to reduce body mass in both male and female rats, but did not change the fat pads in MSG-treated rats. Increased food intake was only seen in MSG-treated females submitted to exercise. Cholinergic activity was increased in the cortex of MSG-treated females and physical exercise was able to reduce this activity. Thalamic cholinergic activity was higher in sedentary MSG-treated females and exercised MSG-treated males. Hypothalamic cholinergic activity was higher in male and female MSG-treated rats, and was not reduced by exercise in the 2 sexes. Taken together, these results show that MSG treatment and physical exercise have different effects in the cholinergic activity of males and females.

  8. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key points Better cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improves Exercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adults The improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267

  9. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot. PMID:27134364

  10. Effects of different types of exercise on muscle activity and balance control

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Gim, Min-A; Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the effects of isotonic, isokinetic, and isometric exercises of ankle joint muscles on lower extremity muscle activity and balance control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy adults (15 males) in their 20s who were randomly assigned to three different exercise method groups of 10 people each. The isokinetic exercise group performed three sets at an angular velocity of 60°/sec, including a single rest period after every set of 10 repetitions. The isometric exercise group performed three sets consisting of three 15 repetitions of a 15-second exercise followed by a 5-second rest. [Results] Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that depending on the exercise method, the non-dominant tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius muscle, and peroneus longus showed significant differences in muscle activity for weight-bearing non-dominant sides; when the dominant side was weight-bearing, the dominant gastrocnemius and peroneus longus showed significant differences in muscle activity; and the non-dominant and dominant sides showed significant differences in balance control depending on the duration of support in the area. [Conclusion] Muscle fatigue from the three exercise methods produced a decline in muscle activity and balance control; due to the fatigue before exercise, the side that did not perform the exercises was affected. PMID:26180340

  11. Comparison of Blood Lactate Elimination in Individuals With Paraplegia and Able-Bodied Individuals During Active Recovery From Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Leicht, Christof; Perret, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare blood lactate elimination between individuals with paraplegia (P) and able-bodied (AB) individuals after strenuous arm exercise. Methods: Eight P and 8 AB men (matched for age, height, and weight) participated in this study. Average weekly arm-training volume for P participants (eg, hand bike, wheelchair basketball) and AB participants (eg, swimming, rowing, cross-country skiing) was 4.1 ± 1.6 vs 2.8 ± 0.8 h. A maximal-arm-cranking intensity-graded exercise test to volitional exhaustion was performed by all test participants. Immediately after the exercise test, the participants performed arm cranking for another 30 minutes at a workload of one third of the maximally achieved power output. During this active recovery, mixed-capillary blood samples were taken for lactate analysis. Results: The lactate accumulation constant was significantly higher for P individuals, whereas the lactate elimination constant showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: Individuals with paraplegia seem to have no disadvantages in lactate elimination after exhaustive arm exercise compared with able-bodied individuals. PMID:18533413

  12. Contamination by an Active Control Condition in a Randomized Exercise Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Contamination is commonly overlooked in randomized trials. The present study examined contamination (minutes of aerobic activity outside of exercise sessions) within an active control condition in a 6-month randomized exercise trial for older adults. We hypothesized that outside aerobic activity would be greater in the control condition compared to the intervention conditions. Participants (mean age = 65.06 years, 66.2% female) were randomly assigned to: Dance (n = 50), Walking, (n = 108), or Strength/Stretching/Stability (SSS; n = 48). Dance and Walking represented the experimental conditions and SSS the control condition. Participants attended exercise sessions three times weekly for 24 weeks. Participants recorded their physical activity outside of class on a weekly home log. Group assignment and covariates (age, gender, body mass index, exercise session intensity and enjoyment, and program adherence) were examined as predictors of weekly aerobic activity outside of exercise sessions. Participants who returned zero home logs were removed from the dataset (final N = 195). Out-of-class aerobic activity was lowest in the Walking group. Significant effects of gender, group, enjoyment, and intensity on out-of-class weekly aerobic activity were observed, all p<0.003. Higher perceived enjoyment of exercise sessions was associated with more out-of-class aerobic activity, while higher perceived intensity was associated with less out-of-class aerobic activity. A group x intensity interaction, p = 0.002, indicated that group differences in out-of-class aerobic activity were evident only among those with lower intensity perceptions. Walkers may have perceived exercise sessions as sufficient weekly exercise, while the Dance and SSS groups may have perceived the sessions as necessary, but insufficient. The lower aerobic intensity Dancers attributed to exercise sessions and non-aerobic nature of SSS may partially explain contamination observed in this study. Further

  13. Endurance time, muscular activity and the hand/arm tremor for different exertion forces of holding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exertion force on endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor during holding. Fifteen healthy young males were recruited as participants. The independent variable was exertion force (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity). The dependent variables were endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor. The results showed that endurance time decreased with exertion force while muscular activity and hand/arm tremor increased with exertion force. Hand/arm tremor increased with holding time. Endurance time of 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity was approximately 22.7%, 12.0% and 5.6% of that of 20% maximum holding capacity, respectively. The rms (root mean square) acceleration of hand/arm tremor of the final phase of holding was 2.27-, 1.33-, 1.20- and 1.73-fold of that of the initial phase of holding for 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity, respectively.

  14. Comparison of muscle-activation patterns during the conventional push-up and perfect· pushup™ exercises.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Budach, Brian D; Ellerbusch, Jay V; Stucky, Craig M; Wait, Kevin R; Hollman, John H

    2010-12-01

    Manufacturers of Perfect·Pushup™ handgrips claim enhanced muscular recruitment when compared with the conventional hand-on-floor push-up exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded using surface electrodes from the right-sided triceps brachii, pectoralis major, serratus anterior (SA), and posterior deltoid muscles during push-ups performed from 3 different hand positions: (a) shoulder width, (b) wide base, and (c) narrow base (NB). Push-ups were performed under 2 conditions: (a) standard push-up and (b) Perfect·Pushup™ handgrips. We recruited 20 healthy subjects, 11 men (24.9 ± 2.6 years) and 9 women (23.8 ± 1 years). Subjects completed 3 consecutive push-ups for each hand position under both conditions. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome, and testing order was randomized. We recorded peak EMG activity for each muscle during each of the push-ups and normalized EMG values by maximum muscle contractions (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]). Electromyographic data were analyzed with 3 (hand position) × 2 (condition) repeated-measures analysis of variance with a post hoc Bonferroni-adjusted simple effects test to detect significant position effects for position by condition interactions (α = 0.05). A push-up required considerable muscle activation of the triceps brachii (73-109% MVIC), pectoralis major (95-105% MVIC), SA (67-87% MVIC), and posterior deltoid (11-21% MVIC) whether performed using the conventional hand-on-floor position or the Perfect·Pushup™ handgrips. The NB hand position was most effective for preferentially activating the triceps brachii and posterior deltoid muscles. Based upon EMG activation from 4 muscles, the Perfect·Pushup™ handgrips do not appear to preferentially enhance muscular recruitment when compared with the conventional push-up method.

  15. Motor sequence learning in the elderly: differential activity patterns as a function of hand modality.

    PubMed

    Eudave, Luis; Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Luis, Elkin O; Martínez, Martín; Fernández-Seara, María A; Pastor, María A

    2016-07-21

    Previous research on motor sequence learning (MSL) in the elderly has focused mainly on unilateral tasks, even though bilateral coordination might be impaired in this age group. In this fMRI study, 28 right-handed elderly subjects were recruited. The paradigm consisted of a Novel and a simple Control sequence executed with the right (R), left (L) and both hands (B). Behavioral performance (Accuracy[AC], Inter-tap Interval[ITI]) and associated brain activity were assessed during early learning. Behavioral performance in the Novel task was similar between unilateral conditions whereas in the bimanual condition more errors and slower motor execution were observed. Brain activity increases during learning showed differences between Conditions: R showed increased activity in pre-SMA, basal ganglia and left hippocampus while B showed activity increments mainly in posterior parietal cortex and cerebellum. L did not show any activity modulation during learning. Performance correlates for AC (related to spatial success) and ITI (related to accurate timing) shared a cortico-basal-cerebellar network. However, it was found that the ITI regressor presented additional significant correlations with activity in SMA and basal ganglia in R. The AC regressor showed additional significant correlations with activity in more extended thalamic and cerebellar areas in B. The present findings suggest that, behaviorally, the spatial and temporal components of MSL are impaired in elderly subjects when using both hands. Additionally, differential brain activity patterns were found across hand modalities. The results obtained reveal the existence of a highly specialized network in the dominant hand and identify areas specifically involved in bimanual coordination.

  16. Breakpoints in ventilation, cerebral and muscle oxygenation, and muscle activity during an incremental cycling exercise

    PubMed Central

    Racinais, Sebastien; Buchheit, Martin; Girard, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to locate the breakpoints of cerebral and muscle oxygenation and muscle electrical activity during a ramp exercise in reference to the first and second ventilatory thresholds. Twenty-five cyclists completed a maximal ramp test on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of 25 W/min. Expired gazes (breath-by-breath), prefrontal cortex and vastus lateralis (VL) oxygenation [Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)] together with electromyographic (EMG) Root Mean Square (RMS) activity for the VL, rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were continuously assessed. There was a non-linear increase in both cerebral deoxyhemoglobin (at 56 ± 13% of the exercise) and oxyhemoglobin (56 ± 8% of exercise) concomitantly to the first ventilatory threshold (57 ± 6% of exercise, p > 0.86, Cohen's d < 0.1). Cerebral deoxyhemoglobin further increased (87 ± 10% of exercise) while oxyhemoglobin reached a plateau/decreased (86 ± 8% of exercise) after the second ventilatory threshold (81 ± 6% of exercise, p < 0.05, d > 0.8). We identified one threshold only for muscle parameters with a non-linear decrease in muscle oxyhemoglobin (78 ± 9% of exercise), attenuation in muscle deoxyhemoglobin (80 ± 8% of exercise), and increase in EMG activity of VL (89 ± 5% of exercise), RF (82 ± 14% of exercise), and BF (85 ± 9% of exercise). The thresholds in BF and VL EMG activity occurred after the second ventilatory threshold (p < 0.05, d > 0.6). Our results suggest that the metabolic and ventilatory events characterizing this latter cardiopulmonary threshold may affect both cerebral and muscle oxygenation levels, and in turn, muscle recruitment responses. PMID:24782786

  17. Perspectives on Physical Activity and Exercise Among Appalachian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Rian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most children in the United States receive far less physical activity (PA) than is optimal. In rural, under resourced areas of Appalachian Kentucky, physical inactivity rates are significantly higher than national levels. We sought to understand children’s perceptions of PA, with the goal of developing culturally appropriate programming to increase PA. Methods During 11 focus groups, we explored perspectives on PA among 63 Appalachian children, ages 8–17. Sessions were tape recorded, transcribed, content analyzed, and subjected to verification procedures. Results Several perspectives on PA emerged among these rural Appalachian youth, including the clear distinction between PA (viewed as positive) and exercise (viewed as negative) and an emphasis on time and resource factors as barriers to adequate PA. Additional PA determinants expressed in the focus groups are similar to those of other populations. We include children’s recommendations for appealing PA programs. Conclusions Appalachian and other rural residents contend with the loss of rural health advantages (due to declines in farming/other occupational and avocational transitions). At the same time, Appalachian residents have not benefitted from urban PA facilitators (sidewalks, recreational facilities, clubs and organized leisure activities). Addressing low PA levels requires extensive community input and creative programming. PMID:22397810

  18. Inflammation and exercise: Inhibition of monocytic intracellular TNF production by acute exercise via β2-adrenergic activation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Stoyan; Hulteng, Elaine; Hong, Suzi

    2017-03-01

    Regular exercise is shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects, yet the effects of acute exercise on cellular inflammatory responses and its mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that sympathoadrenergic activation during a single bout of exercise has a suppressive effect on monocytic cytokine production mediated by β2 adrenergic receptors (AR). We investigated the effects of 20-min moderate (65-70% VO2 peak) exercise-induced catecholamine production on LPS-stimulated TNF production by monocytes in 47 healthy volunteers and determined AR subtypes involved. We also examined the effects of β-agonist isoproterenol and endogenous β- and α-agonists epinephrine and norepinephrine, and receptor-subtype-specific β- and α-antagonists on TNF production in a series of in vitro investigations. LPS-stimulated TNF production by peripheral blood monocytes was determined intracellularly by flow cytometry, using an intracellular protein transport inhibitor. Percent TNF-producing monocytes and per-cell TNF production with and without LPS was suppressed by exercise with moderate to large effects, which was reversed by a β2-AR antagonist in spite that plasma TNF levels did not change. This inhibitory response in TNF production by exercise was mirrored by β-AR agonists in an agonist-specific and dose-dependent manner in vitro: similar isoproterenol (EC50=2.1-4.7×10(-10)M) and epinephrine (EC50=4.4-10×10(-10)M) potency and higher norepinephrine concentrations (EC50=2.6-4.3×10(-8)M) needed for the effects. Importantly, epinephrine levels observed during acute exercise in vivo significantly inhibited TNF production in vitro. The inhibitory effect of the AR agonists was abolished by β2-, but not by β1- or α-AR blockers. We conclude that the downregulation of monocytic TNF production during acute exercise is mediated by elevated epinephrine levels through β2-ARs. Decreased inflammatory responses during acute exercise may protect against chronic conditions with low

  19. Muscle sympathetic activity in resting and exercising humans with and without heart failure.

    PubMed

    Notarius, Catherine F; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S

    2015-11-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is critical for coordinating the cardiovascular response to various types of physical exercise. In a number of disease states, including human heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), this regulation can be disturbed and adversely affect outcome. The purpose of this review is to describe sympathetic activity at rest and during exercise in both healthy humans and those with HFrEF and outline factors, which influence these responses. We focus predominately on studies that report direct measurements of efferent sympathetic nerve traffic to skeletal muscle (muscle sympathetic nerve activity; MSNA) using intraneural microneurographic recordings. Differences in MSNA discharge between subjects with and without HFrEF both at rest and during exercise and the influence of exercise training on the sympathetic response to exercise will be discussed. In contrast to healthy controls, MSNA increases during mild to moderate dynamic exercise in the presence of HFrEF. This increase may contribute to the exercise intolerance characteristic of HFrEF by limiting muscle blood flow and may be attenuated by exercise training. Future investigations are needed to clarify the neural afferent mechanisms that contribute to efferent sympathetic activation at rest and during exercise in HFrEF.

  20. Motor unit activity after eccentric exercise and muscle damage in humans.

    PubMed

    Semmler, J G

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle damage and soreness, which can produce long-lasting effects on muscle function. How this muscle damage influences muscle activation is poorly understood. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight the effect of eccentric exercise on the activation of muscle by the nervous system, by examining the change in motor unit activity obtained from surface electromyography (EMG) and intramuscular recordings. Previous research shows that eccentric exercise produces unusual changes in the EMG–force relation that influences motor performance during isometric, shortening and lengthening muscle contractions and during fatiguing tasks. When examining the effect of eccentric exercise at the single motor unit level, there are substantial changes in recruitment thresholds, discharge rates, motor unit conduction velocities and synchronization, which can last for up to 1 week after eccentric exercise. Examining the time course of these changes suggests that the increased submaximal EMG after eccentric exercise most likely occurs through a decrease in motor unit conduction velocity and an increase in motor unit activity related to antagonist muscle coactivation and low-frequency fatigue. Furthermore, there is a commonly held view that eccentric exercise produces preferential damage to high-threshold motor units, but the evidence for this in humans is limited. Further research is needed to establish whether there is preferential damage to high-threshold motor units after eccentric exercise in humans, preferably by linking changes in motor unit activity with estimates of motor unit size using selective intramuscular recording techniques.

  1. Dyspnoea with activities of daily living versus peak dyspnoea during exercise in male patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Oga, Toru; Nishimura, Koichi; Tsukino, Mitsuhiro; Hajiro, Takashi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2006-06-01

    Dyspnoea measurements in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be broadly divided into two categories: those that assess breathlessness during exercise, and those that assess breathlessness during daily activities. We investigated the relationships between dyspnoea at the end of exercise and during daily activities with clinical measurements and mortality in COPD patients. We examined 143 male outpatients with moderate to very severe COPD. The peak Borg score at the end of progressive cycle ergometry was used for the assessment of peak dyspnoea rating during exercise, and the Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI) score was used for dyspnoea with activities of daily living. Relationships between these dyspnoea ratings with other clinical measurements of pulmonary function, exercise indices, health status and psychological status were then investigated. In addition, their relationship with the 5-year mortality of COPD patients was also analyzed to examine their predictive ability. Although the BDI score was significantly correlated with airflow limitation, diffusing capacity, exercise indices, health status and psychological status, the Borg score at the end of exercise had non-existent or only weak correlations with them. The BDI score was strongly significantly correlated with mortality, whereas the Borg score was not. Dyspnoea during daily activities was more significantly correlated with objective and subjective measurements of COPD than dyspnoea at the end of exercise. In addition, the former was more predictive of mortality. Dyspnoea with activities of daily living is considered to be a better measurement for evaluating the disease severity of COPD than peak dyspnoea during exercise.

  2. Brain activation associated with motor imagery of coordination exercises and social abilities.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Akito Azumane; Sudo, Michiko Mochizuki; Kirino, Eiji; Itoh, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were: (1) to investigate the brain activation associated with coordination exercises done by one person and those by two persons and (2) to examine the interrelationships between the brain activation and social abilities. We were interested in testing the hypothesis that viewing two-person coordination exercises evokes more sophisticated brain activation than viewing one-person coordination exercises. Thirty Japanese college students served as subjects. There were two sessions in this study: the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session and the social ability session. In the fMRI session, the subjects were instructed to imagine they were performing coordination exercises. Also, we examined the social abilities from the viewpoint of empathising. Empathising was measured by self-reports on the Systemising, Empathy and Autism Spectrum Quotients (SQ, EQ and AQ). Regarding brain activation, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation was significant in specific areas such as the left cuneus (Brodmann area: BA 17) when the subjects imagined they were performing exercises involving two persons, as compared with the cases when they imagined they were performing exercises involving only one person. The fMRI results showed that exercises done by two persons require more sophisticated communication than those done by one person. Furthermore, the results of this study suggested that those with more autistic traits may undergo difficulties in the exercises done by two persons, especially in the case of playing a role as a follower.

  3. Moderate endurance exercise in patients with sickle cell anaemia: effects on oxidative stress and endothelial activation.

    PubMed

    Faes, Camille; Balayssac-Siransy, Edwige; Connes, Philippe; Hivert, Ludovic; Danho, Clotaire; Bogui, Pascal; Martin, Cyril; Pialoux, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated the effects of exercise on the biological parameters involved in vaso-occlusive events in sickle cell anaemia (SCA). The aim of this study was to test how a mild-moderate endurance exercise modulates oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability and endothelial activation in SCA patients and healthy individuals. Eleven patients with SCA and 15 healthy subjects completed a 20-min duration submaximal cycling exercise at ≈45 Watts. Plasma markers of oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, endothelial activation and nitric oxide bioavailability were investigated before and after the exercise. Nitric oxide levels, anti-oxidant capacity, soluble (s)E-selectin and sP-selectin did not change in response to this exercise. Except for the malondialdehyde levels, which increased in the two groups, the other markers of oxidative stress remained unchanged in both groups in response to exercise. Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 levels were increased at the end of exercise in both groups. sL-selectin decreased and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 increased with exercise in SCA patients only. The present data suggest that patients with SCA may undertake mild-moderate physical activities without any acute clinical complications, but care should be taken because oxidative stress and endothelial activation significantly increased in some patients.

  4. Comprehensive bactericidal activity of an ethanol-based hand gel in 15 seconds

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Hollingsworth, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Background Some studies indicate that the commonly recommended 30 s application time for the post contamination treatment of hands may not be necessary as the same effect may be achieved with some formulations in a shorter application time such as 15 s. Method We evaluated the bactericidal activity of an ethanol-based hand gel (Sterillium® Comfort Gel) within 15 s in a time-kill-test against 11 Gram-positive, 16 Gram-negative bacteria and 11 emerging bacterial pathogens. Each strain was evaluated in quadruplicate. Results The hand gel (85% ethanol, w/w) was found to reduce all 11 Gram-positive and all 16 Gram-negative bacteria by more than 5 log10 steps within 15 s, not only against the ATCC test strains but also against corresponding clinical isolates. In addition, a log10 reduction > 5 was observed against all tested emerging bacterial pathogens. Conclusion The ethanol-based hand gel was found to have a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity in only 15 s which includes the most common species causing nosocomial infections and the relevant emerging pathogens. Future research will hopefully help to find out if a shorter application time for the post contamination treatment of hands provides more benefits or more risks. PMID:18211682

  5. Teaching the Common Core Math Standards with Hands-On Activities, Grades 6-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muschla, Judith A.; Muschla, Gary Robert; Muschla, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The new Common Core State Standards for Mathematics have been formulated to provide students with instruction that will help them acquire a thorough knowledge of math at their grade level, which will in turn enable them to move on to higher mathematics with competence and confidence. "Hands-on Activities for Teaching the Common Core Math…

  6. Of Heart & Kidneys: Hands-On Activities for Demonstrating Organ Function & Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in teaching organ development and disease is deconstructing a complex choreography of molecular and cellular changes over time into a linear stepwise process for students. As an entry toward learning developmental concepts, I propose two inexpensive hands-on activities to help facilitate learning of (1) how to identify defects in…

  7. Why Are "Hands-On" Science Activities so Effective for Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterthwait, Donna

    2010-01-01

    From effective learning research, there is a general consensus that hands-on experiences help students to learn. The question that this paper seeks to answer is what it is about these activities that fosters student learning. In a review of the literature, three factors have been identified as making a significant contribution to this strategy's…

  8. Apple Treats. BASIC Classroom Computing Featuring Hands-On Activities and Pencil/Paper Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    Developed as an introduction to computer programming using an Apple microcomputer, this document presents teachers and students with: (1) essential vocabulary used in the BASIC language; (2) syntax; and (3) programming techniques. Simple hands-on activities designed to guide the learner through beginning BASIC programming skills and fundamental…

  9. Natural Disasters Workshop Integrating Hands-On Activities, Internet-Based Data, and GIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Melida; Coulter, Bob; Goodwin, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a week-long "Mapping Natural Disasters" workshop offered to K-12 teachers to promote inquiry-based teaching approaches. The workshop modeled the integration of hands-on activities, internet-based data, and the use of geographic information systems (GIS) software. (Author/MM)

  10. Witness to History: Using Hands-On Activities, A Guidebook for High School History Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Suzanne

    This guidebook is intended to help high school students discover the connection between themselves and the people from the past by being engaged in hands-on activities. The guidebook allows students to create artifacts or recreate a process known well to people from times past. The guide is arranged to provide historical background, materials…

  11. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise. PMID:26840532

  12. Active play exercise intervention in children with asthma: a PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Westergren, Thomas; Fegran, Liv; Nilsen, Tonje; Haraldstad, Kristin; Kittang, Ole Bjørn; Berntsen, Sveinung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Increased physical activity (PA) may be beneficial for children with asthma. Knowledge about how to intervene and encourage children with asthma to be physically active is required. In the present study, we aimed to pilot a 6-week exercise intervention designed as active play and examine attendance rate, exercise intensity and children's perceptions of participating. Methods 6 children with asthma (4 boys, 2 girls) aged 10–12 years, participated in 60 min of active play exercise twice weekly. A mixed-methods design was applied. The data analysed included attendance rate, exercise intensity assessed by heart rate (HR) monitoring during exercise sessions, registration and description of the active play exercise programme, 3 semistructured focus groups, field observations of 5 exercise sessions, and preintervention and postintervention testing. Findings The average attendance rate was 90%. Intensity ≥80% of maximal HR (HRmax) was recorded for a median (IQR) time of 22 (8) out of 60 min per session. Median (IQR) HR during the sessions was 146 (9; 74% of HRmax) bpm. Children reported increased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) post-test compared with baseline. Children enjoyed participating and reported no limitations by asthma or serious asthma attacks. Instead, they perceived that their asthma and fitness had improved after the programme. The instructors created an inclusive atmosphere that was characterised by easy-to-master games, fair competition, humour and mutual participation. Conclusions The exercise intervention pilot focusing on active play had a high attendance rate, relatively high exercise intensity, and satisfaction; the children perceived that their fitness and asthma had improved, and reported increased HRQoL. A randomised controlled trial of active play exercise including children with asthma should be conducted to evaluate effect on PA level, physical fitness, asthma control and HRQoL. PMID:26733570

  13. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tiantian; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise.

  14. Physical activity and exercise in the regulation of human adipose tissue physiology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dylan; Karpe, Fredrik; Lafontan, Max; Frayn, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise are key components of energy expenditure and therefore of energy balance. Changes in energy balance alter fat mass. It is therefore reasonable to ask: What are the links between physical activity and adipose tissue function? There are many complexities. Physical activity is a multifaceted behavior of which exercise is just one component. Physical activity influences adipose tissue both acutely and in the longer term. A single bout of exercise stimulates adipose tissue blood flow and fat mobilization, resulting in delivery of fatty acids to skeletal muscles at a rate well-matched to metabolic requirements, except perhaps in vigorous intensity exercise. The stimuli include adrenergic and other circulating factors. There is a period following an exercise bout when fatty acids are directed away from adipose tissue to other tissues such as skeletal muscle, reducing dietary fat storage in adipose. With chronic exercise (training), there are changes in adipose tissue physiology, particularly an enhanced fat mobilization during acute exercise. It is difficult, however, to distinguish chronic "structural" changes from those associated with the last exercise bout. In addition, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of training per se and negative energy balance. Epidemiological observations support the idea that physically active people have relatively low fat mass, and intervention studies tend to show that exercise training reduces fat mass. A much-discussed effect of exercise versus calorie restriction in preferentially reducing visceral fat is not borne out by meta-analyses. We conclude that, in addition to the regulation of fat mass, physical activity may contribute to metabolic health through beneficial dynamic changes within adipose tissue in response to each activity bout.

  15. Giving speech a hand: gesture modulates activity in auditory cortex during speech perception.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Amy L; Wilson, Stephen M; Callan, Daniel E; Dapretto, Mirella

    2009-03-01

    Viewing hand gestures during face-to-face communication affects speech perception and comprehension. Despite the visible role played by gesture in social interactions, relatively little is known about how the brain integrates hand gestures with co-occurring speech. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and an ecologically valid paradigm to investigate how beat gesture-a fundamental type of hand gesture that marks speech prosody-might impact speech perception at the neural level. Subjects underwent fMRI while listening to spontaneously-produced speech accompanied by beat gesture, nonsense hand movement, or a still body; as additional control conditions, subjects also viewed beat gesture, nonsense hand movement, or a still body all presented without speech. Validating behavioral evidence that gesture affects speech perception, bilateral nonprimary auditory cortex showed greater activity when speech was accompanied by beat gesture than when speech was presented alone. Further, the left superior temporal gyrus/sulcus showed stronger activity when speech was accompanied by beat gesture than when speech was accompanied by nonsense hand movement. Finally, the right planum temporale was identified as a putative multisensory integration site for beat gesture and speech (i.e., here activity in response to speech accompanied by beat gesture was greater than the summed responses to speech alone and beat gesture alone), indicating that this area may be pivotally involved in synthesizing the rhythmic aspects of both speech and gesture. Taken together, these findings suggest a common neural substrate for processing speech and gesture, likely reflecting their joint communicative role in social interactions.

  16. Effects of exercise and conditioning on clotting and fibrinolytic activity in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Earl W.; Bernier, Lani L.; Banta, Guy R.; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Schoomaker, Eric B.

    1987-01-01

    Blood clotting and fibrinolytic activity in three groups of nonsmoking, nonobese, healthy men ranging from 19 to 59 years are studied. The groups consisted of (1) marathoners (men running more than 50 miles/week); (2) joggers (men running 5-15 miles/week; and (3) sedentary subjects (men who did not exercise routinely). It is observed that the rate of blood clotting is accelerated by exercise; marathoners had greater increases in fibrinolytic activity than the other two groups; and fibrin degradation products increased with exercise. The data reveal that the changes in clotting assays with exercise do not correlate with changes in whole blood lactate, blood pyruvate, or rectal temperatures. It is noted that the level of acceleration for fibrinolytic activity is directly related to the maximum aerobic capacity and work load of the individual, and that conditioning enhances the fibrinolytic response to exercise.

  17. Impact of commonly prescribed exercise interventions on platelet activation in physically inactive and overweight men.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Andrew; Linden, Matthew D; Robey, Elisa; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, Hugh; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    The exercise paradox infers that, despite the well-established cardioprotective effects of repeated episodic exercise (training), the risk of acute atherothrombotic events may be transiently increased during and soon after an exercise bout. However, the acute impact of different exercise modalities on platelet function has not previously been addressed. We hypothesized that distinct modalities of exercise would have differing effects on in vivo platelet activation and reactivity to agonists which induce monocyte-platelet aggregate (MPA) formation. Eight middle-aged (53.5 ± 1.6 years) male participants took part in four 30 min experimental interventions (aerobic AE, resistance RE, combined aerobic/resistance exercise CARE, or no-exercise NE), in random order. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after each intervention, and incubated with one of three agonists of physiologically/clinically relevant pathways of platelet activation (thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 TRAP, arachidonic acid AA, and cross-linked collagen-related peptide xCRP). In the presence of AA, TRAP, and xCRP, both RE and CARE evoked increases in MPAs immediately post-exercise (P < 0.01), whereas only AA significantly increased MPAs immediately after AE (P < 0.01). These increases in platelet activation post-exercise were transient, as responses approached pre-exercise levels by 1 h. These are the first data to suggest that exercise involving a resistance component in humans may transiently increase platelet-mediated thrombotic risk more than aerobic modalities.

  18. The Influence of Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Motives among UK-Based University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…

  19. "Exercise Dependence"--A Problem or Natural Result of High Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Bond, Dale S.; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence (ED) in 267 weight-loss maintainers (WLM) and 213 normal-weight (NW) controls. Methods: PA and ED assessed via accelerometery and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire. Results: WLM had higher PA levels and ED scores than those of NW (P less than 0.0001). WLM status (P = 0.006)…

  20. Glucose Infusion into Exercising Dogs after Confinement: Rectal and Active Muscle Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.

  1. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  2. Exercise Prevents Amyloid-β-Induced Hippocampal Network Disruption by Inhibiting GSK3β Activation.

    PubMed

    Isla, Arturo G; Vázquez-Cuevas, Francisco Gabriel; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2016-03-16

    Exercise is becoming a promising therapeutic approach to prevent alterations both in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in transgenic models of AD. This neuroprotection has been associated with changes in hippocampal structure and function, as well as with the reduction of amyloid-β (Aβ) production and accumulation. However, whether exercise produces lasting changes in hippocampal population activity and renders it resistant to Aβ-induced network dysfunction is still unknown. Thus, we tested whether voluntary exercise changes hippocampal population activity and prevents its alteration in the presence of Aβ, which has been associated to glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activation. We found that the hippocampal population activity recorded in slices obtained from mice that exercised voluntarily (with free access to a running wheel for 21 days) exhibits higher power and faster frequency composition than slices obtained from sedentary animals. Moreover, the hippocampal network of mice that exercised becomes insensitive to Aβ-induced inhibition of spontaneous population activity. This protective effect correlates with the inability of Aβ to activate GSK3β, is mimicked by GSK3β inhibition with SB126763 (in slices obtained from sedentary mice), and is abolished by the inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 (in slices obtained from mice that exercised). We conclude that voluntary exercise produces a lasting protective state in the hippocampus, maintained in hippocampal slices by a PI3K-dependent mechanism that precludes its functional disruption in the presence of Aβ by avoiding GSK3β activation.

  3. The effect of high intensity interval exercise on postprandial triacylglycerol and leukocyte activation--monitored for 48 h post exercise.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Brendan Morris; Pugh, Jamie; Pruneta-Deloche, Valerie; Moulin, Philippe; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Gray, Stuart Robert

    2013-01-01

    Postprandial phenomenon are thought to contribute to atherogenesis alongside activation of the immune system. A single bout of high intensity interval exercise attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), although the longevity and mechanisms underlying this observation are unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether this attenuation in postprandial TG remained 2 days after high intensity interval exercise, to monitor markers of leukocyte activation and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Eight young men each completed two three day trials. On day 1: subjects rested (Control) or performed 5 x 30 s maximal sprints (high intensity interval exercise). On day 2 and 3 subjects consumed high fat meals for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TG, glucose and TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL)-bound LPL-dependent TRL-TG hydrolysis (LTTH). Flow cytometry was used to evaluate granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b and CD36 expression. On day 2 after high intensity interval exercise TG area under the curve was lower (P<0.05) (7.46 ± 1.53 mmol/l/7h) compared to the control trial (9.47 ± 3 .04 mmol/l/7h) with no differences during day 3 of the trial. LTTH activity was higher (P<0.05) after high intensity interval exercise, at 2 hours of day 2, compared to control. Granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b expression increased with time over day 2 and 3 of the study (P<0.0001). Lymphocyte and monocyte CD36 expression decreased with time over day 2 and 3 (P<0.05). There were no differences between trials in CD11b and CD36 expression on any leukocytes. A single session of high intensity interval exercise attenuated postprandial TG on day 2 of the study, with this effect abolished by day 3.The reduction in postprandial TG was associated with an increase in LTTH. High intensity interval exercise had no effect on postprandial responses of CD11b or CD36.

  4. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity.

  5. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity. PMID:27065555

  6. Trunk Muscle Activities During Abdominal Bracing: Comparison Among Muscles and Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank) and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench) exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG) activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax). The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60%) than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%). The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Key Points Trunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing was examined with regard to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Abdominal bracing preferentially activates internal oblique muscles even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Abdominal bracing should be

  7. Exercising with Osteoporosis: Stay Active the Safe Way

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out what exercises are appropriate for you. Strength training Strength training includes the use of free weights, resistance ... with people with osteoporosis can help you develop strength-training routines. Proper form and technique are crucial ...

  8. Exercise Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  9. Defensive activation during the rubber hand illusion: Ownership versus proprioceptive drift.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Martin; Bublatzky, Florian; Trojan, Jörg; Alpers, Georg W

    2015-07-01

    A strong link between body perception and emotional experience has been proposed. To examine the interaction between body perception and anticipatory anxiety, two well-established paradigms were combined: The rubber hand illusion (RHI) and the threat-of-shock paradigm. An artificial hand and the participants' own hand (hidden from sight) were touched synchronously or asynchronously, while either threat-of-shock or safety was cued. Potentiated startle reflexes and enhanced skin conductance responses were observed during threat as compared to safety conditions, but threat conditions did not interact with illusory body perceptions. Thus, defense system activation was not modulated by altered body representations. Physiological responses increased with the sense of ownership for the artificial limb, but not with proprioceptive drift towards its location. The results indicate that ownership ratings and proprioceptive drift capture different aspects of the RHI. The study presents a new approach to investigate the relationship between body representations and emotional states.

  10. [Mental activity hand orthosis control using the EEG: a case study].

    PubMed

    Pfurtscheller, G; Müller, G; Korisek, G

    2002-02-01

    A report is given on the realization of a steering mechanism of a hand orthosis for a patient with paraplegia. An EEG-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) was used here for the first time, transferring purely mental activity to a control signal. This means that the patient has the capability to open or close the hand orthosis only by imagination of a movement. At this time, after a training period of about four months, the patient is able to move the hand orthosis with a certainty of almost hundred percent. The restored grasp function was verified by a grasp function test. Results are compared to those obtained using a conventional EMG-controlled orthosis.

  11. The effectiveness of hand cooling at reducing exercise-induced hyperthermia and improving distance-race performance in wheelchair and able-bodied athletes.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria; Swainson, Michelle; Boyd, Craig; Atkinson, Greg; Tolfrey, Keith

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of reducing core temperature in postexercise hyperthermic subjects and to assess if hand cooling (HC) improves subsequent timed distance performance. Following a detailed measurement check on the use of insulated auditory canal temperature (T(ac)), eight wheelchair (WA) athletes and seven male able-bodied (AB) athletes performed two testing sessions, comprising a 60-min exercise protocol and 10-min recovery period, followed by a performance trial (1 km and 3 km for WA and AB, respectively) at 30.8 degrees C (SD 0.2) and 60.6% (SD 0.2) relative humidity. In a counterbalanced order, HC and a no-cooling condition was administered during the 10-min recovery period before the performance trial. Nonsignificant condition x time interactions for both WA (F(15,75) = 1.5, P = 0.14) and AB (F(15,90) = 1.2, P = 0.32) confirmed that the exercise-induced changes (Delta) in T(ac) were similar before each intervention. However, the exercise-induced increase was evidently greater in AB compared with WA (2.0 vs. 1.3 degrees C change, respectively). HC produced DeltaT(ac) of -0.4 degrees C (SD 0.4) and -1.2 degrees C (SD 0.2) in comparison (WA and AB, respectively), and simple-effects analyses suggested that the reductions in T(ac) were noteworthy after 4 min of HC. HC had an impact on improving AB performances by -4.0 s (SD 11.5) (P < 0.05) and WA by -20.5 s (SD 24.2) (P > 0.05). In conclusion, extraction of heat through the hands was effective in lowering T(ac) in both groups and improving 3-km performance in the AB athletes and trends toward positive gains for the 1-km performance times of the WA group.

  12. At-risk children's use of reflection and revision in hands-on experimental activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosino, Anthony J., Jr.

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of incorporating opportunities for reflection and revision in hands-on science instruction which emphasized experimentation using model rockets. The participants were low achieving sixth grade summer school students (n = 23) designated as at-risk for school failure by their district. The group was asked a series of interview questions based on work by Schauble et al. (1995) relating to experimentation. The interviews took place over three distinct time points corresponding to a "hands-on only" condition, a "hands-on with reflection and revision" condition and a "hands-on with repeated reflection and revision" condition. A Friedman's Two-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks indicate students score low at first with traditional hands-on instruction but improve significantly with opportunities to reflect and revise their experiments. In addition, a sociocultural analysis was conducted during the summer school session to assess the model rocket activity as an apprenticeship, as guided participation and as participatory appropriation using a framework established by Rogoff (1994). Finally, a survey (the Classroom Environment Survey) was administered to the students measuring five constructs consistent with a constructivist classroom: participation, autonomy, relevance, commitment to learning and disruptions to learning. Analysis indicate students in the summer school model rocket intervention experienced a greater sense of constructivist principles during the activity than a similar comparison group utilizing reform minded instruction but not including opportunities for reflection and revision cycles. This research provides important evidence that, like scientists, students in school can learn effectively from extended practice in a varied context. Importantly, the data indicate that hands-on instruction is best utilized when opportunities for reflection and revision are made explicit. Implications are discussed related

  13. Young children's hand contact activities: an observational study via videotaping in primarily outdoor residential settings.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Willa; Canales, Robert A; Beamer, Paloma; Ferguson, Alesia C; Leckie, James O

    2006-09-01

    Microlevel activity time series (MLATS) data were gathered on hand contact activities of 38 children (1-6 years old) by videotaping in primarily outdoor residential environments. The videotape recordings were then translated into text files using a specialized software called VirtualTimingDevicetrade mark. Contact frequency (contacts/h), duration per contact (s/contact), and hourly contact duration (min/h) were summarized for outdoor hand contacts with 15 distinct object/surface categories ("Animal", "Body", "Clothes/Towels", "Fabric", "Floor", "Food", "Footwear", "Metal", "Non-dietary Water", "Paper/Wrapper", "Plastic", "Rock/Brick", "Toys", "Vegetation/Grass", and "Wood") and two aggregate object/surface categories ("Non-dietary objects/surfaces" and "Total objects/surfaces"). For outdoor both hand contacts with "Total objects/surfaces", contact frequencies ranged from 229.9 to 1517.7 contacts/h, median durations/contact ranged from < 1 to 5 s, and hourly contact durations ranged from 42.6 to 102.2 m/h. The data were analyzed for significant differences in hand contact activities as a function of (1) age, (2) location, (3) gender, and (4) hand. Significant differences (P < or = 0.05) were found for all four factors analyzed. Hourly contact durations with "Non-dietary objects/surfaces" and "Total objects/surfaces" increased with age (P = 0.01, rs = 0.42 and P = 0.005, rs = 0.46, respectively), while contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with "Wood" decreased with age (P = 0.02, rs = -0.38 and P = 0.05, rs = -0.32, respectively). Location was found to affect contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with certain objects/surfaces. For example, contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with "Fabric" were higher indoors (P = 0.02 for both), while contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with "Vegetation/Grass" were higher outdoors (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Girls had longer hourly contact durations with "Footwear" (P = 0

  14. Exercise increases hexokinase II mRNA, but not activity in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cusi, K J; Pratipanawatr, T; Koval, J; Printz, R; Ardehali, H; Granner, D K; Defronzo, R A; Mandarino, L J

    2001-05-01

    Glucose phosphorylation, catalyzed by hexokinase, is the first committed step in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Hexokinase II (HKII) is the isoform that is present in muscle and is regulated by insulin and muscle contraction. Glucose phosphorylation and HKII expression are both reduced in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. A single bout of exercise increases HKII mRNA and activity in muscle from healthy subjects. The present study was performed to determine if a moderate exercise increases HKII mRNA expression and activity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Muscle biopsies were performed before and 3 hours after a single bout of cycle ergometer exercise in obese and type 2 diabetic patients. HKII mRNA and activity and glycogen synthase activity were determined in the muscle biopsies. Exercise increased HKII mRNA in obese and diabetic subjects by 1.67 +/- 0.34 and 1.87 +/- 0.26-fold, respectively (P <.05 for both). Exercise did not significantly increase HKI mRNA. When HKII mRNA increases were compared with the 2.26 +/- 0.36-fold increase in HKII mRNA previously reported for healthy lean subjects, no statistically significant differences were found. In contrast to the increase in HKII activity observed after exercise by lean healthy controls, exercise did not increase HKII activity in obese nondiabetic or diabetic subjects. Exercise increased glycogen synthase activity (GS(0.1) and GS(FV)) significantly in both obese nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic patients. The present results indicate that there is a posttranscriptional defect in the response of HKII expression to exercise in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. This defect may contribute to reduced HKII activity and glucose uptake in these patients.

  15. The effects of isometric exercise types on pain and muscle activity in patients with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Park, Hun-Kyung; Park, Jung-Sub; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise types on low back pain (LBP) patients. Isometric exercise types were mat exercise and I-Zer exercise. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: LBP control group, LBP mat exercise group, and LBP I-Zer exercise group in 23–25 aged men. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and electromyography (EMG) were used to evaluate the degree of pain and the muscle activity in LBP patients. Root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and mean frequency (MNF) were checked by EMG power spectrum analysis on longissimus thoracic (LT), iliocostalis lumborum (IL), mulitifidus (M), and rectus abdominis (RA). LBP mat exercise program and LBP I-Zer exercise program were conducted 5 sets once time, 3 times per week during 6 weeks. The two-way ANOVA with repeated measure was used to check the pain degree and muscle activity. The present results showed that muscle activity in the LBP I-Zer exercise group was increased compared to the LBP mat exercise group and LBP control group (P<0.05). LBP I-Zer exercise group and LBP mat exercise group showed increased mean frequency in LT, IL, M, and RA muscles than the LBP control group. Therefore, LBP patients performed isometric exercise may have positive effect to reduce pain degree and to increase muscle activity. Especially, LBP I-Zer exercise type showed more effectiveness in reducing pain degree and enhancing muscle activity. PMID:26331136

  16. Preventing obesity: exercise and daily activities of low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Seonae; Logan, Jeongok G

    2014-01-01

    Low-income women are at risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Inactive lifestyle and lack of regular moderate exercise may contribute to the risk of weight gain. This study was conducted to (1) determine the rate and characteristics of low-income pregnant women who exercised regularly and met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation and (2) describe how these women spent time for other physical activities compared with those who did not exercise regularly. Medicaid-recipient or uninsured pregnant women (n = 816) were asked to complete a physical activity questionnaire at rural and urban county health departments located in North Carolina. Twenty percent of low-income women met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation for moderate exercise (≥10 METs-h/wk [metabolic equivalent task-hours per week]). The women who met the recommendation spent 3 hours 45 minutes per week walking as exercise, whereas those who did not meet the recommendation spent 1 hour per week (P < .0001). Women who exercised regularly spent longer hours at work (4.25 vs. 1.75 hours per day; P = .019) and on household tasks (5.25 vs. 4.0 hours per day; P = .002) than women who did not exercise regularly. Time spent on domestic and occupation activities does not seem to prohibit low-income women from engaging in moderate exercise on a regular basis.

  17. Comparison of Muscle Activation during Dominant Hand Wrist Flexion when Writing.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohee

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the difference in muscle activation of the dominant upper extremity in right-handed and left-handed persons during writing. [Subjects] There were 36 subjects (16 left- handers/ 20 right- handers), and the study was conducted from 03/01/2012 to 30/3/2012. [Methods] Six electrodes were attached to the FCU (flexor carpi ulnaris), FCR (flexor carpi radialis), ECU (extensor carpi ulnaris), ECR (extensor carpi radialis), and both UT (upper trapezius) muscles. [Results] FCU muscle activation was 16.77±9.12% in left-handers and 10.29±4.13% (%MVIC) in right-handers. FCR muscle activation was 19.09±9.43% in left-handers and 10.64±5.03% in right-handers. In addition, the UT muscle activation on the writing hand side was 11.91±5.79% in left-handers and 1.66±1.19% in right-handers. [Conclusion] As a result of this study, it was discovered that left-handers used more wrist flexion in performance of the writing task with the dominant upper extremity than right-handers, and that the left-handers activated the wrist and shoulder muscles more than the right-handers. These results indicate a potential danger of musculoskeletal disease in left-hander.

  18. Comparison of Muscle Activation during Dominant Hand Wrist Flexion when Writing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soohee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the difference in muscle activation of the dominant upper extremity in right-handed and left-handed persons during writing. [Subjects] There were 36 subjects (16 left- handers/ 20 right- handers), and the study was conducted from 03/01/2012 to 30/3/2012. [Methods] Six electrodes were attached to the FCU (flexor carpi ulnaris), FCR (flexor carpi radialis), ECU (extensor carpi ulnaris), ECR (extensor carpi radialis), and both UT (upper trapezius) muscles. [Results] FCU muscle activation was 16.77±9.12% in left-handers and 10.29±4.13% (%MVIC) in right-handers. FCR muscle activation was 19.09±9.43% in left-handers and 10.64±5.03% in right-handers. In addition, the UT muscle activation on the writing hand side was 11.91±5.79% in left-handers and 1.66±1.19% in right-handers. [Conclusion] As a result of this study, it was discovered that left-handers used more wrist flexion in performance of the writing task with the dominant upper extremity than right-handers, and that the left-handers activated the wrist and shoulder muscles more than the right-handers. These results indicate a potential danger of musculoskeletal disease in left-hander. PMID:24409013

  19. Activation differences in observation of hand movements for imitation or velocity judgement.

    PubMed

    Suchan, Boris; Melde, Cornelia; Herzog, Hans; Hömberg, Volker; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2008-03-17

    We aimed to investigate the brain areas engaged in observation of hand movements with the intention of imitation or judging movement velocity. Both processes reflect different analytic approaches in movement observation. We were interested if these two processes can be distinguished or share common activation foci. Twelve healthy, right-handed volunteers were required to observe video clips of hand gestures and of object related grasping movements while the regional cerebral blood flow was measured using positron emission tomography. The subjects were instructed either to imitate the actions or to judge the velocity of the observed movements after scanning. Action observation with the instruction to judge movement velocity engaged bilaterally the temporo-occipital junction and adjacent visual cortical areas. In contrast, observation with the instruction to imitate them afterwards, yielded large activation clusters covering the left parietal and premotor cortex. Both contrasts demonstrated activation in the inferior frontal cortex, however, on opposite sides. Results suggest that movement observation with the goal of imitation activated specific areas of the parietal cortex in the dominant hemisphere probably related to programming of the movement kinematics. In contrast, observation with the goal to characterize the velocity of the finger movements activated the ventral visual pathways. Thus, movement observation recruits non-overlapping cortical networks, depending on the information attended to which are characterised by a dorsal ventral dissociation.

  20. Exercise regulates Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 activities in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kei; Arnolds, David E W; Ekberg, Ingvar; Thorell, Anders; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2004-06-25

    Activation of Akt and deactivation of GSK3 are critical signals regulating a number of cellular processes in multiple systems. Whether physical exercise alters Akt and GSK3 activity in human skeletal muscle is controversial. beta-Catenin, a GSK3 substrate and important Wnt signaling protein that alters gene transcription, has not been investigated in human skeletal muscle. In the present study, eight healthy human subjects performed 30min of cycling exercise at 75% of maximum workload (submaximal) followed by 6 bouts of 60s at 125% maximum workload (maximal). Biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle were taken at rest (basal), and within 15s following cessation of the submaximal and maximal exercise bouts. Exercise at both submaximal and maximal intensities significantly increased Akt activity (40% and 110%, respectively). Increases in Akt activity were accompanied by increases in Akt Thr(308) and Ser(473) phosphorylation, decreased GSK3alpha activity ( approximately 30% at both intensities), and increased phosphorylation of GSK3alpha Ser(21). Exercise at both intensities also decreased beta-catenin Ser(33/37)Thr(41) phosphorylation (50-60% at both intensities). These results demonstrate that Akt, GSK3, and beta-catenin signaling are regulated by exercise in human skeletal muscle, and as such identify them as possible molecular mediators of exercise's effect on metabolic and transcriptional processes in skeletal muscle.

  1. Priming for Improved Hand Strength in Persons with Chronic Tetraplegia: A Comparison of Priming-Augmented Functional Task Practice, Priming Alone, and Conventional Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Tibbett, Jacqueline A.; Poe, Brandon P.; Field-Fote, Edelle C.

    2017-01-01

    Many everyday tasks cannot be accomplished without adequate grip strength, and corticomotor drive to the spinal motoneurons is a key determinant of grip strength. In persons with tetraplegia, damage to spinal pathways limits transmission of signals from motor cortex to spinal motoneurons. Corticomotor priming, which increases descending drive, should increase corticospinal transmission through the remaining spinal pathways resulting in increased grip strength. Since the motor and somatosensory cortices share reciprocal connections, corticomotor priming may also have potential to influence somatosensory function. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in grip (precision, power) force and tactile sensation associated with two different corticomotor priming approaches and a conventional training approach and to determine whether baseline values can predict responsiveness to training. Participants with chronic (≥1 year) tetraplegia (n = 49) were randomized to one of two corticomotor priming approaches: functional task practice plus peripheral nerve somatosensory stimulation (FTP + PNSS) or PNSS alone, or to conventional exercise training (CET). To assess whether baseline corticospinal excitability (CSE) is predictive of responsiveness to training, in a subset of participants, we assessed pre-intervention CSE of the thenar muscles. Participants were trained 2 h daily, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Thirty-seven participants completed the study. Following intervention, significant improvements in precision grip force were observed in both the stronger and weaker hand in the FTP + PNSS group (effect size: 0.51, p = 0.04 and 0.54, p = 0.03, respectively), and significant improvements in weak hand precision grip force were associated with both PNSS and CET (effect size: 0.54, p = 0.03 and 0.75, p = 0.02, respectively). No significant changes were observed in power grip force or somatosensory scores in any group. Across all groups

  2. Priming for Improved Hand Strength in Persons with Chronic Tetraplegia: A Comparison of Priming-Augmented Functional Task Practice, Priming Alone, and Conventional Exercise Training.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Tibbett, Jacqueline A; Poe, Brandon P; Field-Fote, Edelle C

    2016-01-01

    Many everyday tasks cannot be accomplished without adequate grip strength, and corticomotor drive to the spinal motoneurons is a key determinant of grip strength. In persons with tetraplegia, damage to spinal pathways limits transmission of signals from motor cortex to spinal motoneurons. Corticomotor priming, which increases descending drive, should increase corticospinal transmission through the remaining spinal pathways resulting in increased grip strength. Since the motor and somatosensory cortices share reciprocal connections, corticomotor priming may also have potential to influence somatosensory function. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in grip (precision, power) force and tactile sensation associated with two different corticomotor priming approaches and a conventional training approach and to determine whether baseline values can predict responsiveness to training. Participants with chronic (≥1 year) tetraplegia (n = 49) were randomized to one of two corticomotor priming approaches: functional task practice plus peripheral nerve somatosensory stimulation (FTP + PNSS) or PNSS alone, or to conventional exercise training (CET). To assess whether baseline corticospinal excitability (CSE) is predictive of responsiveness to training, in a subset of participants, we assessed pre-intervention CSE of the thenar muscles. Participants were trained 2 h daily, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Thirty-seven participants completed the study. Following intervention, significant improvements in precision grip force were observed in both the stronger and weaker hand in the FTP + PNSS group (effect size: 0.51, p = 0.04 and 0.54, p = 0.03, respectively), and significant improvements in weak hand precision grip force were associated with both PNSS and CET (effect size: 0.54, p = 0.03 and 0.75, p = 0.02, respectively). No significant changes were observed in power grip force or somatosensory scores in any group. Across all groups

  3. Hip Muscle Activity During 3 Side-Lying Hip-Strengthening Exercises in Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, Joseph M.; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E.; Cobb, Stephen C.; Huddleston, Wendy E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity overuse injuries are associated with gluteus medius (GMed) weakness. Understanding the activation of muscles about the hip during strengthening exercises is important for rehabilitation. Objective: To compare the electromyographic activity produced by the gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fascia latae (TFL), anterior hip flexors (AHF), and gluteus maximus (GMax) during 3 hip-strengthening exercises: hip abduction (ABD), hip abduction with external rotation (ABD-ER), and clamshell (CLAM) exercises. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty healthy runners (9 men, 11 women; age = 25.45 ± 5.80 years, height = 1.71 ± 0.07 m, mass = 64.43 ± 7.75 kg) participated. Intervention(s): A weight equal to 5% body mass was affixed to the ankle for the ABD and ABD-ER exercises, and an equivalent load was affixed for the CLAM exercise. A pressure biofeedback unit was placed beneath the trunk to provide positional feedback. Main Outcome Measure(s): Surface electromyography (root mean square normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction) was recorded over the GMed, TFL, AHF, and GMax. Results: Three 1-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated differences for muscle activity among the ABD (F3,57 = 25.903, P<.001), ABD-ER (F3,57 = 10.458, P<.001), and CLAM (F3,57 = 4.640, P=.006) exercises. For the ABD exercise, the GMed (70.1 ± 29.9%), TFL (54.3 ± 19.1%), and AHF (28.2 ± 21.5%) differed in muscle activity. The GMax (25.3 ± 24.6%) was less active than the GMed and TFL but was not different from the AHF. For the ABD-ER exercise, the TFL (70.9 ± 17.2%) was more active than the AHF (54.3 ± 24.8%), GMed (53.03 ± 28.4%), and GMax (31.7 ± 24.1 %). For the CLAM exercise, the AHF (54.2 ± 25.2%) was more active than the TFL (34.4 ± 20.1%) and GMed (32.6 ± 16.9%) but was not different from the GMax (34.2 ± 24.8%). Conclusions: The ABD exercise is preferred if targeted activation of the

  4. A four-dimensional virtual hand brain-machine interface using active dimension selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, Adam G.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) traditionally rely on a fixed, linear transformation from neural signals to an output state-space. In this study, the assumption that a BMI must control a fixed, orthogonal basis set was challenged and a novel active dimension selection (ADS) decoder was explored. Approach. ADS utilizes a two stage decoder by using neural signals to both (i) select an active dimension being controlled and (ii) control the velocity along the selected dimension. ADS decoding was tested in a monkey using 16 single units from premotor and primary motor cortex to successfully control a virtual hand avatar to move to eight different postures. Main results. Following training with the ADS decoder to control 2, 3, and then 4 dimensions, each emulating a grasp shape of the hand, performance reached 93% correct with a bit rate of 2.4 bits s-1 for eight targets. Selection of eight targets using ADS control was more efficient, as measured by bit rate, than either full four-dimensional control or computer assisted one-dimensional control. Significance. ADS decoding allows a user to quickly and efficiently select different hand postures. This novel decoding scheme represents a potential method to reduce the complexity of high-dimension BMI control of the hand.

  5. Muscle ultrastructural changes from exhaustive exercise performed after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on ultrastructural changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy dogs, before and after restricted activity (RA), and following a subsequent 2 month treadmill exercise retraining period for the 5 mo group. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2 mo group decreased from 177 + or - 22 min before to 90 + or - 32 min after RA. Retraining increased tolerance to 219 + or - 73 min; 24 pct. above the before RA and 143 pct. above the after RA time. After RA exhaustion time in the 5 mo group was 25 and 45 min. Before RA, pre-exercise muscle structure was normal and post exercise there was only slight swelling of mitochondria. After RA, pre-exercise, numerous glycogen granules and lipid droplets appeared in the muscle fibers, mitochondria were smaller, and sarcoplasmic reticulum channels widened; post exercise these changes were accentuated and some areas were devoid of glycogen, and there was fiber degradation. After 5 mo RA pre-exercise there were more pronounced changes; mitochondria were very small and dense, there were many lipid droplets, myofibrils were often separated, and the fibers appeared edematous and degenerating; post exercise the sarcoplasmic reticulum was swollen, no glycogen was present, and there was marked swelling and deformation of mitochondria. After retraining, both pre-exercise and post exercise there was still evidence of fiber degeneration. Thus, susceptibility of active skeletal muscle structures and subcellular elements, e.g., mitochondria, to the action of damaging factors occurring during exhaustive exercise is enhanced considerably by prolonged disuse.

  6. Mobile Exercise Apps and Increased Leisure Time Exercise Activity: A Moderated Mediation Analysis of the Role of Self-Efficacy and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Zohn; Spierer, David; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah; Goldschein, Akiva; Robinson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background There are currently over 1000 exercise apps for mobile devices on the market. These apps employ a range of features, from tracking exercise activity to providing motivational messages. However, virtually nothing is known about whether exercise apps improve exercise levels and health outcomes and, if so, the mechanisms of these effects. Objective Our aim was to examine whether the use of exercise apps is associated with increased levels of exercise and improved health outcomes. We also develop a framework within which to understand how exercise apps may affect health and test multiple models of possible mechanisms of action and boundary conditions of these relationships. Within this framework, app use may increase physical activity by influencing variables such as self-efficacy and may help to overcome exercise barriers, leading to improved health outcomes such as lower body mass index (BMI). Methods In this study, 726 participants with one of three backgrounds were surveyed about their use of exercise apps and health: (1) those who never used exercise apps, (2) those who used exercise apps but discontinued use, and (3) those who are currently using exercise apps. Participants were asked about their long-term levels of exercise and about their levels of exercise during the previous week with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results Nearly three-quarters of current app users reported being more active compared to under half of non-users and past users. The IPAQ showed that current users had higher total leisure time metabolic equivalent of task (MET) expenditures (1169 METs), including walking and vigorous exercise, compared to those who stopped using their apps (612 METs) or who never used apps (577 METs). Importantly, physical activity levels in domains other than leisure time activity were similar across the groups. The results also showed that current users had lower BMI (25.16) than past users (26.8) and non-users (26.9) and

  7. Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Motivation is a critical factor in supporting sustained exercise, which in turn is associated with important health outcomes. Accordingly, research on exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT) has grown considerably in recent years. Previous reviews have been mostly narrative and theoretical. Aiming at a more comprehensive review of empirical data, this article examines the empirical literature on the relations between key SDT-based constructs and exercise and physical activity behavioral outcomes. Methods This systematic review includes 66 empirical studies published up to June 2011, including experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective studies that have measured exercise causality orientations, autonomy/need support and need satisfaction, exercise motives (or goal contents), and exercise self-regulations and motivation. We also studied SDT-based interventions aimed at increasing exercise behavior. In all studies, actual or self-reported exercise/physical activity, including attendance, was analyzed as the dependent variable. Findings are summarized based on quantitative analysis of the evidence. Results The results show consistent support for a positive relation between more autonomous forms of motivation and exercise, with a trend towards identified regulation predicting initial/short-term adoption more strongly than intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation being more predictive of long-term exercise adherence. The literature is also consistent in that competence satisfaction and more intrinsic motives positively predict exercise participation across a range of samples and settings. Mixed evidence was found concerning the role of other types of motives (e.g., health/fitness and body-related), and also the specific nature and consequences of introjected regulation. The majority of studies have employed descriptive (i.e., non-experimental) designs but similar results are found across cross

  8. Improved Infrared-Sensing Running Wheel Systems with an Effective Exercise Activity Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat’s real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments. PMID:25875841

  9. Improved infrared-sensing running wheel systems with an effective exercise activity indicator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.

  10. Aberrant Oscillatory Activity during Simple Movement in Task-Specific Focal Hand Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, Leighton B N; Dolberg, Rebecca; Honma, Susanne; Findlay, Anne; Byl, Nancy N; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2012-01-01

    In task-specific focal hand dystonia (tspFHD), the temporal dynamics of cortical activity in the motor system and how these processes are related to impairments in sensory and motor function are poorly understood. Here, we use time-frequency reconstructions of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data to elaborate the temporal and spatial characteristics of cortical activity during movement. A self-paced finger tapping task during MEG recording was performed by 11 patients with tspFHD and 11 matched healthy controls. In both groups robust changes in beta (12-30 Hz) and high gamma (65-90 Hz) oscillatory activity were identified over sensory and motor cortices during button press. A significant decrease [p < 0.05, 1% False Discovery Rate (FDR) corrected] in high gamma power during movements of the affected hand was identified over ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex in the period prior to (-575 ms) and following (725 ms) button press. Furthermore, an increase (p < 0.05, 1% FDR corrected) in beta power suppression following movement of the affected hand was identified over visual cortex in patients with tspFHD. For movements of the unaffected hand, a significant (p < 0.05, 1% FDR corrected) increase in beta power suppression was identified over secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) in the period following button press in patients with tspFHD. Oscillatory activity within in the tspFHD group was however not correlated with clinical measures. Understanding these aberrant oscillatory dynamics can provide the groundwork for interventions that focus on modulating the timing of this activity.

  11. Physical activity levels determine exercise-induced changes in brain excitability

    PubMed Central

    Fassett, Hunter J.; Nelson, Aimee J.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of

  12. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3–only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI. PMID:25419789

  13. Exercise Therapy for Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Superior Efficacy of Activity Monitors over Pedometers

    PubMed Central

    Umezono, Tomoya; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of activity monitor (which displays exercise intensity and number of steps) versus that of pedometer in exercise therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were divided into the activity monitor group (n = 92) and pedometer group (n = 95). The primary goal was improvement in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The exercise target was set at 8,000 steps/day and 20 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise (≥3.5 metabolic equivalents). The activity monitor is equipped with a triple-axis accelerometer sensor capable of measuring medium-intensity walking duration, number of steps, walking distance, calorie consumption, and total calorie consumption. The pedometer counts the number of steps. Blood samples for laboratory tests were obtained during the visits. The first examination was conducted at the start of the study and repeated at 2 and 6 months. A significant difference in the decrease in HbA1c level was observed between the two groups at 2 months. The results suggest that the use of activity level monitor that displays information on exercise intensity, in addition to the number of steps, is useful in exercise therapy as it enhances the concept of exercise therapy and promotes lowering of HbA1c in diabetic patients. PMID:27761471

  14. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI.

  15. Cortical current density oscillations in the motor cortex are correlated with muscular activity during pedaling exercise.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Rouffet, D M; Billaut, F; Strüder, H K

    2013-01-03

    Despite modern imaging techniques, assessing and localizing changes in brain activity during whole-body exercise is still challenging. Using an active electroencephalography (EEG) system in combination with source localization algorithms, this study aimed to localize brain cortical oscillations patterns in the motor cortex and to correlate these with surface electromyography (EMG)-detected muscular activity during pedaling exercise. Eight subjects performed 2-min isokinetic (90 rpm) cycling bouts at intensities ranging from 1 to 5 Wkg(-1) body mass on a cycle ergometer. These bouts were interspersed by a minimum of 2 min of passive rest to limit to development of peripheral muscle fatigue. Brain cortical activity within the motor cortex was analyzed using a 32-channel active EEG system combined with source localization algorithms. EMG activity was recorded from seven muscles on each lower limb. EEG and EMG activity revealed comparatively stable oscillations across the different exercise intensities. More importantly, the oscillations in cortical activity within the motor cortex were significantly correlated with EMG activity during the high-intensity cycling bouts. This study demonstrates that it is possible to localize oscillations in brain cortical activity during moderate- to high-intensity cycling exercise using EEG in combination with source localization algorithms, and that these oscillations match the activity of the active muscles in time and amplitude. Results of this study might help to further evaluate the effects of central vs. peripheral fatigue during exercise.

  16. Enjoyment of exercise moderates the impact of a school-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A school-based physical activity intervention designed to encourage adolescent girls to be more active was more effective for some participants than for others. We examined whether baseline enjoyment of exercise moderated response to the intervention. Methods Adolescent girls with a low level of baseline activity who participated in a controlled trial of an intervention to promote increased physical activity participation (n = 122) self-reported their enjoyment of exercise and physical activity participation at baseline, mid-way through the intervention, and at the end of the 9-month intervention period. At all three time points, participants also underwent assessments of cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak) and body composition (percent body fat). Repeated measures analysis of variance examined the relationship of baseline enjoyment to change in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, body composition and enjoyment of exercise. Results A significant three-way interaction between time, baseline enjoyment, and group assignment (p < .01) showed that baseline enjoyment moderated the effect of the intervention on vigorous activity. Within the intervention group, girls with low enjoyment of exercise at baseline increased vigorous activity from pre-to post-intervention, and girls with high baseline enjoyment of exercise showed no pre-post change in vigorous activity. No differences emerged in the comparison group between low-and high-enjoyment girls. Conclusion Adolescent girls responded differently to a physical activity promotion intervention depending on their baseline levels of exercise enjoyment. Girls with low enjoyment of exercise may benefit most from a physical-education based intervention to increase physical activity that targets identified barriers to physical activity among low-active adolescent girls. PMID:21689396

  17. The Amazing Animal Activity Book: Dozens of Hands-on Projects That Teach across the Curriculum. Grades 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robin

    The activities in this book are designed to encourage children's scientific curiosity as well as their creativity. Activities include puppet making, word scrambles, matching exercises, crossword and jigsaw puzzles, mobiles, games, mini books, coloring activities, Venn diagrams, and plays. These activities are intended as a foundation for children…

  18. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a

  19. Rehabilitative strategies following hand fractures.

    PubMed

    Hays, Peyton L; Rozental, Tamara D

    2013-11-01

    The importance of rehabilitation in the management of hand fractures cannot be overstated. The breadth of rehabilitative strategies ranges from heat and range-of-motion exercises to more complex splinting and tendon gliding modalities. The goals, however, are clear: control pain; limit soft tissue swelling; provide support for fracture healing; restore motion, strength, and function; and enable the return to work and daily activities.

  20. Perceptions of the activity, the social climate, and the self during group exercise classes regulate intrinsic satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Gottschall, Jinger S; Conroy, David E

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to complete at least six group exercise classes each week and, following each exercise class, complete a questionnaire asking about the characteristics of the class and the participant's evaluation of the class. Intrinsic satisfaction was high, on average, but varied as much within-person from class-to-class as it did between exercisers. Participants reported the greatest intrinsic satisfaction when classes placed greater emphasis on exercisers' involvement with the group task, feelings of competence, and encouragement from the instructor. For the most part, exercise classes that were more intense than usual were perceived by exercisers as less intrinsically satisfying. Some overall characteristics of the exercise classes were also associated with intrinsic satisfaction. The social and motivational characteristics of group exercise classes contribute to exercisers' intrinsic satisfaction with classes and attention to those dynamics, as well as the intensity of the exercise, may improve adherence for exercise regimens.

  1. Difference in Activity in the Supplementary Motor Area Depending on Limb Combination of Hand-Foot Coordinated Movements.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kento; Kawashima, Saeko; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Periodic interlimb coordination shows lower performance when the ipsilateral hand and foot (e.g., right hand and right foot) are simultaneously moved than when the contralateral hand and foot (e.g., right hand and left foot) are simultaneously moved. The present study aimed to investigate how brain activity that is related to the dependence of hand-foot coordination on limb combination, using functional magnetic imaging. Twenty-one right-handed subjects performed periodic coordinated movements of the ipsilateral or contralateral hand and foot in the same or opposite direction in the sagittal plane. Kinematic data showed that performance was lower for the ipsilateral hand-foot coordination than for the contralateral one. A comparison of brain activity between the same and opposite directions showed that there was a greater activation of supplementary motor area for ipsilateral hand-foot coordination as compared to that seen during contralateral hand-foot coordination. We speculate that this might reflect a difference in the degree of inhibition of the neural circuit that disrupts opposite directional movements between ipsilateral and contralateral hand-foot coordinated movements.

  2. Preventing weight gain through exercise and physical activity in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Mareike D; von Lengerke, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    This review examines the role of exercise and physical activity for preventing weight gain in older people. A structured search using MeSH-vocabulary and Title/Abstract-searches was conducted in PubMed for January 2000 to June 2011, identifying weight gain and exercise or physical activity as study topics, and aged adults as target group. In study selection, all types of exercise and physical activity and any measure of weight change in aged adults (≥65 years) or postmenopausal women were considered. N=9 primary studies were identified. All were conducted in the US, with one study additionally including samples from Canada and the UK. Three studies focused on aged adults, while six concentrated specifically on postmenopausal women. Forms of exercise or physical activity comprised self-reported exercise history in four studies and low, moderate or high intensity exercise interventions in five studies. Four studies combined exercise with a hypocaloric diet and included comparison groups receiving either diet only, health education, stretching or a delayed intervention (one study each). Exercise was associated with weight loss (1.1-6 kg) in all intervention studies, all of which studied an overweight sample, and with weight maintenance in most observational studies, all of which studied a general population or otherwise overweight-unspecific sample. In sum, exercise and physical activity can effectively prevent weight gain in older adults and postmenopausal women either in terms of weight loss or maintenance. They can preserve lean body mass and thus are important for the balance between potentially positive and negative effects of weight reduction in later life. In addition, since all intervention studies were conducted with an overweight sample, it seems that primordial prevention (in terms of preventing the development of risk factors such as excess weight in the first place) might be a neglected issue in geriatric and postmenopausal prevention.

  3. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO.

  4. Cutaneous Mechanoreceptor Feedback from the Hand and Foot Can Modulate Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity

    PubMed Central

    Strzalkowski, Nicholas D. J.; Incognito, Anthony V.; Bent, Leah R.; Millar, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulation of high threshold mechanical nociceptors on the skin can modulate efferent sympathetic outflow. Whether low threshold mechanoreceptors from glabrous skin are similarly capable of modulating autonomic outflow is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cutaneous afferent feedback from the hand palm and foot sole on efferent muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Fifteen healthy young participants (9 male; 25 ± 3 years [range: 22–29]) underwent microneurographic recording of multi-unit MSNA from the right fibular nerve during 2 min of baseline and 2 min of mechanical vibration (150 Hz, 220 μm peak-to-peak) applied to the left hand or foot. Each participant completed three trials of both hand and foot stimulation, each separated by 5 min. MSNA burst frequency decreased similarly during the 2 min of both hand (20.8 ± 8.9 vs. 19.3 ± 8.6 bursts/minute [Δ −8%], p = 0.035) and foot (21.0 ± 8.3 vs. 19.5 ± 8.3 bursts/minute [Δ −8%], p = 0.048) vibration but did not alter normalized mean burst amplitude or area (All p > 0.05). Larger reductions in burst frequency were observed during the first 10 s (onset) of both hand (20.8 ± 8.9 vs. 17.0 ± 10.4 [Δ −25%], p < 0.001) and foot (21.0 ± 8.3 vs. 18.3 ± 9.4 [Δ −16%], p = 0.035) vibration, in parallel with decreases in normalized mean burst amplitude (hand: 0.45 ± 0.06 vs. 0.36 ± 0.14% [Δ −19%], p = 0.03; foot: 0.47 ± 0.07 vs. 0.34 ± 0.19% [Δ −27%], p = 0.02) and normalized mean burst area (hand: 0.42 ± 0.05 vs. 0.32 ± 0.12% [Δ −25%], p = 0.003; foot: 0.47 ± 0.05 vs. 0.34 ± 0.16% [Δ −28%], p = 0.01). These results demonstrate that tactile feedback from the hands and feet can influence efferent sympathetic outflow to skeletal muscle. PMID:28008306

  5. Platelet activation during exercise induced asthma: effect of prophylaxis with cromoglycate and salbutamol.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C E; Belfield, P W; Davis, S; Cooke, N J; Spencer, A; Davies, J A

    1986-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow (PEF) and plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin were measured before and after exercise in nine asthmatic patients and 12 non-asthmatic volunteers. Exercise was preceded by administration in random order of either placebo, salbutamol 200 micrograms, or sodium cromoglycate 2 mg from a pressurised inhaler. In control subjects there were minimal changes in PEF and plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin. In the asthmatic patients the typical changes in PEF were seen on exercise; plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin rose significantly in parallel, the rise preceding the fall in PEF. The changes in peak flow and platelet activation induced by exercise were attenuated by prior administration of salbutamol or cromoglycate. These results indicate that exercise induced asthma is associated with a rise in platelet release products similar to that observed in antigen induced asthma. PMID:2943049

  6. EEG activity and mood in health orientated runners after different exercise intensities.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stefan; Askew, Christopher D; Diehl, Julia; Mierau, Andreas; Kleinert, Jens; Abel, Thomas; Carnahan, Heather; Strüder, Heiko K

    2009-03-23

    An increasing number of studies within the recent years connected physical exercise with changes in brain cortical activity. Most of this data (1) refers to aerobic exercise and (2) does not correlate to psychological parameters although it is well known that exercise has a positive effect on mood. In times where health activities play a major role it is increasingly necessary to connect somato-physiological and somatopsychological components of physical activity. This study aimed to find changes in EEG activity and mood after low, preferred and high intensity running. EEG and actual state of mood were recorded before and after exercise. Results showed an effect for the preferred and high intensity velocity in both, EEG and mood. As only the higher frequency areas N18 Hz showed persisting decreases post-exercise we concluded that this might be a sign of outlasting effects of exercise on brain cortical activity which may have influences on general well-being. We could also show that there is a clear relationship between EEG activity and mood reflecting a basic principle of cortical excitation.

  7. The effect of active core exercise on fitness and foot pressure in Taekwondo club students

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players’ balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students. PMID:25729204

  8. The effect of active core exercise on fitness and foot pressure in Taekwondo club students.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players' balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students.

  9. Who will be active? Predicting exercise stage transitions after hospitalization for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert D; Tulloch, Heather; Kocourek, Jana; Morrin, Louise I; Beaton, Louise J; Papadakis, Sophia; Blanchard, Chris M; Riley, Dana L; Pipe, Andrew L

    2007-01-01

    We describe transitions between exercise stages of change in people with coronary artery disease (CAD) over a 6-month period following a CAD-related hospitalization and evaluate constructs from Protection Motivation Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, the Ecological Model, and participation in cardiac rehabilitation as correlates of stage transition. Seven hundred eighty-two adults hospitalized with CAD were recruited and administered a baseline survey including assessments of theory-based constructs and exercise stage of change. Mailed surveys were used to gather information concerning exercise stage of change and participation in cardiac rehabilitation 6 months later. Progression from pre-action stages between baseline and 6 month follow-up was associated with greater perceived efficacy of exercise to reduce risk of future disease, fewer barriers to exercise, more access to home exercise equipment, and participation in cardiac rehabilitation. Regression from already active stages between baseline and 6 month follow-up was associated with increased perceived susceptibility to a future CAD-related event, fewer intentions to exercise, lower self-efficacy, and more barriers to exercise.

  10. [Physical activity and exercise training in the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Francesconi, Claudia; Lackinger, Christian; Weitgasser, Raimund; Haber, Paul; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Lifestyle in general (nutrition, exercise, smoking habits), besides the genetic predisposition, is known to be a strong predictor for the development of diabetes. Exercise in particular is not only useful in improving glycaemia by lowering insulin resistance and positively affect insulin secretion, but to reduce cardiovascular risk.To gain substantial health benefits a minimum of 150 min of moderate or vigorous intense aerobic physical activity and muscle strengthening activities per week are needed. The positive effect of training correlates directly with the amount of fitness gained and lasts only as long as the fitness level is sustained. The effect of exercise is independent of age and gender. It is reversible and reproducible.Based on the large evidence of exercise referral and prescription the Austrian Diabetes Associations aims to implement the position of a "physical activity adviser" in multi-professional diabetes care.

  11. Gender and Diversity in the Workplace: Learning Activities and Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.

    Many colleges and universities and many work organizations have developed courses and programs on gender and diversity in the workplace. This book provides a complete and comprehensive set of instructional materials on these topics. The exercises have been designed for use with graduate and undergraduate students and members of business and…

  12. Phat Exercise: How Young Adults Enjoy and Sustain Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimiecik, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Sport psychologists know that many people who do a behavior voluntarily over a long period of time have discovered for themselves an inner feeling that motivates them to perform the behavior, such as exercise, for its own sake. This form of motivation has been labeled "intrinsic" by some researchers. The concept of intrinsic motivation, when…

  13. Effectiveness of Hands-on and Minds-on Activities on Students' Achievement and Attitudes towards Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ates, Ozlem; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hands-on and minds-on activities on ninth grade students' achievement in and attitudes towards simple electric circuits. The study was conducted with 130 students, 70 of which were assigned as experimental group and instructed by hands-on/minds-on activities, while the 60 were assigned as…

  14. Alveolar Macrophage Recruitment and Activation by Chronic Second Hand Smoke Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ellwanger, Almut; Solon, Margaret; Cambier, Christopher J.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Koth, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 15% of cases of COPD occur in non-smokers. Among the potential risk factors for COPD in non-smokers is second hand smoke (SHS) exposure. However, the Surgeon General reported in 2006 that the evidence linking second hand smoke and COPD is insufficient to infer a causal relationship, largely because current evidence does not establish a biological link. Objectives The goal of this study was to determine whether SHS exposure can induce alveolar macrophage recruitment and expression of activation markers that we have previously demonstrated in human smokers and in mouse models of emphysema. To achieve these goals, we studied mice exposed to an ambient mixture of predominantly [89%] sidestream smoke at increasing doses over 3 months. Results We found that second hand smoke exposure induced a dose-dependent increase in alveolar macrophage recruitment (mean ± sd; 224,511 ± 52,330 vs 166,152 ± 47,989 macrophages/ml of bronchoalveolar lavage in smoke-exposed vs air-exposed controls at 3 months, p=0.003). We also found increased expression of several markers of alveolar macrophage activation (PLA2g7, dkfzp434l142, Trem-2, and pirin, all p<0.01 at 3 months) and increased lavage levels of two inflammatory mediators associated with COPD (CCL2 [MCP-1], 58 ± 12 vs. 43 ± 22 pg/ml, p=0.03; and TNFα, 138 ± 43 vs 88 ± 78 pg/ml, p=0.04 at 3 months). Conclusions These findings indicate that second smoke exposure can cause macrophage recruitment and activation, providing a biological link between second hand smoke exposure and the development of inflammatory processes linked to COPD. PMID:19378221

  15. Design of a continuous passive and active motion device for hand rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Birch, B; Haslam, E; Heerah, I; Dechev, N; Park, E J

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a novel, portable device for hand rehabilitation. The device provides for CPM (continuous passive motion) and CAM (continuous active motion) hand rehabilitation for patients recovering from damage such as flexor tendon repair and strokes. The device is capable of flexing/extending the MCP (metacarpophalangeal) and PIP (proximal interphalangeal) joints through a range of motion of 0 degrees to 90 degrees for both the joints independently. In this way, typical hand rehabilitation motions such as intrinsic plus, intrinsic minus, and a fist can be achieved without the need of any splints or attachments. The CPM mode is broken into two subgroups. The first mode is the use of preset waypoints for the device to cycle through. The second mode involves motion from a starting position to a final position, but senses the torque from the user during the cycle. Therefore the user can control the ROM by resisting when they are at the end of the desired motion. During the CPM modes the device utilizes a minimum jerk trajectory model under PD control, moving smoothly and accurately between preselected positions. CAM is the final mode where the device will actively resist the movement of the user. The user moves from a start to end position while the device produces a torque to resist the motion. This active resistance motion is a unique ability designed to mimic the benefits of a human therapist. Another unique feature of the device is its ability to independently act on both the MCP and PIP joints. The feedback sensing built into the device makes it capable of offering a wide and flexible range of rehabilitation programs for the hand.

  16. Environmental Response Laboratory Network Training, Exercises, and Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hands-on experience will increase your laboratory's capabilities and ensure that your laboratory personnel are familiar with ERLN procedures. The ERLN also offers opportunities to participate in method development studies.

  17. Partnership with informal education learning centers to develop hands-on activities for research outreach efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courville, Z.; Haynes, R.; DeFrancis, G.; Koh, S.; Ringelberg, D.

    2012-12-01

    Outreach informed by scientific research plays an important role in fostering interest in science by making science and scientists accessible, fun, and interesting. Developing an interest in science in young, elementary-aged students through outreach is a rewarding endeavor for researchers, in that audiences are usually receptive, requirements for broader impacts are met, and bonds are formed between researchers and members of their local and surrounding communities. Promoting such interest among young students is imperative not only for an individual researcher's own self interest, but also for the strength of American science and innovation moving forward, and is the responsibility of the current generation of scientists. Developing genuine and successful inquiry-based, hands-on activities for elementary-aged students is outside the expertise of many researchers. Partnering with an informal education learning center (i.e. science museum or after-school program) provides researchers with the expertise they might be lacking in such endeavors. Here, we present a series of polar-, engineering- and microbiology-themed hands-on activities that have been developed by researchers at a government lab in partnership with a local science museum. Through a series of workshops, the science education staff at the museum provided researchers with background and instruction on inquiry and hands-on activities, and then collaborated with the researchers to develop activities which were later demonstrated at the museum to museum-goers. Education staff provided feedback about the presentation of the activities for further refinement. The program provided an opportunity for researchers to develop fun, on-target and age-appropriate science activities for elementary-aged students, an audience for outreach, and enabled general public audiences the chance to interact with researchers and scientists in an informal setting.

  18. Reproductive profile of physically active men after exhaustive endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, D; Da Silva, M E; Poblador, M S; Lancho, J L

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study on non-professional (recreational) athletes was two-fold: 1) to determine if endurance exercise (EE) routinely used by professional athletes would produce reproductive changes in the general population, and 2) to assess reversion. Short-term exhaustive endurance exercise (EEE) can produce alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis with subsequent fertility changes. Sixteen healthy adult male volunteers were divided into experimental (8) and control (8) groups for the exercise period. A cycloergometer provided EEE for a period of 2 weeks. The experimental group exercised four times a week; controls were without EEE. The hormonal and seminological profiles of all subjects were evaluated. Two weeks of EEE produced hormonal and seminological values in the experimental group that were statistically different from their own pre-treatment values (FSH: 3.33 +/- 1.7; LH: 3.73 +/- 1.36; sperm concentration/ml: 42.50 +/- 29.46; type a velocity: 25.23 +/- 10.9; type d velocity: 46.18 +/- 15.81; % of normal forms: 10.42 +/- 1.97) as well as from the pre- and post-treatment control group values. The measured parameters almost returned to pre-treatment levels in the experimental group 2 - 3 days after EEE ended. From this study we concluded that when subjected to EEE, individuals drawn from a recreational exercising life style experienced changes similar to those observed in studies done with athletes, and short-term EEE induced a reversible alteration to the HPG axis.

  19. Spectrum of antimicrobial activity and user acceptability of the hand disinfectant agent Sterillium Gel.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Rudolf, M; Labadie, J-C; Barrett, S P

    2002-10-01

    The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand gels has been shown to be significantly less than liquid hand rubs probably because of a lower concentration of alcohol. Sterillium Gel is the first hand gel with 85% ethanol. Its antimicrobial efficacy and user acceptability was studied. Bactericidal activity was tested according to prEN 12054 against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (suspension test) and EN 1500 (15 volunteers; four replicates), fungicidal activity according to EN 1275 against Candida albicans and spores of Aspergillus niger (suspension test) and tuberculocidal activity against Mycobacterium terrae using the DGHM suspension test. Virucidal activity was determined in suspension tests based on reduction of infectivity with and without interfering substances (10% fetal calf serum; 0.3% erythrocytes and 0.3% bovine serum albumin). Ninety-six healthcare workers in hospitals in France and the UK used the gel for four weeks and assessed it by filling out a questionnaire. The gel was bactericidal (a reduction factor of > 10(5)-fold), tuberculocidal (reduction factor > 10(5)) and fungicidal (reduction factor > 10(4)) in 30 s. Irrespective of interfering substances the gel inactivated orthopoxvirus and herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in 15 s, adenovirus in 2 min, poliovirus in 3 min and papovavirus in 15 min by a factor of > 10(4)-fold. Rotavirus and human immunodeficiency virus were inactivated in 30 s (without interfering substances). Under practical use conditions it was as effective in 30 s as the reference alcohol in 60 s. Most users described the tackiness, aggregation, skin feeling after use and smell as positive or acceptable. A total of 65.6% assessed the new gel to be better than a comparator irrespective of its type (gel or liquid). Overall Sterillium Gel had a unique spectrum of antimicrobial activity. It is probably the first alcohol-based hand gel to pass EN 1500 in 30 s. Due to the

  20. Committee Opinion No. 650 Summary: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.

  1. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 650: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.

  2. The benefits of exercise for patients with haemophilia and recommendations for safe and effective physical activity.

    PubMed

    Negrier, C; Seuser, A; Forsyth, A; Lobet, S; Llinas, A; Rosas, M; Heijnen, L

    2013-07-01

    Most health care professionals involved in the management of people with haemophilia (PWH) believe that exercise is beneficial and its practice is widely encouraged. This article aims to demonstrate that appropriate exercise (adapted to the special needs of the individual PWH) may be beneficial for all PWH through improved physical, psychosocial and medical status. Based on evidence gathered from the literature, many PWH, particularly those using long-term prophylaxis or exhibiting a mild/moderate bleeding phenotype, are as active as their healthy peers. PWH experience the same benefits of exercise as the general population, being physically healthier than if sedentary and enjoying a higher quality of life (QoL) through social inclusion and higher self-esteem. PWH can also gain physically from increased muscle strength, joint health, balance and flexibility achieved through physiotherapy, physical activity, exercise and sport. Conversely, very little data exist on activity levels of PWH in countries with limited resources. However, regarding specific exercise recommendations in PWH, there is a lack of randomized clinical trials, and consequently formal, evidence-based guidelines have not been produced. Based on published evidence from this review of the literature, together with the clinical experience of the authors, a series of recommendations for the safe participation of PWH in regular physical activities, exercises and sport are now proposed. In summary, we believe that appropriately modified programmes can potentially allow all PWH to experience the physical and psychosocial benefits of being physically active which may ultimately lead to an improved QoL.

  3. [Cardiovascular prevention and regular physical exercise : Activity and training as the true "polypill"].

    PubMed

    Löllgen, H; Bachl, N

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines for cardiovascular prevention need to be regularly revised and updated. With respect to physical activity and exercise, many studies with practical relevance have been published in recent years. They are concerned with the evidence of physical activity for prevention of many diseases and the spectrum of indications for applying physical activity for prevention, therapy and rehabilitation. Training recommendations have been developed for the prevention of various diseases according to the FITT rule, which stands for frequency, intensity, time (of session) and type of sports followed by a progression in the amount of training. Recent publications show that moderate exercise with an increase in regular activity (e.g. 10,000 steps per day) is a sufficient approach for risk reduction in many diseases. An as yet unresolved problem is the best approach for effective motivation for physical exercise. The prescription of exercise is an important approach for improving the motivation for physical activity; however, prescribing exercise needs basic knowledge in sports physiology and proper training recommendations. Furthermore, population-based interventions for physical activity are urgently needed to implement more physical activity in the daily routine. The current ESC guidelines provide a great deal of new information to be implemented in the prevention in primary care; however, with regard to physical activity, more comprehensive biological data of physical activity should be presented in order to improve physician's knowledge, thus enhancing the fight against inactivity and sedentary lifestyles as one of the most significant risk factors.

  4. Heart rate and blood pressure response in adult men and women during exercise and sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Sebastian T; Kostis, John B; Casazza, Laurie; Sleeper, Lynn A; Lu, Minmin; Nezgoda, Joseph; Rosen, Raymond S

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) response of sexual activity compared with treadmill exercise in adult men and women. Nineteen men, 55 +/- 8 years, and 13 women, 51 +/- 7 years, underwent a maximal Bruce protocol treadmill stress test followed by home-monitored sexual activity using noninvasive HR and BP recording devices. The mean treadmill times were significantly shorter than the mean times of sexual activity for men and women (p <0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). For the men, average maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 72%, 80%, and 57% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. For the women, maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 64%, 75%, and 48% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. Age correlated inversely with duration of treadmill exercise (a 9-second decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.036), and with the duration of sexual activity (a 1-minute decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.024). Treadmill exercise duration predicted sexual activity duration (a 2.3-minute increase in sexual activity duration per each minute treadmill duration; p = 0.026). In conclusion, sexual activity provides modest physical stress comparable with stage II of the standard multistage Bruce treadmill protocol for men and stage I for women.

  5. Selection and preparation of hand and foot movements: Cz activity as a marker of limb system preparation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeff

    2012-05-01

    Event-related potentials were used to examine the preparation of hand and foot responses in tasks using both limb systems. As in tasks using only one system, opposite lateralized readiness potentials were observed for hand and foot responses (Experiment 1). Furthermore, movement-related activity at Cz was more positive prior to hand than foot responses, revealing that Cz activity can be used to index selective movement preparation by one limb system. In Experiment 2, two responses were cued prior to stimulus onset. Cue-related activity at Cz was more positive with hand than foot cuing, reinforcing the conclusion that Cz activity is sensitive to selective preparation for one of these limb systems. Overall, the results show that it is possible to carry out motor preparation of two responses within the same limb system and that differential Cz activity is a useful index of this preparation in tasks with hand versus foot movements.

  6. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  7. Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, P; Nielsen, J; Overgaard, M; Krogh-Madsen, R; Gjedde, A; Secher, N H; Petersen, N C

    2010-06-01

    Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate to the ability to generate a maximal voluntary contraction and to the transcranial magnetic stimulated force generation. To determine the role of a reduced OCI and in central fatigue, 16 males performed low intensity, maximal intensity and hypoxic cycling exercise. Exercise fatigue was evaluated by ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia (0.10) reduced cerebral oxygen delivery 25% and decreased 11+/-4 mmHg (P<0.001) together with OCI (6.2+/-0.7 to 4.8+/-0.5, P<0.001). RPE increased while MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P<0.05). During maximal exercise declined 8+/-4 mmHg (P<0.05) and OCI to 3.8+/-0.5 (P<0.001). RPE was 18.5, and MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P<0.05). We observed no signs of muscular fatigue in the elbow flexors and all control MVCs were similar to resting values. Exhaustive exercise provoked cerebral deoxygenation, metabolic changes and indices of fatigue similar to those observed during exercise in hypoxia indicating that reduced cerebral oxygenation may play a role in the development of central fatigue and may be an exercise capacity limiting factor.

  8. mVps34 is activated by an acute bout of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, M G; Hamilton, D L; Murray, J T; Baar, K

    2007-11-01

    Resistance-exercise training results in a progressive increase in muscle mass and force production. Following an acute bout of resistance exercise, the rate of protein synthesis increases proportionally with the increase in protein degradation, correlating at 3 h in the starved state. Amino acids taken immediately before or immediately after exercise increase the post-exercise rate of protein synthesis. Therefore a protein that controls protein degradation and amino acid-sensitivity would be a potential candidate for controlling the activation of protein synthesis following resistance exercise. One such candidate is the class III PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) Vps34 (vacuolar protein sorting mutant 34). Vps34 controls both autophagy and amino acid signalling to mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70 S6K1 (S6 kinase 1). We have identified a significant increase in mVps34 (mammalian Vps34) activity 3 h after resistance exercise, continuing for at least 6 h, and propose a mechanism whereby mVps34 could act as an internal amino acid sensor to mTOR after resistance exercise.

  9. A new approach of active compliance control via fuzzy logic control for multifingered robot hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, M. F. A.; Jalani, J.; Ahmad, A.

    2016-07-01

    Safety is a vital issue in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). In order to guarantee safety in HRI, a model reference impedance control can be a very useful approach introducing a compliant control. In particular, this paper establishes a fuzzy logic compliance control (i.e. active compliance control) to reduce impact and forces during physical interaction between humans/objects and robots. Exploiting a virtual mass-spring-damper system allows us to determine a desired compliant level by understanding the behavior of the model reference impedance control. The performance of fuzzy logic compliant control is tested in simulation for a robotic hand known as the RED Hand. The results show that the fuzzy logic is a feasible control approach, particularly to control position and to provide compliant control. In addition, the fuzzy logic control allows us to simplify the controller design process (i.e. avoid complex computation) when dealing with nonlinearities and uncertainties.

  10. Alignment of Hands-on STEM Engagement Activities with Positive STEM Dispositions in Secondary School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-12-01

    This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in activities such as an after-school robotics program. Both groups are compared and contrasted with a third group of high school students admitted at the eleventh grade to an academy of mathematics and science. All students were assessed using the same science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) dispositions instrument. Findings indicate that the after-school group whose participants self-selected STEM engagement activities, and the self-selected academy of mathematics and science group, each had highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to those of STEM professionals, while a subset of the middle school whole-classroom energy monitoring group that reported high interest in STEM as a career, also possessed highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to the STEM Professionals group. The authors conclude that several different kinds of hands-on STEM engagement activities are likely to foster or maintain positive STEM dispositions at the middle school and high school levels, and that these highly positive levels of dispositions can be viewed as a target toward which projects seeking to interest mainstream secondary students in STEM majors in college and STEM careers, can hope to aspire. Gender findings regarding STEM dispositions are also reported for these groups.

  11. The effects of treadmill exercise on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercise (15, 30 and 60 min) on the mean frequency and amplitude of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Material and methods In this study, 32 rats were assigned to 15, 30, and 60 min running exercise groups and the control group, each consisting of 8 rats. According to the specified protocol, the rats were submitted to running exercises at the same hour of each day for 90 days. After the exercise program, the rats were administered (500 IU/2.5 µl) of penicillin into the left cortex by the microinjection method. An electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording was performed for 3 h using a data acquisition system. The frequency and the amplitude of the recordings were analyzed. Results Short-duration treadmill exercise (15 min) caused a decrease in the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity at 70 min after penicillin injection (p < 0.001). The mean frequency of epileptiform activity decreased at 90 min after penicillin injection in the 30 and 60 min treadmill exercise groups (p < 0.01). The mean amplitude of epileptiform activity was not changed in any of the exercise groups compared to the control (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercises decreased the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. These findings may contribute to improving the quality of life in epileptic patients. PMID:27695482

  12. Exercise & Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...

  13. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered.

  14. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wasenius, Niko; Venojärvi, Mika; Manderoos, Sirpa; Surakka, Jukka; Lindholm, Harri; Heinonen, Olli J.; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Mälkiä, Esko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks) and during the intervention (1–12 weeks) and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050). The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity) increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p < 0.050) but not in the resistance training group (p > 0.050) compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised. Key Points Structured NW or RT training does not increase the volume of total physical activity. NW intervention can increase the volume of higher intensity activities. The increased in volume of LTPA induced by the structured NW and RT interventions was associated with the decreased volume of NLTPA. PMID:25435776

  15. Effects of vigorous late-night exercise on sleep quality and cardiac autonomic activity.

    PubMed

    Myllymäki, Tero; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Savolainen, Katri; Hokka, Laura; Jakonen, Riikka; Juuti, Tanja; Martinmäki, Kaisu; Kaartinen, Jukka; Kinnunen, Marja-Liisa; Rusko, Heikki

    2011-03-01

    Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily load. Regular physical activity enhances overall sleep quality, but the effects of acute exercise on sleep are not well defined. In sleep hygiene recommendations, intensive exercising is not suggested within the last 3 h before bed time, but this recommendation has not been adequately tested experimentally. Therefore, the effects of vigorous late-night exercise on sleep were examined by measuring polysomnographic, actigraphic and subjective sleep quality, as well as cardiac autonomic activity. Eleven (seven men, four women) physically fit young adults (VO(2max) 54±8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) , age 26±3 years) were monitored in a sleep laboratory twice in a counterbalanced order: (1) after vigorous late-night exercise; and (2) after a control day without exercise. The incremental cycle ergometer exercise until voluntary exhaustion started at 21:00±00:28 hours, lasted for 35±3 min, and ended 2:13±00:19 hours before bed time. The proportion of non-rapid eye movement sleep was greater after the exercise day than the control day (P<0.01), while no differences were seen in actigraphic or subjective sleep quality. During the whole sleep, no differences were found in heart rate (HR) variability, whereas HR was higher after the exercise day than the control day (54±7 versus 51±7, P<0.01), and especially during the first three sleeping hours. The results indicate that vigorous late-night exercise does not disturb sleep quality. However, it may have effects on cardiac autonomic control of heart during the first sleeping hours.

  16. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of Alzheimer disease through suppressing microglial activation-induced apoptosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and eventually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and latency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise shortened these parameters. The numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed these numbers. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11b) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed GFAP and CD11b expressions. Bax expression was increased and Bcl-2 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. The present results demonstrated that treadmill exercise ameliorated AD-induced impairments of spatial learning ability and short-term memory through suppressing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of treadmill exercise on microglial activation. PMID:28119873

  17. Activity before exercise influences recovery metabolism in the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Scholnick, D A; Gleeson, T T

    2000-06-01

    During recovery from even a brief period of exercise, metabolic rate remains elevated above resting levels for extended periods. The intensity and duration of exercise as well as body temperature and hormone levels can influence this excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). We examined the influence of activity before exercise (ABE), commonly termed warm-up in endotherms, on EPOC in the desert iguana Dipsosaurus dorsalis. The rate of oxygen consumption and blood lactate levels were measured in 11 female D. dorsalis (mass 41.1 +/- 3.0 g; mean +/- s.e.m.) during rest, after two types of ABE and after 5 min of exhaustive exercise followed by 60 min of recovery. ABE was either single (15 s of maximal activity followed by a 27 min pause) or intermittent (twelve 15 s periods of exercise separated by 2 min pauses). Our results indicate that both single and intermittent ABE reduced recovery metabolic rate. EPOC volumes decreased from 0.261 to 0.156 ml of oxygen consumed during 60 min of recovery when lizards were subjected to intermittent ABE. The average cost of activity (net V(O2) during exercise and 60 min of recovery per distance traveled) was almost 40 % greater in lizards that exercised without any prior activity than in lizards that underwent ABE. Blood lactate levels and removal rates were greatest in animals that underwent ABE. These findings may be of particular importance for terrestrial ectotherms that typically use burst locomotion and have a small aerobic scope and a long recovery period.

  18. Changes in markers of brain serotonin activity in response to chronic exercise in senior men.

    PubMed

    Melancon, Michel O; Lorrain, Dominique; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with noticeable impairments in brain serotonin transmission, which might contribute to increased vulnerability to developing depression in later life. Animal and human studies have shown that aerobic exercise can stimulate brain serotonin activity and trigger parallel elevations in tryptophan (TRP, the serotonin precursor) availability in blood plasma. However, the influence of chronic exercise on serotonergic activity in older adults is not yet known. Sixteen men aged 64 ± 3 years exercised for 1 h (67%-70% peak oxygen consumption) at baseline and following 16 weeks of aerobic training. The main outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), TRP, prolactin, lactate, and free fatty acids (FFA). Changes in plasma free-TRP/BCAA and prolactin served as surrogates for TRP availability and serotonin activity, respectively. Chronic exercise decreased body mass (P < 0.05) whilst it increased ventilatory threshold 2 (P < 0.01). Although training did not affect plasma TRP availability to the brain at rest, both pre- and post-training exercise challenges markedly increased TRP availability (P < 0.001). The free-TRP/BCAA values reached a ceiling during exercise that was lower following training (P < 0.05), whereas similar patterns were found for prolactin, lactate, and FFA. These data show that aerobic exercise elicits consistent transient elevations in plasma TRP availability to the brain in older men; the elevations were independent from physical training, although less pronounced following training. The data support the contention that repeated elevations in brain serotonin activity might be involved in the antidepressant effect of exercise training in older adults.

  19. Low Cost Hands-On Activities in Large Lecture Conceptual Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimiduk, Kathryn

    1998-10-01

    The student diversity in a university conceptual physic course presents a challenge to sustain the interest of all the students, to provide a solid conceptual basis for students continuing in science or engineering and to present science as an active subject rather than as vocabulary lists, rules and book knowledge. Combining ideas from the literature for teaching large lecture calculus based physics and science leary education majors in small class settings has resulted in a large (120 student) class format that mixes low cost (< $1,000 for term) hands-on activities, demonstrations, summary discussions and lectures. Hands-on activities are done in small groups which allows the diversity to become an asset. Several of these activities will be described in detail. The effectiveness of this teaching approach will be presented based on results of pre and post Force Concept Inventory test scores for this class and a comparison class that just used lecture and demonstrations for mechanics. The classes under comparison were taught by the same instructor, from the same book, were of similar size and neither had any additional teaching staff.

  20. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive

  1. MUSCLE ACTIVATION OF THE TORSO DURING THE MODIFIED RAZOR CURL HAMSTRING EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Audrey J.; Wyman, James W.; Blazquez, Ivan N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: The RAZOR curl has been introduced as a hamstring exercise. However, modifications to the exercise have been developed which are proposed to utilize some of the muscles of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Thus, it was the purpose of this study to quantitatively examine the modified RAZOR curl using surface electromyography (sEMG), as an exercise that may recruit the trunk muscles of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Methods: Twenty-eight active male and female graduate students (24.2±1.3 years; 174.8±9.9 cm; 74.9±14.9 kg), consented to participate. Dependent variables were muscle activation of trunk musculature (dominant side gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, multifidus, longissimus, lower rectus abdominis, upper rectus abdominis, external obliques) reported as percent of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) during the exercise while the independent variable was the muscle selected. Results: The multifidus and longissimus demonstrated moderately strong activation (35-50%MVIC) while the upper rectus abdominis demonstrated strong activation (20-35%MVIC) and the gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, lower rectus abdominis, and external obliques had minimal activation. Conclusions: These findings allow the practitioner to utilize an exercise that provides a functional training stimulus that activates not only the hamstrings but also some musculature of the trunk muscles of the lumbopelvic-hip complex at strong to moderately strong levels. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:22319680

  2. Motivating Exercise: The Interactive Effect of General Action Goals and Past Behavior on Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Justin; Wang, Wei; Albarracin, Dolores

    2012-09-01

    Although exercise is recognized as a powerful tool to combat obesity, remarkably few US adults pursue adequate amounts of exercise, with one major impediment being a lack of motivation for active behaviors. Recent empirical work has demonstrated that behavior can be guided by goals to be generally active or inactive. In the present paper, an experiment is presented in which participants played or observed a video game, were primed with action or inaction goals, and practiced a stretching exercise for as long as desired. Exposure to environmental action cues led to increased time spent exercising. This effect was moderated by past behavior, such that individuals who had just engaged in an active task (played a videogame) were insensitive to attempts to motivate general action. This suggests that the effectiveness of attempts to motivate activity ("just do it", "be active") hinges on the recent past-behavior of the targeted individuals. An implication of this work is that participation in certain leisure activities, such as playing videogames, may be causally related to a lack of motivation for exercise.

  3. The Activity of Surface Electromyographic Signal of Selected Muscles during Classic Rehabilitation Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jinzhuang; Sun, Jinli; Gao, Junmin; Wang, Hongrui; Yang, Xincai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Prone bridge, unilateral bridge, supine bridge, and bird-dog are classic rehabilitation exercises, which have been advocated as effective ways to improve core stability among healthy individuals and patients with low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of seven selected muscles during rehabilitation exercises through the signal of surface electromyographic. Approaches. We measured the surface electromyographic signals of four lower limb muscles, two abdominal muscles, and one back muscle during rehabilitation exercises of 30 healthy students and then analyzed its activity level using the median frequency method. Results. Different levels of muscle activity during the four rehabilitation exercises were observed. The prone bridge and unilateral bridge caused the greatest muscle fatigue; however, the supine bridge generated the lowest muscle activity. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between left and right body side muscles in the median frequency slope during the four rehabilitation exercises of seven muscles. Conclusions. The prone bridge can affect the low back and lower limb muscles of most people. The unilateral bridge was found to stimulate muscles much more active than the supine bridge. The bird-dog does not cause much fatigue to muscles but can make most selected muscles active. PMID:27195151

  4. The Activity of Surface Electromyographic Signal of Selected Muscles during Classic Rehabilitation Exercise.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jinzhuang; Sun, Jinli; Gao, Junmin; Wang, Hongrui; Yang, Xincai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Prone bridge, unilateral bridge, supine bridge, and bird-dog are classic rehabilitation exercises, which have been advocated as effective ways to improve core stability among healthy individuals and patients with low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of seven selected muscles during rehabilitation exercises through the signal of surface electromyographic. Approaches. We measured the surface electromyographic signals of four lower limb muscles, two abdominal muscles, and one back muscle during rehabilitation exercises of 30 healthy students and then analyzed its activity level using the median frequency method. Results. Different levels of muscle activity during the four rehabilitation exercises were observed. The prone bridge and unilateral bridge caused the greatest muscle fatigue; however, the supine bridge generated the lowest muscle activity. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between left and right body side muscles in the median frequency slope during the four rehabilitation exercises of seven muscles. Conclusions. The prone bridge can affect the low back and lower limb muscles of most people. The unilateral bridge was found to stimulate muscles much more active than the supine bridge. The bird-dog does not cause much fatigue to muscles but can make most selected muscles active.

  5. Levels of muscle activation in strength and conditioning exercises and dynamometer hiking in junior sailors.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Angus F; Wee, Wing K; Xie, Wei; Oh, Paul W; Lim, Julian J H; Tan, Kelvin W W

    2012-04-01

    Although strength and conditioning exercises have been prescribed to enhance performance and prevent injury in sailors, little is known about these exercises in comparison to the demands placed on the sailor's musculature while hiking maximally. Because of the difficulty in collecting hiking-related data on water, a 3-minute maximal hiking test (HM180) has been previously developed for use in the laboratory setting. There were 2 aims of this study. The first aim was to determine whether discriminative validity could be shown for the HM180 test in a group of junior sailors of differing ability level and gender. The second aim was to determine whether differences in muscle activation existed between selected strength and conditioning exercises and the HM180 test. Twenty-nine adolescent boy and girl sailors aged between 14 and 16 years from the Singaporean National Byte Class training squad (n = 12) and the Singapore High Participation Group (n = 17) were recruited for this study. The average levels of normalized muscle activation in selected lower limb and trunk muscles in 4 selected strength and conditioning exercises (leg extension, back squat, and back extension exercises, a 30-second hiking hold) and a maximal 3-minute hiking test (the HM180 test) were quantified. Discriminative validity of the HM180 test was shown, and it was confirmed that the strength and conditioning exercises provide an overload stimulus for the HM180 test. Further, similar levels of muscle activation were found for the vastus lateralis in the leg extension and back squat exercises, and the superficial lumbar multifidus in the back extension and back squat exercises. This study has the potential to inform the design of strength and conditioning programs for junior sailors.

  6. Adrenaline increases skeletal muscle glycogenolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase activation and carbohydrate oxidation during moderate exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Matthew J; Howlett, Kirsten F; Febbraio, Mark A; Spriet, Lawrence L; Hargreaves, Mark

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the role of adrenaline in regulating carbohydrate metabolism during moderate exercise, 10 moderately trained men completed two 20 min exercise bouts at 58 ± 2 % peak pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2,peak). On one occasion saline was infused (CON), and on the other adrenaline was infused intravenously for 5 min prior to and throughout exercise (ADR). Glucose kinetics were measured by a primed, continuous infusion of 6,6-[2H]glucose and muscle samples were obtained prior to and at 1 and 20 min of exercise. The infusion of adrenaline elevated (P < 0.01) plasma adrenaline concentrations at rest (pre-infusion, 0.28 ± 0.09; post-infusion, 1.70 ± 0.45 nmol l−1; means ±s.e.m.) and this effect was maintained throughout exercise. Total carbohydrate oxidation increased by 18 % and this effect was due to greater skeletal muscle glycogenolysis (P < 0.05) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activation (P < 0.05, treatment effect). Glucose rate of appearance was not different between trials, but the infusion of adrenaline decreased (P < 0.05, treatment effect) skeletal muscle glucose uptake in ADR. During exercise muscle glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P) (P = 0.055, treatment effect) and lactate (P < 0.05) were elevated in ADR compared with CON and no changes were observed for pyruvate, creatine, phosphocreatine, ATP and the calculated free concentrations of ADP and AMP. The data demonstrate that elevated plasma adrenaline levels during moderate exercise in untrained men increase skeletal muscle glycogen breakdown and PDH activation, which results in greater carbohydrate oxidation. The greater muscle glycogenolysis appears to be due to increased glycogen phosphorylase transformation whilst the increased PDH activity cannot be readily explained. Finally, the decreased glucose uptake observed during exercise in ADR is likely to be due to the increased intracellular G-6-P and a subsequent decrease in glucose phosphorylation. PMID:11433007

  7. Enhanced pulmonary and active skeletal muscle gas exchange during intense exercise after sprint training in men.

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, M J; Heigenhauser, G J; McKelvie, R S; Obminski, G; MacDougall, J D; Jones, N L

    1997-01-01

    1. This study investigated the effects of 7 weeks of sprint training on gas exchange across the lungs and active skeletal muscle during and following maximal cycling exercise in eight healthy males. 2. Pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were measured before and after training during incremental exercise (n = 8) and during and in recovery from a maximal 30 s sprint exercise bout by breath-by-breath analysis (n = 6). To determine gas exchange by the exercising leg muscles, brachial arterial and femoral venous blood O2 and CO2 contents and lactate concentration were measured at rest, during the final 10 s of exercise and during 10 min of recovery. 3. Training increased (P < 0.05) the maximal incremental exercise values of ventilation (VE, by 15.7 +/- 7.1%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 15.0 +/- 4.2%). Sprint exercise peak power (3.9 +/- 1.0% increase) and cumulative 30 s work (11.7 +/- 2.8% increase) were increased and fatigue index was reduced (by -9.2 +/- 1.5%) after training (P < 0.05). The highest VE, VCO2 and VO2 values attained during sprint exercise were not significantly changed after training, but a significant (P < 0.05) training effect indicated increased VE (by 19.2 +/- 7.9%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 12.7 +/- 6.5%), primarily reflecting elevated post-exercise values after training. 4. Arterial O2 and CO2 contents were lower after training, by respective mean differences of 3.4 and 21.9 ml l-1 (P < 0.05), whereas the arteriovenous O2 and CO2 content differences and the respiratory exchange ratio across the leg were unchanged by training. 5. Arterial whole blood lactate concentration and the net lactate release by exercising muscle were unchanged by training. 6. The greater peak pulmonary VO2 and VCO2 with sprint exercise, the increased maximal incremental values, unchanged arterial blood lactate concentration and greater sprint performance all point strongly towards enhanced gas exchange across the lungs and in

  8. Enhanced pulmonary and active skeletal muscle gas exchange during intense exercise after sprint training in men.

    PubMed

    McKenna, M J; Heigenhauser, G J; McKelvie, R S; Obminski, G; MacDougall, J D; Jones, N L

    1997-06-15

    1. This study investigated the effects of 7 weeks of sprint training on gas exchange across the lungs and active skeletal muscle during and following maximal cycling exercise in eight healthy males. 2. Pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were measured before and after training during incremental exercise (n = 8) and during and in recovery from a maximal 30 s sprint exercise bout by breath-by-breath analysis (n = 6). To determine gas exchange by the exercising leg muscles, brachial arterial and femoral venous blood O2 and CO2 contents and lactate concentration were measured at rest, during the final 10 s of exercise and during 10 min of recovery. 3. Training increased (P < 0.05) the maximal incremental exercise values of ventilation (VE, by 15.7 +/- 7.1%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 15.0 +/- 4.2%). Sprint exercise peak power (3.9 +/- 1.0% increase) and cumulative 30 s work (11.7 +/- 2.8% increase) were increased and fatigue index was reduced (by -9.2 +/- 1.5%) after training (P < 0.05). The highest VE, VCO2 and VO2 values attained during sprint exercise were not significantly changed after training, but a significant (P < 0.05) training effect indicated increased VE (by 19.2 +/- 7.9%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 12.7 +/- 6.5%), primarily reflecting elevated post-exercise values after training. 4. Arterial O2 and CO2 contents were lower after training, by respective mean differences of 3.4 and 21.9 ml l-1 (P < 0.05), whereas the arteriovenous O2 and CO2 content differences and the respiratory exchange ratio across the leg were unchanged by training. 5. Arterial whole blood lactate concentration and the net lactate release by exercising muscle were unchanged by training. 6. The greater peak pulmonary VO2 and VCO2 with sprint exercise, the increased maximal incremental values, unchanged arterial blood lactate concentration and greater sprint performance all point strongly towards enhanced gas exchange across the lungs and in

  9. Teaching hands-on science activities: Variables that moderate attitude-behavior consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    The relationship between prospective elementary teachers' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions to teach science using hands-on activities at least twice a week during their first year of employment was investigated. The findings suggest that measuring prospective teachers' attitudes toward science cannot adequately predict nor provide a satisfactory explanation of their science teaching behaviors. The findings also provide clear support for two hypotheses derived from Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action regarding the predictability of prospective teachers' intentions to teach science from their attitudes and subjective norms.Received: 25 October 1985

  10. Hand to hand.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Susanna E; Graboys, Thomas B

    2002-08-01

    Examination of the hands has the potential to transform the encounter between physician and patient. Taking the hands conveys a sense of warmth and connectedness and is a means to communicate the physician's mindfulness. The hands can focus the examination on the individual patient as a complete human being, and not merely a disease or a collection of symptoms. The hands provide readily accessible information that may not be available through other evaluations, and they offer clues to a patient's physical and mental health. Commonplace observations, such as those revealed in the hands, can unravel medical mysteries and provide profound clinical insights.

  11. Learning about Modes in Atomic Force Microscopy by Means of Hands-On Activities Based on a Simple Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phuapaiboon, Unchada; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Osotchan, Tanakorn

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the results of using a low-cost hands-on setup in combination with accompanying activities to promote understanding of the contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM). This contact mode setup enabled learners to study how AFM works by hand scanning using probing cantilevers with different characteristics on…

  12. Hands-on Activities versus Worksheets in Reinforcing Physical Science Principles: Effects on Student Achievement and Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald M.; Wardlow, George W.; Franklin, Timothy D.

    1997-01-01

    A group of 132 agricultural science students were divided into an experimental group who completed hands-on activities on Ohm's Law and incline plane and a control group who completed worksheets. There were no significant differences in immediate or follow-up measures of achievement. Hands-on students had significantly more positive attitudes. (SK)

  13. Two-Stage Hands-On Technology Activity to Develop Preservice Teachers' Competency in Applying Science and Mathematics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Kuen-Yi; Williams, P. John

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of a two-stage hands-on technology learning activity, based on Dewey's learning experience theory that is designed to enhance preservice teachers' primary and secondary experiences in developing their competency to solve hands-on problems that apply science and mathematics concepts. The major conclusions…

  14. The effect of exercise and training status on platelet activation: do cocoa polyphenols play a role?

    PubMed

    Singh, I; Quinn, H; Mok, M; Southgate, R J; Turner, A H; Li, D; Sinclair, A J; Hawley, J A

    2006-09-01

    Sedentary and trained men respond differently to the same intensity of exercise, this is probably related to their platelet reactivity and antioxidant capacity. There is growing interest in the utilization of antioxidant-rich plant extracts as dietary food supplements. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute bout of sub maximal exercise on platelet count and differential response of platelet activation in trained and sedentary subjects and to observe if cocoa polyphenols reverse the effect of exercise on platelet function. The practical significance of this study was that many sedentary people engage in occasional strenuous exercise that may predispose them to risk of heart disease. Fasting blood samples were collected from 16 male subjects, pre and post 1-h cycling exercise at 70% of maximal aerobic power (VO2max) before and after consumption of cocoa or placebo. Agonist stimulated citrated whole blood was utilized for measuring platelet aggregation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and platelet activation. Baseline platelet count (221 +/- 33 x 10(9)/L) and ATP release (1.4 +/- 0.6 nmol) increased significantly (P < 0.05) after exercise in all subjects. Baseline platelet numbers in the trained were higher (P < 0.05) than in the sedentary (235 +/- 37 vs. 208 +/- 34 x 10(9)/L), where as platelet activation in trained was lower (P < 0.05) than sedentary (51 +/- 6 vs. 59 +/- 5%). Seven days of cocoa polyphenol supplementation had little effect on any of the parameters measured. We conclude that trained subjects show decreased activation of stimulated platelets when compared to the sedentary subjects and short-term cocoa polyphenol supplementation did not decrease platelet activity in response to exercise independent of prior training status.

  15. Motivating Exercise: The Interactive Effect of General Action Goals and Past Behavior on Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, Justin; Wang, Wei; Albarracin, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Although exercise is recognized as a powerful tool to combat obesity, remarkably few US adults pursue adequate amounts of exercise, with one major impediment being a lack of motivation for active behaviors. Recent empirical work has demonstrated that behavior can be guided by goals to be generally active or inactive. In the present paper, an experiment is presented in which participants played or observed a video game, were primed with action or inaction goals, and practiced a stretching exercise for as long as desired. Exposure to environmental action cues led to increased time spent exercising. This effect was moderated by past behavior, such that individuals who had just engaged in an active task (played a videogame) were insensitive to attempts to motivate general action. This suggests that the effectiveness of attempts to motivate activity (“just do it”, “be active”) hinges on the recent past-behavior of the targeted individuals. An implication of this work is that participation in certain leisure activities, such as playing videogames, may be causally related to a lack of motivation for exercise. PMID:23606776

  16. Effects of a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on muscle activation and performance during subsequent lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jeremy G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A

    2014-05-01

    A single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise may negatively affect a subsequent lower-body resistance exercise workout. However, less is known regarding the effects of a lower-body aerobic workout on muscle activation and performance during a subsequent upper-body resistance exercise workout. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation and performance during lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts after a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine. Fourteen men (mean age = 24.1 ± 2.3 years, height = 180.8 ± 6.9 cm, body mass = 91.9 ± 16.4 kg) completed 4 trials in random order. Two trials consisted of 30 minutes on the elliptical machine, using the lower body only, at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate before either a back squat or bench press workout, consisting of 3 sets to failure performed at 75% 1 repetition maximum. The other 2 trials consisted of only the back squat or bench press resistance workouts. To quantify muscle activation, bipolar surface electromyography electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis or pectoralis major. Acute lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine significantly reduced the number of repetitions completed for the back squat but not the bench press exercise. There was no significant difference in muscle activation between the elliptical and no elliptical conditions. However, for both exercises and conditions, muscle activation increased significantly between the first and final repetitions for the first 2 sets but not for the third set. These results suggest that to optimize the quality of a lower-body resistance-training workout, the workout should not be preceded by lower-body aerobic exercise.

  17. No Difference in Transverse Abdominis Activation Ratio between Healthy and Asymptomatic Low Back Pain Patients during Therapeutic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Gorbet, Nathaniel; Selkow, Noelle M.; Hart, Joseph M.; Saliba, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Dysfunction of the transverse abdominis (TrA) has been associated with LBP. Several therapeutic exercises are prescribed to help target the TrA. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) is used to capture activation of the TrA during exercise. The purpose was to examine TrA activation during the ADIM and quadruped exercises between healthy and nonsymptomatic LBP patients. We instructed the subjects how to perform the exercises and measured muscle thickness of the TrA at rest and during the exercises using RUSI. This allowed us to calculate TrA activation ratio during these exercises. We found no significant differences between activation ratios of the two groups during either exercise; however TrA activation during the ADIM was higher than the quadruped exercise. These exercises were capable of activating the TrA, which may be in part due to the verbal instruction they received. These exercises could be used during prevention or rehabilitation programs, since the TrA is activated. PMID:22110965

  18. Increasing physical activity and exercise in lung cancer: reviewing safety, benefits, and application.

    PubMed

    Bade, Brett C; Thomas, D David; Scott, JoAnn B; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer continues to be a difficult disease frequently diagnosed in late stages with a high mortality and symptom burden. In part because of frequent lung comorbidity, even lung cancer survivors often remain symptomatic and functionally limited. Though targeted therapy continues to increase treatment options for advanced-stage disease, symptom burden remains high with few therapeutic options. In the last several decades, exercise and physical activity have arisen as therapeutic options for obstructive lung disease and lung cancer. To date, exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms, increase exercise tolerance, improve quality of life, and potentially reduce length of stay and postoperative complications. Multiple small trials have been performed in perioperative non-small-cell lung cancer patients, although fewer studies are available for patients with advanced-stage disease. Despite the increased interest in this subject over the last few years, a validated exercise regimen has not been established for perioperative or advanced-stage disease. Clinicians underutilize exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation as a therapy, in part because of the lack of evidence-based consensus as to how and when to implement increasing physical activity. This review summarizes the existing evidence on exercise in lung cancer patients.

  19. Effects of Antecedent GABA A Receptor Activation on Counterregulatory Responses to Exercise in Healthy Man.

    PubMed

    Hedrington, Maka S; Tate, Donna B; Younk, Lisa M; Davis, Stephen N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether antecedent stimulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors with the benzodiazepine alprazolam can blunt physiologic responses during next-day moderate (90 min) exercise in healthy man. Thirty-one healthy individuals (16 male/15 female aged 28 ± 1 year, BMI 23 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were studied during separate, 2-day protocols. Day 1 consisted of morning and afternoon 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic or hypoglycemic clamps with or without 1 mg alprazolam given 30 min before a clamp. Day 2 consisted of 90-min euglycemic cycling exercise at 50% VO2max. Despite similar euglycemia (5.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and insulinemia (46 ± 6 pmol/L) during day 2 exercise studies, GABA A activation with alprazolam during day 1 euglycemia resulted in significant blunting of plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone responses. Lipolysis (glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids) and endogenous glucose production during exercise were also reduced, and glucose infusion rates were increased following prior euglycemia with alprazolam. Prior hypoglycemia with alprazolam resulted in further reduction of glucagon and cortisol responses during exercise. We conclude that prior activation of GABA A pathways can play a significant role in blunting key autonomous nervous system, neuroendocrine, and metabolic physiologic responses during next-day exercise in healthy man.

  20. Muscle mitochondrial density after exhaustive exercise in dogs - Prolonged restricted activity and retraining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.

  1. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  2. Cross-activation and Detraining Effects of Tongue Exercise in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schaser, Allison J.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2015-01-01

    Voice and swallowing deficits can occur with aging. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow may be used to treat swallowing disorders, but may also benefit vocal function due to cross-system activation effects. It is unknown how exercise-based neuroplasticity contributes to behavior and maintenance following treatment. Eighty rats were used to examine behavioral parameters and changes in neurotrophins after tongue exercise paired with a swallow. Tongue forces and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded before and after training/detraining in young and old rats. Tissue was analyzed for neurotrophin content. Results showed tongue exercise paired with a swallow was associated with increased tongue forces at all ages. Gains diminished after detraining in old rats. Age-related changes in vocalizations, neurotrophin 4 (NT4), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found. Minimal cross-system activation effects were observed. Neuroplastic benefits were demonstrated with exercise in old rats through behavioral improvements and up-regulation of BDNF in the hypoglossal nucleus. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow should be developed, studied, and optimized in human clinical research to treat swallowing and voice disorders in elderly people. PMID:26477376

  3. Cross-activation and detraining effects of tongue exercise in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Schaser, Allison J; Ciucci, Michelle R; Connor, Nadine P

    2016-01-15

    Voice and swallowing deficits can occur with aging. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow may be used to treat swallowing disorders, but may also benefit vocal function due to cross-system activation effects. It is unknown how exercise-based neuroplasticity contributes to behavior and maintenance following treatment. Eighty rats were used to examine behavioral parameters and changes in neurotrophins after tongue exercise paired with a swallow. Tongue forces and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded before and after training/detraining in young and old rats. Tissue was analyzed for neurotrophin content. Results showed tongue exercise paired with a swallow was associated with increased tongue forces at all ages. Gains diminished after detraining in old rats. Age-related changes in vocalizations, neurotrophin 4 (NT4), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found. Minimal cross-system activation effects were observed. Neuroplastic benefits were demonstrated with exercise in old rats through behavioral improvements and up-regulation of BDNF in the hypoglossal nucleus. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow should be developed, studied, and optimized in human clinical research to treat swallowing and voice disorders in elderly people.

  4. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Carvalho, Celso R. F.; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. Design A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. Results No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05). Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG. Conclusion The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvementin their exercise capacity and a reductionin pulmonary inflammation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294 PMID:26301706

  5. Non-exercise physical activity attenuates motor symptoms in Parkinson disease independent from nigrostriatal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jon; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J.H.; Frey, Kirk A; Albin, Roger L.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between time spent in non-exercise and exercise physical activity and severity of motor functions in Parkinson disease (PD). Background Increasing motor impairments of PD incline many patients to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the relationship between duration of both non-exercise and exercise physical activity over a 4-week period using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and severity of clinical motor symptoms in PD. We accounted for the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Methods Cross-sectional study. PD subjects, n=48 (40M); 69.4±7.4 (56–84) years old; 8.4±4.2 (2.5–20) years motor disease duration, mean UPDRS motor score 27.5 ± 10.3 (7–53) and mean MMSE score 28.4 ± 1.9 (22–30) underwent [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation and completed the CHAMPS questionnaire and clinical assessment. Results Bivariate correlations showed an inverse relationship between motor UPDRS severity scores and duration of non-exercise physical activity (R= −0.37, P=0.0099) but not with duration of exercise physical activity (R= −0.05, P= 0.76) over 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis using UPDRS motor score as outcome variable demonstrated a significant regressor effect for duration of non-exercise physical activity (F=6.15, P=0.017) while accounting for effects of nigrostriatal degeneration (F=4.93, P=0.032), levodopa-equivalent dose (LED; F=1.07, P=0.31), age (F=4.37, P=0.043) and duration of disease (F=1.46, P=0.23; total model (F=5.76, P=0.0004). Conclusions Non-exercise physical activity is a correlate of motor symptom severity in PD independent of the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Non-exercise physical activity may have positive effects on functional performance in PD. PMID:26330028

  6. Prefrontal Cortex Activation Upon a Demanding Virtual Hand-Controlled Task: A New Frontier for Neuroergonomics

    PubMed Central

    Carrieri, Marika; Petracca, Andrea; Lancia, Stefania; Basso Moro, Sara; Brigadoi, Sabrina; Spezialetti, Matteo; Ferrari, Marco; Placidi, Giuseppe; Quaresima, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive vascular-based functional neuroimaging technology that can assess, simultaneously from multiple cortical areas, concentration changes in oxygenated-deoxygenated hemoglobin at the level of the cortical microcirculation blood vessels. fNIRS, with its high degree of ecological validity and its very limited requirement of physical constraints to subjects, could represent a valid tool for monitoring cortical responses in the research field of neuroergonomics. In virtual reality (VR) real situations can be replicated with greater control than those obtainable in the real world. Therefore, VR is the ideal setting where studies about neuroergonomics applications can be performed. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by a 20-channel fNIRS system, the dorsolateral/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) in subjects while performing a demanding VR hand-controlled task (HCT). Considering the complexity of the HCT, its execution should require the attentional resources allocation and the integration of different executive functions. The HCT simulates the interaction with a real, remotely-driven, system operating in a critical environment. The hand movements were captured by a high spatial and temporal resolution 3-dimensional (3D) hand-sensing device, the LEAP motion controller, a gesture-based control interface that could be used in VR for tele-operated applications. Fifteen University students were asked to guide, with their right hand/forearm, a virtual ball (VB) over a virtual route (VROU) reproducing a 42 m narrow road including some critical points. The subjects tried to travel as long as possible without making VB fall. The distance traveled by the guided VB was 70.2 ± 37.2 m. The less skilled subjects failed several times in guiding the VB over the VROU. Nevertheless, a bilateral VLPFC activation, in response to the HCT execution, was observed in all the subjects. No correlation was found

  7. Prefrontal Cortex Activation Upon a Demanding Virtual Hand-Controlled Task: A New Frontier for Neuroergonomics.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Marika; Petracca, Andrea; Lancia, Stefania; Basso Moro, Sara; Brigadoi, Sabrina; Spezialetti, Matteo; Ferrari, Marco; Placidi, Giuseppe; Quaresima, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive vascular-based functional neuroimaging technology that can assess, simultaneously from multiple cortical areas, concentration changes in oxygenated-deoxygenated hemoglobin at the level of the cortical microcirculation blood vessels. fNIRS, with its high degree of ecological validity and its very limited requirement of physical constraints to subjects, could represent a valid tool for monitoring cortical responses in the research field of neuroergonomics. In virtual reality (VR) real situations can be replicated with greater control than those obtainable in the real world. Therefore, VR is the ideal setting where studies about neuroergonomics applications can be performed. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by a 20-channel fNIRS system, the dorsolateral/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) in subjects while performing a demanding VR hand-controlled task (HCT). Considering the complexity of the HCT, its execution should require the attentional resources allocation and the integration of different executive functions. The HCT simulates the interaction with a real, remotely-driven, system operating in a critical environment. The hand movements were captured by a high spatial and temporal resolution 3-dimensional (3D) hand-sensing device, the LEAP motion controller, a gesture-based control interface that could be used in VR for tele-operated applications. Fifteen University students were asked to guide, with their right hand/forearm, a virtual ball (VB) over a virtual route (VROU) reproducing a 42 m narrow road including some critical points. The subjects tried to travel as long as possible without making VB fall. The distance traveled by the guided VB was 70.2 ± 37.2 m. The less skilled subjects failed several times in guiding the VB over the VROU. Nevertheless, a bilateral VLPFC activation, in response to the HCT execution, was observed in all the subjects. No correlation was found

  8. Hand, belt, pocket or bag: Practical activity tracking with mobile phones

    PubMed Central

    Antos, Stephen A.; Albert, Mark V.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2013-01-01

    For rehabilitation and diagnoses, an understanding of patient activities and movements is important. Modern smartphones have built in accelerometers which promise to enable quantifying minute-by-minute what patients do (e.g. walk or sit). Such a capability could inform recommendations of physical activities and improve medical diagnostics. However, a major problem is that during everyday life, we carry our phone in different ways, e.g. on our belt, in our pocket, in our hand, or in a bag. The recorded accelerations are not only affected by our activities but also by the phone’s location. Here we develop a method to solve this kind of problem, based on the intuition that activities change rarely, and phone locations change even less often. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) tracks changes across both activities and locations, enabled by a static Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier that probabilistically identifies activity-location pairs. We find that this approach improves tracking accuracy on healthy subjects as compared to a static classifier alone. The obtained method can be readily applied to patient populations. Our research enables the use of phones as activity tracking devices, without the need of previous approaches to instruct subjects to always carry the phone in the same location. PMID:24091138

  9. Examination of Hand Muscle Activation and Motor Unit Indices Derived from Surface EMG in Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jie; Li, Sheng; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used muscle and motor unit indices, derived from convenient surface electromyography (EMG) measurements, for examination of paretic muscle changes post stroke. For 12 stroke subjects, compound muscle action potential and voluntary surface EMG signals were recorded from paretic and contralateral first dorsal interosseous, abductor pollicis brevis, and abductor digiti minimi muscles. Muscle activation index (AI), motor unit number index (MUNIX), and motor unit size index (MUSIX) were then calculated for each muscle. There was a significant AI reduction for all the three muscles in paretic side compared with contralateral side, providing an evidence of muscle activation deficiency after stroke. The hand MUNIX (defined by summing the values from the three muscles) was significantly reduced in paretic side compared with contralateral side, whereas the hand MUSIX was not significantly different. Furthermore, diverse changes in MUNIX and MUSIX were observed from the three muscles. A major feature of the present examinations is the primary reliance on surface EMG, which offers practical benefits because it is noninvasive, induces minimal discomfort and can be performed quickly. PMID:24967982

  10. Muscular forearm activation in hand-grip tasks with superimposition of mechanical vibrations.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, L; Tirabasso, A; Lunghi, A; Di Giovanni, R; Sacco, F; Marchetti, E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the muscular activation of the forearm, with or without vibration stimuli at different frequencies while performing a grip tasks of 45s at various level of exerted force. In 16 individuals, 9 females and 7 males, the surface electromyogram (EMG) of extensor carpi radialis longus and the flexor carpi ulnari muscles were assessed. At a short latency from onset EMG, RMS and the level of MU synchronization were assessed to evaluate the muscular adaptations. Whilst a trend of decay of EMG Median frequency (MDFd) was employed as an index of muscular fatigue. Muscular tasks consists of the grip of an instrumented handle at a force level of 20%, 30%, 40%, 60% of the maximum voluntary force. Vibration was supplied by a shaker to the hand in mono-frequential waves at 20, 30, 33 and 40Hz. In relation to EMG, RMS and MU synchronization, the muscular activation does not seem to change with the superimposition of the mechanical vibrations, on the contrary a lower MDFd was observed at 33Hz than in absence of vibration. This suggests an early muscular fatigue induced by vibration due to the fact that 33Hz is a resonance frequency for the hand-arm system.

  11. Serratus Anterior and Lower Trapezius Muscle Activities During Multi-Joint Isotonic Scapular Exercises and Isometric Contractions.

    PubMed

    Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd

    2014-11-14

    Context :  Proper scapular function during humeral elevation, such as upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting of the scapula, is necessary to prevent shoulder injury. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation exercise for the periscapular muscles has yet to be clarified. Objective :  To identify the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid muscle activities during 2 free-motion exercises using 3 intensities and to compare these muscle activities with isometric contractions during quadruped shoulder flexion and external rotation and abduction of the glenohumeral joint. Design :  Cross-sectional study. Setting :  Health Science Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants :  A total of 16 uninjured, healthy, active, male college students (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 68.8 ± 6.6 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s) :  Mean electromyographic activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across 3 intensities and 5 exercises. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for electromyographic activity of the 4 muscles in each free-motion exercise. Results :  Significant interactions in electromyographic activity were observed between intensities and exercises (P < .05). The quadruped shoulder-flexion exercise activated all 4 muscles compared with other exercises. Also, the modified robbery free-motion exercise activated the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus compared with the lawn-mower free-motion exercise. However, neither exercise showed a difference in posterior deltoid electromyographic activity. Conclusions :  Three intensities exposed the nature of the periscapular muscle activities across the different exercises. The free-motion exercise in periscapular muscle rehabilitation may not modify serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscle activities unless knee-joint extension is limited.

  12. An Evaluation of the Local Exercise Action Pilots and Impact on Moderate Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Gilson, Nick; McKenna, Jim; Cooke, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identifying community physical activity interventions that facilitate increases in moderate physical activity (MPA) is important in meeting targets set in government health policy. This study evaluated community interventions that aimed to increase levels of MPA. Intervention themes included exercise referral, classes and groups, peer…

  13. Aerobic and resistance exercise reinforcement and discomfort tolerance predict meeting activity guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Understanding individual-differences of those people who do and do not meet physical activity recommendations could inform targets for increasing physical activity. Exercise reinforcement may be one such individual-level determinate, but it is not yet known whether those who meet activi...

  14. Enhancement of aphrodisiac activity in male rats by ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora and exercise training.

    PubMed

    Chaturapanich, G; Chaiyakul, S; Verawatnapakul, V; Yimlamai, T; Pholpramool, C

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Kaempferia parviflora extract (KD) and exercise training on reproductive function in male rats. Sexually mature males were assigned to four groups: control, KD70 (received 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 4 weeks), Ex (exercise training for 4 weeks), Ex + KD70 (exercise training with KD 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). At the end of treatment regimes, sexual behaviours including mount latency (ML), mount frequency (MF), ejaculation latency (EL), post-ejaculation latency (PEL), number of mount within 30 min (MF(30)) and number of ejaculation (NEL) were assessed by a video camera, and fertility was tested by natural mating. Results showed that KD had no effect on the weights of reproductive organs, liver, kidneys and levator ani muscle. On the other hand, the weights of epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and levator ani muscle were significantly increased in the Ex and Ex+KD70 groups. ML and EL were shortened in all treatment groups, but PEL was decreased only in KP70 group. Only Ex and Ex + KD70 groups exhibited lower MF and higher NEL whilst MF(30) were not changed in all groups. None of the treatments altered male fertility. It is concluded that KD enhanced sexual motivation whereas exercise training promoted both sexual motivation and performance.

  15. Development of Pupils' Transfer Skills by Means of Hands On Activities with Artisan Materials in Natural Sciences Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciascai, Liliana; Chicinas, Luminita

    2008-01-01

    Hands on activities with artisan materials used in order to realize different practical devices helpful in learning process are one of the most frequently used activity in science classes. Usually, the main strength of these activities are: a deeper learning, an increased motivation of pupils for actively learning and development of practical…

  16. A compact in vivo neutron activation analysis system to quantify manganese in human hand bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingzi

    As an urgent issue of correlating cumulative manganese (Mn) exposure to neurotoxicity, bone has emerged as an attractive biomarker for long-term Mn deposition and storage. A novel Deuterium-Deuterium (DD) neutron generator irradiation system has been simulated and constructed, incorporating moderator, reflector and shielding. This neutron activation analysis (NAA) irradiation assembly presents several desirable features, including high neutron flux, improved detection limit and acceptable neutron & photon dose, which would allow it be ready for clinical measurement. Key steps include simulation modeling and verifying, irradiation system design, detector characterization, and neutron flux and dose assessment. Activation foils were also analyzed to reveal the accurate neutron spectrum in the irradiation cave. The detection limit with this system is 0.428 ppm with 36 mSv equivalent hand dose and 52 microSv whole body effective dose.

  17. Electromyographic Activity of Scapular Muscle Control in Free-Motion Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yukiko; Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd S.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  The appropriate resistance intensity to prescribe for shoulder rehabilitative exercise is not completely known. Excessive activation of the deltoid and upper trapezius muscles could be counterproductive for scapulohumeral rhythm during humeral elevation. Objective:  To identify the effects of different exercise intensities on the scapular muscles during a free-motion “robbery” exercise performed in different degrees of shoulder abduction in seated and standing positions. Design:  Descriptive laboratory study. Setting:  Kinesiology Adapted Physical Education Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants:  A total of 15 healthy male college students (age = 20.5 ± 2.2 years, height = 174.5 ± 5.3 cm, mass = 63.8 ± 6.0 kg). Intervention(s):  Participants performed 5 repetitions of a randomized exercise sequence of the robbery exercise in 2 body positions (seated, standing), 2 shoulder-abducted positions (W [20°], 90/90 [90°]) at 3 intensities (0%, 3%, and 7% body weight). Main Outcome Measure(s):  Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, anterior deltoid, and infraspinatus muscles of the upper extremity was collected. All EMG activities were normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction of each corresponding muscle (%). Results:  The serratus anterior, anterior deltoid, and infraspinatus EMG activities were greater at 7% body weight in the seated position compared with the standing position (P < .05). The EMG activities in all 5 muscles were greater in the 90/90 position than in the W position (P < .05). Conclusions:  Scapular muscle activity modulated relative to changes in body posture and resistance intensity. These findings will enable clinicians to prescribe the appropriate level of exercise intensity and positioning during shoulder rehabilitation. PMID:26986055

  18. Comparison of electromyographic activities of lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles during stabilization exercises in prone, quadruped, and sitting positions

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Marie; Jacobs, Dee; Wooten, Mary E.; Edeer, Ayse Ozcan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were: 1) describe a hierarchy of electromyographic activity production, using percentage maximum voluntary contraction of lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles during prone, quadruped and sitting exercises; and 2) identify optimal recruitment exercises for both lumbar iliocostalis as a global multi-segmental stabilizer and lumbar multifidus as a segmental stabilizer. [Subjects] Twelve healthy volunteers (six male and six female) aged 24 to 45 participated. [Methods] Surface electromyographic activity data were collected bilaterally from lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles during exercises. [Results] Two-way ANOVA showed that prone extension, and prone alternate arm and leg lifting exercises produce a statistically significant difference in percent maximum voluntary contraction of lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus bilaterally compared to other exercises. Quadruped alternate arm and leg lifting exercises produce greater activity in lumbar multifidus muscle than sitting exercises [Conclusion] Prone exercises generate the greatest electromyographic activity and may be the most effective exercises for strengthening both lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles. Quadruped alternate arm and leg lifting produces electromyographic activity at the recommended percent maximum voluntary contraction for training the lumbar multifidus in its role as a segmental stabilizer and is an effective training exercise for this goal. PMID:27821968

  19. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Torrance J.; Middleton, Kathryn R.; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M.; Middleton, Kathryn R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p < .05, on EXSE; g = 0.128, 95% CI [0.05, 0.20], p < .05 on BSE; and g = 0.335 95% CI [0.196, 0.475], p < .001, on physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions. PMID:23957904

  20. Effects of combined exercise on changes of lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaehyun; Lee, Joongsook; Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Bomjin; Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of combined exercise for a period of 12 weeks on the changes in lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 22 elderly women who were 65 years of age or older and living in B-City. The subjects had no nervous system or muscular system diseases that might affect walking in the previous two years. [Methods] Muscle activation was measured by using surface EMG (QEMG-8, Laxtha, Daejeon, Republic of Korea). The subjects were asked to walk on an 8 m of footpath at a natural speed. In order to minimize the noise from the cable connecting the EMG measuring instrument to the electrodes, tape was used to affix the electrodes so that they would not fall off the subjects. The EMG data were analyzed by using the RMS. [Results] Muscle activation of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius was increased significantly after combined exercise for 12 weeks. However, no increase was observed in the left biceps femoris. [Conclusion] It was demonstrated that our exercise program, which includes aerobic walking exercises, senior-robics, and muscle strengthening exercises using elastic bands, is very effective for reorganizing the normal gait pattern in the cerebral cortex and improving muscle strength. PMID:26157253

  1. Eccentric exercise activates novel transcriptional regulation of hypertrophic signaling pathways not affected by hormone changes.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Lauren G; Melov, Simon; Hubbard, Alan E; Baker, Steven K; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2010-05-18

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise damages skeletal muscle tissue, activating mechanisms of recovery and remodeling that may be influenced by the female sex hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2). Using high density oligonucleotide based microarrays, we screened for differences in mRNA expression caused by E2 and eccentric exercise. After random assignment to 8 days of either placebo (CON) or E2 (EXP), eighteen men performed 150 single-leg eccentric contractions. Muscle biopsies were collected at baseline (BL), following supplementation (PS), +3 hours (3H) and +48 hours (48H) after exercise. Serum E2 concentrations increased significantly with supplementation (P<0.001) but did not affect microarray results. Exercise led to early transcriptional changes in striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS), Rho family GTPase 3 (RND3), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulation and the downstream transcription factor FOS. Targeted RT-PCR analysis identified concurrent induction of negative regulators of calcineurin signaling RCAN (P<0.001) and HMOX1 (P = 0.009). Protein contents were elevated for RND3 at 3H (P = 0.02) and FOS at 48H (P<0.05). These findings indicate that early RhoA and NFAT signaling and regulation are altered following exercise for muscle remodeling and repair, but are not affected by E2.

  2. Activation of back and lower limb muscles during squat exercises with different trunk flexion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-Sik; Song, Min-Young; Kwon, Yu-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the activation of back and lower limb muscles in subjects who were performing a squat exercise at different angles of trunk flexion. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy subjects (age 21.1± 1.8 years, height 168.7 ± 8.2 cm, weight 66.1 ± 12.3 kg) volunteered. The activation of the erector spinae muscle, rectus femoris muscle, gluteus maximus muscle and biceps femoris muscle was observed while the subjects performed squat exercises with a trunk flexion of 0°, 15°, and 30°. [Results] The erector spinae muscle, gluteus maximus muscle, and biceps femoris muscle were activated more during the squat exercise with the trunk flexion at 30° than the exercise with the trunk flexion at 0°. The rectus femoris muscle showed a tendency to decrease as the truck flexion increased. [Conclusion] Squat exercise be executed while maintaining an erect trunk posture if one wishes to strengthen the quadriceps muscle while reducing the load on the lower back. PMID:28174462

  3. Activation of back and lower limb muscles during squat exercises with different trunk flexion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Sik; Song, Min-Young; Kwon, Yu-Jeong

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the activation of back and lower limb muscles in subjects who were performing a squat exercise at different angles of trunk flexion. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy subjects (age 21.1± 1.8 years, height 168.7 ± 8.2 cm, weight 66.1 ± 12.3 kg) volunteered. The activation of the erector spinae muscle, rectus femoris muscle, gluteus maximus muscle and biceps femoris muscle was observed while the subjects performed squat exercises with a trunk flexion of 0°, 15°, and 30°. [Results] The erector spinae muscle, gluteus maximus muscle, and biceps femoris muscle were activated more during the squat exercise with the trunk flexion at 30° than the exercise with the trunk flexion at 0°. The rectus femoris muscle showed a tendency to decrease as the truck flexion increased. [Conclusion] Squat exercise be executed while maintaining an erect trunk posture if one wishes to strengthen the quadriceps muscle while reducing the load on the lower back.

  4. A Pilot Study for Applying an Extravehicular Activity Exercise Prebreathe Protocol to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.

  5. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  6. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  7. The effects measurement of hand massage by the autonomic activity and psychological indicators.

    PubMed

    Kunikata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Kumi; Miyoshi, Makoto; Tanioka, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of hand massage on autonomic activity, anxiety, relaxation and sense of affinity by performing it to healthy people before applying the technic in actual clinical practice. Findings were showed below: 1) the significant increase in the pNN50 and the significant decrease in the heart rate meant the intervention of massage increased the autonomic nervous activity, improved the parasympathetic nerve activity and reduced the sympathetic nerve activity. This means the subjects were considered to be in a state of relaxation. 2) Salivary α amylase has been reported as a possible indicator for sympathetic nerve activity. In this study, there was no significant difference in the salivary α amylase despite a decrease after massage. 3) State anxiety score is temporal situational reactions while being in the state of anxiety and this score decreased significantly after massage. 4) The level of willingness to communicate with other person and the sense of affinity toward the massage-performer had a positive change of 70 percent. From this, it can be considered that a comfortable physical contact between a patient and a nursing profession, who are in a supported-supportive relationship, leads to an effect of shortening the gap in their psychological distance.

  8. Neuromuscular trunk activation patterns in back pain patients during one-handed lifting

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Juliane; Engel, Tilman; Kopinski, Stephan; Mayer, Frank; Mueller, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze neuromuscular activity patterns of the trunk in healthy controls (H) and back pain patients (BPP) during one-handed lifting of light to heavy loads. METHODS After assessment of back pain (graded chronic pain scale according to von Korff) all subjects (n = 43) performed a warm-up (treadmill walking). Next, subjects were instructed to lift 3 × a 20 kg weight placed in front of them (with both hand) onto a table (height: 0.75 m). Subsequently, all subjects lifted with one hand (left-side, 3 repetitions) a weight of 1 kg (light), 10 kg (middle) and 20 kg (heavy) in random order from the ground up onto the table left of them. Trunk muscle activity was assessed with a 12-lead EMG (6 ventral/6 dorsal muscles; 4000 Hz). EMG-RMS (%) was averaged over the 3 repetitions and analyzed for the whole one-handed lifting cycle, then normalized to RMS of the two-handed lifting. Additionally, the mean (normalized) EMG-RMS of four trunk areas [right/left ventral area (VR/VL); right/left dorsal area (DR/DL)] was calculated. Data were analyzed descriptively (mean ± SD) followed by student’s t-test comparing H and BPP (α = 0.05). With respect to the unequal distribution of subjects in H and BPP, a matched-group analysis was conducted. Seven healthy controls were gender- and age-matched (group Hmatched) to the 7 BPP. In addition, task failure was calculated and compared between H/Hmatched vs BPP using χ2. RESULTS Seven subjects (3m/4f; 32 ± 7 years; 171 ± 7 cm; 65 ± 11 kg) were assigned to BPP (pain grade ≥ 2) and 36 (13m/23f; 28 ± 8 years; 174 ± 10 cm; 71 ± 12 kg) to H (pain grade ≤ 1). H and BPP did not differ significantly in anthropometrics (P > 0.05). All subjects were able to lift the light and middle loads, but 57% of BPP and 22% of H were not able to lift the heavy load (all women). χ2 analysis revealed statistically significant differences in task failure between H vs BPP (P = 0.03). EMG-RMS ranged from 33% ± 10%/30% ± 9% (DL, 1 kg) to 356%

  9. Spontaneous baroreflex control of cardiac output during dynamic exercise, muscle metaboreflex activation, and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Masashi; Sala-Mercado, Javier A; O'Leary, Donal S; Hammond, Robert L; Coutsos, Matthew; Ichinose, Tomoko; Pallante, Marco; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2008-03-01

    We have previously shown that spontaneous baroreflex-induced changes in heart rate (HR) do not always translate into changes in cardiac output (CO) at rest. We have also shown that heart failure (HF) decreases this linkage between changes in HR and CO. Whether dynamic exercise and muscle metaboreflex activation (via imposed reductions in hindlimb blood flow) further alter this translation in normal and HF conditions is unknown. We examined these questions using conscious, chronically instrumented dogs before and after pacing-induced HF during mild and moderate dynamic exercise with and without muscle metaboreflex activation. We measured left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), CO, and HR and analyzed the spontaneous HR-LVSP and CO-LVSP relationships. In normal animals, mild exercise significantly decreased HR-LVSP (-3.08 +/- 0.5 vs. -5.14 +/- 0.6 beats.min(-1).mmHg(-1); P < 0.05) and CO-LVSP (-134.74 +/- 24.5 vs. -208.6 +/- 22.2 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1); P < 0.05). Moderate exercise further decreased both and, in addition, significantly reduced HR-CO translation (25.9 +/- 2.8% vs. 52.3 +/- 4.2%; P < 0.05). Muscle metaboreflex activation at both workloads decreased HR-LVSP, whereas it had no significant effect on CO-LVSP and the HR-CO translation. HF significantly decreased HR-LVSP, CO-LVSP, and the HR-CO translation in all situations. We conclude that spontaneous baroreflex HR responses do not always cause changes in CO during exercise. Moreover, muscle metaboreflex activation during mild and moderate dynamic exercise reduces this coupling. In addition, in HF the HR-CO translation also significantly decreases during both workloads and decreases even further with muscle metaboreflex activation.

  10. How can the curation of hands-on STEM activities power successful mobile apps and websites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcello, D.; Peticolas, L. M.; Schwerin, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) is University of California, Berkeley's public science center. Over the last decade, the Center for Technology Innovation at LHS has partnered with many institutions to establish a strong track record of developing successful technology solutions to support STEM teaching and learning within informal environments. Curation by subject-matter experts has been at the heart of many educational technology products from LHS and its partners that are directed at educators and families. This work includes: (1) popular digital libraries for inquiry-based activities at Howtosmile.org (NSF DRL #0735007) and NASA Earth and Space science education resources at NASAwavelength.org; and novel mobile apps like DIY Sun Science (NASA NNX10AE05G) and DIY Human Body (NIH 5R25OD010543) designed to scaffold exploration of STEM phenomena at home. Both NASA Wavelength and DIY Sun Science arose out of long-term collaborations with the Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), and other NASA-funded organizations, in partnership with NASA through cooperative agreements. This session will review the development, formative evaluation, and usage metrics for these two Earth and Space science-themed educational technology products directly relevant to the AGU community. Questions reviewed by presenters will include: What makes a good hands-on activity, and what essential information do educators depend on when searching for programming additions? What content and connections do families need to explore hands-on activities? How can technology help incorporate educational standards into the discovery process for learning experiences online? How do all these components drive the design and user experience of websites and apps that showcase STEM content?

  11. Regional brain activation as a biological marker of affective responsivity to acute exercise: influence of fitness.

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, S J; Hall, E E; Ekkekakis, P

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that regional brain activation, assessed via frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, predicts affective responsivity to aerobic exercise. To replicate and extend this work, in the present study we examined whether resting brain activation was associated with affective responses to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and the extent to which aerobic fitness mediated this relationship. Participants (high-fit, n = 22; low/moderate-fit, n = 45) ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 75% VO2max. EEG and affect were assessed pre- and 0-, 10-, 20-, and 30-min postexercise. Resting EEG asymmetry predicted positive affect (as measured by the energetic arousal subscale of the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List) postexercise. Furthermore, resting frontal EEG asymmetry predicted affect only in the high-fit group, suggesting the effect might be mediated by some factor related to fitness. It was also shown that subjects with relatively greater left frontal activation had significantly more energy (i.e., activated pleasant affect) following exercise than subjects with relatively greater right frontal activation. In conclusion, aerobic fitness influenced the relationship between resting frontal asymmetry and exercise-related affective responsivity.

  12. Nutritional status affects branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase activity during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Jackman, M L; Gibala, M J; Hultman, E; Graham, T E

    1997-02-01

    We examined the effect of glycogen availability and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase (BCOAD) activity during exercise. Six subjects cycled at approximately 75% of their maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion on three occasions under different preexercise conditions: 1) low muscle glycogen (LOW), 2) low muscle glycogen plus BCAA supplementation (LOW+BCAA), and 3) high muscle glycogen (CON). The LOW trial was performed first, followed by the other two conditions in random order, and biopsies for all trials were obtained at rest, after 15 min of exercise (15 min), and at the point of exhaustion during the LOW trial (49 min). BCOAD activity was not different among the three conditions at rest; however, at 15 min BCOAD activity was higher (P < or = 0.05) for the LOW (31 +/- 5%) and LOW+BCAA (43 +/- 11%) conditions compared with CON (12 +/- 1%). BCOAD activity at 49 min was not different from respective values at 15 min for any condition. These data indicate that BCOAD is rapidly activated during submaximal exercise under conditions associated with low carbohydrate availability. However, there was no relationship between BCOAD activity and glycogen concentration or net glycogenolysis, which suggests that factors other than glycogen availability are important for BCOAD regulation during exercise in humans.

  13. A frequency-duty cycle equation for the ACGIH hand activity level.

    PubMed

    Radwin, Robert G; Azari, David P; Lindstrom, Mary J; Ulin, Sheryl S; Armstrong, Thomas J; Rempel, David

    2015-01-01

    A new equation for predicting the hand activity level (HAL) used in the American Conference for Government Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value®(TLV®) was based on exertion frequency (F) and percentage duty cycle (D). The TLV® includes a table for estimating HAL from F and D originating from data in Latko et al. (Latko WA, Armstrong TJ, Foulke JA, Herrin GD, Rabourn RA, Ulin SS, Development and evaluation of an observational method for assessing repetition in hand tasks. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58(4):278-285, 1997) and post hoc adjustments that include extrapolations outside of the data range. Multimedia video task analysis determined D for two additional jobs from Latko's study not in the original data-set, and a new nonlinear regression equation was developed to better fit the data and create a more accurate table. The equation, HAL = 6:56 ln D[F(1:31) /1+3:18 F(1:31), generally matches the TLV® HAL lookup table, and is a substantial improvement over the linear model, particularly for F>1.25 Hz and D>60% jobs. The equation more closely fits the data and applies the TLV® using a continuous function.

  14. Immune activation- and regulation-related patterns in stable hand transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Dorota; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Krajewska, Magdalena; Chełmoński, Adam; Jabłecki, Jerzy; Żabińska, Marcelina; Myszka, Marta; Banasik, Mirosław; Boratyńska, Maria; Gomółkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Klinger, Marian

    2017-02-01

    We assessed cell subsets and expression of a set of genes related to the T-cell populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells to elucidate whether immune status of stable hand transplant recipients (HTx) differs from stable kidney transplant recipients (KTx). The study was conducted on five HTx 4.8 ± 1.7 years after transplantation and 30 stable KTx 7.9 ± 2.4 years after transplantation as well as 18 healthy volunteers. The research involved PBMC gene expression analysis of CD4, CD8, CTLA4, GZMB, FOXP3, IL10, IL4, ILR2A, NOTCH, PDCD1, PRF1, TGF-B, and TNF-A genes on a custom-designed low-density array (TaqMan) as well as flow cytometry assessment of lymphocyte subpopulations. HTx presented significantly increased expression of immunomodulatory genes (TNF, IL10, GITR, and PDCD1) compared to KTx and controls. HTx revealed a proinflammatory molecular pattern with higher expression of NOTCH and CD8 compared to KTx and controls. KTx showed a reduced level of regulatory T cells compared to controls and HTx. Both HTx and KTx presented an increased number of CD8(+) and CD8(+) CD28(-) T cells compared to controls. Stable hand transplant recipients exhibit persistent immune activation with rejection-related gene expression pattern counterbalanced by secondary induction of regulatory mechanisms.

  15. On the regularity of preparatory activity preceding movements with the dominant and non-dominant hand: a readiness potential study.

    PubMed

    Dirnberger, Georg; Duregger, Cornelia; Lindinger, Gerald; Lang, Wilfried

    2011-08-01

    The readiness potential (RP), a slow negative electroencephalographic pre-movement potential, was reported to commence earlier for movements with the non-dominant left hand than with the dominant right hand. Latencies in these reports were always calculated from averaged RPs, whereas onset times of individual trials remained inaccessible. The aim was to use a new statistical approach to examine whether a few left hand trials with very early pre-movement activity disproportionally affect the onset of the average. We recorded RPs in 28 right-handed subjects while they made self-paced repetitive unilateral movements with their dominant and non-dominant hand. Skewness, a measure of distribution asymmetry, was analysed in sets of single-trial RPs to discriminate between a symmetric distribution and an asymmetric distribution containing outlier trials with early onset. Results show that for right hand movements skewness has values around zero across electrodes and pre-movement intervals, whereas for left hand movements skewness has initially negative values which increase to neutral values closer to movement onset. This indicates a symmetric (e.g., Gaussian) distribution of onset times across trials for simple right hand movements, whereas cortical activation preceding movements with the non-dominant hand is characterised by outlier trials with early onset of negativity. These findings may explain differences in the averaged brain activation preceding dominant versus non-dominant hand movements described in previous electrophysiological/neuroimaging studies. The findings also constrain mental chronometry, a technique that makes conclusions upon the time and temporal order of brain processes by measuring and comparing onset times of averaged electroencephalographic potentials evoked by these processes.

  16. Post-Exercise Muscle Glycogen Repletion in the Extreme: Effect of Food Absence and Active Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Paul A.; Fairchild, Timothy J.; Ferreira, Luis D.; Bräu, Lambert

    2004-01-01

    Glycogen plays a major role in supporting the energy demands of skeletal muscles during high intensity exercise. Despite its importance, the amount of glycogen stored in skeletal muscles is so small that a large fraction of it can be depleted in response to a single bout of high intensity exercise. For this reason, it is generally recommended to ingest food after exercise to replenish rapidly muscle glycogen stores, otherwise one’s ability to engage in high intensity activity might be compromised. But what if food is not available? It is now well established that, even in the absence of food intake, skeletal muscles have the capacity to replenish some of their glycogen at the expense of endogenous carbon sources such as lactate. This is facilitated, in part, by the transient dephosphorylation-mediated activation of glycogen synthase and inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase. There is also evidence that muscle glycogen synthesis occurs even under conditions conducive to an increased oxidation of lactate post-exercise, such as during active recovery from high intensity exercise. Indeed, although during active recovery glycogen resynthesis is impaired in skeletal muscle as a whole because of increased lactate oxidation, muscle glycogen stores are replenished in Type IIa and IIb fibers while being broken down in Type I fibers of active muscles. This unique ability of Type II fibers to replenish their glycogen stores during exercise should not come as a surprise given the advantages in maintaining adequate muscle glycogen stores in those fibers that play a major role in fight or flight responses. Key Points Even in the absence of food intake, skeletal muscles have the capacity to replenish some of their glycogen at the expense of endogenous carbon sources such as lactate. During active recovery from exercise, skeletal muscles rich in type II fibers replenish part of their glycogen stores even in the absence of food intake. Post-exercise muscle glycogen synthesis in the

  17. An In-School-Based Program of Combined Fine Motor Exercise and Educational Activities for Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Szturm, Tony; Polyzoi, Eleoussa; Marotta, Jonathan; Srikesavan, Cynthia Swarnalatha

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces a game-based rehabilitation platform designed to integrate training of fine motor skills and cognitive functions. A novel computer interface device was developed that can effectively replace a standard computer mouse when doing exercises to rehabilitate hand function. This smart device converts signals from miniature motion sensors to signals equivalent to that of a computer mouse. In this way, nearly any object or utensil can be changed to function exactly as a computer mouse, simply by attaching the motion sensor. Multiple objects with varied sizes, shapes, weights, and functional demands for precision can be used for exercise and to practice a variety of gross or fine motor skills, and, importantly, while playing fun computer games. The platform was designed to work with modern and common computer games, which have a broad range of movement speeds and accuracy levels, cognitive activities (puzzles, choices, distractors), and educational content. The platform includes a designed assessment game with advanced data logging for electronic monitoring. Data analysis methods have been developed to quantify performance metrics that provide insights into the quality, efficiency, and skill of a child and thus mean to conduct trend analyses that indicate how the child is performing over time.

  18. Bone structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise in 21 days tail-suspended rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lian-wen; Fan, Yu-bo

    2012-07-01

    Humans in Space suffer from microgravity-induced attenuated bone strength that needs to be addressed by on-orbit exercise countermeasures. However, exercise prescriptions so far did not adequately counteract the bone loss of astronauts in spaceflight because even active muscle contractions were converted to passive mode during voluntary bouts. We tested our hypothesis in unloaded rat hind limb following twenty-one days of tail-suspension (TS) combined with exercise using a hind limb stepper device designed by our group. Female Sprague Dawley rats (250g b.wt.) were divided into four groups (n=5, each): TS-only (hind limb unloading), TS plus passive mode exercise (TSP) induced by mechanically-forced passive hind limb lifting, TS plus active mode exercise (TSA) entrained by plantar electrostimulation, and control (CON) group. Standard measures of bone (e.g., mineral density, trabecular microstructure, biomechanics and ash weight) were monitored. Results provided that the attenuated properties of unloaded hind limb bone in TS-rats were more effectively supported by active mode than by passive mode motions. We here propose a modified exercise regimen combined with spontaneous muscle contractions thereby considering the biodynamic demands of both muscle and bone during resistive-load exercise in microgravity. Keywords: rat, BMD, DXA, passive exercise, active exercise, bone loss, tail suspension, spaceflight analogue, exercise countermeasure.

  19. Long-term ascorbic acid administration causes anticonvulsant activity during moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Soslu, Recep; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise on brain health are undeniable. Long-term exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in brain. Therefore, athletes often consume antioxidant supplements to remedy exercise-related damage and fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of ascorbic acid in the effects of different intensities of swimming exercise on the brain susceptibility to experimental epilepsy in rats. Ascorbic acid was administered intraperitoneally (ip) during three different swimming exercise programme for 90 days (15 min, 30 min, 90 min/day). The anticonvulsant activity regarding the frequency of epileptiform activity appeared in the 80 min after 500 units intracortical penicillin injection in 30 min and 90 min/day exercise groups. The administration of ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg, ip) did not alter the anticonvulsant properties seen in the in short-duration (15 min/day) swimming exercise group. The amplitude of epileptiform activity also became significant in the 110 and 120 min after penicillin injection in the moderate (30 min/day) and long duration (60 min/day) groups, respectively. The results of the present study provide electrophysiologic evidence that long-term administration of ascorbic acid causes anticonvulsant activities in the moderate and long-duration swimming exercise. Antioxidant supplementation such as ascorbic acid might be suggested for moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in epilepsy.

  20. Measuring healthcare worker hand hygiene activity: current practices and emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring hand hygiene compliance and providing healthcare workers with feedback regarding their performance are considered integral parts of multidisciplinary hand hygiene improvement programs. Observational surveys conducted by trained personnel are currently considered the "gold standard" method for establishing compliance rates, but they are time-consuming and have a number of shortcomings. Monitoring hand hygiene product consumption is less time-consuming and can provide useful information regarding the frequency of hand hygiene that can be used to give caregivers feedback. Electronic counting devices placed in hand hygiene product dispensers provide detailed information about hand hygiene frequency over time, by unit and during interventions. Electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems that utilize wireless systems to monitor room entry and exit of healthcare workers and their use of hand hygiene product dispensers can provide individual and unit-based data on compliance with the most common hand hygiene indications. Some systems include badges (tags) that can provide healthcare workers with real-time reminders to clean their hands upon entering and exiting patient rooms. Preliminary studies suggest that use of electronic monitoring systems is associated with increased hand hygiene compliance rates and that such systems may be acceptable to care givers. Although there are many questions remaining about the practicality, accuracy, cost, and long-term impact of electronic monitoring systems on compliance rates, they appear to have considerable promise for improving our efforts to monitor and improve hand hygiene practices among healthcare workers.

  1. Core muscle activity in a series of balance exercises with different stability conditions.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Martin, Julio; Martin, Fernando; Flandez, Jorge; Colado, Juan C

    2015-07-01

    Literature that provides progression models based on core muscle activity and postural manipulations is scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the core muscle activity in a series of balance exercises with different stability levels and additional elastic resistance. A descriptive study of electromyography (EMG) was performed with forty-four healthy subjects that completed 12 exercises in a random order. Exercises were performed unipedally or bipedally with or without elastic tubing as resistance on various unstable (uncontrolled multiaxial and uniaxial movement) and stable surfaces. Surface EMG on the lumbar multífidus spinae (LM), thoracic multífidus spinae (TM), lumbar erector spinae (LE), thoracic erector spinae (TE) and gluteus maximus (GM), on the dominant side of the body were collected to quantify the amount of muscle activity and were expressed as a % of the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Significant differences (p<.001) were found between exercises. The three unipedal standing exercises with additional elastic resistance generated the greatest EMG values, ranging from 19% MVIC to 30% MVIC. Postural manipulations with additional elastic resistance and/or unstable devices increase core muscle activity. An adequate exercise progression based on global core EMG could start with seated positions, progressing to bipedal standing stance (i.e., from either multiaxial or stable surface to uniaxial surface). Following this, unipedal standing positions may be performed (i.e., from either multiaxial or stable surface to uniaxial surface) and finally, elastic resistance must be added in order to increase EMG levels (i.e., from stable surface progressing to any of the used unstable surfaces).

  2. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483

  3. Chronic effect of ferulic acid from Pseudosasa japonica leaves on enhancing exercise activity in mice.

    PubMed

    You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Lee, Kwang-Won; Lee, Jeongmin; Chun, Jiyeon; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Park, Jeongjin; Jun, Woojin

    2010-10-01

    Ferulic acid derived from Pseudosasa japonica leaves, which possessed antioxidative potentials with DPPH- (54%) and ABTs- (65%) radical scavenging activities, and lipid-peroxidation inhibitory activity (71%), was orally administered to mice for 12 days in order to investigate its effects on exercise endurance capacity and alterations of antioxidant defense systems. Exhaustive swimming time was increased in the ferulic acid-supplemented group compared with the control group on days 6 and 12 (1.7- and 1.8-fold, respectively). When the mice were exhaustively exercised for 2 consecutive days, a high decrease (53%) was shown in the control group, but no change was found in the ferulic acid-treated group. The administration of ferulic acid significantly protected the depletion of enzymatic- and non enzymatic-antioxidants due to exhaustive exercise. Also, lipid-peroxidation levels decreased in the ferulic acid-treated group compared with the non exercised- and control-groups. These results suggest that ferulic acid from Pseudosasa japonica leaves has a chronic effect on endurance exercise capacity, which is attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress by improving antioxidant potentials.

  4. Imbalance in SOD/CAT activities in rat skeletal muscles submitted to treadmill training exercise.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Ricardo A; Andrades, Michael E; Oliveira, Marcos R; Pirola, Aline C; Zago, Morgana S; Silveira, Paulo C L; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Cláudio F

    2006-10-01

    The association between physical exercise and oxidative damage in the skeletal musculature has been the focus of many studies in literature, but the balance between superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and its relation to oxidative damage is not well established. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between regular treadmill physical exercise, oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in skeletal muscle of rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats (8-12 months) were randomly separated into two groups (trained n=9 and untrained n=6). Trained rats were treadmill-trained for 12 weeks in progressive exercise (velocity, time, and inclination). Training program consisted in a progressive exercise (10 m/min without inclination for 10 min/day). After 1 week the speed, time and inclination were gradually increased until 17 m/min at 10% for 50 min/day. After the training period animals were killed, and gastrocnemius and quadriceps were surgically removed to the determination of biochemical parameters. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase and citrate synthase activities, and muscular glycogen content were measured in the isolated muscles. We demonstrated that there is a different modulation of CAT and SOD in skeletal muscle in trained rats when compared to untrained rats (increased SOD/CAT ratio). TBARS levels were significantly decreased and, in contrast, a significant increase in protein carbonylation was observed. These results suggest a non-described adaptation of skeletal muscle against exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  5. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other.

  6. Ibuprofen supplementation and its effects on NF‐κB activation in skeletal muscle following resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Luke; Markworth, James F.; Peake, Jonathan M.; Snow, Rod J.; Cameron‐Smith, David; Russell, Aaron P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Resistance exercise triggers a subclinical inflammatory response that plays a pivotal role in skeletal muscle regeneration. Nuclear factor‐κB (NF‐κB) is a stress signalling transcription factor that regulates acute and chronic states of inflammation. The classical NF‐κB pathway regulates the early activation of post‐exercise inflammation; however there remains scope for this complex transcription factor to play a more detailed role in post‐exercise muscle recovery. Sixteen volunteers completed a bout of lower body resistance exercise with the ingestion of three 400 mg doses of ibuprofen or a placebo control. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained prior to exercise and at 0, 3 and 24 h post‐exercise and analysed for key markers of NF‐κB activity. Phosphorylated p65 protein expression and p65 inflammatory target genes were elevated immediately post‐exercise independent of the two treatments. These changes did not translate to an increase in p65 DNA binding activity. NF‐κB p50 protein expression and NF‐κB p50 binding activity were lower than pre‐exercise at 0 and 3 h post‐exercise, but were elevated at 24 h post‐exercise. These findings provide novel evidence that two distinct NF‐κB pathways are active in skeletal muscle after resistance exercise. The initial wave of activity involving p65 resembles the classical pathway and is associated with the onset of an acute inflammatory response. The second wave of NF‐κB activity comprises the p50 subunit, which has been previously shown to resolve an acute inflammatory program. The current study showed no effect of the ibuprofen treatment on markers of the NF‐κB pathway, however examination of the within group effects of the exercise protocol suggests that this pathway warrants further research. PMID:25344476

  7. Acute effects of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Takeo; Komatsu, Kazutoshi; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    We examined the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Fourteen older adults visited our laboratory twice: once for exercise and once for the control condition. On each visit, subjects performed working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity exercise with a cycling ergo-meter. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition. Moreover, NIRS analysis showed that physical exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity, especially in the left hemisphere, during the working memory task. These findings suggest that the moderate intensity exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity associated with working memory performance in older adults.

  8. Effects of cycling exercise on vigor, fatigue, and electroencephalographic activity among young adults who report persistent fatigue.

    PubMed

    Dishman, Rod K; Thom, Nathaniel J; Puetz, Timothy W; O'Connor, Patrick J; Clementz, Brett A

    2010-11-01

    We previously reported that 6 weeks of exercise training had positive effects on feelings of vigor and fatigue among college students who reported persistent fatigue. Here we examined whether transient mood changes after single sessions of exercise would mimic those chronic effects and whether they would be related to changes in brain activity measured by electroencephalography (EEG). Feelings of vigor were higher after both low- and moderate-intensity exercise during Weeks 1, 3, and 6 compared to a control condition. Feelings of fatigue were lower after low-intensity exercise during Weeks 3 and 6. Posterior theta activity accounted for about half the changes in vigor. Studies that manipulate mood, EEG activity, or both during exercise are needed to determine whether EEG changes after exercise are causally linked with mood.

  9. Exercise-Induced Noradrenergic Activation Enhances Memory Consolidation in Both Normal Aging and Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Sabrina K.; Cotman, Carl W.; Cahill, Lawrence F.

    2013-01-01

    Post-trial pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic system can facilitate memory consolidation. Because exercise activates the locus coeruleus and increases brain norepinephrine release, we hypothesized that post-trial exercise could function as a natural stimulus to enhance memory consolidation. We investigated this in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and cognitively normal elderly individuals by examining the effects of an acute bout of post-learning, aerobic exercise (6 minutes at 70% VO2 max on a stationary bicycle) on memory for some emotional images. Exercise significantly elevated endogenous norepinephrine (measured via the biomarker, salivary alpha-amylase) in both aMCI patients and controls. Additionally, exercise retrogradely enhanced memory in both aMCI patients and controls. Acute exercise that activates the noradrenergic system may serve as a beneficial, natural, and practical therapeutic intervention for cognitive decline in the aging population. PMID:22914593

  10. Exercise-induced noradrenergic activation enhances memory consolidation in both normal aging and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Segal, Sabrina K; Cotman, Carl W; Cahill, Lawrence F

    2012-01-01

    Post-trial pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic system can facilitate memory consolidation. Because exercise activates the locus coeruleus and increases brain norepinephrine release, we hypothesized that post-trial exercise could function as a natural stimulus to enhance memory consolidation. We investigated this in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and cognitively normal elderly individuals by examining the effects of an acute bout of post-learning, aerobic exercise (6 minutes at 70% VO2 max on a stationary bicycle) on memory for some emotional images. Exercise significantly elevated endogenous norepinephrine (measured via the biomarker, salivary alpha-amylase) in both aMCI patients and controls. Additionally, exercise retrogradely enhanced memory in both aMCI patients and controls. Acute exercise that activates the noradrenergic system may serve as a beneficial, natural, and practical therapeutic intervention for cognitive decline in the aging population.

  11. Neuroimaging reveals enhanced activation in a reach-selective brain area for objects located within participants' typical hand workspaces.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, Jason P; McLean, Adam; Culham, Jody C

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, there has been growing excitement within cognitive neuroscience about the concept of embodiment: How do the capabilities and limitations of our physical bodies affect neural representations in the brain? Neuropsychological and neurophysiological studies show clear evidence that short-term visuomotor experience can influence the encoding of the space around the body in parietal cortex. For example, tool-use may expand the neural representation of peripersonal space. But how is this initial spatial representation influenced by a lifetime of object-related interactions? To examine this question we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural effects of an individual's hand preferences for acting within peripersonal space. Left- and right-handed participants viewed real-world objects at different locations accessible by either the left hand, right hand, or neither hand. The superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC), an area most often implicated in reaching actions, showed enhanced visual responses for objects located within the range of space in which each group typically acts. Specifically, in right-handers, who strongly prefer grasping with the right hand, SPOC showed strongest activation for objects located within the range of space for the right hand only. In contrast, in left-handers, who use their two hands comparably often in visuomotor tasks, SPOC showed strongest activation for objects located within the range of space of either hand. These findings show that, even in the absence of overt responses, real 3D objects located in the individual's typical workspace for hand actions automatically invoke enhanced responses in associated visuomotor areas of the brain.

  12. A Simple Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Active Transport in Yeast Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambuk, Boris U.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory activity illustrating the chemiosmotic principles of active transport in yeast cells. Demonstrates the energy coupling mechanism of active a-glucoside uptake by Saccaromyces cerevisiae cells with a colorimetric transport assay using very simple equipment. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  13. The effects of core stability strength exercise on muscle activity and trunk impairment scale in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong-Hun; Park, Seong-Doo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of core stability-enhancing exercises on the lower trunk and muscle activity of stroke patients. The control group (n = 10) underwent standard exercise therapy, while the experiment group (n =10) underwent both the core stability-enhancing exercise and standard exercise therapy simultaneously. The standard exercise therapy applied to the two groups included weight bearing and weight shifts and joint movements to improve flexibility and the range of motion. The core stability-enhancing exercise was performed 5 times a week for 30 min over a period of 4 weeks in the room where the patients were treated. For all 20 subject, the items measured before the exercise were measured after the therapeutic intervention, and changes in muscle activity of the lower trunk were evaluated. The activity and stability of the core muscles were measured using surface electromyography and the trunk impairment scale (TIS). The mean TIS score and muscle activity of the lower trunk increased in the experiment group significantly after performing the core stability-enhancing exercise (P<0.05). The results of this study show that the core stability-enhancing exercise is effective in improving muscle activity of the lower trunk, which is affected by hemiplegia.

  14. Assessment of voluntary exercise behavior and active video gaming among adolescent and young adult patients during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rosipal, Nicole C; Mingle, Lindsay; Smith, Janet; Morris, G Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study sought to examine the exercise behavior and preferences among adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Eighteen patients aged 19 to 25 years were recruited to engage in unsupervised exercise activities lasting at least 60 minutes/week during hospitalization for HSCT. Enrolled patients had access to standard exercise activities (walking, resistance training, and basketball) and active video gaming equipment. Physical function (6-Minute Walk Test and Timed-Up-and-Go test) and quality of life (Behavioral, Affective, and Somatic Experiences Scale) were assessed at different time points during admission. Participants exercised an average of 76% of the days during admission and spent an average of 36.5 minutes per day exercising. The Nintendo Wii was the preferred active video gaming equipment, but standard exercises accounted for 73% of all exercise time. Neither functional capacity nor quality of life improved. Results suggest that AYAs voluntarily exercise during HSCT admission, prefer to use standard exercise activities, and may require supervision in order to derive maximum benefits from their efforts. These results provide guidance for developing rehabilitation interventions for AYA HSCT recipients.

  15. Training in the fasted state facilitates re-activation of eEF2 activity during recovery from endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Van Proeyen, K; De Bock, K; Hespel, P

    2011-07-01

    Nutrition is an important co-factor in exercise-induced training adaptations in muscle. We compared the effect of 6 weeks endurance training (3 days/week, 1-2 h at 75% VO(2peak)) in either the fasted state (F; n = 10) or in the high carbohydrate state (CHO, n = 10), on Ca(2+)-dependent intramyocellular signalling in young male volunteers. Subjects in CHO received a carbohydrate-rich breakfast before each training session, as well as ingested carbohydrates during exercise. Before (pretest) and after (posttest) the training period, subjects performed a 2 h constant-load exercise bout (~70% of pretest VO(2peak)) while ingesting carbohydrates (1 g/kg h(-1)). A muscle biopsy was taken from m. vastus lateralis immediately before and after the test, and after 4 h of recovery. Compared with pretest, in the posttest basal eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation was elevated in CHO (P < 0.05), but not in F. In the pretest, exercise increased the degree of eEF2 phosphorylation about twofold (P < 0.05), and values returned to baseline within the 4 h recovery period in each group. However, in the posttest dephosphorylation of eEF2 was negated after recovery in CHO, but not in F. Independent of the dietary condition training enhanced the basal phosphorylation status of Phospholamban at Thr(17), 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), and Acetyl CoA carboxylase β (ACCβ), and abolished the exercise-induced increase of AMPKα and ACCβ (P < 0.05). In conclusion, training in the fasted state, compared with identical training with ample carbohydrate intake, facilitates post-exercise dephosphorylation of eEF2. This may contribute to rapid re-activation of muscle protein translation following endurance exercise.

  16. Health status, physical activity, and orthorexia nervosa: A comparison between exercise science students and business students.

    PubMed

    Malmborg, Julia; Bremander, Ann; Olsson, M Charlotte; Bergman, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Orthorexia nervosa is described as an exaggerated fixation on healthy food. It is unclear whether students in health-oriented academic programs, highly focused on physical exercise, are more prone to develop orthorexia nervosa than students in other educational areas. The aim was to compare health status, physical activity, and frequency of orthorexia nervosa between university students enrolled in an exercise science program (n = 118) or a business program (n = 89). The students completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and ORTO-15, which defines orthorexia nervosa as a sensitive and obsessive behavior towards healthy nutrition. The SF-36 showed that exercise science students scored worse than business students regarding bodily pain (72.8 vs. 82.5; p = 0.001), but better regarding general health (83.1 vs. 77.1; p = 0.006). Of 188 students, 144 (76.6%) had an ORTO-15 score indicating orthorexia nervosa, with a higher proportion in exercise science students than in business students (84.5% vs. 65.4%; p = 0.002). Orthorexia nervosa in combination with a high level of physical activity was most often seen in men in exercise science studies and less often in women in business studies (45.1% vs. 8.3%; p < 0.000). A high degree of self-reporting of pain and orthorexia nervosa in exercise science students may cause problems in the future, since they are expected to coach others in healthy living. Our findings may be valuable in the development of health-oriented academic programs and within student healthcare services.

  17. Why even active people get fatter--the asymmetric effects ofincreasing and decreasing exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Public health policies for preventing obesityneed guidelines for active individuals who are at risk due to exerciserecidivism. Methods: Changes in adiposity were compared to the runningdistances at baseline and follow-up in men and women whose reportedexercise increased (N=4,632 and 1,953, respectively) or decreased (17,280and 5,970, respectively) during 7.7 years of follow-up. Results: PerDelta km/wk, decreases in running distance caused over four-fold greaterweight gain between 0-8 km/wk (slope+-SE, males: -0.068+ -0.005 kg/m2,females: -0.080+-0.01 kg/m2) than between 32-48 km/wk (-0.017+-0.002 and-0.010+-0.005 kg/m2, respectively). In contrast, increases in runningdistance produced the smallest weight losses between 0-8 km/wk andstatistically significant weight loss only above 16 km/wk in males and 32km/wk in females. Above 32 km/wk (30 kcal/kg) in men and 16 km/wk (15kcal/kg) in women, weight loss from increasing exercise was equal to orgreater than weight gained with decreasing exercise, otherwise weightgain exceeded weight loss. Substantial weight gain occurred in runnerswho quit running, which would be mostly retained with resumed activity.Conclusion: Public health recommendations should warn against the risksof irreversible weight gain with exercise cessation. Weight gained due toreductions in exercise below 30 kcal/kg in men and 15 kcal/kg in womenmay not be reversed by resuming prior activity. Current IOM guidelines(i.e., maintain total energy expenditure at 160 percent of basal) agreewith the men s exercise threshold for symmetric weight change withchanging exercise levels.

  18. Docosahexanoic acid diet supplementation attenuates the peripheral mononuclear cell inflammatory response to exercise following LPS activation.

    PubMed

    Capó, X; Martorell, M; Llompart, I; Sureda, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2014-10-01

    Exercise induces changes in circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The aim was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet supplementation on the plasma cytokine levels and on the peripheral mononuclear (PBMCs) cells cytokine production after a training season or an acute bout of exercise. Fifteen male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or an experimental group. The experimental group consumed an almond-based beverage enriched with DHA, whereas the placebo group consumed the same beverage without DHA. Three blood samples were taken: in basal conditions at the beginning of the nutritional intervention and after eight weeks of training season in basal and post-exercise conditions. The DHA content increased in erythrocytes after 8weeks of training and supplementation. Neither diet supplementation with DHA nor training season altered the basal plasma cytokines and growth factors. Only acute exercise significantly increased plasma IL6 in experimental and placebo groups. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation induced the inflammatory response in PBMCs, with a significant production rate of TNFα, IL6 and IL8 mainly after acute exercise. DHA supplementation significantly reduced the rate of TNFα and IL6 production by stimulated PBMCs. Acute exercise increased the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein levels in PBMCs, although the increase was only statistically significant in the placebo group. In conclusion, a training season does not induce significant changes in the circulating cytokine profile in well-trained soccer players. Exercise increases the PBMCs cell capabilities to produce cytokines after TLR4 stimulation with LPS and this rate of cytokine production is attenuated by diet DHA supplementation.

  19. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  20. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  1. Physical Activity of Depressed Patients and Their Motivation to Exercise: Nordic Walking in Family Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suija, Kadri; Pechter, Ulle; Kalda, Ruth; Tahepold, Heli; Maaroos, Jaak; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find out how motivated depressed patients are to exercise regularly, to measure the physical activity of depressed patients and to find out how regular Nordic Walking affects the mood and physical fitness of depressed patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Three years after the Prediction of Primary…

  2. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  3. Role of adenosine in the sympathetic activation produced by isometric exercise in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, F; Biaggioni, I

    1994-01-01

    Isometric exercise increases sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. This exercise pressor reflex is partly mediated by metabolic products activating muscle afferents (metaboreceptors). Whereas adenosine is a known inhibitory neuromodulator, there is increasing evidence that it activates afferent nerves. We, therefore, examined the hypothesis that adenosine stimulates muscle afferents and participates in the exercise pressor reflex in healthy volunteers. Intraarterial administration of adenosine into the forearm, during venous occlusion to prevent systemic effects, mimicked the response to exercise, increasing muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, lower limb microneurography) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) at all doses studied (2, 3, and 4 mg). Heart rate increased only with the highest dose. Intrabrachial adenosine (4 mg) increased MSNA by 96 +/- 25% (n = 6, P < 0.01) and MABP by 12 +/- 3 mmHg (P < 0.01). Adenosine produced forearm discomfort, but equivalent painful stimuli (forearm ischemia and cold exposure) increased MSNA significantly less than adenosine. Furthermore, adenosine receptor antagonism with intrabrachial theophylline (1 microgram/ml forearm per min) blocked the increase in MSNA (92 +/- 15% vs. 28 +/- 6%, n = 7, P < 0.01) and MABP (38 +/- 6 vs. 27 +/- 4 mmHg, P = 0.01) produced by isometric handgrip (30% of maximal voluntary contraction) in the infused arm, but not the contralateral arm. Theophylline did not prevent the increase in heart rate produced by handgrip, a response mediated more by central command than muscle afferent activation. We propose that endogenous adenosine contributes to the activation of muscle afferents involved in the exercise pressor reflex in humans. PMID:8163667

  4. Myocellular enzyme leakage, polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Croisier, J L; Camus, G; Deby-Dupont, G; Bertrand, F; Lhermerout, C; Crielaard, J M; Juchmès-Ferir, A; Deby, C; Albert, A; Lamy, M

    1996-01-01

    To address the question of whether delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of the arachidonic acid derived product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 10 healthy male subjects were submitted to eccentric and concentric isokinetic exercises on a Kin Trex device at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. Exercise consisted of 8 stages of 5 maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases. There was an interval of at least 30 days between eccentric and concentric testing, and the order of the two exercise sessions was randomly assigned. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS was evaluated using a visual analogue scale, immediately, following 24 h and 48 h after each test. Five blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein: at rest before exercise, immediately after, after 30 min recovery, 24 h and 48 h after the tests. The magnitude of the acute inflammatory response to exercise was assessed by measuring plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase ([EL]), myeloperoxidase ([MPO]) and PGE2 ([PGE2]). Using two way analysis of variance, it appeared that only eccentric exercise significantly increased [EL] and DOMS, especially of the hamstring muscles. Furthermore, a significant decrease in eccentric peak torque of this muscle group only was observed on day 2 after eccentric work (- 21%; P < 0.002). Serum activity of creatine kinase and serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly 24 and 48 h after both exercise tests. However, these variables reached significantly higher values following eccentric contractions 48 h after exercise. Mean [PGE2] in the two exercise modes remained unchanged over time and were practically equal at each time point. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the magnitude of polymorphonuclear (PMN) activation, muscle damage, and DOMS are greater after eccentric than after concentric muscle

  5. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839

  6. Antiviral activity of Paulownia tomentosa against enterovirus 71 of hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ping; Chen, Changmai; Hu, Yanan; Zhan, Zixuan; Pan, Wei; Li, Rongrong; Li, Erguang; Ge, Hui-Ming; Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The bark, leaves, and flowers of Paulownia trees have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases. We investigated the antiviral effects of Paulownia tomentosa flowers, an herbal medicine used in some provinces of P. R. China for the treatment of skin rashes and blisters. Dried flowers of P. tomentosa were extracted with methanol and tested for antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CAV16), the predominant etiologic agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in P. R. China. The extract inhibited EV71 infection, although no effect was detected against CAV16 infection. Bioactivity-guided fractionation was performed to identify apigenin as an active component of the flowers. The EC50 value for apigenin to block EV71 infection was 11.0 µM, with a selectivity index of approximately 9.3. Although it is a common dietary flavonoid, only apigenin, and not similar compounds like naringenin and quercetin, were active against EV71 infection. As an RNA virus, the genome of EV71 has an internal ribosome entry site that interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and regulates viral translation. Cross-linking followed by immunoprecipitation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that EV71 RNA was associated with hnRNPs A1 and A2. Apigenin treatment disrupted this association, indicating that apigenin suppressed EV71 replication through a novel mechanism by targeting the trans-acting factors. This study therefore validates the effects of Paulownia against EV71 infection. It also yielded mechanistic insights on apigenin as an active compound for the antiviral activity of P. tomentosa against EV71 infection.

  7. Effects of Shoulder Flexion Loaded by an Elastic Tubing Band on EMG Activity of the Gluteal Muscles during Squat Exercises.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Jang, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of shoulder flexion loaded by an elastic tubing band during squat exercises, by assessing electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius. [Subjects] In total, 17 healthy males were recruited. [Methods] Participants performed squat exercises with and without shoulder flexion loaded by a tubing band. Gluteal muscle activities during the downward and upward phases of the squat exercises were recorded using a surface electromyography (EMG) system. The mean electromyographic activities of the gluteal muscles during squat exercises with and without loaded shoulder flexion were compared using the paired t-test. [Results] Electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius were greater in both the upward and downward phases of the squat with loaded shoulder flexion. [Conclusions] The combination of squat and loaded shoulder flexion can be an effective exercise for increasing gluteal muscle activity.

  8. Exercise and Activity: Key Elements in the Management of OI

    MedlinePlus

    ... in both children and adults. Research indicates that physical activity is important because it promotes: general health through cardiovascular fitness mental alertness weight control improved sleep quality ...

  9. Adrenergic and non-adrenergic control of active skeletal muscle blood flow: implications for blood pressure regulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Holwerda, Seth W; Restaino, Robert M; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Blood flow to active skeletal muscle increases markedly during dynamic exercise. However, despite the massive capacity of skeletal muscle vasculature to dilate, arterial blood pressure is well maintained. Sympathetic nerve activity is elevated with increased intensity of dynamic exercise, and is essential for redistribution of cardiac output to active skeletal muscle and maintenance of arterial blood pressure. In addition, aside from the sympathetic nervous system, evidence from human studies is now emerging that supports roles for non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor pathways that become active during exercise and contribute to vasoconstriction in active skeletal muscle. Neuropeptide Y and adenosine triphosphate are neurotransmitters that are co-released with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals capable of producing vasoconstriction. Likewise, plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) increase during dynamic exercise, particularly at higher intensities. Ang II and ET-1 have both been shown to be important vasoconstrictor pathways for restraint of blood flow in active skeletal muscle and the maintenance of arterial blood pressure during exercise. Indeed, although both adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstriction can be attenuated in exercising muscle with greater intensity of exercise, with the higher volume of blood flow, the active skeletal muscle vasculature remains capable of contributing importantly to the maintenance of blood pressure. In this brief review we provide an update on skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during exercise with an emphasis on adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor pathways and their potential capacity to offset vasodilation and aid in the regulation of blood pressure.

  10. Effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in female patients with shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Min-Sung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Baek, Yeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in female patients with shoulder pain. [Subjects] Subjects comprised 20 female patients with shoulder pain. [Methods] Subjects were divided into 2 groups: a Hatha yoga exercise group (n = 10) and a control group that performed no exercise (n = 10). The subjects’ body composition, plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, and superoxide dismutase activities were measured before and after a 16-week Hatha yoga exercise program. [Results] After the 16-week Hatha yoga exercise program, the exercise group had significantly lower plasma MDA concentrations than the control group. In addition, the exercise group had significantly higher plasma SOD activity than the control group. [Conclusions] Hatha yoga exercise improves flexibility, muscle tone and strength, balance, and joint function. Our findings indicate that regular and continuous yoga exercise effectively improved body composition, decrease plasma MDA concentration, and increase plasma SOD activity in female patients with shoulder pain. PMID:26311934

  11. Comparison of EMG activity on abdominal muscles during plank exercise with unilateral and bilateral additional isometric hip adduction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Eui-Ryong; Jung, In-Gui; Seo, Eun-Young; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of additional isometric hip adduction during the plank exercise on the abdominal muscles. Twenty healthy young men participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to monitor the activity of the bilateral rectus abdominis (RA), the internal oblique (IO), and the external oblique (EO) muscles. The participants performed three types of plank exercise; the standard plank exercise, the plank exercise with bilateral isometric hip adduction, and the plank exercise with unilateral isometric hip adduction. All abdominal muscle activity was significantly increased during the plank exercise combined with the bilateral and unilateral isometric hip adduction compared with the standard plank exercise (p<0.05). Bilateral IO, EO, and left RA muscle activity was significantly increased during the unilateral isometric hip adduction compared with the bilateral isometric hip adduction (p<0.05). These findings suggest that additional isometric hip adduction during the plank exercise could be a useful method to enhance abdominal muscle activity. In particular, the unilateral isometric hip adduction is a more beneficial exercise than the bilateral isometric hip adduction.

  12. Effect of change in blood volume in skin plus active muscle on heart rate drift during submaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Yano, T; Yunoki, T; Matsuura, R; Arimitsu, T; Kimura, T

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of change in blood volume in skin plus active muscle on heart rate drift during moderate exercise and heavy exercise for 30 min. Total hemoglobin concentration (Total Hb) in the vastus lateralis muscle plus its skin was determined by near-infrared spectroscopy. Total Hb significantly increased and remained stable from 20 min in moderate exercise and from 10 min in heavy exercise. Heart rate (HR) rapidly increased until 3 min and showed a steady state in moderate exercise. HR at 30 min was significantly higher than that at 3 min in moderate exercise. HR rapidly increased until 3 min and then gradually but significantly increased in heavy exercise. Increase in total Hb was not significantly related with HR after 3 min of exercise when HR was around 120 beats per min in moderate exercise. Increase in total Hb was significantly related with HR from 3 min to 10 min in the heavy exercise (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.959 to 0.702). It is concluded that an increase in the blood volume in skin plus active muscle is not simply associated with HR drift.

  13. A single bout of exercise activates skeletal muscle satellite cells during subsequent overnight recovery.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Verdijk, Lex B; Beelen, Milou; McKay, Bryon R; Parise, Gianni; Kadi, Fawzi; van Loon, Luc J C

    2012-06-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC) content has been reported to increase following a single bout of exercise. Data on muscle fibre type-specific SC content and/or SC activation status are presently lacking. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of a single bout of exercise on muscle fibre type-specific SC content and activation status following subsequent overnight recovery. Eight healthy men (age, 20 ± 1 years) performed a single bout of combined endurance- and resistance-type exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected before and immediately after exercise, and following 9 h of postexercise, overnight recovery. Muscle fibre type-specific SC and myonuclear content and SC activation status were determined by immunohistochemical analyses. Satellite cell activation status was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for both Delta-like homologue 1 (DLK1) and Ki-67. Muscle fibre size and fibre area per nucleus were greater in type II compared with type I muscle fibres (P < 0.05). At baseline, no differences were observed in the percentage of SCs staining positive for DLK1 and/or Ki67 between fibre types. No significant changes were observed in SC content following 9 h of postexercise, overnight recovery; however, the percentage of DLK1-positive SCs increased significantly during overnight recovery, from 22 ± 5 to 41 ± 5% and from 24 ± 6 to 51 ± 9% in the type I and II muscle fibres, respectively. No changes were observed in the percentage of Ki-67-positive SCs. A single bout of exercise activates both type I and II skeletal muscle fibre SCs within a single night of postexercise recovery, preceding the subsequent increase in SC content.

  14. Muscle Activity During Unilateral vs. Bilateral Battle Rope Exercises.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Martin, Fernando; Colado, Juan C; Benítez, Josep C; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-10-01

    High training intensity is important for efficient strength gains. Although battle rope training is metabolically demanding, no studies have quantified intensity of muscle activity during this type of training. This study analyzes muscle activity during unilateral alternating waves vs. bilateral waves of battle rope training. Twenty-one volunteers participated in a repeated-measures study on 2 different occasions. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the anterior deltoid (AD), external oblique (OBLIQ), lumbar erector spinae (LUMB), and gluteus medius (GM) during bilateral waves and unilateral waves and were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Results showed that muscle activity ranged from 51%MVIC to 73%MVIC for AD, OBLIQ, and LUMB, whereas GM muscle activity was only 14-18%MVIC. OBLIQ activation was significantly greater (20%MVIC; p = 0.02) with the unilateral waves compared with the bilateral waves, whereas LUMB signal was significantly higher (16%MVIC; p = 0.001) with the bilateral waves compared with the unilateral waves. In conclusion, both wave movements can be used to provide moderate to high levels of muscle activity in the AD, OBLIQ, and LUMB. Fitness practitioners aiming for higher OBLIQ activity should perform unilateral waves, whereas the bilateral variation of the movement can be used for higher LUMB activity.

  15. Resistance Exercise in Already-Active Diabetic Individuals (READI): study rationale, design and methods for a randomized controlled trial of resistance and aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Jane E; Kenny, Glen P; Perkins, Bruce A; Riddell, Michael C; Goldfield, Gary S; Donovan, Lois; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Wells, George A; Phillips, Penny; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-03-01

    The Resistance Exercise in Already Active Diabetic Individuals (READI) trial aimed to examine whether adding a 6-month resistance training program would improve glycemic control (as reflected in reduced HbA₁c) in individuals with type 1 diabetes who were already engaged in aerobic exercise compared to aerobic training alone. After a 5-week run-in period including optimization of diabetes care and low-intensity exercise, 131 physically active adults with type 1 diabetes were randomized to two groups for 22weeks: resistance training three times weekly, or waiting-list control. Both groups maintained the same volume, duration and intensity of aerobic exercise throughout the study as they did at baseline. HbA₁c, body composition, frequency of hypoglycemia, lipids, blood pressure, apolipoproteins B and A-1 (ApoB and ApoA1), the ApoB-ApoA1 ratio, urinary albumin excretion, serum C-reactive protein, free fatty acids, total daily insulin dose, health-related quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness and musculoskeletal fitness were recorded at baseline, 3 (for some variables), and 6 months. To our knowledge, READI is the only trial to date assessing the incremental health-related impact of adding resistance training for individuals with type 1 diabetes who are already aerobically active. Few exercise trials have been completed in this population, and even fewer have assessed resistance exercise. With recent improvements in the quality of diabetes care, the READI study will provide conclusive evidence to support or refute a major clinically relevant effect of exercise type in the recommendations for physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  16. [Characterization of electrical brain activity related to hand motor imagery in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Cantillo-Negrete, Jessica; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Josefina; Flores-Rodríguez, Teodoro B; Cariño-Escobar, Rubén I; Elías-Viñas, David

    2014-07-01

    Brain computer interface systems (BCI) translate the intentions of patients affected with locked-in syndrome through the EEG signal characteristics, which are converted into commands used to control external devices. One of the strategies used, is to decode the motor imagery of the subject, which can modify the neuronal activity in the sensory-motor areas in a similar way to which it is observed in real movement. The present study shows the activation patterns that are registered in motor and motor imagery tasks of right and left hand movement in a sample of young healthy subjects of Mexican nationality. By means of frequency analysis it was possible to determine the difference conditions of motor imagery and movement. Using U Mann- Whitney tests, differences with statistical significance (p < 0.05) where obtained, in the EEG channels C3, Cz, C4, T3 and P3 in the mu and beta rhythms, for subjects with similar characteristics (age, gender, and education). With these results, it would be possible to define a classifier or decoder by gender that improves the performance rate and diminishes the training time, with the goal of designing a functional BCI system that can be transferred from the laboratory to the clinical application in patients with motor disabilities.

  17. Neutron activation studies and the effect of exercise on osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A technique is described to measure calcium content by in vivo neutron activation analysis of the trunk and upper thighs. In postmenopausal women, estrogen and calcium or fluoride reversed osteoporosis.

  18. Angiogenic response to passive movement and active exercise in individuals with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hoier, B; Walker, M; Passos, M; Walker, P J; Green, A; Bangsbo, J; Askew, C D; Hellsten, Y

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is caused by atherosclerosis and is associated with microcirculatory impairments in skeletal muscle. The present study evaluated the angiogenic response to exercise and passive movement in skeletal muscle of PAD patients compared with healthy control subjects. Twenty-one PAD patients and 17 aged control subjects were randomly assigned to either a passive movement or an active exercise study. Interstitial fluid microdialysate and tissue samples were obtained from the thigh skeletal muscle. Muscle dialysate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were modestly increased in response to either passive movement or active exercise in both subject groups. The basal muscle dialysate level of the angiostatic factor thrombospondin-1 protein was markedly higher (P < 0.05) in PAD patients compared with the control subjects, whereas soluble VEGF receptor-1 dialysate levels were similar in the two groups. The basal VEGF protein content in the muscle tissue samples was ∼27% lower (P < 0.05) in the PAD patients compared with the control subjects. Analysis of mRNA expression for a range of angiogenic and angiostatic factors revealed a modest change with active exercise and passive movement in both groups, except for an increase (P < 0.05) in the ratio of angiopoietin-2 to angiopoietin-1 mRNA in the PAD group with both interventions. PAD patients and aged individuals showed a similar limited angiogenic response to active exercise and passive movement. The limited increase in muscle extracellular VEGF combined with an elevated basal level of thrombospondin-1 in muscle extracellular fluid of PAD patients may restrict capillary growth in these patients.

  19. Effect of muscle metaboreflex activation on spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Hartwich, Doreen; Dear, William E; Waterfall, Jessica L; Fisher, James P

    2011-12-15

    We sought to determine whether the activation of metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex) is a potential mechanism for the decrease in spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) during exercise in humans. In protocol 1, 15 male subjects (22 ± 1 years) performed steady-state leg cycling at low (26 ± 4 W) and moderate workloads (105 ± 7 W), under free-flow conditions and with partial flow restriction (bilateral thigh cuff inflation at 100 mmHg) to evoke muscle metaboreflex activation during exercise. In protocol 2, rhythmic handgrip exercise at 35% maximum voluntary contraction was performed with progressive upper arm cuff inflation (0, 80, 100 and 120 mmHg) to elicit graded metaboreflex activation. Both protocols were followed by post-exercise ischaemia (PEI) to isolate the muscle metaboreflex. Leg cycling-induced increases in HR and mean BP were augmented by partial flow restriction (P < 0.05 vs. free flow), while HR and mean BP both remained elevated during PEI (P < 0.05 vs. rest). Leg cycling evoked an intensity-dependent decrease in cBRS (16 ± 2, 7 ± 1 and 2 ± 0.2 ms mmHg(-1) at rest, low and moderate workloads, respectively; P < 0.05), which was further reduced with partial flow restriction (by -2.6 ± 0.8 and -0.4 ± 0.1 ms mmHg(-1) at low and moderate workloads). cBRS remained suppressed during PEI following leg cycling with partial flow restriction (4 ± 1 ms mmHg(-1); P < 0.05 vs. rest). cBRS was unchanged during handgrip under free-flow conditions, handgrip with partial flow restriction and PEI following handgrip (P > 0.05 vs. rest). These data indicate that the activation of metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex) decreases cardiac baroreflex responsiveness during leg cycling exercise in humans.

  20. Angiogenic response to passive movement and active exercise in individuals with peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Hoier, B.; Walker, M.; Passos, M.; Walker, P. J.; Green, A.; Bangsbo, J.; Askew, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is caused by atherosclerosis and is associated with microcirculatory impairments in skeletal muscle. The present study evaluated the angiogenic response to exercise and passive movement in skeletal muscle of PAD patients compared with healthy control subjects. Twenty-one PAD patients and 17 aged control subjects were randomly assigned to either a passive movement or an active exercise study. Interstitial fluid microdialysate and tissue samples were obtained from the thigh skeletal muscle. Muscle dialysate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were modestly increased in response to either passive movement or active exercise in both subject groups. The basal muscle dialysate level of the angiostatic factor thrombospondin-1 protein was markedly higher (P < 0.05) in PAD patients compared with the control subjects, whereas soluble VEGF receptor-1 dialysate levels were similar in the two groups. The basal VEGF protein content in the muscle tissue samples was ∼27% lower (P < 0.05) in the PAD patients compared with the control subjects. Analysis of mRNA expression for a range of angiogenic and angiostatic factors revealed a modest change with active exercise and passive movement in both groups, except for an increase (P < 0.05) in the ratio of angiopoietin-2 to angiopoietin-1 mRNA in the PAD group with both interventions. PAD patients and aged individuals showed a similar limited angiogenic response to active exercise and passive movement. The limited increase in muscle extracellular VEGF combined with an elevated basal level of thrombospondin-1 in muscle extracellular fluid of PAD patients may restrict capillary growth in these patients. PMID:24157526

  1. Rain Forest: The Latest Information and Hands-on Activities To Explore Animals, Plants, and Geography. Grades 2-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robin

    This book contains information and activities to help make the study of rainforests an exciting exploration for teachers and students. Students explore the animals, plants, and geography of the rainforest by completing hands-on activities from various disciplines. This book contains five units: (1) "Living Layers"; (2) "Animals, Animals, Animals";…

  2. Student Responses to a Hands-On Kinesthetic Lecture Activity for Learning about the Oxygen Carrying Capacity of Blood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckler, Jennifer; Yu, Justin R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a new hands-on, or "kinesthetic," activity for use in a physiology lecture hall to help students comprehend an important concept in cardiopulmonary physiology known as oxygen carrying capacity. One impetus for designing this activity was to address the needs of students who have a preference for kinesthetic…

  3. Do Predators Always Win? Starfish versus Limpets: A Hands-On Activity Examining Predator-Prey Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Claudia; Boaventura, Diana; Galvao, Cecilia; Chagas, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    In this article we propose a hands-on experimental activity about predator-prey interactions that can be performed both in a research laboratory and in the classroom. The activity, which engages students in a real scientific experiment, can be explored not only to improve students' understanding about the diversity of anti-predator behaviors but…

  4. The Healthy Heart Race: A Short-Duration, Hands-on Activity in Cardiovascular Physiology for Museums and Science Festivals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Thomas A.; Limson, Melvin; Byse, Miranda; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2011-01-01

    The "Healthy Heart Race" activity provides a hands-on demonstration of cardiovascular function suitable for lay audiences. It was field tested during the United States of America Science and Engineering Festival held in Washington, DC, in October 2010. The basic equipment for the activity consisted of lengths of plastic tubing, a hand…

  5. Exercise and physical activity in the prevention of pre-eclampsia: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kasawara, Karina Tamy; do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Costa, Maria Laura; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; e Silva, João Luiz Pinto

    2012-10-01

    Exercise and physical activity have been studied and suggested as a way to reduce or minimize the effects of pre-eclampsia. Our aim was to evaluate the association between exercise and/or physical activity and occurrence of pre-eclampsia. We conducted electronic searches without year of publication and language limitations. This was a systematic review designed according to PRISMA. Different databases accessed were as follows: PubMed®; Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS); Scientific Electronic Library On-line (SciELO); Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro); and ISI web of Knowledge(SM) . The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were as follows: ("exercise" OR "motor activity" OR "physical activity") AND ("pre-eclampsia" OR "eclampsia" OR "hypertension, pregnancy-induced"). Inclusion criteria were studies conducted in adults who were engaged in some physical activity. The selection and methodological evaluation were carried out by two independent reviewers. Risk assessment was made by the odds ratio (OR) and incidence of pre-eclampsia in the population who performed physical activity/exercise. A total of 231 articles were found, 214 of which were excluded based on title and full-text, so that 17 remained. Comparison of six case-control studies showed that physical activity had a protective effect on the development of pre-eclampsia [OR 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.91, p < 0.01]. The 10 prospective cohort studies showed no significant difference (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-1.05, p= 0.81). The only randomized clinical trial showed a protective effect on the development of pre-eclampsia in the stretching group (OR 6.34, 95% CI 0.72-55.37, p= 0.09). This systematic review indicates a trend toward a protective effect of physical activity in the prevention of pre-eclampsia.

  6. Exercise-induced Alteration in Brain Activity during Motor Performance under Cognitive Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-02

    stress . It is possible that the correlated activity between EEG and EMG is used for “fine-tuning” brain activity during the performance of fine motor...brain and muscle during simple fine motor performance under stress after high-intensity physical exertion. Healthy young adults were assigned to...leg resistance exercise. Oscillations in EEG and corticomuscular coherence in beta band both tended to decrease 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE

  7. Postprandial improvement in insulin sensitivity after a single exercise session in adolescents with low aerobic fitness and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Short, Kevin R; Pratt, Lauren V; Teague, April M; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute and residual impact of a single exercise bout on meal glucose control in adolescents with habitually low physical activity. Twelve adolescents (seven females/five males, 14 ± 2 yr) completed three trials. One trial [No Exercise (No Ex)] was completed after refraining from vigorous activity for ≥ 3 d. On the other two trials, a 45-min aerobic exercise bout at 75% peak heart rate was performed either 17-h Prior Day Exercise (Prior Day Ex) trial or 1-h Same Day Exercise (Same Day Ex) trial before consuming the test meal (2803 kJ, 45/40/15% energy as carbohydrate/fat/protein, respectively). Compared to No Ex, insulin sensitivity (SI) (minimal model analysis) was increased by 45% (p < 0.03) and 78% (p < 0.01) on the Prior Day Ex and Same Day Ex trials, respectively. This improvement in glucose control was supported by corresponding reductions in the net area under the curve for glucose, insulin, and c-peptide, although there was no change in postprandial suppression of fatty acids. These results show that SI is improved with a single bout of moderate intensity exercise in adolescents with habitually low physical activity and that the residual beneficial effect of exercise lasts at least 17 h. This finding highlights the plasticity of exercise responses in youth and the importance of daily exercise for metabolic health.

  8. Relationships Among Goal Contents, Exercise Motivations, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness in University Physical Education Courses.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Benjamin A; Bergman, Shawn M

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined the relationships among exercise goal contents, behavioral regulation, physical activity, and aerobic fitness within the context of eight-week university physical education courses. Participants were undergraduate students (M age = 20.2 year, SD = 2.3) enrolled in activity courses (N = 461) during the 2010 Fall semester. At pretest, participants completed a demographic survey, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire and the Goal Contents in Exercise Questionnaire. At eight-week posttest, participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adults and the PACER aerobic fitness test. Relative intrinsic goal content was found to predict physical activity indirectly and aerobic fitness via behavioral regulation. Specific goal contents related to health management and skill development were found to predict physical activity and aerobic fitness via a fully mediated path through identified and intrinsic regulation. Results supported the efficacy of goal contents and self-determination theory in describing physical activity behavior and fitness. Examining specific types of goal contents and behavioral regulations revealed relationships that were masked by the utilization of omnibus scoring protocols.

  9. Effect of isotonic and isokinetic exercise on muscle activity and balance of the ankle joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to examine how the balance of lower limbs and the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), the medial gastrocnemius (GCM), and the peroneus longus (PL) are influenced by isotonic and isokinetic exercise of the ankle joint. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were healthy adults (n=20), and they were divided into two groups (isotonic=10, isokinetic=10). [Methods] Isotonic group performed 3 sets of 10 contractions at 50% of MVIC and Isokinetic group performed 3 sets of 60°/sec. Muscle activity was measured by EMG and balance was measured by one-leg standing test. [Results] For muscle activity, a main effect of group was found in the non-dominant TA, and the dominant TA, GCM and PL. For balance, a main effect of time was found in both groups for the sway area measured support was provided by the non-dominant side. [Conclusion] In terms of muscle activity, the two groups showed a significant difference, and the isokinetic group showed higher muscle activities. In terms of balance, there was a significant difference between the pre-test and the post-test. The results of this study may help in the selection of exercises for physical therapy, because they show that muscle activity and balance vary according to the type of exercise. PMID:25729181

  10. Muscle Activation Differs Between Partial And Full Back Squat Exercise With External Load Equated.

    PubMed

    Jarbas da Silva, Josinaldo; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Marchetti, Priscyla Nardi; Pecoraro, Silvio Luis; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique

    2017-02-13

    Changes in range of motion affect the magnitude of the load during the squat exercise and, consequently may influence muscle activation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle activation between the partial and full back squat exercise with external load equated on a relative basis between conditions. Fifteen young, healthy, resistance trained men (age: 26±5 years, height: 173±6 cm) performed a back squat at their 10 repetition maximum using two different ranges of motion (partial and full) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), erector spinae (ES), soleus (SL), and gluteus maximus (GM). In general, muscle activity was highest during the partial back squat for GM (P=0.004), BF (P=0.009), and SL (P=0.031) when compared to full. There was no significant difference for RPE between partial and full back squat exercise at 10RM (8±1 and 9±1, respectively). In conclusion, the range of motion in the back squat alters muscle activation of the prime mover (gluteus maximus), and stabilizers (soleus and biceps femoris) when performed with the load equated on a relative basis. Thus, the partial back squat maximizes the level of muscle activation of the gluteus maximus and associated stabilizer muscles.

  11. Sixty minutes of what? A developing brain perspective for activating children with an integrative exercise approach.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Edwards, Nicholas M; Clark, Joseph F; Best, Thomas M; Sallis, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    Current recommendations for physical activity in children overlook the critical importance of motor skill acquisition early in life. Instead, they focus on the quantitative aspects of physical activity (eg, accumulate 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity) and selected health-related components of physical fitness (eg, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition). This focus on exercise quantity in youth may limit considerations of qualitative aspects of programme design which include (1) skill development, (2) socialisation and (3) enjoyment of exercise. The timing of brain development and associated neuroplasticity for motor skill learning makes the preadolescence period a critical time to develop and reinforce fundamental movement skills in boys and girls. Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) challenge current dogma that is currently focused on the quantitative rather than qualitative aspects of physical activity recommendations for youth and (2) synthesise the latest evidence regarding the brain and motor control that will provide the foundation for integrative exercise programming that provide a framework sustainable activity for life.

  12. The Relationship between Active Hand and Ear Advantage in the Native and Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildner, V.; Stankovic, D.; Petkovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    In an experimental design involving two auditorily presented competing commands (one to each ear), 144 right-handed subjects (72 male and 72 female) were asked to provide motor responses. Half of each group of subjects was responding with their right hand and the other half with the left. The test was applied in the subjects' native language…

  13. Brain activation during oral exercises used for dysphagia rehabilitation in healthy human subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Emiko; Matsuyama, Miwa; Goto, Tazuko K; Nakamura, Yuko; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2012-09-01

    Oral exercises, including tongue, lip, and jaw movements, are commonly used in clinical practice as training to improve oral and pharyngeal swallowing in dysphagia patients. These rehabilitation exercises are believed to affect the peripheral and central nervous system at various levels. However, few studies have examined healthy subjects' brain activity while performing oral exercises used in dysphagia rehabilitation. The current study sought to measure brain activation during oral exercises in healthy subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Lip-pursing and lip-stretching, tongue protrusion, lateral tongue movement, and oral ball-rolling were selected as tongue and lip exercise tasks. The tasks were performed by eight healthy subjects, and the fMRI data were submitted to conjunction analyses. The results confirmed that head movements during all tasks exhibited translation of <1.0 mm and rotation of <1.0° in x, y, and z coordinates. We found several clear regions of increased brain activity during all four oral exercises. Commonly activated regions during tongue and lip exercises included the precentral gyrus and cerebellum. Brain activation during ball-rolling was more extensive and stronger compared to the other three oral exercises.

  14. The effect of exercise types for rotator cuff repair patients on activities of shoulder muscles and upper limb disability

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Moon, Young-Jun; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Park, Jun-Su

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect on activities, shoulder muscle fatigue, upper limb disability of two exercise types performed by patients in the post- immobilization period of rotator cuff repair. [Subjects and Methods] The intervention program was performed by 20 patients from 6 weeks after rotator cuff repair. Ten subjects each were randomly allocated to a group performing open kinetic chain exercise and a group preforming closed kinetic chain exercise. Muscle activity and median frequency were measured by using sEMG and the Upper Extremity Function Assessment before and after conducting the intervention and changes in the results were compared. [Results] There was a significant within group increases in the activities of the shoulder muscles, except for the posterior deltoid. The median power frequencies (MFD) of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and anterior deltoid significantly increased in the open kinetic chain exercise group, but that of the posterior deltoid decreased. There were significant differences in the changes in the upper limb disability scores of the two groups, in the shoulder muscle activities, except for that of the posterior deltoid, in the comparison of the change in the muscle activities of the two groups, and in the MDFs of all shoulder muscles. [Conclusion] The Median power frequencies of all these muscles after closed kinetic chain exercise increased indicating that muscle fatigue decreased. Therefore, research into exercise programs using closed kinetic chain exercises will be needed to establish exercise methods for reducing muscle fatigue. PMID:27821933

  15. Carotid baroreflex regulation of sympathetic nerve activity during dynamic exercise in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadel, P. J.; Ogoh, S.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Wasmund, W.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Smith, M. L.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    We sought to determine whether carotid baroreflex (CBR) control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was altered during dynamic exercise. In five men and three women, 23.8 +/- 0.7 (SE) yr of age, CBR function was evaluated at rest and during 20 min of arm cycling at 50% peak O(2) uptake using 5-s periods of neck pressure and neck suction. From rest to steady-state arm cycling, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly increased from 90.0 +/- 2.7 to 118.7 +/- 3.6 mmHg and MSNA burst frequency (microneurography at the peroneal nerve) was elevated by 51 +/- 14% (P < 0.01). However, despite the marked increases in MAP and MSNA during exercise, CBR-Delta%MSNA responses elicited by the application of various levels of neck pressure and neck suction ranging from +45 to -80 Torr were not significantly different from those at rest. Furthermore, estimated baroreflex sensitivity for the control of MSNA at rest was the same as during exercise (P = 0.74) across the range of neck chamber pressures. Thus CBR control of sympathetic nerve activity appears to be preserved during moderate-intensity dynamic exercise.

  16. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength. PMID:27390394

  17. Eating and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... hand. When and what you eat can be important to how you feel when you exercise, whether it's a casual workout or training for a competition. Consider these eating and exercise tips. If you exercise in the morning, get up early enough to finish breakfast at least one hour before your workout. Be ...

  18. Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial

    PubMed Central

    Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC. PMID:20397868

  19. Empowering Girls with Chemistry, Exercise and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily D.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.; Clapham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that a girl's career interests in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) declines between grades 6 and 8. Similarly, in middle school, there is a decrease in physical activity among girls. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) conducted a chemistry-based science camp that took place…

  20. Effects of early-onset voluntary exercise on adult physical activity and associated phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Wendy; Meek, Thomas H; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Vu, Kim T; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early-life exercise on adult physical activity (wheel running, home-cage activity), body mass, food consumption, and circulating leptin levels in males from four replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (High Runner or HR) and their four non-selected control (C) lines. Half of the mice were given wheel access shortly after weaning for three consecutive weeks. Wheel access was then removed for 52 days, followed by two weeks of adult wheel access for all mice. A blood sample taken prior to adult wheel testing was analyzed for circulating leptin concentration. Early-life wheel access significantly increased adult voluntary exercise on wheels during the first week of the second period of wheel access, for both HR and C mice, and HR ran more than C mice. During this same time period, activity in the home cages was not affected by early-age wheel access, and did not differ statistically between HR and C mice. Throughout the study, all mice with early wheel access had lower body masses than their sedentary counterparts, and HR mice had lower body masses than C mice. With wheel access, HR mice also ate significantly more than C mice. Early-life wheel access increased plasma leptin levels (adjusted statistically for fat-pad mass as a covariate) in C mice, but decreased them in HR mice. At sacrifice, early-life exercise had no statistically significant effects on visceral fat pad, heart (ventricle), liver or spleen masses (all adjusted statistically for variation in body mass). Results support the hypothesis that early-age exercise in mice can have at least transitory positive effects on adult levels of voluntary exercise, in addition to reducing body mass, and may be relevant for the public policy debates concerning the importance of physical education for children.

  1. Inhibition of myostatin signaling through Notch activation following acute resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Matthew G; Hamilton, David Lee; Pepin, Mark; Patton, Amy; Baar, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin is a TGFβ family member and negative regulator of muscle size. Due to the complexity of the molecular pathway between myostatin mRNA/protein and changes in transcription, it has been difficult to understand whether myostatin plays a role in resistance exercise-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To circumvent this problem, we determined the expression of a unique myostatin target gene, Mighty, following resistance exercise. Mighty mRNA increased by 6 h (82.9 ± 24.21%) and remained high out to 48 h (56.5 ± 19.67%) after resistance exercise. Further examination of the soleus, plantaris and tibialis anterior muscles showed that the change in Mighty mRNA at 6 h correlated with the increase in muscle size associated with this protocol (R(2) = 0.9996). The increase in Mighty mRNA occurred both independent of Smad2 phosphorylation and in spite of an increase in myostatin mRNA (341.8 ± 147.14% at 3 h). The myostatin inhibitor SKI remained unchanged. However, activated Notch, another potential inhibitor of TGFβ signaling, increased immediately following resistance exercise (83 ± 11.2%) and stayed elevated out to 6 h (78 ± 16.6%). Electroportion of the Notch intracellular domain into the tibialis anterior resulted in an increase in Mighty mRNA (63 ± 13.4%) that was equivalent to the canonical Notch target HES-1 (94.4 ± 7.32%). These data suggest that acute resistance exercise decreases myostatin signaling through the activation of the TGFβ inhibitor Notch resulting in a decrease in myostatin transcriptional activity that correlates well with muscle hypertrophy.

  2. Learn to love exercise

    MedlinePlus

    Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...

  3. Hand Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Journal of Hand Surgery (JHS) Home Anatomy Hand Therapy Email to a friend * required fields From * ... ensure a healthy style of work. Find a Hand Therapist Search for a hand therapist in your ...

  4. Evaluation of Muscle Activities in Human Forearms under Exercises by Diffuse Optical Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Yukari; Gao, Feng; Miyakawa, Michio; Kiryu, Toru; Kizuka, Tomohiro; Endo, Yasuomi; Okawa, Shinpei; Yamada, Yukio

    During the forearm exercise, it is generally understood that the inner muscles work for the task, and the outer muscles work to fix the joints for the efficient work of the inner muscles. For evaluation of the exercise, quantitative measurement of inner muscle activities is necessary. Electromyograph (EMG) and oxygen monitoring using continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) have been used for the evaluation because both of them are the modalities of safe, portable and noninvasive measurements of muscle activities. However, these modalities can show the qualitative changes in the muscle activities in the vicinity of the skin surface. Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography (TR-DOT) can quantitatively provide tomographic images of the changes in the oxygenation state of the whole muscles. In vivo experiments of TR-DOT were performed for human forearms under handgrip exercises, and DOT images of the changes in the oxygenation state of the forearms were reconstructed using the algorithm based on the modified generalized pulsed spectrum technique. The DOT images are compared with the MR-images, and it is shown that the activities of the inner muscles of the forearms were active during the handgrip excises.

  5. Arterial baroreflex buffering of sympathetic activation during exercise-induced elevations in arterial pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, U; Pryor, S L; Bertocci, L A; Victor, R G

    1990-01-01

    Static muscle contraction activates metabolically sensitive muscle afferents that reflexively increase sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure. To determine if this contraction-induced reflex is modulated by the sinoaortic baroreflex, we performed microelectrode recordings of sympathetic nerve activity to resting leg muscle during static handgrip in humans while attempting to clamp the level of baroreflex stimulation by controlling the exercise-induced rise in blood pressure with pharmacologic agents. The principal new finding is that partial pharmacologic suppression of the rise in blood pressure during static handgrip (nitroprusside infusion) augmented the exercise-induced increases in heart rate and sympathetic activity by greater than 300%. Pharmacologic accentuation of the exercise-induced rise in blood pressure (phenylephrine infusion) attenuated these reflex increases by greater than 50%. In contrast, these pharmacologic manipulations in arterial pressure had little or no effect on: (a) forearm muscle cell pH, an index of the metabolic stimulus to skeletal muscle afferents; or (b) central venous pressure, an index of the mechanical stimulus to cardiopulmonary afferents. We conclude that in humans the sinoaortic baroreflex is much more effective than previously thought in buffering the reflex sympathetic activation caused by static muscle contraction. PMID:2254449

  6. Changes in Cortical Activation Patterns in Language Areas following an Aerobic Exercise Intervention in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Bruce; Mammino, Kevin; McGregor, Keith M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has shown that older adults who evidence increased right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity during language tasks show decreased sematic verbal fluency performance. The current study sought to evaluate if an aerobic exercise intervention can alter patterns of brain activity during a semantic verbal fluency task assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-two community-dwelling, sedentary older adults were enrolled to a 12-week aerobic “Spin” exercise group or a 12-week nonaerobic exercise control condition (Balance). Thirty participants completed their assigned intervention (16 Spin; 14 Balance) with pre- and postintervention assessments of a semantic verbal fluency task during fMRI and estimated VO2max testing. There was a significant increase in the change scores for estimated VO2max of the Spin group when compared to the Balance group. Semantic verbal fluency output within the scanner was also improved in the Spin group as compared to controls at postassessment. Group fMRI comparisons of IFG activity showed lower activity in the right IFG following the intervention in the aerobic Spin group when compared to the Balance group. Regression analysis of imaging data with change in both estimated VO2max and semantic verbal fluency was negatively correlated with activity in right IFG. The current work is registered as clinical trial with NCT01787292 and NCT02787655. PMID:28367334

  7. Effect of the push-up exercise at different palmar width on muscle activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Sin; Kim, Do-Yeon; Ha, Min-Seong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of changes in palmar width on the muscle activities of the shoulder and truncus muscles during push-up exercise. [Subjects] Twelve healthy adult males participated in this study as subjects. [Methods] Push-up exercises were performed with three different palmar width in narrow (50%), neutral (100%), and wide positions (150%). We measured the muscle activities of the deltoideus p. acromialis, pectoralis minor, pectoralis major, serratus anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, latissimus dorsi, and infraspinatus. [Results] Pectoralis minor, triceps brachii, and infraspinatus muscle activities were greater during push-ups performed with the 50% palmar width compared with the other palmar widths. Pectoralis major muscle activity was greater during push-ups performed with the 50% and 100% palmar widths compared with the 150% palmar width. Serratus anterior muscle activity was greater during push-ups performed with the 150% palmar width compared with the other palmar widths. [Conclusion] These results are expected to serve as reference materials for push-up exercise applications in training programs for truncus muscle strengthening or rehabilitation programs for scapula patients.

  8. Design and control of a hand exoskeleton for use in extravehicular activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, B.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1993-01-01

    To counter problems inherent in extravehicular activities (EVA) and complex space operations, an exoskeleton, a unique adaptive structure, has been designed. The exoskeleton fits on the hand and powers the proximal and middle phalanges of the index finger, the middle finger, and the combined ring and little finger. A kinematic analysis of the exoskeleton joints was performed using the loop-closure method. This analysis determined the angular displacement and velocity relationships of the exoskeleton joints. This information was used to determine the output power of the exoskeleton. Three small DC motors (one for each finger) are used to power the exoskeleton. The motors are mounted on the forearm. Power is transferred to the exoskeleton using lead screws. The control system for the exoskeleton measures the contact force between the operator and the exoskeleton. This information is used as the input to drive the actuation system. The control system allows the motor to rotate in both directions so that the operator may close or open the exoskeleton.

  9. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Topp, Robert; Behm, David G

    2013-12-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral shoulder served as a passive control. Two hours later, the contralateral resting shoulder received the other treatment. The participants rated the intensity of soreness (scale 0-10), and a blinded examiner took measures of pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper trapezius immediately before treatment and 0, 10, 20, and 60 minutes after treatment 48 hours posteccentric exercise. Immediately before treatment, the intensity of soreness was 5.0 (SD 2.2) and PPT was 138 (SD 78) kPa. In response to treatment, a significant treatment by time interaction was found for the intensity of soreness (p < 0.001) and PPT (p < 0.05). Compared with control, both active exercise and massage significantly reduced the intensity of soreness and increased PPT (i.e., reduced pain sensitivity). For both types of treatment, the greatest effect on perceived soreness occurred immediately after treatment, whereas the effect on PPT peaked 20 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, active exercise using elastic resistance provides similar acute relief of muscle soreness as compared with that using massage

  10. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI.

  11. Promoting Nature-Based Activity for People With Mental Illness Through the US "Exercise Is Medicine" Initiative.

    PubMed

    Maier, Julie; Jette, Shannon

    2016-05-01

    Nature-based physical activity programming (e.g., countryside walks, hiking, horseback riding) has been found to be an effective way to help improve the health of people with mental illness. Exercise referral initiatives, whereby health practitioners prescribe exercise in an attempt to prevent or treat chronic illnesses, have helped make such nature-based activities accessible to this population in the United Kingdom and Australia; however, there is a dearth of research related to the most prominent exercise referral program in the United States: Exercise is Medicine. Taking into account the barriers to physical activity faced by people with mental illness, we explore how nature-based programming for this population might be mobilized in the United States through the growing Exercise is Medicine initiative.

  12. Electromyographic activity of the biceps brachii after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Sirous; Sinclair, Peter J; Foroughi, Nasim; Davis, Glen M

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that strenuous eccentric exercise may result in muscle damage. We proposed that vigorous eccentric exercise (EE) would impair myoelectric activity of the biceps brachii. This study utilised a 7-day prospective time-series design. Ten healthy males performed a session of 70 maximal EE elbow flexion contractions. Analysis of surface electromyography activity (sEMG) was performed on the signals recorded during isometric contractions at 50% (IC50) and 80% (IC80) of maximum voluntary isometric torque (MVT), deriving RMS and MDF as sEMG parameters. Linear regression of the RMS and MDF time-series (20-s sustained IC50 and IC80) was used to extract intercepts and slopes of these signals on each day. Plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), MVT, arm circumference, subjective perception of soreness and elbow joint range of motion were also measured to assess effectiveness of EE to evoke muscle damage. CK increased over resting values until day 5 after EE, and remained significantly (p < 0.05) elevated even on day 7. MVT had decreased to 45% of its initial value by day 2 after EE, and remained significantly depressed for the following 6 days. In addition, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased, and range of motion decreased after EE. A significant shift of MDF intercept towards lower frequencies at both IC50 and IC80 was observed after EE in the exercised arm, and these values gradually recovered within the next 3 days during IC50. Although there were some changes in RMS values, these alterations were persistent in both control and exercised arms, and did not follow a consistent pattern. In conclusion, a prolonged reduction in MDF intercept was observed after EE, but this was not closely time-associated with the biochemical, anthropometric or functional markers of muscle damage. Compared to RMS, MDF was a more consistent measure to reflect changes in sEMG. Key pointsEMG can be a useful tool to detect exercise-induced muscle damage,MDF decreased after

  13. Analysis of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during squat exercise with and without a variety of tools in normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-kyung; Park, So-mi; Yun, Sae-bom; Lee, Ae-ran; Lee, Yun-seob; Yong, Min-sik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of squat exercises with and without a variety of tools including a gym ball, wedge, and elastic band on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscles. [Subjects and Methods] A total of twenty healthy subjects with no history of neurological, musculoskeletal injury, or pain in the lower extremities were recruited. All subjects performed four types of exercise (conventional squat exercise, squat exercise with a gym ball, squat exercise with a wedge, squat exercise with an elastic band). [Results] There were no significant differences between exercises in comparison of the vastus lateralis muscle activity. In the squat exercise with a wedge, significantly higher activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle was found compared with in the squat exercise with an elastic band. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that the conventional squat exercise can be one of the useful interventions for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27134414

  14. Analysis of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during squat exercise with and without a variety of tools in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Kyung; Park, So-Mi; Yun, Sae-Bom; Lee, Ae-Ran; Lee, Yun-Seob; Yong, Min-Sik

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of squat exercises with and without a variety of tools including a gym ball, wedge, and elastic band on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscles. [Subjects and Methods] A total of twenty healthy subjects with no history of neurological, musculoskeletal injury, or pain in the lower extremities were recruited. All subjects performed four types of exercise (conventional squat exercise, squat exercise with a gym ball, squat exercise with a wedge, squat exercise with an elastic band). [Results] There were no significant differences between exercises in comparison of the vastus lateralis muscle activity. In the squat exercise with a wedge, significantly higher activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle was found compared with in the squat exercise with an elastic band. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that the conventional squat exercise can be one of the useful interventions for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  15. A Comparison of Attitudes and Exercise Habits of Alumni from Colleges with Varying Degrees of Physical Education Activity Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.; Brynteson, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Study compared the exercise attitudes and habits of alumni from four colleges with varying physical education activity (PEA) requirements. Survey results indicated the type of PEA programs offered influenced alumni attitudes toward fitness and exercise behaviors. Students from colleges with higher PEA requirements had more positive exercise…

  16. A Novel Active-Learning Protein Purification Exercise for Large-Enrollment Introductory Biochemistry Courses Using the CHROM Web Applet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrette-Ng, Isabelle H.; Usher, Ken C.

    2013-01-01

    The CHROM Web applet has been used to create a new active-learning exercise in which students design a purification scheme for a recombinant protein using ion-exchange chromatography (IEC). To successfully complete the exercise, students are challenged to apply elementary concepts from acid-base chemistry as well as protein and amino acid…

  17. Four-week exercise program does not change rotator cuff muscle activation and scapular kinematics in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Rotator cuff and scapular muscle strengthening exercises are an essential part of shoulder rehabilitation and sports training. Although the effect of exercise training on pain and function have been widely investigated, few studies have focused on the changes in shoulder kinematics and muscle activity after exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises on shoulder kinematics and the activation of rotator cuff and scapular muscles in healthy subjects. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a training or control group. Subjects in the training group were trained with rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises for four weeks. Scapular kinematics and shoulder muscle activity during arm elevation were measured before and after exercise training. After the four-week training protocol, there was an increase in strength and a decrease in upper trapezius activation in the training group, which is consistent with previous studies. However, no difference was found in scapular kinematics and activation of rotator cuff muscles between the control and training groups after the training protocol. Although the exercise protocol resulted in strength gains for the rotator cuff, these gains did not transfer to an increase in muscle activation during motion. These results demonstrate the difficulty in changing activation patterns of the rotator cuff muscles. PMID:26996811

  18. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01). The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01). Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01) predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  19. Using Bench Press Load to Predict Upper Body Exercise Loads in Physically Active Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Del P.; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A.; Smith, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01). The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01). Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01) predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key points The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations. 6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. PMID:24149723

  20. Comparison of Two Different Modes of Active Recovery on Muscles Performance after Fatiguing Exercise in Mountain Canoeist and Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamiński, Kamil; Małek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Methods Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Results Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. Conclusions We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training. PMID:27706260

  1. Hands-On Surgical Training Workshop: an Active Role-Playing Patient Education for Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wongkietkachorn, Apinut; Boonyawong, Pangpoom; Rhunsiri, Peera; Tantiphlachiva, Kasaya

    2016-01-20

    Most patient education involves passive learning. To improve patient education regarding surgery, an active learning workshop-based teaching method is proposed. The objective of this study was to assess level of patient surgical knowledge, achievement of workshop learning objectives, patient apprehension about future surgery, and participant workshop satisfaction after completing a surgical training workshop. A four-station workshop (surgical scrub, surgical suture, laparoscopic surgery, and robotic surgery) was developed to teach four important components of the surgical process. Healthy, surgery-naive adolescents were enrolled to attend this 1-h workshop-based training program. Training received by participants was technically and procedurally identical to training received by actual surgeons. Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were used to assess learning outcomes. There were 1312 participants, with a mean age 15.9 ± 1.1 years and a gender breakdown of 303 males and 1009 females. For surgical knowledge, mean pre-workshop and post-workshop scores were 6.1 ± 1.5 and 7.5 ± 1.5 (out of 10 points), respectively (p < 0.001). Out of 5 possible points, achievement of learning objectives, decreased apprehension about future surgery, and overall workshop satisfaction scores were all higher than 4.5. Active, hands-on patient education is an effective way to improve understanding of surgery-related processes. This teaching method may also decrease apprehension that patients or potential patients harbor regarding a future surgical procedure.

  2. Sympathetic activation in exercise is not dependent on muscle acidosis. Direct evidence from studies in metabolic myopathies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vissing, J.; Vissing, S. F.; MacLean, D. A.; Saltin, B.; Quistorff, B.; Haller, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Muscle acidosis has been implicated as a major determinant of reflex sympathetic activation during exercise. To test this hypothesis we studied sympathetic exercise responses in metabolic myopathies in which muscle acidosis is impaired or augmented during exercise. As an index of reflex sympathetic activation to muscle, microneurographic measurements of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were obtained from the peroneal nerve. MSNA was measured during static handgrip exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction force to exhaustion in patients in whom exercise-induced muscle acidosis is absent (seven myophosphorylase deficient patients; MD [McArdle's disease], and one patient with muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency [PFKD]), augmented (one patient with mitochondrial myopathy [MM]), or normal (five healthy controls). Muscle pH was monitored by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy during handgrip exercise in the five control subjects, four MD patients, and the MM and PFKD patients. With handgrip to exhaustion, the increase in MSNA over baseline (bursts per minute [bpm] and total activity [%]) was not impaired in patients with MD (17+/-2 bpm, 124+/-42%) or PFKD (65 bpm, 307%), and was not enhanced in the MM patient (24 bpm, 131%) compared with controls (17+/-4 bpm, 115+/-17%). Post-handgrip ischemia studied in one McArdle patient, caused sustained elevation of MSNA above basal suggesting a chemoreflex activation of MSNA. Handgrip exercise elicited an enhanced drop in muscle pH of 0.51 U in the MM patient compared with the decrease in controls of 0.13+/-0.02 U. In contrast, muscle pH increased with exercise in MD by 0.12+/-0.05 U and in PFKD by 0.01 U. In conclusion, patients with glycogenolytic, glycolytic, and oxidative phosphorylation defects show normal muscle sympathetic nerve responses to static exercise. These findings indicate that muscle acidosis is not a prerequisite for sympathetic activation in exercise.

  3. The in vivo effect of melatonin on cellular activation processes in human blood during strenuous physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Johe, Paul D; Østerud, Bjarne

    2005-10-01

    Melatonin has been reported to have anti- as well as pro-inflammatory properties. Because physical stress is associated with the activation of blood cells, the present study examines melatonin's role in exercise-induced cell activation processes. Eight healthy volunteers (aged 20-62 yr, mean = 31), exercised on an 'Ergometric' bike for 30 min at 80% of their calculated maximum pulse rate. Blood samples were taken just before melatonin administration, directly after exercise, and 2 hr after exercise completion. Cytokine and eicosanoid parameters were measured in plasma from blood stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 2 hr whereas tissue factor (TF) activity was measured in isolated monocytes. Melatonin significantly decreased LPS-induced TF activity by 48% (P < 0.01) directly after exercise, and a 44% reduction was seen 2 hr later (P < 0.02). Furthermore, melatonin significantly reduced the lymphocyte count rise produced directly after exercising by more than 30% (P < 0.01). A trend was also seen for melatonin suppressing the increase of WBC by around 10% and to strengthen the platelet increase by about 8% after physical stress. Melatonin also significantly lowered RBC and hemoglobin counts by 5 and 3-4% during exercise (P < 0.005 and <0.02 respectively). Two hours after exercise, melatonin tended to lower leukotriene B4 levels by 30%. Interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels tended to be lower in individuals who had taken melatonin following hard physical activity and a larger sample size may show significance. Thromboxane B2 production seemed unaffected by melatonin during exercise. In conclusion, in vivo intake of melatonin appears to suppress LPS-induced activation of monocytes in whole blood reactions associated with physical exercise and facilitates the down-regulation of inflammatory mediators.

  4. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue.

    PubMed

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, Bärbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in venous and lung tissue and to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57Bl/6 mice underwent voluntary exercise or forced physical activity. Changes of vascular mRNA and protein levels and activity of eNOS, ecSOD and catalase were determined in aorta, heart, lung and vena cava. Both training protocols similarly increased relative heart weight and resulted in up-regulation of aortic and myocardial eNOS. In striking contrast, eNOS expression in vena cava and lung remained unchanged. Likewise, exercise up-regulated ecSOD in the aorta and in left ventricular tissue but remained unchanged in lung tissue. Catalase expression in lung tissue and vena cava of exercised mice exceeded that in aorta by 6.9- and 10-fold, respectively, suggesting a lack of stimulatory effects of hydrogen peroxide. In accordance, treatment of mice with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole for 6 weeks resulted in significant up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD in vena cava. These data suggest that physiological venous catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD. Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of vascular catalase might improve pulmonary rehabilitation.

  5. Changes in jump performance and muscle activity following soccer-specific exercise.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jon; Armstrong, Neil; Williams, Craig

    2008-01-15

    The jump performance of ten youth soccer players (mean age 15.8 years, s= 0.4) was assessed before and after 42 min of soccer-specific exercise performed on a non-motorized treadmill. A squat, countermovement, and drop jump were performed on a force platform and simultaneously surface EMG activity of four lower limb muscles was collected. Jump height deteriorated across all conditions with mean reductions of - 1.4 cm (s = 1.6; P < 0.05), - 3.0 cm (s = 2.9; P < 0.05), and -2.3 cm (s = 1.7; P < 0.01) in the squat, countermovement, and drop jump respectively. The impact force in the drop jump was the only force variable to show a significant change with fatigue (P < 0.05). Following the prolonged exercise, reductions in total muscle activity were non-significant for the squat jump, approached significance for the counter-ovement jump (P = 0.07), and achieved significance for the drop jump (P < 0.05). The results showed that completing soccer-specific exercise reduced performance in all jump tasks. Reductions in muscle activity were greatest for the drop jump, suggesting an influence of muscle stretch and loading on reduced muscle activity when fatigued.

  6. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Spontaneous Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight Boys: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of different exercise intensities on spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure in overweight adolescents. Methods A crossover study was developed with a control session, followed by moderate and vigorous exercise sessions, with six days of monitoring each. Twenty-four adolescents, 11–13 years old, male and overweight were selected. Spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure was assessed by accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the differences per session across time. Results Energy expenditure during the 1st hour was different between all three sessions, with averages of 82, 286 and 343 kcal to the control, moderate and vigorous sessions, respectively (p <0.001). The same pattern of difference in energy expenditure between the sessions remained after 24 hours (704 vs 970 vs 1056 kcal, p <0.001). However, energy expenditure during the six days indicates compensation from second to the sixth day, although small differences remained at the end of the 6-day period (5102 vs 5193 vs 5271 kcal, p <0.001). Conclusions A single aerobic session seems to modify the spontaneous physical activities in overweight adolescents but still keeping the vigorous session with higher total energy expenditure during the follow-up period. Despite the observed compensatory effect, the greater energy expenditure observed in both moderate and vigorous exercise sessions indicates that physical activity should be recommended to promote an increased energy expenditure in adolescents. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02272088 PMID:26771742

  7. Hip Rotations Influence Electromyographic Activity of Gluteus Medius Muscle During Pelvic Drop Exercise.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Renan Lima; Facchini, Joana Hoverter; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Callegaric, Bianca; Amado João, Sílvia Maria

    2016-08-24

    Pelvic drop exercises are often used to strengthen the gluteus medius muscle with the aim of increasing or prioritizing its recruitment. However, the effect of hip rotation on the performance of the action of the gluteus medius is unknown. Th