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Sample records for active homeless men

  1. HIV risk behavior and access to services: what predicts HIV testing among heterosexually active homeless men?

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-06-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also reported high rates of HIV risk behavior, suggesting there is still significant unmet need for HIV prevention among homeless men. Having recently used medical/dental services in the Skid Row area (OR: 1.91; CI: 1.09, 3.35), and being a military veteran (OR: 2.10; CI: 1.01-4.37) were significantly associated with HIV testing service utilization. HIV testing was not associated with HIV risk behavior, but rather with access to services and veteran status, the latter of which prior research has linked to increased service access. We suggest that programs encouraging general medical service access may be important for disseminating HIV testing services to this high-risk, vulnerable population.

  2. HIV Risk Behavior and Access to Services: What Predicts HIV Testing among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-01-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV…

  3. Survey of Needs: Single Homeless Men. Denver Metro Area, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    The Adult Learning Source Homeless Program of the Colorado Department of Education conducted an educational needs assessment of single homeless men in the Denver metropolitan area. A questionnaire was developed with the input of social services workers and administered to 74 homeless men in the summer of 1993. Forty-one percent were White, 24…

  4. Pellagra in 2 homeless men.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, S G

    2001-03-01

    Pellagra is a nutritional disease with cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Because of the diversity of pellagra's signs and symptoms, diagnosis is difficult without an appropriate index of suspicion. Untreated, pellagra is fatal. Two cases of pellagra in contemporary homeless people are described. Complete evaluation supported a clinical diagnosis of pellagra after exclusion of other possibilities. Signs and symptoms resolved after institution of niacin therapy and change in diet. Appropriate suspicion for a diagnosis of pellagra requires attention to a combination of socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors for nutritional deficiency. The combination of homelessness, alcohol abuse, and failure to eat regularly--particularly, failure to make use of shelter-based meal programs--may identify people at special risk in contemporary settings.

  5. Masculinity and HIV Risk among Homeless Men in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, David P.; Brown, Ryan A.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wertheimer, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    HIV continues to be a serious public health problem for men who have sex with women (MSW), especially homeless MSW. Although consideration of gender has improved HIV prevention interventions, most of the research and intervention development has targeted how women’s HIV risk is affected by gender roles. The effect of gender roles on MSW has received relatively little attention. Previous studies have shown mixed results when investigating the association between internalization of masculine gender roles and HIV risk. These studies use a variety of scales that measure individual internalization of different aspects of masculinity. However, this ignores the dynamic and culturally constructed nature of gender roles. The current study uses cultural consensus analysis (CCA) to test for the existence of culturally agreed upon masculinity and gender role beliefs among homeless MSW in Los Angeles, as well as the relationship between these beliefs and HIV-related behaviors and attitudes. Interviews included 30 qualitative and 305 structured interviews with homeless MSW in Los Angeles’s Skid Row area. Analysis identified culturally relevant aspects of masculinity not represented by existing masculinity scales, primarily related to barriers to relationships with women. Behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge related to HIV were significantly associated with men’s level of agreement with the group about masculinity. The findings are discussed in light of implications for MSW HIV intervention development. PMID:23730216

  6. Homelessness and Drug Abuse among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A Preliminary Epidemiological Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and…

  7. Health promotion for socially disadvantaged groups: the case of homeless older men in Australia.

    PubMed

    Quine, Susan; Kendig, Hal; Russell, Cherry; Touchard, Denise

    2004-06-01

    There is extensive evidence that health promotion routinely benefits those who are already most socioeconomically advantaged. While the government's healthy ageing policy recognizes that improving health outcomes will require a range of strategies involving different target groups, recommendations focus on the issues and needs of the comfortable majority. This paper examines the scope and relevance of health promotion for one disadvantaged minority with extensive health needs: homeless older men. In an ethnographic study of older men (> or = 50 years of age) living alone in the inner city (Sydney), 32 men were identified as homeless and are the focus of this paper. Face to face semi-structured interviews were used to record the men's accounts of their everyday lives, including their health and use of services. The conditions in which these men were living were observed and recorded, and the researchers were aware of health and other services available in the geographic area. All informants were living on or below the poverty line. They reported a range of health conditions, for which many accessed available mainstream and specialist health services. Some obstacles to accessing services were noted. Information relevant to widely endorsed prescriptions for 'healthy ageing' also emerged. These included physical activity (especially walking), healthy eating, social activity and adopting healthy lifestyle habits. Findings highlight the extent to which these men lack the basic requirements for healthy ageing, notably adequate incomes and housing. At the same time, within the constraints of the lifestyle they lead, they are motivated to maintain their health and independence. While there are limits to what can be achieved for such people at a local level of service delivery, it is possible to identify feasible health promotion goals and service strategies.

  8. Assessing trauma, substance abuse, and mental health in a sample of homeless men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mimi M; Ford, Julian D; Howard, Daniel L; Bradford, Daniel W

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the impact of physical and sexual trauma on a sample of 239 homeless men. Study participants completed a self-administered survey that collected data on demographics, exposure to psychological trauma, physical health and mental health problems, and substance use or misuse. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relative significance of demographic factors and the four types of trauma exposure associated with three outcomes: mental health, substance abuse, and physical health problems. The authors found that trauma history was significantly associated with more mental health problems but was not associated with substance abuse problems for homeless men. This study reinforces service providers' perceptions that because many homeless men experience the long-term, deleterious effects of not only current stressors, but also abuse and victimization that often begin in childhood, homeless men are a subpopulation in need of proactive prevention services that emphasize long-term continuity of care rather than sporadic crisis-based services. Study findings suggest that mentally ill, homeless men need proactive services that address the sequelae of abuse with care that is specialized and distinctly different from care for homeless adults with substance abuse or physical health care issues.

  9. Correlates of depressive symptoms among homeless men on parole.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Leake, Barbara; Albarran, Cynthia; Zhang, Sheldon; Hall, Elizabeth; Farabee, David; Marlow, Elizabeth; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study describes correlates of high levels of depressive symptoms among recently paroled men in Los Angeles who reside in a community substance abuse treatment program and report homelessness. Cross-sectional data were obtained from male residents who were released on parole within the last 30 days (N =157) to assess parental relationship, self-esteem, social support, coping behaviors, drug and alcohol use behaviors, depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information. Results indicated that 40% of the participants were classified as experiencing high levels of depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10). Results of a logistic regression analysis showed that the following were predictors of depressive symptoms (p <.05): physical abuse in childhood, non-residential alcohol treatment, violent behaviors, low self-esteem, and disengagement coping. Being Mexican-American, Mexican, American Indian, or Asian, and not displaying cognitive problems was inversely related to depressive symptoms in the final model (B =-2.39, p <.05). Findings support proper use of both prison and community assessment services to at-risk individuals eligible for parole to increase self-esteem and coping.

  10. Self-Reported Needs for Help among Homeless Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Daniel B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Needs for help reported by 1,260 homeless men and women in New York (New York) were studied through interviews. Fundamental survival demands were most frequently cited by men and women, with gender differences most apparent in areas in which gender differences have been identified in the general population. (SLD)

  11. Notes from the Field: Shigellosis Outbreak Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Homeless Persons - Oregon, 2015-2016.

    PubMed

    Hines, Jonas Z; Pinsent, Taylor; Rees, Kathleen; Vines, Jennifer; Bowen, Anna; Hurd, Jacqueline; Leman, Richard F; Hedberg, Katrina

    2016-08-12

    In July 2015, Shigella sonnei infections with a specific pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern linked to a multistate outbreak were recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Portland metropolitan area, and an outbreak investigation was initiated. During November 2015, isolates with PFGE patterns indistinguishable from the outbreak strain were identified in cases reported in four women, none of whom had epidemiologic links to other affected persons; however, three reported homelessness. In the ensuing months, additional S. sonnei infections were reported among homeless persons in the Portland area.

  12. Mission Impossible? Physical Activity Programming for Individuals Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melanie J.; Bedard, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A pilot study was conducted to describe the physical activity experiences and perceived benefits of and barriers to physical activity participation for patrons of a homeless shelter. The resulting pilot data may be used to inform the creation of and support for physical activity and sport programs for those experiencing homelessness.…

  13. Modeling minority stress effects on homelessness and health disparities among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-06-01

    Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population.

  14. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J. T.; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  15. Monogamy on the Street: A Mixed Methods Study of Homeless Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan A.; Kennedy, David P.; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mixed methods approach to explore the determinants of relationship patterns and risky sex among homeless men living in downtown Los Angeles. This involved analysis of qualitative interviews focused on gender ideology and sexual events ("n" = 30) as well as structured interviews ("n" = 305) focused on…

  16. Real World Implementation of an Adapted Act Model with Minority and Non-Minority Homeless Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leon, Ximena Yolanda Perez; Amodei, Nancy; Hoffman, Thomas J.; Martinez, Rathi; Trevino, Monica; Medina, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether an adapted Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) intervention improved substance use, mental health, physical health, legal, employment, and housing outcomes for a U.S. sample of homeless men with a substance use disorder or a dual-diagnosis of substance use and mental health disorders and whether this intervention was…

  17. Assessing Trauma, Substance Abuse, and Mental Health in a Sample of Homeless Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mimi M.; Ford, Julian D.; Howard, Daniel L.; Bradford, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of physical and sexual trauma on a sample of 239 homeless men. Study participants completed a self-administered survey that collected data on demographics, exposure to psychological trauma, physical health and mental health problems, and substance use or misuse. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to…

  18. Sex and relationships on the street: how homeless men judge partner risk on Skid Row.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan A; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Wertheimer, Samuel R; Ryan, Gery W

    2012-04-01

    Homeless men in the U.S. represent a large and growing population, and have elevated rates of HIV/AIDS and sexual risk behaviors, including unprotected sex with women. We conducted qualitative interviews (n = 30) with homeless men using shelters and meal lines in downtown Los Angeles (Skid Row) to better understand how such men view the risks of sexual encounters with female partners. Men living on Skid Row perceived multiple risks, including HIV and unwanted pregnancy as well as emotional trauma, loss of resources, exacerbation of drug addiction, and physical attack. Respondents described using visual and behavioral cues, social reputation, geographical location, feelings of trust, perceived relationship seriousness, and medically inaccurate "folk" beliefs to judge whether partners were risky and/or condom use was warranted. Medically inaccurate beliefs suggest the potential utility of evidence-based interventions to change such beliefs. We also consider implications for relationships on the street and housing interventions.

  19. Methods for successful follow-up of elusive urban populations: an ethnographic approach with homeless men.

    PubMed Central

    Conover, S.; Berkman, A.; Gheith, A.; Jahiel, R.; Stanley, D.; Geller, P. A.; Valencia, E.; Susser, E.

    1997-01-01

    Public health is paying increasing attention to elusive urban populations such as the homeless, street drug users, and illegal immigrants. Yet, valid data on the health of these populations remain scarce; longitudinal research, in particular, has been hampered by poor follow-up rates. This paper reports on the follow-up methods used in two randomized clinical trials among one such population, namely, homeless men with mental illness. Each of the two trials achieved virtually complete follow-up over 18 months. The authors describe the ethnographic approach to follow-up used in these trials and elaborate its application to four components of the follow-up: training interviewers, tracking participants, administering the research office, and conducting assessments. The ethnographic follow-up method is adaptable to other studies and other settings, and may provide a replicable model for achieving high follow-up rates in urban epidemiologic studies. PMID:9211004

  20. Predictors of High Level of Hostility among Homeless Men on Parole.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa; Farabee, David; Hall, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark; Leake, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    High levels of hostility present a formidable challenge among homeless ex-offenders. This cross-sectional study assessed correlates of high levels of hostility using baseline data collected on recently-released male parolees (N=472; age 18-60) participating in a randomized trial focused on prevention of illicit drug use and recidivism. Predictors of high levels of hostility included greater depressive symptomatology, lower self-esteem, having a mother who was treated for alcohol/drugs, belonging to a gang, more tangible support, having used methamphetamine and having a history of cognitive difficulties. These findings highlight the need to understand predictors of hostility among recently released homeless men and how these predictors may relate to recidivism. Research implications are discussed as these findings will shape future nurse-led harm reduction and community-based interventions.

  1. The meaning of computers to a group of men who are homeless.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kathleen Swenson; Bunch-Harrison, Stacey; Brumbaugh, Brett; Kutty, Rekha Sankaran; FitzGerald, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the experience with computers and the meaning of computers to a group of homeless men living in a long-term shelter. This descriptive exploratory study used semistructured interviews with seven men who had been given access to computers and had participated in individually tailored occupation based interventions through a Work Readiness Program. Three themes emerged from analyzing the interviews: access to computers, computers as a bridge to life-skill development, and changed self-perceptions as a result of connecting to technology. Because they lacked computer knowledge and feared failure, the majority of study participants had not sought out computers available through public access. The need for access to computers, the potential use of computers as a medium for intervention, and the meaning of computers to these men who represent the digital divide are described in this study.

  2. Patterns of Shelter Use Among Men New to Homelessness in Later Life: Duration of Stay and Psychosocial Factors Related to Departure.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, David W; Sussman, Tamara; Grenier, Amanda; Mott, Sebastian; Bourgeois-Guérin, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    People who become homeless for the first time in late life are a growing but understudied population. This study draws on administrative data from one shelter (N = 1,214 first-time homeless) to assess the extent to which age is related to shelter stay and, to examine psychosocial factors that may be associated with shelter departure. Our bivariate and survival analysis results suggest that older homeless men stay in the shelter 2 weeks longer than younger clients. Older men with pending legal issues and mobility concerns were more likely to leave the shelter than those without such concerns. Findings highlight the impact of age and other psychosocial variables on shelter stay, and provide direction from which to address homelessness among men who are new to homelessness in later life.

  3. Ensuring Full Participation in Extra-Curricular Activities for Students Experiencing Homelessness. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Extra-curricular school activities, such as sports, music, theater, debate, and clubs, are often a key to engaging children and youth in school. They can provide students with a sense of belonging, stability, pride, and responsibility and strengthen a student's applications for higher education admission and scholarships. Homelessness, however,…

  4. Active tuberculosis among homeless persons, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamran; Rea, Elizabeth; McDermaid, Cameron; Stuart, Rebecca; Chambers, Catharine; Wang, Jun; Chan, Angie; Gardam, Michael; Jamieson, Frances; Yang, Jae; Hwang, Stephen W

    2011-03-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) in Canadian cities is increasingly affecting foreign-born persons, homeless persons remain at high risk. To assess trends in TB, we studied all homeless persons in Toronto who had a diagnosis of active TB during 1998-2007. We compared Canada-born and foreign-born homeless persons and assessed changes over time. We identified 91 homeless persons with active TB; they typically had highly contagious, advanced disease, and 19% died within 12 months of diagnosis. The proportion of homeless persons who were foreign-born increased from 24% in 1998-2002 to 39% in 2003-2007. Among foreign-born homeless persons with TB, 56% of infections were caused by strains not known to circulate among homeless persons in Toronto. Only 2% of infections were resistant to first-line TB medications. The rise in foreign-born homeless persons with TB strains likely acquired overseas suggests that the risk for drug-resistant strains entering the homeless shelter system may be escalating.

  5. Utilizing Participatory Mapping and GIS to Examine the Activity Spaces of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Townley, Greg; Pearson, L; Lehrwyn, Josephine M; Prophet, Nicole T; Trauernicht, Mareike

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have informed our understanding of certain aspects of youth homelessness, few studies have critically examined the spatial and social environments utilized by youth as they navigate life on the streets. This study employed participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth as they relate to sense of community and psychological well-being. Participants were 28 youth experiencing homelessness in Portland, Oregon, USA. Results suggest that youth engage most frequently in service-related activities, and their activity participation is significantly associated with sense of community and psychological well-being. The utility of innovative participatory methods for better understanding the diverse experiences of homeless youth is discussed alongside examination of their practical implications.

  6. Psychache and Suicide Ideation among Men Who Are Homeless: A Test of Shneidman's Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Allisha A.; Holden, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide ideation among the homeless is 10 times more common than in the general population. Cognitive theories of depression and hopelessness propose to explain suicidality; however, as yet, none of these fully account for the phenomenon. Shneidman has suggested a theory of psychache or unbearable psychological pain to explain suicidality. This…

  7. An outbreak of tuberculosis in a shelter for homeless men. A description of its evolution and control.

    PubMed

    Nolan, C M; Elarth, A M; Barr, H; Saeed, A M; Risser, D R

    1991-02-01

    An outbreak of tuberculosis at a shelter for homeless men was studied in detail to further the understanding of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in this setting. The shelter provides evening accommodations for men aged 50 yr and older. The capacity is approximately 200 clients, and the client pool is approximately 1,000 men/yr. During a 6-wk period in December 1986 and January 1987, seven cases of tuberculosis were diagnosed in shelter clients. Nine cases were reported in clients during the preceding 12 months, and four cases in the year previous to that. The majority of outbreak cases were pulmonary tuberculosis, sputum smear positive. Drug resistance was rare. Phage typing of 15 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates revealed one predominant type and four other types. The goals of the control plan (and the steps taken to achieve them) were to render known infectious cases noninfectious (directly observed therapy); to find undiagnosed infectious cases (repetitive mass screenings); to protect exposed clients (repetitive tuberculin skin testing and isoniazid preventive therapy); and to make the shelter environment safe (exclude infectious, noncompliant clients and improve the shelter's ventilation system). Implementation of this plan rapidly terminated the outbreak; following the first mass screening in January 1987, at which six asymptomatic cases were detected, only five additional cases occurred in shelter clients during a 2-yr period of follow-up. The investigation suggested that the outbreak evolved during 1986 as a result of the presence at the shelter of an increasing number of men with undiagnosed infectious pulmonary tuberculosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Antisocial personality disorder predicts methamphetamine treatment outcomes in homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jesse B; Reback, Cathy J

    2013-09-01

    One-hundred-thirty-one homeless, substance-dependent MSM were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention for reducing substance use and increasing healthy behavior. Participants were randomized into conditions that either provided additional rewards for substance abstinence and/or health-promoting/prosocial behaviors ("CM-full"; n=64) or for study compliance and attendance only ("CM-lite"; n=67). The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine the affect of ASPD status on two primary study outcomes: methamphetamine abstinence, and engagement in prosocial/health-promoting behavior. Analyses revealed that individuals with ASPD provided more methamphetamine-negative urine samples (37.5%) than participants without ASPD (30.6%). When controlling for participant sociodemographics and condition assignment, the magnitude of this predicted difference increases to 10% and reached statistical significance (p<.05). On average, participants with ASPD earned fewer vouchers for health-promoting/prosocial behaviors than participants without ASPD ($10.21 [SD=$7.02] versus $18.38 [SD=$13.60]; p<.01). Participants with ASPD displayed superior methamphetamine abstinence outcomes regardless of CM schedule; even with potentially unlimited positive reinforcement, individuals with ASPD displayed suboptimal outcomes in achieving health-promoting/prosocial behaviors.

  9. Social, Structural and Behavioral Determinants of Overall Health Status in a Cohort of Homeless and Unstably Housed HIV-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Elise D.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Moore, Kelly; Cohen, Jennifer; Bangsberg, David R.; Havlir, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate multiple influences on the overall health of HIV-infected persons; however, few assess and rank longitudinal changes in social and structural barriers that are disproportionately found in impoverished populations. We empirically ranked factors that longitudinally impact the overall health status of HIV-infected homeless and unstably housed men. Methods and Findings Between 2002 and 2008, a cohort of 288 HIV+ homeless and unstably housed men was recruited and followed over time. The population was 60% non-Caucasian and the median age was 41 years; 67% of study participants reported recent drug use and 20% reported recent homelessness. At baseline, the median CD4 cell count was 349 cells/µl and 18% of eligible persons (CD4<350) took antiretroviral therapy (ART). Marginal structural models were used to estimate the population-level effects of behavioral, social, and structural factors on overall physical and mental health status (measured by the SF-36), and targeted variable importance (tVIM) was used to empirically rank factors by their influence. After adjusting for confounding, and in order of their influence, the three factors with the strongest negative effects on physical health were unmet subsistence needs, Caucasian race, and no reported source of instrumental support. The three factors with the strongest negative effects on mental health were unmet subsistence needs, not having a close friend/confidant, and drug use. ART adherence >90% ranked 5th for its positive influence on mental health, and viral load ranked 4th for its negative influence on physical health. Conclusions The inability to meet food, hygiene, and housing needs was the most powerful predictor of poor physical and mental health among homeless and unstably housed HIV-infected men in an urban setting. Impoverished persons will not fully benefit from progress in HIV medicine until these barriers are overcome, a situation that is likely to continue fueling the

  10. Understanding Correlates of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Homeless Recently Paroled Men

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Marlow, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Yadav, Kartik

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed predictors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) positivity with baseline data collected on recently-released male parolees (N=157) participating in a randomized trial focused on reduction of drug use, recidivism and risk for hepatitis and HIV infections. In this sample, the prevalence of HCV was 25%. The logistic regression analysis revealed that being an injection drug user (IDU) was significantly related to HCV infection. However, contrary to most of the current literature, being African American had significantly lower odds of contracting HCV than their Caucasian counterparts. Moreover, having lived on the streets, not being part of a close family in childhood and being older were also associated with HCV infection. These findings highlight the need for skilled assessments that target the vulnerabilities of homeless adults, especially those who have been incarcerated. Understanding drug use patterns, childhood networks, and family relationships, may assist in the design of interventions to reduce risky drug use and address behaviors derived from disadvantaged childhood. PMID:24158154

  11. The New Homelessness Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barrett A.; Tyler, Kimberly A.; Wright, James D.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘new homelessness’ has drawn sustained attention from scholars over the past three decades. Definitional inconsistencies and data limitations rendered early work during this period largely speculative in nature. Thanks to conceptual, theoretical, and methodological progress, however, the research literature now provides a fuller understanding of homelessness. Contributions by sociologists and other social scientists since the mid-1990s differentiate among types of homelessness, provide credible demographic estimates, and show how being homeless affects a person's life chances and coping strategies. Agreement also exists about the main macro- and micro-level causes of homelessness. Active lines of inquiry examine public, media, and governmental responses to the problem as well as homeless people's efforts to mobilize on their own behalf. Despite the obstacles faced when studying a stigmatized population marked by high turnover and weak anchors to place, recent investigations have significantly influenced homelessness policy. A greater emphasis on prevention should further strengthen the research-policy nexus. PMID:24910495

  12. The Lonely and Homeless: Causes and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2004-01-01

    Both, homelessness and loneliness are quite pervasive in North America. This study compared the causes of the loneliness experienced by the homeless to that of the general population. Two hundred and sixty six homeless and five hundred and ninety five men and women from the general population answered a 30 item yes/no questionnaire. The causes of…

  13. Pushed Out: America's Homeless. Thanksgiving 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    By winter 1987, up to three million men, women, and children will be homeless; the number of homeless persons will continue to increase at a rate of 25 percent. This report surveys the changes in the homeless population in the following 23 cities over the past year: Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Boston (Massachusetts), Chicago…

  14. Nursing Case Management, Peer Coaching, and Hepatitis A and B Vaccine Completion Among Homeless Men Recently Released on Parole: Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Zhang, Sheldon; Farabee, David; Hall, Betsy; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Leake, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Although hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are vaccine-preventable diseases, few homeless parolees coming out of prisons and jails have received the hepatitis A and B vaccination series. Objectives The study focused on completion of the HAV and HBV vaccine series among homeless men on parole. The efficacy of three levels of peer coaching and nurse-delivered interventions was compared at 12-month follow up: (a) intensive peer coaching and nurse case management (PC-NCM); (b) intensive peer coaching (PC) intervention condition, with minimal nurse involvement; and a (c) usual care (UC) intervention condition, which included minimal PC and nurse involvement. Further, we assessed predictors of vaccine completion among this targeted sample. Methods A randomized control trial was conducted with 600 recently paroled men to assess the impact of the three intervention conditions (PC-NCM vs. PC vs. UC) on reducing drug use and recidivism; of these, 345 seronegative, vaccine-eligible subjects were included in this analysis of completion of the Twinrix HAV/HAB vaccine. Logistic regression was added to assess predictors of completion of the HAV/HBV vaccine series and chi-squared analysis to compare completion rates across the three levels of intervention. Results Vaccine completion rate for the intervention conditions were 75.4% (PC-NCM), 71.8% (PC), and 71.9% (UC) (p =. 78). Predictors of vaccine noncompletion included being Asian and Pacific Islander, experiencing high levels of hostility, positive social support, reporting a history of injection drug use, being released early from California prisons, and being admitted for psychiatric illness. Predictors of vaccine series completion included reporting six or more friends, recent cocaine use, and staying in drug treatment for at least 90 days. Discussion Findings allow greater understanding of factors affecting vaccination completion in order to design more effective programs among the

  15. Supporting School Success for Homeless Children of Veterans and Active Duty Military Members. Best Practices in Interagency Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This brief is designed for local staff of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), state McKinney-Vento coordinators and school district McKinney-Vento liaisons, educators, and other providers of services to active members of the military and veterans, and their children. It provides basic information to assist homeless children of veterans or…

  16. Private Lives in Public Places: Loneliness of the Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2005-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, both loneliness and homelessness are more pervasive than we would possibly like to admit. In this study, the experience of loneliness of the homeless was compared to that of the general population. Two hundred and sixty six homeless and 595 men and women from the general population answered a 30 item yes/no…

  17. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18–25), and middle adulthood (ages 26–49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  18. Aromatase Activity and Bone Loss in Men

    PubMed Central

    Merlotti, Daniela; Gennari, Luigi; Stolakis, Konstantinos; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase is a specific component of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system responsible for the transformation of androgen precursors into estrogens. This enzyme is encoded by the CYP19A1 gene located at chromosome 15q21.2, that is, expressed in ovary and testis, but also in many extraglandular sites such as the placenta, brain, adipose tissue, and bone. The activity of aromatase regulates the concentrations of estrogens with endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine effects on target issues including bone. Importantly, extraglandular aromatization of circulating androgen precursors is the major source of estrogen in men. Clinical and experimental evidences clearly indicate that aromatase activity and estrogen production are necessary for longitudinal bone growth, the attainment of peak bone mass, pubertal growth spurt, epiphyseal closure, and normal bone remodeling in young individuals. Moreover, with aging, individual differences in aromatase activity may significantly affect bone loss and fracture risk in men. PMID:21772971

  19. 77 FR 39342 - Proposed Information Collection (Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program) Activity; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... narrative. f. Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program, Technical Assistance Application, VA Form 10... in standard business narrative. OMB Control Number: 2900-0554. Type of Review: Revision of...

  20. Men on the Move: A Pilot Program to Increase Physical Activity among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Langford, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important contribution increasing physical activity levels may play in reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of interventions and research indicating how to improve physical activity levels in African American men. "Men on the Move" was a pilot study to increase African American men's levels of…

  1. Geriatric Homelessness: Association with Emergency Department Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Hategan, Ana; Tisi, Daniel; Abdurrahman, Mariam; Bourgeois, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Homeless adults frequently use emergency departments (EDs), yet previous studies investigating ED utilization by the older segment received little attention. This study sought to characterize older homeless adults who utilized local urban EDs. Methods ED encounters at three hospitals in Hamilton (Ont.) were analyzed, and demographic and clinical characteristics of the older homeless (age > 50) vs. younger counterparts (age ≤ 50) were compared during a 24-month period. Results Of all adults, 1,330 were homeless, of whom 66% were above age 50. Older homeless adults sought less acute care within 30 days from an index visit compared with their younger counterparts. Non-acute illnesses constituted only 18% of triaged cases. Older homeless women with access to a primary care physician (PCP) were 3.3 times more likely to return to ED within 30 days, whereas older homeless men (irrespective of PCP access) were less likely to return to ED. Conclusions Despite high homeless patient acuity, a lesser number of ED visits with increasing age remains concerning because of previously reported high morbidity and mortality rates. Access to primary care may not be enough to reduce ED utilization. Further research is needed to evaluate acute care interventions and their effectiveness in ED, and to identify homeless patients requiring more targeted services. PMID:28050223

  2. Homelessness in a national sample of incarcerated veterans in state and federal prisons.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kasprow, Wesley J; McGuire, James F

    2014-05-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has been increasing efforts to reach out to assist incarcerated veterans. While previous studies have shown strong associations between incarceration and homelessness, few studies have examined distinctive characteristics of incarcerated homeless and non-homeless veterans. National administrative data on 30,348 incarcerated veterans served by the Health Care for Re-entry Veterans (HCRV) program were analyzed. Incarcerated veterans were classified into four groups based on their history of past homelessness: not homeless, transiently homeless, episodically homeless, and chronically homeless. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare groups on sociodemographic characteristics, criminal justice status, clinical status, and their interest in using VHA services. Of the sample, 70 % were classified as not homeless, 8 % as transiently homeless, 11 % as episodically homeless, and 11 % as chronically homeless. Thus, 30 % of the sample had a homeless history, which is five times the 6 % rate of past homelessness among adult men in the general population. Compared to non-homeless incarcerated veterans, all three homeless groups reported significantly more mental health problems, more substance abuse, more times arrested in their lifetime, more likely to be incarcerated for a non-violent offense, and were more interested in receiving VHA services after release from prison. Together, these findings suggest re-entry programs, like HCRV, can address relevant mental health-related service needs, especially among formerly homeless veterans and veterans in need of services are receptive to the offer of assistance.

  3. 77 FR 56712 - Agency Information Collection (Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program) Activities Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Providers Grant and Per Diem Program, Special Needs Application, VA Form 10-0361-SN. e. Compliance Reports for Per Diem and Special Needs Grants. No form needed. May be reported to VA in standard business.... Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program, Special Needs Application, VA Form 10-0361-SN--4,000...

  4. Public health dispatch: tuberculosis outbreak in a homeless population--Portland, Maine, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    2003-12-05

    During June 2002-July 2003, seven men with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease in Portland, Maine, were reported to the Maine Bureau of Health (MBH). Six were linked through residence at homeless shelters; four had matching Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes. Prompt investigation and identification of approximately 1,100 contacts likely prevented further spread of TB. This report summarizes preliminary results of the ongoing investigation and MBH efforts to work with health-care providers statewide to improve early detection of TB among homeless persons.

  5. Yugoslavia. "Migration" -- programme activities targeting men.

    PubMed

    Dzeletovic, A; Matovic-miljanovic, S

    1999-01-01

    In Yugoslavia, companies send their workers to different parts of the world, including countries with a high incidence of AIDS. It has been noted that it is characteristic for migrants to accommodate themselves to foreign conditions, which subsequently lead to health problems, especially with regards to reproductive and sexual health. Often, in the case of partner separation, men may seek sexual relations with an unknown partner and/or neglect to use proper protection. According to research carried out in Yugoslavia, there are critical gaps in workers' knowledge on sexual and reproductive health. Based on research results, an educational program for migrants, designed to train and strengthen individuals¿ capabilities and modify their risky behavior, was created. Program activities include production of brochures targeting those people travelling to countries with a high incidence of HIV/AIDS. In addition, a process for creating more cooperation between the state and other organizations at regional and local levels was initiated.

  6. Characteristics of Telephone Applicants to a Residential Rehabilitation Program for Homeless Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidner, Andrea L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Gathered descriptive data on 163 telephone applicants to residential rehabilitation program for homeless veterans and compared data with general veteran and homeless populations. Found subjects to be young, educated group of homeless men with histories of relatively high, stable functioning and high rates of medical, substance abuse, psychiatric,…

  7. Homelessness in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yi Ling

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a theoretical and practical approach in defining the "problem" of homelessness in libraries. The author examines three fundamental problems on homelessness. The three fundamental questions are: (a) Who are the homeless? (b) Why are they homeless? (c) What are their information needs in libraries? These questions are important in…

  8. Youth Homelessness 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, David; Chamberlain, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The third national census of homeless school students, conducted in 2006, found that the number of homeless students had decreased since 2001. There were 9,389 homeless students in 2006 compared with 12,227 in 2001. Three groups were over-represented in the homeless population: Indigenous students, young people from single parent and blended…

  9. Veterans and Homelessness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Homeless Veterans programs), employment assistance ( Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program and Compensated Work Therapy program), transitional...needs of female veterans , whose numbers are increasing. Women veterans face challenges that could contribute to their risks of homelessness . They are... homeless programs for veterans have the facilities to provide separate accommodations for women and women with children. Veterans

  10. A Comparison of Weight-Related Behaviors among High School Students Who Are Homeless and Non-Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Mary E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Samples, Cathryn L.; Goodenow, Carol S.; Wylie, Sarah A.; Corliss, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that youth who are homeless engage in high-risk behaviors. However, there has been little information published on nutritional and physical activity behaviors in this population, and studies comparing homeless youth in school with their non-homeless peers are scarce. This study compares weight-related risk…

  11. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    PubMed Central

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  12. Becoming homeless, being homeless, and resolving homelessness among women.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to more comprehensively articulate the experiences of homeless women and make evidence-based inferences regarding optimal social services. This study was conducted using qualitative meta-synthesis methods. As youth, homeless women experience challenging circumstances that leave them ill-prepared to prevent and resolve homelessness in adulthood. Resolution of homelessness occurs in iterative stages: crisis, assessment, and sustained action. To enhance forward progression through these stages, nurses are encouraged to promote empowerment in concordance with the Transtheoretical and Harm Reduction Models. Services that are highly valued include physical and mental health care and child care assistance.

  13. Parenting while Being Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  14. Homelessness in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumohl, Jim, Ed.

    This book about homelessness in the United States offers 16 chapters in three parts. Part 1, "History Definitions, and Causes," includes: (1) "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness" (Kim Hopper and Jim Baumohl); (2) "Homelessness: Definitions and Counts" (Martha R. Burt); (3)…

  15. Veterans and Homelessness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-31

    assistance ( Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program and Compensated Work Therapy program), transitional housing (Grant and Per Diem and Loan... homelessness . Another emerging issue is the needs of female veterans , whose numbers are increasing. Women veterans face challenges that could...male veterans to be single parents. Few homeless programs for veterans have the facilities to provide separate accommodations for women and women

  16. Veterans and Homelessness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-26

    homelessness . They are more likely to have experienced sexual abuse than women in the general population and are more likely than male veterans to be...single parents. Few homeless programs for veterans have the facilities to provide separate accommodations for women and women with children. Veterans ...23 Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program

  17. Educating Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, BethAnn

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of homeless children in America has more than doubled. Educators, however, are still legally obligated to enroll and support them, because of the passage of the "No Child Left Behind" Act of 2001, which reauthorized the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Although schools cannot solve homelessness,…

  18. Teaching Our Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, George H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  19. Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2006-01-01

    Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

  20. Family and Child Homelessness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homelessness Exchange, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains documents that provide information about family and child homelessness and the need to address homelessness within the context of community development. The following sections are included: (1) "Family Homelessness" (Homelessness Information Exchange); (2) "A Report on the 1988 National Survey on Shelters for the Homeless"…

  1. Heterosexual sexual behaviour in a sample of homosexually active men.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J

    1989-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner. Fewer men described themselves as bisexual than would be expected from the sample's recent sexual histories. More attention is needed to the definition and measurement of "bisexuality" to understand its role in HIV transmission. PMID:2807286

  2. Enhanced Immune Activation Linked to Endotoxemia in HIV-1 Seronegative Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Christine D.; Tomassilli, Julia; Sirignano, Michael; Tejeda, Marisol Romero; Arnold, Kelly B.; Che, Denise; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Jost, Stephanie; Allen, Todd; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Altfeld, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study assessed cellular and soluble markers of immune activation in HIV-1-seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM immune profiles were characterized by increased expression of CD57 on T cells and endotoxemia. Endotoxin presence was linked to recent high-risk exposure and associated with elevated cytokine levels and decreased CD4/CD8 T cell ratios. Taken together, these data show elevated levels of inflammation linked to periods of endotoxemia resulting in a significantly different immune phenotype in a subset of MSM at high risk of HIV-1 acquisition. PMID:25003719

  3. Medicaid and service use among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Glied, S; Hoven, C; Moore, R E; Garrett, A B

    This paper examines the effect of Medicaid recipiency on the level and site of medical service use among homeless single men and women in New York City. Simple regressions of Medicaid on service use indicate that Medicaid significantly increases the likelihood that homeless individuals receive services, especially emergency and inpatient hospital services. In further analyses that control for health status, use instrumental variables procedures, and examine differences between a similar population in 1985 and 1987, we find that Medicaid neither increases nor diminishes access to emergency rooms. We find some evidence suggesting that Medicaid does improve access to nonhospital medical care.

  4. Veterans and Homelessness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-29

    programs), employment assistance ( Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program and Compensated Work Therapy program), and transitional housing (Grant and Per...increasing. Women veterans face challenges that could contribute to their risks of homelessness . They are more likely to have experienced sexual trauma...than women in the general population and are more likely than male veterans to be single parents. Historically, few homeless programs for veterans have

  5. Homelessness Assistance and Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Youth Youth Main Page Provider Tools RRH Models Housing and Education Collaboration Decriminalizing Homelessness Disasters Health Affordable Care Act HIV/AIDS Disease Risks Human Trafficking Human ...

  6. Risk Factors for Long-Term Homelessness: Findings From a Longitudinal Study of First-Time Homeless Single Adults

    PubMed Central

    Caton, Carol L. M.; Dominguez, Boanerges; Schanzer, Bella; Hasin, Deborah S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Felix, Alan; McQuistion, Hunter; Opler, Lewis A.; Hsu, Eustace

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined risk factors for long-term homelessness among newly homeless men and women who were admitted to New York City shelters in 2001 and 2002. Methods. Interviews were conducted with 377 study participants upon entry into the shelter and at 6-month intervals for 18 months. Standardized assessments of psychiatric diagnosis, symptoms, and coping skills; social and family history; and service use were analyzed. Kaplan—Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used to examine the association between baseline assessments and duration of homelessness. Results. Eighty-one percent of participants returned to community housing during the follow-up period; the median duration of homelessness was 190 days. Kaplan—Meier survival analysis showed that a shorter duration of homelessness was associated with younger age, current or recent employment, earned income, good coping skills, adequate family support, absence of a substance abuse treatment history, and absence of an arrest history. Cox regression showed that older age group P<.05) and arrest history (P<.01) were the strongest predictors of a longer duration of homelessness. Conclusions. Identification of risk factors for long-term homelessness can guide efforts to reduce lengths of stay in homeless shelters and to develop new preventive interventions. PMID:16131638

  7. Mental and Physical Health among Homeless Sexual and Gender Minorities in a Major Urban US City.

    PubMed

    Flentje, Annesa; Leon, Armando; Carrico, Adam; Zheng, Debbie; Dilley, James

    2016-12-01

    Sexual and gender minorities have been shown to have greater rates of mental health, substance use disorders, and specific types of health problems compared to heterosexuals. Among the homeless population in several US urban areas, sexual and gender minorities are overrepresented but few studies have examined the mental and physical health status of homeless sexual and gender minorities, with studies on homeless gender minorities being particularly hard to find. Using survey data obtained from the city and county of San Francisco (2015 Homeless Survey), this study examined differences in causes of homelessness, physical and mental health problems, and domestic violence among homeless sexual and gender minorities and their heterosexual and cisgender (i.e., non-transgender) counterparts, respectively. Lesbians and bisexual women, and gay and bisexual men did not differ from their cisgender heterosexual counterparts. Cisgender men who identified as queer or "other" in response to sexual orientation questions had higher rates of psychiatric problems and posttraumatic stress disorder, while cisgender women who identified as queer or "other" had higher rates of psychiatric problems and drug and alcohol use. Transgender men who were homeless were found to be particularly at risk for physical health problems, mental health problems, and domestic violence or abuse. Transgender women were more likely to report posttraumatic stress disorder. This study suggests that transgender men and cisgender sexual minority men and women who identify as queer or "other" are groups among the homeless that may benefit from increased outreach and services.

  8. The Role of Institutional Placement, Family Conflict, and Homosexuality in Homelessness Pathways Among Latino LGBT Youth in New York City.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, H Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the overrepresentation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) youth among the homeless, the processes leading to their homelessness are understudied. This ethnographic study sought to elucidate the role of sexual orientation in the pathway to housing instability among young gay men. Fieldwork included 18 months of participant observations in public spaces and at a homeless LGBT youth organization in New York City, as well as formal semistructured interviews with 14 Latino young men and five staff. Three distinct pathways emerged. Some youth became homeless after placement in state systems of care disrupted their social support systems, while others became homeless after extreme family conflict over sexual orientation. Nonetheless, most youths became homeless as a result of long-term processes of family disintegration in which normative adolescent development and disclosure of homosexuality exacerbated preexisting conflict. These findings suggest the need to examine the accumulation of risks before disclosure exacerbates family conflict and increases their risk of homelessness.

  9. Correlates of hepatitis B virus and HIV knowledge among gay and bisexual homeless young adults in Hollywood.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa; Reback, Cathy J; Shoptaw, Steven; Branson, Catherine M; Idemundia, Faith E; Kennedy, Barbara; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Marfisee, Mary; Liu, Yihang

    2013-01-01

    Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) young men have multiple risk factors that increase their risk of contracting hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study used baseline information from structured instruments to assess correlates of knowledge to HIV and HBV infection from 267 young (18-39 year old) G/B active methamphetamine, cocaine, and crack-using homeless men enrolled in a longitudinal trial. The study is designed to reduce drug use and improve knowledge of hepatitis and HIV/AIDS in a community center in Hollywood, California. Regression modeling revealed that previous hepatitis education delivered to G/B men was associated with higher levels of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis knowledge. Moreover, higher HIV/AIDS knowledge was associated with combining sex and drinking alcohol. Associations with hepatitis B knowledge was found among G/B men who were engaging in sex while under the influence of marijuana, who were receiving support from non-drug users, and who had been homeless in the last 4 months. Although being informed about HIV/AIDS and hepatitis did not preclude risky sexual and drug use behavior, knowledge about the dangers of concurrent sex with substance use is important. As higher levels of knowledge of hepatitis was associated with more moderate drug use, early access to testing and teaching harm reduction strategies remain critical to reduce exposure and infection of HBV and HIV in this population.

  10. Homelessness: A General Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homelessness Exchange, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains documents that provide general information about homelessness and the need for both Federal and local action to help the homeless people in America. Sections 1 and 2 contain the following articles released by the Homelessness Information Exchange: (1) "The Problem of Homelessness Nationwide"; and "Alternative Family Housing…

  11. Housing and Homelessness: A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance to End Homelessness, Washington, DC.

    This report focuses on options for rehousing the individuals and families who are currently homeless in America, and on strategies for preventing homelessness of additional people. As many as 736,000 persons are estimated to be homeless on any given night, and between 1.3 million and 2 million different individuals may experience homelessness at…

  12. Intellectual Disability and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a…

  13. The reality of homeless mobility and implications for improving care.

    PubMed

    Parker, R David; Dykema, Shana

    2013-08-01

    Homeless persons are perceived as a highly mobile population, and have high rates of co-morbid conditions, including mental health and substance use issues. This study sought to determine the characteristics of the mobility and reported health conditions of homeless persons. The sample for this cross sectional study (n = 674) accounted for 88 % of the homeless population in a medium sized southern city in the United States. Participants were recruited from a homeless shelter operating during the winter season. Homeless persons were less mobile than the general state population (46.11 % were born in-state vs. 40.7 % of the general population) and less transient than the general state population (78 % reported an in-state zip code for the last permanent residence). 31.9 % reported a disabling condition of a serious and long term nature. These findings challenge the concept that homeless persons are primarily a mobile population. Furthermore, homeless persons in this sample were more likely to remain in the state where they lived after becoming homeless. Thus, provider perceptions that homeless persons would not benefit from referral to a regular source of outpatient care may be misinformed. As homeless persons often seek care in emergency departments for conditions that could be addressed through outpatient care, if a medical care system implemented standard practices specifically for homeless patients, this could decrease recidivism. Such interventions represent significant opportunities to reduce costs, conserve resources, and improve care through policy modification that ensures a focus on a successful, active linkage to outpatient care and programs specific to the homeless population.

  14. Residential patterns in older homeless adults: Results of a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher Thomas; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Tieu, Lina; Riley, Elise; Kushel, Margot

    2016-03-01

    Adults aged 50 and older make up half of individuals experiencing homelessness and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. They may have different life trajectories and reside in different environments than do younger homeless adults. Although the environmental risks associated with homelessness are substantial, the environments in which older homeless individuals live have not been well characterized. We classified living environments and identified associated factors in a sample of older homeless adults. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited a community-based sample of 350 homeless men and women aged fifty and older in Oakland, California. We administered structured interviews including assessments of health, history of homelessness, social support, and life course. Participants used a recall procedure to describe where they stayed in the prior six months. We performed cluster analysis to classify residential venues and used multinomial logistic regression to identify individual factors prior to the onset of homelessness as well as the duration of unstable housing associated with living in them. We generated four residential groups describing those who were unsheltered (n = 162), cohabited unstably with friends and family (n = 57), resided in multiple institutional settings (shelters, jails, transitional housing) (n = 88), or lived primarily in rental housing (recently homeless) (n = 43). Compared to those who were unsheltered, having social support when last stably housed was significantly associated with cohabiting and institution use. Cohabiters and renters were significantly more likely to be women and have experienced a shorter duration of homelessness. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than unsheltered participants to have experienced abuse prior to losing stable housing. Pre-homeless social support appears to protect against street homelessness while low levels of social support may increase the risk for becoming homeless immediately after

  15. Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was…

  16. 24 CFR 576.103 - Homelessness prevention component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Homelessness prevention component... and Eligible Activities § 576.103 Homelessness prevention component. ESG funds may be used to provide... paragraph (1) of the “homeless” definition in § 576.2. This assistance, referred to as...

  17. 24 CFR 576.103 - Homelessness prevention component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Homelessness prevention component... and Eligible Activities § 576.103 Homelessness prevention component. ESG funds may be used to provide... paragraph (1) of the “homeless” definition in § 576.2. This assistance, referred to as...

  18. 24 CFR 576.103 - Homelessness prevention component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Homelessness prevention component... and Eligible Activities § 576.103 Homelessness prevention component. ESG funds may be used to provide... paragraph (1) of the “homeless” definition in § 576.2. This assistance, referred to as...

  19. Living the Research: Stories from Homeless Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norum, Karen E.

    There is an alarming trend in homelessness: children aged 17 and younger are the most rapidly growing group of the homeless; families continue to be a growing group of the homeless; and many people who are homeless were raised or have lived in the suburbs. Homelessness is no longer an inner-city phenomenon. Three homeless youth were interviewed…

  20. Health-related risk factors of homeless families and single adults.

    PubMed

    Winkleby, M A; Boyce, W T

    1994-02-01

    Using data from two cross-sectional surveys, we examine how homeless adults living with children differ in sociodemographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, and addictive and psychiatric disorders from homeless adults who are not living with children. The surveys were conducted in late 1989 and early 1990 in Santa Clara County, California. Women (n = 100) and men (n = 41) with children were sampled from the two largest family shelters in the County (94% response rate); women (n = 169) and men (n = 1268) without children were sampled from the three main adult shelters in the County (98% response rate). Adults with children (especially women) were significantly younger, less educated, less likely to have experienced full-time employment, and more likely to have been supported by public assistance before first becoming homeless than adults without children. In addition, adults with children became homeless at younger ages, had been homeless for less time, and were less likely to experience multiple episodes of homelessness. Further differences were found for addictive and psychiatric disorders--adults with children were significantly less likely to enter homelessness with histories of excessive alcohol intake (both men and women) and psychiatric hospitalizations (women only) than adults without children. The distinct risk factor profile of homeless adults living with children renders them a critically important demographic group on which to focus new public health programs and social strategies.

  1. Housing patterns and correlates of homelessness differ by gender among individuals using San Francisco free food programs.

    PubMed

    Riley, Elise D; Weiser, Sheri D; Sorensen, James L; Dilworth, Samantha; Cohen, Jennifer; Neilands, Torsten B

    2007-05-01

    Homeless individuals experience high rates of morbidity and mortality, yet many homeless studies include small percentages of female participants. We therefore sought to determine correlates of homelessness separately for men and women in a sample of individuals visiting free food programs. Between August 2003 and April 2004, 324 individuals were recruited from San Francisco free food programs and interviewed regarding housing, sociodemographics, health, drug use, sex trade, and incarceration. Over one-half of women and almost three-fourths of men reported homelessness in the prior year. Among women, white race, younger age, not living with minor children, engaging in sex trade and recent incarceration were strongly associated with homelessness; however, only incarceration maintained the strong association in adjusted analysis (OR = 7.16, CI = 3.83-13.4). Among men, heavy alcohol use, drug use, years spent living in San Francisco and monthly income were strongly associated with homelessness; however, only years living in San Francisco (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.19-0.42) and monthly income maintained strong association in adjusted analysis (OR = 0.27, CI = 0.13-0.57). Housing patterns and the strongest correlates of homelessness among individuals visiting free food programs differ by sex. These results suggest the need to characterize homelessness and develop effective homeless interventions separately for men and women.

  2. For Homeless Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... integrate clinical care, social services, enhanced access and community coordination. How They Work H-PACTS co-locate medical staff, social workers, mental health and substance use counselors, nurses and homeless program staff. This team provides Veterans ...

  3. Relations between anthropometric parameters and sexual activity of Hungarian men.

    PubMed

    Rurik, I; Szigethy, E; Fekete, F; Langmár, Z

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, there were visible achievements in the evaluation of sexuality-related problems and issues regarding sexual life. However, there are limited reliable and comparable data on the average values of sexual activity and its relation to anthropometric parameters in different populations and age cohorts. This study tries to examine the association between anthropometric parameters and male sexual activity. A clinical population of 1146 male patients between 25 and 45 years of age attending an outpatient clinic of andrology in Budapest (Hungary) was examined and questioned in a medical setting. Age, body height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and self-reported sexual activity were the main outcome measures. The patients were allotted into age groups (25-29, 30-39 and 40-45 years), the youngest group showing the highest coital activity. Although obesity and overweight were present in 61% of the study population, no connections between BMI and sexual activity were apparent. Comparing less active persons with those reporting at least two intercourses per week, significant difference was found between body height groups. Men below 170 cm reported higher activity than men over 180 cm. Despite the fact that the prevalence of obesity among younger generations is increasing, it has had no visible influence on the sexual activity of this age cohort as yet. Our data suggest that sexual activity was not clearly related to other anthropometric parameters, and depends mainly on the characteristics of the population examined. There is a great need for large-scale studies worldwide on larger representative samples, using similar methods, to acquire reliable data from other nations and different age groups.

  4. Sensorimotor Peripheral Nerve Function and Physical Activity in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Maia, Brittney S.; Cauley, Jane A.; Newman, Anne B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Jakicic, John M.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Zivkovic, Sasa; Dam, Tien; Caserotti, Paolo; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.

    2017-01-01

    We determined whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve (PN) function was associated with physical activity (PA) in older men. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study Pittsburgh, PA, site (n=328, age 78.8±4.7 years), conducted PN testing, including: peroneal motor and sural sensory nerve conduction (latencies, amplitudes: CMAP and SNAP for motor and sensory amplitude, respectively), 1.4g/10g monofilament (dorsum of the great toe), and neuropathy symptoms. ANOVA and multivariate linear regression modeled PN associations with PA (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and SenseWear Armband). After multivariable adjustment, better motor latency was associated with higher PASE scores (160.5±4.8 vs 135.6±6.7, p<0.01). Those without vs. with neuropathy symptoms had higher PASE scores (157.6±5.3 vs 132.9±7.1, p<0.01). Better vs. worse SNAP was associated with slightly more daily vigorous activity (9.5±0.8 vs. 7.3±0.7, p=0.05). Other PN measures were not associated with PA. Certain PN measures were associated with lower PA, suggesting a potential pathway for disability. PMID:26964668

  5. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events You are here Home National Center on Family Homelessness Center A staggering 2.5 million children ... the impact of homelessness on children, youth, and families. Through research, programs, trainings, and partnerships with the ...

  6. Geography, Race/Ethnicity, and Physical Activity Among Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Elizabeth Kelley; Porch, Tichelle; Hill, Sarah; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-02-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity reduces one's risk of chronic disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. These preventive benefits associated with physical activity are of particular importance for men, who have shorter life expectancy and experience higher rates of chronic diseases as compared to women. Studies at the community and national levels have found that social and environmental factors are important determinants of men's physical activity, but little is known about how regional influences affect physical activity behaviors among men. The objective of this study is to examine the association between geographic region and physical activity among men in the United States, and to determine if there are racial/ethnic differences in physical activity within these geographic regions. Cross-sectional data from men who participated the 2000 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey ( N = 327,556) was used. The primary outcome in this study was whether or not men had engaged in sufficient physical activity to receive health benefits, defined as meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Race/ethnicity and geographic region were the primary independent variables. Within every region, Hispanic and Asian men had lower odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity compared to white men. Within the Northeast, South, and West, black men had lower odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity compared to white men. The key findings indicate that the odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity among men differ significantly between geographic regions and within regions by race/ethnicity.

  7. Family Friends in Homeless Shelters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Aging, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Family Friends is a nationwide outreach program that enlists the support of senior volunteers in providing nurturing help to children and their parents. Homeless Children is a branch of the program in which volunteers are matched to homeless families with young children, and, during biweekly visits to homeless shelters, become surrogate…

  8. No Homeless Child Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Although it is difficult to determine the precise number of homeless children, the National Coalition for the Homeless reports that there are more than 1.3 million children lacking a permanent residence on any given night. Further, 39 percent of the homeless population was comprised of children under the age of 18 in July 2009, the most recent…

  9. Health and street/ homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Katharine; Caputo, Tullio

    2007-09-01

    This article reviews the Canadian literature on health issues for homeless/street youth couched in terms of the broad determinants of health. A description of the target population is presented, followed by a discussion of the health risks associated with living in marginal and precarious situations ;on the street'. In particular, the potential consequences of engaging in the risky and often dangerous activities (e.g. substance abuse and high-risk sex) associated with the street lifestyle are discussed. Key conclusions drawn from the relevant literature are taken into consideration in a final section that includes a discussion of the policy implications of this work.

  10. Ending child homelessness in America.

    PubMed

    Bassuk, Ellen L

    2010-10-01

    Approximately 1.5 million children experience homelessness in America each year. The current economic recession and staggering numbers of housing foreclosures have caused the numbers of homeless families to increase dramatically. The impact of homelessness on families and children is devastating. Without a place to call home, children are severely challenged by unpredictability, dislocation, and chaos. Homelessness and exposure to traumatic stresses place them at high risk for poor mental health outcomes. Despite the pressing needs of these children, federal policy during the last decade has focused primarily on chronically homeless adult individuals-to the exclusion of the families. In 2010, however, the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness issued a comprehensive plan to eradicate homelessness for all people through interagency collaboration and aligning mainstream services. A key goal is to prevent and end homelessness for families, youth, and children within 10 years. This policy-focused article describes several tools that can be used to help achieve this goal, including: general principles of care for serving homeless families and children; BSAFE-a promising practice that helps families access community-based services and supports; and the Campaign to End Child Homelessness aimed at action on behalf of homeless families and children at the national, state, and local levels.

  11. Gender-specific Correlates of Sex Trade among Homeless and Marginally Housed Individuals in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, Samantha E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Cohen, Jennifer; Bangsberg, David R.; Riley, Elise D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Sex exchange is a well-established risk factor for HIV infection. Little is known about how correlates of sex trade differ by biologic sex and whether length of homelessness is associated with sex trade. We conducted a cross-sectional study among a sample of 1,148 homeless and marginally housed individuals in San Francisco to assess correlates of exchanging sex for money or drugs. Key independent variables included length of homelessness; use of crack, heroin or methamphetamine; HIV status; and sexual orientation. Analyses were restricted by biologic sex. In total, 39% of women and 30% of men reported a lifetime history of sex exchange. Methamphetamine use and greater length of homelessness were positively associated with a history of sex trade among women, while heroin use, recent mental health treatment, and homosexual or bisexual orientation were significantly associated with sex trade for men. Crack use was correlated with sex trade for both genders. Correlates of sex trade differ significantly according to biologic sex, and these differences should be considered in the design of effective HIV prevention programs. Our findings highlight the critical need to develop long-term services to improve housing status for homeless women, mental health services for homeless men, and drug treatment services for homeless adults involved in sex work. PMID:16845499

  12. Hepatitis A/B vaccine completion among homeless adults with history of incarceration.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Marlow, Elizabeth; Branson, Catherine; Marfisee, Mary; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination rates for incarcerated adults remain low despite their high risk for infection. This study determined predictors of vaccine completion in homeless adults (N= 297) who reported histories of incarceration and who participated in one of three nurse-led hepatitis programs of different intensity. Moreover time since release from incarceration was also considered. Just over half of the former prisoners completed the vaccine series. Older age (≥40), having a partner, and chronic homelessness were associated with vaccine completion. Recent research has documented the difficulty in providing vaccine services to younger homeless persons and homeless males at risk for HBV. Additional strategies are needed to achieve HBV vaccination completion rates greater than 50% for formerly incarcerated homeless men.

  13. Physical exercise and cardiac autonomic activity in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kaninika; Krishna, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Regular exercise is known to improve health and maintain physical fitness. The heart rate response to exercise reflects autonomic control of heart and has shown to predict cardiovascular prognosis. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to study the effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic activity. Thirty two healthy adult men in the age group of 18-25 years with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited from different physical fitness centers, who were undergoing regular exercise for past 3 months. Resting ECG was recorded for 5 minutes and analyzed for frequency analysis of HRV. HRV parameters of the subjects were compared with fifty age and BMI matched subjects who were not undergoing any exercise program. Physical activity level of all subjects was assessed by using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. The exercising (E) subjects were found to have a lesser heart rate (73.27 ± 8.6 vs 74.41 ± 8.59) compared to non-exercising (NE) group, which was not significant. No significant difference was found in frequency domain parameters of HRV between exercising and non-exercising group with LF (47.12 ± 19.17 vs 43.55 ± 16.66), HF (41.03 ± 17.65 vs 46.03 ± 15.89) and LF/HF (1.61 ± 1.16 vs 1.22 ± 0.93) respectively. Physical activity level was significantly different between the two groups (4175 ± 1481.53 vs 1176.4?1103.83, p<0.001). This study showed 3 months of exercise did not have any effect on cardiac autonomic activity despite the difference in physical activity.

  14. Jobs, Welfare and Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einbinder, Susan; And Others

    This report provides objective information about the relationship of poverty, welfare, and homelessness to California's regional economy and about the design of programs that help people in poverty build working lives. California does not have enough jobs for its workforce, and welfare caseloads are consequently determined by the economy. The…

  15. [Health of the homeless].

    PubMed

    Cha, Olivier

    2013-02-01

    The homeless population is difficult to define and its number difficult to evaluate. In France, it is estimated that almost 4 million people living in substandard accommodation, and 85,000 homeless people. Most homeless people rarely frequent public spaces. One-third have a job, one-quarter live with children, and one-third are between 18 and 29 years old. Shared characteristics include a collapse of social ties and a complete lack of stable accommodation. There are no illnesses specific to homeless people, but their epidemiology differs from the general population: the incidence rate of tuberculosis is 30 times higher, for example. Medical care often arrives far too late. As a result, functional deficits are common, often following serious accidents, and hospitalization is three times more frequent. A chronic disease is present in 45% of cases. Average life expectancy is only 47.6 years-between 30 and 35 years lower than for the general French population. Medical care can only be fully effective if these patients' social and housing issues are dealt with too.

  16. Male gender role strain as a barrier to African American men's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-10-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors that influence their health behaviors. Thematic content analysis revealed three interrelated barriers to physical activity: (a) work, family, and community commitments and priorities limited time and motivation for engaging in physical activity; (b) physical activity was not a normative individual or social activity and contributed to men prioritizing work and family responsibilities over physical activity; and (c) the effort men exerted in seeking to fulfill the provider role limited their motivation and energy to engage in physical activity. These findings highlight the need for physical activity interventions that consider how health fits in the overall context of men's lives.

  17. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the research…

  18. Can testosterone therapy be offered to men on active surveillance for prostate cancer? Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Kacker, Ravi; Hult, Mariam; San Francisco, Ignacio F; Conners, William P; Rojas, Pablo A; Dewolf, William C; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    This report presents our experience with T therapy in a cohort of T-deficient men on active surveillance (AS) for Gleason 3 + 3 and Gleason 3 + 4 prostate cancer (PCa). A retrospective chart review identified 28 men with T deficiency who underwent T therapy (T group) for at least 6 months while on AS for PCa. A comparison group of 96 men on AS for PCa with untreated T deficiency (no-T group) was identified at the same institution. The AS protocol followed a modified Epstein criteria and allowed inclusion of men with a single core of low-volume Gleason 3 + 4 PCa. Mean age was 59.5 and 61.3 years, and mean follow-up was 38.9 and 42.4 months for the T and no-T groups, respectively. Of all 28 men in the T group, 3 (10.7%) men developed an increase in Gleason score while on AS. Of 22 men in the T group with Gleason 3 + 3 disease, 7 (31.8%) men developed biopsy progression including 3 men (13.6%) who developed Gleason 3 + 4 PCa. Of 6 men with Gleason 3 + 4 disease at baseline, 2 (33.3%) men developed an increase in tumor volume, and none developed upgrading beyond Gleason 3 + 4. All 96 men in the no-T group had Gleason 3 + 3 disease at baseline and, 43 (44.7%) developed biopsy progression, including 9 men (9.38%) with upgrading to Gleason 7 (3 + 4). Biopsy progression rates were similar for both groups and historical controls. Biopsy progression in men on AS appears unaffected by T therapy over 3 years. Prospective placebo-controlled trials of T therapy in T-deficient men on AS should be considered given the symptomatic benefits experienced by treated men. PMID:26306850

  19. Oral health status of homeless people in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; McGrath, Colman

    2006-01-01

    The authors report on an oral health survey among Hong Kong Chinese homeless people. A total of 140 homeless men underwent clinical examination and were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. More than 90% had evidence of caries experience; most (75%) were related to untreated caries. The mean DMFT score was 9.0 (DT = 3.2, MT = 5.2, FT = 0.6). Periodontal disease was highly prevalent, with 96% having periodontal pockets. The dental problems most frequently reported by the homeless were: bleeding gums or drifting teeth (62%), dental pain (52%) and tooth trauma (38%). More than 70% of the study's participants perceived a need for dental care. The population surveyed had poorer oral health compared to the general population. High levels of dental needs, both normative and perceived, were found. There is a need to provide more accessible and affordable oral health services to this group of people.

  20. Management of chronic kidney disease and dialysis in homeless persons.

    PubMed

    Podymow, Tiina; Turnbull, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    End-stage renal disease and dialysis are complicated illnesses to manage in homeless persons, who often suffer medical comorbidities, psychiatric disease, cognitive impairment and addictions; descriptions of this population and management strategies are lacking. A retrospective review of dialysis patients who were homeless or unstably housed was undertaken at an urban academic Canadian center from 2001 to 2011. Electronic hospital records were analyzed for demographic, housing, medical, and psychiatric history, dialysis history, adherence to treatment, and outcomes. Two detailed cases of homeless patients with chronic kidney disease are presented. Eleven homeless dialysis patients with a mean age of 52.7±12.3 years, mostly men and mostly from minority groups were dialyzed for 41.1±29.2 months. Most resided permanently in shelters, eventually obtained fistula access, and were adherent to dialysis schedules. Patients were often nonadherent to pre-dialysis management, resulting in emergency starts. Many barriers to care for homeless persons with end-stage kidney disease and on dialysis are identified, and management strategies are highlighted. Adherence is optimized with shelter-based health care and intensive team-oriented case management.

  1. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health.

  2. Pastoral care and counseling with the "un-homeless homeless": understanding cultures of homelessness.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a subset of findings from a larger study exploring the lived experiences of 16 former residents of a 90-day emergency family shelter program in Los Angeles County. Interpretative phenomenological analysis serves as a qualitative method for understanding the cultural uniqueness of the "un-homeless homeless." The findings offer implications for culturally competent pastoral care and counseling in the context of family homelessness and attend to both the process and content of caregiving.

  3. An Analysis of Homeless Veterans Participating in the Homeless Veteran Reintegration Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Katrina Lanelle

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis on ex post facto data of the federal grant supported Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program (HVRP) administered at Goodwill Industries of Lower South Carolina. Pre-existing data on variables such as performance goals, training activities, support services, and demographics from program years…

  4. Beyond ‘MSM’: Sexual Desire Among Bisexually-Active Latino Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Latino male bisexuality has been studied for the most part with a focus on men who have sex with men (MSM) and with little attention to sexual desire. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive understanding of how sexual desire is organized, enacted through sexual activity, and interpreted in the sexual lives of bisexually-active Latino men. To achieve this aim, an analysis was made of 18 sexual histories of bisexually active Latino men who participated in a two-year ethnographic study. Four configurations of sexual desire were constructed to reflect what was found in this population of bisexually-active Latino men: (a) lifetime homoerotic desire and casual sex with women; (b) lifetime heteroerotic desire, but commercial sex with men; (c) lifetime heteroerotic/transgender desire; (d) lifetime sexual desire for women and men. These configurations are explored in detail in this article. The analysis presented here is intended to offer insights into the overall study of Latino male bisexuality and into the foundations for the design of HIV and STI prevention programs directed toward bisexually-active Latino men and their partners. PMID:26412977

  5. Homelessness: An Annotated Bibliography of Australian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Jenny, Comp.; Davis, Mari, Comp.

    This bibliography, compiled for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless, lists Australian works published since 1974 about homelessness. It includes definitions of homelessness from the literature and an introductory article looking at different perspectives on homelessness. The entries, mainly taken from FAMILY database, are each…

  6. Homeless Students: A Search for Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Donna Friedman

    1998-01-01

    Describes a qualitative research project examining homelessness's effects on children's schooling, highlighting a South Carolina intervention program's success. Research disclosed an informal homelessness "caste system," the political unpopularity of providing homeless services, homeless kids' high rates of academic failure and problem…

  7. Predictors of Homelessness among Street Living Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were…

  8. 24 CFR 576.405 - Homeless participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Homeless participation. 576.405... Homeless participation. (a) Unless the recipient is a State, the recipient must provide for the participation of not less than one homeless individual or formerly homeless individual on the board of...

  9. 24 CFR 576.405 - Homeless participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Homeless participation. 576.405... Homeless participation. (a) Unless the recipient is a State, the recipient must provide for the participation of not less than one homeless individual or formerly homeless individual on the board of...

  10. 24 CFR 576.405 - Homeless participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Homeless participation. 576.405... Homeless participation. (a) Unless the recipient is a State, the recipient must provide for the participation of not less than one homeless individual or formerly homeless individual on the board of...

  11. Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Nan

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

  12. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  13. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  14. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  15. Community environments shaping transactional sex among sexually active men in Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Elfstrom, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of sex for material goods or money, is a risky sexual behavior that has been linked to HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, transactional sex remains a common practice, putting men and women at risk of HIV. However, little is known of how community environments shape men's participation in risky transactional sex. This analysis examines community-level influences on participation in risky transactional sex among sexually active men in three African countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Nigeria). The analysis uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to examine the association between men's report of risky transactional sex and community characteristics including economic, gender norms, HIV behavior and knowledge, and demographic factors. The results show that men residing in communities with more female education and later age of first birth are less likely to report risky transactional sex, while men who live in communities where men report higher number of sexual partners are more likely to report risky transactional sex. While programmatic interventions should continue to improve women's status individually and relative to men, such efforts should be extended to recognize that many community and cultural influences also affect men's sexual behavior. Programs that understand, discuss, and challenge community factors that influence men's sexual behavior may be able to provide a more effective intervention resulting in opportunities for communities to initiate behavioral change.

  16. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  17. Research on Homelessness: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Marybeth; Weitzman, Beth C.

    1990-01-01

    Introduces an issue on the causes, consequences, and social response to homelessness, with contributions by scholars in anthropology, history, medicine, sociology, economics, public administration, law, and psychology. Much attention has been given to the problems of homeless individuals; this issue attempts a comprehensive overview of the…

  18. The Homeless in Contemporary Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Richard D.; And Others

    This book consists of 15 chapters on understanding and helping the homeless. The first seven chapters present the "new" homeless in historical context and describe this population and its situation. The remaining eight chapters discuss policy and program options of the government and other organizations in attempting to alleviate the problems of…

  19. Becoming and remaining homeless: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Morrell-Bellai, T; Goering, P N; Boydell, K M

    2000-09-01

    This article reports the qualitative findings of a multimethod study of the homeless population in Toronto, Canada. The qualitative component sought to identify how people become homeless and why some individuals remain homeless for an extended period of time or cycle in and out of homelessness (the chronically homeless). In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 29 homeless adults. The findings suggest that people both become and remain homeless due to a combination of macro level factors (poverty, lack of employment, low welfare wages, lack of affordable housing) and personal vulnerability (childhood abuse or neglect, mental health symptoms, impoverished support networks, substance abuse). Chronically homeless individuals often reported experiences of severe childhood trauma and tended to attribute their continued homelessness to a substance abuse problem. It is concluded that both macro and individual level factors must be considered in planning programs and services to address the issue of homelessness in Canada.

  20. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  1. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  2. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women.

  3. Life satisfaction and leisure activities during men's retirement: a Turkish sample.

    PubMed

    Sener, A; Terzioğlu, R G; Karabulut, E

    2007-01-01

    This study was planned and carried out as a pilot study to determine the life satisfaction of men from the Official Social Security Institutions in Turkey (n = 231). The Life Satisfaction Index was used as the measure. Among this group of retired men, the most popular leisure activities were audio-visual and reading. The strongest predictor of life satisfaction was the frequency of participation in leisure activities, followed by the level of satisfaction with health, income, and planning of leisure activities.

  4. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18–23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65–88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men’s mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  5. Are men more intuitive when it comes to eating and physical activity?

    PubMed

    Gast, Julie; Madanat, Hala; Nielson, Amy Campbell

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine where men fall on the motivation continuum based on intuitive eating status and if motivation for physical activity and intuitive eating are correlated. Results indicate that being an intuitive eater was associated with a lower body mass index. In terms of demographic variables, as age increased, intuitive eating status decreased and body mass index increased. Men scored high on the antidieting and self-care subscales of the Intuitive Eating Scale. Men who were classified as intuitive eaters scored higher on the external and introjected regulation of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire but no significant differences were reported by eating status and the identified and intrinsic motivation subscales. Intuitive eating holds promise as a weight management and weight loss tool for men. Intuitive eating may also influence initial motivation for physical activity for men.

  6. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  7. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  8. Against the Unchallenged Discourse of Homelessness: Examining the Views of Early Childhood Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated views about children experiencing homelessness held by preservice teachers in an early childhood education program. Thirteen early childhood preservice teachers were actively involved in class discussion, reading, doing class assignments, and visiting homeless shelters as community-based field experience. They were asked to…

  9. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Businelle, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were…

  10. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men. PMID:21532602

  11. Are bisexually active men a 'bridge' for HIV transmission to the 'general population' in Germany? Data from the European Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men Internet Survey (EMIS).

    PubMed

    Sekuler, Todd; Bochow, Michael; von Rüden, Ursula; Töppich, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    To assess the situation of bisexually active men in the German HIV epidemic, data from a 2010 internet survey about sexual health among men who have sex with men were used to assess HIV testing rates, condom use and risk contact among the following groups of respondents: bisexually active single men, bisexually active men with a regular female partner, bisexually active men with a regular male partner and exclusively homosexually active men. Of the 54,387 respondents from Germany, 12% reported having sex contacts with both men and women in the previous year. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the sample's socio-demographic characteristics and to identify relevant inter-group differences in sexual attraction, identity, awareness among contacts of attraction to men, number of sex partners, history of anal intercourse, recruitment of partners online, history of HIV testing and drug use. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess potential associations between these variables and risk contacts, defined as having reported unprotected anal intercourse with male partners of unknown or discordant serostatus in the previous year. Bisexually active groups reported relatively few risk contacts, strengthening the argument that there is little support for the existence of a substantial 'bisexual bridge' in Germany.

  12. The Role of Marital Status in Physical Activity Among African American and White Men.

    PubMed

    Porch, Tichelle C; Bell, Caryn N; Bowie, Janice V; Usher, Therri; Kelly, Elizabeth A; LaVeist, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-11-01

    Racial differences in physical activity among men are well documented; however, little is known about the impact of marital status on this relationship. Data from the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006 was used to determine whether the association of race and physical activity among men varied by marital status. Marital status was divided into two categories: married and unmarried. Physical activity was determined by the number of minutes per week a respondent engaged in household/yard work, moderate and vigorous activity, or transportation (bicycling and walking) over the past 30 days. The sample included 7,131 African American (29%) and White(71%) men aged 18 years and older. All models were estimated using logistic regression. Because the interaction term of race and marital status was statistically significant (p < .001), the relationship between race, physical activity, and marital status was examined using a variable that reflects the different levels of the interaction term. After adjusting for age, income, education, weight status, smoking status, and self-rated health, African American married men had lower odds (odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval = [0.46-0.61], p < .001) of meeting federal physical activity guidelines compared with White married men. Possible dissimilarities in financial and social responsibilities may contribute to the racial differences observed in physical activity among African American and White married men.

  13. [Suicidal and personality characteristics of women married to men with alcohol dependence and suicidal activity].

    PubMed

    Merinov, A V; Shustov, D I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the suicidal activity in men with alcohol dependence on suicidal indexes, personal-codependency and psychological specifics of their wives has been studied. It has been found that women married to suicidal men with alcohol dependence significantly more frequently demonstrate suicidal activity (a phenomenon of suicidal matrimonial comorbidity) compared to wives of "non-suicidal" men. They also reveal non-suicidal behavioral patterns more frequently and prosuicidal predictors are quite common in them. This contingent of women has high suicidal potential that needs special attention during the therapeutic work.

  14. RET(MEN 2B) is active in the endoplasmic reticulum before reaching the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Runeberg-Roos, P; Virtanen, H; Saarma, M

    2007-12-13

    MEN 2B (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B) is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by an oncogenic form of the receptor tyrosine kinase REarranged during transfection (RET). The MEN 2B syndrome is associated with an abnormal autophosphorylation of the mutated receptor even without ligand-stimulation. Here, we characterize the activation of a RET(MEN 2B) variant carrying the point mutation Met918Thr, and show that the 150 kDa precursor of RET(MEN 2B) becomes phosphorylated already during synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). At least three different tyrosine residues (Tyr905, Tyr1062, Tyr1096) of the RET(MEN 2B) precursor are phosphorylated before the oncogenic receptor reaches the cell surface. We also demonstrate that the precursor of RET(MEN 2B) interacts with both growth factor receptor-bound protein and Src homology 2 domain-containing already in the ER, and that this interaction is dependent on the kinase activity of RET. With the aid of two RET mutants (RET(MEN 2B/S32L) and RET(MEN 2B/F393L)), which accumulate in the ER, we show that the oncogenic precursor of the receptor has the capacity to activate AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 from the ER. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the oncogenic precursor of RET(MEN 2B) is phosphorylated, interacts with adapter proteins and induces downstream signalling from the ER.

  15. Effects of exercise and conditioning on clotting and fibrinolytic activity in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Earl W.; Bernier, Lani L.; Banta, Guy R.; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Schoomaker, Eric B.

    1987-01-01

    Blood clotting and fibrinolytic activity in three groups of nonsmoking, nonobese, healthy men ranging from 19 to 59 years are studied. The groups consisted of (1) marathoners (men running more than 50 miles/week); (2) joggers (men running 5-15 miles/week; and (3) sedentary subjects (men who did not exercise routinely). It is observed that the rate of blood clotting is accelerated by exercise; marathoners had greater increases in fibrinolytic activity than the other two groups; and fibrin degradation products increased with exercise. The data reveal that the changes in clotting assays with exercise do not correlate with changes in whole blood lactate, blood pyruvate, or rectal temperatures. It is noted that the level of acceleration for fibrinolytic activity is directly related to the maximum aerobic capacity and work load of the individual, and that conditioning enhances the fibrinolytic response to exercise.

  16. An inexpensive, interdisciplinary, methodology to conduct an impact study of homeless persons on hospital based services.

    PubMed

    Parker, R David; Regier, Michael; Brown, Zachary; Davis, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Homelessness is a primary concern for community health. Scientific literature on homelessness is wide ranging and diverse. One opportunity to add to existing literature is the development and testing of affordable, easily implemented methods for measuring the impact of homeless on the healthcare system. Such methodological approaches rely on the strengths in a multidisciplinary approach, including providers, both healthcare and homeless services and applied clinical researchers. This paper is a proof of concept for a methodology which is easily adaptable nationwide, given the mandated implementation of homeless management information systems in the United States and other countries; medical billing systems by hospitals; and research methods of researchers. Adaptation is independent of geographic region, budget restraints, specific agency skill sets, and many other factors that impact the application of a consistent methodological science based approach to assess and address homelessness. We conducted a secondary data analysis merging data from homeless utilization and hospital case based data. These data detailed care utilization among homeless persons in a small, Appalachian city in the United States. In our sample of 269 persons who received at least one hospital based service and one homeless service between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013, the total billed costs were $5,979,463 with 10 people costing more than one-third ($1,957,469) of the total. Those persons were primarily men, living in an emergency shelter, with pre-existing disabling conditions. We theorize that targeted services, including Housing First, would be an effective intervention. This is proposed in a future study.

  17. Patient Activation in Type 2 Diabetes: Does It Differ between Men and Women?

    PubMed Central

    van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aim was to investigate whether the degree of patient activation of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is different between men and women. Furthermore, we investigated which factors are associated with patient activation in men and women. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1615 patients with T2D from general practices. Patient activation was measured with the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between gender and patient activation. Stratified analyses according to gender were performed to investigate which factors are associated with patient activation. Results. No association between gender and PAM score was found after adjustment for all selected confounders (p = 0.094). In men, lower age (p = 0.001), a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.001), and a lower BMI (p = 0.013) were associated with a higher PAM score. In women, a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.017) and the absence of macrovascular complications (p < 0.031) were associated with a higher PAM score. Conclusion. There is no difference in the degree of patient activation of men and women with T2D. Age, well-being, and BMI were found to be associated with patient activation in men, whereas well-being and macrovascular complications were found to be associated with patient activation in women. PMID:27656658

  18. Heart rate and blood pressure response in adult men and women during exercise and sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Sebastian T; Kostis, John B; Casazza, Laurie; Sleeper, Lynn A; Lu, Minmin; Nezgoda, Joseph; Rosen, Raymond S

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) response of sexual activity compared with treadmill exercise in adult men and women. Nineteen men, 55 +/- 8 years, and 13 women, 51 +/- 7 years, underwent a maximal Bruce protocol treadmill stress test followed by home-monitored sexual activity using noninvasive HR and BP recording devices. The mean treadmill times were significantly shorter than the mean times of sexual activity for men and women (p <0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). For the men, average maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 72%, 80%, and 57% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. For the women, maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 64%, 75%, and 48% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. Age correlated inversely with duration of treadmill exercise (a 9-second decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.036), and with the duration of sexual activity (a 1-minute decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.024). Treadmill exercise duration predicted sexual activity duration (a 2.3-minute increase in sexual activity duration per each minute treadmill duration; p = 0.026). In conclusion, sexual activity provides modest physical stress comparable with stage II of the standard multistage Bruce treadmill protocol for men and stage I for women.

  19. Perceived Reasons, Incentives, and Barriers to Physical Activity in Swedish Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge about factors influencing physical activity behavior is needed in order to tailor physical activity interventions to the individual. Objective The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceived reasons, barriers, and incentives to increased physical activity, as well as preferable activities, among elderly men in Sweden. Methods In total, 150 men aged 50-86 years responded to a Web-based questionnaire. Men who reported that they exercised sometimes or often received questions about reasons for physical activity (n=104), while men who reported that they never or seldom exercised received questions about barriers (n=46). Results The most frequent perceived reason for being physically active was health (82%), followed by enjoyment (45%), and a desire to lose/maintain weight (27%). Lack of interest/motivation was identified as the primary perceived barrier (17%). Incentives for increasing the level of activity included becoming more motivated and having a training partner. Walking was the most preferred activity. Conclusions Enjoyment and maintaining a good health were important reasons for engaging in physical activity among Swedish elderly men. PMID:25488655

  20. Homeless, and Often Sleepless Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homeless people are especially likely to suffer from insomnia, fatigue and lack of sleep, a new French study shows. "We believe that improving sleep deserves more attention in this vulnerable group," wrote the study authors, ...

  1. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.

  2. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, Diana; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Barrera, Natalibeth; Vaamonde-Lemos, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. The present study was undertaken to assess possible semen and hormone differences among physically active (PA) subjects and sedentary subjects (SE). The analyzed qualitative sperm parameters were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology; where needed, additional testing was performed. The measured hormones were: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and the ratio between T and C (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption was also assessed to check for differences in fitness level. Statistically significant differences were found for several semen parameters such as total progressive motility (PA: 60.94 ± 5.03; SE: 56.07 ± 4.55) and morphology (PA: 15.54 ± 1.38, SE: 14.40 ± 1.15). The seminological values observed were supported by differences in hormones, with FSH, LH, and T being higher in PA than in SE (5.68 ± 2.51 vs. 3.14 ± 1.84; 5.95 ± 1.11 vs. 5.08 ± 0.98; 7.68 ± 0.77 vs. 6.49 ± 0.80, respectively). Likewise, the T/C ratio, index of anabolic versus catabolic status, was also higher in PA (0.46 ± 0.11 vs. 0.32 ± 0.07), which further supports the possibility of an improved hormonal environment. The present study shows that there are differences in semen and hormone values of physically active subjects and sedentary subjects. Physically active subjects seem to have a more anabolic hormonal environment and a healthier semen production.

  3. Neural activities associated with emotion recognition observed in men and women.

    PubMed

    Lee, T M C; Liu, H-L; Chan, C C H; Fang, S-Y; Gao, J-H

    2005-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that men and women process emotional stimuli differently. In this study, we examined if there would be any consistency in regions of activation in men and women when processing stimuli portraying happy or sad emotions presented in the form of facial expressions, scenes, and words. A blocked design BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was employed to monitor the neural activities of male and female healthy volunteers while they were presented with the experimental stimuli. The imaging data revealed that the right insula and left thalamus were consistently activated for men, but not women, during emotion recognition of all forms of stimuli studied. To further understand the imaging data acquired, we conducted the protocol analysis method to identify the cognitive processes engaged while the men and women were viewing the emotional stimuli and deciding whether they were happy or sad. The findings suggest that men rely on the recall of past emotional experiences to evaluate current emotional experiences. This may explain why the insula, a structure important for self-induced or internally generated recalled emotions, was consistently activated in men while processing emotional stimuli. Our findings suggest possible gender-related neural responses to emotional stimuli.

  4. Homeless in God's Country: Coping Strategies and Felt Experiences of the Rural Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Timothy; DeJong, Cornell

    2010-01-01

    This study examines coping behaviors and felt experiences of homeless adults in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Data from in-depth interviews with 55 homeless adults reveal 5 general coping pattern groups: shelter users, campers, couch hoppers, mixed users, and circumstantial homeless. Homeless adults within each group experienced similar levels of…

  5. Homeless, Not Hopeless. An Informational Guide for School Personnel: Understanding and Educating Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Elli; Stauffer, Carol

    This guide explains how to educate homeless students within the public schools, focusing on the Saint Paul, Minnesota, public schools. Section 1 defines homelessness. Section 2 presents data on the increasing numbers of homeless students in the area. Section 3 describes common problems faced by homeless students, including family mobility,…

  6. Adverse Outcomes Among Homeless Adolescents and Young Adults Who Report a History of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Harpin, Scott B.; Grubenhoff, Joseph A.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence of self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) among homeless young people and explored whether sociodemographic characteristics, mental health diagnoses, substance use, exposure to violence, or difficulties with activities of daily living (ADLs) were associated with TBI. Methods. We analyzed data from the Wilder Homelessness Study, in which participants were recruited in 2006 and 2009 from streets, shelters, and locations in Minnesota that provide services to homeless individuals. Participants completed 30-minute interviews to collect information about history of TBI, homelessness, health status, exposure to violence (e.g., childhood abuse, assault), and other aspects of functioning. Results. Of the 2732 participating adolescents and young adults, 43% reported a history of TBI. Participants with TBI became homeless at a younger age and were more likely to report mental health diagnoses, substance use, suicidality, victimization, and difficulties with ADLs. The majority of participants (51%) reported sustaining their first injury prior to becoming homeless or at the same age of their first homeless episode (10%). Conclusions. TBI occurs frequently among homeless young people and is a marker of adverse outcomes such as mental health difficulties, suicidal behavior, substance use, and victimization. PMID:25122029

  7. Social activities of older men who require daily support and the purpose of such activities.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Michiyo; Saeki, Kazuko; Ueda, Izumi; Honda, Hikaru; Mizuno, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to analyze the social activities of older men who require daily support, and to clarify the purpose of such activities, in order to develop effective living support and preventive long-term care service, suitable for this population.Methods Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 older men. Data were analyzed using inductive and qualitative methods.Results Four categories of social activities were identified, and four categories of purposes of these social activities were extracted. The following were the identified social activities: maintenance of "comfortable relationships with others," including family, relatives, friends, and neighbors; "participation and use of services and programs with clear objectives and relationships with others," such as long-term care insurance system services, clubs for the elderly, and hobby groups; maintenance of "relationships with former colleagues, depending on their experience of working with them," where some individuals actively participated in gatherings with former colleagues, while others did not keep in touch at all; and participation in "activities to enrich their feelings and quality of life within their living space," such as reading, watching TV, and doing household chores. The purposes of the observed social activities were to build "relationships with society through communication with other people" and to have a "sense of security by spending time with people of the same age and with those older than them." Hence, participants engaged in clubs for the elderly, as well as in hobby groups. In addition, participants made time for exercising regularly, which maintained their cognitive function and was intended for the "maintenance and activation of their physical functions by continuing to exercise," and "continuing to learn by thinking." Furthermore, participants engaged in the exercise or hobby groups that they were interested in, in order to

  8. Systemic endothelial function is preserved in men with both active and inactive variant angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Akita, H; Kanazawa, K; Yamada, S; Shiga, N; Terashima, M; Matsuda, Y; Takai, E; Iwai, C; Takaoka, H; Yokoyama, M

    1999-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that coronary spasm could be a coronary manifestation of systemic endothelial dysfunction and that the activity of coronary spasm could influence systemic endothelial function, we examined brachial flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilation and nitroglycerin-induced endothelium-independent vasodilation with high-resolution ultrasound in 11 men with variant angina pectoris (6 active and 5 inactive) without established coronary atherosclerosis. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in peripheral circulation was preserved in men with active and inactive variant angina pectoris, suggesting that systemic endothelial dysfunction is not involved in either the pathogenesis or the activity of coronary spasm.

  9. Long-term and chronic homelessness in homeless women and women with children.

    PubMed

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Tam, Tammy; Bradley, Kimberly

    2010-09-01

    The Chronic Homelessness initiative has directed millions of federal dollars to services for single "unaccompanied homeless" individuals, specifically excluding women living with their children. Using a data set with a nationally representative sample of homeless adults, we calculated the prevalence rates and profiles of long-term homelessness in homeless women (n = 849). With the exception of the criterion of being a single "unaccompanied individual," many women, including women with children, met the criteria for chronic homelessness including having a disability of mental health or substance abuse problems. Our findings suggest that the federal definition of chronic homelessness needs to be revised.

  10. Relation between vertical facial morphology and jaw muscle activity in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Graziano; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Antinori, Marco; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to quantitatively analyze the relation between the activity of masticatory muscles and the inclination of the mandibular plane in a group of 73 healthy white men aged 20-36 years. The three-dimensional coordinates of soft-tissue landmarks gnathion and left and right gonion were digitized using an electromagnetic computerized instrument, the orientation of mandibular plane relative to the true vertical was computed and projected on the anatomical sagittal plane. The electromyographic (EMG) potentials of left and right masseter and temporalis anterior during maximum voluntary teeth clenching were recorded, and the mean EMG amplitude calculated. Two groups of men with opposite facial morphology were then selected: all men with a steep mandibular plane (higher than the mean plus one standard deviation) entered a first group (10 'long face' subjects), while all men with a relatively more horizontal mandibular plane (lower than the mean minus one standard deviation) entered a second group (13 'short face' subjects). Mean EMG potentials computed in the two groups were compared by using Student's t -test for independent samples. All the EMG potentials recorded during maximum voluntary clench in the 'long face' men were lower than that recorded in the 'short face' men, with statistically significant differences for all four analyzed muscles (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a non-invasive three-dimensional method confirmed that facial morphology and muscular function are significantly related, at least in men with a sound stomatognathic apparatus.

  11. Acceptability of Fitbit for physical activity tracking within clinical care among men with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori; Kadokura, Elyse A; Bouldin, Erin D; Miyawaki, Christina E; Higano, Celestia S.; Hartzler, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has not examined the acceptability of commercially available fitness tracking devices in men with prostate cancer, many of whom are at risk for conditions that physical activity could alleviate. We conducted an exploratory 3-week field study to examine acceptability of the Fitbit Zip and attitudes towards integrating fitness tracking into clinical care among men with prostate cancer. Twenty-six men used the Fitbit Zip for a one-week baseline phase followed by a 2-week optional use phase and then completed in-depth interviews. Interview data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants found the device comfortable and easy to wear. Barriers to use included health and technology difficulties. Participants expressed value in sharing Fitbit data with their health care team. Findings support the use of easy to use and simple fitness trackers among men with prostate cancer and there could be opportunities to integrate fitness tracker data into clinical care. PMID:28269902

  12. Acceptability of Fitbit for physical activity tracking within clinical care among men with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Dori; Kadokura, Elyse A; Bouldin, Erin D; Miyawaki, Christina E; Higano, Celestia S; Hartzler, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has not examined the acceptability of commercially available fitness tracking devices in men with prostate cancer, many of whom are at risk for conditions that physical activity could alleviate. We conducted an exploratory 3-week field study to examine acceptability of the Fitbit Zip and attitudes towards integrating fitness tracking into clinical care among men with prostate cancer. Twenty-six men used the Fitbit Zip for a one-week baseline phase followed by a 2-week optional use phase and then completed in-depth interviews. Interview data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants found the device comfortable and easy to wear. Barriers to use included health and technology difficulties. Participants expressed value in sharing Fitbit data with their health care team. Findings support the use of easy to use and simple fitness trackers among men with prostate cancer and there could be opportunities to integrate fitness tracker data into clinical care.

  13. HIV Serosorting, Status Disclosure, and Strategic Positioning Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L.; Ventuneac, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Researchers have identified harm reduction strategies that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) use to reduce HIV transmission—including serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning. We report on patterns of these behaviors among 376 highly sexually active (i.e., 9+partners, <90 days) GBMSM: mean age of 37, 49.5% men of color, 87.8% gay identified, 57.5% college educated. We found evidence that many men engaged in serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning; however, rates varied based on the participant's HIV status. HIV-positive and HIV-negative men both engaged in sex with men of similar status more often than they engaged in sex with men known to be a different HIV status (i.e., serosorting). However, HIV-negative men disclosed their HIV-status with about half of their partners, whereas HIV-positive participants disclosed with only about one-third. With regard to strategic positioning, HIV-positive participants were the receptive partner about half the time with their HIV-negative partners and with their HIV-positive partners. In contrast, strategic positioning was very common among HIV-negative participants—they rarely bottomed with HIV-positive partners, bottomed about one-third of the time with status-unknown partners, and 42% of the time (on average) with HIV-negative partners. Highly sexually active GBMSM are a critical population in which to both investigate HIV prevention strategies as well as develop effective intervention programs. Providers and clinicians might be well served to include a wide range of behavioral harm reduction strategies in addition to condom use and biomedical approaches to reduce onward HIV transmission. PMID:26348322

  14. Education for Homeless Adults: Strategies for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Workplace Preparation and Continuing Education.

    This instructional guide is intended for use by adult education teachers who deal with homeless students either on an occasional or an exclusive basis. An introduction defines homelessness, describes how education can help, and offers a mission statement. The second section focuses on what teachers of the homeless need. It defines categories of…

  15. Homelessness and Its Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart-Shegos, Ellen

    Homelessness influences every facet of children's lives, inhibiting their physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Homeless women face such obstacles to healthy pregnancies as chemical abuse, chronic health problems, and lack of prenatal care. Homeless infants are more likely to have low birth weights and are at greater…

  16. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  17. Negative Cultural Capital and Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which homeless young people find a sense of self-worth and dignity within the conditions of youth homelessness. It notes that, while homeless young people seek a space where they do not feel marginalised and can attain a form of social status and cultural competence, they also engage in practices and acts of…

  18. The Paradox of Homelessness in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Sar A.; Schillmoeller, Susan

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the midst of relative prosperity. However, as the problem persists, the public may be becoming increasingly less compassionate to the homeless and annoyed by the problem. Although it is difficult to determine how many people are homeless, the most widely circulated estimate puts their number at about 600,000.…

  19. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  20. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  1. Variability in HOMA-IR, Lipoprotein Profile and Selected Hormones in Young Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18–23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake. PMID:24348155

  2. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  3. 34 CFR 491.3 - What activities may the Secretary fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION FOR THE HOMELESS PROGRAM General... homeless individuals. Projects must— (a) Include a program of outreach activities; and (b) Coordinate...

  4. 34 CFR 491.3 - What activities may the Secretary fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION FOR THE HOMELESS PROGRAM General... homeless individuals. Projects must— (a) Include a program of outreach activities; and (b) Coordinate...

  5. 34 CFR 491.3 - What activities may the Secretary fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION FOR THE HOMELESS PROGRAM General... homeless individuals. Projects must— (a) Include a program of outreach activities; and (b) Coordinate...

  6. 34 CFR 491.3 - What activities may the Secretary fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION FOR THE HOMELESS PROGRAM General... homeless individuals. Projects must— (a) Include a program of outreach activities; and (b) Coordinate...

  7. 34 CFR 491.3 - What activities may the Secretary fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION FOR THE HOMELESS PROGRAM General... homeless individuals. Projects must— (a) Include a program of outreach activities; and (b) Coordinate...

  8. A pilot survey of physical activity in men with an intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Michael; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence

    2013-06-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) are reported as a sedentary population with increased risks of poor health due to an inactive and sedentary lifestyle. As the benefits of physical activity are acknowledged, measuring physical activity accurately is important to help identify reasons for low and high physical activity in order to assist and maintain recommended levels for optimal health. This article reports a pilot study undertaken to validate the use of a physical activity monitor (Sensewear Armband) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) as instruments for measuring and exploring physical activity of men with ID. The design was a one-group descriptive study and the data were collected over a 7-day period from 17 men. The Sensewear Armband enabled continuous and long-term measurement of 14 objective physical activity metrics. The IPAQ examined details of physical activity reported over 7 days. Equivalent results were obtained from both the instruments, indicating a positive correlation between the Sensewear Armband and the IPAQ. The results show 50% have low activity levels, and the national recommended physical activity levels have been achieved at a very low active intensity. No sustainable high physical activity intensity levels were recorded. The results confirmed the Sensewear Armband and the IPAQ as a practical means of measuring and understanding physical activity levels in men with ID.

  9. The impact of homelessness prevention programs on homelessness.

    PubMed

    Evans, William N; Sullivan, James X; Wallskog, Melanie

    2016-08-12

    Despite the prevalence of temporary financial assistance programs for those facing imminent homelessness, there is little evidence of their impact. Using data from Chicago from 2010 to 2012 (n = 4448), we demonstrate that the volatile nature of funding availability leads to good-as-random variation in the allocation of resources to individuals seeking assistance. To estimate impacts, we compare families that call when funds are available with those who call when they are not. We find that those calling when funding is available are 76% less likely to enter a homeless shelter. The per-person cost of averting homelessness through financial assistance is estimated as $10,300 and would be much less with better targeting of benefits to lower-income callers. The estimated benefits, not including many health benefits, exceed $20,000.

  10. Men and women show distinct brain activations during imagery of sexual and emotional infidelity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Matsuura, Masato; Yahata, Noriaki; Koeda, Michihiko; Suhara, Tetsuya; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2006-09-01

    Jealousy-related behaviors such as intimate partner violence and morbid jealousy are more common in males. Principal questionnaire studies suggest that men and women have different modules to process cues of sexual and emotional infidelity. We aimed to elucidate the neural response to sentences depicting sexual and emotional infidelity in men and women using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although there was no sex difference in the self-rating score of jealousy for sexual and emotional infidelity, men and women showed different brain activation patterns in response to the two types of infidelity. During jealous conditions, men demonstrated greater activation than women in the brain regions involved in sexual/aggressive behaviors such as the amygdala and hypothalamus. In contrast, women demonstrated greater activation in the posterior superior temporal sulcus. Our fMRI results are in favor of the notion that men and women have different neuropsychological modules to process sexual and emotional infidelity. Our findings might contribute to a better understanding of the neural basis of the jealousy-related behaviors predominantly observed in males.

  11. Shifting patterns of everyday activity in early dementia: experiences of men and their families.

    PubMed

    Phinney, Alison; Dahlke, Sherry; Purves, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    In this article we draw from a larger study to examine experiences of two men and their families as they negotiate changing patterns of everyday activity in the months after receiving a diagnosis of dementia. We conducted in-depth interpretive phenomenological analysis of interview and observational data that were gathered from the men and various members of their families (n = 7) over a period several months. Findings are presented as three themes: The best kind of man (highlighting participants' historical positioning); It's a little different now (recognizing challenges posed by the dementia); and You have to do something (showing how the men and their families responded to and accommodated these challenges). We discuss these findings in terms of how everyday activity is not only important for supporting personhood in dementia, but it also contributes to sustaining family identity, and does so in a way that is deeply influenced by gender and masculinity.

  12. Homelessness: Recent Statistics, Targeted Federal Programs, and Recent Legislation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-31

    program; the Emergency Shelter Grants (ESG) program; the Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program (HVRP); the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV...12 Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12...Labor (DOL) Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program. (38 U.S.C. §2021) The Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program (HVRP) provides grants to states or

  13. Homelessness: Issues and Legislation in the 101st Congress. Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasem, Ruth Ellen

    This report discusses the nature of homelessness and the homeless in America, recent programs that have been implemented to help the homeless, and issues concerning the Federal government's role in helping these people. The following topics concerning the characteristics of the homeless and the causes of homelessness are covered: (1) "Mental…

  14. Young Finnish Unemployed Men's Experiences of Having Participated in a Specific Active Labor Market Program.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Ove; Häggström, Elisabeth; Nyström, Lisbet

    2015-09-07

    The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  15. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  16. Homelessness as culture: How transcultural nursing theory can assist caring for the homeless.

    PubMed

    Law, Kate; John, William

    2012-11-01

    The concepts of culture and homelessness are both complex and contested. This paper examines homelessness through the lens of transcultural nursing theory, increasing understanding of both homelessness and transcultural theory. We argue that homelessness can be usefully conceptualised as a culture and that the application of transcultural theory to caring for homeless people will add further to the utility of these theories. The application of transcultural theory can add to the repertoire of skills the nurse needs to care for not only homeless clients, but, for a diverse range of client groups.

  17. Rest/activity rhythms and mortality rates in older men: MrOS Sleep Study.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent C; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2010-01-01

    An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Our study population consisted of 2964 men aged > or = 67 yrs of age enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness), and alpha (peak-to-trough width). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.03-2.39) than men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR = 2.32, 95% CI, 1.04-5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.29-6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta, and mortality risk. Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association.

  18. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most recent Australian Health survey identified that young men (18-24yrs) have numerous health concerns including: 42% overweight/obese, 48% not meeting national physical activity recommendations and 97% failing to consume adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables. There is a lack of engagement a...

  19. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  20. Condom use and concurrent partnering among heterosexually active, African American men: a qualitative report.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Williams, Kim; Bond, Keosha T; Henny, Kirk; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Lucy, Debbie; Koblin, Beryl A

    2013-10-01

    African Americans are overrepresented among heterosexual cases of HIV/AIDS in the USA. Inconsistent condom use and concurrent partnering are two sexual behaviors driving the heterosexual HIV epidemic in the African American community. To inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use among African American heterosexual men, we conducted formative research, including 61 structured interviews, 5 focus groups with 25 men, and 30 in-depth qualitative interviews between July and December 2009. We used a grounded theoretical approach and categorizing strategies to code and analyze the qualitative data. Results around condom use confirmed earlier findings among heterosexual men in general: condoms diminish pleasure, interfere with erection, and symbolize infidelity. Although valued by some as a form of disease prevention and pregnancy prevention, condoms are often used only with specific types of female partners, such as new or casual partners, or due to visual risk assessment. Sex partner concurrency was described as normative and ascribed to men's "natural" desire to engage in a variety of sexual activities or their high sex drive, with little recognition of the role it plays in the heterosexual HIV epidemic. Fatherhood emerged among many men as a crucial life event and compelling motivation for reducing sexual risk behavior. Based on these results, we conclude that existing HIV prevention efforts to improve attitudes towards and motivate use of condoms either have not reached or have not been successful with African American heterosexual men. In designing behavioral interventions to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use, addressing negative attitudes towards condoms and partner risk assessment is critical, as is integrating novel motivational approaches related to identity as fathers and men in the African American community.

  1. Psychopharmacologic Services for Homeless Veterans: Comparing Psychotropic Prescription Fills Among Homeless and Non-Homeless Veterans with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Eric; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Using national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data, this study evaluated differences in psychotropic medication use between homeless and non-homeless adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who used VHA services in 2010. The adjusted mean number of psychotropic prescription fills associated with homeless individuals were identified using regression models adjusted for socio-demographics, diagnoses, and use of health services. Of the 876,989 individuals with SMI using VHA services, 7.2 % were homeless at some time during 2010. In bivariate analysis, homeless individuals filled more psychotropic medication prescriptions compared with non-homeless individuals. However, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables, homeless individuals were found to have filled 16.2 % fewer prescriptions than non-homeless individuals when all psychotropics were analyzed together (F = 6947.1, p < .001) and for most individual classes of psychotropics. Greater use of residential/inpatient mental health services by the homeless was the most important single factor associated with filling more psychotropic prescriptions than non-homeless individuals.

  2. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women’s participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women’s risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women’s health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed. PMID:27398045

  3. Social control correlates of arrest behavior among homeless youth in five U.S. cities.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Maccio, Elaine M; Xie, Bin; Pollio, David

    2011-01-01

    This study identified homelessness, substance use, employment, and mental health correlates of homeless youths' arrest activity in 5 cities. Two hundred thirty-eight street youth from Los Angeles, Austin, Denver, New Orleans, and St. Louis were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression results reveal that being arrested for criminal activity is associated with length of homelessness, history of juvenile detention and incarceration, receiving income from theft, substance abuse, and mental illness. Arrests are also associated with interactions between lack of formal employment income and receiving income from theft and between drug and alcohol abuse/ dependency. Understanding the health and situational factors associated with homeless youths' delinquent activity has implications for providing more comprehensive health, mental health, and substance abuse services.

  4. Designing normative messages about active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Robert J.; Kinsman, Gianna T.; Le, Yen-Chi L.; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. We examined the acceptability of normative messages about AS as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N=331). They rated messages about AS for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message “you don’t have to panic…you have time to think about your options” was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by over 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the AS protocol and “knowing in plenty of time” if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For AS to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an AS protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011

  5. Elderly Homeless Veterans in Los Angeles: Chronicity and Precipitants of Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; McGuire, James

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the characteristics of chronically homeless and acutely homeless elderly veterans to better understand precipitants of homelessness. Methods. We conducted interviews with 33 chronically and 26 acutely homeless veterans aged 65 years and older receiving transitional housing services in Los Angeles, California, between 2003 and 2005. We asked questions regarding their sociodemographic characteristics and other social status measures. Other precipitants of homelessness were acquired via observation and open-ended and structured questions. Results. Both veterans groups were more similar than different, with substantial levels of physical, psychiatric, and social impairment. They differed significantly in homelessness history, with chronically homeless veterans having more homelessness episodes and more total time homeless. They were also less educated and had smaller social networks. In response to open-ended questioning, elderly homeless veterans revealed how health and substance use issues interacted with loss of social support and eviction to exacerbate homelessness. Conclusions. Assessment of a range of factors is needed to address risk factors and events leading to homelessness. Further research with larger samples is needed to confirm the characteristics and needs of the elderly homeless veteran population. PMID:24148059

  6. Enolase isoforms activities in spermatozoa from men with normospermia and abnormospermia.

    PubMed

    Force, Andre; Viallard, Jean-L; Grizard, Genevieve; Boucher, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Total enolase as well as enolase-alphaalpha. (ENO-alphaalpha, ubiquitous) and enolase-S (ENO-S, sperm-specific) activities were measured in total and Percoll-selected sperm from 30 normospermic fertile men and 20 abnormospermic infertile patients. The total enolase activity was significantly higher in total sperm from patients with abnormospermia compared with normospermic patients (11.1 +/- 1.9 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.5 mlU/10(7) sperm P < .05). ENO-alphaalpha activity was significantly higher in total sperm from abnormospermic men than from normospermic men (P < .05). ENO-alphaalpha activity in Percoll-selected sperm was significantly lower compared with total sperm in both group of patients; however, for the same sperm fraction ENO-alphaalpha activity did not differ between normospermic and abnormospermic men. ENO-alphaalpha activity was related to the cell contamination ratio and to the percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology. Furthermore, ENO-alphaalpha was positively correlated with the percentage of immature sperm showing an excess of residual cytoplasm. ENO-S activity was significantly higher in total sperm from normospermic patients than from abnormospermic patients (P < .05). ENO-S activity in Percoll-selected sperm was not significantly different compared with total sperm in both group of patients. However, this activity was significantly lower in Percoll-selected sperm from abnormospermic men compared with normospermic men (P < .05). ENO-S activity was not related to the cell contamination ratio but was significantly correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology. The 2 enolase isoforms seem to reflect 2 opposite aspects of sperm cells quality: ENO-alphaalpha is associated with abnormal spermatozoa, immature spermatozoa, or both; and ENO-S is associated with normal spermatozoa. As an additional index to distinguish normal from abnormal semen, the ENO-S:ENO-alphaalpha ratio was evaluated for total and Percoll-selected sperm in both

  7. Men, muscles, and body image: comparisons of competitive bodybuilders, weight trainers, and athletically active controls

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, T; Lewis, R; Cash, T; Pope, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate body image and psychosocial adjustment among competitive bodybuilders, non-competitive weight trainers, and athletically active men. Methods: Participants were 40 men in each of the three groups who were assessed on body composition and multiple facets of body image evaluation, investment and anxiety, eating attitudes, and social self esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups were more satisfied with their upper torso and muscle tone. Competitive bodybuilders reported more mid torso satisfaction than the other two groups. Competitive bodybuilders also wished to be significantly heavier than controls did and reported higher social self esteem but greater eating disturbance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that competitive bodybuilders as a group are not more "muscle dysmorphic" than either non-competitive weight trainers or physically active men who do not train with weights. PMID:15793091

  8. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J. A.; Thompson, G. G.; Goldberg, A.; Barry, P. S. I.; Lowe, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Millar, J. A., Thompson, G. G., Goldberg, A., Barry, P. S. I., and Lowe, E. H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 317-320. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls. The activity of erythrocyte ALA1-dehydrase is inhibited in vivo at blood lead (Pb2+) levels within the upper range of normal (20-40 μg/100 ml) and in vitro at lead concentrations greater than 10-7 M. In view of the high sensitivity of the enzyme to Pb2+, the levels of enzyme activity in the blood of men occupationally exposed to lead alkyls, particularly tetraethyllead, were measured. It was found that the enzyme activity in an exposed group of men was significantly less (P<0·001) than in a control group, the respective mean values being 220 and 677 units of enzyme activity. Tetraethyllead is metabolized in the body via triethyllead and diethyllead ions. As the latter compound possesses properties similar to Pb2+, it was synthesized in the laboratory and its effect on ALA-dehydrase was studied. Diethyllead ion was found to inhibit ALA-dehydrase activity at concentrations greater than 5 x 10-5 M, although the degree of inhibition was less than that obtained with Pb2+. These results suggest that exposure to tetraethyllead can cause a decrease in erythrocyte ALA-dehydrase activity. PMID:5044603

  9. Homelessness: a problem for primary care?

    PubMed

    Riley, Anthony J; Harding, Geoffrey; Underwood, Martin R; Carter, Yvonne H

    2003-06-01

    Homelessness is a social problem that affects all facets of contemporary society. This paper discusses the concept of homelessness in terms of its historical context and the dominance of the pervasive 'victim blaming' ideologies, which, together with the worldwide economic changes that have contributed to a fiscal crisis of the state, and the resultant policies and circumstances, have led to an increase in the number of 'new homeless' people. This paper attempts to challenge the dominant political discourse on homelessness. The widespread healthcare problems and heterogeneity of homeless people have a particular impact on health services, with many homeless people inappropriately accessing local accident and emergency (A&E) departments because of barriers inhibiting adequate access to primary care. A number of primary care schemes have been successfully implemented to enable the homeless to have better access to appropriate care. However, there is no consistency in the level of services around the United Kingdom (UK), and innovations in service are not widespread and by their nature they are ad hoc. Despite the successes of such schemes, many homeless people still access health care inappropriately. Until homeless people are fully integrated into primary care the situation will not change. The question remains, how can appropriate access be established? A start can be made by building on some of the positive work that is already being done in primary care, but in reality general practitioners (GPs) will be 'swimming against the tide' unless a more integrated policy approach is adopted to tackle homelessness.

  10. Predictors of Homelessness Among Street Living Youth

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The sample included 118 males and the reported ethnicity included Latino (n = 54), Anglo (n = 73), Native American (n = 24), African American (n = 6) and mixed ethnicity or “other” (n = 23). Four distinct patterns of change in homelessness were identified among youth which included those who (1) had fairly low rates of homelessness at each follow-up point, (2) started in the mid-range of homelessness, increased at 3 months and sharply declined at 6-months (MHL), (3) reported high rates of homelessness at baseline and low rates at each follow-up point (HLL), and finally, (4) remained consistently homeless across time (HMH). These patterns of change were most strongly predicted by social connections and engagement in HIV risk behaviors. The findings from this study suggest that developing trust and linkages between homeless youth and service providers may be a more powerful immediate target of intervention than targeting child abuse issues, substance use and mental health problems. PMID:18584069

  11. Homelessness: a problem for primary care?

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Anthony J; Harding, Geoffrey; Underwood, Martin R; Carter, Yvonne H

    2003-01-01

    Homelessness is a social problem that affects all facets of contemporary society. This paper discusses the concept of homelessness in terms of its historical context and the dominance of the pervasive 'victim blaming' ideologies, which, together with the worldwide economic changes that have contributed to a fiscal crisis of the state, and the resultant policies and circumstances, have led to an increase in the number of 'new homeless' people. This paper attempts to challenge the dominant political discourse on homelessness. The widespread healthcare problems and heterogeneity of homeless people have a particular impact on health services, with many homeless people inappropriately accessing local accident and emergency (A&E) departments because of barriers inhibiting adequate access to primary care. A number of primary care schemes have been successfully implemented to enable the homeless to have better access to appropriate care. However, there is no consistency in the level of services around the United Kingdom (UK), and innovations in service are not widespread and by their nature they are ad hoc. Despite the successes of such schemes, many homeless people still access health care inappropriately. Until homeless people are fully integrated into primary care the situation will not change. The question remains, how can appropriate access be established? A start can be made by building on some of the positive work that is already being done in primary care, but in reality general practitioners (GPs) will be 'swimming against the tide' unless a more integrated policy approach is adopted to tackle homelessness. PMID:12939894

  12. Gender, coping strategies, homelessness stressors, and income generation among homeless young adults in three cities.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-06-01

    This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population.

  13. Homeless--And Doubled Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    The bank foreclosed on your home because your parents divorced and don't have enough money to pay the mortgage. You're locked out of your house. Where will the family sleep? Most families turn to friends and relatives at times like these. That's why about 75 percent of the 1,258,182 homeless students in the United States live…

  14. The Homeless. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roleff, Tamara L., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of the problem of homelessness. According to a 1994 report by the U..S. Conference of Mayors, the number…

  15. Homelessness: The Foster Care Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    Roughly 600,000 families are homeless today in America, while over 2.7 million children are in foster care or out-of-home placements. Few policymakers have examined these issues together, or understood that they are interrelated and must be addressed jointly to break the cycle of family disintegration, violence, and poverty. A recent survey by the…

  16. Physical activity as a protective factor for development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in men

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Carla Giuliano de Sá; Marega, Marcio; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; Carmona, Felipe Gambetta; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo Felix; Ceschini, Fabio Luis; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Figueira, Aylton José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of physical activity on the prevalence of fatty liver, metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adult men. Methods This study evaluated 1,399 men (40.7±8.18 years) with body mass index of 26.7kg/m2 (±3.4) who participated in the Protocol of Preventive Health Check-up at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from January to October 2011. We conducted tests of serum blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, reactive c-protein, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The statistical analysis comprised in the comparison of mean and standard deviation. The analysis of variance was based in two paths of two way ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Wald test and χ2. We considered a significance level at p<0.05 and correlation of univariate Poison with 95% confidence interval. Results :Fatty liver was diagnosed in 37.0% of the sample. Triglyceride levels of active men with fatty liver were 148.2±77.6mg/dL while inactive men with fatty liver had 173.4±15.6mg/dL. The remaining serum levels were normal. Inactive individuals showed higher values than active. In addition, inactive individuals have 10.68 times higher risk of developing fatty liver compared with active. Conclusion Physical activity improves metabolic parameters such as triglycerides, weight control, HDL, which interfere in the development of fatty liver. Physically active individuals had lower fatty liver prevalence regardless of values of body composition and lipid profile, leading the conclusion that physical activity has a protective role against development of fatty liver. PMID:25993066

  17. Homelessness among older african-american women: interpreting a serious social issue through the arts in community-based participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Feen-Calligan, Holly; Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the incorporation of the arts into a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) project formulated to develop and test practices for helping homeless older African-American women. Studying how older African-American women become homeless has evolved into developing and testing promising interventions by the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project (LHIRP). The women's participation in creative group activities helped them to communicate their experience with homelessness, express their concerns, develop personal strengths, and obtained mutual understanding. The use of multiple art forms has revealed a number of creative strengths among the participants, which have in turn inspired innovative artistic strategies and methodologies as part of the multiple methods that LHIRP incorporates. These interventions have been useful in helping participants resolve their homelessness. The role and benefit of the arts in CBPAR is described to show how creative activities help researchers and the public to better understand the complexities of homelessness.

  18. Difficult Behaviors in the Emergency Department: A Cohort Study of Housed, Homeless and Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Background This study contrasted annual rates of difficult behaviours in emergency departments among cohorts of individuals who were homeless and low-income housed and examined predictors of these events. Methods Interviews in 1999 with men who were chronically homeless with drinking problems (CHDP) (n = 50), men from the general homeless population (GH) (n = 61), and men residing in low-income housing (LIH) (n = 58) were linked to catchment area emergency department records (n = 2817) from 1994 to 1999. Interview and hospital data were linked to measures of difficult behaviours. Results Among the CHDP group, annual rates of visits with difficult behaviours were 5.46; this was 13.4 (95% CI 10.3–16.5) and 14.3 (95% CI 11.2–17.3) times higher than the GH and LIH groups. Difficult behaviour incidents included physical violence, verbal abuse, uncooperativeness, drug seeking, difficult histories and security involvement. Difficult behaviours made up 57.54% (95% CI 55.43–59.65%), 24% (95% CI 19–29%), and 20% (95% CI 16–24%) of CHDP, GH and LIH visits. Among GH and LIH groups, 87% to 95% were never involved in verbal abuse or violence. Intoxication increased all difficult behaviours while decreasing drug seeking and leaving without being seen. Verbal abuse and violence were less likely among those housed, with odds ratios of 0.24 (0.08, 0.72) and 0.32 (0.15, 0.69), respectively. Conclusions Violence and difficult behaviours are much higher among chronically homeless men with drinking problems than general homeless and low-income housed populations. They are concentrated among subgroups of individuals. Intoxication is the strongest predictor of difficult behaviour incidents. PMID:25919015

  19. The Challenge of Pregnancy among Homeless Youth: Reclaiming a Lost Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Marcela; Bourgois, Philippe; Auerswald, Colette L.

    2011-01-01

    Young, homeless women often become pregnant, but little is known about how street youth experience their pregnancies. We documented 26 pregnancy outcomes among 13 homeless women (ages 18–26) and eight homeless men through interviews and participant-observation. Eight pregnancies were voluntarily terminated, three were miscarried, and fifteen were carried to term. Regardless of pregnancy outcome, street youths’ narratives focused on ambivalence about parenting, traumatic childhood experiences, and current challenges. Despite significant obstacles, almost all were convinced of their personal capacity to change their lives. While most wanted to be parents, the majority lost custody of their newborns and consequently associated contact with medical and social services with punitive outcomes. Most of the youth who chose to terminate successfully sought safe medical care. We offer recommendations for changing the approach of services to take full advantage of pregnancy as a potential catalyst event for change in this highly vulnerable and underserved population. PMID:20453382

  20. Finding Homeless Youth. Patterns Based on Geographical Area and Number of Homeless Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Andrea L.; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Batterham, Philip; May, Susanne; Brooks, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    A census of homeless youth was conducted in locations across Los Angeles County, California. Building on previous research that has focused on homeless youth in cruise areas, the authors examined demographic and behavioral differences between homeless youth in cruise and noncruise areas. Youth in cruise areas were more likely than youth in…

  1. Homelessness Outcome Reporting Normative Framework: Systems-Level Evaluation of Progress in Ending Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austen, Tyrone; Pauly, Bernie

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a serious and growing issue. Evaluations of systemic-level changes are needed to determine progress in reducing or ending homelessness. The report card methodology is one means of systems-level assessment. Rather than solely establishing an enumeration, homelessness report cards can capture pertinent information about structural…

  2. Unaccompanied Homeless Youth: Intersections of Homelessness, School Experiences and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    School districts are faced with the challenge of how best to serve the needs of a growing homeless student population. As the numbers of homeless children and youth continue to rise, it is imperative for educators and others to understand the experiences of unaccompanied homeless youth. A qualitative research project was undertaken to obtain the…

  3. Homelessness and Housing Insecurity Among Former Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    HERBERT, CLAIRE W.; MORENOFF, JEFFREY D.; HARDING, DAVID J.

    2016-01-01

    The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports. PMID:26913294

  4. Increased Incidence of Pathologically Nonorgan Confined Prostate Cancer in African-American Men Eligible for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yun-Sok; Salmasi, Amirali; Karellas, Michael; Singer, Eric A.; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the clinicopathologic findings of African-American (AA) and White-American (WA) men with prostate cancer (PCa) who were candidates for active surveillance (AS) and underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS Prospectively maintained database of men who underwent RP from 2 academic centers were analyzed retrospectively. Postoperative pathologic characteristics of patients who met the AS inclusion criteria of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) were evaluated. After RP, the rate of pathological upstaging and Gleason upgrading were compared between AA and WA men. RESULTS In the AA cohort, 196 and 124 men met the UCSF and NCCN criteria for AS, respectively. With respect to WA patients, 191 and 148 fulfilled the AS criteria for UCSF and NCCN, respectively. AA men had a higher percentage of maximum biopsy core than WA men (15.3%–20.4% vs 11.5%–15.0%, P <.05, respectively) in both cohorts. In addition, a greater proportion of AA men had multiple positive biopsy cores compared to WA men (45.2% vs 33.1%, P = .046) under the NCCN criteria. A higher proportion of AA men were upstaged (≥pT3) compared to WA men (19.4% vs 10.1%, P = .037). A multivariate regression test revealed that age, preoperative PSA, and number of positive cores were independent predictors of more advanced disease (upstaging and/or upgrading) in AA men. CONCLUSION AA men who were candidates for AS criteria had worse clinicopathological features on final surgical pathology thanWA men. These results suggest that a more stringent AS criteria should be considered in AA men with prostate cancer. PMID:23465143

  5. Homeless, mentally ill and addicted: the need for abuse and trauma services.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Richard C; Hodgkins, Candace C; Garces, Lorrie K; Estlund, Kathleen L; Miller, M David; Touchton, Reginald

    2005-11-01

    This paper examines an empirical investigation of the lifetime prevalence of trauma (defined as sexual and/or physical abuse) in a cohort of adults enrolled in a federally funded initiative that provides treatment for homeless persons suffering the effects of comorbid substance use and serious mental illness, and considers the impact of this information on clinical programming. Data collected from homeless individuals with co-occurring disorders admitted to the Seeking Treatment and Recovery (STAR) Program during a one year period (n=78) were analyzed for a history of trauma events. Of those individuals evaluated, 79.5% (62/78) acknowledged a history of either physical and/or sexual abuse at some time in their lifetimes. Of this population, 100% of the homeless women (27/27) with co-occurring disorders had experienced a life-altering traumatic event while 68.6% (35/51) of the homeless men also reported trauma histories. We describe the trauma-based interventions made in the STAR Program that have the potential for replication in other initiatives committed to serving homeless individuals with co-occurring disorders.

  6. Condoms and Contexts: Profiles of Sexual Risk and Safety Among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Heterosexual men's sexual safety behavior is important to controlling the U.S. epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). While sexual safety is often treated as a single behavior, such as condom use, it can also be conceptualized as resulting from multiple factors. Doing so can help us achieve more nuanced understandings of sexual risk and safety within partner-related contexts. We used latent class analysis with data collected online from 18- to 25-year-old heterosexually active U.S. men (n = 432) to empirically derive a typology of the patterns of sexual safety strategies they employed. Indicators were sexual risk-reduction strategies used in the past year with the most recent female sex partner: condom use, discussing sexual histories, STI testing, agreeing to be monogamous, and discussing birth control. We identified four subgroups: Risk Takers (12%), Condom Reliers (25%), Multistrategists (28%), and Relationship Reliers (35%). Partner-related context factors--number of past-year sex partners, relationship commitment, and sexual concurrency--predicted subgroup membership. Findings support tailoring STI prevention to men's sexual risk-safety subgroups. Interventions should certainly continue to encourage condom use but should also include information on how partner-related context factors and alternate sexual safety strategies can help men reduce risk for themselves and their partners.

  7. Making international links to further interprofessional learning: a student-led initiative for the homeless population.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Robyn; Uppal, Shiv; Ashcroft, Harriet

    2015-05-01

    Supporting homeless people to recovery requires interprofessional collaborative responses. In North America interprofessional student groups have supported traditional services to address the needs of homeless populations. We report on the first two years of designing and developing an interprofessional student-led response to support homeless people in the UK. The project began with working in partnership with local statutory and voluntary services; and was affirmed through interviews with local homeless people. The findings identified that many avoided going to the services provided and 90% would welcome clinical services from interprofessional groups of students. The results have led to the launch of project LIGHT (Leicester Initiative Good Health Team) and today interprofessional student groups run health promotion activities for this population.

  8. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  9. Addressing the Needs of Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews studies on the plight and needs of homeless students. Includes reports on family mobility and school attendance, dysfunctional families, and school intervention strategies. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  10. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans.

  11. Maintenance of Iron Status in Healthy Men during an Extended Period of Stress and Physical Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    scribed elsewhere who engage in physical training with low re- and physical activity in healthy men. a serves and marginal dietary iron intakes (6. 12. 28...116 ± 84 to 202 ± 106 /g/L (P > 0.05). Ade- is unclear whether the changes in iron metabolism persist during quate dietary iron, initiation of...the entire 8-wk training course. Beaumont Army Medical Center, El Paso, TX (phase 4). Differ- The average daily energy and protein intakes , determined

  12. HIV-Positive Men Sexually Active with Women: Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Risks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gunjeong; Howard, Joyce Moon; Caban, Maria; Abramson, David; Messeri, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study examines patterns of sexual behavior, sexual relating, and sexual risk among HIV-positive men sexually active with women. A total of 278 HIV-positive men were interviewed every 6–12 months between 1994 and 2002 and reported considerable variability in sexual behaviors over time. Many were not sexually active at all for months at a time; many continued to have multiple female and at times male partners. Over one-third of the cohort had one or more periods when they had engaged in unprotected sex with a female partner who was HIV-negative or status unknown (unsafe sex). Periods of unsafe sex alternated with periods of safer sex. Contextual factors such as partner relations, housing status, active drug use, and recently exchanging sex showed the strongest association with increased odds of unsafe sex. A number of predictors of unsafe sex among African American men were not significant among the Latino sub-population, suggesting race/ethnic differences in factors contributing to heterosexual transmission. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:16770702

  13. Skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing and activity of men sledging in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Budd, G. M.

    1966-01-01

    1. Three men were studied while dog-sledging 320 km in 12 days in Antarctica. Conventional Antarctic clothing (`sweaters and windproofs') was worn. Four hundred observations were made of medial thigh skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing, activity and environmental conditions. 2. Work occupied an average of 11·0 hr/day and sleep 7·5 hr. Estimated daily energy expenditure averaged 5100 kcal (range 2740-6660 kcal). 3. Skin temperature fell on exposure to cold despite the clothing worn, but was not changed by the level of activity. Sweating, and thermal comfort, were directly related to both skin temperature and activity. 4. Inside the tent, the modal value of skin temperature was 33° C (range 27-36° C) and the men were comfortable in 94% of observations. 5. During the 9·2 hr/day spent outdoors the modal value of skin temperature was 27° C (range 18-33° C) and the men felt too cold (but did not shiver) in 11% (range 7-20%) of observations, suggesting that cold stress was not negligible. However, they also felt too hot in 20% of observations and were sweating in 23%. PMID:5914254

  14. Physical activity and dark skin tone: protective factors against low bone mass in Mexican men.

    PubMed

    Vivanco-Muñoz, Nalleli; Jo, Talavera; Gerardo, Huitron-Bravo; Juan, Tamayo; Clark, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 268 Mexican men between the ages of 13 and 80 yr to evaluate the association of clinical factors related with bone mass. Men from high schools, universities, and retirement homes were invited to participate. Body mass index (BMI) was measured, and bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for L1-L4 and total hip. Factors related to bone mass were assessed by questionnaire and analyzed using a logistic regression model. Demographic factors (age, education, and occupation), clinical data (BMI, skin tone, previous fracture, history of osteoporosis [OP], and history of fractures), and lifestyle variables (diet, physical activity, sun exposure, and smoking) were evaluated. Physical activity (≥ 60 min/5 times a week) reduced the risk for low BMD for age, osteopenia, and OP at the spine and total hip (odds ratio [OR]: 0.276; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.099-0.769; p=0.014; and OR: 0.184; 95% CI: 0.04-0.849; p=0.03, respectively). Dark skin tone was a protective factor, decreasing the risk by up to 70%. In this population of healthy Mexican men (aged 13-80 yr), dark skin and physical activity were protective factors against low bone mass.

  15. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To determine whether objectively measured physical activity levels are associated with measures of physical function and mobility in older men. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Academic research center. Participants: Eighty-two community-dwelling men >/= 65 years of age with self-report...

  16. Vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity and risk of major chronic disease in men

    PubMed Central

    Chomistek, Andrea K.; Cook, Nancy R.; Flint, Alan J.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Although studies have shown health benefits for moderate-intensity physical activity, there is limited evidence to support beneficial effects for high amounts of vigorous activity among middle-aged and older men. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between vigorous-intensity physical activity, compared to moderate-intensity activity, and risk of major chronic disease in men. Methods We prospectively examined the associations between vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity and risk of major chronic disease among 44,551 men aged 40–75 years in 1986. Leisure-time physical activity was assessed biennially by questionnaire. During 22 years of follow-up, we documented 14,162 incident cases of major chronic disease, including 4769 cardiovascular events, 6449 cancer events, and 2944 deaths from other causes. Results The hazard ratio (HR) of major chronic disease comparing ≥ 21 to 0 MET-hours/week of exercise was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.91) for vigorous-intensity activity and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.90) for moderate activity. For CVD, the corresponding HR were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.86) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.88), respectively. When examined separately, running, tennis, and brisk walking were inversely associated with CVD risk. Furthermore, more vigorous activity was associated with lower disease risk; the HR comparing >70 to 0 MET-hours/week of vigorous-intensity exercise was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.92; P <0.0001 for trend) for major chronic disease and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.96; P <0.0001 for trend) for CVD. Conclusions Vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity were associated with lower risk of major chronic disease and cardiovascular disease. Increasing amounts of vigorous activity remained inversely associated with disease risk, even among men in the highest categories of exercise. PMID:22543741

  17. Are childhood abuse and neglect related to age of first homelessness episode among currently homeless adults?

    PubMed

    Mar, Marissa Y; Linden, Isabelle A; Torchalla, Iris; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates 500 homeless adults and the associations between childhood maltreatment types and the age of first reported homelessness episode. Those first experiencing homelessness in youth (age 24 years or younger; 46%) were compared with those first experiencing homelessness at a later age (older than age 24 years). In individual models, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were associated with first experiencing homelessness during youth (p < .02 for all types of maltreatment). In the simultaneous model, only emotional abuse remained significantly associated (p = .002). In addition, increasing numbers of maltreatment were associated with becoming homeless during youth (p < .0001). These results highlight the unique associations between childhood maltreatment types and becoming homeless earlier in life and support the need for early interventions with at-risk families.

  18. Condom use and perceived risk of HIV transmission among sexually active HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Lisa; Sternberg, Maya R; Wolitski, Richard J; Halkitis, Perry; Hoff, Colleen

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the association between HIV transmission risk perception and the sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Respondents rated the degree of risk of transmitting HIV through insertive anal intercourse and insertive oral sex. We examined (a) the perceived level of HIV transmission risk assigned to each sexual behavior and (b) the association between perceived risk for HIV transmission and condom use during insertive anal intercourse and insertive oral sex. We found for behaviors that have achieved less risk consensus that as transmission risk perception increases, so too does the likelihood of condom use. This study highlights the need for more research in understanding how perceived health risk to others influences protective behaviors.

  19. Physical Activity and Falls in Older Men: The Critical Role of Mobility Limitations

    PubMed Central

    JEFFERIS, BARBARA J.; MEROM, DAFNA; SARTINI, CLAUDIO; WANNAMETHEE, S. GOYA; ASH, SARAH; LENNON, LUCY T.; ILIFFE, STEVE; KENDRICK, DENISE; WHINCUP, PETER H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Physical activity (PA) has many health benefits but may increase falls risk among older adults. We study how objectively measured habitual daily PA is related to falls by exploring the modifying effect of mobility limitations and the mediating roles of fitness and lower-limb strength. Methods One thousand six hundred fifty-five (53%) of 3137 surviving participants (men age 71–91 yr) in an ongoing UK-population-based cohort study wore an ActiGraph GT3x accelerometer over the hip for 1 wk in 2010–2012 to measure PA (exposure) and reported demographic and health status, including mobility limitations. One year later, 825 men reported falls history (outcome). Results Seven hundred of 825 men had ≥600 min·d−1 of accelerometer wear for ≥3 d. Nineteen percent (n = 128) reported falls 1 yr later. Associations between PA and falls differed by presence of mobility limitations. Among 66% (n = 471) of men without mobility limitations, number of falls increased incrementally (for every 30 min of moderate to vigorous PA [MVPA]: incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–2.03, adjusted for falls risk factors). Step count was not related to number of falls below 9000 steps per day but was related to number of falls ≥9000 steps per day (for every additional 1000 steps per day: IRR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.16–2.18). Among 33% (n = 229) of men with mobility limitations, falls risk declined with increasing activity (for every 1000 steps per day: IRR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70–0.91; for every 30 min of MVPA: IRR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42–0.89; for every additional 30 min of sedentary behavior ≥600 min·d−1: IRR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07–1.40). Conclusions Interventions to promote MVPA in older men should incorporate falls prevention strategies. Among adults with mobility limitations, trials should investigate whether increasing MVPA levels can reduce falls risk. PMID:25668406

  20. Pharmaceutical research involving the homeless.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Jennings, Bruce; Kinney, Eleanor D; Levine, Robert J

    2002-10-01

    Discussions of research involving vulnerable populations have left the homeless comparatively ignored. Participation by these subjects in drug studies has the potential to be upsetting, inconvenient, or unpleasant. Participation occasionally produces injury, health emergencies, and chronic health problems. Nonetheless, no ethical justification exists for the categorical exclusion of homeless persons from research. The appropriate framework for informed consent for these subjects of pharmaceutical research is not a single event of oral or written consent, but a multi-staged arrangement of disclosure, dialogue, and permission-giving. Payments and other rewards in biomedical research raise issues of whether it is ethical to offer inducements to the homeless in exchange for participation in drug studies. Such inducements can influence desperate persons who are seriously lacking in resources. The key is to strike a balance between a rate of payment high enough that it does not exploit subjects by underpayment and low enough that it does not create an irresistible inducement. This proposal does not underestimate the risks of research, which are often overestimated and need to be appraised in light of the relevant empirical literature.

  1. Florida's Adult Homeless Literacy Training & Basic Skills Assistance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    Some facts about the homeless population in Florida are the following: (1) 40,000 persons in Florida are homeless on any given day, with 40 percent of the total being families; (2) 65 percent are new homeless (not chronic); (3) 30 percent of the homeless are addicted to drugs or alcohol and 20 percent are mentally ill; (4) causes of homelessness…

  2. Over the Edge: Homeless Families and the Welfare System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    Homelessness among families is quickly reaching crisis proportions across the country. Over 30 percent of America's three million homeless people are members of families, and families are the fastest growing segment of the homeless population. Perhaps more disturbing, homelessness represents only the most extreme manifestation of a more…

  3. 24 CFR 576.56 - Homeless assistance and participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Homeless assistance and... HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.56 Homeless assistance and participation. (a) Assistance. (1) Grantees and recipients must assure that homeless individuals and families are given...

  4. 24 CFR 576.56 - Homeless assistance and participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Homeless assistance and... HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.56 Homeless assistance and participation. (a) Assistance. (1) Grantees and recipients must assure that homeless individuals and families are given...

  5. Who Is Doing Well? A Typology of Newly Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…

  6. Preliminary Findings on Rural Homelessness in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Richard J.; And Others

    This report is designed to present preliminary findings from the first comprehensive study of rural homelessness in the United States. The study was conducted during the first 6 months of 1990, and data were collected from interviews with 921 homeless adults in 21 randomly selected rural counties in Ohio. The sample counties represent 26% of the…

  7. Helping Homeless People: Unique Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Clemmie, Ed.; Jackson-Jobe, Peggy, Ed.

    This publication is designed to provide a practical guide for gaining a detailed awareness and understanding of homelessness. After a foreword by Jesse Jackson, these chapters are included: (1) Introduction: Assessing the Unique Needs of Homeless People (Clemmie Solomon), which discusses the need for helping professionals to commit to addressing…

  8. Measuring pain in the context of homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Rebecca; Kline, Susan; Cook, Karon F.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to inform the development of measures of pain impact appropriate for all respondents, including homeless individuals, so that they can be used in clinical research and practice. The secondary objective was to increase understanding about the unique experience of homeless people with pain. Methods Seventeen homeless individuals with chronic health conditions (often associated with pain) participated in cognitive interviews to test the functioning of 56 pain measurement items and provided information about their experience living with and accessing treatment for pain. Results The most common problems identified with items were that they lacked clarity or were irrelevant in the context of homelessness. Items that were unclear, irrelevant and/or had other identified problems made it difficult for participants to respond. Participants also described multiple ways in which their pain was exacerbated by conditions of homelessness and identified barriers to accessing appropriate treatment. Conclusions Results suggested that the majority of items were problematic for the homeless and require substantial modifications to make the pain impact bank relevant to this population. Additional recommendations include involving homeless in future item bank development, conducting research on the topic of pain and homelessness, and using cognitive interviewing in other types of health disparities research. PMID:19582592

  9. Perceptions about Homeless Elders and Community Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane; Jacobs, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Human service students were surveyed ("N" = 207) to determine their perceptions about homeless elders and communal responsibility for their well-being. Using a backward regression analysis, a final model ("F" = 15.617, "df" = 7, "p" < 0.001) for Perceptions about Homeless Persons and Community…

  10. Providing Lifelines for Our Nation's Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses educational challenges for homeless children and explains how districts can and must meet their needs. According to the U.S. Department of Education Federal Data Collection, 1,065,794 homeless children and youth were enrolled in public schools for the school year 2010-2011, the highest number on record. After listing…

  11. The New Poverty: Homeless Families in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Ralph da Costa

    This book discusses homeless families in the United States and advocates the efforts of residential educational and employment training centers--American Family Inns--which provide comprehensive services education, job training, and parenting and life skills to address the poverty-related conditions that contribute to homelessness. Chapters of the…

  12. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  13. Intervention Strategies with the Homeless Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykeman, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    A literature review describing psychological and sociological factors of homelessness. Methods of estimating the frequency of homelessness are described, along with recent point-in-time and period-of-time estimates. Models of service delivery are reviewed. A biopsychosocial model of intervention is proposed that describes stages of intervention…

  14. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  15. Working to End Family Homelessness. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Center on Family Homelessness is determined to end family homelessness. Sheltering families provides a temporary safe haven. Connecting families to permanent housing, essential services, and critical supports can change their lives forever. Through research the Center learns what families need to rebound from the housing, economic,…

  16. The challenges of the homeless haemophilia patient.

    PubMed

    Lambing, A; Kuriakose, P; Kachalsky, E; Mueller, L

    2013-07-01

    The current economic hardships within the United States can increase the risk of persons becoming homeless. In 2001, it was estimated that between 0.1% and 2.1% of the population were homeless every night and that 2.3 - 3.5 million persons could become homeless every year [1]. Many issues can increase the risk of homelessness including: home foreclosure, declining work force due to declining wages, low-wage opportunities and less secure jobs, decline in public assistance, lack of affordable housing with limited housing assistance programs, poverty, lack of affordable health care, domestic violence, mental illness, and addiction disorders. Many on the streets may suffer from mental illness, developmental disabilities, and or chronic physical illness [6]. Given these issues, the Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) can expect to experience the issue of homelessness within their own population of persons with hemophilia. Currently, there are no studies that address the issue of the person with hemophilia who may become homeless. This presents unique challenges that this population may encounter to survive in addition to managing bleeding issues related to the diagnosis of hemophilia. This article will review the issues related to homelessness in the general population. Two case studies of persons with hemophilia who became homeless will be discussed outlining the strategies utilized to assist the patient during this crisis.

  17. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  18. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  19. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men.

  20. Effect of wrist-worn activity monitor feedback on physical activity behavior: A randomized controlled trial in Finnish young men

    PubMed Central

    Jauho, Anna-Maiju; Pyky, Riitta; Ahola, Riikka; Kangas, Maarit; Virtanen, Paula; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the use of an activity monitor providing feedback has an effect on physical activity (PA) in young men. A population-based sample of 276 conscription-aged (mean = 17.9, SD = 0.7 years) men participated in a 3-month randomized controlled trial in Oulu in 2012. Participants were randomized to an intervention group (INT, N = 137) and a control group (CON, N = 139). INT received a wrist-worn monitor (Polar Active) showing daily activity, and CON received identical monitors without feedback. Main outcome was the change from baseline in objectively measured weekly time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary activity (SED), as assessed by generalized estimation equations (GEE). Other lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire at baseline and at 3 months. Weekly physical activity data (≥ 4 days with ≥ 8 h each) were obtained from 72 (53%) and 90 (65%) men in the INT and CON, respectively. Based on GEE, time spent in MVPA increased (p = 0.012) and SED decreased (p = 0.032) in the INT compared with the CON. During the first 7 weeks, the INT spent on average 1 h less sedentary than the CON (t-test, p < 0.05). During the first week, the INT showed 12 minutes more MVPA compared to the CON (t-test, p = 0.034). Based on questionnaire data, the proportion of the most sedentary men decreased in the INT (Wilcoxon test, 28% vs. 10%, p = 0.029), with no change in the CON (20% vs. 19%, p = 0.546). To conclude, a wrist-worn activity monitor providing feedback had a short-term positive effect on PA and SED in young men. Trial registration This is a pilot study for a larger randomized controlled trial registered to the clinical trials register NCT01376986. PMID:26844128

  1. Turnover of whole body proteins and myofibrillar proteins in middle-aged active men

    SciTech Connect

    Zackin, M.; Meredith, C.; Frontera, W.; Evans, W.

    1986-03-05

    Endurance-trained older men have a higher proportion of lean tissue and greater muscle cell oxidative capacity, reversing age-related trends and suggesting major changes in protein metabolism. In this study, protein turnover was determined in 6 middle-aged (52+/-1 yr) men who were well trained (VO/sub 2/ max 55.2+/-5.0 ml O/sub 2//kg.min) and lean (body fat 18.9+/-2.8%, muscle mass 36.6+/-0.6%). The maintained habitual exercise while consuming 0.6, 0.9 or 1.2 g protein/kg.day for 10-day periods. N flux was measured from /sup 15/N in urea after oral /sup 15/N-glycine administration. Myofibrillar protein breakdown was estimated from urinary 3-methyl-histidine. Dietary protein had no effect on turnover rates, even when N balance was negative. Whole body protein synthesis was 3.60+/-0.12 g/kg.day and breakdown was 3.40+/-0.14 g/kg.day for all N intakes. Whole body protein flux, synthesis and breakdown were similar to values reported for sedentary young (SY) or sedentary old (SO) men on comparable diets. 3-me-his (3.67+/-0.14 ..mu..mol/kg.day) was similar to values reported for SY but higher (p<0.01) than for SO. Myofibrillar protein breakdown per unit muscle mass (185+/-7 ..mu..mol 3-me-his/g creatinine) was higher (p<0.01) than for SY or SO. In active middle-aged men, myofibrillar proteins may account for a greater proportion of whole body protein turnover, despite an age-related reduction in muscle mass.

  2. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  3. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  4. Increasing proportions of Australian gay and homosexually active men engage in unprotected anal intercourse with regular and with casual partners.

    PubMed

    Van De Ven, P; Rawstorne, P; Crawford, J; Kippax, S

    2002-06-01

    We examined trends in sexual practice among gay and homosexually active men in Australia. Self-complete questionnaires were distributed with mail-order sex video catalogues in 2000 and returned anonymously through a reply-paid facility. The data were compared with those from men who responded to promotional material sent out with the same catalogues and who participated in national telephone surveys of men who have sex with men conducted in 1992 and 1996. A key independent variable was gay community attached (GCA) versus non-GCA (NGCA) derived from two items about number of gay friends and amount of free time spent with gay men. Responses came from 1,832 men ranging in age from 16 to 80 (median = 39) years. HIV status was 73% negative, 5% positive, 22% untested; 1,181 men were GCA and 651 men were NGCA. Overall, from 1992 to 2000 there was a significant upward trend in the proportion of men reporting any unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the previous six months with regular partners: 21.5%, 24.7%, 46.4% of the total sample (p < 0.001). And similarly for UAI with casual partners: 12.4%, 16.2%, 25.5% (p < 0.001). The upward trends in UAI-regular and UAI-casual were similar and significant (p < 0.001) for both GCA and NGCA men. These nationwide Australian data provide evidence of continuing increases in unprotected anal intercourse with regular and with casual partners. Whereas the majority of men do not engage in any unprotected anal intercourse during a defined interval, ever increasing proportions of them do.

  5. Anticipation of monetary and social reward differently activates mesolimbic brain structures in men and women.

    PubMed

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Krach, Sören; Kohls, Gregor; Rademacher, Lena; Irmak, Arda; Konrad, Kerstin; Kircher, Tilo; Gründer, Gerhard

    2009-06-01

    Motivation for goal-directed behaviour largely depends on the expected value of the anticipated reward. The aim of the present study was to examine how different levels of reward value are coded in the brain for two common forms of human reward: money and social approval. To account for gender differences 16 male and 16 female participants performed an incentive delay task expecting to win either money or positive social feedback. fMRI recording during the anticipation phase revealed proportional activation of neural structures constituting the human reward system for increasing levels of reward, independent of incentive type. However, in men activation in the prospect of monetary rewards encompassed a wide network of mesolimbic brain regions compared to only limited activation for social rewards. In contrast, in women, anticipation of either incentive type activated identical brain regions. Our findings represent an important step towards a better understanding of motivated behaviour by taking into account individual differences in reward valuation.

  6. Transactional sex among men and women in the south at high risk for HIV and other STIs.

    PubMed

    Bobashev, Georgiy V; Zule, William A; Osilla, Karen C; Kline, Tracy L; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2009-07-01

    Transactional sex refers to selling sex (exchanging sex for money, drugs, food, shelter, or other items) or purchasing sex (exchanging money, drugs, food, shelter, or other items for sex). These activities have been associated with a higher risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a variety of populations and settings. This paper examines correlates of purchasing and selling sex in a large sample of drug users, men who have sex with men, and sex partners of these groups. Using respondent-driven sampling, participants were recruited between 2005 and 2008 in two urban and two rural counties in North Carolina. We used multiple logistic regressions to examine separate models for selling and purchasing sex in men and women. In addition, we estimated direct and indirect associations among independent variables in the logistic regression models and transactional sex using structural equation models. The analysis shows that factors associated with women selling and buying sex include being homeless, use of stimulants, bisexual behavior, and neighborhood disorder. There was also a significant difference by race. For men, the factors associated with selling and buying sex include being homeless, bisexual behavior, and not being in a relationship. Although neighborhood violence and disorder show significance in bivariate associations with the outcome, these associations disappear in the structural equation models.

  7. Specificity of sexual arousal for sexual activities in men and women with conventional and masochistic sexual interests.

    PubMed

    Chivers, Meredith L; Roy, Carolyn; Grimbos, Teresa; Cantor, James M; Seto, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    Prior studies consistently report that men's genital responses correspond to their sexual activity interests (consenting vs. coercive sex) whereas women's responses do not. For women, however, these results may be confounded by the sexual activities studied and lack of suitable controls. We examined the subjective and genital arousal responses of men and women with conventional (22 men and 15 women) or masochistic sexual interests (16 men and 17 women) to narratives describing conventional sex or masochistic sex. The aims of the studies were twofold: (1) to examine whether gender differences in the specificity of sexual arousal previously observed for gender also exist for sexual activity interests; and (2) to examine whether men and women with masochistic sexual interests demonstrate specificity of sexual response for their preferred sexual activities. Surprisingly, the pattern of results was very similar for men and women. Both men and women with conventional sexual interests (WCI) reported more sexual arousal, and responded more genitally, to conventional than to masochistic sex, demonstrating specificity of sexual arousal for their preferred sexual activities. Despite showing specificity for conventional sexual activities, the genital responses of WCI were still gender nonspecific. In contrast, women and men with masochistic sexual interests demonstrated nonspecific subjective and genital responses to conventional and masochistic sex. Indices of genital and subjective sexual arousal to masochistic versus conventional stimuli were positively and significantly correlated with self-reported thoughts, fantasies, interests, and behaviors involving masochism. The results suggest that gender similarities in the specificity of sexual arousal for sexual activity exist despite consistent gender differences in the specificity of sexual arousal for gender.

  8. Effects of intranasal oxytocin and vasopressin on cooperative behavior and associated brain activity in men

    PubMed Central

    Rilling, James K.; DeMarco, Ashley C.; Hackett, Patrick D.; Thompson, Richmond; Ditzen, Beate; Patel, Rajan; Pagnoni, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The neural mechanisms supporting social bonds between adult men remain uncertain. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigate the impact of intranasally administered oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on behavior and brain activity among men in the context of an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game, which models a real-life social situation. fMRI results show that, relative to both AVP and placebo, OT increases the caudate nucleus response to reciprocated cooperation, which may augment the reward of reciprocated cooperation and/or facilitate learning that another person can be trusted. OT also enhances left amygdala activation in response to reciprocated cooperation. Behaviorally, OT was associated with increased rates of cooperation following unreciprocated cooperation in the previous round compared with AVP. AVP strongly increased cooperation in response to a cooperative gesture by the partner compared with both placebo and OT. In response to reciprocated cooperation, AVP increased activation in a region spanning known vasopressin circuitry implicated in affiliative behaviors in other species. Finally, both OT and AVP increase amygdala functional connectivity with the anterior insula relative to placebo, which may increase the amygdala’s ability to elicit visceral somatic markers that guide decision making. These findings extend our knowledge of the neural and behavioral effects of OT and AVP to the context of genuine social interactions. PMID:21840129

  9. The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy.

    PubMed

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S

    2009-04-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based organizations. All participated in structured interviews and 25% participated in qualitative interviews. Almost all HY had participated in the street (81%) and formal economies (69%). Five main factors simultaneously influenced initiation into the street economy: social control/bonds, barriers to the formal economy (e.g., homelessness, educational deficits, mental health problems, incarceration, stigma), tangible and social/emotional benefits of the street economy, severe economic need, and the active recruitment of HY into the street economy by others. Qualitative and quantitative data sources were congruent. Intervention efforts are needed at multiple levels of influence to promote HY's success in the formal economy.

  10. Perceptions Towards Condom Use, Sexual Activity, and HIV Disclosure among HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men: Implications for Heterosexual Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Ramamurthi, Hema Codathi; Bingham, Trista A.

    2006-01-01

    Disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates and frequent non-gay identification (NGI) among African American men who have sex with men or with both men and women (MSM/W) highlight the importance of understanding how HIV-positive African American MSM/W perceive safer sex, experience living with HIV, and decide to disclose their HIV status. Thirty predominately seropositive and non-gay identifying African American MSM/W in Los Angeles participated in three semi-structured focus group interviews, and a constant comparison method was used to analyze responses regarding condom use, sexual activity after an HIV diagnosis, and HIV serostatus disclosure. Condom use themes included its protective role against disease and pregnancy, acceptability concerns pertaining to aesthetic factors and effectiveness, and situational influences such as exchange sex, substance use, and suspicions from female partners. Themes regarding the impact of HIV on sexual activity included rejection, decreased partner seeking, and isolation. Serostatus disclosure themes included disclosure to selective partners and personal responsibility. Comprehensive HIV risk-reduction strategies that build social support networks, condom self-efficacy, communication skills, and a sense of collective responsibility among NGI African American MSM/W while addressing HIV stigma in the African American community as a whole are suggested. PMID:16736115

  11. Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Is Associated with Liver Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Non-Diabetic Men.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel L T; Brown, Rachael; Liess, Carsten; Poljak, Anne; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jialiang; Trenell, Michael; Jenkins, Arthur; Chisholm, Donald; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Macefield, Vaughan G; Greenfield, Jerry R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may play a role in insulin resistance in obesity. However, the direction and nature of the relationship between MSNA and insulin resistance in obesity remain unclear. We hypothesized that resting MSNA would correlate inversely with both muscle and liver insulin sensitivity and that it would be higher in insulin-resistant vs. insulin-sensitive subjects. Materials and methods: Forty-five non-diabetic obese subjects were studied. As no significant relationships were found in women, the data presented in on 22 men aged 48 ± 12 years. Two-step (15 and 80 mU/m(2)/min) hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed using deuterated glucose to determine liver and muscle insulin sensitivity. Clinical and metabolic parameters were assessed. MSNA was measured via a microelectrode inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve. Results: MSNA burst frequency correlated inversely with liver insulin sensitivity (r = -0.53, P = 0.02) and positively with the hepatokines C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19 (r = 0.57, P = 0.006, and r = -0.47, P = 0.03, respectively). MSNA burst frequency was lower in Liversen compared to Liverres (27 ± 5 vs. 38 ± 2 bursts per minute; P = 0.03). Muscle insulin sensitivity was unrelated to MSNA. Discussion: Sympathetic neural activation is related to liver insulin sensitivity and circulating hepatokines CRP and FGF-19 in non-diabetic obese men. These results suggest a potential hepato-endocrine-autonomic axis. Future studies are needed to clarify the influence of MSNA on liver insulin sensitivity in men.

  12. Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Is Associated with Liver Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Non-Diabetic Men

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daniel L. T.; Brown, Rachael; Liess, Carsten; Poljak, Anne; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jialiang; Trenell, Michael; Jenkins, Arthur; Chisholm, Donald; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Macefield, Vaughan G.; Greenfield, Jerry R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may play a role in insulin resistance in obesity. However, the direction and nature of the relationship between MSNA and insulin resistance in obesity remain unclear. We hypothesized that resting MSNA would correlate inversely with both muscle and liver insulin sensitivity and that it would be higher in insulin-resistant vs. insulin-sensitive subjects. Materials and methods: Forty-five non-diabetic obese subjects were studied. As no significant relationships were found in women, the data presented in on 22 men aged 48 ± 12 years. Two-step (15 and 80 mU/m2/min) hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed using deuterated glucose to determine liver and muscle insulin sensitivity. Clinical and metabolic parameters were assessed. MSNA was measured via a microelectrode inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve. Results: MSNA burst frequency correlated inversely with liver insulin sensitivity (r = −0.53, P = 0.02) and positively with the hepatokines C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19 (r = 0.57, P = 0.006, and r = −0.47, P = 0.03, respectively). MSNA burst frequency was lower in Liversen compared to Liverres (27 ± 5 vs. 38 ± 2 bursts per minute; P = 0.03). Muscle insulin sensitivity was unrelated to MSNA. Discussion: Sympathetic neural activation is related to liver insulin sensitivity and circulating hepatokines CRP and FGF-19 in non-diabetic obese men. These results suggest a potential hepato-endocrine-autonomic axis. Future studies are needed to clarify the influence of MSNA on liver insulin sensitivity in men. PMID:28293196

  13. Plasma lactic dehydrogenase activities in men during bed rest with exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.

  14. Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan.

    PubMed

    Viwatpanich, Kanvee

    2015-03-01

    The combination between quantitative and qualitative research, "Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan" aimed to study causes of homelessness, patterns of living, problems, health status, social and health needs. Purposive sampling of 60 older homeless people could be divided into two groups; temporary and permanent homeless. Causes of homelessness were health problems, money problems, family background, emotional management, cultural sensitivities, limitation of extended family, financial management, political control, and domestic violence. Their living problems included:financial insecurity, police suppression, social and medical services, attacks from the young generations, sexual harassment, stealing, and social hierarchy of homelessness. 63.3% reported having hearing problems and a peptic ulcer before becoming homeless. These evolved into musculo-skeletal problems, accident-injuries, and skin diseases. 95% performed ADL/IADLs independently, 78.3% were depressed, 5% diagnosed with severe stress depression. 70% rated themselves happier than the rest ofthe population, and 75% were identified as having normal cognition. 58.3% had a good relationship with a religious network, 55% still had some contacts with theirfamily members. More than 90% indicated that they were satisfied, could sustainin a life on the street, were happy with theirfreedom, liked being close to green areas, learned about human life,fulfilled the dhamma, and felt close to the king.

  15. Health-Seeking Challenges Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Angela L.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Greengold, Barbara; Slagle, Alexandra; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Getzoff, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 to 2 million homeless young persons live on the streets in the United States. With the current economic situation, research is needed on quality of services geared toward homeless young adults. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore homeless young adults' perspectives on barriers and facilitators of health-care-seeking behavior and their perspectives on improving existing programs for homeless persons. Methods This article is a descriptive qualitative study using focus groups, with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using young adults. Results Identified themes were failing access to care based on perceived structural barriers (limited clinic sites, limited hours of operation, priority health conditions, and long wait times) and social barriers (perception of discrimination by uncaring professionals, law enforcement, and society in general). Discussion Results provide insight into programmatic and agency resources that facilitate health-seeking behaviors among homeless young adults and include implications for more research with providers of homeless health and social services. PMID:20404776

  16. Factors in Daily Physical Activity Related to Calcaneal Mineral Density in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Teresa M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Cleek, Tammy M.; Vogel, John M.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the factors in daily physical activity that influence the mineral density of the calcaneus, we recorded walking steps and the type and duration of exercise in 43 healthy 26-to 51-yr-old men. Areal (g/sq cm) calcaneal bone mineral density (CBMD) was measured by single energy x-ray densitometry. Subjects walked a mean (+/- SD) of 7902(+/-2534) steps per day or approximately 3.9(+/-1.2) miles daily. Eight subjects reported no exercise activities. The remaining 35 subjects spent 143(2-772) (median and range) min/wk exercising. Twenty-eight men engaged in exercise activities that generate single leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF(sub z)) of 2 or more body weights (high loaders, HL), and 15 reported exercise or daily activities that typically generate GRF(sub z) less than 1.5 body weights (low loaders, LL). CBMD was 12% higher in HL than LL (0.668 +/- 0.074 g/sq cm vs 0.597 +/- 0.062 g/sq cm, P less than 0.004). In the HL group, CBMD correlated to reported minutes of high load exercise (r = 0.41, P less than 0.03). CBMD was not related to the number of daily walking steps (N = 43, r = 0.03, NS). The results of this study support the concept that the dominant factor in daily physical activity relating to bone mineral density is the participation in site specific high loading activities, i.e., for the calcaneus, high calcaneal loads.

  17. Risk factors associated with recurrent homelessness after a first homeless episode.

    PubMed

    McQuistion, Hunter L; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Hsu, Eustace; Caton, Carol L M

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol and drug use are commonly associated with the experience of homelessness. In order to better understand this, we explored the prevalence of drug and alcohol use as it related to successful re-housing within a sample of first-time single homeless adults at municipal shelters. From within this sample, we compared the features of recurrent homelessness with those of chronic homelessness and of being stably housed. We interviewed 344 subjects upon shelter entry and followed each one every six months for 18 months using standardized social and mental health measures. We analyzed baseline assessments relative to housing experiences during follow-up using Chi square and multinomial logistic regression. Eighty-one percent (N = 278) obtained housing over 18 months, of which 23.7 % (N = 66) experienced homelessness again. Recurrent homelessness was more common among those with a high school education and if initially re-housed with family. Bivariate analysis resulted in the observation of the highest rate of alcohol and other drug use among this recurrent group and multinomial logistic regression supported this only with the coupling of arrest history and diagnosed antisocial personality disorder. With relatively high rates of recurrent homelessness, there were differences between subjects who experienced recurrent homelessness compared to those who were stably housed and with chronic homelessness. That alcohol and other substance use disorders were associated with recurrent homelessness only if they were linked to other risk factors highlights the complexity of causes for homelessness and a resultant need to organize them into constellations of causal risk factors. Consistent with this, there should be initiatives that span bureaucratic boundaries so as to flexibly meet multiple complex service needs, thus improving outcomes concerning episodes of recurrent homelessness.

  18. Confirmatory biopsy for the assessment of prostate cancer in men considering active surveillance: reference centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Cecilia; Cozzi, Gabriele; Kinsella, Janette; Bianchi, Roberto; Acher, Peter; Challacombe, Benjamin; Popert, Rick; Brown, Christian; George, Gincy; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Cahill, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how accurate a 12-core transrectal biopsy derived low-risk prostate cancer diagnosis is for an active surveillance programme by comparing the histological outcome with that from confirmatory transperineal sector biopsy. Subjects and methods The cohort included 166 men diagnosed with low volume Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer on initial transrectal biopsy who also underwent a confirmatory biopsy. Both biopsy techniques were performed according to standard protocols and samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed according to disease severity at baseline to determine possible disease parameters of upgrading at confirmatory biopsy. Results After confirmatory biopsy, 34% demonstrated Gleason score upgrade, out of which 25% were Gleason score 3+4 and 8.5% primary Gleason pattern 4. Results remained consistent for the subgroup analysis and a weak positive association, but not statistically significant, between prostate specific antigen (PSA), age, and percentage of positive cores, and PCa upgrading at confirmatory biopsy was found. Conclusion In our single centre study, we found that one-third of patients had higher Gleason score at confirmatory biopsy. Furthermore 8.5% of these upgraders had a primary Gleason pattern 4. Our results together with previously published evidence highlight the need for the revision of current guidelines in prostate cancer diagnosis for the selection of men for active surveillance. PMID:27170833

  19. Activity spaces of men who have sex with men: An initial exploration of geographic variation in locations of routine, potential sexual risk, and prevention behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam S; Kramer, Michael R; Cooper, Hannah L F; Rosenberg, Eli S; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2017-02-01

    Theory and research on HIV and among men who have sex with men (MSM) have long suggested the importance of non-residential locations in defining structural exposures. Despite this, most studies within these fields define place as a residential context, neglecting the potential influence of non-residential locations on HIV-related outcomes. The concept of activity spaces, defined as a set of locations to which an individual is routinely exposed, represents one theoretical basis for addressing this potential imbalance. Using a one-time online survey to collect demographic, behavioral, and spatial data from MSM, this paper describes activity spaces and examines correlates of this spatial variation. We used latent class analysis to identify categories of activity spaces using spatial data on home, routine, potential sexual risk, and HIV prevention locations. We then assessed individual and area-level covariates for their associations with these categories. Classes were distinguished by the degree of spatial variation in routine and prevention behaviors (which were the same within each class) and in sexual risk behaviors (i.e., sex locations and locations of meeting sex partners). Partner type (e.g. casual or main) represented a key correlate of the activity space. In this early examination of activity spaces in an online sample of MSM, patterns of spatial behavior represent further evidence of significant spatial variation in locations of routine, potential HIV sexual risk, and HIV prevention behaviors among MSM. Although prevention behaviors tend to have similar geographic variation as routine behaviors, locations where men engage in potentially high-risk behaviors may be more spatially focused for some MSM than for others.

  20. Hurricane Sandy's impact on the predisaster homeless and homeless shelter services in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Settembrino, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is little research on how people experiencing homelessness prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Existing emergency management literature does not provide an understanding of how disasters affect homeless shelter services. The present study seeks to fill these gaps by examining how Hurricane Sandy impacted homeless shelters and their guests in New Jersey. Presenting findings from ethnographic research in Atlantic City and Hoboken, this study identifies several areas in which homeless shelters and their guests may be able to assist in emergency response and disaster recovery such as preparing meals for victims, sorting and processing donated items, and assisting victims in filing for emergency assistance.

  1. Forget Me Not, 2000. Help Homeless Kids Blossom: Kids' Day on Capitol Hill. Educational Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Better Homes Fund, Newton, MA.

    This packet presents educational materials to help teachers, students, and parents understand homelessness. Section 1, "America's Homeless Children: Educational Information for Students, Teachers, and Parents," discusses what it is like to be homeless, how many children are homeless, how homelessness is harmful, how children become homeless, and…

  2. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Quality of Life Between Physically Active and Underactive Older Men With Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Boisen, Samara; Krägeloh, Chris; Shepherd, Daniel; Ryan, Clare; Masters, Jonathan; Osborne, Sue; MacLeod, Rod D; Gray, Marion; Keogh, Justin W

    2016-10-01

    Men with prostate cancer experience many side effects and symptoms that may be improved by a physically active lifestyle. It was hypothesized that older men with prostate cancer who were physically active would report significantly higher levels of quality of life (QOL) as assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF and the WHOQOL-OLD. Of the 348 prostate cancer survivors who were invited to participate in the present postal survey, 137 men returned the questionnaires. Those who were physically active had significantly lower prostate specific antigen (PSA) scores and higher social participation than those insufficiently active. These findings offer some support for the benefits of physical activity (PA) within the prostate cancer population in managing the adverse side effects of their treatments on aspects of their QOL. Future research should more closely examine what types of PA best promote improvements in varying aspects of QOL and psychological well-being for prostate cancer survivors.

  3. Plasma glucose, insulin and catecholamine responses to a Wingate test in physically active women and men.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Sophie; Berthon, Phanélie; Zouhal, Hassane; Moussa, Elie; Catheline, Michel; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of gender on the glucose response to exercise remains contradictory. Moreover, to our knowledge, the glucoregulatory responses to anaerobic sprint exercise have only been studied in male subjects. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare glucoregulatory metabolic (glucose and lactate) and hormonal (insulin, catecholamines and estradiol only in women) responses to a 30-s Wingate test, in physically active students. Eight women [19.8 (0.7) years] and eight men [22.0 (0.6) years] participated in a 30-s Wingate test on a bicycle ergometer. Plasma glucose, insulin, and catecholamine concentrations were determined at rest, at the end of both the warm-up and the exercise period and during the recovery (5, 10, 20, and 30 min). Results showed that the plasma glucose increase in response to a 30-s Wingate test was significantly higher in women than in men [0.99 (0.15) versus 0.33 (0.20) mmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. Plasma insulin concentrations peaked at 10 min post-exercise and the increase between this time of recovery and the end of the warm-up was also significantly higher in women than in men [14.7 (2.9) versus 2.3 (1.9) pmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. However, there was no gender difference concerning the catecholamine response. The study indicates a gender-related difference in post-exercise plasma glucose and insulin responses after a supramaximal exercise.

  4. Low LBNP Tolerance in Men is Associated With Attenuated Activation of The Renin-Angiotensin System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Petersen, T. W.; Gabrielsen, A.; Pump, B.; Bie, P.; Christensen, N.-J.; Warberg, J.; Videbaeck, R.; Simonson, S. R.; Norsk, P.

    1999-01-01

    Vasoactive hormone concentrations [epinephrine (pE), norepinephrine (pNE), angiotensin II (pATII), vasopressin (pVP), endothelin 1 (pET1)] and plasma renin activity (pRA) were measured during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of the renin-angiotensin system is related to LBNP tolerance. Healthy men (2,822 cal/day(exp -1), 2 mmol*kg(exp -1)*day(exp -1)) Na(+)) were exposed to 30 minutes of progressive LBNP to -50 mmHg. LBNP was uneventful for seven men (25 +/- 2 years, HiTol group), but eight men (26 +/- 3 years) reached pre-syncope after 11 +/- 1 minutes (P < 0.001, LoTol group). Mean arterial pressure was unchanged. Central venous pressure and left atrial diameter decreased in both groups (5-6 mmHg by approx. 30%, P < 0.05). Control [hormone] were similar but, pRA differed between groups (LoTol 0.6 +/- 0.1, HiTol 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng Ang1/(ml(exp -1)*h(exp -1)), P < 0.05). LBNP increased (P < 0.05) pRA and pATII more in HiTol (9.9 +/- 2.2 ng Ang1/(ml(exp -1)*h(exp -1)) and 58 +/- 12 pg/ml(exp -1)) than LoTol (4.3 +/- 0.9 ng Ang1/(ml*h) and 28 +/- 6 pg/ml(exp -1)). In contrast, pVP was higher (P < 0.05) in LoTol than in HiTol. The response of the renin-angiotensin system seems linked to the occurrence of pre-syncope, and measurement of resting pRA may be predictive.

  5. Low LBNP Tolerance in Men is Associated With Attenuated Activation of Renin-Angiotensin System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Petersen, T. W.; Gabrielsen, A.; Pump, B.; Bie, P.; Christensen, N.-J.; Warberg, J.; Videbaeck, R.; Simonson, S. R.; Norsk, P.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Vasoactive hormone concentrations (epinephrine (pE), norepinephrine (pNE), angiotensin II (pATII), vasopressin (pVP), endothelin 1 (pET1)] and plasma renin activity (pRA) were measured during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of the reninangiotensin system is related to LBNP tolerance. Healthy men (2,822 cal per day, 2 mmol per kilogram per day Na (+)) were exposed to 30 min of progressive LBNP to -50mmHg. LBNP was uneventful for 7 men (2512 yr, HiTol group), but 8 men (26 plus or minus 3 yr) reached pre-syncope after 11 plus or minus 1 min (P less than 0.001, LoTol group). Mean arterial pressure was unchanged. Central venous pressure and left atrial diameter decreased in both groups (5-6 mmHg by 30%, P less than 0.05). Control [hormone] were similar but, pRA differed between groups (LoTol 0.6 plus or minus 0.1, HiTol 1.2 plus or minus 0.1 ng Ang1 per milliliter per hour, per hour, P less than 0.05). LBNP increased (P less than 0.05) pRA and pATII more in HiTol (9.9 plus or minus 2.2 ng Ang1 per milliliter per hour and 58 plus or minus 12 pg per milliliter) than LoTol (4.3 plus or minus 0.9 ng Angl per milliliter per hour and 28 plus or minus 6 pg per milliliter). In contrast, pVP was higher (P less than 0.05) in LoTol than in HiTol. The response of the renin-angiotensin system seems linked to the occurrence of pre-syncope, and measurement of resting pRA may be predictive.

  6. Men on the Move-Nashville: Feasibility and Acceptability of a Technology-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Middle and Older Age African American Men.

    PubMed

    Dean, Donnatesa A L; Griffith, Derek M; McKissic, Sydika A; Cornish, Emily K; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-04-19

    Men on the Move-Nashvillewas a quasi-experimental, 10-week pilot physical activity intervention. A total of 40 overweight or obese African American men ages 30 to 70 (mean age = 47) enrolled in the intervention. Participants attended 8 weekly, 90-minute small group sessions with a certified personal trainer. Each session consisted of discussions aimed to educate and motivate men to be more physically active, and an exercise component aimed to increase endurance, strength, and flexibility. Throughout each week, men used wearable activity trackers to promote self-monitoring and received informational and motivational SMS text messages. Of the 40 enrolled men, 85% completed the intervention, and 80% attended four or more small group sessions. Additionally, 70% of participants successfully used the activity tracker, but only 30% of men utilized their gym memberships. Participants benefited from both the small group discussions and activities through increasing social connection and guidance from their trainer and group members. These African American men reported being motivated to engage in physical activity through each of these technologies. Men reported that the activity trackers provided an important extension to their social network of physically active people. The intervention resulted in significant increases in men's self-reported levels of light, moderate, vigorous, and sports-related physical activities, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and significant decreases in weight and body fat percentage with small, moderate and large effects shown. Including technology and didactic components in small group-based interventions holds promise in motivating African American men to increase their physical activity.

  7. Optimal waist-to-hip ratios in women activate neural reward centers in men.

    PubMed

    Platek, Steven M; Singh, Devendra

    2010-02-05

    Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of "good genes" in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to naked female bodies when surgically altered to express an optimal (approximately 0.7) WHR with redistributed body fat, but relatively unaffected body mass index (BMI). Relative to presurgical bodies, brain activation to postsurgical bodies was observed in bilateral orbital frontal cortex. While changes in BMI only revealed activation in visual brain substrates, changes in WHR revealed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with reward processing and decision-making. When regressing ratings of attractiveness on brain activation, we observed activation in forebrain substrates, notably the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain nucleus highly involved in reward processes. These findings suggest that an hourglass figure (i.e., an optimal WHR) activates brain centers that drive appetitive sociality/attention toward females that represent the highest-quality reproductive partners. This is the first description of a neural correlate implicating WHR as a putative honest biological signal of female reproductive viability and its effects on men's neurological processing.

  8. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Homeless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Dixon, Elizabeth L; Robbins, Wendie; Smith, Cynthia; Wiley, Dorothy; Leake, Barbara; Longshore, Douglas; Gelberg, Lillian

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a sample of homeless and impoverished adults and examine risk factors for HCV infection in the overall sample and as a function of injection drug use. DESIGN Assays were conducted on stored sera. Sociodemographic characteristics and risky sexual activity were measured by content-specific items. Substance use was measured by a structured questionnaire. HCV antibodies were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; a confirmatory level was defined by recombinant immunoblot assay. SETTINGS Shelters (N = 36) and outdoor locations in Los Angeles. PARTICIPANTS Eight hundred eighty-four homeless women and/or partners or friends. RESULTS Among this sample of 884 homeless and impoverished adults, 22% were found to be HCV infected. Lifetime injection drug users (IDUs) (cocaine, crack, and methamphetamine) and recent daily users of crack were more likely than nonusers or less-frequent users of these drugs to be HCV-infected. Similar results were found for those who had been hospitalized for a mental health problem. Among non–injection drug users and persons in the total sample, those who reported lifetime alcohol abuse were more likely than those who did not to be HCV infected. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, multiple logistic regression analyses revealed IDUs have over 25 times greater odds of having HCV infection than non-IDUs. HCV infection was also predicted by older age, having started living on one's own before the age of 18, and recent chronic alcohol use. Males and recent crack users had about one and a half times greater odds of HCV infection when compared to females and non–chronic crack users. CONCLUSIONS Targeted outreach for homeless women and their partners, including HCV testing coupled with referrals to HCV and substance abuse treatments, may be helpful. PMID:11841529

  9. The effect of psychosocial syndemic production on 4-year HIV incidence and risk behavior in a large cohort of sexually active men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    MIMIAGA, Matthew J.; O’CLEIRIGH, Conall; BIELLO, Katie B.; ROBERTSON, Angela M.; SAFREN, Steven A.; COATES, Thomas J.; KOBLIN, Beryl A.; CHESNEY, Margaret A.; DONNELL, Deborah J.; STALL, Ron D.; MAYER, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies have suggested that co-occurring epidemics or “syndemics” of psychosocial health problems may accelerate HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We aimed to assess how five syndemic conditions (depressive symptoms, heavy alcohol use, stimulant use, polydrug use, and childhood sexual abuse) affected HIV incidence and sexual risk behavior over time. Methods Eligible men in a large, prospective cohort of sexually active, HIV-uninfected MSM completed HIV testing and behavioral surveys at baseline and every 6 months for 48 months. We examined interrelationships between psychosocial problems and whether these interactions increased the odds of HIV risk behaviors and risk of seroconversion over study follow-up. Results Among 4295 men, prevalence of psychosocial conditions was substantial at baseline and was positively associated with each other. We identified a statistically significant positive dose-response relationship between numbers of syndemic conditions and HIV seroconversion for all comparisons (with the greatest hazard among those with 4-5 conditions, aHR=8.69; 95% CI: 4.78-15.44). The number of syndemic conditions also predicted increased HIV related risk behaviors over time, which mediated the syndemic-HIV seroconversion association. Conclusions The accumulation of “syndemic” psychosocial problems predicted HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and seroconversion in a large sample of U.S. MSM. Given the high prevalence of syndemic conditions among MSM and the moderate effect sizes attained by traditional brief behavioral interventions to date, the HIV prevention agenda requires a shift toward improved assessment of psychosocial comorbidities and stronger integration with mental health and substance abuse treatment services. PMID:25501609

  10. Changes in markers of brain serotonin activity in response to chronic exercise in senior men.

    PubMed

    Melancon, Michel O; Lorrain, Dominique; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with noticeable impairments in brain serotonin transmission, which might contribute to increased vulnerability to developing depression in later life. Animal and human studies have shown that aerobic exercise can stimulate brain serotonin activity and trigger parallel elevations in tryptophan (TRP, the serotonin precursor) availability in blood plasma. However, the influence of chronic exercise on serotonergic activity in older adults is not yet known. Sixteen men aged 64 ± 3 years exercised for 1 h (67%-70% peak oxygen consumption) at baseline and following 16 weeks of aerobic training. The main outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), TRP, prolactin, lactate, and free fatty acids (FFA). Changes in plasma free-TRP/BCAA and prolactin served as surrogates for TRP availability and serotonin activity, respectively. Chronic exercise decreased body mass (P < 0.05) whilst it increased ventilatory threshold 2 (P < 0.01). Although training did not affect plasma TRP availability to the brain at rest, both pre- and post-training exercise challenges markedly increased TRP availability (P < 0.001). The free-TRP/BCAA values reached a ceiling during exercise that was lower following training (P < 0.05), whereas similar patterns were found for prolactin, lactate, and FFA. These data show that aerobic exercise elicits consistent transient elevations in plasma TRP availability to the brain in older men; the elevations were independent from physical training, although less pronounced following training. The data support the contention that repeated elevations in brain serotonin activity might be involved in the antidepressant effect of exercise training in older adults.

  11. Parenting and homelessness: overview and introduction to the Special Section.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Kristen; Bassuk, Ellen L

    2009-07-01

    This overview of parenting and homelessness includes the characteristics and needs of families who are homeless, with a focus on the unique challenges faced by mothers, fathers, and children. In addition, the authors discuss how homeless families are narrowly defined based on the family members who present at shelters and other service programs. In order to fully support parents and their children as they exit homelessness, homeless service programs should consider the broader context of the nontraditional family system and support networks. The overview also includes common challenges to parenting while homeless, a summary of the articles in the Special Section, and recommendations for research, practice, and policy.

  12. Condoms and Contexts: Profiles of Sexual Risk and Safety Among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual men’s sexual safety behavior is important to controlling the U.S. epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. While sexual safety is often treated as a single behavior, such as condom use, it can also be conceptualized as resulting from multiple factors. Doing so can help us achieve more nuanced understandings of sexual risk and safety within partner-related contexts. We used Latent Class Analysis with data collected online from 18-25 year old heterosexually active U.S. men (n = 432) to empirically derive a typology of the patterns of sexual safety strategies they employ. Indicators were sexual risk reduction strategies used in the past year with the most recent female sex partner: Condom use, discussing sexual histories, STI testing, agreeing to be monogamous, and discussing birth control. We identified four subgroups: Risk Takers (12%), Condom Reliers (25%), Multistrategists (28%), and Relationship Reliers (35%). Partner-related context factors – number of past-year sex partners, relationship commitment, and sexual concurrency – predicted subgroup membership. Findings support tailoring STI prevention to men’s sexual risk-safety subgroups. Interventions should certainly continue to encourage condom use, but should also include information on how partner-related context factors and alternate sexual safety strategies can help men reduce risk for themselves and their partners. PMID:25256019

  13. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, we found three styles of working with sexual scripts: Conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts, or interpreted their own non-traditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well. PMID:22489683

  14. Influence of gang membership on negative affect, substance use, and antisocial behavior among homeless African American male youth.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Davidson, Jonathan; Hosek, Sybil G

    2008-09-01

    The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members, with current gang members reporting higher levels of depression and anxiety, greater levels of antisocial and violent behavior, and higher levels of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that greater levels of gang involvement were associated with more frequent lifetime use of alcohol and marijuana and higher levels of participation in violent behaviors. Implications of these findings for interventions with homeless African American male youth and future research directions are discussed.

  15. The homeless: help from hotels and restaurants.

    PubMed

    Hales, A; Eyster, J J; Ford, J L

    1993-07-01

    Specific examples and information are given to service providers to address the needs of homeless people. Together nurses and restaurant and hotel managers combined their expertise to assist local agencies in their community kitchens and shelters.

  16. Unsheltered Homelessness Among Veterans: Correlates and Profiles.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Thomas; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Fargo, Jamison D

    2016-02-01

    We identified correlates of unsheltered status among Veterans experiencing homelessness and described distinct subgroups within the unsheltered homeless Veteran population using data from a screening instrument for homelessness that is administered to all Veterans accessing outpatient care at a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facility. Correlates of unsheltered homelessness included male gender, white race, older age, lower levels of VHA eligibility, substance use disorders, frequent use of VHA inpatient and infrequent use of VHA outpatient services, and residing in the West. We identified six distinct subgroups of unsheltered Veterans; the tri-morbid frequent users represented the highest need group, but the largest group was comprised of Veterans who made highly infrequent use of VHA healthcare services. Differences between sheltered and unsheltered Veterans and heterogeneity within the unsheltered Veteran population should be considered in targeting housing and other interventions.

  17. Mobile phone technology: a new paradigm for the prevention, treatment, and research of the non-sheltered "street" homeless?

    PubMed

    Eyrich-Garg, Karin M

    2010-05-01

    Individuals experiencing homelessness have disproportionately high rates of health problems. Those who perceive themselves as having greater access to their social support networks have better physical and mental health outcomes as well as lower rates of victimization. Mobile phones offer a connection to others without the physical constraints of landlines and, therefore, may make communication (e.g., access to one's social support networks) more feasible for homeless individuals. This, in turn, could lead toward better health outcomes. This exploratory study examined mobile phone possession and use among a sample of 100 homeless men and women who do not use the shelter system in Philadelphia, PA. Interviews were comprised of the Homeless Supplement to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, a technology module created for this investigation, and the substance use and psychiatric sections of the Addiction Severity Index. Almost half (44%) of the sample had a mobile phone. In the past 30 days, 100% of those with mobile phones placed or received a call, over half (61%) sent or received a text message, and one fifth (20%) accessed the Internet via their mobile phone. Participants possessed and used mobile phones to increase their sense of safety, responsibility (employment, stable housing, personal business, and sobriety or "clean time"), and social connectedness. Mobile phones could potentially be used by public health/health care providers to disseminate information to the street homeless, to enhance communication between the street homeless and providers, and to increase access for the street homeless to prevention, intervention, and aftercare services. Finally, this technology could also be used by researchers to collect data with this transient population.

  18. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Hannah R.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; England, Jonathan; Black, W. Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E.; Esser, Karyn A.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈ 24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations. PMID:26101893

  19. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Hannah R; Schroder, Elizabeth A; England, Jonathan; Black, W Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E; Esser, Karyn A; Clasey, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations.

  20. Health care for homeless veterans. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-08-23

    This final rule establishes regulations for contracting with community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The HCHV program assists certain homeless veterans in obtaining treatment from non-VA community-based providers. The final rule formalizes VA's policies and procedures in connection with this program and clarifies that veterans with substance use disorders may qualify for the program.

  1. Illness narratives of people who are homeless.

    PubMed

    Håkanson, Cecilia; Öhlén, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and "freedom" in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony). The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets.

  2. Illness narratives of people who are homeless

    PubMed Central

    Håkanson, Cecilia; Öhlén, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and “freedom” in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony). The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets. PMID:27914194

  3. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  4. 41 CFR 102-75.1200 - How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? 102-75.1200 Section 102-75... Assist the Homeless Application Process § 102-75.1200 How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published...

  5. 41 CFR 102-75.1200 - How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? 102-75.1200 Section 102-75... Assist the Homeless Application Process § 102-75.1200 How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published...

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.1200 - How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? 102-75.1200 Section 102-75... Assist the Homeless Application Process § 102-75.1200 How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published...

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.1200 - How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? 102-75.1200 Section 102-75... Assist the Homeless Application Process § 102-75.1200 How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published...

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.1200 - How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? 102-75.1200 Section 102-75... Assist the Homeless Application Process § 102-75.1200 How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published...

  9. Understanding the Meaning African-American Men Give to Their Student Leadership Involvement and Engagement Activities in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Karl A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore and gain a deeper understanding of the lived experiences and perceptions of African-American (A-A) men who are persisting in college and who demonstrate participation in co-curricular activities defined as student leadership involvement and engagement activities (SLIEA). The…

  10. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter.

  11. False security or greater social inclusion? Exploring perceptions of CCTV use in public and private spaces accessed by the homeless.

    PubMed

    Huey, Laura

    2010-03-01

    It has been well documented that owing to the vulnerability inherent in their situation and status, the homeless experience high rates of harassment and criminal victimization. And yet, the question of whether CCTV surveillance of public and private spaces - so frequently viewed by the middle classes as a positive source of potential security - might also be viewed by the homeless in similar ways. Within the present paper, I address this issue by considering the possibility that CCTV might be seen by some homeless men and women as offering: a) a measure of enhanced security for those living in the streets and in shelters, and; b) to the extent that security is conceived of as a social good, the receipt of which marks one as a citizen of the state, a means by which they can be reconstituted as something more than 'lesser citizens'. To test these ideas, I rely on data from interviews conducted with homeless service users, service providers for the homeless, and police personnel in three cities. What is revealed is a mixed set of beliefs as to the relative security and meaning of CCTV.

  12. Low LBNP tolerance in men is associated with attenuated activation of the renin-angiotensin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Petersen, T. W.; Gabrielsen, A.; Pump, B.; Bie, P.; Christensen, N. J.; Warberg, J.; Videbaek, R.; Simonson, S. R.; Norsk, P.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma vasoactive hormone concentrations [epinephrine (p(Epi)), norepinephrine (p(NE)), ANG II (p(ANG II)), vasopressin (p(VP)), endothelin-1 (p(ET-1))] and plasma renin activity (p(RA)) were measured periodically and compared during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of the renin-angiotensin system, the latter being one of the most powerful vasoconstrictors in the body, is of major importance for LBNP tolerance. Healthy men on a controlled diet (2,822 cal/day, 2 mmol. kg(-1). day(-1) Na(+)) were exposed to 30 min of LBNP from -15 to -50 mmHg. LBNP was uneventful for seven men [25 +/- 2 yr, high-tolerance (HiTol) group], but eight men (26 +/- 3 yr) reached presyncope after 11 +/- 1 min [P < 0.001, low-tolerance (LoTol) group]. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) did not change measurably, but central venous pressure and left atrial diameter decreased similarly in both groups (5-6 mmHg, by approximately 30%, P < 0.05). Control (0 mmHg LBNP) hormone concentrations were similar between groups, however, p(RA) differed between them (LoTol 0.6 +/- 0.1, HiTol 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng ANG I. ml(-1). h(-1), P < 0.05). LBNP increased (P < 0. 05) p(RA) and p(ANG II), respectively, more in the HiTol group (9.9 +/- 2.2 ng ANG I. ml(-1). h(-1) and 58 +/- 12 pg/ml) than in LoTol subjects (4.3 +/- 0.9 ng ANG I. ml(-1). h(-1) and 28 +/- 6 pg/ml). In contrast, the increase in p(VP) was higher (P < 0.05) in the LoTol than in the HiTol group. The increases (P < 0.05) for p(NE) were nonsignificant between groups, and p(ET-1) remained unchanged. Thus there may be a causal relationship between attenuated activation of p(RA) and p(ANG II) and presyncope, with p(VP) being a possible cofactor. Measurement of resting p(RA) may be of predictive value for those with lower hypotensive tolerance.

  13. Who Are Homeless Families? A Profile of Homelessness in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document presents results of a survey involving 400 homeless families on a number of social and economic factors, including family structure, housing history, employment background, educational attainment, and various interpersonal problems. The study sought to gain a greater understanding of the demographics surrounding homelessness.…

  14. Educational Rights of Homeless Youth: Exploring Racial Dimensions of Homeless Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    Research that addresses educational rights of unaccompanied homeless youth in grades 9-12 is limited. The McKinney-Vento Act was created to address the many needs of homeless individuals, including children and youth's right to an education. McKinney-Vento was created over twenty-years ago, and this research sought to examine the implementation of…

  15. From Homelessness to Community: Psychological Integration of Women Who Have Experienced Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemiroff, Rebecca; Aubry, Tim; Klodawsky, Fran

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychological integration of women who were homeless at the study's outset. Participants (N = 101) were recruited at homeless shelters and participated in 2 in-person interviews, approximately 2 years apart. A predictive model identifying factors associated with having a psychological sense of community within…

  16. Homelessness Comes to School: How Homeless Children and Youths Can Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri J.

    2011-01-01

    Homelessness is a complex and layered phenomenon, but schools can be effective in reducing its educational consequences. Schools currently are not doing enough. The next step is to consider the services that are needed for students as they arrive on the school campus. Taking care of homeless children in school systems involves seven provisos:…

  17. Physical activity, sleep, and C-reactive protein as markers of positive health in resilient older men.

    PubMed

    Fields, Alison J; Hoyt, Robert E; Linnville, Steven E; Moore, Jeffery L

    2016-09-01

    This study explored whether physical activity and sleep, combined with the biomarker C-reactive protein, indexed positive health in older men. Many were former prisoners of war, with most remaining psychologically resilient and free of any psychiatric diagnoses. Activity and sleep were recorded through actigraphy in 120 veterans (86 resilient and 34 nonresilient) for 7 days. Resilient men had higher physical activity, significantly lower C-reactive protein levels, and 53 percent had lower cardiac-disease risk compared to nonresilient men. Sleep was adequate and not associated with C-reactive protein. Results suggest continued study is needed in actigraphy and C-reactive protein as means to index positive health.

  18. "Are we moving again this week?" Children's experiences of homelessness in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Maggie; Keys, Deborah; Bodzak, Daria; Turner, Alina

    2010-04-01

    This research aimed to gain insight into the homelessness experience of children accommodated in transitional support services in an urban setting in Australia. It joins a limited international literature. Interviews incorporating interactive activities were conducted with 20 children aged 6-12 from diverse ethnicities and cultural backgrounds, most of whom were living in supported accommodation. Twelve parents/guardians were also interviewed. Children had experienced between 3 and 11 changes of residence, including hotels or motels, refuges, sleeping rough or in cars, rooming or boarding houses, and caravan parks. It was evident that homelessness adversely affected children's sense of security, mood, behaviour, physical health, education, and overall experience of childhood. As families moved from one temporary accommodation to the next, they often lost touch with the extended family and their friends, became disconnected from any sense of community, and did without familiar possessions, treasures, toys, and pets. Experiencing chaotic sequences of accommodation could leave children feeling confused, insecure, sad, and angry. It could make children feel responsible for their discouraged and unwell parents and their younger siblings. Homelessness made many children expect instability as a way of life. Children continued to be affected by problems that preceded or precipitated homelessness, such as family violence, broken relationships, and parents grappling with drug and alcohol dependence. The overwhelming conclusion to be drawn from this research is that children affected by homelessness need security, stability, and the chance to become and remain part of a community.

  19. A support intervention to promote health and coping among homeless youths.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Miriam; Reutter, Linda; Letourneau, Nicole; Makwarimba, Edward

    2009-06-01

    Homeless youths are often vulnerable to limited support resources and loneliness. Peers are a potent source of social support. A support intervention for homeless youths was designed to optimize peer influence and was pilot tested. The intervention was based on an initial assessment of support needs and intervention preferences from the perspective of 36 homeless youths and 27 service providers. Based on the results, a 20-week pilot intervention program was designed, consisting of 4 support groups, optional one-on-one support, group recreational activities, and meals. Support was provided by professional and peer mentors, including formerly homeless youths. A total of 56 homeless youths aged 16 to 24 took part. Participants completed pre-, mid-, and post-test quantitative measures and qualitative interviews. In spite of challenges due primarily to attrition, the youths reported enhanced health behaviours, improved mental well-being, decreased loneliness, expanded social network, increased coping skills, enhanced self-efficacy, and diminished use of drugs and alcohol. Further research could focus on replication at other sites with a larger sample.

  20. Threat-related amygdala activity is associated with peripheral CRP concentrations in men but not women.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Johnna R; Prather, Aric A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-04-01

    Increased levels of peripheral inflammatory markers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are associated with increased risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidality. The brain mechanisms that may underlie the association between peripheral inflammation and internalizing problems remain to be determined. The present study examines associations between peripheral CRP concentrations and threat-related amygdala activity, a neural biomarker of depression and anxiety risk, in a sample of 172 young adult undergraduate students. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while performing an emotional face matching task to obtain a measure of threat-related amygdala activity to angry and fearful faces; CRP concentrations were assayed from dried blood spots. Results indicated a significant interaction between CRP and sex: in men, but not women, higher CRP was associated with higher threat-related amygdala activity. These results add to the literature finding associations between systemic levels of inflammation and brain function and suggest that threat-related amygdala activity may serve as a potential pathway through which heightened chronic inflammation may increase risk for mood and anxiety problems.

  1. Functional and morphological adaptations to aging in knee extensor muscles of physically active men.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Borges, Marcelo Krás; Jinha, Azim; Herzog, Walter; Vaz, Marco Aurélio

    2013-10-01

    It is not known if a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is sufficient to combat age-related muscle and strength loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the maintenance of a physically active lifestyle prevents muscle impairments due to aging. To address this issue, we evaluated 33 healthy men with similar physical activity levels (IPAQ = 2) across a large range of ages. Functional (torque-angle and torque-velocity relations) and morphological (vastus lateralis muscle architecture) properties of the knee extensor muscles were assessed and compared between three age groups: young adults (30 ± 6 y), middle-aged subjects (50 ± 7 y) and elderly subjects (69 ± 5 y). Isometric peak torques were significantly lower (30% to 36%) in elderly group subjects compared with the young adults. Concentric peak torques were significantly lower in the middle aged (18% to 32%) and elderly group (40% to 53%) compared with the young adults. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicles lengths were significantly smaller in the elderly group subjects (15.8 ± 3.9 mm; 99.1 ± 25.8 mm) compared with the young adults (19.8 ± 3.6 mm; 152.1 ± 42.0 mm). These findings suggest that a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is not sufficient to avoid loss of strength and muscle mass with aging.

  2. An Ecological Systems Comparison Between Homeless Sexual Minority Youths and Homeless Heterosexual Youths.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N

    2013-01-01

    This study examined risk and protective outcomes by comparing homeless sexual minority youths to heterosexual homeless youths regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health (suicide risk and depression), stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews (N = 147) were conducted with individuals ages 16-24 at three drop-in programs serving homeless youths in Toronto. Bivariate analyses indicated statistically significant differences between homeless sexual minorities (n=66) and their heterosexual counterparts (n=81) regarding all variables: family, peer behaviors, stigma, discrimination, mental health, substance use and sexual risk behaviors with the exception of school belonging. Specifically, homeless sexual minority youths fared more poorly (e.g. lower satisfaction with family communication, experienced more stigma, used more drugs and alcohol) than their heterosexual counterparts. Improving family communication may be a worthwhile intervention if the youths are still in contact with their families. Future research should focus on victimization in the context of multiple systems.

  3. Homeless in Dhaka: violence, sexual harassment, and drug-abuse.

    PubMed

    Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Uddin, Md Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-08-01

    -users shared needles. The study determined that the homeless are not highly mobile but tend to congregate in clusters night after night. Income-generating activities, targeted education, gender-friendly community police programmes, shelters and crises centres, and greater community involvement are suggested as policy and programmatic interventions to raise the quality of life of this population. In addition, there is a need to reduce high rates of urban migration, a priority for Bangladesh.

  4. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    PubMed Central

    Mekary, Rania A.; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Methods Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend<0.001). Less age-associated WC increase was seen with a 20 min/day activity increase; this benefit was significantly stronger for weight training (-0.67cm, 95%CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33cm, 95%CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16cm, 95%CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08cm, 95%CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23kg, 95%CI -0.29, -0.17). Conclusions Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency /volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. PMID:25530447

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Sexual Dysfunction in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Shane M; Wang, Chi-Hsiung E; Victorson, David E; Helfand, Brian T; Novakovic, Kristian R; Brendler, Charles B; Albaugh, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual dysfunction, repeat biopsies and other demographic and clinical factors in men on active surveillance (AS). Methods Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measures were administered at enrollment and every 6 months to assess quality of life (QOL), psychosocial and urological health outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we examined the impact of repeat biopsies, total number of cores taken, anxiety, age, and comorbidity on sexual function over the first 24 months of enrolling in AS. Main Outcome Measures PROs included the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26) Sexual Function (SF) subscale, the American Urological Association-Symptom Index (AUA-SI), and the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). Results At enrollment (n = 195), mean age was 66.5 ± 6.8 with a mean EPIC-26 SF score of 61.4 ± 30.4. EPIC-26 SF scores steadily decreased to 53.9 ± 30.7 at 24 months (P < 0.01). MAX-PC scores also progressively decreased over time (P = 0.03). Factors associated with lower EPIC-26 scores over time included age, unemployed status, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (all P < 0.05). Higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was associated with a more rapid decline in EPIC-26 SF over time (P = 0.03). In multivariable analysis, age, diabetes, and PSA × time interaction remained significant predictors of diminished sexual function. Anxiety, number of biopsies, and total cores taken did not predict sexual dysfunction or change over time in our cohort. Conclusions Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA-SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. PMID:26468379

  6. Homeless People’s Perceptions of Welcomeness and Unwelcomeness in Healthcare Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chuck K.; Hudak, Pamela L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Homeless people face many barriers to obtaining health care, and their attitudes toward seeking health care services may be shaped in part by previous encounters with health care providers. Objective To examine how homeless persons experienced “welcomeness” and “unwelcomeness” in past encounters with health care providers and to characterize their perceptions of these interactions. Design Qualitative content analysis of 17 in-depth interviews. Participants Seventeen homeless men and women, aged 29–62 years, residing at 5 shelters in Toronto, Canada. Approach Interpretive content analysis was performed using iterative stages of inductive coding. Interview transcripts were analyzed using Buber’s philosophical conceptualization of ways of relating as “I–It” (the way persons relate to objects) and “I–You” (the way persons relate to dynamic beings). Results Most participants perceived their experiences of unwelcomeness as acts of discrimination. Homelessness and low social class were most commonly cited as the perceived basis for discriminatory treatment. Many participants reported intense emotional responses to unwelcoming experiences, which negatively influenced their desire to seek health care in the future. Participants’ descriptions of unwelcoming health care encounters were consistent with “I–It” ways of relating in that they felt dehumanized, not listened to, or disempowered. Welcoming experiences were consistent with “I–You” ways of relating, in that patients felt valued as a person, truly listened to, or empowered. Conclusions Homeless people’s perceptions of welcomeness and unwelcomeness are an important aspect of their encounters with health care providers. Buber’s “I–It” and “I–You” concepts are potentially useful aids to health care providers who wish to understand how welcoming and unwelcoming interactions are fostered. PMID:17415619

  7. Narrative and collaborative practices in work with families that are homeless.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Peter; Hameline, Thomas; Shannon, Michele

    2009-07-01

    This article reports on the use of narrative therapy ideas and practices in working with families that are homeless in a shelter-based, multiple-family discussion group program called Fresh Start for Families. It begins with a review of the challenges facing homeless families. It then briefly describes the collaborative methods used to develop the program. It then describes a range of practices and activities that provide opportunities for families to be witnessed in telling their stories of challenge and coping, to help and be helped by other families experiencing similar challenges, to reconnect and strengthen a positive sense of family identity while externalizing the constraining, stigmatizing descriptions associated with homelessness, and to envision and take steps towards their preferred futures.

  8. How to open and sustain a drop-in center for homeless youth⋆

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Garren, Rikki; Toviessi, Paula; Bantchevska, Denitza; Dashora, Pushpanjali

    2008-01-01

    Drop-in centers have the potential to facilitate engagement of homeless youth into treatment and back into the mainstream. However, little guidance was found in the literature regarding how to open and sustain a drop-in center for homeless youth. This paper offers such guidance, including information that may be useful for developing a change philosophy that guides the center structure, and for identifying a building and location conducive to facilitate activities and access for the youth. Guidance for structuring the drop-in center and for hiring and training staff is also offered. Since the U.S. suffers from a dearth of services for homeless youth, the direction offered in this paper may help guide those who seek to provide services to these vulnerable and underserved youth. PMID:18584064

  9. Crossing the Threshhold: Successful Learning Provision for Homeless People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Helen; McKaig, Wendy; Taylor, Sue

    This guide tells the story of a successful collaboration between The City Literary Institute and homelessness agencies to create an arts-based learning program for homeless people in central London. It identifies guidelines and good practice to stimulate similar work in other locations with problems of homelessness and rough sleeping. The guide is…

  10. Education Rights of Homeless Students: A Guide for Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Law Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    There is no question that students who are homeless, like all students, are entitled to be educated. A federal law, known as the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, requires states to provide homeless children and youth with the same access to free public education as is available to other students. The Act also requires states to eliminate…

  11. Rural Homelessness in Northwest Ohio: Reasons, Patterns, Statistics, and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podlin, Georgette A.

    Rural homelessness in America is difficult to define, to count, and to see. This article reports the findings of a 1993 county-wide study of rural homelessness. During a one year survey, 118 homeless households were interviewed. Of those surveyed, 25.8 percent were male adults, 30.9 percent were female adults, and 43.2 percent were children.…

  12. 24 CFR 91.405 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing and homeless needs... Consortia; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.405 Housing and homeless needs assessment. Housing and homeless needs must be described in the consolidated plan in accordance with the provisions of § 91.205...

  13. Homeless People and Health Care: An Unrelenting Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neibacher, Susan L.

    In 1985, the New York City Health Care for the Homeless Program began providing health care and social services to homeless people. The program seeks to provide care to those homeless people with the least access to services, reaching out to them in soup kitchens, shelters, and hotels. This paper summarizes what has been learned since 1985 about…

  14. The Multi-Dimensional Lives of Children Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grineski, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is widely reported that children who are homeless are victimized by overwhelming challenges like poverty and ill-advised policy decisions, such as underfunding the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. This act is the only federal legislation devoted to this marginalized group. Children who are homeless, however, should not be characterized…

  15. 76 FR 52575 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 63 RIN 2900-AN73 Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program AGENCY: Department of... community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program of the... enrolled in the VA health care system. Through the HCHV program, VA identifies homeless veterans...

  16. 75 FR 79323 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 63 RIN 2900-AN73 Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program AGENCY: Department of... contracting with community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program... ``RIN 2900-AN73, Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program.'' Copies of comments received will...

  17. 24 CFR 91.405 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing and homeless needs... Consortia; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.405 Housing and homeless needs assessment. Housing and homeless needs must be described in the consolidated plan in accordance with the provisions of § 91.205...

  18. 7 CFR 272.9 - Approval of homeless meal providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of homeless meal providers. 272.9 Section 272... AGENCIES § 272.9 Approval of homeless meal providers. The State food stamp agency, or another appropriate... establishments serving the homeless upon sufficient evidence, as determined by the agency, that the...

  19. 7 CFR 272.9 - Approval of homeless meal providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval of homeless meal providers. 272.9 Section 272... AGENCIES § 272.9 Approval of homeless meal providers. The State food stamp agency, or another appropriate... establishments serving the homeless upon sufficient evidence, as determined by the agency, that the...

  20. 24 CFR 91.405 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing and homeless needs... Consortia; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.405 Housing and homeless needs assessment. Housing and homeless needs must be described in the consolidated plan in accordance with the provisions of § 91.205...

  1. 7 CFR 272.9 - Approval of homeless meal providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval of homeless meal providers. 272.9 Section 272... AGENCIES § 272.9 Approval of homeless meal providers. The State food stamp agency, or another appropriate... establishments serving the homeless upon sufficient evidence, as determined by the agency, that the...

  2. Transforming Teacher Constructs of Children and Families Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers-Costello, Beth; Swick, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is on articulating the importance of teacher development of constructs about homeless children and families and examining factors that influence teachers' perceptions of children and families who are homeless or at high-risk of becoming homeless. The article also explores some strategies to support teachers in…

  3. 24 CFR 91.405 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing and homeless needs... Consortia; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.405 Housing and homeless needs assessment. Housing and homeless needs must be described in the consolidated plan in accordance with the provisions of § 91.205...

  4. 7 CFR 272.9 - Approval of homeless meal providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval of homeless meal providers. 272.9 Section 272... AGENCIES § 272.9 Approval of homeless meal providers. The State food stamp agency, or another appropriate... establishments serving the homeless upon sufficient evidence, as determined by the agency, that the...

  5. 7 CFR 272.9 - Approval of homeless meal providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of homeless meal providers. 272.9 Section 272... AGENCIES § 272.9 Approval of homeless meal providers. The State food stamp agency, or another appropriate... establishments serving the homeless upon sufficient evidence, as determined by the agency, that the...

  6. Falling through the Gaps: Homeless Children and Youth. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Phillip; DeBaun, Bill

    2012-01-01

    In each state, between 41 percent and 91 percent of the homeless students identified by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) are not considered homeless by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Nationwide, as many as 715,238 homeless students fall into a bureaucratic gap between HUD and ED. This is because ED, HUD, and other…

  7. 24 CFR 91.405 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing and homeless needs... Consortia; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.405 Housing and homeless needs assessment. Housing and homeless needs must be described in the consolidated plan in accordance with the provisions of § 91.205...

  8. Homelessness in America: Unabated and Increasing. A 10-Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara; Gleason, Mary Ann

    Ten years after passage of the McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, homelessness was studied in 11 urban, rural, and suburban communities and 4 states. The first section of the report examines the findings of detailed research on homelessness in these locations. The second section draws conclusions and outlines future directions for efforts to…

  9. Homelessness in the Elementary School Classroom: Social and Emotional Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Kirby A.; Mistry, Rashmita S.; Melchor, Vanessa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined elementary school teachers' experiences working with homeless students. Specifically, we focused on the psychosocial impacts of homelessness on students and their teachers. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 teachers who worked at designated public schools for family homeless shelters. A prominent…

  10. Supporting Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness: CCDF State Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bires, Carie; Garcia, Carmen; Zhu, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness has a devastating impact on children. Research has shown that homelessness puts children at increased risk of health problems, developmental delays, academic underachievement and mental health problems. Homelessness also has a disproportionate impact on the youngest children, who account for more than half of all children in…

  11. From substance use to homelessness or vice versa?

    PubMed

    McVicar, Duncan; Moschion, Julie; van Ours, Jan C

    2015-07-01

    Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the period from October 2011 to May 2013. Our data refer to 1325 individuals who were homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. We investigate dynamics in homelessness and substance use over the survey period. We find that the two are closely related: homeless individuals are more likely to be substance users and substance users are more likely to be homeless. These relationships, however, are predominantly driven by observed and unobserved individual characteristics which cause individuals to be both more likely to be homeless and to be substance users. Once we take these personal characteristics into account it seems that homelessness does not affect substance use, although we cannot rule out that alcohol use increases the probability that an individual becomes homeless. These overall relationships also hide some interesting heterogeneity by 'type' of homelessness.

  12. Homeless High School Students in America: Who Counts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, John M.; Gloeckner, Gene W.

    2012-01-01

    After interviewing homeless high school students, the research team in a Colorado school district discovered that many students had not revealed their true living conditions (homelessness) to anyone in the school district. This research team developed an anonymous survey written around the homeless categories identified in the McKinney-Vento…

  13. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Homeless Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…

  14. Homeless and Runaway Youth: Attachment Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henk, Joanne M.

    The "new homeless" of the eighties and nineties are not only more numerous; they are younger, more likely to use drugs, and they exhibit symptoms of mental illness. Homeless mentally ill individuals typically have estranged family relationships and fewer supportive relationships compared with other homeless persons. They typically have…

  15. Homeless Adolescents' Perceptions of Positive Development: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…

  16. Homeless female U.S. veterans in a national supported housing program: comparison of individual characteristics and outcomes with male veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kane, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    As more women serve in the U.S. military, the proportion of females among homeless veterans is increasing. The current study compares the individual characteristics and 1-year outcomes of homeless female and male veterans in the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) program nationally. Administrative data on 43,853 veterans (10.69% females; 89.31% males) referred to HUD-VASH were analyzed for gender differences at baseline and over a 1-year period. Homeless female veterans were younger, had shorter homeless and incarceration histories, and were less likely to have substance use disorders than men. However, despite being less likely to report combat exposure, female veterans were more likely to have posttraumatic stress disorder. Homeless female veterans were also much more likely to have dependent children with them and to plan to live with family members in supported housing. Once admitted to HUD-VASH, there were no gender differences in attrition or main housing outcomes. Case managers were faster to admit female veterans to the program, reported better working alliances, and provided more services related to employment and income than male veterans. These findings suggest homeless female veterans may have certain strengths, including being younger, less involved in the criminal justice system, and more adept at relating to professional and natural supports; but special attention to noncombat trauma and family-oriented services may be needed.

  17. Immediate Enrollment under McKinney-Vento: How Local Liaisons Can Keep Homeless Students Safe. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in homeless situations, particularly unaccompanied youth and survivors of domestic violence, are at a high risk for experiencing violence and victimization. Frequently, unaccompanied youth become homeless after leaving abusive or destructive home environments. In turn, their homelessness, which often involves "couch…

  18. Immediate Enrollment under McKinney-Vento: How Schools Can Keep Homeless Students Safe. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in homeless situations, particularly unaccompanied youth and survivors of domestic violence, are at a high risk for experiencing violence and victimization. Frequently, unaccompanied youth become homeless after leaving abusive or destructive home environments. In turn, their homelessness, which often involves "couch…

  19. Health status and utilisation of the healthcare system by homeless and non-homeless people in Vienna.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julia; Diehl, Katharina; Mutsch, Livia; Löffler, Walter; Burkert, Nathalie; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    This case-control study describes the health situation, internal and external resources, and utilisation of healthcare facilities by a marginalised population consisting of homeless people in Vienna, Austria, compared with a non-homeless control population. Among the homeless group, participants lived in halfway houses (70%) or permanent housing (30%) in Vienna. Personal interviews were conducted in July 2010 with 66 homeless individuals, and their data were compared with data from non-homeless subjects from the Austrian Health Interview Survey using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the control group, homeless persons suffered more often from chronic diseases (P < 0.001) and rated their health considerably lower than the comparison group (P < 0.001). Homeless people suffered significantly more often from psychiatric disorders, respiratory diseases, hypertension (P < 0.001), digestive system diseases (P = 0.002) and heart diseases (P = 0.015) in comparison with the control group. Additionally, among homeless and non-homeless individuals, the former more often consulted a general practitioner in a period of 28 days (P = 0.002). A significantly greater proportion of homeless people did not have any teeth (P = 0.024) and smoked significantly more (P = 0.002). The results demonstrate deficits in the areas of health, health behaviour, and individual and social resources of homeless people, even though homeless people seek medical care at a higher rate than controls. Continuing health promotion projects for this high-risk group and the strengthening of social resources are recommended.

  20. Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve. Summary Report. Findings of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Martha R.; Aron, Laudan Y.; Douglas, Toby; Valente, Jesse; Lee, Edgar; Iwen, Britta

    The National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC) was conducted to provide information about the providers of homeless assistance services and the characteristics of homeless clients who use them. This survey was conducted for use by federal agencies and other interested parties responsible for administering homeless…

  1. Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

  2. Disparities in Cancer Incidence, Stage, and Mortality at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program

    PubMed Central

    Baggett, Travis P.; Chang, Yuchiao; Porneala, Bianca C.; Bharel, Monica; Singer, Daniel E.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Homeless people have a high burden of cancer risk factors and suboptimal rates of cancer screening, but the epidemiology of cancer has not been well described in this population. We assessed cancer incidence, stage, and mortality in homeless adults relative to general population standards. Methods We cross-linked a cohort of 28,033 adults seen at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program in 2003–2008 to Massachusetts cancer registry and vital registry records. We calculated age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality ratios (SIRs and SMRs). We examined tobacco use among incident cases and estimated smoking-attributable fractions. Trend tests were used to compare cancer stage distributions with those in Massachusetts adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012–2015. Results During 90,450 person-years of observation, there were 361 incident cancers (SIR=1.13, 95% CI=1.02, 1.25) and 168 cancer deaths (SMR=1.88, 95% CI=1.61, 2.19) among men, and 98 incident cancers (SIR=0.93, 95% CI=0.76, 1.14) and 38 cancer deaths (SMR=1.61, 95% CI=1.14, 2.20) among women. For both sexes, bronchus and lung cancer was the leading type of incident cancer and cancer death, exceeding Massachusetts estimates more than twofold. Oropharyngeal and liver cancer cases and deaths occurred in excess among men, whereas cervical cancer cases and deaths occurred in excess among women. About one third of incident cancers were smoking-attributable. Colorectal, female breast, and oropharyngeal cancers were diagnosed at more-advanced stages than in Massachusetts adults. Conclusions Efforts to reduce cancer disparities in homeless people should include addressing tobacco use and enhancing participation in evidence-based screening. PMID:26143955

  3. The impact of current alcohol and drug use on outcomes among homeless veterans entering supported housing.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Maria J; Kasprow, Wesley J; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    Permanent supported housing has increasingly been identified as a central approach to helping homeless individuals with disabilities exit from homelessness. Given that one third or more of homeless individuals actively use substances, it is important to determine the extent to which individuals who report using alcohol and/or drugs at the time of housing benefit from such programs. The current study examines data from the evaluation of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs (HUD-VA) Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program to determine differences in housing and clinical outcomes among participants with two different levels of active alcohol or drug use at time of housing entry. Whereas veterans with 1-15 days of active use and 15-30 days of active use had significantly more days homeless than abstainers, albeit with small effect sizes (.06 and .19, respectively), there were no significant differences in days housed or days in institutions. Interaction analysis suggests that the highest frequency substance users who spent time in residential treatment prior to housing had the poorest housing outcomes, while those who were not in residential treatment had outcomes comparable to abstainers. Although active substance users clearly benefit from supportive housing with small differences in outcomes from abstainers, high frequency substance users who were admitted to residential treatment before housing placement, may be an especially vulnerable population.

  4. Effects of Physical Training and Fitness on Running Injuries in Physically Active Young Men.

    PubMed

    Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-01-01

    Grier, TL, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, and Jones, BH. Effects of physical training and fitness on running injuries in physically active young men. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 207-216, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of physical training (PT) and fitness on risks for running-related injuries (RRIs) in physically active young men. Personal characteristics, PT, Army Physical Fitness Test scores, and injury data were obtained by survey. Army Physical Fitness Test variables (push-ups, sit-ups, and 2-mile run) were converted into quartiles (Q), where Q1 = lowest performance and Q4 = highest performance. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Over 4,000 (n = 4,236) soldiers were surveyed. Running injury incidence was 14%. A greater risk of an RRI was associated with older age (OR31+/<22 years = 1.62, 95% CI, 1.21-2.18), higher BMI ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), and total distance ran per week during unit PT (OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 1.66, 95% CI, 1.15-2.41). A lower risk of an RRI was associated with total distance run per week during personal PT (OR5.1-10/1-5 miles = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.53-0.91, OR10.1-16 +/1-5 miles = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.35-0.97, OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.30-0.98), higher aerobic endurance as measured by 2-mile run performance (ORQ4/Q1 = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.35-0.72), and unit resistance training ≥3 times a week (OR≥3 times per week/none = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.29-0.73). Greater personal PT running mileage decreased injuries in this population suggesting that the increased protective effect of higher aerobic fitness outweighed the injurious effect of running more miles during personal PT. Countermeasures to prevent RRIs could entail enhancing aerobic endurance, providing opportunities for personal aerobic training, monitoring for excessive unit PT running mileage and encouraging unit resistance training ≥3 times per week.

  5. Aging-Related Correlation between Serum Sirtuin 1 Activities and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women, but not in Men

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Sirtuin (SIRT) is a main regulator of metabolism and lifespan, and its importance has been implicated in the prevention against aging-related diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of serum SIRT1 activity according to age and sex, and to investigate how serum SIRT1 activity is correlated with other metabolic parameters in Korean adults. The Biobank of Jeju National University Hospital, a member of the Korea Biobank Network, provided serum samples from 250 healthy adults. Aging- and metabolism-related factors were analyzed in serum, and the data were compared by the stratification of age and sex. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) decreased with age and was significantly lower in men in their fifties and older and in women in their forties and older compared with twenties in men and women, respectively. SIRT1 activities were altered by age and sex. Especially, women in their thirties showed the highest SIRT1 activities. Correlation analysis displayed that SIRT1 activity is positively correlated with serum triglyceride (TG) in men, and with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum TG in women. And, SIRT1 activity was negatively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in women (r = −0.183, p = 0.039). Positive correlation was observed between SIRT1 activity and BMR in women (r = 0.222, p = 0.027), but not in men. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility that serum SIRT1 activities may be utilized as a biomarker of aging. In addition, positive correlation between SIRT1 activity and BMR in women suggests that serum SIRT1 activity may reflect energy expenditure well in human. PMID:28168178

  6. "Semi-straight sort of sex": class and gay community attachment explored within a framework of older homosexually active men.

    PubMed

    Chapple, M J; Kippax, S; Smith, G

    1998-01-01

    Gay Community Attachment has proved a significant predictor of successful behavior change among gay-identifying men in response to HIV/AIDS. Related work at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, indicated that attachment to gay community is not a simple issue; rather, complex issues of sexual identity formation, the constraints of social inequality and localized sexual cultures inhibit the process of attachment and, therefore, successful HIV prevention. This paper discusses some of the findings from close-focus (qualitative) research on older homosexually active men which explore in depth the dynamic whereby these men attached themselves to gay community in terms of an analysis of class, generation, and the interplay with self-construction and masculinity.

  7. Death, drugs, and disaster: mortality among New Orleans' homeless.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, Rachel L; Pals, Heili; Wright, James D

    2012-01-01

    Tracking homeless individuals over time has proved to be extremely difficult; thus, only limited longitudinal data on the homeless exist. We analyze longitudinal data originally collected from the New Orleans Homeless Substance Abusers Program in 1991-1993, supplemented with mortality data for the same sample by year 2010. We use social bonding theory to examine the effect of conventional social ties on mortality among a sample of substance abusing homeless people. This is of special concern when researching the older homeless persons. We find that social bonding theory does not help to understand mortality among this population. However, alcohol abuse, as compared to crack cocaine, does increase the likelihood of early mortality.

  8. Active targeted HIV testing and linkage to care among men who have sex with men attending a gay sauna in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2017-03-01

    Existing data on the feasibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and counseling (HTC) and linkage to care among men who have sex with men (MSM) in hotspots are currently limited. A prospective study on active targeted HTC and linkage to care among MSM (≥18 years old) was conducted at a gay sauna in Thailand from November 2013 to October 2015. HIV risks and risk perception were evaluated through an anonymous survey. HIV testing with result notification and care appointment arrangement were provided on-site. Of the 358 participants; median age was 30 years; 206/358(58%) were at high risk for HIV acquisition; 148/358(41%) accepted HTC, all of whom either had prior negative HIV tests [98/148 (66%)] or had not known their HIV status [50/148 (34%)]. The three most common reasons for declining HTC were prior HIV testing within 6 months (48%), not ready (19%) and perceiving self as no risk (11%). Of the 262 moderate- and high-risk participants, 172 (66%) had false perception of low HIV risk which was significantly associated with declining HTC. Among the 148 participants undergoing HTC, 25 (17%) were HIV-infected. Having false perception of low risk (P = 0.004) and age <30 years (P = 0.02) were independently associated with HIV positivity. Only 14 of the 25 HIV-infected participants (56%) could be contacted after the result notification, of whom 12 (86%) had established HIV care and received immediate antiretroviral therapy. The active targeted HTC and facilitating care establishment was feasible among MSM attending the gay sauna but required strategies to improve accuracy of HIV-risk perception and linkage to care.

  9. Influence of recreational activity and muscle strength on ulnar bending stiffness in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myburgh, K. H.; Charette, S.; Zhou, L.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1993-01-01

    Bone bending stiffness (modulus of elasticity [E] x moment of inertia [I]), a measure of bone strength, is related to its mineral content (BMC) and geometry and may be influenced by exercise. We evaluated the relationship of habitual recreational exercise and muscle strength to ulnar EI, width, and BMC in 51 healthy men, 28-61 yr of age. BMC and width were measured by single photon absorptiometry and EI by mechanical resistance tissue analysis. Maximum biceps strength was determined dynamically (1-RM) and grip strength isometrically. Subjects were classified as sedentary (S) (N = 13), moderately (M) (N = 18), or highly active (H) (N = 20) and exercised 0.2 +/- 0.2; 2.2 +/- 1.3; and 6.8 +/- 2.3 h.wk-1 (P < 0.001). H had greater biceps (P < 0.0005) and grip strength (P < 0.05), ulnar BMC (P < 0.05), and ulnar EI (P = 0.01) than M or S, who were similar. Amount of activity correlated with grip and biceps strength (r = 0.47 and 0.49; P < 0.001), but not with bone measurements, whereas muscle strength correlated with both EI and BMC (r = 0.40-0.52, P < 0.005). EI also correlated significantly with both BMC and ulnar width (P < 0.0001). Ulnar width and biceps strength were the only independent predictors of EI (r2 = 0.67, P < 0.0001). We conclude that levels of physical activity sufficient to increase arm strength influence ulnar bending stiffness.

  10. The impact of economic downturns and budget cuts on homelessness claim rates across 323 local authorities in England, 2004–12

    PubMed Central

    Loopstra, Rachel; Reeves, Aaron; Barr, Ben; Taylor-Robinson, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear why rates of homelessness claims in England have risen since 2010. We used variations in rates across local authorities to test the impact of economic downturns and budget cuts. Methods Using cross-area fixed effects models of data from 323 UK local authorities between 2004 and 2012, we evaluated associations of changes in statutory homelessness rates with economic activity (Gross Value Added per capita), unemployment, and local and central government expenditure. Results Each 10% fall in economic activity was associated with an increase of 0.45 homelessness claims per 1000 households (95% CI: 0.10–0.80). Increasing rates of homelessness were also strongly linked with government reductions in welfare spending. Disaggregating types of welfare expenditure, we found that strongest associations with reduced homelessness claims were spending on social care, housing services, discretionary housing payments and income support for older persons. Conclusions Recession and austerity measures are associated with significant increases in rates of homelessness assistance. These findings likely understate the full burden of homelessness as they only capture those who seek aid. Future research is needed to investigate what is happening to vulnerable groups who may not obtain assistance, including those with mental health problems and rough sleepers. PMID:26364320

  11. Alternative Methods To Estimate the Number of Homeless Children and Youth. Final Report. Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Martha R.

    This report presents the results of a federally mandated study done to determine the best means of identifying, locating, and counting homeless children and youth, for the purpose of facilitating their successful participation in school and other educational activities. Several alternative approaches to obtaining consistent national estimates of…

  12. A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…

  13. National Student Campaign Against Hunger and Homelessness, 1995 Fall Organizing Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Julie

    This guide is intended to organize education, service, and action events in conjunction with National Hunger and Homelessness Week, November 13-17, 1995. The guide presents a calendar of events, program tips, recruitment tips, an overview of the program, project ideas for fund-raising and service, awareness activities, fact sheets, and resources…

  14. College Access and Success for Students Experiencing Homelessness: A Toolkit for Educators and Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This toolkit serves as a comprehensive resource on the issue of higher education access and success for homeless students, including information on understanding homeless students, assisting homeless students in choosing a school, helping homeless students pay for application-related expenses, assisting homeless students in finding financial aid…

  15. Aromatase activity after a short-course of letrozole administration in adult men at sea level and at high altitude (with or without excessive erythrocytosis).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Tapia, V; Gasco, M; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2012-02-01

    Men living at high altitudes in Peru compared to sea level counterparts have erythrocytosis (hemoglobin 16-21 g/dl) or excessive erythrocytosis (hemoglobin>21 g/dl). High testosterone (T) levels in men at high altitude (HA) were associated with excessive erythrocytosis. High androgen levels could be due to a low aromatase activity or to an elevated rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone. The aim of this study was to evaluate aromatase activity and rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone before and after administration of the aromatase enzyme inhibitor letrozole (5 mg/day) for a 5-day period to men at HA and at sea level (SL). The response to short term aromatase inhibition was assessed in 30 adult men living at sea level, 31 native men at HA with erythrocytosis (Hb 16-21 g/dl), and 35 men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis (Hb>21 g/dl). Serum hormone levels, estradiol/testosterone, testosterone/androstenedione, and testosterone/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) ratios were measured. Men with erythrocytosis had lower basal serum T/androstenedione ratios than men with excessive erythrocytosis at HA and men at sea level. Men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis had higher T/DHEAS ratios than men with erythrocytosis and than those at sea level before and after letrozole administration. After letrozole administration, both groups of men at high altitude (with erythrocytosis or with excessive erythrocytosis) showed lower aromatase activities than those at sea level. In conclusion, higher serum testosterone levels in men with excessive erythrocytosis were associated with an increased rate of conversion from DHEAS to testosterone rather than to a lower aromatase activity.

  16. The hunger-obesity paradox: obesity in the homeless.

    PubMed

    Koh, Katherine A; Hoy, Jessica S; O'Connell, James J; Montgomery, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Despite stereotypes of the homeless population as underweight, the literature lacks a rigorous analysis of weight status in homeless adults. The purpose of this study is to present the body mass index (BMI) distribution in a large adult homeless population and to compare this distribution to the non-homeless population in the United States. Demographic, BMI, and socioeconomic variables from patients seen in 2007-2008 were collected from the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP). This population was compared to non-homeless adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Among 5,632 homeless adults, the mean BMI was 28.4 kg/m(2) and the prevalence of obesity was 32.3 %. Only 1.6 % of homeless adults were underweight. Compared to mean BMI in NHANES (28.6 kg/m(2)), the difference was not significant in unadjusted analysis (p = 0.14). Adjusted analyses predicting BMI or likelihood of obesity also showed that the homeless had a weight distribution not statistically different from the general population. Although underweight has been traditionally associated with homelessness, this study suggests that obesity may be the new malnutrition of the homeless in the United States.

  17. Substance dependency among homeless American Indians.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Susan; Vaughan, Margaret Mortensen

    2003-01-01

    Extensive qualitative research in the San Francisco Bay Area in California and in Tucson, Arizona, indicates strong associations between substance abuse and homelessness among American Indians. This article takes a comparative approach to describe and analyze precipitating factors and survival patterns of those who are both homeless and who suffer from substance dependency. Possible precipitating factors presented through case studies consider the complex interaction of childhood fostering or adoption into non-Native families, different types of involuntary institutionalization during youth, and the personal impact of accident, trauma and loss. Coping strategies and keys to survival are examined, including the role of the extended family and close friendships, American Indian and mainstream organizations that offer formal and informal services, the existence of anchor or key households, the helping relationships and sobriety groups among homeless individuals, spirituality, and cultural resiliency.

  18. Correlates of frailty among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Salem, Benissa E; Nyamathi, Adeline M; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Mentes, Janet C; Sarkisian, Catherine; Leake, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Frailty, a relatively unexplored concept among vulnerable populations, may be a significant issue for homeless adults. This cross-sectional study assessed correlates of frailty among middle age and older homeless adults (N = 150, 40-73). A Pearson (r) bivariate correlation revealed a weak relationship between frailty and being female (r = .230, p < .01). Significant moderate negative correlations were found between frailty and resilience (r = -.395, p < .01), social support (r = -.377, p < .01), and nutrition (r = -.652, p < .01). Furthermore, Spearman's rho (r s) bivariate correlations revealed a moderate positive relationship between frailty and health care utilization (r(s) = .444, p < .01). A stepwise backward linear regression analysis was conducted and in the final model, age, gender, health care utilization, nutrition, and resilience were significantly related to frailty. Over the next two decades, there is an anticipated increase in the number of homeless adults which will necessitate a greater understanding of the needs of this hard-to-reach population.

  19. Surviving Violence in Everyday Life: A Communicative Approach to Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Elaine

    2017-02-17

    In this narrative review, the author synthesizes the literature on homelessness across various disciplines (e.g., public health, social work, sociology, and communication) to demonstrate how the experiences of homelessness can be created, maintained, and reinforced through communication, including interpersonal interactions and public discourse. By conceptualizing homelessness as a culturally constructed and socially situated phenomenon, the author examines (a) the complex conceptualization of homelessness, (b) everyday violence faced by people who are homeless, and (c) coping strategies of people who are homeless. In summary, homelessness is a complex social phenomenon, involving tensions between individuals, families, and social systems, all of which are situated in the larger sociocultural and sociopolitical contexts of a specific time and place.

  20. Disparate Vitamin D Activity in the Prostate of Men with African Ancestry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    D3 deficiency increases PCa mortality, highlighting the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D3 status for prostate health. Vitamin D3 is...synthesis in darker pigmented skin. Consequently, ~65% of AA men are vitamin D3 deficient compared to ~20% of EA men. The level of skin pigmentation is...PCa and death from PCa. Vitamin D3 deficiency increases PCa mortality, highlighting the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D3 status for

  1. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko D

    2014-01-01

    Possible appliance of effective and safe alkalizing agent in the treatment of metabolic acidosis could be of particular interest to humans experiencing an increase in plasma acidity, such as exercise-induced acidosis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the daily oral intake of 2L of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) for 14 days would increase arterial blood alkalinity at baseline and post-exercise as compared with the placebo. This study was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 52 presumably healthy physically active male volunteers. Twenty-six participants received HRW and 26 a placebo (tap water) for 14 days. Arterial blood pH, partial pressure for carbon dioxide (pCO2), and bicarbonates were measured at baseline and postexercise at the start (day 0) and at the end of the intervention period (day 14). Intake of HRW significantly increased fasting arterial blood pH by 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.08; p < 0.001), and postexercise pH by 0.07 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.10; p = 0.03) after 14 days of intervention. Fasting bicarbonates were significantly higher in the HRW trial after the administration regimen as compared with the preadministration (30.5 ± 1.9 mEq/L vs. 28.3 ± 2.3 mEq/L; p < 0.0001). No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study, and no participant reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. These results support the hypothesis that HRW administration is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in young physically active men.

  2. Health of the homeless and climate change.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Brodie; Svoboda, Tomislav

    2009-07-01

    The homeless are amongst the most vulnerable groups in developed regions, suffering from high rates of poorly controlled chronic disease, smoking, respiratory conditions, and mental illness, all of which render them vulnerable to new and resurgent disease processes associated with climate change. To date, there have been no papers reviewing the impacts of climate change on the homeless population. This paper provides a framework for understanding the nature of such an impact. We review four pathways: increased heat waves, increased air pollution, increased severity of floods and storms, and the changing distribution of West Nile Virus. We emphasize the need for further debate and research in this field.

  3. Homeless women's experiences of service provider encounters.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Donna J; Nichols, Tracy R

    2014-01-01

    Service providers are gatekeepers to health-sustaining services and resources, although little is known about service encounters from the perspective of homeless women. We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 15 homeless women to better understand their experiences of service encounters. Using a phenomenological method, 160 significant statements were extracted from participant transcripts; more positive than negative interactions were reported. The 10 themes that emerged fall along a dehumanizing/humanizing continuum primarily separated by the power participants experienced in the interaction and the trust they felt in the service provider. Implications for nursing practice and research are offered.

  4. A pilot trial of integrated behavioral activation and sexual risk reduction counseling for HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men abusing crystal methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Pantalone, David W; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2012-11-01

    Crystal methamphetamine use is a major driver behind high-risk sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). Prior work suggests a cycle of continued crystal methamphetamine use and high-risk sex due to loss of the ability to enjoy other activities, which appears to be a side effect of this drug. Behavioral activation (BA) is a treatment for depression that involves learning to reengage in life's activities. We evaluated a novel intervention for crystal methamphetamine abuse and high-risk sex in MSM, incorporating 10 sessions of BA with integrated HIV risk reduction counseling (RR). Forty-four subjects were screened, of whom 21 met initial entry criteria. A total of 19 participants enrolled; 16 completed an open-phase study of the intervention. Behavioral assessments were conducted at baseline, 3 months postbaseline, and 6 months postbaseline. Linear mixed effects regression models were fit to assess change over time. Mean unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) episodes decreased significantly from baseline to acute postintervention (β=-4.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-7.48, -2.24; p=0.0015) and from baseline to 6 months postbaseline (β=-5.07; 95% CI=-7.85, -2.29; p=0.0017; test of fixed effects χ(2)=16.59; df=2,13; p=0.0002). On average, there was a significant decrease over time in the number of crystal methamphetamine episodes in the past 3 months (χ(2)=22.43; df=2,15; p<0.0001), and the number of days of crystal methamphetamine use in the past 30 days (χ(2)=9.21; df=2,15; p=0.010). Statistically significant reductions in depressive symptoms and poly-substance use were also maintained. Adding behavioral activation to risk reduction counseling for MSM with problematic crystal methamphetamine use may augment the potency of a risk reduction intervention for this population. Due to the small sample size and time intensive intervention, future testing in a randomized design is necessary to determine efficacy, with subsequent effectiveness testing.

  5. A Pilot Trial of Integrated Behavioral Activation and Sexual Risk Reduction Counseling for HIV-Uninfected Men Who Have Sex with Men Abusing Crystal Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Pantalone, David W.; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Crystal methamphetamine use is a major driver behind high-risk sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). Prior work suggests a cycle of continued crystal methamphetamine use and high-risk sex due to loss of the ability to enjoy other activities, which appears to be a side effect of this drug. Behavioral activation (BA) is a treatment for depression that involves learning to reengage in life's activities. We evaluated a novel intervention for crystal methamphetamine abuse and high-risk sex in MSM, incorporating 10 sessions of BA with integrated HIV risk reduction counseling (RR). Forty-four subjects were screened, of whom 21 met initial entry criteria. A total of 19 participants enrolled; 16 completed an open-phase study of the intervention. Behavioral assessments were conducted at baseline, 3 months postbaseline, and 6 months postbaseline. Linear mixed effects regression models were fit to assess change over time. Mean unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) episodes decreased significantly from baseline to acute postintervention (β=−4.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]=−7.48, −2.24; p=0.0015) and from baseline to 6 months postbaseline (β=−5.07; 95% CI=−7.85, −2.29; p=0.0017; test of fixed effects χ2=16.59; df=2,13; p=0.0002). On average, there was a significant decrease over time in the number of crystal methamphetamine episodes in the past 3 months (χ2=22.43; df=2,15; p<0.0001), and the number of days of crystal methamphetamine use in the past 30 days (χ2=9.21; df=2,15; p=0.010). Statistically significant reductions in depressive symptoms and poly-substance use were also maintained. Adding behavioral activation to risk reduction counseling for MSM with problematic crystal methamphetamine use may augment the potency of a risk reduction intervention for this population. Due to the small sample size and time intensive intervention, future testing in a randomized design is necessary to determine efficacy, with subsequent effectiveness

  6. Phylogenetic investigation of a statewide HIV-1 epidemic reveals ongoing and active transmission networks among men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip A.; Hogan, Joseph W.; Huang, Austin; DeLong, Allison; Salemi, Marco; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Kantor, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular epidemiologic evaluation of HIV-1 transmission networks can elucidate behavioral components of transmission that can be targets for intervention. Methods We combined phylogenetic and statistical approaches using pol sequences from patients diagnosed 2004-2011 at a large HIV center in Rhode Island, following 75% of the state’s HIV population. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using maximum likelihood and putative transmission clusters were evaluated using latent class analyses (LCA) to determine association of cluster size with underlying demographic/behavioral characteristics. A logistic growth model was used to assess intra-cluster dynamics over time and predict “active” clusters that were more likely to harbor undiagnosed infections. Results Of 1,166 HIV-1 subtype B sequences, 31% were distributed among 114 statistically-supported, monophyletic clusters (range: 2-15 sequences/cluster). Sequences from men who have sex with men (MSM) formed 52% of clusters. LCA demonstrated that sequences from recently diagnosed (2008-2011) MSM with primary HIV infection (PHI) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were more likely to form larger clusters (Odds Ratio 1.62-11.25, p<0.01). MSM in clusters were more likely to have anonymous partners and meet partners at sex clubs and pornographic stores. Four large clusters with 38 sequences (100% male, 89% MSM) had a high-probability of harboring undiagnosed infections and included younger MSM with PHI and STIs. Conclusions In this first large-scale molecular epidemiologic investigation of HIV-1 transmission in New England, sexual networks among recently diagnosed MSM with PHI and concomitant STIs contributed to ongoing transmission. Characterization of transmission dynamics revealed actively growing clusters which may be targets for intervention. PMID:26258569

  7. Comparable fMRI activity with differential behavioural performance on mental rotation and overt verbal fluency tasks in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Halari, Rozmin; Sharma, Tonmoy; Hines, Melissa; Andrew, Chris; Simmons, Andy; Kumari, Veena

    2006-02-01

    To explicate the neural correlates of sex differences in visuospatial and verbal fluency tasks, we examined behavioural performance and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) regional brain activity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, during a three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation task and a compressed sequence overt verbal fluency task in a group of healthy men (n=9) and women (n=10; tested during the low-oestrogen phase of the menstrual cycle). Men outperformed women on the mental rotation task, and women outperformed men on the verbal fluency task. For the mental rotation task, men and women activated areas in the right superior parietal lobe and the bilateral middle occipital gyrus in association with the rotation condition. In addition, men activated the left middle temporal gyrus and the right angular gyrus. For verbal fluency, men activated areas in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, left precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, thalamus, left parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral lingual gyrus, and women activated areas in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and left caudate. Despite observing task related activation in the hypothesised areas in men and women, no areas significantly differentiated the two sexes. Our results demonstrate comparable brain activation in men and women in association with mental rotation and verbal fluency function with differential performance, and provide support for sex differences in brain-behaviour relationships.

  8. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    PubMed

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps < .05. Effects were observed for men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  9. Estimates of alcohol use and clinical treatment needs among homosexually active men and women in the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Cochran, S D; Keenan, C; Schober, C; Mays, V M

    2000-12-01

    Concerns about dysfunctional alcohol use among lesbians and gay men are longstanding. The authors examined alcohol use patterns and treatment utilization among adults interviewed in the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Sexually active respondents were classified into 2 groups: those with at least 1 same-gender sexual partner (n = 194) in the year prior to interview and those with only opposite-gender sexual partners (n = 9,714). The authors compared these 2 groups separately by gender. For men, normative alcohol use patterns or morbidity did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. However, homosexually active women reported using alcohol more frequently and in greater amounts and experienced greater alcohol-related morbidity than exclusively heterosexually active women. Findings suggest higher risk for alcohol-related problems among lesbians as compared with other women, perhaps because of a more common pattern of moderate alcohol consumption.

  10. Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  11. Vulnerability of Homeless People in Tehran, Iran, to HIV, Tuberculosis and Viral Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri Amiri, Fahimeh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Saifi, Mahnaz; Rohani, Mehdi; Tabarsi, Payam; Sedaghat, Abbas; Fahimfar, Noushin; Memarnejadian, Arash; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Nasehi, Mahshid; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Background Homeless people are at risk of contracting communicable infectious diseases, as they indulge in risky behaviours and lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of the aforementioned infections and related risk behaviours among homeless people in Tehran. Methods In this study a convenience sample of 593 homeless individuals was studied. The ELISA method was used for the detection of HIV, HCV and HBV. Clinical symptoms, sputum cultures, acid fast bacilli smears, and chest X-rays were used to identify active pulmonary tuberculosis, and the Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) test was used to identify latent tuberculosis. Results The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and latent tuberculosis was 3.4%, 2.6%, 23.3% and 46.7%, respectively. Active pulmonary tuberculosis was found in 7 persons (1.2%). Injection drug use was an independent risk factor for HIV, HCV and HBV infections. Older people had a higher proportion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (OR: 2.6, 95%CI: 1.9, 3.7) and HCV positivity (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5). Conclusion Our findings highlighted that much more attention needs to be paid to the health of homeless people. PMID:24896247

  12. Contribution of sympathetic activation to coronary vasodilatation during the cold pressor test in healthy men: effect of ageing.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kevin D; Feehan, Robert P; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Gao, Zhaohui

    2013-06-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is an important regulator of coronary blood flow. The cold pressor test (CPT) is a powerful sympathoexcitatory stressor. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) CPT-induced sympathetic activation elicits coronary vasodilatation in young adults that is impaired with advancing age and (2) combined α- and β-adrenergic blockade diminishes/abolishes these age-related differences. Vascular responses of the left anterior descending artery to the CPT were determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography before (pre-blockade) and during (post-blockade) systemic co-administration of α- and β-adrenergic antagonists in young (n = 9; 26 ± 1 years old, mean ± SEM) and older healthy men (n = 9; 66 ± 2 years old). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR; mean arterial pressure/coronary blood velocity) was used as an index of vascular tone. CPT decreased CVR (i.e. coronary vasodilatation occurred) in young ( -33 ± 6%), but not older men ( -3 ± 4%; P < 0.05 vs. young) pre-blockade. Adrenergic blockade abolished CPT-induced coronary vasodilatation in young men ( -33 ± 6% vs. 0 ± 6%, pre-blockade vs. post-blockade, respectively; P < 0.05) such that responses post-blockade mirrored those of older men ( -3 ± 4% vs. 8 ± 9%; both P > 0.05 compared to young pre-blockade). Impaired CPT-induced coronary vasodilatation could not be explained by a reduced stimulus for vasodilatation as group and condition effects persisted when CVR responses were expressed relative to myocardial oxygen demand (rate-pressure product). These data indicate that the normal coronary vascular response to sympathetic activation in young men is pronounced vasodilatation and this effect is lost with age as the result of an adrenergic mechanism. These findings may help explain how acute sympathoexcitation may precipitate angina and coronary ischaemic events, particularly in older adults.

  13. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern

  14. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass.

  15. 77 FR 44653 - Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application-Technical Submission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application-- Technical Submission AGENCY... the original Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application. DATES: Comments Due Date: August... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance...

  16. Adiposity and Age Explain Most of the Association between Physical Activity and Fitness in Physically Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Sánchez, José A.; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Olmedillas, Hugo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Arteaga-Ortiz, Rafael; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquín; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, José A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine if there is an association between physical activity assessed by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. Methodology/Principal Findings One hundred and eighty-two young males (age range: 20–55 years) completed the short form of the IPAQ to assess physical activity. Body composition (dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry), muscular fitness (static and dynamic muscle force and power, vertical jump height, running speed [30 m sprint], anaerobic capacity [300 m running test]) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max: 20 m shuttle run test) were also determined in all subjects. Activity-related energy expenditure of moderate and vigorous intensity (EEPAmoderate and EEPAvigorous, respectively) was inversely associated with indices of adiposity (r = −0.21 to −0.37, P<0.05). Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was positively associated with LogEEPAmoderate (r = 0.26, P<0.05) and LogEEPAvigorous (r = 0.27). However, no association between VO2max with LogEEPAmoderate, LogEPPAvigorous and LogEEPAtotal was observed after adjusting for the percentage of body fat. Multiple stepwise regression analysis to predict VO2max from LogEEPAwalking, LogEEPAmoderate, LogEEPAvigorous, LogEEPAtotal, age and percentage of body fat (%fat) showed that the %fat alone explained 62% of the variance in VO2max and that the age added another 10%, while the other variables did not add predictive value to the model [VO2max  = 129.6−(25.1× Log %fat) − (34.0× Log age); SEE: 4.3 ml.kg−1. min−1; R2 = 0.72 (P<0.05)]. No positive association between muscular fitness-related variables and physical activity was observed, even after adjusting for body fat or body fat and age. Conclusions/Significance Adiposity and age are the strongest predictors of VO2max in healthy men. The energy expended in moderate and vigorous physical activities is inversely associated with

  17. 77 FR 20849 - Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program AGENCY: Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS), Department of Labor. Announcement Type: New Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications. The full announcement is posted...

  18. Helping the Homeless in School and out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgersson-Shorter, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Homeless children can be hard to identify and even harder to help. But teachers can do a great deal to make sure that they do not fall through the cracks. Teachers of highly mobile students must develop the skills to make these children and youth feel welcome while quickly weaving them into classroom routines. They must rapidly assess new…

  19. The Victimization of the Homeless Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    An indication of the failure of the mental health system in this country is reflected in the increasingly visible homeless population, many of whom suffer from some form of untreated mental illness. Public policy priorities have shifted from proactive, treatment-oriented policies to reactive, punitive institutionalization. The…

  20. Resilience and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleverley, Kristin; Kidd, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    Homeless and street-involved youth are considered an extremely high risk group, with many studies highlighting trajectories characterized by abusive, neglectful, and unstable family histories, victimization and criminal involvement while on the streets, high rates of physical and mental illness, and extremely high rates of mortality. While there…

  1. Helping the Homeless in School and Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgersson-Shorter, Helena

    2010-01-01

    However much the recession might be receding, the effects remain deep and cruel to families living in poverty. Many have fallen through their communities' social safety nets. Today, families with young children comprise 41% of the nation's homeless population. According to the Institute of Children and Poverty, more than 1.35 million kids in the…

  2. The New Vagabonds? Homelessness Outside the Megalopolis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Dan; Johnson, David

    This paper reports results of a survey of 47 homeless adults, interviewed in Ada County, Idaho. Most respondents were male, white, currently single, with no religious preference. The mean number of years of formal education was 11.6. Seventeen percent of the sample were American Indians. Ninety-three percent were unemployed. Twenty-five percent of…

  3. Homeless: How Residential Instability Complicates Students' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the challenges of highly mobile students and what educators can do to retain and support them. The findings and recommendations presented here are based on two complementary research projects conducted with homeless students transitioning from high school to college. The author focuses on the residential…

  4. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  5. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  6. Address Unknown: Homelessness in Contemporary America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, James D.

    1989-01-01

    While homelessness results from a variety of factors, ultimately its cause is an insufficient supply of suitable housing. The Federal government must massively intervene to halt the loss of additional low-income housing units, and benefits paid to the welfare-dependent population must approximately double. (MW)

  7. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  8. Transitional Living Programs for Homeless Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Sara V.; Robertson, Robert M., Jr.

    This report presents a conceptual framework for developing, reviewing, and evaluating transitional living programs (TLPs) for homeless adolescents. It is designed to be used by those in the field who are or will be developing such programs. All TLPs share basic elements and each of these is described so that TLP providers can understand what their…

  9. Aerobic exercise plus weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and increases skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity in older men.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Alice S; Katzel, Leslie I; Prior, Steven J; McLenithan, John C; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ortmeyer, Heidi K

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6-month aerobic exercise training + weight loss (AEX + WL) on basal and insulin activation of glycogen synthase, basal citrate synthase activity, and Akt and AS160 phosphorylation in older, overweight/obese insulin-resistant men (n = 14; 63 ± 2 years; body mass index, 32 ± kg/m(2)). Muscle samples of the vastus lateralis were collected before and during a 3-hour 80 mU/m(2)/min hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. AEX + WL increased VO2max by 11% (p < .05) and decreased body weight (-9%, p < .001). AEX + WL increased basal citrate synthase activity by 46% (p < .01) and insulin activation of independent (2.9-fold) and fractional (2.3-fold) activities (both p < .001) of glycogen synthase. AEX + WL had no effect on phosphorylation of Akt or AS160. Glucose utilization (M) improved 25% (p < .01), and the change tended to be related to the increase in insulin activation of glycogen synthase fractional activity (r = .50, p = .08) following AEX + WL. In summary, AEX + WL has a robust effect on insulin activation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity that likely contributes to improved glucose utilization in older insulin-resistant men.

  10. Aerobic Exercise Plus Weight Loss Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Increases Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Synthase Activity in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Katzel, Leslie I.; Prior, Steven J.; McLenithan, John C.; Goldberg, Andrew P.; Ortmeyer, Heidi K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6-month aerobic exercise training + weight loss (AEX + WL) on basal and insulin activation of glycogen synthase, basal citrate synthase activity, and Akt and AS160 phosphorylation in older, overweight/obese insulin-resistant men (n = 14; 63 ± 2 years; body mass index, 32 ± kg/m2). Muscle samples of the vastus lateralis were collected before and during a 3-hour 80 mU/m2/min hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. AEX + WL increased VO2max by 11% (p < .05) and decreased body weight (−9%, p < .001). AEX + WL increased basal citrate synthase activity by 46% (p < .01) and insulin activation of independent (2.9-fold) and fractional (2.3-fold) activities (both p < .001) of glycogen synthase. AEX + WL had no effect on phosphorylation of Akt or AS160. Glucose utilization (M) improved 25% (p < .01), and the change tended to be related to the increase in insulin activation of glycogen synthase fractional activity (r = .50, p = .08) following AEX + WL. In summary, AEX + WL has a robust effect on insulin activation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity that likely contributes to improved glucose utilization in older insulin-resistant men. PMID:24357038

  11. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Zembron-Lacny, A.; Dziubek, W.; Rynkiewicz, M.; Morawin, B.; Woźniewski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years) and 17 young males (20-24 years) participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL), hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men. PMID:27332774

  12. Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Title VII, Subtitle B of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Report to Congress, Fiscal Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report compiles data submitted by state educational agencies in accordance with the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. States are required to provide an estimate of: total number of homeless children and youth by grade level, number of homeless children and youth enrolled in public school by grade level, number of homeless children and…

  13. Factors That Can Make a Difference in Meeting the Needs of Homeless Students in Schools: Perceptions of District Homeless Liaisons in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The needs of homeless students are significant and varied. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act helps ensure homeless students can access a quality education. One of the key provisions is the requirement that all LEAs identify a liaison to be in charge of meeting the needs of homeless students. The purpose of this study was to understand the…

  14. Aerobic and anaerobic changes with high-intensity interval training in active college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Łuszczyk, Marcin; Laskowski, Radoslaw; Olek, Robert A; Gibson, Ann L

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic benefits of high-intensity interval training performed at a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 because little performance enhancement data exist based on this ratio. Recreationally active male volunteers (21 years, 184 cm, 81.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a training (interval training [IT] n = 10) or control group (n = 11). Baseline assessments were repeated after the last training session. Each participant underwent basic anthropometric assessment and performed a VO2max test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer and a 30-second Wingate test. Venous samples were acquired at the antecubital vein and subsequently processed for lactate (LA); samples were obtained at rest, and 5 and 15-minute post-Wingate test. The interval training used a cycling power output equivalent to 80% of VO2max (80% p VO2max) applied for 6 90-second bouts (each followed by 180-second rest) per session, 3 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The control group maintained their normal routine for the 6-week period. Group × time repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that IT improved VO2max (5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min), anaerobic threshold (3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min), work output (12.5 J · kg(-1)), glycolytic work (11.5 J · kg(-1)), mean power (0.3 W · kg), peak power (0.4 W · kg(-1)), and max power (0.4 W · kg(-1)); p < 0.05. Posttesting LA was lower on average for IT at the 5-minute mark but significantly so at the 15-minute mark. Twenty-seven minutes of cycling at 80% p VO2max applied with a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 and spread over 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks provided sufficient stimulus to significantly improve markers of anaerobic and aerobic performance in recreationally active college-aged men. Inclusion of such a protocol into a training program may rapidly restore or improve a client's or athlete's maximal functional capacity.

  15. African American Men With Very Low–Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Ross, Ashley E.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low–risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low–risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low–risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low–risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features. Results AA men with very low–risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). Conclusion AA men with very low–risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low–risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options. PMID:23775960

  16. Neural activation during anticipation of opposite-sex and same-sex faces in heterosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Rademacher, Lena; Paulus, Frieder M; Gründer, Gerhard

    2013-02-01

    Psychobiological accounts of face processing predict that greater salience is attributed to faces matching a viewer's sexual preference than to faces that do not. However, behaviorally, this effect could only be demonstrated in tasks assessing reward 'wanting' (e.g. work-per-view-tasks) but not in tasks assessing 'liking' (e.g. facial attractiveness ratings), and has been found to be more pronounced in heterosexual men than women, especially with regard to very attractive faces. Here, we addressed the question if sex differences at the level of 'wanting' persist if participants are uninformed about the attractiveness of an anticipated male or female face. Seventeen heterosexual men and 13 heterosexual women (all single) participated in a social incentive delay task (SID). Participants were required to react on simple graphical cues in order to view a smiling face. Cues provided a priori information on the level of smile intensity (low/medium/high) as well as sex of the face (male/ female). A significant interaction of sex-of-face and sex-of-participant was observed in a priori defined regions of interest in the brain reward system (including ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex), reflecting enhanced activation to cues signaling opposite-sex faces relative to same-sex faces in both, men and women. Women additionally recruited the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during processing of opposite- vs. same-sex cues, suggesting stronger incorporation of social cognition processes in women than men. The findings speak against a general male bias for opposite-sex faces. Instead they provide preliminary evidence that men and women recruit different brain circuits during reward value assessment of facial stimuli.

  17. A Test of Social Cognitive Theory to Explain Men's Physical Activity During a Gender-Tailored Weight Loss Program.

    PubMed

    Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in men. Social-cognitive theories may improve physical activity (PA) interventions by identifying which variables to target to maximize intervention impact. This study tested the utility of Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain men's PA during a 3-month weight loss program. Participants were 204 overweight/obese men (M [SD] age = 46.6 [11.3] years; body mass index = 33.1 [3.5] kg/m(2)). A longitudinal, latent variable structural equation model tested the associations between SCT constructs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intention, and social support) and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and examined the total PA variance explained by SCT. After controlling for Time 1 cognitions and behavior, the model fit the data well (χ(2) = 73.9, degrees of freedom = 39, p < .001; normed χ(2) = 1.9; comparative fit index = 0.96; standardized root mean residual = 0.059) and explained 65% of the variance in MVPA at Time 2. At Time 2, self-efficacy demonstrated the largest direct and total effects on MVPA (βdirect = .45, p < .001; βtotal = .67, p = .002). A small-to-medium effect was observed from intention to MVPA, but not from outcome expectations or social support. This study provides some evidence supporting the tenets of SCT when examining PA behavior in overweight and obese men. Future PA and weight loss interventions for men may benefit by targeting self-efficacy and intention, but the utility of targeting social support and outcome expectations requires further examination.

  18. 78 FR 12600 - VA Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... include male homeless veterans with minor children. New paragraph (c) states that recipients of special... services; (3) Establishing and operating child care services for dependents of homeless veterans;...

  19. The power of the drug, nature of support, and their impact on homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L; Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Griffin, Deborah Koniak; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Gedzoff, Danny; Reid, Courtney

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore homeless youths' perspectives on the power of drugs in their lives, the preferred type of drugs used, barriers to treatment, and strategies to prevent drug initiation and abuse. This was a descriptive, qualitative study using focus groups with a purposeful sample of 24 drug-using homeless youth. The results provided insight into the lives of drug-using homeless youth. The most commonly used drugs were marijuana and alcohol. Reported reasons for drug use were parental drug use, low self-esteem, and harsh living conditions on the streets. Barriers to treatment were pleasurable enjoyment of the drug, physical dependence, and non-empathetic mental health providers. Strategies to prevent initiation and abuse of drugs were creative activities, such as art, sports, and music, and disdain for parental/family drug use and abuse. Comparative research is needed on specific personal factors that cause initiation and deterrence of drugs use/abuse among homeless youth.

  20. Men's Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviours on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Murray; Elliott, Sam; Drummond, Claire; Lewis, Felicity

    2017-01-01

    Background: Men's health has been subjected to diverse approaches to research over the past two decades. Much of the literature has focused on specific medical and health issues. Other contributions have focused more broadly on masculinities and its relationship to health. It is arguable that there has not been a lot of attention paid to…

  1. Mobile Phone Technology: A New Paradigm for the Prevention, Treatment, and Research of the Non-sheltered “Street” Homeless?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Individuals experiencing homelessness have disproportionately high rates of health problems. Those who perceive themselves as having greater access to their social support networks have better physical and mental health outcomes as well as lower rates of victimization. Mobile phones offer a connection to others without the physical constraints of landlines and, therefore, may make communication (e.g., access to one’s social support networks) more feasible for homeless individuals. This, in turn, could lead toward better health outcomes. This exploratory study examined mobile phone possession and use among a sample of 100 homeless men and women who do not use the shelter system in Philadelphia, PA. Interviews were comprised of the Homeless Supplement to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, a technology module created for this investigation, and the substance use and psychiatric sections of the Addiction Severity Index. Almost half (44%) of the sample had a mobile phone. In the past 30 days, 100% of those with mobile phones placed or received a call, over half (61%) sent or received a text message, and one fifth (20%) accessed the Internet via their mobile phone. Participants possessed and used mobile phones to increase their sense of safety, responsibility (employment, stable housing, personal business, and sobriety or “clean time”), and social connectedness. Mobile phones could potentially be used by public health/health care providers to disseminate information to the street homeless, to enhance communication between the street homeless and providers, and to increase access for the street homeless to prevention, intervention, and aftercare services. Finally, this technology could also be used by researchers to collect data with this transient population. PMID:20397058

  2. Living conditions, ability to seek medical treatment, and awareness of health conditions and healthcare options among homeless persons in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Toda, Ryouhei; Shiraishi, Tomonobu; Toyoda, Hirokuni; Toyozawa, Hideyasu; Kamioka, Yasuaki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shimada, Naoki; Shirasawa, Takako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2011-12-01

    Empirical data indicative of the health conditions and medical needs of homeless persons are scarce in Japan. In this study, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of future healthcare strategies for the homeless, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey and interviews at a park in Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo, to clarify the living conditions of homeless persons and their health conditions and awareness about the availability of medical treatment. Responses from 55 homeless men were recorded (response rate: 36.7%). With the exception of one person, none of them possessed a health insurance certificate. Half of the respondents reported having a current income source, although their modal monthly income was 30,000 yen($1 was approximately 90 yen). The number of individuals who responded "yes" to the questions regarding "Consulting a doctor on the basis of someone's recommendation" and "Being aware of the location of the nearest hospital or clinic" was significantly higher among those who had someone to consult when they were ill than among those who did not (the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were 15.00 [3.05-93.57] and 11.45 [1.42-510.68], respectively). This showed that whether or not a homeless person had a person to consult might influence his healthcare-seeking behavior. When queried about the entity they consulted (multiple responses acceptable), respondents mentioned "life support organizations" (61.1%) and "public offices" (33.3%). Overall, 94.5% of the respondents were aware of swine flu (novel influenza A (H1N1)). Their main sources of information were newspapers and magazines. On the basis of these findings, with regard to the aim of formulating healthcare strategies for homeless persons, while life support organizations and public offices play significant roles as conduits to medical institutions, print media should be considered useful for communicating messages to homeless persons.

  3. 75 FR 10485 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... from Homelessness (PATH) formula grant program, and to certain Substance Abuse and Mental Health... Transition from Homelessness Reporting 96.122(f)(5) Annual report 60 1 60 1 60 of activities the...

  4. A Taxonomy of medical comorbidity for veterans who are homeless.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Gerald; Luther, James F; Jacoby, Aaron M; Haas, Gretchen L; Gordon, Adam J

    2008-08-01

    Homeless veterans have numerous medical and behavioral health problems. Grouping homeless people based on comorbidity patterns may assist in determining severity of illness and triaging health care more effectively. We sought to determine if a finite number of profiles could be identified related to demographic characteristics, living situation, length of homelessness, and referral areas using interview data from 2,733 veterans who were presently or recently homeless. We considered 12 disorders: eye problems, hypertension, cardiovascular problems, COPD/emphysema, tuberculosis, gastrointestinal problems, hepatic disease, neurologic disorders, orthopedic problems, skin problems, and trauma. Ratings were evaluated using cluster analysis. Comparison statistics were used to compare intercluster differences in demographics, homeless situation, and referral recommendations. A four-cluster solution is proposed: generalized illness, hepatic disease, lung disease, and neurologic disorder. Medical health problems are common and heterogeneous in homeless individuals. Classifications of these problems may be useful in planning treatment and predicting outcome.

  5. Voices From the Street: Exploring the Realities of Family Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Laura; Brush, Barbara L.; Baiardi, Janet M.; Kirk, Keri; VanMaldeghem, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness threatens the health and well-being of thousands of families in the United States, yet little is known about their specific needs and how current services address them. To fill this knowledge gap, we explored the experiences of homelessness families in Detroit, Michigan. We targeted homeless mothers and their caseworkers for study to see if the perceptions of needs and services were in alignment. Using focus groups and content analysis, we identified four overarching themes that illustrate homeless mothers' experience with homelessness. We then analyzed data from caseworkers to look specifically for similarities and differences in their perceptions. Key findings included reports of family histories of violence, poverty, social isolation, and a lack of informal support as contributing to homelessness. The differing perspectives of mothers and their caseworkers regarding how best to move forward highlight how current programs and services may not be meeting the needs of this growing and vulnerable cohort. PMID:25186947

  6. Barriers to Psychosocial Services among Homeless Women Veterans.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Alison B; Poza, Ines; Hines, Vivian; Washington, Donna L

    2012-01-01

    Veterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of barriers to psychosocial services among homeless women veterans. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, CA, with a total of 29 homeless women veterans. These women described three primary, proximal (current) barriers: lack of information about services, limited access to services, and lack of coordination across services. Compared to non-veteran homeless women, women veterans potentially face additional challenges of trauma exposure during military service, post-military readjustment issues, and few services specific to women veterans. Understanding their service needs and experiences is critical to the development of relevant and appropriate services that move homeless women veterans away from vulnerability, into safety.

  7. Voices from the street: exploring the realities of family homelessness.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, Laura; Brush, Barbara L; Baiardi, Janet M; Kirk, Keri; VanMaldeghem, Kelley

    2014-11-01

    Homelessness threatens the health and well-being of thousands of families in the United States, yet little is known about their specific needs and how current services address them. To fill this knowledge gap, we explored the experiences of homelessness families in Detroit, Michigan. We targeted homeless mothers and their caseworkers for study to see if the perceptions of needs and services were in alignment. Using focus groups and content analysis, we identified four overarching themes that illustrate homeless mothers' experience with homelessness. We then analyzed data from caseworkers to look specifically for similarities and differences in their perceptions. Key findings included reports of family histories of violence, poverty, social isolation, and a lack of informal support as contributing to homelessness. The differing perspectives of mothers and their caseworkers regarding how best to move forward highlight how current programs and services may not be meeting the needs of this growing and vulnerable cohort.

  8. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA.

  9. Novel long-chain compounds with both immunomodulatory and MenA inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus and its biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seoung-ryoung; Frandsen, Joel; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran

    2017-01-01

    Menaquinone (MK) biosynthesis pathway is a potential target for evaluating antimicrobials in gram-positive bacteria. Here, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate prenyltransferase (MenA) was targeted to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) growth. MenA inhibiting, long chain-based compounds were designed, synthesized and evaluated against MRSA and menaquinone utilizing bacteria in aerobic conditions. The results showed that these bacteria were susceptible to most of the compounds. Menaquinone (MK-4) supplementation rescued MRSA growth, suggesting these compounds inhibit MK biosynthesis. 3a and 7c exhibited promising inhibitory activities with MICs ranging 1–8 μg/mL against MRSA strains. The compounds did not facilitate small colony variant formation. These compounds also inhibited the biofilm growth by MRSA at high concentration. Compounds 3a, 6b and 7c displayed a promising extracellular bactericidal activity against MRSA at concentrations equal to and four-fold less than their respective MICs. We also observed cytokines released from THP-1 macrophages treated with compounds 3a, 6b and 7c and found decreases in TNF-α and IL-6 release and increase in IL-1β. These data provide evidence that MenA inhibitors act as TNF-α and IL-6 inhibitors, raising the potential for development and application of these compounds as potential immunomodulatory agents. PMID:28071679

  10. Novel long-chain compounds with both immunomodulatory and MenA inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus and its biofilm.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seoung-Ryoung; Frandsen, Joel; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran

    2017-01-10

    Menaquinone (MK) biosynthesis pathway is a potential target for evaluating antimicrobials in gram-positive bacteria. Here, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate prenyltransferase (MenA) was targeted to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) growth. MenA inhibiting, long chain-based compounds were designed, synthesized and evaluated against MRSA and menaquinone utilizing bacteria in aerobic conditions. The results showed that these bacteria were susceptible to most of the compounds. Menaquinone (MK-4) supplementation rescued MRSA growth, suggesting these compounds inhibit MK biosynthesis. 3a and 7c exhibited promising inhibitory activities with MICs ranging 1-8 μg/mL against MRSA strains. The compounds did not facilitate small colony variant formation. These compounds also inhibited the biofilm growth by MRSA at high concentration. Compounds 3a, 6b and 7c displayed a promising extracellular bactericidal activity against MRSA at concentrations equal to and four-fold less than their respective MICs. We also observed cytokines released from THP-1 macrophages treated with compounds 3a, 6b and 7c and found decreases in TNF-α and IL-6 release and increase in IL-1β. These data provide evidence that MenA inhibitors act as TNF-α and IL-6 inhibitors, raising the potential for development and application of these compounds as potential immunomodulatory agents.

  11. [Evidence-based treatment of mentally ill homeless persons].

    PubMed

    Larsen, Maja; Nordentoft, Merete

    2010-05-31

    A systematic review of the literature shows that it is possible to reduce homelessness among mentally ill homeless persons, partly by offering access to housing and partly by providing intensive care through Assertive Community Treatment. Assertive Community Treatment can, to some extent, decrease psychiatric symptoms and increase quality of life. It is evident that by offering housing, homelessness may be reduced, but the comparison of independent housing and group living did not reveal big differences.

  12. Associations of disordered sleep with body fat distribution, physical activity and diet among overweight middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Shu Mei; Mikkola, Tuija M; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Wiklund, Petri; Cong, Fengyu; Saarinen, Antti; Tarkka, Ina; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether body fat distribution, physical activity levels and dietary intakes are associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea among overweight middle-aged men. Participants were 211 Finnish men aged 30-65 years. Among the 163 overweight or obese participants, 40 had insomnia only, 23 had obstructive sleep apnea only, 24 had comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea and 76 were without sleep disorder. The remaining 48 participants had normal weight without sleep disorder. Fat mass, levels of physical activity and diet were assessed by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, physical activity questionnaire and 3-day food diary, respectively. Among the overweight participants, we found that: (i) groups with sleep disorders had higher fat mass in trunk and android regions than the group without sleep disorder (P = 0.048-0.004); (ii) the insomnia-only group showed a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (436.9 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.009) and higher intake of saturated fatty acids (14.8 versus 12.7 E%, P = 0.011) than the group without sleep disorder; and (iii) the comorbid group had a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (344.4 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.007) and lower folate intake (118.9 versus 152.1 μg, P = 0.002) than the group without sleep disorder, which were independent of body mass index. The results suggest that central obesity is associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, low levels of leisure-time physical activity and poor dietary intakes are related to insomnia or comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea among overweight men.

  13. Estimating the individual benefit of immediate treatment or active surveillance for prostate cancer after screen-detection in older (65+) men.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-05-15

    A significant proportion of screen-detected men with prostate cancer is likely to be overtreated, especially in older age groups. We aim to find which groups of screen-detected older men (65+) benefit the most from Immediate Radical Treatment or Active Surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer, depending on age, screening history, health status and prostate cancer stage at detection. We used a microsimulation model (MISCAN) of the natural history of prostate cancer based on ERSPC data. Individual life histories are simulated with US comorbidity lifetables based on a random sample of MEDICARE data. Different screening histories are simulated and we count outcomes for men screen-detected from ages 66 to 72. For immediately treated men with low-risk disease (≤ T2a, Gleason 6) the probability of overtreatment ranges from 61% to 86% decreasing to between 37 and 46%, if they are assigned to AS. For intermediate risk men (≤ T2, Gleason 3 + 4) overtreatment ranges from 23 to 60%, which reduces to between 16 and 31% for AS. For high risk men (T3, or ≥ Gleason 4 + 3), overtreatment ranges from 11 to 51%. The disease stage at screen-detection is a critical risk factor for overtreatment. For low risk men, AS seems to significantly reduce overtreatment at a modest cost. For intermediate risk men, the decision between immediate treatment or AS depends on age and comorbidity status. Men screen-detected in a high risk disease stage may benefit from immediate treatment even beyond age 69.

  14. Creating a Science of Homelessness During the Reagan Era

    PubMed Central

    JONES, MARIAN MOSER

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points: A retrospective analysis of federally funded homeless research in the 1980s serves as a case study of how politics can influence social and behavioral science research agendas today in the United States. These studies of homeless populations, the first funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, demonstrated that only about a third of the homeless population was mentally ill and that a diverse group of people experienced homelessness. This groundbreaking research program set the mold for a generation of research and policy characterizing homelessness as primarily an individual-level problem rather than a problem with the social safety net. Context A decade after the nation's Skid Rows were razed, homelessness reemerged in the early 1980s as a health policy issue in the United States. While activists advocated for government-funded programs to address homelessness, officials of the Reagan administration questioned the need for a federal response to the problem. In this climate, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) launched a seminal program to investigate mental illness and substance abuse among homeless individuals. This program serves as a key case study of the social and behavioral sciences’ role in the policy response to homelessness and how politics has shaped the federal research agenda. Methods Drawing on interviews with former government officials, researchers, social activists, and others, along with archival material, news reports, scientific literature, and government publications, this article examines the emergence and impact of social and behavioral science research on homelessness. Findings Research sponsored by the NIMH and other federal research bodies during the 1980s produced a rough picture of mental illness and substance abuse prevalence among the US homeless population, and private foundations supported projects that looked at this group's health care needs. The Reagan administration's opposition to funding

  15. How Effective Homelessness Prevention Impacts the Length of Shelter Spells.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sarena; Messeri, Peter; O'Flaherty, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    Homelessness prevention programs intervene with households apparently in imminent danger of becoming homeless, and try to keep them housed. If they are at least partially successful, how do they change the average shelter spell of households actually becoming homeless? We use data from 2003 to 2008 for Homebase, a New York City homelessness prevention program that studies have found to be effective in reducing shelter entries. Homebase made no difference in average shelter spells at the community level. This result, like many results about shelter spell length, is not easy to reconcile with the idea that shelter spell length is a reflection of the seriousness of underlying problems.

  16. Disparate Vitamin D Activity in the Prostate of Men with African Ancestry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    aggressive PCa and death from PCa. Vitamin D3 deficiency increases PCa mortality, highlighting the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D3 status...radiation, which leads to reduced vitamin D3 synthesis in darker pigmented skin. Consequently, ~65% of AA men are vitamin D3 deficient compared to ~20% of... deficiency increases PCa mortality, highlighting the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D3 status for prostate health. Vitamin D3 is

  17. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    prostate cancer ( PrCA ), one in three patients will experience an elevation in serum prostate antigen (PSA) within 10 years. This rises to one in two...at 15 years. After such evidence of recurrence, the most common treatment is androgen ablation. We hypothesize that the host- PrCA balance in...asymptomatic men with biochemically recurrent PrCA , as reflected by the PSA rise, is favorably affected by an intensive, vegetable-based diet, plus physical

  18. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    stage prostate cancer ( PrCA ), one in three patients will experience an elevation in serum prostate antigen (PSA) within 10 years. This rises to one in...two at 15 years. After such evidence of recurrence, the most common treatment is androgen ablation. We hypothesize that the host- PrCA balance in...asymptomatic men with biochemically recurrent PrCA , as reflected by the PSA rise, is favorably affected by an intensive, vegetable-based diet, plus

  19. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    14. ABSTRACT: Following surgery or radiation of primary early-stage prostate cancer ( PrCA ), one in three patients will experience an elevation in...androgen ablation. We hypothesize that the host- PrCA balance in asymptomatic men with biochemically recurrent PrCA , as reflected by the PSA rise, is...Registry letters Reminder Call Script 4 Introduction: Prostate cancer ( PrCA ) is the most commonly occurring cancer, excluding skin

  20. Pathological Outcomes in Men with Low Risk and Very Low Risk Prostate Cancer: Implications on the Practice of Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; JohnBull, Eric; Trock, Bruce J.; Landis, Patricia; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Carter, H. Ballentine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We assessed oncologic outcomes at surgery in men with low risk and very low risk prostate cancer who were candidates for active surveillance. Materials and Methods In a prospectively collected institutional database, we identified 7,486 subjects eligible for active surveillance who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy. Candidates were designated as being at low risk (stage T1c/T2a, prostate specific antigen 10 ng/ml or less, and Gleason score 6 or less) or very low risk (stage T1c, prostate specific antigen density 0.15 or less, Gleason score 6 or less, 2 or fewer positive biopsy cores, 50% or less cancer involvement per core) based on preoperative data. Adverse findings were Gleason score upgrade (score 7 or greater) and nonorgan confined cancer on surgical pathology. The relative risk of adverse findings in men at low risk with very low risk disease was evaluated in a multivariate model using Poisson regression. Results A total of 7,333 subjects met the criteria for low risk disease and 153 had very low risk disease. The proportion of subjects at low risk found to have Gleason score upgrade or nonorgan confined cancer on final pathology was 21.8% and 23.1%, respectively. Corresponding values in those at very low risk were 13.1% and 8.5%, respectively. After adjusting for age, race, year of surgery, body mass index, and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis, the relative risk of Gleason score upgrade in men with low risk vs very low risk disease was 1.89 (95% CI 1.21–2.95). The relative risk of nonorgan confined cancer was 2.06 (95% CI 1.19–3.57). Conclusions Men with very low risk prostate cancer were at significantly lower risk for adverse findings at surgery compared to those with low risk disease. These data support the stratification of low risk cancer when selecting and counseling men who may be appropriate for active surveillance. PMID:23643603

  1. "Not Homeless Yet. I'm Kind of Couch Surfing": Finding Identities for People at a Homeless Shelter.

    PubMed

    Terui, Sachiko; Hsieh, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The meanings of homelessness are fluid and socially constructed, providing resources and limitations for individuals to negotiate their identities and relationships in everyday life. In this study, we examine the strategies and corresponding resources utilized by people who are homeless to cope with the labeling of a homeless identity and to redefine their identities. We used constant comparative analysis to examine in-depth interviews with 16 participants (male = 11, female = 5) who access a local homeless shelter in the southwest United States for resources. We identified three strategies that homeless people adopt to cope with the labeling of homeless identity: (a) differentiating oneself from others who are homeless, (b) prioritizing certain aspects of life, and (c) embracing the status of homelessness. Although these strategies have been identified in previous literature, the authors extend this line of research by identifying the common resources people who are homeless utilize when adopting these strategies, which entail important implications for theory development and practical implications.

  2. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  3. Physical Activity Advertisements That Feature Daily Well-Being Improve Autonomy and Body Image in Overweight Women but Not Men

    PubMed Central

    Segar, Michelle L.; Updegraff, John A.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40–60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife. PMID:22701782

  4. Physical activity advertisements that feature daily well-being improve autonomy and body image in overweight women but not men.

    PubMed

    Segar, Michelle L; Updegraff, John A; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Richardson, Caroline R

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40-60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.

  5. Influence of homelessness on acute admissions to hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Lissauer, T; Richman, S; Tempia, M; Jenkins, S; Taylor, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the influence of homelessness on acute medical admissions. A prospective case-controlled study was therefore performed on all homeless children admitted through the accident and emergency department over one year, comparing them with the next age matched admission from permanent housing. Assessments made were: whether homelessness or other social factors influenced the doctors' decision to admit; differences in severity of illness; length of stay; and use of primary care. The admitting doctors completed a semi-structured questionnaire during admission about social factors that influenced their decision to admit and graded the severity of the child's illness. The length of hospital stay was recorded. The family's social risk factors and accommodation were assessed at a home visit using a standardised questionnaire and by observation. Seventy homeless children were admitted. Social factors influenced the decision to admit in 77% of homeless children and 43% of controls. More of the homeless children were only mildly ill (33/70) than those from permanent housing (21/70), although three of the homeless children died of overwhelming infections compared with none of the controls. Among homeless families many were recent immigrants (44%). There was a marked increase in socioeconomic deprivation, in major life events in the previous year (median score 3 v 1), and in maternal depression (27% v 8%). Referral to the hospital was made by a general practitioner in only 5/50 (10%) of homeless compared with 18/50 (36%) of controls. Social factors were an important influence on the decision to admit in over three quarters of the homeless children and resulted in admission when less severely ill even when compared with admissions from an inner city population. Even though there was marked social deprivation among the homeless families, the decision to admit was based on vague criteria that need to be further refined. PMID:8259871

  6. Demographics of the homeless in an urban burn unit.

    PubMed

    Kowal-Vern, Areta; Latenser, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    There are few articles about the homeless in burn literature. We sought to determine the demographic characteristics of the homeless citizens admitted to an urban burn center. This was a retrospective review from March 1999 to May 2004. Statistical analysis included chi2 and one-way analysis of variance. There were 1615 burn admissions, and 73 (4.5%) of these patients were homeless. Although the %TBSA affected was similar for the homeless and domiciled patients, the mean (+/-SD) age of the homeless was 44 +/- 10 years and their length of stay was 15 +/- 15 days, compared with 31 +/- 22 years and 9 +/- 13 days, respectively, for the domiciled. Twenty-one (29%) of the 73 homeless were admitted for frostbite, vs 21 (1.4%) of the 1542 domiciled patients (P= .000). Because of the frostbite, the majority (53%) arrived in the winter, compared with 15% in each of the other three seasons (P= .000). The homeless had a higher frequency of acute and chronic ethanol and cocaine use than the domiciled population (21% vs 6%). There was no significant difference between the homeless and the domiciled population in %TBSA affected, nutritional values, and assault frequency. More than half of the homeless patient admissions to the burn unit resulted from assault or frostbite. The homeless were mainly African-Americans and Caucasians, with a higher frequency of ethanol and cocaine use than in the domiciled burn population. Lack of discharge options for the homeless prolonged the average length of stay, leading to increased costs, often borne by the burn unit.

  7. Neighbourhood green space, physical function and participation in physical activities among elderly men: the Caerphilly Prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The built environment in which older people live plays an important role in promoting or inhibiting physical activity. Most work on this complex relationship between physical activity and the environment has excluded people with reduced physical function or ignored the difference between groups with different levels of physical function. This study aims to explore the role of neighbourhood green space in determining levels of participation in physical activity among elderly men with different levels of lower extremity physical function. Method Using data collected from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) and green space data collected from high resolution Landmap true colour aerial photography, we first investigated the effect of the quantity of neighbourhood green space and the variation in neighbourhood vegetation on participation in physical activity for 1,010 men aged 66 and over in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. Second, we explored whether neighbourhood green space affects groups with different levels of lower extremity physical function in different ways. Results Increasing percentage of green space within a 400 meters radius buffer around the home was significantly associated with more participation in physical activity after adjusting for lower extremity physical function, psychological distress, general health, car ownership, age group, marital status, social class, education level and other environmental factors (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.41). A statistically significant interaction between the variation in neighbourhood vegetation and lower extremity physical function was observed (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.12, 3.28). Conclusion Elderly men living in neighbourhoods with more green space have higher levels of participation in regular physical activity. The association between variation in neighbourhood vegetation and regular physical activity varied according to lower extremity physical function. Subjects reporting poor lower extremity

  8. Active middle-aged men have lower fasting inflammatory markers but the postprandial inflammatory response is minimal and unaffected by physical activity status.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Natalie C; Hurst, Tina L; Talbot, Duncan C S; Tyrrell, Rex M; Thompson, Dylan

    2009-07-01

    Physical activity modifies some postprandial responses such as glycemic control, although it is unclear whether this translates into lower postprandial inflammation. Our objective in this study was to determine whether postprandial inflammatory markers are lower in active compared with sedentary middle-aged men. Thirteen active and twelve sedentary middle-aged men consumed a mixed meal on one occasion. Blood was taken via a cannula before and up to 8 h after the meal and with a single-use needle before and 8 h after the meal. Active men had lower fasted IL-6 (0.6 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.3 pg/ml; P = 0.004) and C-reactive protein (1.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.6 mg/l; P = 0.04) concentrations than sedentary men. Cannula blood IL-6 concentrations increased by 3.49 pg/ml in the 8 h following the meal (P < 0.001); however, this increase was minimal (0.36 pg/ml) in blood taken via a single-use needle from the contralateral arm (P = 0.013). The sedentary group had larger glucose (P = 0.034), insulin (P = 0.013), and triacylglycerol (P = 0.057) responses to the meal. These results provide further evidence that physical activity is associated with lower inflammatory marker concentrations in a fasted state and a lower postprandial metabolic response to a meal. However, this does not translate into lower postprandial inflammatory markers since the only evidence of postprandial inflammation (a large increase in serum IL-6) was actually due to the cannula used for blood sampling.

  9. [Anthropometric indexes of the state of nutrition and eating habits, and recreational physical activity of working physically men aged 20-60 of urban population].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this studies was the comparison of somatic indexes and eating habits of working physically men who prefer different ways (active vs. passive) of spending their free time. The studies has been carried out on a group of 1271 people who work in HTS (steelworks) in Nowa Huta (one of Cracow's districts), including 523 men aged 20-40 (181 active and 342 non-active) and 748 men aged 40-60 (194 active and 554 non-active). Men referred to as active declared active spending of their free time and taking up recreational physical activity at lest twice a week. The presented research has not revealed statistically important differentiation of somatic parameters depending on preferred way of spending free time, or a connection between the physical activity level during free time and some eating habits indicating more rational choices, connected with the control of energy value of the diet, larger consumption of vegetables and fruit and smaller consumption of sweet products, and less frequently appearance of 'canine appetite' in the case of active men.

  10. Correlates of Frailty Among Homeless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Benissa E.; Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Phillips, Linda R.; Mentes, Janet C.; Sarkisian, Catherine; Leake, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Frailty, a relatively unexplored concept among vulnerable populations, may be a significant issue for homeless adults. This cross-sectional study assessed correlates of frailty among middle age and older homeless adults (N = 150, 40–73). A Pearson (r) bivariate correlation revealed a weak relationship between frailty and being female (r = .230, p < .01). Significant moderate negative correlations were found between frailty and resilience (r = −.395, p < .01), social support (r = −.377, p < .01), and nutrition (r = −.652, p < .01). Furthermore, Spearman’s rho (rs) bivariate correlations revealed a moderate positive relationship between frailty and health care utilization (rs = .444, p < .01). A stepwise backward linear regression analysis was conducted and in the final model, age, gender, health care utilization, nutrition, and resilience were significantly related to frailty. Over the next two decades, there is an anticipated increase in the number of homeless adults which will necessitate a greater understanding of the needs of this hard-to-reach population. PMID:23676627

  11. Comparisons of Prevention Programs for Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    There are six HIV prevention programs for homeless youth whose efficacy has been or is currently being evaluated: STRIVE, the Community Reinforcement Approach, Strengths-Based Case Management, Ecologically-Based Family Therapy, Street Smart, and AESOP (street outreach access to resources). Programs vary in their underlying framework and theoretical models for understanding homelessness. All programs presume that the youths’ families lack the ability to support their adolescent child. Some programs deemphasize family involvement while others focus on rebuilding connections among family members. The programs either normalize current family conflicts or, alternatively, provide education about the importance of parental monitoring. All programs aim to reduce HIV-related sexual and drug use acts. A coping skills approach is common across programs: Problem-solving skills are specifically addressed in four of the six programs; alternatively, parents in other programs are encouraged to contingently reward their children. Each program also engineers ongoing social support for the families and the youth, either by providing access to needed resources or by substituting a new, supportive relationship for the existing family caretaker. All of the interventions provide access to health and mental health services as basic program resources. A comparison of HIV prevention programs for homeless youth identifies the robust components of each and suggests which programs providers may choose to replicate. PMID:19067164

  12. Associations between crystal methamphetamine use and potentially unsafe sexual activity among gay men in Australia.

    PubMed

    Rawstorne, Patrick; Digiusto, Erol; Worth, Heather; Zablotska, Iryna

    2007-10-01

    It has been suggested that crystal methamphetamine may have disinhibiting or aphrodisiac effects, which may lead to unsafe sexual behavior and increase the risk of HIV transmission. Using data from two Australian studies, the Sydney Gay Community Periodic Survey study and the Positive Health (PH) cohort study, we examined changes over time in use of crystal, other recreational drugs, and Viagra, and in a range of sex-related behaviors. Compared to non-users, crystal users reported having more sex partners, looking for sex in more types of venues, and being more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners (UAIC) and in esoteric sex. Crystal users were also more likely to be using other recreational drugs and Viagra than non-users. Crystal use remained significantly associated with UAIC after adjustment for other relevant variables in a log-binomial regression analysis (adjusted prevalence rate ratio=1.26; 95% CI: 1.19-1.34). The other variables (HIV status, number of sex partners, number of types of venue where men looked for sex, Viagra use, other drug use) were independently associated with UAIC, and did not show confounding or mediating effects on the crystal-UAIC association. Nevertheless, these data did not allow reliable attribution of higher levels of these sex-related behaviors among crystal users specifically to the effects of crystal. The prevalence of crystal use among Australian men who have sex with men (MSM) increased between 2002 and 2005 (e.g., from 26% to 39% among HIV-+ MSM). However, the prevalence of UAIC remained stable or decreased over time in various study subgroups, as did the prevalence of other sex-related behaviors, suggesting that crystal use does not necessarily drive unsafe sexual behavior. Crystal use and unsafe sexual behavior can, and should, be considered and addressed separately in health promotion and community education campaigns.

  13. Factors Associated with Homelessness of Adolescents under Supervision of the Youth Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Marie; Pauze, R.; Fournier, L.

    2005-01-01

    There are two factors that limit our knowledge of the risk factors associated with homelessness among runaway adolescents, namely (1) the samples used are often composed of youth homeless service users and/or youths living on the streets (visible homelessness), whereas most adolescents in fact use ''private'' resources (hidden homelessness), and…

  14. The Relationship between Literacy and Depression and Anxiety in Homeless Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Mark Edward

    2014-01-01

    Homelessness is a problem that has correlating social, psychological, and health problems. The pathways that lead to homelessness are plentiful and varied, as are the risk factors that are associated with chronic homelessness. Much of the research that has been completed with homeless individuals has focused on substance use or psychological…

  15. Homeless and in Need of Special Education. Exceptional Children at Risk: CEC Mini-Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heflin, L. Juane; Rudy, Kathryn

    This booklet examines the plight of homeless families who have children who need special educational services. It explores the magnitude of homelessness among families, provides empirical descriptions of homeless populations, and identifies factors contributing to the rising incidence of homelessness in the United States. Specific effects of…

  16. Homeless Education and Social Capital: An Examination of School and Community Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: This study contributes to the literature on the schooling of homeless and highly mobile students. Although previous work has detailed the demographics of homelessness, the effects of homelessness on academic progress, and particular legal issues in homeless education, this research focused on how individual and institutional…

  17. The Education of Homeless Children and Youth in New Jersey: A Plan for State Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Jay; And Others

    This state plan is New Jersey's response to the charge of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 (the McKinney Act) to assure educational access for homeless children and youth. The introductory section discusses the following issues: (1) the changing face of homelessness; (2) homeless children and youth; (3) the McKinney Act; and…

  18. 75 FR 29366 - ``Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program (HVRP) National Technical Assistance Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... of the Assistant Secretary for Veterans' Employment and Training ``Homeless Veterans' Reintegration... the Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program (HVRP) to include the Homeless Female Veterans and... to expedite the reintegration of homeless Veterans into the labor force. In order to assist the...

  19. What about America's Homeless Children? Hide and Seek. Sage Sourcebooks for the Human Services Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Paul G.

    This book aims to present what is known about homeless children and to let the stories of some homeless families make their situations clear. The first part of the book covers the background and social, educational, and health issues of homeless children, with a discussion of causes. Part 2 presents some stories of homeless youth and families,…

  20. 78 FR 26559 - Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Rural Housing Stability Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... creates the Rural Housing Stability Assistance program to replace the Rural Homelessness Grant program... definition on what constitutes an occasion of homelessness or homeless occasion. In the CoC interim rule, and... Rural Homelessness Grant program, and consequently regulations were never promulgated. Accordingly,...

  1. Homelessness among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: Implications for Subsequent Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth with a history of homelessness (running away or being evicted from their homes by parents) report more psychological symptoms than homeless heterosexual peers, it is unclear whether symptoms are due to homelessness, given the absence of a non-homeless comparison group. This study longitudinally…

  2. Multilevel Considerations of Family Homelessness and Schooling in the Recession Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter; Schreiber, James

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods investigation of homeless education in a major urban region identified a number of significant developments and dilemmas amid the larger homeless crisis in the United States. We found that the wider community demographics of homelessness have shifted in recent years, resulting in a higher number of homeless families--many of…

  3. Learning from Families Experiencing Homelessness--How School Leaders Can Make a Difference through Transformative Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warke, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing phenomenon, especially among women and children (Hulchanski, 2009). This study was conducted because of the increase in families experiencing homelessness registering in my school. In none of the current studies about homelessness have the researchers spoken to the families and children experiencing homelessness. This…

  4. Daily Activity Patterns of 2,316 Men and Women from Five Countries Differing in Socioeconomic Development

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Mamane; Refinetti, Roberto; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, S. R.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Dugas, Lara R.; Kafensztok, Ruth; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Luke, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Daily rhythmicity in the locomotor activity of laboratory animals has been studied in great detail for many decades, but the daily pattern of locomotor activity has not received as much attention in humans. We collected waist-worn accelerometer data from more than 2,000 individuals from five countries differing in socioeconomic development and conducted a detailed analysis of human locomotor activity. Body mass index was computed from height and weight. Individual activity records lasting 7 days were subjected to cosinor analysis to determine the parameters of the daily activity rhythm: mesor (mean level), amplitude (half the range of excursion), acrophase (time of the peak), and robustness (rhythm strength). The activity records of all individual participants exhibited statistically significant 24-hour rhythmicity, with activity increasing noticeably a few hours after sunrise and dropping off around the time of sunset, with a peak at 1:42 pm on average. The acrophase of the daily rhythm was comparable in men and women in each country but varied by as much as 3 h from country to country. Quantification of the socioeconomic stages of the five countries yielded suggestive evidence that more developed countries have more obese residents, who are less active, and who are active later in the day than residents from less developed countries. These results provide a detailed characterization of the daily activity pattern of individual human beings and reveal similarities and differences among people from five countries differing in socioeconomic development. PMID:26035482

  5. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging findings in men with low-risk prostate cancer followed using active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Jeffrey K.; Bonekamp, David; Landis, Patricia; Begum, Hosne; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Macura, Katarzyna J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying pathological-index (path-index) lesions, defined as cancer present in the same prostate sextant in two separate surveillance biopsies, in men followed within an active surveillance (AS) programme for low-risk prostate cancer (CaP) with extended follow-up. Materials and Methods A total of 50 men, representing >215 person-years of follow-up in an AS programme, who were referred for prostate MRI were randomly chosen to have their images reviewed by a radiologist with expertise in prostate MRI, who was blinded to biopsy results. Index lesions on MRI were defined as a single suspicious lesion ≥10 mm or >2 lesions in a given prostate sextant. Lesions on MRI were considered suspicious if ≥2 abnormal parameters co-registered anatomically. Path-index lesions were defined as cancer present in a given prostate sextant on two separate biopsy sessions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to test the performance of MRI for identifying path-index lesions. Clinical and pathological features were compared between men with and without a MRI-index lesion. Results A total of 31 path-index and 13 MRI-index lesions were detected in 22 and 10 patients, respectively. Multiparametric MRI demonstrated excellent specificity and negative predictive value (0.974 and 0.897, respectively) for the detection of path-index lesions. Sensitivity (0.19) and positive predictive value (0.46) were considerably lower. Patients with an index lesion on MRI were younger and less likely to have met the ‘Epstein’ criteria for very low-risk CaP. Compared with men without an MRI lesion, a significant increase in biopsy reclassification was noted for men with a MRI lesion (40 vs 12.5%, P = 0.04). Conclusions A non-suspicious MRI was highly correlated with a lack of path-index lesions in an AS population. Multiparametric MRI may be useful in both the selection and monitoring of patients undergoing

  6. Spaces of Trauma: Young People, Homelessness and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…

  7. Homelessness and the Fiscal Year 1993 Federal Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    This paper analyzes the Bush Administration's budget request for homelessness programs, and argues that it promised little to alleviate the suffering of homeless people. The paper asserts that the proposal is the weakest in years, with overall spending down by 7 percent when adjusted for inflation. Programs hardest hit are new funding to increase…

  8. Creative Sources of Funding for Programs for Homeless Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemon, Dorothy; Doherty, Diane M., Ed.

    This monograph was written to inform organizations working with homeless families about some potential sources of funding for their programs and to briefly describe the benefits available to homeless families. The focus throughout is exclusively on services and not on housing. Readers are guided to the major resources available through both the…

  9. A Critical Moment: Child & Youth Homelessness in Our Nation's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The economic downturn has forced more families and youth to lose their footing, falling downward into the spiral of homelessness and jeopardizing children and youth's educational success. At the same time, a one-time increase in federal funding for school-based efforts to identify and support homeless children and youth has enabled more school…

  10. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

  11. The Invisible Crisis: Connecting Schools with Homeless Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Carolyn M.; Warke, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth represent a growing proportion of the homeless population. Using the lens of transformative leadership, this multifamily case study explores the realities of homeless children, the challenges their families face, and the role of school leaders in ensuring that they receive a quality education. It recommends that leaders (1)…

  12. A Critical Analysis of the Research on Student Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the onset of the economic recession, rates of student homelessness have increased rapidly in urban, suburban, and rural school districts throughout the United States. Despite the widespread urgency of the issue, there is a lack of general coherence in the research about how diverse conditions of homelessness affect students and how schools…

  13. Homeless Families' Education Networks: An Examination of Access and Mobilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought deeper understanding of how sheltered families accessed and mobilized educationally related relationships and resources during periods of homelessness. Such work is posited to be especially relevant considering that there is a growing crisis of family homelessness in the United States and school- and community-based…

  14. Strengthening At-Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, Debra; Vaulton, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…

  15. Lessons Learned: A "Homeless Shelter Intervention" by a Medical Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Yasmin; Kunik, Mark; Coverdale, John; Shah, Asim; Primm, Annelle; Harris, Toi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored the process of implementing a medical student-initiated program designed to provide computerized mental health screening, referral, and education in a homeless shelter. Method: An educational program was designed to teach homeless shelter staff about psychiatric disorders and culturally-informed treatment…

  16. Special Schools for Homeless Students Bursting at the Seams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Michelle D.

    2011-01-01

    Monarch School is a San Diego-based public K-12 institution that exclusively serves homeless students. Begun by the San Diego County Office of Education as a drop-in center for homeless high school students, the 170-student school is now a public-private partnership between the San Diego school board and the nonprofit Monarch School Project. The…

  17. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  18. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  19. From Back Wards to Back Alleys: Deinstitutionalization and the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Marjorie; Young, James

    1984-01-01

    The current non-system for dealing with the mentally disabled is expensive and inefficient and is the primary cause of a substantial proportion of all homelessness. A comprehensive national policy and the delegation of greater administrative responsibilities to private agencies would help to address the problem of the homeless mentally ill. (GC)

  20. The Relationship between Learning Disabilities and Homelessness in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, Patricia A.; Strawser, Sherri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between learning disabilities (LD) and homelessness. Research describing the connection between disabilities and homelessness has focused on individuals presenting with disabilities such as mental illness, physical disabilities, medical disabilities, or substance abuse. At this time, the presence of LD in…

  1. Visible Voices: Literacy Identity and the Invisible Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juchniewicz, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite calls for increased awareness of and sensitivity to diverse students and their in- and out-of-school literacies, the "invisible homeless"--those who often decline to self-identify--receive inadequate scholarly attention. They are often individuals who fear the stigma associated with homelessness as they navigate workplace, academic, and…

  2. Bringing It Home: Understanding the Lives of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on a special issue that explores how educational institutions serve homeless and highly mobile students as well as their families. The number of homeless youth continues to rise, leading the author to question why structural constraints have not been removed. In addition to reflecting on the articles, he…

  3. The New Poverty in Urban America: Family Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa Nunez, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Argues that to understand today's homeless crisis one must examine the policy decisions that brought it about. The paper explores that policy history, explains how it resulted in the series of dramatic demographic changes that have changed the nature of homelessness today, and suggests a comprehensive approach to lifting families out of…

  4. Confronting Homelessness among American Families: Federal Programs and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWoody, Madelyn

    This book offers specific information on the wide range of federal prevention, emergency shelter, and family service programs available today that provide children and families who are homeless or at risk of homelessness with financial support, education, job training, nutritional services, and crisis funding. The chapters are: (1)…

  5. Homelessness in America: What Should We Do? Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedergang, Mark; McCoy, Martha, Ed.

    This program guide provides a forum for discussing the different beliefs that influence public policy about homelessness as well as policy goals. The central question is addressed in two parts: (1) what society ought to do for homeless people; and (2) laying out a range of possible answers for part 1. Four possible answers are discussed: help only…

  6. Hopes, Dreams & Promise: the Future of Homeless Children in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Ralph da Costa

    This book explores in six chapters the issues behind family homelessness in America and presents some solutions to this increasing problem. Chapter 1 analyzes some of the causes for homelessness with a look at the 1980s, cuts in social programs, the insufficient help provided by federal authorities, and efforts of local initiatives. In chapter 2 a…

  7. Educational Experiences of Hidden Homeless Teenagers: Living Doubled-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Homeless youth face countless barriers that limit their ability to complete a high school diploma and transition to postsecondary education. Their experiences vary widely based on family, access to social services, and where they live. More than half of the 1.5 million homeless youth in America are in fact living "doubled-up," staying with family…

  8. How You Can Help Students Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Many schools are struggling with high numbers of homeless students. Some research has suggested that homeless students are often experiencing exhaustion, hunger, stress, abuse and insecurity, making socialization and learning more difficult for them than it is for their peers. This paper discusses three easy ways school professionals can help and…

  9. Homelessness in Rural Places: Perspectives from Upstate New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the economic and demographic factors fueling rural homelessness, based on field research in scattered rural communities. Data were collected by interviewing low-income families and local service providers and from community agency and school records. Suggests strategies for preventing and responding to homelessness that would be…

  10. Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Risks Among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halcon, Linda L.; Lifson, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of sexual risks among homeless adolescents and described factors associated with those risks. Community-based outreach methods were used successfully to access this difficult-to-reach population. The sample included 203 homeless youth aged 15-22 recruited from community sites. Questionnaire items addressed…

  11. Unaccompanied and Homeless Youth Review of Literature (1995-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This review, compiled by the National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE), is based on literature published between 1995 and 2005 on issues concerning unaccompanied youth experiencing homelessness. It provides an overview of the challenges these young people face and includes research about why they leave their homes, how they live after leaving,…

  12. American Nightmare: A Decade of Homelessness in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    A 1989 national survey of the dimensions of homelessness found that at least three million Americans are homeless and that the shortage of affordable housing was cited as the chief cause. Information was gathered from a telephone survey of emergency shelter providers, housing advocacy organizations, and local governments in 26 communities, ranging…

  13. Educating Homeless Children: Issues and Answers. Fastback 313.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Tenhouse, Cheri

    This publication summarizes issues relating to the education of homeless children and youth and reviews programs that are effective in the delivery of educational services to this population. The report is comprised of five sections. The first section, "Introduction," surveys factors contributing to homelessness and indicates the special…

  14. Idealized Visions from Outside: Homeless Perspectives on School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magolis, David; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative exploration of homeless individuals' experiences and their perspectives on ideal designs of schools. The article is part of a larger research project titled "Unheard Voices," which explores marginalized individuals' (homeless, prisoners, working poor, and migrant workers) visions of ideal…

  15. Substance Use and Health and Safety among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; Bowen, Sarah; Baer, John S.; Peterson, Peggy L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how substance use is associated with the health and safety of homeless youth using cross-sectional, self-report data from 285 homeless adolescents. Path models were used to examine concurrent relationships between youth's substance use and multiple aspects of their health and safety, including measures of psychological…

  16. The Characteristics and Needs of Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet was developed to help you understand the scope, causes, and impact of homelessness on children and families. You are encouraged to use it as well as the publications cited in its footnotes as tools more about homelessness. (Contains 78 endnotes.)

  17. Answering the Call: Facilitating Responsive Services for Students Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim; Lorelle, Sonya; Anderson, Kie; Knight, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    After a review of the literature elucidating the status quo for students experiencing homelessness, this article shares the results of a mixed methods study. With a phenomenological qualitative emphasis, the mixed methods study explored the perceptions of parents and children experiencing homelessness regarding their academic needs and the…

  18. Homelessness, Violence Exposure, and School Participation among Urban Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Angie C.

    2007-01-01

    Using a risk and resilience framework, this exploratory study examines the relationships between homelessness, exposure to multiple types of violence, and school participation within a survey sample of poor adolescent mothers living in an urban setting. Participants who were homeless either currently or historically were compared with participants…

  19. 24 CFR 578.57 - Homeless Management Information System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Eligible Costs § 578.57 Homeless Management Information System. (a) Eligible costs. (1) The recipient or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Homeless Management Information System. 578.57 Section 578.57 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  20. 24 CFR 578.57 - Homeless Management Information System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Eligible Costs § 578.57 Homeless Management Information System. (a) Eligible costs. (1) The recipient or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Homeless Management Information System. 578.57 Section 578.57 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  1. The Cycle of Family Homelessness: A Social Policy Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    Research on homeless children and families carried out by the Institute for Children and Poverty over the last 6 years is compiled in this document. The contents range from programmatic solutions and policy recommendations to simple "snapshots" of homeless families. Much of the research is based on the experiences of Homes for the…

  2. Predictors of Social Network Composition among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, K.D.; Whitbeck, L.B.; Hoyt, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research on the social support networks of homeless and runaway youth suggest the social networks of runaway youth are made up largely of transient deviant peer relationships. This paper examined social network characteristics of 428 homeless and runaway adolescents from small-to moderate-sized cities in four Midwestern states. We…

  3. Special health care needs of homeless pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Killion, C M

    1995-12-01

    As women and families join the ranks of the homeless in increasing numbers, many women find themselves confronting both pregnancy and homelessness. When pregnancy accompanies the precarious state of homelessness, the need for adequate shelter is not being met during one of the most critical periods of a woman's life. This article focuses on the unique health needs of homeless pregnant women. Detailed accounts of the daily life experiences of African American, Anglo, and Latina homeless pregnant women were derived from an ethnographic study conducted in a large metropolitan area in southern California. Their pregnancies were difficult because normal physiological changes of pregnancy often became pathological, signs of potential complications went unnoticed or unattended, and minor discomforts of pregnancy were exacerbated by the women's environment. Nursing therapeutics that support health maintenance and coping strategies of the women while on the streets or in shelters were explicated.

  4. For Whom the Bell Tolls. The Institutionalization of Homeless Families in America. A Report of Homes for the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    This report addresses the failure of U.S. systems of support for homeless families, the impact of this failure on the nature of poverty across the country, and common sense options for turning failure into success. Extensive histories of participation in U.S. institutions of support are not spread evenly across the homeless population. While about…

  5. Influence of familiarization on the reliability of vertical jump and acceleration sprinting performance in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Moir, Gavin; Button, Chris; Glaister, Mark; Stone, Michael H

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the number of familiarization sessions required to obtain an accurate measure of reliability associated with loaded vertical jump and 20-m sprint running performance. Ten physically active men attended 5 separate testing sessions over a 3-week period where they performed unloaded and loaded (10-kg extra load) countermovement (CMJ) and static (SJ) jumps, followed by straight-line 20-m sprints. Jump height was recorded for the vertical jumps using a jump mat, while the time for 10 m and 20 m was recorded during the sprints using photocells. The highest (jump conditions) and fastest (sprint) of 3 trials performed during each of the 5 testing sessions was used in the subsequent analysis. Familiarization was assessed using the scores obtained during the 5 separate testing sessions. Reliability was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficient of variation (CV). No significant differences were obtained between the testing sessions for any of the measures. ICCs ranged from 0.89 to 0.95, while CVs ranged from 1.9 to 2.6%. These results indicate that high levels of reliability can be achieved without the need for familiarization sessions when using loaded and unloaded CMJ and SJ and 20-m sprint performance with physically active men.

  6. Maximizing Credit Accrual and Recovery for Homeless Students. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Middle and high school students experiencing homelessness often face challenges in accruing credits. Class offerings, methods of calculating credits, and graduation requirements can vary greatly among school districts. Students who change schools late in high school can find themselves suddenly in danger of not graduating due to differing class…

  7. Personal Resources and Homelessness in Early Life: Predictors of Depression in Consumers of Homeless Multiservice Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeForge, Bruce R.; Belcher, John R.; O'Rourke, Michael; Lindsey, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between personal resources and previous adverse life events such as homelessness and depression. Participants were recruited from two church sponsored multisite social service centers in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. The interview included demographics and several standardized scales to assess history of…

  8. Decreased activity of superoxide dismutase in the seminal plasma of infertile men correlates with increased sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation during the first hours after sperm donation.

    PubMed

    Wdowiak, Artur; Bakalczuk, Szymon; Bakalczuk, Grzegorz

    2015-07-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation varies between individuals and is more pronounced with increased patient age and time after sperm donation. The intensification of DNA fragmentation depends on the balance of the oxidoreductive system, which is regulated mainly by two enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics, fertility and seminal SOD and catalase activity. The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Non-Public Health Care Unit 'Ovum Reproduction and Andrology' in Lublin, Lublin, Poland, and covered 218 men aged 25-35 (85 fertile and 133 patients treated for infertility). Percentage of fragmented DNA was measured in a modified chromatin dispersion test at four time points after sperm donation (t = 0, 3, 6, 12 h). SOD and catalase activities were determined spectrophotometrically. We confirmed that the activity of SOD in the seminal plasma of men with reproductive disorders was lower compared with fertile men. Conversely, no significant correlations were found between fertility and catalase activity. Sperm DNA of infertile males was initially more fragmented than fertile male sperm DNA. SOD and catalase activity did not correlate with the degree of DNA fragmentation in fertile men. In men with reproductive disorders, the rate of DNA fragmentation was slow within first 3 h after sperm donation and then increased between 6 and 12 h. In this group of infertile men, those with higher SOD activity had a lower DNA fragmentation index (DFI) after 12 h, and a reduced rate of intensity of fragmentation from 6 to 12 h. Alternatively, higher catalase activity among men treated for infertility was accompanied by higher initial DFI and higher rate of DNA fragmentation from 6 to 12 h. These results highlight the importance of determining a proper time window between sperm donation and procedures of assisted reproductive technology.

  9. The Allegheny initiative for mental health integration for the homeless: integrating heterogeneous health services for homeless persons.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Adam J; Montlack, Melissa L; Freyder, Paul; Johnson, Diane; Bui, Thuy; Williams, Jennifer

    2007-03-01

    The Allegheny Initiative for Mental Health Integration for the Homeless (AIM-HIGH) was a 3-year urban initiative in Pennsylvania that sought to enhance integration and coordination of medical and behavioral services for homeless persons through system-, provider-, and client-level interventions. On a system level, AIM-HIGH established partnerships between several key medical and behavioral health agencies. On a provider level, AIM-HIGH conducted 5 county-wide conferences regarding homeless integration, attended by 637 attendees from 72 agencies. On a client level, 5 colocated medical and behavioral health care clinics provided care to 1986 homeless patients in 4084 encounters, generating 1917 referrals for care. For a modest investment, AIM-HIGH demonstrated that integration of medical and behavioral health services for homeless persons can occur in a large urban environment.

  10. Intervention effects on physical activity and insulin levels in men of Pakistani origin living in Oslo: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Eivind; Høstmark, Arne T; Holme, Ingar; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2013-02-01

    High prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is seen in some immigrant groups in Western countries, particularly in those from the Indian subcontinent. Our aims were to increase the physical activity (PA) level in a group of Pakistani immigrant men, and to see whether any increase was associated with reduced serum glucose and insulin concentrations. The intervention was developed in collaboration with the Pakistani community. It used a social cognitive theory framework and consisted of structured supervised group exercises, group lectures, individual counselling and telephone follow-up. One- hundred and fifty physically inactive Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, Norway, were randomised to either a control group or an intervention group. The 5-month intervention focused on increasing levels of PA, which were assessed by use of accelerometer (Actigraph MTI 7164) recordings. Risk of diabetes was assessed by serum glucose and insulin concentrations determined in a fasted state, and after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). ANCOVA was used to assess differences between groups. There was a mean difference in PA between the two groups of 49 counts per minute per day, representing a 15 % (95 % CI = 8.7-21.2; P = 0.01) higher increase in total PA level in the intervention group than in the control group. Insulin values taken 2 h after an OGTT were reduced in the intervention group by 27 % (95 % CI = 18.9-35.0; P = 0.02) more than those in the control group. There were no differences in fasting or postprandial glucose values between the groups at the follow-up test. This type of intervention can increase PA and reduce serum insulin in Pakistani immigrant men, thereby presumably reducing their risk of T2D.

  11. Condom acquisition and preferences within a sample of sexually active gay and bisexual men in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Yee, Leland J; Wilkin, Aimee M; Clarke, Thomas L; Wooldredge, Rich; Brown, Monica; Davis, A Bernard

    2007-11-01

    Health departments, community-based organizations (CBOs), and AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in the United States and abroad distribute large quantities of free condoms to sexually active individuals; however, little is known about where individuals who use condoms actually acquire them. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) study was designed to identify factors associated with the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse among self-identifying gay and bisexual men who reported condom use. Data were collected using targeted intercept interviewing during North Carolina Pride Festival events in Fall 2006, using the North Carolina Condom Acquisition and Preferences Assessment (NC-CAPA). Of the 606 participants who completed the assessment, 285 met the inclusion criteria. Mean age of participants was 33 (+/-10.8) years. The sample was predominantly white (80%), 50% reported being single or not dating anyone special, and 38% reported the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse. In multivariable analysis, participants who reported using free condoms during most recent anal sex were more likely to report increased age; dating someone special or being partnered; and having multiple male sexual partners in the past 3 months. These participants were less likely to report ever having had a sexually transmitted disease. Despite being in the third decade of the HIV epidemic, little is known about condom acquisition among, and condom preferences of, gay and bisexual men who use condoms. Although more research is needed, our findings illustrate the importance of free condom distribution.

  12. Healthy Eating for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... of potassium from fruits, vegetables, fish and milk. Energy Foods Since men have more muscle and are ... 000 to 2,800 calories per day. Your energy needs depend on your height, weight and activity ...

  13. Blood and semen paraoxonase-arylesterase activities in normozoospermic and azoospermic men.

    PubMed

    Gulum, M; Gumus, K; Yeni, E; Dogantekin, E; Ciftci, H; Akin, Y; Savas, M; Altunkol, A

    2016-12-21

    Paraoxonase and arylesterase enzymes are corner stones of antioxidant defence. We aimed to compare azoospermic infertile men and normozoospermic individuals with respect to total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), paraoxonase and arylesterase levels in the blood and seminal plasma. Two-hundred consecutive infertility patients and voluntarily participated were included. In the normozoospermic group, TAS, PON, arylesterase values were statistically significantly higher when compared with those in the azoospermic group, while lower TOS and OSI levels were observed in the blood and seminal plasma of azoospermic group. In the semen analyses of normozoospermic group, the correlation between semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility and morphology and TAS, TOS, OSI, PON and arylesterase values was examined. A negative correlation was determined between semen volume and OSI. Levels of serum oxidative parameters were higher in the azoospermic group relative to normozoospermic group, but antioxidant parameters were lower than those of the normozoospermic group. Oxidative stress performs an essential role in the aetiology of male infertility by negatively influencing sperm quality and function. Assessment of blood and seminal plasma oxidative profiles might be an important tool to better evaluation of sperm reproductive capacity and functional competence.

  14. A Pilot Survey of Physical Activity in Men with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeon, Michael; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) are reported as a sedentary population with increased risks of poor health due to an inactive and sedentary lifestyle. As the benefits of physical activity are acknowledged, measuring physical activity accurately is important to help identify reasons for low and high physical activity in order to assist and…

  15. Arthropod-borne diseases in homeless.

    PubMed

    Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2006-10-01

    Homeless people are particularly exposed to ectoparasite. The living conditions and the crowded shelters provide ideal conditions for the spread of lice, fleas, ticks, and mites. Body lice have long been recognized as human parasites and although typically prevalent in rural communities in upland areas of countries close to the equator, it is now increasingly encountered in developed countries especially in homeless people or inner city economically deprived population. Fleas are widespread but are not adapted to a specific host and may occasionally bite humans. Most common fleas that parasite humans are the cat, the rat, and the human fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, Xenopsylla cheopis, and Pulex irritans, respectively. Ticks belonging to the family Ixodidae, in particular, the genera Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Ixodes, are frequent parasites in humans. Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis is a mite (Arachnida class) responsible for scabies. It is an obligate parasite of human skin. The hematophagic-biting mite, Liponyssoides sanguineus, is a mite of the rat, mouse, and other domestic rodents but can also bite humans. Finally, the incidence of skin disease secondary to infestation with the human bedbug, Cimex lectularius, has increased recently. Bacteria, such as Wolbacchia spp. have been detected in bedbug. The threat posed by the ectoparasite in homeless is not the ectoparasite themselves but the associated infectious diseases that they may transmit to humans. Except for scabies all these ectoparasites are potential vectors for infectious agents. Three louse-borne diseases are known at this time. Trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana (B. quintana), epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, and relapsing fever caused by the spirochete Borrelia recurrentis. Fleas transmit plague (Xenopsylla cheopis and Pulex irritans), murine typhus (Xenopsylla cheopis), flea-borne spotted rickettsiosis on account of the recently described species Rickettsia felis (C. felis

  16. Making a home for the homeless in hate crime legislation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hakim, Mohamad

    2015-06-01

    Several jurisdictions in the United States (e.g., Florida and Washington) have recently incorporated the status of "homeless" under the protection of hate crime legislation. This was largely promoted by new data and reports by the National Coalition for the Homeless urging added protection for the homeless. The issue of whether the homeless belong under hate crime provisions raises the following question: What criteria must a group meet to be eligible for its inclusion? What similarities do the homeless have with other protected groups? Finally, what implications does the recognition of economic status have on other economic groups, particularity the top wealthy 1%? In this article, I explore some of the issues raised by including the homeless as a protected group. I survey several rationales offered for the selection of protected characteristics. I argue that the rationales currently offered suffer from descriptive inadequacy by either being under- or over-inclusive. I turn instead to the political conception of "disadvantage" for an identity marker that better explains the link between the various protected groups and identities under hate crime legislation. Moreover, the use of disadvantage allows for the inclusion of the homeless without the need for incorporating other socio-economic identities.

  17. Memory impairment among people who are homeless: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Naomi; Roy, Sylvain; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment may interfere with an individual's ability to function independently in the community and may increase the risk of becoming and remaining homeless. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on memory deficits among people who are homeless in order to gain a better understanding of its nature, causes and prevalence. Studies that measured memory functioning as an outcome among a sample of homeless persons were included. Data on sampling, outcome measures, facet of memory explored and prevalence of memory impairment were extracted from all selected research studies. Included studies were evaluated using a critical appraisal process targetted for reviewing prevalence studies. Eleven studies were included in the review. Verbal memory was the most commonly studied facet of memory. Potential contributing factors to memory deficits among persons who are homeless were explored in seven studies. Memory deficits were common among the samples of homeless persons studied. However, there was a great deal of variation in the methodology and quality of the included studies. Conceptualisations of "homelessness" also differed across studies. There is a need for more controlled research using validated neuropsychological tools to evaluate memory impairment among people who are homeless.

  18. Prevalence of Sexual Concerns and Sexual Dysfunction among Sexually Active and Inactive Men and Women with Screen‐Detected Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Morten; Kristensen, Ellids; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Type 2 diabetes negatively impacts sexual health. Only limited information is available regarding sexual health among sexually inactive patients with type 2 diabetes. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of sexual concerns among sexually active and sexually inactive men and women with type 2 diabetes and of sexual dysfunction (SD) among sexually active. Methods Data from the Anglo–Danish–Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen‐Detected Diabetes in Primary Care‐Denmark study was used. A total of 1,170 Danish patients with screen‐detected type 2 diabetes attended a health examination, including assessment of sexual concerns using self‐report questionnaires and of SD using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI‐R) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF‐5) instruments. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures used regarding sexual concerns are the following: prevalence of failure to fill sexual needs, of experiencing sexual distress, finding it important to have a good sexual life, and additionally, prevalence of SD. Results Data regarding sexual activity status during the last 12 months were available among 583 men and 377 women. Seventeen percent of men and 47% of women reported to be sexually inactive, among whom 57% of men and 42% of women reported failure to fill sexual needs; 31% of men and 10% of women that it was important to have a good sexual life, and 32% of men and 11% of women that they were experiencing sexual distress. Around half of men and women were excluded from the SD analysis, mainly because of reporting lack of sexual intercourse during the last 4 weeks. Among those included, 54% of men and 12% of women were found to have SD. Conclusions Sexual inactivity is highly prevalent among middle‐aged and older men and women with early type 2 diabetes and these patients often have sexual concerns. The high exclusion rates when assessing SD using the FSFI

  19. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders. PMID:27348556

  20. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders.