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Sample records for active homeless men

  1. Sex Trade Behavior Among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Kennedy, David P.; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Sex trade behavior is fairly common among homeless adults and may contribute to higher rates of HIV/AIDS in this population. This study provides a detailed examination of the sex trade-related attitudes and behaviors of homeless men by: (1) determining the prevalence of sex trade-related behaviors, including sex with female sex workers (FSWs); (2) identifying risk factors for having sex with FSWs; and (3) comparing men's relationships with FSWs and non-FSWs in terms of relationship qualities and HIV-related risk behaviors, such as condom use. Structured interviews were conducted with a probability sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men recruited from meal lines in Los Angeles. Recent sex with a FSW was reported by 26% of men, and more likely among those who were older, used crack cocaine, had more sex partners, believed that sometimes men just need to have sex no matter what, and were embedded in networks that were denser and where risky sex was more normative. Compared to non-FSW partners, men with FSW partners felt less emotionally close to them, were more likely to believe the partner had never been tested for HIV, and were more likely to have sex with them under the influence of drugs or alcohol; however, they were not more likely to talk about using condoms or to use condoms with FSWs. Whether the relationship was considered “serious” was a stronger correlate of condom use than whether the partner was a FSW. Implications of these findings for HIV prevention efforts among homeless adults are discussed. PMID:23720137

  2. Unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men: results from a multi-level dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Brown, Ryan; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela

    2013-06-01

    HIV is a serious public health problem for homeless populations. Homeless men who have sex with women have received less attention in the HIV risk literature than other homeless populations. This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Based on interviews with 305 randomly selected men who discussed 665 of their recent female sexual relationships, this project investigates the correlates of unprotected sex during the past 6 months at the partnership, individual, and social network levels. Several different measures of relationship closeness and lack of communication about HIV/condoms were associated with unprotected sex. Controlling for relationship factors, men's negative attitudes towards condoms, mental health, and higher number of male sex partners also were associated with having unprotected sex with female partners. We discuss the implications of these findings for health interventions. PMID:23212852

  3. HIV risk behavior and access to services: what predicts HIV testing among heterosexually active homeless men?

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-06-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also reported high rates of HIV risk behavior, suggesting there is still significant unmet need for HIV prevention among homeless men. Having recently used medical/dental services in the Skid Row area (OR: 1.91; CI: 1.09, 3.35), and being a military veteran (OR: 2.10; CI: 1.01-4.37) were significantly associated with HIV testing service utilization. HIV testing was not associated with HIV risk behavior, but rather with access to services and veteran status, the latter of which prior research has linked to increased service access. We suggest that programs encouraging general medical service access may be important for disseminating HIV testing services to this high-risk, vulnerable population. PMID:22676465

  4. Behavioral health and social normative influence: correlates of concurrent sexual partnering among heterosexually-active homeless men.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S; Kennedy, David P; Green, Harold D; Ewing, Brett

    2012-10-01

    Sexual concurrency poses significant HIV/STI transmission risk. The correlates of concurrency have not been examined among homeless men. A representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men utilizing meal programs in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles reported on their mental health, substance use, and social network characteristics. Nearly 40% of men reported concurrency with one of their four most recent sex partners. Results indicated that HIV seropositivity (OR = 4.39, CI: 1.10, 17.46; P = 0.04), PTSD (OR = 2.29, CI: 1.05, 5.01; P = 0.04), hard drug use (OR = 2.45, CI: 1.07, 5.58; P = 0.03), and the perception that network alters engage in risky sex (OR = 3.72, CI: 1.49, 9.30; P = 0.01) were associated with increased odds of concurrency. Programs aimed at reducing HIV/STI transmission in this vulnerable population must take into account the roles that behavioral health and social networks may play in sexual concurrency. PMID:22001933

  5. Survival Strategies of Older Homeless Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl I.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined how 281 homeless men aged 50 and older living on skid row were able to procure basic necessities such as money, food, shelter, and health care. Found men had and used informal supports to survive. Inability to fulfill needs was primarily associated with physical health, depression, lack of contacts with institutions and agencies, and…

  6. HIV Risk Behavior and Access to Services: What Predicts HIV Testing among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-01-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV…

  7. Understanding heterosexual condom use among homeless men.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ewing, Brett; Wertheimer, Samuel

    2013-06-01

    This study uses an event-based approach to examine individual, relationship, and contextual correlates of heterosexual condom use among homeless men. Structured interviews were conducted with a predominantly African American sample of 305 men recruited from meal lines in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Men reported on their most recent heterosexual event involving vaginal or anal intercourse. Adjusting for demographic characteristics only, condom use was more likely when men had higher condom use self-efficacy, greater HIV knowledge, or talked to their partner about condoms prior to sex. Condom use was less likely when men held more negative attitudes towards condoms, the partner was considered to be a primary/serious partner, hard drug use preceded sex, or sex occurred in a public setting. Condom attitudes, self-efficacy, partner type, and communication were the strongest predictors of condom use in a multivariate model that included all of the above-mentioned factors. Associations of unprotected sex with hard drug use prior to sex and having sex in public settings could be accounted for by lower condom self-efficacy and/or less positive condom attitudes among men having sex under these conditions. Results suggest that it may be promising to adapt existing, evidence-based IMB interventions for delivery in non-traditional settings that are frequented by men experiencing homelessness to achieve HIV risk reduction and thus reduce a significant point of disparity for the largely African American population of homeless men. PMID:22392155

  8. Distal Stressors and Depression among Homeless Men.

    PubMed

    Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin's life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childhood, contributed to men's depression above and beyond current (or proximal) stressors, such as substance abuse and health problems, and social resources. The sample consisted of 309 homeless men who had entered a federally funded emergency shelter. Using the Burns Depression Checklist, the authors found that one out of three men met the threshold for moderate to severe depression during the past week. The logistic regression showed that past exposure to parent problems was related to depression after accounting for current stressors and social resources (number of close adult relationships and whether their emotional support needs were met). Past victimization was not related to depression. To address men's depression, workers should concurrently provide services that meet men's basic needs (for example, housing) and address their relationship needs, including their need for emotional support. PMID:27263201

  9. Quality of life and functional status among homeless men attending a day shelter in Louisville, Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Steiner, R P; Looney, S W; Hall, L R; Wright, K M

    1995-05-01

    The homeless present important social and medical problems in most parts of the United States, including urban areas of Kentucky. While some studies have examined the health status of the homeless, very little is known about their quality of life or functional status. In the present study, 188 homeless men attending St. John's Day Shelter in Louisville completed an interviewer-assisted instrument that assessed self-perceived quality of life using the Perceived Quality of Life (PQOL) scale and self-perceived functional status using the Dartmouth COOP charts. The instrument also included questions on demographics and health risk behaviors of the homeless men. The results show that the typical homeless male attending St. John's is an unmarried, white, middle-aged high school graduate who is unemployed. In terms of quality of life, these men indicate general satisfaction with their physical and cognitive abilities, but significantly lower satisfaction with the social aspects of their lives. With regard to functional status, the homeless men report that they function best in terms of physical fitness and ability to perform daily activities. They report lower assessments of overall health, feelings, quality of life, and social support. These results suggest that poor social role functioning among homeless men is a major contributor to their poor quality of life. Thus, improving their health and quality of life may require an emphasis on social services in addition to routine medical care.

  10. Predisposing, Enabling and Need Correlates of Mental Health Treatment Utilization Among Homeless Men

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S.; Kennedy, David P.; Ewing, Brett

    2016-01-01

    There is significant unmet need for mental health treatment among homeless men, but little is known about the correlates of treatment utilization in this population. Within the framework of the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, this study examines predisposing, enabling and need factors that may be associated with mental health care utilization. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men utilizing meal programs in the Skid Row region of LA. Logistic regression examined the association between predisposing, enabling and need factors and past 30 day mental health service utilization on Skid Row. Results indicated that while need, operationalized as positive screens for posttraumatic stress disorder or depression, was associated with recent mental health care utilization, predisposing and enabling factors were also related to utilization. African-American homeless men, and those men who also reported substance abuse treatment and drop-in center use, had increased odds of reporting mental health care utilization. PMID:24595594

  11. Predisposing, enabling and need correlates of mental health treatment utilization among homeless men.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Harmony; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S; Kennedy, David P; Ewing, Brett

    2014-11-01

    There is significant unmet need for mental health treatment among homeless men, but little is known about the correlates of treatment utilization in this population. Within the framework of the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, this study examines predisposing, enabling and need factors that may be associated with mental health care utilization. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men utilizing meal programs in the Skid Row region of LA. Logistic regression examined the association between predisposing, enabling and need factors and past 30 day mental health service utilization on Skid Row. Results indicated that while need, operationalized as positive screens for posttraumatic stress disorder or depression, was associated with recent mental health care utilization, predisposing and enabling factors were also related to utilization. African-American homeless men, and those men who also reported substance abuse treatment and drop-in center use, had increased odds of reporting mental health care utilization. PMID:24595594

  12. Social networks, time homeless, and social support: A study of men on Skid Row.

    PubMed

    Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2013-12-18

    Homeless men are frequently unsheltered and isolated, disconnected from supportive organizations and individuals. However, little research has investigated these men's social networks. We investigate the structure and composition of homeless men's social networks, vis-a-vis short- and long-term homelessness with a sample of men drawn randomly from meal lines on Skid Row in Los Angeles. Men continuously homeless for the past six months display networks composed of riskier members when compared to men intermittently homeless during that time. Men who report chronic, long-term homelessness display greater social network fragmentation when compared to non-chronically homeless men. While intermittent homelessness affects network composition in ways that may be addressable with existing interventions, chronic homelessness fragments networks, which may be more difficult to address with those interventions. These findings have implications for access to social support from network members which, in turn, impacts the resources homeless men require from other sources such as the government or NGOs. PMID:24466427

  13. Social networks, time homeless, and social support: A study of men on Skid Row

    PubMed Central

    Green, Harold D.; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Homeless men are frequently unsheltered and isolated, disconnected from supportive organizations and individuals. However, little research has investigated these men’s social networks. We investigate the structure and composition of homeless men’s social networks, vis-a-vis short- and long-term homelessness with a sample of men drawn randomly from meal lines on Skid Row in Los Angeles. Men continuously homeless for the past six months display networks composed of riskier members when compared to men intermittently homeless during that time. Men who report chronic, long-term homelessness display greater social network fragmentation when compared to non-chronically homeless men. While intermittent homelessness affects network composition in ways that may be addressable with existing interventions, chronic homelessness fragments networks, which may be more difficult to address with those interventions. These findings have implications for access to social support from network members which, in turn, impacts the resources homeless men require from other sources such as the government or NGOs. PMID:24466427

  14. Masculinity and HIV Risk among Homeless Men in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Brown, Ryan A; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Tucker, Joan S; Wertheimer, Samuel R

    2013-01-01

    HIV continues to be a serious public health problem for men who have sex with women (MSW), especially homeless MSW. Although consideration of gender has improved HIV prevention interventions, most of the research and intervention development has targeted how women's HIV risk is affected by gender roles. The effect of gender roles on MSW has received relatively little attention. Previous studies have shown mixed results when investigating the association between internalization of masculine gender roles and HIV risk. These studies use a variety of scales that measure individual internalization of different aspects of masculinity. However, this ignores the dynamic and culturally constructed nature of gender roles. The current study uses cultural consensus analysis (CCA) to test for the existence of culturally agreed upon masculinity and gender role beliefs among homeless MSW in Los Angeles, as well as the relationship between these beliefs and HIV-related behaviors and attitudes. Interviews included 30 qualitative and 305 structured interviews with homeless MSW in Los Angeles's Skid Row area. Analysis identified culturally relevant aspects of masculinity not represented by existing masculinity scales, primarily related to barriers to relationships with women. Behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge related to HIV were significantly associated with men's level of agreement with the group about masculinity. The findings are discussed in light of implications for MSW HIV intervention development.

  15. Masculinity and HIV Risk among Homeless Men in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Brown, Ryan A; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Tucker, Joan S; Wertheimer, Samuel R

    2013-01-01

    HIV continues to be a serious public health problem for men who have sex with women (MSW), especially homeless MSW. Although consideration of gender has improved HIV prevention interventions, most of the research and intervention development has targeted how women's HIV risk is affected by gender roles. The effect of gender roles on MSW has received relatively little attention. Previous studies have shown mixed results when investigating the association between internalization of masculine gender roles and HIV risk. These studies use a variety of scales that measure individual internalization of different aspects of masculinity. However, this ignores the dynamic and culturally constructed nature of gender roles. The current study uses cultural consensus analysis (CCA) to test for the existence of culturally agreed upon masculinity and gender role beliefs among homeless MSW in Los Angeles, as well as the relationship between these beliefs and HIV-related behaviors and attitudes. Interviews included 30 qualitative and 305 structured interviews with homeless MSW in Los Angeles's Skid Row area. Analysis identified culturally relevant aspects of masculinity not represented by existing masculinity scales, primarily related to barriers to relationships with women. Behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge related to HIV were significantly associated with men's level of agreement with the group about masculinity. The findings are discussed in light of implications for MSW HIV intervention development. PMID:23730216

  16. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugazaga, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…

  17. Black and white homeless men: differences in self-actualization, willingness to use services, history of being homeless, and subjective health ratings.

    PubMed

    Sumerlin, J R; Privette, G; Bundrick, C M

    1993-06-01

    In this analysis of racial confounds in the study of homelessness and self-actualization, 100 black and 71 white homeless men from a mission and a street environment were compared to test the hypothesis that the prototypes of black and white homeless men are different. Discriminant analysis of items from the Short Index of Self-actualization of Jones and Crandall, willingness to use services, history of homelessness, and self-reported health ratings correctly classified 83.6% of black and white homeless men (Wilks' lambda = .46, p < .0001). The prototypic black homeless person and the prototypic white homeless person have strong differences so race must be evaluated in studies of such groups. PMID:8332670

  18. Homelessness and Drug Abuse among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A Preliminary Epidemiological Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and…

  19. Hepatitis C virus infection among homeless men referred from a community clinic.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Dixon, Elizabeth L; Wiley, Dorothy; Christiani, Ashley; Lowe, Ann

    2006-06-01

    In this study of factors related to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 104 homeless HCV-infected men and 94 uninfected homeless men, findings reveal that homeless men with HCV infection are older and more likely to be cocaine injectors than those not infected. Moreover, the sharing of needles, use of injected cocaine during the past 6 months, previous incarceration, veteran status, fair or poor health, and having multiple tattoos are also associated with HCV infection. Reports of having completed the HBV vaccination series, weekly marijuana use, and snorting cocaine or methamphetamine are negatively associated with HCV infection. Among men not reporting lifetime injection drug use, factors such as sharing toothbrushes, having multiple tattoos, being in fair or poor health, and past incarceration are associated with HCV infection. These findings may need to be considered when making screening decisions and counseling homeless male patients about HCV. PMID:16672633

  20. Health promotion for socially disadvantaged groups: the case of homeless older men in Australia.

    PubMed

    Quine, Susan; Kendig, Hal; Russell, Cherry; Touchard, Denise

    2004-06-01

    There is extensive evidence that health promotion routinely benefits those who are already most socioeconomically advantaged. While the government's healthy ageing policy recognizes that improving health outcomes will require a range of strategies involving different target groups, recommendations focus on the issues and needs of the comfortable majority. This paper examines the scope and relevance of health promotion for one disadvantaged minority with extensive health needs: homeless older men. In an ethnographic study of older men (> or = 50 years of age) living alone in the inner city (Sydney), 32 men were identified as homeless and are the focus of this paper. Face to face semi-structured interviews were used to record the men's accounts of their everyday lives, including their health and use of services. The conditions in which these men were living were observed and recorded, and the researchers were aware of health and other services available in the geographic area. All informants were living on or below the poverty line. They reported a range of health conditions, for which many accessed available mainstream and specialist health services. Some obstacles to accessing services were noted. Information relevant to widely endorsed prescriptions for 'healthy ageing' also emerged. These included physical activity (especially walking), healthy eating, social activity and adopting healthy lifestyle habits. Findings highlight the extent to which these men lack the basic requirements for healthy ageing, notably adequate incomes and housing. At the same time, within the constraints of the lifestyle they lead, they are motivated to maintain their health and independence. While there are limits to what can be achieved for such people at a local level of service delivery, it is possible to identify feasible health promotion goals and service strategies.

  1. Assessing trauma, substance abuse, and mental health in a sample of homeless men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mimi M; Ford, Julian D; Howard, Daniel L; Bradford, Daniel W

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the impact of physical and sexual trauma on a sample of 239 homeless men. Study participants completed a self-administered survey that collected data on demographics, exposure to psychological trauma, physical health and mental health problems, and substance use or misuse. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relative significance of demographic factors and the four types of trauma exposure associated with three outcomes: mental health, substance abuse, and physical health problems. The authors found that trauma history was significantly associated with more mental health problems but was not associated with substance abuse problems for homeless men. This study reinforces service providers' perceptions that because many homeless men experience the long-term, deleterious effects of not only current stressors, but also abuse and victimization that often begin in childhood, homeless men are a subpopulation in need of proactive prevention services that emphasize long-term continuity of care rather than sporadic crisis-based services. Study findings suggest that mentally ill, homeless men need proactive services that address the sequelae of abuse with care that is specialized and distinctly different from care for homeless adults with substance abuse or physical health care issues.

  2. Correlates of depressive symptoms among homeless men on parole.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Leake, Barbara; Albarran, Cynthia; Zhang, Sheldon; Hall, Elizabeth; Farabee, David; Marlow, Elizabeth; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study describes correlates of high levels of depressive symptoms among recently paroled men in Los Angeles who reside in a community substance abuse treatment program and report homelessness. Cross-sectional data were obtained from male residents who were released on parole within the last 30 days (N =157) to assess parental relationship, self-esteem, social support, coping behaviors, drug and alcohol use behaviors, depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information. Results indicated that 40% of the participants were classified as experiencing high levels of depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10). Results of a logistic regression analysis showed that the following were predictors of depressive symptoms (p <.05): physical abuse in childhood, non-residential alcohol treatment, violent behaviors, low self-esteem, and disengagement coping. Being Mexican-American, Mexican, American Indian, or Asian, and not displaying cognitive problems was inversely related to depressive symptoms in the final model (B =-2.39, p <.05). Findings support proper use of both prison and community assessment services to at-risk individuals eligible for parole to increase self-esteem and coping.

  3. Correlates of depressed mood among young stimulant-using homeless gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Branson, Catherine; Idemundia, Faith; Reback, Cathy; Shoptaw, Steven; Marfisee, Mary; Keenan, Colleen; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Liu, Yihang; Yadav, Kartik

    2012-10-01

    Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) men are at risk for suicide attempts and have high risk of depressed mood, defined as elevated level of depressive symptoms. This study describes baseline socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and health- and drug-related correlates of depressed mood in 267 stimulant-using homeless G/B young men who entered a study designed to reduce drug use. G/B men without social support were 11 times more likely to experience depressed mood than their counterparts who had support; those who reported severe body pain were almost six times more likely to report depressed mood than those without pain. Other factors that increased risk of depressed mood included being homeless in the last four months, injecting drugs, reporting poor or fair health status, and high levels of internalized homophobia. This study is one of the first studies to draw a link between pain experienced and depressed mood in homeless young G/B men. Understanding the correlates of depressed mood among homeless G/B young men can help service providers design more targeted treatment plans and provide more appropriate referrals to ancillary care services.

  4. Correlates of depressed mood among young stimulant-using homeless gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Branson, Catherine; Idemundia, Faith; Reback, Cathy; Shoptaw, Steven; Marfisee, Mary; Keenan, Colleen; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Liu, Yihang; Yadav, Kartik

    2012-10-01

    Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) men are at risk for suicide attempts and have high risk of depressed mood, defined as elevated level of depressive symptoms. This study describes baseline socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and health- and drug-related correlates of depressed mood in 267 stimulant-using homeless G/B young men who entered a study designed to reduce drug use. G/B men without social support were 11 times more likely to experience depressed mood than their counterparts who had support; those who reported severe body pain were almost six times more likely to report depressed mood than those without pain. Other factors that increased risk of depressed mood included being homeless in the last four months, injecting drugs, reporting poor or fair health status, and high levels of internalized homophobia. This study is one of the first studies to draw a link between pain experienced and depressed mood in homeless young G/B men. Understanding the correlates of depressed mood among homeless G/B young men can help service providers design more targeted treatment plans and provide more appropriate referrals to ancillary care services. PMID:23017039

  5. Notes from the Field: Shigellosis Outbreak Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Homeless Persons - Oregon, 2015-2016.

    PubMed

    Hines, Jonas Z; Pinsent, Taylor; Rees, Kathleen; Vines, Jennifer; Bowen, Anna; Hurd, Jacqueline; Leman, Richard F; Hedberg, Katrina

    2016-08-12

    In July 2015, Shigella sonnei infections with a specific pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern linked to a multistate outbreak were recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Portland metropolitan area, and an outbreak investigation was initiated. During November 2015, isolates with PFGE patterns indistinguishable from the outbreak strain were identified in cases reported in four women, none of whom had epidemiologic links to other affected persons; however, three reported homelessness. In the ensuing months, additional S. sonnei infections were reported among homeless persons in the Portland area.

  6. Notes from the Field: Shigellosis Outbreak Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Homeless Persons - Oregon, 2015-2016.

    PubMed

    Hines, Jonas Z; Pinsent, Taylor; Rees, Kathleen; Vines, Jennifer; Bowen, Anna; Hurd, Jacqueline; Leman, Richard F; Hedberg, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    In July 2015, Shigella sonnei infections with a specific pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern linked to a multistate outbreak were recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Portland metropolitan area, and an outbreak investigation was initiated. During November 2015, isolates with PFGE patterns indistinguishable from the outbreak strain were identified in cases reported in four women, none of whom had epidemiologic links to other affected persons; however, three reported homelessness. In the ensuing months, additional S. sonnei infections were reported among homeless persons in the Portland area. PMID:27513523

  7. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J. T.; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  8. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J T; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W; Matheson, Flora I

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  9. Real World Implementation of an Adapted Act Model with Minority and Non-Minority Homeless Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leon, Ximena Yolanda Perez; Amodei, Nancy; Hoffman, Thomas J.; Martinez, Rathi; Trevino, Monica; Medina, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether an adapted Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) intervention improved substance use, mental health, physical health, legal, employment, and housing outcomes for a U.S. sample of homeless men with a substance use disorder or a dual-diagnosis of substance use and mental health disorders and whether this intervention was…

  10. Monogamy on the Street: A Mixed Methods Study of Homeless Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan A.; Kennedy, David P.; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mixed methods approach to explore the determinants of relationship patterns and risky sex among homeless men living in downtown Los Angeles. This involved analysis of qualitative interviews focused on gender ideology and sexual events ("n" = 30) as well as structured interviews ("n" = 305) focused on…

  11. Assessing Trauma, Substance Abuse, and Mental Health in a Sample of Homeless Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mimi M.; Ford, Julian D.; Howard, Daniel L.; Bradford, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of physical and sexual trauma on a sample of 239 homeless men. Study participants completed a self-administered survey that collected data on demographics, exposure to psychological trauma, physical health and mental health problems, and substance use or misuse. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to…

  12. Sex and relationships on the street: how homeless men judge partner risk on Skid Row.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan A; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Wertheimer, Samuel R; Ryan, Gery W

    2012-04-01

    Homeless men in the U.S. represent a large and growing population, and have elevated rates of HIV/AIDS and sexual risk behaviors, including unprotected sex with women. We conducted qualitative interviews (n = 30) with homeless men using shelters and meal lines in downtown Los Angeles (Skid Row) to better understand how such men view the risks of sexual encounters with female partners. Men living on Skid Row perceived multiple risks, including HIV and unwanted pregnancy as well as emotional trauma, loss of resources, exacerbation of drug addiction, and physical attack. Respondents described using visual and behavioral cues, social reputation, geographical location, feelings of trust, perceived relationship seriousness, and medically inaccurate "folk" beliefs to judge whether partners were risky and/or condom use was warranted. Medically inaccurate beliefs suggest the potential utility of evidence-based interventions to change such beliefs. We also consider implications for relationships on the street and housing interventions. PMID:21630015

  13. Contingency Management among Homeless, Out-of-Treatment Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Reback, Cathy J; Peck, James A; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri; Nuno, Miriam; Kamien, Jonathan B; Amass, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Homeless men who have sex with men (MSM) are a particularly vulnerable population with high rates of substance dependence, psychiatric disorders, and HIV prevalence. Most need strong incentives to engage with community-based prevention and treatment programs. Contingency Management (CM) was implemented in a community HIV prevention setting and targeted reduced substance use and increased health-promoting behaviors over a 24-week intervention period. Participants in the CM condition achieved greater reductions in stimulant and alcohol use (χ2 = 27.36, p<.01) and, in particular, methamphetamine use (χ2 = 21.78, p<.01), and greater increases in health-promoting behaviors (χ2 = 37.83, p<.01) during the intervention period than those in the control group. Reductions in substance use were maintained to 9- and 12-month follow-up evaluations. Findings indicate the utility of CM for this high-risk population and the feasibility of implementing the intervention in a community-based HIV prevention program. PMID:20667681

  14. Contingency Management Reduces Symptoms of Psychological and Emotional Distress among Homeless, Substance-dependent Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jesse B.; Shoptaw, Steven; Peck, James A.; Reback, Cathy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background This prospective analysis evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention to improve the psychological health of non-treatment seeking, homeless, substance-dependent, men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. It was hypothesized that administration of CM would be associated with reductions in participants’ symptoms of psychological and emotional distress. Methods One hundred and thirty-one participants were randomized into either a voucher-based contingency management (CM; n = 64) condition reinforcing substance abstinence and prosocial/health-promoting behaviors, or to a control condition (n = 67). Participants’ symptoms of psychological and emotional distress were assessed at intake and at 12-months post-randomization. Results Participants randomized into the CM intervention exhibited significantly lower levels of psychological distress in all measured symptom domains up to one year post randomization, reductions not evidenced in the control arm. Omnibus tests resultant from seemingly unrelated regression analysis confirmed that CM was significantly associated with reductions in symptoms of psychological and emotional distress, even when controlling for biomarker-confirmed substance use outcomes (χ2(9) = 17.26; p < 0.05). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that a CM intervention reduced symptoms of psychological and emotional distress among a sample of non-treatment seeking, homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men. PMID:25364379

  15. Methods for successful follow-up of elusive urban populations: an ethnographic approach with homeless men.

    PubMed Central

    Conover, S.; Berkman, A.; Gheith, A.; Jahiel, R.; Stanley, D.; Geller, P. A.; Valencia, E.; Susser, E.

    1997-01-01

    Public health is paying increasing attention to elusive urban populations such as the homeless, street drug users, and illegal immigrants. Yet, valid data on the health of these populations remain scarce; longitudinal research, in particular, has been hampered by poor follow-up rates. This paper reports on the follow-up methods used in two randomized clinical trials among one such population, namely, homeless men with mental illness. Each of the two trials achieved virtually complete follow-up over 18 months. The authors describe the ethnographic approach to follow-up used in these trials and elaborate its application to four components of the follow-up: training interviewers, tracking participants, administering the research office, and conducting assessments. The ethnographic follow-up method is adaptable to other studies and other settings, and may provide a replicable model for achieving high follow-up rates in urban epidemiologic studies. PMID:9211004

  16. Predictors of High Level of Hostility among Homeless Men on Parole.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa; Farabee, David; Hall, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark; Leake, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    High levels of hostility present a formidable challenge among homeless ex-offenders. This cross-sectional study assessed correlates of high levels of hostility using baseline data collected on recently-released male parolees (N=472; age 18-60) participating in a randomized trial focused on prevention of illicit drug use and recidivism. Predictors of high levels of hostility included greater depressive symptomatology, lower self-esteem, having a mother who was treated for alcohol/drugs, belonging to a gang, more tangible support, having used methamphetamine and having a history of cognitive difficulties. These findings highlight the need to understand predictors of hostility among recently released homeless men and how these predictors may relate to recidivism. Research implications are discussed as these findings will shape future nurse-led harm reduction and community-based interventions.

  17. Characteristics and HIV risk behaviors of homeless, substance-using men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Reback, Cathy J; Kamien, Jonathan B; Amass, Leslie

    2007-03-01

    During January and February 2003, 20 non-treatment seeking homeless, substance-using MSM accessing community-based prevention services in West Hollywood, California were assessed to characterize demographics, addiction and psychiatric severity using structured and semi-structured clinical interviews, and high-risk drug and sexual behavior. Participants averaged 37 years old, were mostly Caucasian/white (65%) and most identified as bisexual (58%) or gay (37%). Self-reported HIV seroprevalence was 21%. Most (53%) exchanged sex for money and/or drugs within the previous 30 days. All were diagnosed with current DSM-IV Substance Dependence Disorders, primarily alcohol (62%), amphetamine (57%), cocaine (52%), and marijuana (38%). Participants reported many (35.7) positive psychiatric symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory and averaged moderate Beck Depression Inventory scores (19.1). Most (75%) met criteria for Mood Disorder, 33% for Major Depressive Disorder, 43% for Antisocial Personality Disorder and averaged low (48.5) Global Assessment of Functioning scores. While the small convenience sample limits generalizability of the findings, these data provide an opportunity to gain insight into this at-risk population and, thereby, assess appropriate intervention strategies.

  18. Ensuring Full Participation in Extra-Curricular Activities for Students Experiencing Homelessness. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Extra-curricular school activities, such as sports, music, theater, debate, and clubs, are often a key to engaging children and youth in school. They can provide students with a sense of belonging, stability, pride, and responsibility and strengthen a student's applications for higher education admission and scholarships. Homelessness, however,…

  19. Active tuberculosis among homeless persons, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamran; Rea, Elizabeth; McDermaid, Cameron; Stuart, Rebecca; Chambers, Catharine; Wang, Jun; Chan, Angie; Gardam, Michael; Jamieson, Frances; Yang, Jae; Hwang, Stephen W

    2011-03-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) in Canadian cities is increasingly affecting foreign-born persons, homeless persons remain at high risk. To assess trends in TB, we studied all homeless persons in Toronto who had a diagnosis of active TB during 1998-2007. We compared Canada-born and foreign-born homeless persons and assessed changes over time. We identified 91 homeless persons with active TB; they typically had highly contagious, advanced disease, and 19% died within 12 months of diagnosis. The proportion of homeless persons who were foreign-born increased from 24% in 1998-2002 to 39% in 2003-2007. Among foreign-born homeless persons with TB, 56% of infections were caused by strains not known to circulate among homeless persons in Toronto. Only 2% of infections were resistant to first-line TB medications. The rise in foreign-born homeless persons with TB strains likely acquired overseas suggests that the risk for drug-resistant strains entering the homeless shelter system may be escalating.

  20. Active Tuberculosis among Homeless Persons, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1998–2007

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Elizabeth; McDermaid, Cameron; Stuart, Rebecca; Chambers, Catharine; Wang, Jun; Chan, Angie; Gardam, Michael; Jamieson, Frances; Yang, Jae; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) in Canadian cities is increasingly affecting foreign-born persons, homeless persons remain at high risk. To assess trends in TB, we studied all homeless persons in Toronto who had a diagnosis of active TB during 1998–2007. We compared Canada-born and foreign-born homeless persons and assessed changes over time. We identified 91 homeless persons with active TB; they typically had highly contagious, advanced disease, and 19% died within 12 months of diagnosis. The proportion of homeless persons who were foreign-born increased from 24% in 1998–2002 to 39% in 2003–2007. Among foreign-born homeless persons with TB, 56% of infections were caused by strains not known to circulate among homeless persons in Toronto. Only 2% of infections were resistant to first-line TB medications. The rise in foreign-born homeless persons with TB strains likely acquired overseas suggests that the risk for drug-resistant strains entering the homeless shelter system may be escalating. PMID:21392424

  1. State Activities and Programs for the Homeless: A Review of Six States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Martha R.; Cohen, Barbara

    This report describes the activities and policies for the homeless of six states both before and after implementation of the Federal Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. The states covered are California, Connecticut, Georgia, New Mexico, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "State…

  2. Understanding Consistent Condom Use Among Homeless Men Who Have Sex with Women and Engage in Multiple Sexual Partnerships: A Path Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Wenzel, Suzanne; Rice, Eric; Gilreath, Tamika D; Kurzban, Seth; Unger, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Consistent condom use is the main strategy aimed at preventing individuals from acquiring HIV through sexual intercourse. The mechanism of consistent condom use among a high-risk homeless subpopulation-homeless men who have sex with women and also engage in multiple sexual partnerships-remains unclear. This study identified 182 homeless men who engaged in multiple sexual partnerships from a representative sample of homeless men, who self-identified as heterosexual, using meal line services in Downtown Los Angeles' Skid Row area. Information such as participants' condom use psychosocial correlates, sexual risk behaviors, and social network characteristics were collected. Results suggested that condom efficacy is a potential intervening mechanism through which condom attitudes (β = -0.199; p = 0.005) and depression (β = -0.156; p = 0.029) are associated with an individual's consistent condom use. Having more network members with whom participants talked about HIV prevention (β = 0.051; p = 0.006) was also found to be associated with an individual's consistent condom use. HIV prevention programs should focus on increasing their condom efficacy to help reduce HIV risks among this vulnerable homeless subpopulation. PMID:25845531

  3. Evaluating the Effects of Self-Esteem on Substance Abuse among Homeless Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Barris P.

    2004-01-01

    Associations between self-esteem and abuse of alcohol and psychoactive substances have been documented in empirical studies involving high school and college students. No research exists that addresses whether this association generalizes to adult homeless substance users. The current study uses secondary data analysis methodology to evaluate an…

  4. Psychache and Suicide Ideation among Men Who Are Homeless: A Test of Shneidman's Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Allisha A.; Holden, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide ideation among the homeless is 10 times more common than in the general population. Cognitive theories of depression and hopelessness propose to explain suicidality; however, as yet, none of these fully account for the phenomenon. Shneidman has suggested a theory of psychache or unbearable psychological pain to explain suicidality. This…

  5. Utilizing Participatory Mapping and GIS to Examine the Activity Spaces of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Townley, Greg; Pearson, L; Lehrwyn, Josephine M; Prophet, Nicole T; Trauernicht, Mareike

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have informed our understanding of certain aspects of youth homelessness, few studies have critically examined the spatial and social environments utilized by youth as they navigate life on the streets. This study employed participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth as they relate to sense of community and psychological well-being. Participants were 28 youth experiencing homelessness in Portland, Oregon, USA. Results suggest that youth engage most frequently in service-related activities, and their activity participation is significantly associated with sense of community and psychological well-being. The utility of innovative participatory methods for better understanding the diverse experiences of homeless youth is discussed alongside examination of their practical implications. PMID:27219497

  6. Utilizing Participatory Mapping and GIS to Examine the Activity Spaces of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Townley, Greg; Pearson, L; Lehrwyn, Josephine M; Prophet, Nicole T; Trauernicht, Mareike

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have informed our understanding of certain aspects of youth homelessness, few studies have critically examined the spatial and social environments utilized by youth as they navigate life on the streets. This study employed participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth as they relate to sense of community and psychological well-being. Participants were 28 youth experiencing homelessness in Portland, Oregon, USA. Results suggest that youth engage most frequently in service-related activities, and their activity participation is significantly associated with sense of community and psychological well-being. The utility of innovative participatory methods for better understanding the diverse experiences of homeless youth is discussed alongside examination of their practical implications.

  7. Characteristics and risk behaviors of homeless black men seeking services from the Community Homeless Assistance Plan--Dade County, Florida, August 1991.

    PubMed

    1991-12-20

    The number of homeless persons in the United States has been estimated to range from 600,000 to 3 million (Dr. Barbara Cohen, The Urban Institute, personal communication, 1991), with higher concentrations of these persons in several large urban centers. Because of the circumstances of homelessness, neither the health status nor the public health needs of these persons are well defined. In Dade County (which includes incorporated Miami), Florida (1990 population: 1.9 million), the average daily number of persons who are homeless is estimated to be 6000; during a 1-year period, approximately 10,000 persons are homeless at some time (Dr. Andrew Cherry, Barry University, Miami, personal communication, 1991). This report presents findings from a survey conducted in August 1991 to assess the health risks of homeless persons in Dade County seeking services from the Community Homeless Assistance Plan (CHAP), a pilot case-management project that places homeless persons into housing, jobs, and appropriate social services. PMID:1749369

  8. The Faces of Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Marjorie; Young, James

    Homelessness affects a wide cross-section of society. Causes of homelessness, attempted remedies, and potential solutions for the future are presented. Descriptions of the experiences of men, women, and children who have fallen through the "safety net" of social services are included from cities throughout the country. Support is given for the…

  9. The New Homelessness Revisited.

    PubMed

    Lee, Barrett A; Tyler, Kimberly A; Wright, James D

    2010-08-01

    The 'new homelessness' has drawn sustained attention from scholars over the past three decades. Definitional inconsistencies and data limitations rendered early work during this period largely speculative in nature. Thanks to conceptual, theoretical, and methodological progress, however, the research literature now provides a fuller understanding of homelessness. Contributions by sociologists and other social scientists since the mid-1990s differentiate among types of homelessness, provide credible demographic estimates, and show how being homeless affects a person's life chances and coping strategies. Agreement also exists about the main macro- and micro-level causes of homelessness. Active lines of inquiry examine public, media, and governmental responses to the problem as well as homeless people's efforts to mobilize on their own behalf. Despite the obstacles faced when studying a stigmatized population marked by high turnover and weak anchors to place, recent investigations have significantly influenced homelessness policy. A greater emphasis on prevention should further strengthen the research-policy nexus. PMID:24910495

  10. Understanding Correlates of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Homeless Recently Paroled Men

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Marlow, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Yadav, Kartik

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed predictors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) positivity with baseline data collected on recently-released male parolees (N=157) participating in a randomized trial focused on reduction of drug use, recidivism and risk for hepatitis and HIV infections. In this sample, the prevalence of HCV was 25%. The logistic regression analysis revealed that being an injection drug user (IDU) was significantly related to HCV infection. However, contrary to most of the current literature, being African American had significantly lower odds of contracting HCV than their Caucasian counterparts. Moreover, having lived on the streets, not being part of a close family in childhood and being older were also associated with HCV infection. These findings highlight the need for skilled assessments that target the vulnerabilities of homeless adults, especially those who have been incarcerated. Understanding drug use patterns, childhood networks, and family relationships, may assist in the design of interventions to reduce risky drug use and address behaviors derived from disadvantaged childhood. PMID:24158154

  11. Are the mentally ill homeless a distinct homeless subgroup?

    PubMed

    North, C S; Smith, E M; Pollio, D E; Spitznagel, E L

    1996-09-01

    The question has been raised whether it is useful or meaningful to dichotomize the homeless population by mental illness - i.e., to consider the mentally ill homeless as distinct from other homeless people. The current article presents evidence from a single data set to address this question empirically. Data from a randomly sampled population of 900 homeless men and women systemically interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were examined to determine associations of mental illness with the problems of homelessness, controlling for the presence of substance abuse in the analyses. Although a few clinically meaningful associations with mental illness were found that might suggest directions for appropriate interventions, mental illness did not differentiate individuals in many important demographic and biographic respects. Individual diagnoses did not perform much better in differentiating the homeless by mental illness. Schizophrenia and bipolar mania showed a few significant associations not identified by the "major mental illness" construct. Major depression, constituting the majority of nonsubstance Axis I disorder in the homeless, provided no association beyond that obtained with the "major mental illness" category. The data provide little support for conceptualizing homeless subgroups or homelessness in general on the basis of mental illness alone. To do so also risks neglecting the emotional distress of the majority without major mental illness and the other problems that homeless persons share regardless of psychiatric illness. While serious mental illness is overrepresented among the homeless, it represents just one of many important vulnerability factors for homelessness. Substance abuse is far more prevalent than other Axis I disorders. Media images equating homelessness with major mental illness unnecessarily stigmatize homeless people and encourage oversimplified and narrowly conceived psychiatric interventions. While continuing attention is

  12. Are the mentally ill homeless a distinct homeless subgroup?

    PubMed

    North, C S; Smith, E M; Pollio, D E; Spitznagel, E L

    1996-09-01

    The question has been raised whether it is useful or meaningful to dichotomize the homeless population by mental illness - i.e., to consider the mentally ill homeless as distinct from other homeless people. The current article presents evidence from a single data set to address this question empirically. Data from a randomly sampled population of 900 homeless men and women systemically interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were examined to determine associations of mental illness with the problems of homelessness, controlling for the presence of substance abuse in the analyses. Although a few clinically meaningful associations with mental illness were found that might suggest directions for appropriate interventions, mental illness did not differentiate individuals in many important demographic and biographic respects. Individual diagnoses did not perform much better in differentiating the homeless by mental illness. Schizophrenia and bipolar mania showed a few significant associations not identified by the "major mental illness" construct. Major depression, constituting the majority of nonsubstance Axis I disorder in the homeless, provided no association beyond that obtained with the "major mental illness" category. The data provide little support for conceptualizing homeless subgroups or homelessness in general on the basis of mental illness alone. To do so also risks neglecting the emotional distress of the majority without major mental illness and the other problems that homeless persons share regardless of psychiatric illness. While serious mental illness is overrepresented among the homeless, it represents just one of many important vulnerability factors for homelessness. Substance abuse is far more prevalent than other Axis I disorders. Media images equating homelessness with major mental illness unnecessarily stigmatize homeless people and encourage oversimplified and narrowly conceived psychiatric interventions. While continuing attention is

  13. Housing First for Homeless Persons with Active Addiction: Are We Overreaching?

    PubMed Central

    Kertesz, Stefan G; Crouch, Kimberly; Milby, Jesse B; Cusimano, Robert E; Schumacher, Joseph E

    2009-01-01

    Context More than 350 communities in the United States have committed to ending chronic homelessness. One nationally prominent approach, Housing First, offers early access to permanent housing without requiring completion of treatment or, for clients with addiction, proof of sobriety. Methods This article reviews studies of Housing First and more traditional rehabilitative (e.g., “linear”) recovery interventions, focusing on the outcomes obtained by both approaches for homeless individuals with addictive disorders. Findings According to reviews of comparative trials and case series reports, Housing First reports document excellent housing retention, despite the limited amount of data pertaining to homeless clients with active and severe addiction. Several linear programs cite reductions in addiction severity but have shortcomings in long-term housing success and retention. Conclusions This article suggests that the current research data are not sufficient to identify an optimal housing and rehabilitation approach for an important homeless subgroup. The research regarding Housing First and linear approaches can be strengthened in several ways, and policymakers should be cautious about generalizing the results of available Housing First studies to persons with active addiction when they enter housing programs. PMID:19523126

  14. Health and service utilization patterns among homeless men in transition: exploring the need for on-site, shelter-based nursing care.

    PubMed

    Brush, B L; Powers, E M

    2001-01-01

    Between September 1999 and May 2000, as part of a larger faculty/student teaching project, data describing the demographic, health problem and service utilization patterns of 183 newly sheltered homeless men (mean age = 42) seeking on-site nursing clinic services were collected and analyzed. Upon arrival to the transitional shelter, 46% of the study participants were medically uninsured or received state subsidized health benefits (49%). Almost all (99%) were in recovery from substance addiction. Despite numerous self-reported health problems, 44% had no primary care provider and 35% were seen only sporadically in local hospital clinics or in emergency departments. During the study period, nurse practitioner students and faculty managed most of the residents' episodic illnesses on-site, while assisting them to secure insurance coverage and medical appointments as a prelude to independent living. This was an attempt to curtail residents' previous pattern of waiting until medical problems became serious before seeking treatment. These findings mirrored those in studies of similar populations equating on-site delivery of health care to cost reduction. Unfortunately, many nurse-managed clinics, like our study site, fail to generate data supporting nurses' clinical efficiency and cost effectiveness in caring for homeless individuals. As such, nurses' work remains invisible and underappreciated. This article argues that future studies examining nurses' work and worth in caring for homeless individuals are necessary in determining future health care service planning with this vulnerable population. PMID:11695491

  15. The New Homelessness Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barrett A.; Tyler, Kimberly A.; Wright, James D.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘new homelessness’ has drawn sustained attention from scholars over the past three decades. Definitional inconsistencies and data limitations rendered early work during this period largely speculative in nature. Thanks to conceptual, theoretical, and methodological progress, however, the research literature now provides a fuller understanding of homelessness. Contributions by sociologists and other social scientists since the mid-1990s differentiate among types of homelessness, provide credible demographic estimates, and show how being homeless affects a person's life chances and coping strategies. Agreement also exists about the main macro- and micro-level causes of homelessness. Active lines of inquiry examine public, media, and governmental responses to the problem as well as homeless people's efforts to mobilize on their own behalf. Despite the obstacles faced when studying a stigmatized population marked by high turnover and weak anchors to place, recent investigations have significantly influenced homelessness policy. A greater emphasis on prevention should further strengthen the research-policy nexus. PMID:24910495

  16. Pushed Out: America's Homeless. Thanksgiving 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    By winter 1987, up to three million men, women, and children will be homeless; the number of homeless persons will continue to increase at a rate of 25 percent. This report surveys the changes in the homeless population in the following 23 cities over the past year: Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Boston (Massachusetts), Chicago…

  17. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ending Family Homelessness Ending Youth Homelessness Setting a Path to End All Homelessness Solutions Solutions Housing Housing ... Ending Family Homelessness Ending Youth Homelessness Setting a Path to End All Homelessness Solutions Solutions Housing Housing ...

  18. Nursing Case Management, Peer Coaching, and Hepatitis A and B Vaccine Completion Among Homeless Men Recently Released on Parole: Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Zhang, Sheldon; Farabee, David; Hall, Betsy; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Leake, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Although hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are vaccine-preventable diseases, few homeless parolees coming out of prisons and jails have received the hepatitis A and B vaccination series. Objectives The study focused on completion of the HAV and HBV vaccine series among homeless men on parole. The efficacy of three levels of peer coaching and nurse-delivered interventions was compared at 12-month follow up: (a) intensive peer coaching and nurse case management (PC-NCM); (b) intensive peer coaching (PC) intervention condition, with minimal nurse involvement; and a (c) usual care (UC) intervention condition, which included minimal PC and nurse involvement. Further, we assessed predictors of vaccine completion among this targeted sample. Methods A randomized control trial was conducted with 600 recently paroled men to assess the impact of the three intervention conditions (PC-NCM vs. PC vs. UC) on reducing drug use and recidivism; of these, 345 seronegative, vaccine-eligible subjects were included in this analysis of completion of the Twinrix HAV/HAB vaccine. Logistic regression was added to assess predictors of completion of the HAV/HBV vaccine series and chi-squared analysis to compare completion rates across the three levels of intervention. Results Vaccine completion rate for the intervention conditions were 75.4% (PC-NCM), 71.8% (PC), and 71.9% (UC) (p =. 78). Predictors of vaccine noncompletion included being Asian and Pacific Islander, experiencing high levels of hostility, positive social support, reporting a history of injection drug use, being released early from California prisons, and being admitted for psychiatric illness. Predictors of vaccine series completion included reporting six or more friends, recent cocaine use, and staying in drug treatment for at least 90 days. Discussion Findings allow greater understanding of factors affecting vaccination completion in order to design more effective programs among the

  19. Pathways into homelessness: recently homeless adults problems and service use before and after becoming homeless in Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background To improve homelessness prevention practice, we met with recently homeless adults, to explore their pathways into homelessness, problems and service use, before and after becoming homeless. Methods Recently homeless adults (last housing lost up to two years ago and legally staying in the Netherlands) were sampled in the streets, day centres and overnight shelters in Amsterdam. In April and May 2004, students conducted interviews and collected data on demographics, self reported pathways into homelessness, social and medical problems, and service use, before and after becoming homeless. Results among 120 recently homeless adults, (male 88%, Dutch 50%, average age 38 years, mean duration of homelessness 23 weeks), the main reported pathways into homelessness were evictions 38%, relationship problems 35%, prison 6% and other reasons 22%. Compared to the relationship group, the eviction group was slightly older (average age 39.6 versus 35.5 years; p = 0.08), belonged more often to a migrant group (p = 0.025), and reported more living single (p < 0,001), more financial debts (p = 0.009), more alcohol problems (p = 0.048) and more contacts with debt control services (p = 0.009). The relationship group reported more domestic conflicts (p < 0.001) and tended to report more drug (cocaine) problems. Before homelessness, in the total group, contacts with any social service were 38% and with any medical service 27%. Despite these contacts they did not keep their house. During homelessness only contacts with social work and benefit agencies increased, contacts with medical services remained low. Conclusion the recently homeless fit the overall profile of the homeless population in Amsterdam: single (Dutch) men, around 40 years, with a mix of financial debts, addiction, mental and/or physical health problems. Contacts with services were fragmented and did not prevent homelessness. For homelessness prevention, systematic and outreach social medical care before and

  20. Barriers to Physical Activity Among Gay Men.

    PubMed

    Cary, Miranda A; Brittain, Danielle R; Dinger, Mary K; Ford, Melissa L; Cain, Meagan; Sharp, Teresa A

    2016-09-01

    Gay men may not be physically active at recommended levels to achieve health benefits. Thus, a need exists to identify general (i.e., common across populations) and population-specific barriers that hinder or stop gay men from participating in physical activity (PA). Salient barriers may be identified through the extent each barrier limits PA (i.e., barrier limitation) and the level of one's confidence to overcome barriers and engage in PA (i.e., self-regulatory efficacy). The purposes of this study were to (1) provide a description of general and population-specific barriers to PA among sufficiently and insufficiently active gay men, (2) identify barrier limitation and self-regulatory efficacy for the reported barriers, and (3) examine the associations between meeting the current PA recommendation, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy. Participants were 108 self-identified gay males aged 21 to 64 years who completed a web-based survey. A total of 35 general barriers and no population-specific barriers were identified by the sufficiently and insufficiently active groups. The sufficiently active group reported higher self-regulatory efficacy and lower barrier limitation for nearly all reported barriers. A binary logistic regression used to examine the associations between PA, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy was statistically significant, χ(2)(2, N = 108) = 19.26, p < .0001, R(2) = .16. Only barrier limitation significantly contributed to the model. Future research should continue to examine barriers to PA among gay men to determine whether an intervention needs to be designed specifically for gay men or whether a one-size-fits-all intervention would be effective in helping all men overcome common barriers to engaging in PA.

  1. An Examination of Criminal Behavior among the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solarz, Andrea

    Homelessness is a significant social problem in the United States, with an estimated 2.5 million homeless people in this country today. While criminal activity may become a means for the homeless to obtain resources needed for basic survival, little is known about the level of criminal activity among the homeless or about the types of crimnal…

  2. The Dynamics of Families Who Are Homeless: Implications for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    Family homelessness has emerged as a serious global problem (Stronge, 2000). Over the past 25 years in the United States, the makeup of the homeless population has changed significantly. As De Angelis (1994) reports: The landscape of homelessness has changed since the early 1980s, when nearly all homeless people were men. Today,…

  3. Men on the Move: A Pilot Program to Increase Physical Activity among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Langford, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important contribution increasing physical activity levels may play in reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of interventions and research indicating how to improve physical activity levels in African American men. "Men on the Move" was a pilot study to increase African American men's…

  4. Refugees and Homeless: Nomads of the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Stanley F.; Cobiskey, Lane

    1998-01-01

    The United States has the most homeless people of the industrialized nations, and children are the fastest growing segment of the homeless. This article discusses refugees and homeless persons and presents an annotated bibliography of picture books, fiction, and nonfiction for grades K-12. Suggests class activities in drama, language arts, and…

  5. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18–25), and middle adulthood (ages 26–49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  6. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca T; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18-25), and middle adulthood (ages 26-49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  7. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872

  8. Nutrition and health services needs among the homeless.

    PubMed Central

    Wiecha, J L; Dwyer, J T; Dunn-Strohecker, M

    1991-01-01

    This review discusses nutrition and related health problems among homeless Americans, summarizes recent information, and identifies needs for services and future research. The nature of homelessness today provides a context for the discussion. Many homeless persons eat fewer meals per day, lack food more often, and are more likely to have inadequate diets and poorer nutritional status than housed U.S. populations. Yet many homeless people eligible for food stamps do not receive them. While public and private agencies provide nutritious food and meals for homeless persons, availability of the services to homeless persons is limited. Many homeless people lack appropriate health care, and certain nutrition-related health problems are prevalent among them. Compared with housed populations, alcoholism, anemia, and growth problems are more common among homeless persons, and pregnancy rates are higher. The risks vary among homeless persons for malnutrition, nutrition-related health problems, drug and alcohol abuse, and mental illness. For example, among homeless persons, fewer heads of families than single adults are substance abusers, and mental illness varies in prevalence among single men, single women, and parents in homeless families. Homeless persons need improved access to food, nutrition, and health services. More nutrition education needs to be available to them and to service providers. Use of representative samples and validation of self-reported nutrition and health data will help future investigators to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of the homeless and their nutritional status. PMID:1908587

  9. Homelessness in a national sample of incarcerated veterans in state and federal prisons.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kasprow, Wesley J; McGuire, James F

    2014-05-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has been increasing efforts to reach out to assist incarcerated veterans. While previous studies have shown strong associations between incarceration and homelessness, few studies have examined distinctive characteristics of incarcerated homeless and non-homeless veterans. National administrative data on 30,348 incarcerated veterans served by the Health Care for Re-entry Veterans (HCRV) program were analyzed. Incarcerated veterans were classified into four groups based on their history of past homelessness: not homeless, transiently homeless, episodically homeless, and chronically homeless. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare groups on sociodemographic characteristics, criminal justice status, clinical status, and their interest in using VHA services. Of the sample, 70 % were classified as not homeless, 8 % as transiently homeless, 11 % as episodically homeless, and 11 % as chronically homeless. Thus, 30 % of the sample had a homeless history, which is five times the 6 % rate of past homelessness among adult men in the general population. Compared to non-homeless incarcerated veterans, all three homeless groups reported significantly more mental health problems, more substance abuse, more times arrested in their lifetime, more likely to be incarcerated for a non-violent offense, and were more interested in receiving VHA services after release from prison. Together, these findings suggest re-entry programs, like HCRV, can address relevant mental health-related service needs, especially among formerly homeless veterans and veterans in need of services are receptive to the offer of assistance. PMID:23512110

  10. Victimization of the elderly homeless.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Tracy; Wright, James D

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC), this article examines the applicability of Felson's Routine Activities Theory to a national probability sample of older homeless individuals. Results indicate that the relative protection that women often have from most crimes is not transferred to the older homeless woman who is more likely than her male counterparts to be the victim of sexual assault but equally as likely to be the victim of theft and physical assault. Likewise, the protection often noted afforded by age against victimization is also not seen among the homeless. The research demonstrates that being male and having mental and physical health problems as well as substance abuse problems increases the likelihood of victimizations among the homeless population, in general When predictors of victimization were considered for the 50 and older sample, these predictors remained the same except that the gender remained significant only for sexual assault. These findings are consistent with and supportive of utilizing Felson's Routine Activities Theory to understand and explain victimization among the older homeless population. PMID:16447853

  11. Homelessness in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumohl, Jim, Ed.

    This book about homelessness in the United States offers 16 chapters in three parts. Part 1, "History Definitions, and Causes," includes: (1) "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness" (Kim Hopper and Jim Baumohl); (2) "Homelessness: Definitions and Counts" (Martha R. Burt); (3) "The Causes of Homelessness"…

  12. Homelessness in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yi Ling

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a theoretical and practical approach in defining the "problem" of homelessness in libraries. The author examines three fundamental problems on homelessness. The three fundamental questions are: (a) Who are the homeless? (b) Why are they homeless? (c) What are their information needs in libraries? These questions are important in…

  13. A Comparison of Weight-Related Behaviors among High School Students Who Are Homeless and Non-Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Mary E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Samples, Cathryn L.; Goodenow, Carol S.; Wylie, Sarah A.; Corliss, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that youth who are homeless engage in high-risk behaviors. However, there has been little information published on nutritional and physical activity behaviors in this population, and studies comparing homeless youth in school with their non-homeless peers are scarce. This study compares weight-related risk…

  14. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    PubMed Central

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  15. Care of the homeless: an overview.

    PubMed

    Maness, David L; Khan, Muneeza

    2014-04-15

    Homelessness affects men, women, and children of all races and ethnicities. On any given night, more than 610,000 persons in the United States are homeless; a little more than one-third of these are families. Homeless persons are more likely to become ill, have greater hospitalization rates, and are more likely to die at a younger age than the general population. The average life span for a homeless person is between 42 and 52 years. Homeless children are much sicker and have more academic and behavioral problems. Insufficient personal income and the lack of affordable housing are the major reasons for homelessness. Complex, advanced medical problems and psychiatric illnesses, exacerbated by drug and alcohol abuse, in combination with the economic and social issues (such as the lack of housing and proper transportation) make this subset of the population a unique challenge for the health care system, local communities, and the government. An integrated, multidisciplinary health care team with an outreach focus, along with involvement of local and state agencies, seems best suited to address the components needed to ensure quality of care, to help make these patients self-sufficient, and to help them succeed. Family physicians are well suited to manage the needs of the homeless patient, provide continuity of care, and lead these multidisciplinary teams. PMID:24784122

  16. Discrimination and Exiting Homelessness among Homeless Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Ayala, George; Rice, Eric; Batterham, Philip; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how newly homeless adolescents’ discrimination experiences were associated with exiting homelessness after six months. A sample of 262 homeless adolescents, aged 12 to 20 years, were recruited and followed longitudinally (six-month retention rate = 88%). Discrimination was related to being gay, lesbian, or bisexual (LGB). Discrimination from family was related to exiting homelessness. Other than those who were LGB, adolescents who reported discrimination from their families were more likely to exit homelessness than adolescents who did not report such discrimination. Suggestions for future research include focusing on the experiences of LGB homeless adolescents, the role of families in the lives of homeless adolescents, and other aspects of discrimination, including salience, frequency, intensity, and duration. PMID:17087527

  17. Loss of MEN1 activates DNMT1 implicating DNA hypermethylation as a driver of MEN1 tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ziqiang; Claros, Carmen Sánchez; Suzuki, Masako; Maggi, Elaine C.; Kaner, Justin D.; Kinstlinger, Noah; Gorecka, Jolanta; Quinn, Thomas J.; Geha, Rula; Corn, Amanda; Pastoriza, Jessica; Jing, Qiang; Adem, Asha; Wu, Hao; Alemu, Girum; Du, Yi-Chieh; Zheng, Deyou; Greally, John M.; Libutti, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome results from mutations in the MEN1 gene and causes tumor formation via largely unknown mechanisms. Using a novel genome-wide methylation analysis, we studied tissues from MEN1-parathyroid tumors, Men1 knockout (KO) mice, and Men1 null mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines. We demonstrated that inactivation of menin (the protein product of MEN1) increases activity of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) by activating retinoblastoma-binding protein 5 (Rbbp5). The increased activity of DNMT1 mediates global DNA hypermethylation, which results in aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway through inactivation of Sox regulatory genes. Our study provides important insights into the role of menin in DNA methylation and its impact on the pathogenesis of MEN1 tumor development. PMID:26871472

  18. Correlates of adult assault among homeless women.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L; Wright, Kynna; Bhattacharya, Debika; Sinha, Karabi; Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of sexual and physical assault among homeless women. A multivariate, correlation design was utilized to identify independent correlates of adult physical and sexual assault. The sample consisted of 202 homeless women residing in shelters or living on the street in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Respondents reporting a history of child sexual abuse were almost four times more likely to report being sexually assaulted as adults and were almost two and one third times more likely to report being physically assaulted as adults. A range of factors increase homeless women's risk of adult physical and sexual victimization, including child sexual abuse, substance use, lifetime sex trade activity, and previous incarceration. It is important for homeless service providers to develop an individual risk profile for homeless women and to intervene in order to decrease their risk of re-victimization. PMID:21099076

  19. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  20. Parenting while Being Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  1. Feeding the homeless.

    PubMed

    Hales, A; Magnus, M H

    1991-12-01

    Nurses have a unique role in addressing homelessness, an issue of vital national concern. The management and organizational expertise of nurses can be key elements to coordinating community resources to assist the homeless. The authors describe the design and implementation of a community meal program for the homeless.

  2. Educating Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, BethAnn

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of homeless children in America has more than doubled. Educators, however, are still legally obligated to enroll and support them, because of the passage of the "No Child Left Behind" Act of 2001, which reauthorized the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Although schools cannot solve homelessness, they can…

  3. Teaching Our Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, George H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  4. Feeding the homeless.

    PubMed

    Hales, A; Magnus, M H

    1991-12-01

    Nurses have a unique role in addressing homelessness, an issue of vital national concern. The management and organizational expertise of nurses can be key elements to coordinating community resources to assist the homeless. The authors describe the design and implementation of a community meal program for the homeless. PMID:1744733

  5. Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2006-01-01

    Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

  6. HIV risk, seropositivity and predictors of infection among homeless and non-homeless women sex workers in Miami, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Surratt, H L; Inciardi, J A

    2004-07-01

    Although homelessness has frequently been associated with substance abuse, and has been established as a predictor of HIV risk among substance abusers, little is known about the impact of homelessness on HIV risk among female sex workers. This analysis investigated the contribution of homelessness to sexual risk taking among a sample of 485 female sex workers recruited into an HIV prevention programme in Miami, Florida, 41.6% of whom considered themselves to be currently homeless. Findings indicated that in comparison to non-homeless sex workers, significantly more homeless sex workers were daily users of alcohol and crack, and their past month sex work reflected significantly more frequent vaginal and oral sex acts, higher levels of unprotected vaginal sex and more numerous sexual activities while 'high' on drugs. At the same time, a significantly greater proportion of homeless sex workers encountered customers that refused to use condoms than did the non-homeless sex workers. There were no significant differences in HIV seropositivity between the homeless and non-homeless women (22.5 and 24.9%, respectively), primarily because the majority of the women in the study cycled in and out of homelessness. PMID:15223529

  7. Health care of homeless veterans.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Thomas P; Conde-Martel, Alicia; Gibbon, Jeanette L; Hanusa, Barbara H; Fine, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    It is important to understand the needs of those veterans who are homeless. We describe characteristics of homeless male veterans and factors associated with needing VA benefits from a two-city, community survey of 531 homeless adults. Overall, 425 were male, of whom 127 were veterans (29.9%). Significantly more veterans had a chronic medical condition and two or more mental health conditions. Only 35.1% identified a community clinic for care compared with 66.8% of non-veterans (P <.01); 47.7% identified a shelter-based clinic and 59.1% reported needing VA benefits. Those reporting this need were less likely to report a medical comorbidity (58.7% vs 76.9%; P =.04), although 66.7% had a mental health comorbidity and 82.7% met Diagnosic Screening Manual (DSM)-IIIR criteria for substance abuse/dependence. They were also significantly more likely to access shelter clinics compared with veterans without this need. Homeless veterans continue to have substantial health issues. Active outreach is needed for those lacking access to VA services. PMID:14687279

  8. Risk Factors for Long-Term Homelessness: Findings From a Longitudinal Study of First-Time Homeless Single Adults

    PubMed Central

    Caton, Carol L. M.; Dominguez, Boanerges; Schanzer, Bella; Hasin, Deborah S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Felix, Alan; McQuistion, Hunter; Opler, Lewis A.; Hsu, Eustace

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined risk factors for long-term homelessness among newly homeless men and women who were admitted to New York City shelters in 2001 and 2002. Methods. Interviews were conducted with 377 study participants upon entry into the shelter and at 6-month intervals for 18 months. Standardized assessments of psychiatric diagnosis, symptoms, and coping skills; social and family history; and service use were analyzed. Kaplan—Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used to examine the association between baseline assessments and duration of homelessness. Results. Eighty-one percent of participants returned to community housing during the follow-up period; the median duration of homelessness was 190 days. Kaplan—Meier survival analysis showed that a shorter duration of homelessness was associated with younger age, current or recent employment, earned income, good coping skills, adequate family support, absence of a substance abuse treatment history, and absence of an arrest history. Cox regression showed that older age group P<.05) and arrest history (P<.01) were the strongest predictors of a longer duration of homelessness. Conclusions. Identification of risk factors for long-term homelessness can guide efforts to reduce lengths of stay in homeless shelters and to develop new preventive interventions. PMID:16131638

  9. Correlates of hepatitis B virus and HIV knowledge among gay and bisexual homeless young adults in Hollywood.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa; Reback, Cathy J; Shoptaw, Steven; Branson, Catherine M; Idemundia, Faith E; Kennedy, Barbara; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Marfisee, Mary; Liu, Yihang

    2013-01-01

    Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) young men have multiple risk factors that increase their risk of contracting hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study used baseline information from structured instruments to assess correlates of knowledge to HIV and HBV infection from 267 young (18-39 year old) G/B active methamphetamine, cocaine, and crack-using homeless men enrolled in a longitudinal trial. The study is designed to reduce drug use and improve knowledge of hepatitis and HIV/AIDS in a community center in Hollywood, California. Regression modeling revealed that previous hepatitis education delivered to G/B men was associated with higher levels of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis knowledge. Moreover, higher HIV/AIDS knowledge was associated with combining sex and drinking alcohol. Associations with hepatitis B knowledge was found among G/B men who were engaging in sex while under the influence of marijuana, who were receiving support from non-drug users, and who had been homeless in the last 4 months. Although being informed about HIV/AIDS and hepatitis did not preclude risky sexual and drug use behavior, knowledge about the dangers of concurrent sex with substance use is important. As higher levels of knowledge of hepatitis was associated with more moderate drug use, early access to testing and teaching harm reduction strategies remain critical to reduce exposure and infection of HBV and HIV in this population. PMID:22879650

  10. The Role of Institutional Placement, Family Conflict, and Homosexuality in Homelessness Pathways Among Latino LGBT Youth in New York City.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, H Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the overrepresentation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) youth among the homeless, the processes leading to their homelessness are understudied. This ethnographic study sought to elucidate the role of sexual orientation in the pathway to housing instability among young gay men. Fieldwork included 18 months of participant observations in public spaces and at a homeless LGBT youth organization in New York City, as well as formal semistructured interviews with 14 Latino young men and five staff. Three distinct pathways emerged. Some youth became homeless after placement in state systems of care disrupted their social support systems, while others became homeless after extreme family conflict over sexual orientation. Nonetheless, most youths became homeless as a result of long-term processes of family disintegration in which normative adolescent development and disclosure of homosexuality exacerbated preexisting conflict. These findings suggest the need to examine the accumulation of risks before disclosure exacerbates family conflict and increases their risk of homelessness.

  11. The Role of Institutional Placement, Family Conflict, and Homosexuality in Homelessness Pathways Among Latino LGBT Youth in New York City.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, H Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the overrepresentation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) youth among the homeless, the processes leading to their homelessness are understudied. This ethnographic study sought to elucidate the role of sexual orientation in the pathway to housing instability among young gay men. Fieldwork included 18 months of participant observations in public spaces and at a homeless LGBT youth organization in New York City, as well as formal semistructured interviews with 14 Latino young men and five staff. Three distinct pathways emerged. Some youth became homeless after placement in state systems of care disrupted their social support systems, while others became homeless after extreme family conflict over sexual orientation. Nonetheless, most youths became homeless as a result of long-term processes of family disintegration in which normative adolescent development and disclosure of homosexuality exacerbated preexisting conflict. These findings suggest the need to examine the accumulation of risks before disclosure exacerbates family conflict and increases their risk of homelessness. PMID:26503713

  12. Homelessness Assistance and Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Program Affordable Housing Community Development Consolidated Planning Economic Development Environmental Review Financial Management Homelessness Assistance Rural Systems News News Feed Email Updates Training & Events All ...

  13. Homelessness: A General Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homelessness Exchange, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains documents that provide general information about homelessness and the need for both Federal and local action to help the homeless people in America. Sections 1 and 2 contain the following articles released by the Homelessness Information Exchange: (1) "The Problem of Homelessness Nationwide"; and "Alternative Family Housing…

  14. Homelessness: Recommendations for State Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Governor's Advisory Board on the Shelter, Nutrition, and Service Programs for Homeless Persons, Annapolis.

    This report identifies the following objectives in the State of Maryland's efforts to prevent and substantially reduce homelessness: (1) expand resources for the prevention of homelessness, and investigate possible changes in policies contributing to homelessness; (2) establish a strong emergency response to homelessness throughout the State; (3)…

  15. The Rights of Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Penny

    This booklet presents information concerning homelessness and the education of homeless children nationwide and in Illinois. Estimates of the number of homeless children vary widely. Reasons for homeless children's failure to attend school include school residency requirements, delays in transfer of documents, and lack of transportation. The…

  16. Intellectual Disability and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a…

  17. Rest/Activity Rhythms and Cardiovascular Disease in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Misti L.; Taylor, Brent C.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested an increased risk of CVD-related mortality in older adults with disturbed circadian rest/activity rhythms (RARs). The objective goal of this study was to examine the association between disrupted RARs and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in older men. A total of 2,968 men aged 67 yrs and older wore wrist actigraphs for 115±18 consecutive hours. RAR parameters were computed from wrist actigraphy data and expressed as quartiles (Q). CVD events consisted of a composite outcome of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) events. Secondary analyses examined associations between RARs and individual components of the composite outcome (CHD, stroke, and PVD). There were 490 CVD events over an average of 4.0±1.2 yrs. Overall, reduced amplitude (HR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.01–1.71 for Q2 vs. Q4) and greater minimum (HR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.01–1.73 for Q4 vs. Q1) were associated with an increased risk of CVD events in multivariable-adjusted models. In secondary analyses, there was an independent association between reduced amplitude (HR = 1.36, 95%CI 1.00–1.86) and greater minimum activity counts (HR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.02–1.91) with increased risk of CHD events. Reduced F-value (HR = 2.88, 95%CI 1.41–5.87 for Q1 vs. Q4 and HR = 2.71, 95%CI 1.34–5.48 for Q2 vs. Q4) and later occurring acrophase of the RAR (HR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.04–2.63 for Q4 vs. Q2–3) were associated with an increased risk of PVD events. Results were similar in men without a history of CVD events. The findings revealed among older men, measures of decreased circadian activity rhythm robustness (reduced amplitude and greater minimum activity) were associated with an increased risk of CVD events, primarily through increased risk of CHD or stroke events, whereas measures of reduced circadian activity rhythm robustness were not associated with risk of CVD events overall, but were associated with an increased risk of PVD events. These results

  18. Homelessness and Hunger*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barrett A; Greif, Meredith J

    2014-01-01

    We employ data from the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients to examine the character and correlates of hunger among homeless people. Our analysis, couched in an adaptation framework, finds more support for the differentiation hypothesis than for the leveling hypothesis: Complex patterns of food insecurity exist at the individual level, and they vary with the resources available (e.g., higher monthly income, regular shelter use) and obstacles faced (e.g., alcohol, drug, and physical and mental health problems). The chronically homeless, who suffer from multiple deficits, appear particularly food-insecure, a finding that favors the desperation hypothesis over its street-wisdom alternative. We conclude that hunger is not uniformly experienced by members of the homeless population. Rather, some individuals are better situated than others to cope with the stressful nature of homelessness when addressing their sustenance needs. PMID:18418982

  19. Active surveillance of prostate cancer in African American men.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.

  20. Residential patterns in older homeless adults: Results of a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher Thomas; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Tieu, Lina; Riley, Elise; Kushel, Margot

    2016-03-01

    Adults aged 50 and older make up half of individuals experiencing homelessness and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. They may have different life trajectories and reside in different environments than do younger homeless adults. Although the environmental risks associated with homelessness are substantial, the environments in which older homeless individuals live have not been well characterized. We classified living environments and identified associated factors in a sample of older homeless adults. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited a community-based sample of 350 homeless men and women aged fifty and older in Oakland, California. We administered structured interviews including assessments of health, history of homelessness, social support, and life course. Participants used a recall procedure to describe where they stayed in the prior six months. We performed cluster analysis to classify residential venues and used multinomial logistic regression to identify individual factors prior to the onset of homelessness as well as the duration of unstable housing associated with living in them. We generated four residential groups describing those who were unsheltered (n = 162), cohabited unstably with friends and family (n = 57), resided in multiple institutional settings (shelters, jails, transitional housing) (n = 88), or lived primarily in rental housing (recently homeless) (n = 43). Compared to those who were unsheltered, having social support when last stably housed was significantly associated with cohabiting and institution use. Cohabiters and renters were significantly more likely to be women and have experienced a shorter duration of homelessness. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than unsheltered participants to have experienced abuse prior to losing stable housing. Pre-homeless social support appears to protect against street homelessness while low levels of social support may increase the risk for becoming homeless immediately after

  1. Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was…

  2. 24 CFR 576.103 - Homelessness prevention component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Homelessness prevention component... and Eligible Activities § 576.103 Homelessness prevention component. ESG funds may be used to provide... paragraph (1) of the “homeless” definition in § 576.2. This assistance, referred to as...

  3. 24 CFR 576.103 - Homelessness prevention component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Homelessness prevention component... and Eligible Activities § 576.103 Homelessness prevention component. ESG funds may be used to provide... paragraph (1) of the “homeless” definition in § 576.2. This assistance, referred to as...

  4. 24 CFR 576.103 - Homelessness prevention component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Homelessness prevention component... and Eligible Activities § 576.103 Homelessness prevention component. ESG funds may be used to provide... paragraph (1) of the “homeless” definition in § 576.2. This assistance, referred to as...

  5. United States Interagency Council on Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... for USICH Agency Reports Contact Us Ending Family Homelessness Leveraging Mainstream Resources Families experiencing homelessness need a ... to open map → United States Interagency Council ON HOMELESSNESS The U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness leads the ...

  6. HIV-related risk behaviors and seropositivity among homeless drug-abusing women in Miami, Florida.

    PubMed

    Metsch, L R; McCoy, C B; McCoy, H V; Shultz, J M; Lai, S; Weatherby, N L; McAnany, H; Correa, R; Anwyl, R S

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the multifaceted interactions among homelessness, HIV, substance abuse, and gender. Data were collected on 1,366 chronic drug users using a nationally standardized validated instrument within the Miami CARES project of a multisite federally funded program. HIV testing accompanied by pretest and posttest counseling was conducted on-site by certified phlebotomists and counselors. In addition to descriptive analyses and corresponding tests of significance, logistic regression analyses were used to clarify the complex associations between the outcome variables of homelessness and HIV, recognizing difficulties of determining temporal sequence. HIV infection was found to be 2.35 times more prevalent among homeless women than homeless men and significantly higher for homeless women. The findings indicate that among women, homelessness and HIV have a highly interactive effect increasing the vulnerability of this population and thus rendering them an extremely important priority population on which to focus public health efforts and programs. PMID:8788698

  7. Muscle power and physical activity are associated with bone strength in older men: The osteoporotic fractures in men study

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Julie M.; Petit, Moira A.; Paudel, Misti L.; Taylor, Brent C.; Hughes, Julie M.; Cauley, Jane A.; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to explore whether physical activity score, leg power or grip strength were associated with tibia and radius estimates of bone strength, cortical density, or total bone area. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to compare tibial and radial bone volumetric density (vBMD, mg/cm3), total (ToA, mm2) and cortical (CoA, mm2) bone area, and estimates of bone compressive strength (bone strength index, BSI) and bending strength (polar strength strain index, SSIp) in a subset (n=1171) of men (≥ 65 years) who participated in the multi-site Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire (PASE), leg power by Nottingham Power Rig, and grip strength by a hand-held Dynamometer. Participants were categorized into quartiles of PASE, grip strength or leg power. The model was adjusted for age, race, clinic, weight, and limb length. In the tibia, BSI (+7%) and SSIp (+4%) were highest in the most active physically quartile compared to the least active (p<0.05). At the 4% site of the tibia, men with the greatest leg power had both greater ToA (+5%, p<0.001) and BSI (+5.3%, p=0.086) compared to men with the least leg power. At the 66% site of the tibia, the men with the highest leg power, compared to the men with the lowest leg power, had greater ToA (+3%, p=0.045) SSIp (+5%, p=0.008). Similar results were found at both the distal and midshaft of the radius. The findings of this study suggest the importance of maintaining levels of physical activity and muscle strength in older men to prevent bone fragility. PMID:20466088

  8. Recognizing the Needs of the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Joseph B.

    This paper summarizes reports and research on the homeless in the United States, presents findings of a survey of Red Cross chapters on services to the homeless, and describes programs for the homeless of selected Red Cross chapters. Section 1 discusses definitions of homelessness and methodologies used to count homeless people. The homeless are…

  9. For Homeless Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... families find and sustain permanent housing. How It Works Through public housing authorities, HUD provides rental assistance ... might remain homeless without this assistance. How It Works Through referrals and direct outreach, nonprofit agencies and ...

  10. Circulating aminopeptidase activities in men and women with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Agesta Ortega, R; Arias de Saavedra-Alías, J M; Liébana-Cañada, A; Sánchez-Muñoz, B; Martínez-Martos, J M; Ramírez-Expósito, M J

    2013-01-01

    Essential hypertension is one of the major contributors to premature morbidity and mortality due to the incresased risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, renal disease, peripheral vascular disease and vascular dementia for both men and women. However, its basic causes remain unknown. In the present work we studied the activity of several proteolytic regulatory enzymes related to renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) (aminopeptidase A, APA; aminopeptidase N, APN; aminopeptidase B, APB; and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, IRAP); with oxytocin regulation (oxytocinase); with the metabolism of GnRH and TRH (pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase, Pcp); and with enkephalins metabolism (enkephalindegrading activity, EDA), to elucidate their role in the mechanisms responsible of essential hypertension and to discuss the possible gender differences. Serum samples of 53 individuals with essential hypertension and 60 healthy volunteers were collected and used to assay enzyme activities, gonad hormones testosterone and estradiol, TSH and free thyroxin (fT4). Differences were observed in APA, APN, Pcp and EDA specific activities, and in serum gonad hormone levels between hypertensive and control groups. Only Pcp activity showed gender differences. Regarding the RAS, APA is reduced while APN is increased, suggesting increased levels of angiotensin II and a facilitation of the conversion of angiotensin III in angiotensin IV. Thus, the changes in several RAS-regulating specific activities and other enzyme activities involved in the neuroendocrine modulation of gonad and stress-related functions are related to essential hypertension with minor gender differences. Therefore, aminopeptidases constitute new elements for the knowledge of the causes of essential hypertension and an alternative as therapeutic targets against the illness.

  11. National Coalition for Homeless Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate 1 2 3 4 NCHV will end homelessness among veterans by shaping public policy, promoting collaboration, ... providers. CFC #50917 You have helped reduce veteran homelessness by 70% since 2005. SITE SEARCH Search HEADLINES ...

  12. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home National Center on Family Homelessness Center A staggering 2.5 million children are ... raise awareness of the current state of child homelessness in the United States, documents the number of ...

  13. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia.

  14. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the…

  15. Homelessness: From the Clients' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Edwina L.

    Although homelessness is not a new phenomenon, the number of homeless people today has fostered mobilization on their behalf by public and private sectors. Principal factors accepted as contributing to homelessness are inadequate low-cost housing, unemployment, chemical dependency, family violence, and inadequate community services for the…

  16. Natural killer cell activity in elderly men is enhanced by beta-carotene supplementation.

    PubMed

    Santos, M S; Meydani, S N; Leka, L; Wu, D; Fotouhi, N; Meydani, M; Hennekens, C H; Gaziano, J M

    1996-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell activity has been postulated to be an immunologic link between beta-carotene and cancer prevention. In a cross-sectional, placebo-controlled, double-blind study we examined the effect of 10-12 y of beta-carotene supplementation (50 mg on alternate days) on NK cell activity in 59 (38 middle-aged men, 51-64 y; 21 elderly men, 65-86 y) Boston area participants in the Physicians' Health Study. No significant difference was seen in NK cell activity due to beta-carotene supplementation in the middle-aged group. The elderly men had significantly lower NK cell activity than the middle-aged men; however, there was no age-associated difference in NK cell activity in men supplemented with beta-carotene. beta-carotene-supplemented elderly men had significantly greater NK cell activity than elderly men receiving placebo. The reason for this is unknown; however, it was not due to an increase in the percentage of NK cells, nor to an increase in interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor expression, nor to IL-2 production. beta-carotene may be acting directly on one or more of the lytic stages of NK cell cytotoxicity, or on NK cell activity-enhancing cytokines other than IL-2, such as IL-12. Our results show that long-term beta-carotene supplementation enhances NK cell activity in elderly men, which may be beneficial for viral and tumoral surveillance.

  17. Hepatitis A/B vaccine completion among homeless adults with history of incarceration.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Marlow, Elizabeth; Branson, Catherine; Marfisee, Mary; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination rates for incarcerated adults remain low despite their high risk for infection. This study determined predictors of vaccine completion in homeless adults (N= 297) who reported histories of incarceration and who participated in one of three nurse-led hepatitis programs of different intensity. Moreover time since release from incarceration was also considered. Just over half of the former prisoners completed the vaccine series. Older age (≥40), having a partner, and chronic homelessness were associated with vaccine completion. Recent research has documented the difficulty in providing vaccine services to younger homeless persons and homeless males at risk for HBV. Additional strategies are needed to achieve HBV vaccination completion rates greater than 50% for formerly incarcerated homeless men.

  18. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18-23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65-88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men's mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  19. Beyond ‘MSM’: Sexual Desire Among Bisexually-Active Latino Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Latino male bisexuality has been studied for the most part with a focus on men who have sex with men (MSM) and with little attention to sexual desire. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive understanding of how sexual desire is organized, enacted through sexual activity, and interpreted in the sexual lives of bisexually-active Latino men. To achieve this aim, an analysis was made of 18 sexual histories of bisexually active Latino men who participated in a two-year ethnographic study. Four configurations of sexual desire were constructed to reflect what was found in this population of bisexually-active Latino men: (a) lifetime homoerotic desire and casual sex with women; (b) lifetime heteroerotic desire, but commercial sex with men; (c) lifetime heteroerotic/transgender desire; (d) lifetime sexual desire for women and men. These configurations are explored in detail in this article. The analysis presented here is intended to offer insights into the overall study of Latino male bisexuality and into the foundations for the design of HIV and STI prevention programs directed toward bisexually-active Latino men and their partners. PMID:26412977

  20. Community environments shaping transactional sex among sexually active men in Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Elfstrom, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of sex for material goods or money, is a risky sexual behavior that has been linked to HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, transactional sex remains a common practice, putting men and women at risk of HIV. However, little is known of how community environments shape men's participation in risky transactional sex. This analysis examines community-level influences on participation in risky transactional sex among sexually active men in three African countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Nigeria). The analysis uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to examine the association between men's report of risky transactional sex and community characteristics including economic, gender norms, HIV behavior and knowledge, and demographic factors. The results show that men residing in communities with more female education and later age of first birth are less likely to report risky transactional sex, while men who live in communities where men report higher number of sexual partners are more likely to report risky transactional sex. While programmatic interventions should continue to improve women's status individually and relative to men, such efforts should be extended to recognize that many community and cultural influences also affect men's sexual behavior. Programs that understand, discuss, and challenge community factors that influence men's sexual behavior may be able to provide a more effective intervention resulting in opportunities for communities to initiate behavioral change.

  1. Community environments shaping transactional sex among sexually active men in Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Elfstrom, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of sex for material goods or money, is a risky sexual behavior that has been linked to HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, transactional sex remains a common practice, putting men and women at risk of HIV. However, little is known of how community environments shape men's participation in risky transactional sex. This analysis examines community-level influences on participation in risky transactional sex among sexually active men in three African countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Nigeria). The analysis uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to examine the association between men's report of risky transactional sex and community characteristics including economic, gender norms, HIV behavior and knowledge, and demographic factors. The results show that men residing in communities with more female education and later age of first birth are less likely to report risky transactional sex, while men who live in communities where men report higher number of sexual partners are more likely to report risky transactional sex. While programmatic interventions should continue to improve women's status individually and relative to men, such efforts should be extended to recognize that many community and cultural influences also affect men's sexual behavior. Programs that understand, discuss, and challenge community factors that influence men's sexual behavior may be able to provide a more effective intervention resulting in opportunities for communities to initiate behavioral change. PMID:23215551

  2. Jobs, Welfare and Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einbinder, Susan; And Others

    This report provides objective information about the relationship of poverty, welfare, and homelessness to California's regional economy and about the design of programs that help people in poverty build working lives. California does not have enough jobs for its workforce, and welfare caseloads are consequently determined by the economy. The…

  3. Readings in Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matuszowicz, Peter F.

    Researchers have documented links between a number of behavioral issues and homelessness, including the following: limited/no social networks; social isolation; proneness of victimization; history of emotional, physical, sexual, and substance abuse; lack of education; and anxiety resulting from inadequate physical space. The possible benefits of…

  4. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  5. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  6. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women.

  7. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18–23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65–88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men’s mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  8. The Neighborhood Context of Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Pollio, David E.; North, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined and compared the changing neighborhood characteristics of a group of homeless adults over time. Methods. We collected the addresses of previous housing and sleep locations from a longitudinal study of 400 homeless adults in the St. Louis, Missouri, region and compared census measures of housing and economic opportunities at different points along individual pathways from housing to homelessness and at 1- and 2-year follow-up interviews. Results. Sleep locations of homeless adults were much more concentrated in the urban core at baseline than were their previous housed and follow-up locations. These core areas had higher poverty, unemployment, and rent-to-income ratios and lower median incomes. Conclusions. The spatial concentration of homeless adults in areas with fewer opportunities and more economic and housing distress may present additional barriers to regaining stable housing and employment. A big-picture spatial and time-course viewpoint is critical for both policymakers and future homelessness researchers. PMID:23409889

  9. Management of chronic kidney disease and dialysis in homeless persons

    PubMed Central

    Podymow, Tiina; Turnbull, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    End-stage renal disease and dialysis are complicated illnesses to manage in homeless persons, who often suffer medical comorbidities, psychiatric disease, cognitive impairment and addictions; descriptions of this population and management strategies are lacking. A retrospective review of dialysis patients who were homeless or unstably housed was undertaken at an urban academic Canadian center from 2001 to 2011. Electronic hospital records were analyzed for demographic, housing, medical, and psychiatric history, dialysis history, adherence to treatment, and outcomes. Two detailed cases of homeless patients with chronic kidney disease are presented. Eleven homeless dialysis patients with a mean age of 52.7±12.3 years, mostly men and mostly from minority groups were dialyzed for 41.1±29.2 months. Most resided permanently in shelters, eventually obtained fistula access, and were adherent to dialysis schedules. Patients were often nonadherent to pre-dialysis management, resulting in emergency starts. Many barriers to care for homeless persons with end-stage kidney disease and on dialysis are identified, and management strategies are highlighted. Adherence is optimized with shelter-based health care and intensive team-oriented case management. PMID:25018988

  10. Victimization and traumatic injuries among the homeless: associations with alcohol, drug, and mental problems.

    PubMed

    Padgett, D K; Struening, E L

    1992-10-01

    Data from a 1987 survey of 1,260 homeless adults in New York City show that mental problems and substance dependence were significantly linked to beating and sexual assault among women and to several types of injury and victimization among men. The extremely high rates of victimization and injury underscore a need for greater attention to the safety and welfare of homeless people. PMID:1443061

  11. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  12. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  13. An Analysis of Homeless Veterans Participating in the Homeless Veteran Reintegration Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Katrina Lanelle

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis on ex post facto data of the federal grant supported Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program (HVRP) administered at Goodwill Industries of Lower South Carolina. Pre-existing data on variables such as performance goals, training activities, support services, and demographics from program years…

  14. Pastoral care and counseling with the "un-homeless homeless": understanding cultures of homelessness.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a subset of findings from a larger study exploring the lived experiences of 16 former residents of a 90-day emergency family shelter program in Los Angeles County. Interpretative phenomenological analysis serves as a qualitative method for understanding the cultural uniqueness of the "un-homeless homeless." The findings offer implications for culturally competent pastoral care and counseling in the context of family homelessness and attend to both the process and content of caregiving.

  15. Childhood risk factors for homelessness among homeless adults.

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, P; Melamid, E; Burnam, m A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This effort used data from the Course of Homelessness study and comparative secondary data on the general population to identify negative childhood and family background experiences that may increase risk for adult homelessness. METHODS. Frequencies of negative childhood experiences were examined among a probability sample of 1563 homeless adults. Differences in risk for such experiences were calculated by sex, age cohort, and racial/ethnicity status. Where possible, rates of negative childhood experiences among the homeless were compared with the general population. RESULTS. Substantial numbers of this sample experienced multiple problems as children across several domains: poverty, residential instability, and family problems. Women and Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of personal or family problems; non-Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of personal or family problems; non-Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of poverty. Homeless adults were at increased risk of childhood out-of-home placement, tenure in public housing, and homelessness, but not at greater risk for physical abuse. Women appeared to be at greater risk for sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS. The problems that homeless individuals experience as adults have very clear analogs in their childhoods. Vulnerability to homelessness stems from factors unevenly distributed across age, sex, and race/ethnicity groups. PMID:7503338

  16. Effects of exercise and conditioning on clotting and fibrinolytic activity in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Earl W.; Bernier, Lani L.; Banta, Guy R.; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Schoomaker, Eric B.

    1987-01-01

    Blood clotting and fibrinolytic activity in three groups of nonsmoking, nonobese, healthy men ranging from 19 to 59 years are studied. The groups consisted of (1) marathoners (men running more than 50 miles/week); (2) joggers (men running 5-15 miles/week; and (3) sedentary subjects (men who did not exercise routinely). It is observed that the rate of blood clotting is accelerated by exercise; marathoners had greater increases in fibrinolytic activity than the other two groups; and fibrin degradation products increased with exercise. The data reveal that the changes in clotting assays with exercise do not correlate with changes in whole blood lactate, blood pyruvate, or rectal temperatures. It is noted that the level of acceleration for fibrinolytic activity is directly related to the maximum aerobic capacity and work load of the individual, and that conditioning enhances the fibrinolytic response to exercise.

  17. Pregnancy and Mental Health of Young Homeless Women

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Devan M.; Trotter, Emily C.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy rates among women in the U.S. who are homeless are much higher than rates among women who are housed (Greene & Ringwalt, 1998). Yet little research has addressed mental health, risk and resilience among young mothers who are homeless. This study utilizes a sample of women from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Homeless Adolescents (MLSHA) to investigate pregnancy and motherhood over three years among unaccompanied homeless young mothers. Our data are supplemented by in-depth interviews with a subset of these women. Results show that almost half of sexually active young women (n = 222, µ age = 17.2) had been pregnant at baseline (46.4%), and among the longitudinal subsample of 171 women (µ age = 17.2), almost 70.0% had been pregnant by the end of the study. Among young mothers who are homeless, only half reported that they helped to care for their children consistently over time, and one-fifth of the women reported never seeing their children. Of the young women with children in their care at the last interview of the study (Wave 13), almost one-third met criteria for lifetime major depressive episode (MDE), lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and lifetime drug abuse, and one-half met criteria for lifetime antisocial personality disorder (APD). Twelve-month diagnoses are also reported. The impacts of homelessness on maternal and child outcomes are discussed, including the implications for practice, policy, and research. PMID:21486259

  18. Perceived Reasons, Incentives, and Barriers to Physical Activity in Swedish Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge about factors influencing physical activity behavior is needed in order to tailor physical activity interventions to the individual. Objective The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceived reasons, barriers, and incentives to increased physical activity, as well as preferable activities, among elderly men in Sweden. Methods In total, 150 men aged 50-86 years responded to a Web-based questionnaire. Men who reported that they exercised sometimes or often received questions about reasons for physical activity (n=104), while men who reported that they never or seldom exercised received questions about barriers (n=46). Results The most frequent perceived reason for being physically active was health (82%), followed by enjoyment (45%), and a desire to lose/maintain weight (27%). Lack of interest/motivation was identified as the primary perceived barrier (17%). Incentives for increasing the level of activity included becoming more motivated and having a training partner. Walking was the most preferred activity. Conclusions Enjoyment and maintaining a good health were important reasons for engaging in physical activity among Swedish elderly men. PMID:25488655

  19. Patient Activation in Type 2 Diabetes: Does It Differ between Men and Women?

    PubMed Central

    van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aim was to investigate whether the degree of patient activation of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is different between men and women. Furthermore, we investigated which factors are associated with patient activation in men and women. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1615 patients with T2D from general practices. Patient activation was measured with the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between gender and patient activation. Stratified analyses according to gender were performed to investigate which factors are associated with patient activation. Results. No association between gender and PAM score was found after adjustment for all selected confounders (p = 0.094). In men, lower age (p = 0.001), a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.001), and a lower BMI (p = 0.013) were associated with a higher PAM score. In women, a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.017) and the absence of macrovascular complications (p < 0.031) were associated with a higher PAM score. Conclusion. There is no difference in the degree of patient activation of men and women with T2D. Age, well-being, and BMI were found to be associated with patient activation in men, whereas well-being and macrovascular complications were found to be associated with patient activation in women.

  20. Patient Activation in Type 2 Diabetes: Does It Differ between Men and Women?

    PubMed Central

    van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aim was to investigate whether the degree of patient activation of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is different between men and women. Furthermore, we investigated which factors are associated with patient activation in men and women. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1615 patients with T2D from general practices. Patient activation was measured with the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between gender and patient activation. Stratified analyses according to gender were performed to investigate which factors are associated with patient activation. Results. No association between gender and PAM score was found after adjustment for all selected confounders (p = 0.094). In men, lower age (p = 0.001), a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.001), and a lower BMI (p = 0.013) were associated with a higher PAM score. In women, a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.017) and the absence of macrovascular complications (p < 0.031) were associated with a higher PAM score. Conclusion. There is no difference in the degree of patient activation of men and women with T2D. Age, well-being, and BMI were found to be associated with patient activation in men, whereas well-being and macrovascular complications were found to be associated with patient activation in women. PMID:27656658

  1. Homeless Students: A Search for Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Donna Friedman

    1998-01-01

    Describes a qualitative research project examining homelessness's effects on children's schooling, highlighting a South Carolina intervention program's success. Research disclosed an informal homelessness "caste system," the political unpopularity of providing homeless services, homeless kids' high rates of academic failure and problem behaviors,…

  2. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  3. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  4. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  5. Predictors of Homelessness among Street Living Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were…

  6. Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Nan

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

  7. Understanding the Homeless: From Research to Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Donald; Grigsby, Charles

    A study was conducted to examine the homeless population of Austin, Texas and to determine who the homeless were, how they became homeless, how they saw themselves and others, what their needs were, and how they were being served by agencies. Survey data were collected from 500 homeless persons. This document summarizes findings from 3 years of…

  8. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  9. The Homeless in Contemporary Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Richard D.; And Others

    This book consists of 15 chapters on understanding and helping the homeless. The first seven chapters present the "new" homeless in historical context and describe this population and its situation. The remaining eight chapters discuss policy and program options of the government and other organizations in attempting to alleviate the problems of…

  10. Social Supports among the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solarz, Andrea

    The homeless have long been considered a disaffiliated and socially isolated group. Research has indicated that most of the homeless are single and have no family relationships or friends to provide support. A study was conducted to gather information on both objective and subjective measures of social support from 125 individuals residing at a…

  11. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914

  12. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.

  13. Seroprevalence of HIV-1 infection in a cohort of homosexually active men.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, A J; Christofinis, G; Coxon, A P; Davies, P M; McManus, T J; Sutherland, S; Weatherburn, P

    1990-01-01

    A non-clinic cohort of 525 homosexually active men from London and South Wales were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. A sample of blood was tested for HIV-1 antibodies. Seropositivity in London was 9.2% compared with 3.4% in South Wales. Men who were not regular STD clinic attenders had a lower rate of seropositivity than did those who were regular attenders. Men who were seropositive reported more sexual partners with whom they had anal intercourse and also reported more episodes of syphilis. Overall, rates of seropositivity were lower than those reported by studies from STD clinics. PMID:2265839

  14. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, Diana; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Barrera, Natalibeth; Vaamonde-Lemos, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. The present study was undertaken to assess possible semen and hormone differences among physically active (PA) subjects and sedentary subjects (SE). The analyzed qualitative sperm parameters were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology; where needed, additional testing was performed. The measured hormones were: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and the ratio between T and C (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption was also assessed to check for differences in fitness level. Statistically significant differences were found for several semen parameters such as total progressive motility (PA: 60.94 ± 5.03; SE: 56.07 ± 4.55) and morphology (PA: 15.54 ± 1.38, SE: 14.40 ± 1.15). The seminological values observed were supported by differences in hormones, with FSH, LH, and T being higher in PA than in SE (5.68 ± 2.51 vs. 3.14 ± 1.84; 5.95 ± 1.11 vs. 5.08 ± 0.98; 7.68 ± 0.77 vs. 6.49 ± 0.80, respectively). Likewise, the T/C ratio, index of anabolic versus catabolic status, was also higher in PA (0.46 ± 0.11 vs. 0.32 ± 0.07), which further supports the possibility of an improved hormonal environment. The present study shows that there are differences in semen and hormone values of physically active subjects and sedentary subjects. Physically active subjects seem to have a more anabolic hormonal environment and a healthier semen production.

  15. Effects of therapeutic goal management (TGM) on treatment attendance and drug abstinence among men with co-occurring substance use and axis I mental disorders who are homeless: results of the Birmingham EARTH program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study describes the implementation and impact of Therapeutic Goal Management (TGM) in a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)-sponsored demonstration project entitled Enhanced Addiction Recovery through Housing (EARTH). Participants The sample included 28 male participants followed at six months who completed some treatment. Forty-three percent were Caucasian, and 57% were African American. The average age of participants was 42 years. Design The relationships between TGM goal achievement, treatment attendance, and drug abstinence outcomes were studied among EARTH program participants who were homeless and met criteria for co-occurring substance use and severe DSM-IV Axis I mental disorders. Results The results revealed an overall drug abstinence rate of 72.4% over six months and significant positive relationships between TGM goal achievement and drug abstinence (r = 0.693) and TGM goal achievement and treatment attendance (r = 0.843). Conclusions This research demonstrated the relationship and potential positive impact of systematically setting, monitoring, and reinforcing personalized goals in multiple life areas on drug abstinence and treatment attendance outcomes among persons who are homeless with co-occurring substance use and other Axis I disorders in a integrated community service delivery program. PMID:24499617

  16. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Chrzczanowicz, Jacek; Kostka, Joanna; Nowak, Dariusz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD) aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Methods. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH) tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC85%HRmax). Results. CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37 ± 0.28 versus 1.27 ± 0.23 mmol FeCl2·L−1; P < 0.05) but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA). Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass) and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC85%HRmax/kg. Those associations were not found in healthy men. Conclusions. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations. PMID:26451234

  17. Relation between vertical facial morphology and jaw muscle activity in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Graziano; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Antinori, Marco; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to quantitatively analyze the relation between the activity of masticatory muscles and the inclination of the mandibular plane in a group of 73 healthy white men aged 20-36 years. The three-dimensional coordinates of soft-tissue landmarks gnathion and left and right gonion were digitized using an electromagnetic computerized instrument, the orientation of mandibular plane relative to the true vertical was computed and projected on the anatomical sagittal plane. The electromyographic (EMG) potentials of left and right masseter and temporalis anterior during maximum voluntary teeth clenching were recorded, and the mean EMG amplitude calculated. Two groups of men with opposite facial morphology were then selected: all men with a steep mandibular plane (higher than the mean plus one standard deviation) entered a first group (10 'long face' subjects), while all men with a relatively more horizontal mandibular plane (lower than the mean minus one standard deviation) entered a second group (13 'short face' subjects). Mean EMG potentials computed in the two groups were compared by using Student's t -test for independent samples. All the EMG potentials recorded during maximum voluntary clench in the 'long face' men were lower than that recorded in the 'short face' men, with statistically significant differences for all four analyzed muscles (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a non-invasive three-dimensional method confirmed that facial morphology and muscular function are significantly related, at least in men with a sound stomatognathic apparatus.

  18. Against the Unchallenged Discourse of Homelessness: Examining the Views of Early Childhood Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated views about children experiencing homelessness held by preservice teachers in an early childhood education program. Thirteen early childhood preservice teachers were actively involved in class discussion, reading, doing class assignments, and visiting homeless shelters as community-based field experience. They were asked to…

  19. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Businelle, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were…

  20. Meeting the Needs of Homeless Children Who Live in Temporary Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Deborah

    This study investigated the strengths homeless children exhibit. Homeless children living in shelters and children of the same peer group living in low income housing were interviewed about home activities, interests, abilities, talents, character strengths, autonomous behavior, and interactions with adults. All children were selected from first,…

  1. Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population.

    PubMed

    Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (P<0.001), but not in HP; B-Pb levels in women (34.8microg/l) did not differ from those of HP men (36.5microg/l), but were significantly (P<0.001) higher than those of GP women (25.8microg/l). B-Pb levels were not influenced by smoking. B-Cd levels in the homeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (P<0.001) influenced by smoking in both groups, but, surprisingly, the values in GP smokers (men=0.96microg/l, women=0.93microg/l) were lower than those in HP nonsmokers (men=1.06microg/l, women=1.18microg/l). A positive correlation was found between cadmium and lead in both men (P<0.05) and women (P<0.01). Our results indicate that the homeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a

  2. HIV Serosorting, Status Disclosure, and Strategic Positioning Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have identified harm reduction strategies that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) use to reduce HIV transmission--including serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning. We report on patterns of these behaviors among 376 highly sexually active (i.e., 9+partners, <90 days) GBMSM: mean age of 37, 49.5% men of color, 87.8% gay identified, 57.5% college educated. We found evidence that many men engaged in serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning; however, rates varied based on the participant's HIV status. HIV-positive and HIV-negative men both engaged in sex with men of similar status more often than they engaged in sex with men known to be a different HIV status (i.e., serosorting). However, HIV-negative men disclosed their HIV-status with about half of their partners, whereas HIV-positive participants disclosed with only about one-third. With regard to strategic positioning, HIV-positive participants were the receptive partner about half the time with their HIV-negative partners and with their HIV-positive partners. In contrast, strategic positioning was very common among HIV-negative participants-they rarely bottomed with HIV-positive partners, bottomed about one-third of the time with status-unknown partners, and 42% of the time (on average) with HIV-negative partners. Highly sexually active GBMSM are a critical population in which to both investigate HIV prevention strategies as well as develop effective intervention programs. Providers and clinicians might be well served to include a wide range of behavioral harm reduction strategies in addition to condom use and biomedical approaches to reduce onward HIV transmission.

  3. Variability in HOMA-IR, lipoprotein profile and selected hormones in young active men.

    PubMed

    Keska, Anna; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18-23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake.

  4. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  5. An inexpensive, interdisciplinary, methodology to conduct an impact study of homeless persons on hospital based services.

    PubMed

    Parker, R David; Regier, Michael; Brown, Zachary; Davis, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Homelessness is a primary concern for community health. Scientific literature on homelessness is wide ranging and diverse. One opportunity to add to existing literature is the development and testing of affordable, easily implemented methods for measuring the impact of homeless on the healthcare system. Such methodological approaches rely on the strengths in a multidisciplinary approach, including providers, both healthcare and homeless services and applied clinical researchers. This paper is a proof of concept for a methodology which is easily adaptable nationwide, given the mandated implementation of homeless management information systems in the United States and other countries; medical billing systems by hospitals; and research methods of researchers. Adaptation is independent of geographic region, budget restraints, specific agency skill sets, and many other factors that impact the application of a consistent methodological science based approach to assess and address homelessness. We conducted a secondary data analysis merging data from homeless utilization and hospital case based data. These data detailed care utilization among homeless persons in a small, Appalachian city in the United States. In our sample of 269 persons who received at least one hospital based service and one homeless service between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013, the total billed costs were $5,979,463 with 10 people costing more than one-third ($1,957,469) of the total. Those persons were primarily men, living in an emergency shelter, with pre-existing disabling conditions. We theorize that targeted services, including Housing First, would be an effective intervention. This is proposed in a future study.

  6. Wellbeing for homeless people: a Salutogenic approach.

    PubMed

    Dunleavy, Andrew; Kennedy, Lynne Alexandra; Vaandrager, Lenneke

    2014-03-01

    Homelessness affects considerable numbers in the UK and is caused by poverty and social exclusion. Much of the literature on housing and health is disease centric, where the experience of homelessness is described as traumatic, disempowering and socially isolating. Based on the Salutogenic approach, which calls for a positive orientation on health, the aim of this study was to explore the subjective lived experiences of wellbeing in the situated context of homeless people's lives. Nine in-depth qualitative interviews with temporarily housed adults (>25 years) in a socio-economically deprived region of North-west England were held. Accounts of renewed self-confidence, perceived resourcefulness and continual personal participation are said to be supporting wellbeing. A strong belief, or sense of coherence, in internal and external general resistance resources was a critical enabling factor for those living in temporary accommodation. Wellbeing was consistently linked with both social and formal activities; keeping occupied and having a strong sense of purpose were essential to wellbeing. In utilizing a Salutogenic approach we demonstrate how the 'context and meaning' of health actions can improve the understanding about the kinds of factors influencing wellbeing.

  7. Self-identified health concerns of two homeless groups.

    PubMed

    Kinzel, D

    1991-04-01

    A number of conclusions can be drawn from the themes derived from the interview data. First, even though the most basic physical needs, such as food, clothing, and shelter were being met, a recurring theme from the responses of the homeless was the need for interaction with a caring person. The feeling that no one cares, a lack of self-worth, and a sense of limited control over their lives may lead to depression, hopelessness, and finally illness. The extent and effectiveness of health-seeking behaviors among this group are limited because of decreased trust, decreased motivation for self-care, and isolation from social and health care systems. Second, if health needs are to be met, services must be provided in sites where they can be accessed by the homeless. For transients, health care services may be provided most effectively through the shelters. For the SRO residents, these services could be provided through a combination of clinics in hotel lobbies and visits to rooms. Third, developing trust with the homeless includes meeting their self-perceived basic needs. What may seem like nonnursing activities, such as fixing a meal, may be important in establishing rapport with SRO residents. If a nurse assists a homeless person to meet survival needs, that person may be more willing to deal with health issues. Fourth, the population is highly heterogeneous. Each subgroup has its own identity. Most SRO residents do not want to be identified with street people, even through a portion of them move between street life and SRO life. Health care professionals need to recognize these differences, accept the life-style of each subgroup, and respect each homeless person as a unique individual. Finally, caring is the primary element necessary in providing nursing services to the homeless. Awareness and understanding of the homeless way of life will increase nurses' effectiveness in working with this ever growing population. PMID:2048311

  8. Getting on Track: Physical Activity and Healthy Eating for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... online physical activity and nutrition trackers for this purpose. See the "Additional Resources" section at the end ... Information Strategic Plans & Reports Advisory & Coordinating Committees Research Areas Jobs at NIDDK FAQs Visit Us News NIDDK ...

  9. Overdose Deaths Among Homeless Persons

    MedlinePlus

    ... of them involving opioids—are now the biggest killer among homeless people in the Boston area. Drug ... Cancer and heart disease were the next biggest killers (at around 16 percent each); HIV =accounted for ...

  10. Homelessness and health in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haldenby, Amy M; Berman, Helene; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2007-11-01

    Despite an abundance of resources, many of the world's wealthiest nations have a large homeless population. People at all stages of development are affected by this problem, but adolescents who are homeless face a unique set of challenges. In this critical narrative study the authors examined the experiences of homeless adolescents with particular attention to the role of gender and public policy, health experiences and perceptions, and barriers to health care services. Six girls and 7 boys participated in semistructured dialogic interviews. Their stories revealed that living without a home had a substantial impact on their health and wellness. The findings from this study support the need for health care professionals to work in collaboration with homeless youth so that more effective care that is sensitive to their unique health needs can be provided.

  11. Shifting patterns of everyday activity in early dementia: experiences of men and their families.

    PubMed

    Phinney, Alison; Dahlke, Sherry; Purves, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    In this article we draw from a larger study to examine experiences of two men and their families as they negotiate changing patterns of everyday activity in the months after receiving a diagnosis of dementia. We conducted in-depth interpretive phenomenological analysis of interview and observational data that were gathered from the men and various members of their families (n = 7) over a period several months. Findings are presented as three themes: The best kind of man (highlighting participants' historical positioning); It's a little different now (recognizing challenges posed by the dementia); and You have to do something (showing how the men and their families responded to and accommodated these challenges). We discuss these findings in terms of how everyday activity is not only important for supporting personhood in dementia, but it also contributes to sustaining family identity, and does so in a way that is deeply influenced by gender and masculinity.

  12. Leisure Activities, Worker Motivation, and Temperament in Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, W. E.

    As a follow-up to studies by McKechnie (1974) and Marano (1976), the relation of self-report questionnaire measures of worker motivation and temperament to similar measures of participation in leisure activities was explored. One sample of 72 college students was given worker motivation and temperament questionnaires. A second sample of 126…

  13. Homeless, Not Hopeless. An Informational Guide for School Personnel: Understanding and Educating Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Elli; Stauffer, Carol

    This guide explains how to educate homeless students within the public schools, focusing on the Saint Paul, Minnesota, public schools. Section 1 defines homelessness. Section 2 presents data on the increasing numbers of homeless students in the area. Section 3 describes common problems faced by homeless students, including family mobility,…

  14. Homeless in God's Country: Coping Strategies and Felt Experiences of the Rural Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Timothy; DeJong, Cornell

    2010-01-01

    This study examines coping behaviors and felt experiences of homeless adults in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Data from in-depth interviews with 55 homeless adults reveal 5 general coping pattern groups: shelter users, campers, couch hoppers, mixed users, and circumstantial homeless. Homeless adults within each group experienced similar levels of…

  15. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases. PMID:19735195

  16. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  17. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis.

  18. Lifetime Substance Use and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Predict Treatment Response to Contingency Management among Homeless, Substance-dependent MSM

    PubMed Central

    Reback, Cathy J; Peck, James A; Fletcher, Jesse B.; Nuno, Miriam; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri

    2016-01-01

    Homeless, substance-dependent MSM continue to suffer health disparities, including high rates of HIV. One-hundred and thirty one homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (MSM) were randomized into a contingency management (CM) intervention to increase substance abstinence and health-promoting behaviors. Participants were recruited from a community-based, health education/risk reduction HIV prevention program and the research activities were also conducted at the community site. Secondary analyses were conducted to identify and characterize treatment responders (defined as participants in a contingency management intervention who scored at or above the median on three primary outcomes). Treatment responders were more likely to be Caucasian/white (p < .05); reported fewer years of lifetime methamphetamine, cocaine, and polysubstance use (p ≤ .05); and reported more recent sexual partners and high-risk sexual behaviors than non-responders (p < .05). The application of evidence-based interventions continues to be a public health priority, especially in the effort to implement effective interventions for use in community settings. The identification of both treatment responders and non-responders is important for intervention development tailored to specific populations, both in service programs and research studies, to optimize outcomes among highly impacted populations. PMID:22880545

  19. Lifetime substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors predict treatment response to contingency management among homeless, substance-dependent MSM.

    PubMed

    Reback, Cathy J; Peck, James A; Fletcher, Jesse B; Nuno, Miriam; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to suffer health disparities, including high rates of HIV. One-hundred and thirty one homeless, substance-dependent MSM were randomized into a contingency management (CM) intervention to increase substance abstinence and health-promoting behaviors. Participants were recruited from a community-based, health education/risk reduction HIV prevention program and the research activities were also conducted at the community site. Secondary analyses were conducted to identify and characterize treatment responders (defined as participants in a contingency management intervention who scored at or above the median on three primary outcomes). Treatment responders were more likely to be Caucasian/White (p < .05), report fewer years of lifetime methamphetamine, cocaine, and polysubstance use (p < or = .05), and report more recent sexual partners and high-risk sexual behaviors than nonresponders (p < .05). The application of evidence-based interventions continues to be a public health priority, especially in the effort to implement effective interventions for use in community settings. The identification of both treatment responders and nonresponders is important for intervention development tailored to specific populations, both in service programs and research studies, to optimize outcomes among highly impacted populations.

  20. Long-term and chronic homelessness in homeless women and women with children.

    PubMed

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Tam, Tammy; Bradley, Kimberly

    2010-09-01

    The Chronic Homelessness initiative has directed millions of federal dollars to services for single "unaccompanied homeless" individuals, specifically excluding women living with their children. Using a data set with a nationally representative sample of homeless adults, we calculated the prevalence rates and profiles of long-term homelessness in homeless women (n = 849). With the exception of the criterion of being a single "unaccompanied individual," many women, including women with children, met the criteria for chronic homelessness including having a disability of mental health or substance abuse problems. Our findings suggest that the federal definition of chronic homelessness needs to be revised.

  1. Rest/Activity Rhythms and Mortality Rates in Older Men: MrOS Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Misti L.; Taylor, Brent C.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L.; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2010-01-01

    Background An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Methods Study population consisted of 2964 men aged 67 and older enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness) and alpha (peak-to-trough width). Results After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (Hazard ratio [HR]=1.57, 95%CI, 1.03–2.39) compared with men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR=2.32, 95%CI, 1.04–5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR=2.84, 95%CI, 1.29–6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta and risk of mortality. Conclusions Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing, have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:20370475

  2. Rest/activity rhythms and mortality rates in older men: MrOS Sleep Study.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent C; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2010-01-01

    An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Our study population consisted of 2964 men aged > or = 67 yrs of age enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness), and alpha (peak-to-trough width). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.03-2.39) than men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR = 2.32, 95% CI, 1.04-5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.29-6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta, and mortality risk. Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:20370475

  3. Optimal Scaling of HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors in Ethnically Diverse Homosexually Active Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used homogeneity analysis and latent class analysis to analyze sexual behavior patterns in two samples of homosexually active men. Results support the existence of a single, nonlinear, latent dimension underlying male homosexual behaviors consistent with HIV-related risk taking, providing an efficient means to scale sexual behavior patterns. (RJM)

  4. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most recent Australian Health survey identified that young men (18-24yrs) have numerous health concerns including: 42% overweight/obese, 48% not meeting national physical activity recommendations and 97% failing to consume adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables. There is a lack of engagement a...

  5. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  6. A time for men to pull together. A manifesto for the new politics of masculinity.

    PubMed

    Kimbrell, A

    1991-01-01

    This work asserts that men as a gender are being physically and psychically devastated by the prevailing socioeconomic system. American society empowers a small percentage of men, but it causes confusion and anxiety for the majority. Men are beginning to realize that they cannot properly relate to each other or understand exploitation until they understand the extent and nature of their dispossession by economic and political institutions. The oppression of men is mirrored in the growing incidence of male self-destruction, addiction, homelessness, and hopelessness. With the advent of industrialization, millions of men who had found fulfillment in husbandry of family, community, and land were forced into an industrial system whose ultimate goal was to turn man against man in the competitive system of modern society. The traditional male role was replaced with a new image of men as autonomous, efficient, self-interested, and disconnected from nature and community. As men become more and more powerless in their own lives, they are fed more and more media images of excessive, caricatured masculinity with which to identify. It is imperative that the increasing sense of personal liberation fostered by the men's movement be channeled into political action. A brief political platform for men would include actions centered on the family and children, protection of the environment, increasing male presence in classrooms and community activities involving children, health prevention, and dismantling the military-industrial establishment. A network of activists should be established to support the men's political agenda.

  7. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed. PMID:27398045

  8. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women’s participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women’s risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women’s health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed. PMID:27398045

  9. Designing normative messages about active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Robert J.; Kinsman, Gianna T.; Le, Yen-Chi L.; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. We examined the acceptability of normative messages about AS as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N=331). They rated messages about AS for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message “you don’t have to panic…you have time to think about your options” was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by over 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the AS protocol and “knowing in plenty of time” if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For AS to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an AS protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011

  10. Housing outcomes for homeless adults with mental illness: results from the second-round McKinney program.

    PubMed

    Shern, D L; Felton, C J; Hough, R L; Lehman, A F; Goldfinger, S; Valencia, E; Dennis, D; Straw, R; Wood, P A

    1997-02-01

    In the early 1990s the National Institute of Mental Health sponsored projects in four cities that served a total of 896 homeless mentally ill adults. Each project tested the effectiveness of different housing, support, and rehabilitative services in reducing homelessness. Most homeless individuals resided in community housing after the intervention. The proportion in community housing varied between sites. A 47.5 percent increase in community housing was found for those in active treatment conditions. At final follow-up, 78 percent of participants in community housing were stably housed. The findings indicate that effective strategies are available for serving homeless individuals with severe mental illness. PMID:9021858

  11. Urbanisation and sexual health: understanding bisexually active men in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Peter; Reddel, Siobhan; Pham, Hanh Van; Dang, Khoat Van; Hellard, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam are receiving increased attention in recognition of their high-risk behaviours and potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and transmission. Due to societal pressures, many MSM in Vietnam are also bisexually active, which ultimately increases the transmission risks beyond the MSM population. Evidence is emerging that indicates a greater proportion of women in Asia with low-risk sexual activities are contracting HIV from their male partners who have become HIV infected through male–male sex. Methodology: Fourteen focus group discussions exploring sexual and social networks were conducted in Hanoi between July 2010 and September 2010. A total of 96 individuals participated in these sessions. Findings: A risk environment approach was used to analyse the focus group themes of social stigma and marriage, sex with other men in closed settings and transactional sex in Hanoi, an increasingly urbanising and westernising city. Implications: Despite limited evidence globally that bisexual men act as a bridge for sexually transmitted diseases, there is particular concern in Vietnam about this potential risk. HIV rates amongst MSM are rapidly rising and there are reports of women contracting HIV from their male partners who are bisexually active. PMID:25750805

  12. Men, muscles, and body image: comparisons of competitive bodybuilders, weight trainers, and athletically active controls

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, T; Lewis, R; Cash, T; Pope, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate body image and psychosocial adjustment among competitive bodybuilders, non-competitive weight trainers, and athletically active men. Methods: Participants were 40 men in each of the three groups who were assessed on body composition and multiple facets of body image evaluation, investment and anxiety, eating attitudes, and social self esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups were more satisfied with their upper torso and muscle tone. Competitive bodybuilders reported more mid torso satisfaction than the other two groups. Competitive bodybuilders also wished to be significantly heavier than controls did and reported higher social self esteem but greater eating disturbance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that competitive bodybuilders as a group are not more "muscle dysmorphic" than either non-competitive weight trainers or physically active men who do not train with weights. PMID:15793091

  13. Physical Activity among Somali Men in Minnesota: Barriers, Facilitators and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Ahmed A.; Hassan, Abdullahi M.; Weis, Jennifer A.; Sia, Irene G.; Wieland, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Immigrants and refugees arrive to the US healthier than the general population, but this advantage declines with increasing duration of residence. One factor contributing to this decline is sub-optimal physical activity, but reasons for this are poorly understood. Persons from Somalia represent the largest African refugee population to the United States, yet little is known about perceptions of physical activity among Somali men. Somali members of a community-based participatory research partnership implemented three age-stratified focus groups and three semi-structured interviews among 20 Somali men in Rochester, MN. Team-based inductive analysis generated themes for barriers and facilitators to physical activity. Barriers to physical activity included less walking opportunities in the US, embarrassment about exercise clothing and lack of familiarity with exercise equipment/modalities, fear of harassment, competing priorities, facility costs, transportation, and winter weather. Facilitators to physical activity included high knowledge about how to be active, success stories from others in their community as inspiration, and community cohesion. Findings may be used to derive interventions aimed to promote physical activity among Somali men in the US. PMID:23697961

  14. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J. A.; Thompson, G. G.; Goldberg, A.; Barry, P. S. I.; Lowe, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Millar, J. A., Thompson, G. G., Goldberg, A., Barry, P. S. I., and Lowe, E. H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 317-320. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls. The activity of erythrocyte ALA1-dehydrase is inhibited in vivo at blood lead (Pb2+) levels within the upper range of normal (20-40 μg/100 ml) and in vitro at lead concentrations greater than 10-7 M. In view of the high sensitivity of the enzyme to Pb2+, the levels of enzyme activity in the blood of men occupationally exposed to lead alkyls, particularly tetraethyllead, were measured. It was found that the enzyme activity in an exposed group of men was significantly less (P<0·001) than in a control group, the respective mean values being 220 and 677 units of enzyme activity. Tetraethyllead is metabolized in the body via triethyllead and diethyllead ions. As the latter compound possesses properties similar to Pb2+, it was synthesized in the laboratory and its effect on ALA-dehydrase was studied. Diethyllead ion was found to inhibit ALA-dehydrase activity at concentrations greater than 5 x 10-5 M, although the degree of inhibition was less than that obtained with Pb2+. These results suggest that exposure to tetraethyllead can cause a decrease in erythrocyte ALA-dehydrase activity. PMID:5044603

  15. Physical activity among Somali men in Minnesota: barriers, facilitators, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Hassan, Abdullahi M; Weis, Jennifer A; Sia, Irene G; Wieland, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    Immigrants and refugees arrive to the United States healthier than the general population, but this advantage declines with increasing duration of residence. One factor contributing to this decline is suboptimal physical activity, but reasons for this are poorly understood. Persons from Somalia represent the largest African refugee population to the United States, yet little is known about perceptions of physical activity among Somali men. Somali members of a community-based participatory research partnership implemented three age-stratified focus groups and three semistructured interviews among 20 Somali men in Rochester, Minnesota. Team-based inductive analysis generated themes for barriers and facilitators to physical activity. Barriers to physical activity included less walking opportunities in the United States, embarrassment about exercise clothing and lack of familiarity with exercise equipment/modalities, fear of harassment, competing priorities, facility costs, transportation, and winter weather. Facilitators to physical activity included high knowledge about how to be active, success stories from others in their community as inspiration, and community cohesion. Findings may be used to derive interventions aimed to promote physical activity among Somali men in the United States.

  16. Homelessness and Its Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart-Shegos, Ellen

    Homelessness influences every facet of children's lives, inhibiting their physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Homeless women face such obstacles to healthy pregnancies as chemical abuse, chronic health problems, and lack of prenatal care. Homeless infants are more likely to have low birth weights and are at greater…

  17. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  18. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  19. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  20. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  1. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  2. Report on Homeless Families in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luongo, Gerardine M.; Zoller, Mary

    This report provides policymakers and advocates with information about the problems homeless families face and outlines short- and long-term solutions. Initial sections provide facts on homelessness in Virginia, an introduction, and an overview. Subsequent sections explore: (1) identification of the homeless and their characteristics; (2) causes…

  3. Escaping Homelessness: Anticipated and Perceived Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Allisha; Tweed, Roger

    2009-01-01

    One study with two distinct sections was conducted to identify factors facilitating escape from homelessness. In Section 1, 58 homeless individuals rated possible facilitators of escape (factors they believed would help them become more independent and self-sufficient). In Section 2, 80 participants who had already exited homelessness rated the…

  4. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  5. Negative Cultural Capital and Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which homeless young people find a sense of self-worth and dignity within the conditions of youth homelessness. It notes that, while homeless young people seek a space where they do not feel marginalised and can attain a form of social status and cultural competence, they also engage in practices and acts of…

  6. The Invisible Homeless: A New Urban Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropers, Richard H.

    Contemporary homelessness is the result of increasing social and economic inequality faced by those in American society who are most vulnerable to individual, family, and economic instability. This case study of the homeless population of Los Angeles (California), based on two surveys conducted in 1984, views the homeless as a segment of the…

  7. Physical activity as a protective factor for development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in men

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Carla Giuliano de Sá; Marega, Marcio; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; Carmona, Felipe Gambetta; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo Felix; Ceschini, Fabio Luis; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Figueira, Aylton José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of physical activity on the prevalence of fatty liver, metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adult men. Methods This study evaluated 1,399 men (40.7±8.18 years) with body mass index of 26.7kg/m2 (±3.4) who participated in the Protocol of Preventive Health Check-up at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from January to October 2011. We conducted tests of serum blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, reactive c-protein, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The statistical analysis comprised in the comparison of mean and standard deviation. The analysis of variance was based in two paths of two way ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Wald test and χ2. We considered a significance level at p<0.05 and correlation of univariate Poison with 95% confidence interval. Results :Fatty liver was diagnosed in 37.0% of the sample. Triglyceride levels of active men with fatty liver were 148.2±77.6mg/dL while inactive men with fatty liver had 173.4±15.6mg/dL. The remaining serum levels were normal. Inactive individuals showed higher values than active. In addition, inactive individuals have 10.68 times higher risk of developing fatty liver compared with active. Conclusion Physical activity improves metabolic parameters such as triglycerides, weight control, HDL, which interfere in the development of fatty liver. Physically active individuals had lower fatty liver prevalence regardless of values of body composition and lipid profile, leading the conclusion that physical activity has a protective role against development of fatty liver. PMID:25993066

  8. Prevalence of HIV infection and the correlates among homeless in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    zadeh, Abbas Ostad Taghi; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Hassanzad, Farshad Fakhimi; Hajizadeh, Mehdi; Mohamadi, SeyedNajmeddin; Emamzadeh-Fard, Sahra; Paydary, Koosha; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among homeless men and women and the related risk behaviors in Tehran, Iran. Methods In 2007-2008, Tehran municipality stacked up 10 657 homeless men and women for assessment of HIV and began collaboration with Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA) departments to conduct HIV infection prevalence surveys in homeless populations. The results were analyzed for associations with demographic information, family support, status of drug abuse and relation with family and friends. Results Overall HIV prevalence was 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.4-1.9). Factors independently associated with HIV infection included history of using drugs [AOR 8.15 (4.86-13.67)], older age [AOR 1.80 (1.08-2.99) for 40- 55 yr], occupation [AOR 1.64 (1.19-2.24) for unemployed], and no relation with family [AOR 1.82 (1.30-2.54)]. Conclusions This study supports the idea that injection drug use is contributing to the increased spread of HIV among Iranian homeless. Harm reduction programs should be expanded, particularly among homeless injection drug users. PMID:24144133

  9. Leisure-time physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and feelings of hopelessness in men

    PubMed Central

    Valtonen, Maarit; Laaksonen, David E; Laukkanen, Jari; Tolmunen, Tommi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Viinamäki, Heimo; Kauhanen, Jussi; Lakka, Timo; Niskanen, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Background Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness contribute to mental health. Hopelessness has been linked to impaired mental health, cardiovascular events and mortality. Previous studies have focused on physical exercise and depression. We examined the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with feelings of hopelessness. Methods In this cross-sectional study leisure-time physical activity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), hopelessness and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in a population-based cohort of 2428 men aged 42 – 60 years old at baseline. Results Men feeling more hopeless about their future and reaching goals were less physically active, less fit and had a higher prevalence of many cardiovascular risk factors than men with lower levels of hopelessness. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic status, men engaging in less than 60 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous LTPA were 37% (95% CI 11 – 67%) more likely to feel hopeless than those engaging in at least 2.5 h/wk of LTPA. After further adjusting for elevated depressive symptoms the association of LTPA and hopelessness remained significant. VO2max was also associated with hopelessness, but not after adjustment for depressive symptoms. Conclusion Moderate and vigorous LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness were inversely associated with hopelessness in these middle-aged men. These findings suggest that physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an important associate of hopelessness, a distinct element of low subjective well-being. PMID:19555509

  10. The impact of homelessness prevention programs on homelessness.

    PubMed

    Evans, William N; Sullivan, James X; Wallskog, Melanie

    2016-08-12

    Despite the prevalence of temporary financial assistance programs for those facing imminent homelessness, there is little evidence of their impact. Using data from Chicago from 2010 to 2012 (n = 4448), we demonstrate that the volatile nature of funding availability leads to good-as-random variation in the allocation of resources to individuals seeking assistance. To estimate impacts, we compare families that call when funds are available with those who call when they are not. We find that those calling when funding is available are 76% less likely to enter a homeless shelter. The per-person cost of averting homelessness through financial assistance is estimated as $10,300 and would be much less with better targeting of benefits to lower-income callers. The estimated benefits, not including many health benefits, exceed $20,000. PMID:27516600

  11. The impact of homelessness prevention programs on homelessness.

    PubMed

    Evans, William N; Sullivan, James X; Wallskog, Melanie

    2016-08-12

    Despite the prevalence of temporary financial assistance programs for those facing imminent homelessness, there is little evidence of their impact. Using data from Chicago from 2010 to 2012 (n = 4448), we demonstrate that the volatile nature of funding availability leads to good-as-random variation in the allocation of resources to individuals seeking assistance. To estimate impacts, we compare families that call when funds are available with those who call when they are not. We find that those calling when funding is available are 76% less likely to enter a homeless shelter. The per-person cost of averting homelessness through financial assistance is estimated as $10,300 and would be much less with better targeting of benefits to lower-income callers. The estimated benefits, not including many health benefits, exceed $20,000.

  12. 24 CFR 91.205 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Homeless needs. The plan must provide a concise summary of the nature and extent of homelessness (including rural homelessness and chronically homeless persons), addressing separately the need for facilities and...) who are currently housed but threatened with homelessness. The plan also must contain a...

  13. 24 CFR 91.305 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Persons who are homeless or at risk of homelessness. (1) The plan must describe, in a form prescribed by HUD, the nature and extent of homelessness, including rural homelessness, within the state. (i) The... youth), the number of persons experiencing homelessness on a given night, the number of persons...

  14. 24 CFR 91.305 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the nature and extent of homelessness (including rural homelessness and chronically homeless... currently housed but threatened with homelessness. The plan also must contain a brief narrative description of the nature and extent of homelessness by racial and ethnic group, to the extent information...

  15. 24 CFR 91.205 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... homeless or at risk of homelessness. (1) The plan must describe, in a form prescribed by HUD, the nature and extent of unsheltered and sheltered homelessness, including rural homelessness, within the... youth), the number of persons experiencing homelessness on a given night, the number of persons...

  16. 24 CFR 91.305 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Persons who are homeless or at risk of homelessness. (1) The plan must describe, in a form prescribed by HUD, the nature and extent of homelessness, including rural homelessness, within the state. (i) The... youth), the number of persons experiencing homelessness on a given night, the number of persons...

  17. 24 CFR 91.305 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Persons who are homeless or at risk of homelessness. (1) The plan must describe, in a form prescribed by HUD, the nature and extent of homelessness, including rural homelessness, within the state. (i) The... youth), the number of persons experiencing homelessness on a given night, the number of persons...

  18. 24 CFR 91.205 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... homeless or at risk of homelessness. (1) The plan must describe, in a form prescribed by HUD, the nature and extent of unsheltered and sheltered homelessness, including rural homelessness, within the... youth), the number of persons experiencing homelessness on a given night, the number of persons...

  19. 24 CFR 91.205 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... homeless or at risk of homelessness. (1) The plan must describe, in a form prescribed by HUD, the nature and extent of unsheltered and sheltered homelessness, including rural homelessness, within the... youth), the number of persons experiencing homelessness on a given night, the number of persons...

  20. 24 CFR 91.305 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the nature and extent of homelessness (including rural homelessness and chronically homeless... currently housed but threatened with homelessness. The plan also must contain a brief narrative description of the nature and extent of homelessness by racial and ethnic group, to the extent information...

  1. 24 CFR 91.205 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Homeless needs. The plan must provide a concise summary of the nature and extent of homelessness (including rural homelessness and chronically homeless persons), addressing separately the need for facilities and...) who are currently housed but threatened with homelessness. The plan also must contain a...

  2. Where Do You Go from Nowhere: Homelessness in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health and Welfare Council of Central Maryland, Inc., Baltimore.

    This report assesses the extent of homelessness in Maryland. Data are provided in the following areas: (1) the number of homeless people; (2) causes of homelessness; (3) distribution of the homeless and characteristics of those sheltered; (4) shelter beds available; (5) what is needed to address the problems of homelessness; (6) the extent of the…

  3. Homelessness as culture: How transcultural nursing theory can assist caring for the homeless.

    PubMed

    Law, Kate; John, William

    2012-11-01

    The concepts of culture and homelessness are both complex and contested. This paper examines homelessness through the lens of transcultural nursing theory, increasing understanding of both homelessness and transcultural theory. We argue that homelessness can be usefully conceptualised as a culture and that the application of transcultural theory to caring for homeless people will add further to the utility of these theories. The application of transcultural theory can add to the repertoire of skills the nurse needs to care for not only homeless clients, but, for a diverse range of client groups.

  4. Physical activity of men from Wroclaw compared with their discretionary income

    PubMed Central

    Puciato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This paper attempted to determine the relationship between physical activity of men from Wrocław and their discretionary income. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 1,601 male survey respondents aged from 18 to 65 years old. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for the assessment of physical activity. [Results] Among respondents, low intensity physical activity was predominant. The level of physical activity of the respondents increased with their discretionary income. Statistically significant differences were observed between activities of low and high intensity and total activities in Wrocław. [Conclusion] Discretionary income seems to be better predictor of physical activity than gross income, however, this should be verified in future research. PMID:27799711

  5. HIV-Positive Men Sexually Active with Women: Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Risks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gunjeong; Howard, Joyce Moon; Caban, Maria; Abramson, David; Messeri, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study examines patterns of sexual behavior, sexual relating, and sexual risk among HIV-positive men sexually active with women. A total of 278 HIV-positive men were interviewed every 6–12 months between 1994 and 2002 and reported considerable variability in sexual behaviors over time. Many were not sexually active at all for months at a time; many continued to have multiple female and at times male partners. Over one-third of the cohort had one or more periods when they had engaged in unprotected sex with a female partner who was HIV-negative or status unknown (unsafe sex). Periods of unsafe sex alternated with periods of safer sex. Contextual factors such as partner relations, housing status, active drug use, and recently exchanging sex showed the strongest association with increased odds of unsafe sex. A number of predictors of unsafe sex among African American men were not significant among the Latino sub-population, suggesting race/ethnic differences in factors contributing to heterosexual transmission. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:16770702

  6. Skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing and activity of men sledging in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Budd, G. M.

    1966-01-01

    1. Three men were studied while dog-sledging 320 km in 12 days in Antarctica. Conventional Antarctic clothing (`sweaters and windproofs') was worn. Four hundred observations were made of medial thigh skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing, activity and environmental conditions. 2. Work occupied an average of 11·0 hr/day and sleep 7·5 hr. Estimated daily energy expenditure averaged 5100 kcal (range 2740-6660 kcal). 3. Skin temperature fell on exposure to cold despite the clothing worn, but was not changed by the level of activity. Sweating, and thermal comfort, were directly related to both skin temperature and activity. 4. Inside the tent, the modal value of skin temperature was 33° C (range 27-36° C) and the men were comfortable in 94% of observations. 5. During the 9·2 hr/day spent outdoors the modal value of skin temperature was 27° C (range 18-33° C) and the men felt too cold (but did not shiver) in 11% (range 7-20%) of observations, suggesting that cold stress was not negligible. However, they also felt too hot in 20% of observations and were sweating in 23%. PMID:5914254

  7. Restoring Akt1 activity in outgrowth endothelial cells from South Asian men rescues vascular reparative potential.

    PubMed

    Cubbon, Richard M; Yuldasheva, Nadira Y; Viswambharan, Hema; Mercer, Ben N; Baliga, Vivek; Stephen, Sam L; Askham, Jonathan; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Skromna, Anna; Mughal, Romana S; Walker, Andrew M N; Bruns, Alexander; Bailey, Marc A; Galloway, Stacey; Imrie, Helen; Gage, Matthew C; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Li, Jing; Porter, Karen E; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Beech, David J; Kearney, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Recent data suggest reduced indices of vascular repair in South Asian men, a group at increased risk of cardiovascular events. Outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC) represent an attractive tool to study vascular repair in humans and may offer potential in cell-based repair therapies. We aimed to define and manipulate potential mechanisms of impaired vascular repair in South Asian (SA) men. In vitro and in vivo assays of vascular repair and angiogenesis were performed using OEC derived from SA men and matched European controls, prior defining potentially causal molecular mechanisms. SA OEC exhibited impaired colony formation, migration, and in vitro angiogenesis, associated with decreased expression of the proangiogenic molecules Akt1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Transfusion of European OEC into immunodeficient mice after wire-induced femoral artery injury augmented re-endothelialization, in contrast with SA OEC and vehicle; SA OEC also failed to promote angiogenesis after induction of hind limb ischemia. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 (E17KAkt), but not green fluorescent protein control, in SA OEC increased in vitro angiogenesis, which was abrogated by a NOS antagonist. Moreover, E17KAkt expressing SA OEC promoted re-endothelialization of wire-injured femoral arteries, and perfusion recovery of ischemic limbs, to a magnitude comparable with nonmanipulated European OEC. Silencing Akt1 in European OEC recapitulated the functional deficits noted in SA OEC. Reduced signaling via the Akt/eNOS axis is causally linked with impaired OEC-mediated vascular repair in South Asian men. These data prove the principle of rescuing marked reparative dysfunction in OEC derived from these men.

  8. Elderly Homeless Veterans in Los Angeles: Chronicity and Precipitants of Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; McGuire, James

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the characteristics of chronically homeless and acutely homeless elderly veterans to better understand precipitants of homelessness. Methods. We conducted interviews with 33 chronically and 26 acutely homeless veterans aged 65 years and older receiving transitional housing services in Los Angeles, California, between 2003 and 2005. We asked questions regarding their sociodemographic characteristics and other social status measures. Other precipitants of homelessness were acquired via observation and open-ended and structured questions. Results. Both veterans groups were more similar than different, with substantial levels of physical, psychiatric, and social impairment. They differed significantly in homelessness history, with chronically homeless veterans having more homelessness episodes and more total time homeless. They were also less educated and had smaller social networks. In response to open-ended questioning, elderly homeless veterans revealed how health and substance use issues interacted with loss of social support and eviction to exacerbate homelessness. Conclusions. Assessment of a range of factors is needed to address risk factors and events leading to homelessness. Further research with larger samples is needed to confirm the characteristics and needs of the elderly homeless veteran population. PMID:24148059

  9. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Trajković, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kostić, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. Methods A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80) men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance. PMID:23723694

  10. Service provision and barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems across 14 European capital cities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mental health problems are disproportionately higher amongst homeless people. Many barriers exist for homeless people with mental health problems in accessing treatment yet little research has been done on service provision and quality of care for this group. The aim of this paper is to assess current service provision and identify barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems in 14 European capital cities. Method Two methods of data collection were employed; (i) In two highly deprived areas in each of the 14 European capital cities, homeless-specific services providing mental health, social care or general health services were assessed. Data were obtained on service characteristics, staff and programmes provided. (ii) Semi-structured interviews were conducted in each area with experts in mental health care provision for homeless people in order to determine the barriers to care and ways to overcome them. Results Across the 14 capital cities, 111 homeless-specific services were assessed. Input from professionally qualified mental health staff was reported as low, as were levels of active outreach and case finding. Out-of-hours service provision appears inadequate and high levels of service exclusion criteria were evident. Prejudice in the services towards homeless people, a lack of co-ordination amongst services, and the difficulties homeless people face in obtaining health insurance were identified as major barriers to service provision. Conclusions While there is variability in service provision across European capital cities, the reported barriers to service accessibility are common. Homeless-specific services are more responsive to the initial needs of homeless people with mental health problems, while generic services tend to be more conducive to long term care. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of different service delivery models, including the most effective coordination of homeless specific and generic

  11. Homelessness: a problem for primary care?

    PubMed

    Riley, Anthony J; Harding, Geoffrey; Underwood, Martin R; Carter, Yvonne H

    2003-06-01

    Homelessness is a social problem that affects all facets of contemporary society. This paper discusses the concept of homelessness in terms of its historical context and the dominance of the pervasive 'victim blaming' ideologies, which, together with the worldwide economic changes that have contributed to a fiscal crisis of the state, and the resultant policies and circumstances, have led to an increase in the number of 'new homeless' people. This paper attempts to challenge the dominant political discourse on homelessness. The widespread healthcare problems and heterogeneity of homeless people have a particular impact on health services, with many homeless people inappropriately accessing local accident and emergency (A&E) departments because of barriers inhibiting adequate access to primary care. A number of primary care schemes have been successfully implemented to enable the homeless to have better access to appropriate care. However, there is no consistency in the level of services around the United Kingdom (UK), and innovations in service are not widespread and by their nature they are ad hoc. Despite the successes of such schemes, many homeless people still access health care inappropriately. Until homeless people are fully integrated into primary care the situation will not change. The question remains, how can appropriate access be established? A start can be made by building on some of the positive work that is already being done in primary care, but in reality general practitioners (GPs) will be 'swimming against the tide' unless a more integrated policy approach is adopted to tackle homelessness. PMID:12939894

  12. Gender, coping strategies, homelessness stressors, and income generation among homeless young adults in three cities.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-06-01

    This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population. PMID:25942470

  13. Gender, coping strategies, homelessness stressors, and income generation among homeless young adults in three cities.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-06-01

    This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population.

  14. The community reinforcement approach with homeless alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Meyers, R J; Delaney, H D

    1998-06-01

    Homeless alcohol-dependent individuals were randomly assigned to receive either a behavioral intervention (i.e., the Community Reinforcement Approach [CRA]) or the standard treatment (STD) at a large day shelter. Ninety-one men and 15 women participated. The majority of participants were White (64%), but both Hispanic (19%) and Native American (13%) individuals were represented as well. Overall, the decline in drinking levels from intake through follow-ups was significant. As predicted, CRA participants significantly outperformed STD group members on drinking measures across the 5 follow-ups, which ranged from 2 months to 1 year after intake. Both conditions showed marked improvement in employment and housing stability.

  15. Difficult Behaviors in the Emergency Department: A Cohort Study of Housed, Homeless and Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Background This study contrasted annual rates of difficult behaviours in emergency departments among cohorts of individuals who were homeless and low-income housed and examined predictors of these events. Methods Interviews in 1999 with men who were chronically homeless with drinking problems (CHDP) (n = 50), men from the general homeless population (GH) (n = 61), and men residing in low-income housing (LIH) (n = 58) were linked to catchment area emergency department records (n = 2817) from 1994 to 1999. Interview and hospital data were linked to measures of difficult behaviours. Results Among the CHDP group, annual rates of visits with difficult behaviours were 5.46; this was 13.4 (95% CI 10.3–16.5) and 14.3 (95% CI 11.2–17.3) times higher than the GH and LIH groups. Difficult behaviour incidents included physical violence, verbal abuse, uncooperativeness, drug seeking, difficult histories and security involvement. Difficult behaviours made up 57.54% (95% CI 55.43–59.65%), 24% (95% CI 19–29%), and 20% (95% CI 16–24%) of CHDP, GH and LIH visits. Among GH and LIH groups, 87% to 95% were never involved in verbal abuse or violence. Intoxication increased all difficult behaviours while decreasing drug seeking and leaving without being seen. Verbal abuse and violence were less likely among those housed, with odds ratios of 0.24 (0.08, 0.72) and 0.32 (0.15, 0.69), respectively. Conclusions Violence and difficult behaviours are much higher among chronically homeless men with drinking problems than general homeless and low-income housed populations. They are concentrated among subgroups of individuals. Intoxication is the strongest predictor of difficult behaviour incidents. PMID:25919015

  16. Youth Homelessness and Social Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.

    2007-01-01

    Building upon previous exploratory qualitative research (Kidd S.A. (2003) "Child Adol. Social Work J." 20(4):235-261), this paper examines the mental health implications of social stigma as it is experienced by homeless youth. Surveys conducted with 208 youths on the streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto revealed significant…

  17. Education Rights of Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Law Center, Inc., Newark, NJ.

    This document is designed to help New Jersey parents, guardians, and caregivers understand the legal concepts and procedures involved in disputes over the enrollment of homeless students in local public schools. It also informs them of their legal rights. The requirements of the McKinney Act and of the state regulations concerning the education of…

  18. Homeless--And Doubled Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    The bank foreclosed on your home because your parents divorced and don't have enough money to pay the mortgage. You're locked out of your house. Where will the family sleep? Most families turn to friends and relatives at times like these. That's why about 75 percent of the 1,258,182 homeless students in the United States live…

  19. HIV Infection and Homeless Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athey, Jean L.

    1991-01-01

    A literature review reveals that homeless adolescents are at extremely high risk for acquiring HIV infection. Sexual and drug use behaviors that put these adolescents at risk are described. New models of social, health, and mental health services for these youth are outlined. (GLR)

  20. Higher prevalence of smoking and lower BMI, waist circumference, cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels in Prague's homeless compared to a majority of the Czech population

    PubMed Central

    Kubisová, Dana; Adámková, Věra; Lánská, Věra; Dlouhý, Pavel; Rambousková, Jolana; Anděl, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Background Homeless people have higher morbidity and mortality rates than the general population. Research has shown that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in older homeless adults. This study was undertaken to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the homeless population in Prague. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2003. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerides (TAG) and smoking habits were assessed. The homeless participants in the study were recruited from a homeless center run by a Prague charitable organization called Naděje ("Hope") and at Prague's main railway station. Most participants were assessed at the Naděje center (134 persons) while the rest were assessed at Prague's Bulovka University Hospital (67 persons). Results A total of 201 homeless (174 males and 27 females) aged 19 – 70 years were examined. Mean values of BMI, WC, TC and TAG in homeless men and women were within normal limits. Compared with the majority of the Czech population, the homeless had significantly lower mean levels of TC and TAG and lower BMI and WC values. When compared to the majority of the Czech population, the incidence of smoking among the homeless was significantly higher. Among smokers in both populations, no differences were found in the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Conclusion Classical cardiovascular risk factors such as TC, TAG, BMI and WC, are significantly lower in Prague's homeless minority than in the majority of the Czech population. However, the prevalence of smoking is much higher in the homeless population. PMID:17411429

  1. Correlates of Serious Violent Crime for Recently Released Parolees With a History of Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Leake, Barbara; Marlow, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Hall, Elizabeth; Farabee, David; Faucette, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study used baseline data on recently-released homeless paroled men who are homeless (N = 157), residing in a residential drug treatment program, and enrolled in a longitudinal study to examine personal, developmental, and social correlates of parolees who are homeless and parolees who have committed serious violent offenses. Having experienced childhood sexual abuse, poor parental relationships, and early-onset incarceration (prior to 21 years of age) were important correlates of serious violent crimes. These findings highlight the need for interventions that address offenders’ prior adult and childhood victimization, and suggest that policies for reentering violent offenders should encompass an understanding of the broader family contexts in which these patterns of maltreatment often occur. PMID:23155727

  2. Correlates of Risky Alcohol and Methamphetamine Use among Currently Homeless Male Parolees

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Benissa E.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Keenan, Colleen; Zhang, Sheldon; Marlow, Elizabeth; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Yadav, Kartik; Faucette, Mark; Leake, Barbara; Marfisee, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Homeless men on parole are a hard-to-reach population with significant community reintegration challenges. This cross-sectional study describes socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial and drug-related correlates of alcohol and methamphetamine use in 157 homeless male parolees (age range 18–60) enrolled in a substance abuse treatment center in Los Angeles. Logistic regression results revealed that being African American and older were negatively related to methamphetamine use, while being older and more hostile were related to riskier alcohol abuse. Findings from this study provide a greater understanding of correlates of methamphetamine and alcohol- two of the most detrimental forms of substances abused among currently homeless parolees. PMID:24325770

  3. Does quadriceps neuromuscular activation capability explain walking speed in older men and women?

    PubMed

    Clark, David J; Reid, Kieran F; Patten, Carolynn; Phillips, Edward M; Ring, Sarah A; Wu, Samuel S; Fielding, Roger A

    2014-07-01

    Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that the capability to produce rapid neuromuscular activation during maximal effort leg muscle contractions will be shown to be an independent predictor of mobility function in older men and women after accounting for muscle size and adiposity, body composition and age. Twenty six older men and eighteen older women (aged 70-85years) participated in this study. Mobility function was assessed by the 400-m walk test. Neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle group was assessed by surface electromyography ("rate of EMG rise"). Thigh muscle cross sectional area and adiposity were assessed by computed tomography. In males, univariate regression analysis revealed strong associations between walking speed and a number of predictors including age (p<0.01), muscle area (p<0.01), intermuscular adipose tissue area (p<0.01), and rate of EMG rise (p<0.001). Subsequent multiple regression analysis with all variables accounted for 72% of the variability in walking speed (p<.0001), with age and rate of EMG rise as the dominant variables in the model. In females, univariate analysis showed a significant association only between walking speed and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis accounted for only 44% of the variability in walking speed, and was not statistically significant (p=0.18). The present findings indicate that the capability to rapidly activate the quadriceps muscle group is an important factor accounting for inter-individual variability of walking speed among older men, but not among older women. This research is important for informing the design of assessments and interventions that seek to detect and prevent impairments that contribute to age-related mobility

  4. Universal screening for homelessness and risk for homelessness in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Fargo, Jamison D; Byrne, Thomas H; Kane, Vincent R; Culhane, Dennis P

    2013-12-01

    We examined data for all veterans who completed the Veterans Health Administration's national homelessness screening instrument between October 1, 2012, and January 10, 2013. Among veterans who were not engaged with the US Department of Veterans Affairs homeless system and presented for primary care services, the prevalence of recent housing instability or homelessness was 0.9% and homelessness risk was 1.2%. Future research will refine outreach strategies, targeting of prevention resources, and development of novel interventions. PMID:24148032

  5. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men. PMID:24899517

  6. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men.

  7. Barebacking among men who have sex with men recruited through a Swedish website: associations with sexual activities at last sexual encounter.

    PubMed

    Berg, R C; Tikkanen, R; Ross, M W

    2013-01-01

    The research topic of barebacking emerged in the mid-1990s. Since then, a multitude of studies, largely from the United States, have produced invaluable knowledge of factors that help explain the behaviour among men who have sex with men (MSM), and that may contribute to HIV risk reduction programming and advice to counsellors working with barebackers. Given the scant empirical research about barebacking among European MSM, we conducted a survey among 3,634 MSM recruited through a web community in Nordic countries. The objectives of the study were twofold: to describe the sexual activities associated with barebacking behaviour at last sexual encounter, and to evaluate the relationship of barebacking with relevant variables. Men who reported barebacking (n=356) and men who did not (n=3,278) were compared. On the basis of the results of the analyses, the socio-sexual profile of barebackers drawn was one that is at increased risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections due to their sexual practices, particularly unprotected anal intercourse, but also group sex and rimming. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the likelihood of engaging in barebacking was higher for MSM who reported more frequent HIV testing (odds ratio (OR)=5.16), a higher number of female sex partners (OR=16.80), using gay cruising places (OR=1.51) and gay chat rooms (OR=2.11). PMID:23557973

  8. Associations between Accelerometer-derived Physical Activity and Regional Adiposity in Young Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H A; Storti, K L; Arena, VC; Kriska, A M; Gabriel, K K Pettee; Sutton-Tyrrell, K; Hames, K C; Conroy, M B

    2013-01-01

    Objective Empirical evidence supports an inverse relationship between physical activity (PA) and adiposity, but studies using detailed measures of both are scarce. We described the relationship between regional adiposity and accelerometer-derived PA in men and women. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis included 253 participants from a weight loss study limited to ages 20–45 years and BMI 25–39.9 kg/m2. PA data were collected with accelerometers and expressed as total accelerometer counts and average amount of time per day accumulated in different intensity levels (sedentary, light-, and moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA)). Accumulation of time spent above 100 counts was expressed as total active time. Computed tomography (CT) was used to measure abdominal and adipose tissue (AT). Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between regional adiposity (dependent variable) and the various PA levels (independent variable), and were executed separately for men and women, adjusting for wear time, age, race, education, and BMI. Results Among males light activity was inversely associated with total AT (β=−0.19; p=0.02) as well as visceral AT (VAT) (β=−0.30; p=0.03). Among females sedentary time was positively associated with VAT (β=0.11; p=0.04) and total active time was inversely associated with VAT (β=−0.12; p=0.04). Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that PA intensity level may influence regional adiposity differently in men and women. Additional research is needed in larger samples to clarify the difference in these associations by sex, create recommendations for the frequency, duration and intensity of PA needed to target fat deposits, and determine if these recommendations should differ by sex. PMID:23408709

  9. Finding Homeless Youth. Patterns Based on Geographical Area and Number of Homeless Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Andrea L.; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Batterham, Philip; May, Susanne; Brooks, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    A census of homeless youth was conducted in locations across Los Angeles County, California. Building on previous research that has focused on homeless youth in cruise areas, the authors examined demographic and behavioral differences between homeless youth in cruise and noncruise areas. Youth in cruise areas were more likely than youth in…

  10. Unaccompanied Homeless Youth: Intersections of Homelessness, School Experiences and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    School districts are faced with the challenge of how best to serve the needs of a growing homeless student population. As the numbers of homeless children and youth continue to rise, it is imperative for educators and others to understand the experiences of unaccompanied homeless youth. A qualitative research project was undertaken to obtain the…

  11. Homelessness Outcome Reporting Normative Framework: Systems-Level Evaluation of Progress in Ending Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austen, Tyrone; Pauly, Bernie

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a serious and growing issue. Evaluations of systemic-level changes are needed to determine progress in reducing or ending homelessness. The report card methodology is one means of systems-level assessment. Rather than solely establishing an enumeration, homelessness report cards can capture pertinent information about structural…

  12. Homelessness and Housing Insecurity Among Former Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    HERBERT, CLAIRE W.; MORENOFF, JEFFREY D.; HARDING, DAVID J.

    2016-01-01

    The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports. PMID:26913294

  13. Homeless, mentally ill and addicted: the need for abuse and trauma services.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Richard C; Hodgkins, Candace C; Garces, Lorrie K; Estlund, Kathleen L; Miller, M David; Touchton, Reginald

    2005-11-01

    This paper examines an empirical investigation of the lifetime prevalence of trauma (defined as sexual and/or physical abuse) in a cohort of adults enrolled in a federally funded initiative that provides treatment for homeless persons suffering the effects of comorbid substance use and serious mental illness, and considers the impact of this information on clinical programming. Data collected from homeless individuals with co-occurring disorders admitted to the Seeking Treatment and Recovery (STAR) Program during a one year period (n=78) were analyzed for a history of trauma events. Of those individuals evaluated, 79.5% (62/78) acknowledged a history of either physical and/or sexual abuse at some time in their lifetimes. Of this population, 100% of the homeless women (27/27) with co-occurring disorders had experienced a life-altering traumatic event while 68.6% (35/51) of the homeless men also reported trauma histories. We describe the trauma-based interventions made in the STAR Program that have the potential for replication in other initiatives committed to serving homeless individuals with co-occurring disorders. PMID:16311487

  14. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  15. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  16. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-06-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  17. 75 FR 22164 - Urban Non-Urban Homeless Female Veterans and Homeless Veterans With Families' Reintegration Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Veterans and Homeless Veterans With Families' Reintegration Into Employment AGENCY: Veterans' Employment... training, and skills training) to expedite the reintegration of homeless Veterans into the labor...

  18. Head injury and mortality in the homeless.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Thomas M; Laurie, Marie; Oddy, Michael; Menzies, Mark; Stewart, Elaine; Wainman-Lefley, Jessica

    2015-01-15

    Risk factors for head injury are also risk factors for becoming homeless but there is little research on this vulnerable group, who can be neglected by health services that specialize in acquired brain injury. This study investigates the prevalence of admissions to hospital with a head injury in the homeless and associations with later mortality. It compares homeless people with and without a record of hospitalized head injury (HHI) and the Glasgow population. Data were obtained from a U.K. National Health Service strategy to enhance care of the homeless. This included development and production of local registers of homeless people. In Glasgow, the initiative took place over a seven-year period (2004-2010) and comprised 40 general practitioner (family practice) services in the locality of 55 homeless hostels. The register was linked to hospital admissions with head injury recorded in Scottish Medical Records and to the General Register of Scotland, which records deaths. A total of 1590 homeless people was registered in general practitioner (family doctor) returns. The prevalence of admission to hospital with head injury in the homeless over a 30-year period (13.5%) was 5.4 times higher than in the Glasgow population. In the homeless with HHI, 33.6% died in the seven-year census period, compared with 13.9% in the homeless with no hospitalized HI (NHHI). The standardized mortality ratio for HHI (4.51) was more than twice that for NHHI (2.08). The standardized mortality ratio for HHI aged 15-34 (17.54) was particularly high. These findings suggest that HHI is common in the homeless relative to the general population and is a risk factor for late mortality in the homeless population. PMID:25010750

  19. Anticipation of monetary and social reward differently activates mesolimbic brain structures in men and women.

    PubMed

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Krach, Sören; Kohls, Gregor; Rademacher, Lena; Irmak, Arda; Konrad, Kerstin; Kircher, Tilo; Gründer, Gerhard

    2009-06-01

    Motivation for goal-directed behaviour largely depends on the expected value of the anticipated reward. The aim of the present study was to examine how different levels of reward value are coded in the brain for two common forms of human reward: money and social approval. To account for gender differences 16 male and 16 female participants performed an incentive delay task expecting to win either money or positive social feedback. fMRI recording during the anticipation phase revealed proportional activation of neural structures constituting the human reward system for increasing levels of reward, independent of incentive type. However, in men activation in the prospect of monetary rewards encompassed a wide network of mesolimbic brain regions compared to only limited activation for social rewards. In contrast, in women, anticipation of either incentive type activated identical brain regions. Our findings represent an important step towards a better understanding of motivated behaviour by taking into account individual differences in reward valuation. PMID:19174537

  20. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  1. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans.

  2. Effects of intranasal oxytocin and vasopressin on cooperative behavior and associated brain activity in men

    PubMed Central

    Rilling, James K.; DeMarco, Ashley C.; Hackett, Patrick D.; Thompson, Richmond; Ditzen, Beate; Patel, Rajan; Pagnoni, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The neural mechanisms supporting social bonds between adult men remain uncertain. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigate the impact of intranasally administered oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on behavior and brain activity among men in the context of an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game, which models a real-life social situation. fMRI results show that, relative to both AVP and placebo, OT increases the caudate nucleus response to reciprocated cooperation, which may augment the reward of reciprocated cooperation and/or facilitate learning that another person can be trusted. OT also enhances left amygdala activation in response to reciprocated cooperation. Behaviorally, OT was associated with increased rates of cooperation following unreciprocated cooperation in the previous round compared with AVP. AVP strongly increased cooperation in response to a cooperative gesture by the partner compared with both placebo and OT. In response to reciprocated cooperation, AVP increased activation in a region spanning known vasopressin circuitry implicated in affiliative behaviors in other species. Finally, both OT and AVP increase amygdala functional connectivity with the anterior insula relative to placebo, which may increase the amygdala’s ability to elicit visceral somatic markers that guide decision making. These findings extend our knowledge of the neural and behavioral effects of OT and AVP to the context of genuine social interactions. PMID:21840129

  3. C-reactive protein and cardiac vagal activity following resistance exercise training in young African-American and white men.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Kevin S; Jae, Sae Young; Vieira, Victoria J; Iwamoto, Gary A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2009-04-01

    African Americans have a greater prevalence of hypertension and diabetes compared with white Americans, and both autonomic dysregulation and inflammation have been implicated in the etiology of these disease states. The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiac autonomic and systemic inflammatory response to resistance training in young African-American and white men. Linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear (sample entropy) heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and postexercise heart rate recovery were used to assess cardiac vagal modulation. C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count were used as inflammatory markers. Twenty two white and 19 African-American men completed 6 wk of resistance training followed by 4 wk of exercise detraining (Post 2). Sample entropy, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and heart rate recovery were increased in white and African-American men following resistance training (P < 0.05). Following detraining (Post 2), sample entropy, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and heart rate recovery returned to baseline values in white men but remained above baseline in African-American men. While there were no changes in white blood cell count or CRP in white men, these inflammatory markers decreased in African-American men following resistance training, with reductions being maintained following detraining (P < 0.05). In conclusion, resistance training improves cardiac autonomic function and reduces inflammation in African-American men, and these adaptations remained after the cessation of training. Resistance training may be an important lifestyle modification for improving cardiac autonomic health and reducing inflammation in young African-American men.

  4. Plasma lactic dehydrogenase activities in men during bed rest with exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.

  5. Factors in Daily Physical Activity Related to Calcaneal Mineral Density in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Teresa M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Cleek, Tammy M.; Vogel, John M.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the factors in daily physical activity that influence the mineral density of the calcaneus, we recorded walking steps and the type and duration of exercise in 43 healthy 26-to 51-yr-old men. Areal (g/sq cm) calcaneal bone mineral density (CBMD) was measured by single energy x-ray densitometry. Subjects walked a mean (+/- SD) of 7902(+/-2534) steps per day or approximately 3.9(+/-1.2) miles daily. Eight subjects reported no exercise activities. The remaining 35 subjects spent 143(2-772) (median and range) min/wk exercising. Twenty-eight men engaged in exercise activities that generate single leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF(sub z)) of 2 or more body weights (high loaders, HL), and 15 reported exercise or daily activities that typically generate GRF(sub z) less than 1.5 body weights (low loaders, LL). CBMD was 12% higher in HL than LL (0.668 +/- 0.074 g/sq cm vs 0.597 +/- 0.062 g/sq cm, P less than 0.004). In the HL group, CBMD correlated to reported minutes of high load exercise (r = 0.41, P less than 0.03). CBMD was not related to the number of daily walking steps (N = 43, r = 0.03, NS). The results of this study support the concept that the dominant factor in daily physical activity relating to bone mineral density is the participation in site specific high loading activities, i.e., for the calcaneus, high calcaneal loads.

  6. Altered baseline brain activities before food intake in obese men: a resting state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Tian, Derun; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Jing; Tian, Xiao; von Deneen, Karen M; Zang, Yufeng; Walter, Martin; Liu, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity as a chronic disease has become a global epidemic. However, why obese individuals eat more still remains unclear. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have found abnormal brain activations in obese people. In the present study, we used resting state functional MRI to observe spontaneous blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations during both hunger and satiety states in 20 lean and 20 obese men. Using a regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis method, we measured temporal homogeneity of the regional BOLD signals. We found that, before food intake, obese men had significantly increased synchronicity of activity in the left putamen relative to lean men. Decreased synchronicity of activity was found in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial prefrontal cortex(MPFC) in the obese subjects. And, the ratings of hunger of the obese subjects were higher than those of the lean subjects before food intake. After food intake, we did not find the significant differences between the obese men and the lean men. In all participations, synchronicity of activity increased from the fasted to the satiated state in the OFC. The results indicated that OFC plays an important role in feeding behavior, and OFC signaling may be disordered in obesity. Obese men show less inhibitory control during fasting state. This study has provided strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is a hypo-functioning reward circuitry in obese individuals, in which the frontal cortex may fail to inhibit the striatum, and consequently lead to overeating and obesity. PMID:25459293

  7. Are childhood abuse and neglect related to age of first homelessness episode among currently homeless adults?

    PubMed

    Mar, Marissa Y; Linden, Isabelle A; Torchalla, Iris; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates 500 homeless adults and the associations between childhood maltreatment types and the age of first reported homelessness episode. Those first experiencing homelessness in youth (age 24 years or younger; 46%) were compared with those first experiencing homelessness at a later age (older than age 24 years). In individual models, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were associated with first experiencing homelessness during youth (p < .02 for all types of maltreatment). In the simultaneous model, only emotional abuse remained significantly associated (p = .002). In addition, increasing numbers of maltreatment were associated with becoming homeless during youth (p < .0001). These results highlight the unique associations between childhood maltreatment types and becoming homeless earlier in life and support the need for early interventions with at-risk families.

  8. Wasting malnutrition and inadequate nutrient intakes identified in a multiethnic homeless population.

    PubMed

    Wolgemuth, J C; Myers-Williams, C; Johnson, P; Henseler, C

    1992-07-01

    The few previous studies of the nutritional status and dietary intakes of the homeless have been limited by small sample sizes. We collected information from a multiethnic sample of 277 homeless men and women in Miami, Fla. Data collected included a brief personal history, anthropometric variables, and a detailed 24-hour dietary recall. An additional 24-hour dietary recall was collected from a subsample of 36 men. Socioeconomic characteristics of our sample were similar to that of other samples of the homeless. Using measurements of the upper arm muscle area, we identified wasting malnutrition in 20% of the men. Dietary intakes (percentage of the Recommended Dietary Allowances [RDAs] +/- standard error of the mean) for energy (82 +/- 2.88%), calcium (63 +/- 3.28%), zinc (56 +/- 2.61%), and vitamin B-6 (68 +/- 3.93%) were significantly below RDA guidelines for all ethnic groups. In addition, thiamin (75 +/- 6.34%) intakes for whites and vitamin A (61 +/- 12.53%) and riboflavin (74 +/- 7.72%) intakes for Hispanics were below RDA guidelines. Compared with men, women consumed significantly less energy, calcium, and zinc. PMID:1624652

  9. Fear and loathing in New England: examining the health-care perspectives of homeless people in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Little anthropological research has been conducted on the health care perspectives of homeless people in rural areas. The aim of the present study is to elicit health-care beliefs, and examine overall health experience among a sample of current or recently homeless people in rural New Hampshire. Thirteen qualitative interviews were conducted, 11 with single men. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Despite a massive burden of disease and illness, almost all participants reported an abiding aversion to doctors, hospitals and professional health care. Participants reported numerous negative encounters with doctors and health care professionals, often of a demeaning and disparaging nature. Participants noted that these encounters resulted in frequent cases of misdiagnosis and iatrogenesis. In contrast, participants spoke more fondly of other social and voluntary services, for example homeless organizations. Like other rural New Englanders, participants made their own individual efforts to maintain and promote health, for example by pursuing hobbies or prayer. The findings are contextualized within literature suggesting that these perspectives are generally shared by other poor rural people. Consistent with this literature, the findings suggest that homelessness in rural areas is often temporary and episodic. As such, this paper brings into question the distinctiveness and overall utility of the concept: 'the rural homeless'. The key determinant of negative attitudes to health care may not be recent homelessness. It may be entrenched socio-economic marginalization, and the resultant social stigma, that are shared amongst the rural poor, regardless of their current housing status.

  10. Constructing and identifying predictors of frailty among homeless adults—a latent variable structural equations model approach.

    PubMed

    Salem, Benissa E; Nyamathi, Adeline; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Mentes, Janet C; Sarkisian, Catherine; Stein, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    Homeless urbanites are a heterogeneous population with unique health and social service needs. The study examined situational, behavioral, health-related and resource indicators in terms of their direct impact on frailty, hypothesized as a latent variable. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), a model was tested with 150 homeless men and women, ages 40–73, from three homeless day center drop-in sites on Skid Row and one residential drug treatment (RDT) facility that works with homeless parolees and probationers. In bivariate analyses with the latent construct frailty, months homeless (p < 0.01), female gender (p < 0.05), education (p < 0.05), comorbid conditions (p < 0.001), nutrition (p < 0.001), resilience (p < 0.001), health care utilization (p < 0.01), and falls (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with frailty. In the final path model, significant predictors of frailty included educational attainment (p < 0.01), comorbid conditions (p < 0.001), nutrition (p < 0.001), resilience (p < 0.001), and falls (p < 0.01). These findings will serve as a foundation for future nurse-led, community-based initiatives that focus on key predictors of frailty among the homeless and the development of interventions. PMID:24505611

  11. Confirmatory biopsy for the assessment of prostate cancer in men considering active surveillance: reference centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Cecilia; Cozzi, Gabriele; Kinsella, Janette; Bianchi, Roberto; Acher, Peter; Challacombe, Benjamin; Popert, Rick; Brown, Christian; George, Gincy; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Cahill, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how accurate a 12-core transrectal biopsy derived low-risk prostate cancer diagnosis is for an active surveillance programme by comparing the histological outcome with that from confirmatory transperineal sector biopsy. Subjects and methods The cohort included 166 men diagnosed with low volume Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer on initial transrectal biopsy who also underwent a confirmatory biopsy. Both biopsy techniques were performed according to standard protocols and samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed according to disease severity at baseline to determine possible disease parameters of upgrading at confirmatory biopsy. Results After confirmatory biopsy, 34% demonstrated Gleason score upgrade, out of which 25% were Gleason score 3+4 and 8.5% primary Gleason pattern 4. Results remained consistent for the subgroup analysis and a weak positive association, but not statistically significant, between prostate specific antigen (PSA), age, and percentage of positive cores, and PCa upgrading at confirmatory biopsy was found. Conclusion In our single centre study, we found that one-third of patients had higher Gleason score at confirmatory biopsy. Furthermore 8.5% of these upgraders had a primary Gleason pattern 4. Our results together with previously published evidence highlight the need for the revision of current guidelines in prostate cancer diagnosis for the selection of men for active surveillance. PMID:27170833

  12. Work, food and physical activity. A qualitative study of coping strategies among men in three occupations.

    PubMed

    Wandel, Margareta; Roos, Gun

    2005-02-01

    Life style diseases contribute heavily to inequalities in health. Thus, there is a need for a better understanding of factors affecting health-related habits, such as diet and exercise, among different groups of people. In this study, the work situation is chosen as a point of departure for analyses on health-related perceptions and habits among men from three different occupations: 20 carpenters, 15 engineers and 11 drivers in Oslo, Norway. The data were collected by in depth semi-structured interviews. There were clear differences in the way men in the three types of work view food, meals, the body and physical activity. The distribution of different types of meals throughout the day was also tied to the type of work. This was linked to notions of food as fuel for immediate body functioning, vis a vis body shape and future health. The differences observed are most likely a mixture and mutual reinforcement of demands related to the work situation as well as the socio-cultural background, level of knowledge and education. Benefits at work were also different; those in higher positions (engineers) received most healthy benefits, such as fruit baskets, healthy lunches, and participation in physical activities. These may contribute to the already large differences in health practices.

  13. Anti-Resorptive Activity of Anti-Hypertensive Agent ACEi in Older Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rianon, Nahid; Edwards, BeJier; Nhonthachit, Phetsamong; Messick, Amanda; Gagel, Robert; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is associated with bone loss due to activation of the renin- angiotensin system (RAS) which in turn affects bone turnover. Animal studies have shown decreased bone resorption (up to 19%) and increased bone mass (up to 2%) following treatment with RAStargeted antihypertensive medications (e.g., angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEi). Cross-sectional human studies have documented greater femoral neck BMD in older hypertensive men and women treated with ACEi compared to those not-treated with ACEi (nor other RAS-targeted medications). These findings raise the potential for ACEi use in preventing, or at a minimum slowing bone loss due to age or even microgravity. Based on this, we conducted a cohort study to investigate if ACEi treatment would decrease bone resorption in humans. We investigated changes in serum CTX and P1NP in 10 hypertensive men (45 years or older) treated with (N=5) without (N=5) exposure to ACEi for 3-months. Lisinopril was the ACEi used, and dose was adjusted as deemed appropriate by the attending physicians. Participants did not have any known skeletal health problem and were not exposed to any bisphosphonates or hydrochlorothiazides. A small sample size prevented detailed statistical analysis and hence, we present a preliminary descriptive report of our findings. Participants' age was 57+/-7 years (mean +/-SD), baseline body mass index was 27+/-5 kg/sq m, serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 66+/-17 nmol/L and parathyroid hormone was 30+/-13 pg/ml. After Lisinopril treatment, men demonstrated a 10% decrease in the bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and 5% decrease in formation marker procollagen type 1 amino-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP). On the contrary, serum CTX increased 41% and P1NP increased 10% in those who were not treated with ACEi. This is the first human study to report reduction in bone resorptive activity following ACEi treatment for hypertension in older men. Our results indicates

  14. Activation of Antioxidant Defenses in Whole Saliva by Psychosocial Stress Is More Manifested in Young Women than in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men. PMID:25525800

  15. Plasma glucose, insulin and catecholamine responses to a Wingate test in physically active women and men.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Sophie; Berthon, Phanélie; Zouhal, Hassane; Moussa, Elie; Catheline, Michel; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of gender on the glucose response to exercise remains contradictory. Moreover, to our knowledge, the glucoregulatory responses to anaerobic sprint exercise have only been studied in male subjects. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare glucoregulatory metabolic (glucose and lactate) and hormonal (insulin, catecholamines and estradiol only in women) responses to a 30-s Wingate test, in physically active students. Eight women [19.8 (0.7) years] and eight men [22.0 (0.6) years] participated in a 30-s Wingate test on a bicycle ergometer. Plasma glucose, insulin, and catecholamine concentrations were determined at rest, at the end of both the warm-up and the exercise period and during the recovery (5, 10, 20, and 30 min). Results showed that the plasma glucose increase in response to a 30-s Wingate test was significantly higher in women than in men [0.99 (0.15) versus 0.33 (0.20) mmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. Plasma insulin concentrations peaked at 10 min post-exercise and the increase between this time of recovery and the end of the warm-up was also significantly higher in women than in men [14.7 (2.9) versus 2.3 (1.9) pmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. However, there was no gender difference concerning the catecholamine response. The study indicates a gender-related difference in post-exercise plasma glucose and insulin responses after a supramaximal exercise.

  16. Low LBNP Tolerance in Men is Associated With Attenuated Activation of The Renin-Angiotensin System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Petersen, T. W.; Gabrielsen, A.; Pump, B.; Bie, P.; Christensen, N.-J.; Warberg, J.; Videbaeck, R.; Simonson, S. R.; Norsk, P.

    1999-01-01

    Vasoactive hormone concentrations [epinephrine (pE), norepinephrine (pNE), angiotensin II (pATII), vasopressin (pVP), endothelin 1 (pET1)] and plasma renin activity (pRA) were measured during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of the renin-angiotensin system is related to LBNP tolerance. Healthy men (2,822 cal/day(exp -1), 2 mmol*kg(exp -1)*day(exp -1)) Na(+)) were exposed to 30 minutes of progressive LBNP to -50 mmHg. LBNP was uneventful for seven men (25 +/- 2 years, HiTol group), but eight men (26 +/- 3 years) reached pre-syncope after 11 +/- 1 minutes (P < 0.001, LoTol group). Mean arterial pressure was unchanged. Central venous pressure and left atrial diameter decreased in both groups (5-6 mmHg by approx. 30%, P < 0.05). Control [hormone] were similar but, pRA differed between groups (LoTol 0.6 +/- 0.1, HiTol 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng Ang1/(ml(exp -1)*h(exp -1)), P < 0.05). LBNP increased (P < 0.05) pRA and pATII more in HiTol (9.9 +/- 2.2 ng Ang1/(ml(exp -1)*h(exp -1)) and 58 +/- 12 pg/ml(exp -1)) than LoTol (4.3 +/- 0.9 ng Ang1/(ml*h) and 28 +/- 6 pg/ml(exp -1)). In contrast, pVP was higher (P < 0.05) in LoTol than in HiTol. The response of the renin-angiotensin system seems linked to the occurrence of pre-syncope, and measurement of resting pRA may be predictive.

  17. Low LBNP Tolerance in Men is Associated With Attenuated Activation of Renin-Angiotensin System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Petersen, T. W.; Gabrielsen, A.; Pump, B.; Bie, P.; Christensen, N.-J.; Warberg, J.; Videbaeck, R.; Simonson, S. R.; Norsk, P.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Vasoactive hormone concentrations (epinephrine (pE), norepinephrine (pNE), angiotensin II (pATII), vasopressin (pVP), endothelin 1 (pET1)] and plasma renin activity (pRA) were measured during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of the reninangiotensin system is related to LBNP tolerance. Healthy men (2,822 cal per day, 2 mmol per kilogram per day Na (+)) were exposed to 30 min of progressive LBNP to -50mmHg. LBNP was uneventful for 7 men (2512 yr, HiTol group), but 8 men (26 plus or minus 3 yr) reached pre-syncope after 11 plus or minus 1 min (P less than 0.001, LoTol group). Mean arterial pressure was unchanged. Central venous pressure and left atrial diameter decreased in both groups (5-6 mmHg by 30%, P less than 0.05). Control [hormone] were similar but, pRA differed between groups (LoTol 0.6 plus or minus 0.1, HiTol 1.2 plus or minus 0.1 ng Ang1 per milliliter per hour, per hour, P less than 0.05). LBNP increased (P less than 0.05) pRA and pATII more in HiTol (9.9 plus or minus 2.2 ng Ang1 per milliliter per hour and 58 plus or minus 12 pg per milliliter) than LoTol (4.3 plus or minus 0.9 ng Angl per milliliter per hour and 28 plus or minus 6 pg per milliliter). In contrast, pVP was higher (P less than 0.05) in LoTol than in HiTol. The response of the renin-angiotensin system seems linked to the occurrence of pre-syncope, and measurement of resting pRA may be predictive.

  18. Florida's Adult Homeless Literacy Training & Basic Skills Assistance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    Some facts about the homeless population in Florida are the following: (1) 40,000 persons in Florida are homeless on any given day, with 40 percent of the total being families; (2) 65 percent are new homeless (not chronic); (3) 30 percent of the homeless are addicted to drugs or alcohol and 20 percent are mentally ill; (4) causes of homelessness…

  19. Over the Edge: Homeless Families and the Welfare System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    Homelessness among families is quickly reaching crisis proportions across the country. Over 30 percent of America's three million homeless people are members of families, and families are the fastest growing segment of the homeless population. Perhaps more disturbing, homelessness represents only the most extreme manifestation of a more…

  20. 76 FR 52575 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... homelessness. 75 FR 79323. We included a 60-day comment period and invited interested persons to submit written... homeless.'' One of VA's National priorities is a renewed effort to end homelessness for veterans. For this... disorder is a contributing cause of homelessness, then that disorder is serious; therefore, it...

  1. Who Is Doing Well? A Typology of Newly Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…

  2. Homeless Children: Addressing the Challenge in Rural Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissing, Yvonne M.

    Despite stereotypes to the contrary, homelessness is as prevalent in rural as urban areas. This digest examines the implications of homelessness for rural children and youth and discusses possible actions by rural educators. An estimated half of the rural homeless are families with children. Compared to urban counterparts, rural homeless families…

  3. The effect of psychosocial syndemic production on 4-year HIV incidence and risk behavior in a large cohort of sexually active men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    MIMIAGA, Matthew J.; O’CLEIRIGH, Conall; BIELLO, Katie B.; ROBERTSON, Angela M.; SAFREN, Steven A.; COATES, Thomas J.; KOBLIN, Beryl A.; CHESNEY, Margaret A.; DONNELL, Deborah J.; STALL, Ron D.; MAYER, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies have suggested that co-occurring epidemics or “syndemics” of psychosocial health problems may accelerate HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We aimed to assess how five syndemic conditions (depressive symptoms, heavy alcohol use, stimulant use, polydrug use, and childhood sexual abuse) affected HIV incidence and sexual risk behavior over time. Methods Eligible men in a large, prospective cohort of sexually active, HIV-uninfected MSM completed HIV testing and behavioral surveys at baseline and every 6 months for 48 months. We examined interrelationships between psychosocial problems and whether these interactions increased the odds of HIV risk behaviors and risk of seroconversion over study follow-up. Results Among 4295 men, prevalence of psychosocial conditions was substantial at baseline and was positively associated with each other. We identified a statistically significant positive dose-response relationship between numbers of syndemic conditions and HIV seroconversion for all comparisons (with the greatest hazard among those with 4-5 conditions, aHR=8.69; 95% CI: 4.78-15.44). The number of syndemic conditions also predicted increased HIV related risk behaviors over time, which mediated the syndemic-HIV seroconversion association. Conclusions The accumulation of “syndemic” psychosocial problems predicted HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and seroconversion in a large sample of U.S. MSM. Given the high prevalence of syndemic conditions among MSM and the moderate effect sizes attained by traditional brief behavioral interventions to date, the HIV prevention agenda requires a shift toward improved assessment of psychosocial comorbidities and stronger integration with mental health and substance abuse treatment services. PMID:25501609

  4. Changes in markers of brain serotonin activity in response to chronic exercise in senior men.

    PubMed

    Melancon, Michel O; Lorrain, Dominique; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with noticeable impairments in brain serotonin transmission, which might contribute to increased vulnerability to developing depression in later life. Animal and human studies have shown that aerobic exercise can stimulate brain serotonin activity and trigger parallel elevations in tryptophan (TRP, the serotonin precursor) availability in blood plasma. However, the influence of chronic exercise on serotonergic activity in older adults is not yet known. Sixteen men aged 64 ± 3 years exercised for 1 h (67%-70% peak oxygen consumption) at baseline and following 16 weeks of aerobic training. The main outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), TRP, prolactin, lactate, and free fatty acids (FFA). Changes in plasma free-TRP/BCAA and prolactin served as surrogates for TRP availability and serotonin activity, respectively. Chronic exercise decreased body mass (P < 0.05) whilst it increased ventilatory threshold 2 (P < 0.01). Although training did not affect plasma TRP availability to the brain at rest, both pre- and post-training exercise challenges markedly increased TRP availability (P < 0.001). The free-TRP/BCAA values reached a ceiling during exercise that was lower following training (P < 0.05), whereas similar patterns were found for prolactin, lactate, and FFA. These data show that aerobic exercise elicits consistent transient elevations in plasma TRP availability to the brain in older men; the elevations were independent from physical training, although less pronounced following training. The data support the contention that repeated elevations in brain serotonin activity might be involved in the antidepressant effect of exercise training in older adults.

  5. Gamified physical activation of young men – a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Methods/design Conscription-aged men (18 years) attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n = 1500) will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n = 640) or a control group (n = 640) during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference), body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. Discussion The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service for activating young men

  6. Tapping into the Culture of Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ruth E.

    1996-01-01

    Findings of a qualitative study of three health and human services agencies determined that strategies of survival inherent in the culture of homelessness are rarely considered by those agencies in providing services to homeless people. Programs should develop cultural sensitivity and use a cultural perspective in planning. (JOW)

  7. School-Community Partnerships and the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Maria Luisa

    1991-01-01

    Aided by the First Presbyterian Church, the Dallas Jewish Coalition for the Homeless, numerous business and service groups, individual volunteers, and shelters, City Park School in innercity Dallas has become an exemplary program for homeless students. School and community partnerships can form an extended family for needy students. A sidebar…

  8. Perceptions about Homeless Elders and Community Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane; Jacobs, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Human service students were surveyed ("N" = 207) to determine their perceptions about homeless elders and communal responsibility for their well-being. Using a backward regression analysis, a final model ("F" = 15.617, "df" = 7, "p" < 0.001) for Perceptions about Homeless Persons and Community…

  9. A Rural County's Response to Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughran, Elizabeth Lee; White, Priscilla

    This paper describes the response of one locality, a rural county in Western Massachusetts, to the reality of rural homelessness. Jessie's House, in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, is a short-term emergency shelter providing meals, housing, and advocacy to homeless families and individuals. The shelter has a staff of three full-time residents and…

  10. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  11. Working to End Family Homelessness. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Center on Family Homelessness is determined to end family homelessness. Sheltering families provides a temporary safe haven. Connecting families to permanent housing, essential services, and critical supports can change their lives forever. Through research the Center learns what families need to rebound from the housing, economic,…

  12. Intervention Strategies with the Homeless Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykeman, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    A literature review describing psychological and sociological factors of homelessness. Methods of estimating the frequency of homelessness are described, along with recent point-in-time and period-of-time estimates. Models of service delivery are reviewed. A biopsychosocial model of intervention is proposed that describes stages of intervention…

  13. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  14. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  15. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  16. Homeless Housing: HUD's Shelter Programs. Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhorenbeck, Susan M.

    This paper briefly discusses new housing programs for the homeless sponsored by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the funding provided by the 100th Congress, and two additional HUD programs to aid the homeless. The following four programs are discussed: (1) the Emergency Shelter Program; (2) the Transitional Housing Program,…

  17. The New Poverty: Homeless Families in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Ralph da Costa

    This book discusses homeless families in the United States and advocates the efforts of residential educational and employment training centers--American Family Inns--which provide comprehensive services education, job training, and parenting and life skills to address the poverty-related conditions that contribute to homelessness. Chapters of the…

  18. Preliminary Findings on Rural Homelessness in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Richard J.; And Others

    This report is designed to present preliminary findings from the first comprehensive study of rural homelessness in the United States. The study was conducted during the first 6 months of 1990, and data were collected from interviews with 921 homeless adults in 21 randomly selected rural counties in Ohio. The sample counties represent 26% of the…

  19. Educational Services for Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston. Office of Homeless Children and Youth.

    As provided by the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, the Massachusetts State Department of Education (MSDE) has developed this plan to attempt to meet the educational needs of homeless children and to supply them with resources to meet those needs. The plan contains a section delineating federal and state laws and state policies…

  20. The Disadvantage of Homelessness in Children's Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Debra M.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the extent to which homeless children in the United States receive the "free and appropriate education" to which they are entitled. Data were collected through several surveys conducted in two San Francisco Bay Area counties: (1) surveys of parents in homeless shelters with 313 school-age…

  1. Prevalence of non-medical drug use and dependence among homosexually active men and women in the US population

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Susan D.; Ackerman, Deborah; Mays, Vickie M.; Ross, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to compare patterns of drug use and dependence between homosexually experienced and exclusively heterosexually experienced individuals. Design We used a cross-sectional national household interview survey conducted in the United States. Setting Secondary data analysis of the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse was employed. Participants Participants were sexually active individuals, aged 18 years and older, who reported the genders of their sexual partners in the past 12 months; included 174 homosexually experienced (98 men, 96 women) and 9714 exclusively heterosexually experienced (3922 men, 5792 women) respondents. Measurements Life-time, past 30 days and daily use of nine classes of drugs. Symptoms of dysfunctional use and dependence. Findings There were consistent patterns of elevated drug use in homosexually experienced individuals for life-time drug use, but these were greatly attenuated for recent use. Homosexually experienced men were more likely to report use of marijuana, cocaine and heroin, and homosexually experienced women more likely to report use of marijuana and analgesics than individuals reporting only opposite-sex partners. Both homosexually active men and women were more likely than exclusively heterosexually active respondents to report at least one symptom indicating dysfunctional drug use across all drug classes, and to meet criteria for marijuana dependence syndrome. The only difference between homosexually experienced men and women was that men were more likely to report any daily drug use. Conclusions These data are consistent with surveys suggesting that there is a moderate elevation of drug, particularly marijuana, use and dependence in gay and bisexual men and women when compared to heterosexual men and women. PMID:15265096

  2. Condoms and Contexts: Profiles of Sexual Risk and Safety Among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual men’s sexual safety behavior is important to controlling the U.S. epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. While sexual safety is often treated as a single behavior, such as condom use, it can also be conceptualized as resulting from multiple factors. Doing so can help us achieve more nuanced understandings of sexual risk and safety within partner-related contexts. We used Latent Class Analysis with data collected online from 18-25 year old heterosexually active U.S. men (n = 432) to empirically derive a typology of the patterns of sexual safety strategies they employ. Indicators were sexual risk reduction strategies used in the past year with the most recent female sex partner: Condom use, discussing sexual histories, STI testing, agreeing to be monogamous, and discussing birth control. We identified four subgroups: Risk Takers (12%), Condom Reliers (25%), Multistrategists (28%), and Relationship Reliers (35%). Partner-related context factors – number of past-year sex partners, relationship commitment, and sexual concurrency – predicted subgroup membership. Findings support tailoring STI prevention to men’s sexual risk-safety subgroups. Interventions should certainly continue to encourage condom use, but should also include information on how partner-related context factors and alternate sexual safety strategies can help men reduce risk for themselves and their partners. PMID:25256019

  3. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, we found three styles of working with sexual scripts: Conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts, or interpreted their own non-traditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well. PMID:22489683

  4. The Data Dilemma in Family Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Brush, Barbara L; Gultekin, Laura E; Grim, Elizabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Current estimates of homelessness in the U.S. are biased toward counts of sheltered or visibly unsheltered individuals. Those who remain out of sight during counts and/or live in places or circumstances that elude the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) definition of homelessness remain undercounted. Underreporting the unique characteristics associated with subgroups of people experiencing homelessness also limits access to the services that best meet their needs. As national counts drive policy and funding for housing-related services, front-line providers have too few resources to treat less visible and understood populations. We argue that homeless families are particularly vulnerable to these trends and explore how current data collection and reporting approaches thwart family homelessness interventions and prevention. PMID:27524750

  5. What kinds of website and mobile phone-delivered physical activity and nutrition interventions do middle-aged men want?

    PubMed

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Ellison, Marcus; George, Emma S; Maeder, Anthony; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch J; Karunanithi, Mohanraj; Noakes, Manny; Hooker, Cindy; Viljoen, Pierre; Mummery, W Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Within a health context, men in Western societies are a hard-to-reach population who experience higher rates of chronic disease compared with women. Innovative technology-based interventions that specifically target men are needed; however, little is known about how these should be developed for this group. This study aimed to examine opinions and perceptions regarding the use of Internet and mobile phones to improve physical activity and nutrition behaviors for middle-aged men. The authors conducted 6 focus groups (n = 30) in Queensland, Australia. Their analyses identified 6 themes: (a) Internet experience, (b) website characteristics, (c) Web 2.0 applications, (d) website features, (e) self-monitoring, and (f) mobile phones as delivery method. The outcomes indicate that men support the use of the Internet to improve and self-monitor physical activity and dietary behaviors on the condition that the website-delivered interventions are quick and easy to use, because commitment levels to engage in online tasks are low. Participants also indicated that they were reluctant to use normal mobile phones to change health behaviors, although smartphones were perceived to be more acceptable. This pilot study suggests that there are viable avenues to engage middle-aged men in Internet- or in mobile-delivered health interventions. This study also suggests that to be successful, these interventions need to be tailor-made especially for men, with an emphasis on usability and convenience. A wider quantitative study would bring further support to these findings.

  6. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Hannah R.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; England, Jonathan; Black, W. Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E.; Esser, Karyn A.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈ 24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations. PMID:26101893

  7. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Hannah R; Schroder, Elizabeth A; England, Jonathan; Black, W Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E; Esser, Karyn A; Clasey, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations.

  8. Health disparities in the Native Hawaiian homeless.

    PubMed

    Yamane, David P; Oeser, Steffen G; Omori, Jill

    2010-06-01

    While it is well accepted that Native Hawaiians have poor health statistics compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii, it is not well documented if these disparities persist when comparing Native Hawaiian homeless individuals to the general homeless population. This paper examines the Native Hawaiian homeless population living in three shelters on the island of Oahu, to determine if there are significant differences in the frequency of diseases between the Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian homeless. A retrospective data collection was performed using records from the Hawaii Homeless Outreach and Medical Education (H.O.M.E.) project. Data from 1182 patients was collected as of 12/05/09. Information collected included patient demographics, frequency of self reported diseases, family history of diseases, risk factors, prevalence of chronic diseases, and most common complaints. The data from Native Hawaiians and non-Native Hawaiians were examined for differences and a 1-tail Fisher exact analysis was done to confirm significance. The data reveals that the Native Hawaiian homeless population is afflicted more frequently with asthma and hypertension compared to other ethnic groups. While diabetes constituted more visits to the clinics for Native Hawaiians compared to the non-Native Hawaiians, there was no significant difference in patient reported prevalence of diabetes. The Native Hawaiian homeless also had increased rates of risky behaviors demonstrated by higher past use of marijuana and methamphetamines. Interestingly, there was a lower use of alcohol in the Native Hawaiian homeless and no significant difference between Native Hawaiians and non-native Hawaiians in current use of illicit drugs, which may represent a hopeful change in behaviors. These troubling statistics show that some of the health disparities seen in the general Native Hawaiian population persist despite the global impoverished state of all homeless. Hopefully, these results will aid

  9. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  10. Altered baseline brain activity differentiates regional mechanisms subserving biological and psychological alterations in obese men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Tian, Derun; Yu, Chunshui; Li, Meng; Zang, Yufeng; Liu, Yijun; Walter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity as a chronic disease is a major factor for insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes, which has become a global health problem. In the present study, we used resting state functional MRI to investigate the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of spontaneous signal during both hunger and satiety states in 20 lean and 20 obese males. We found that, before food intake, obese men had significantly greater baseline activity in the precuneus and lesser activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) relative to lean subjects. Furthermore, after food intake, obese males had significantly lesser activity in dACC than lean males. We further found a significant positive correlation between precuneus activation and hunger ratings before food intake, while dACC activity was negatively correlated with plasma insulin levels before and after food intake. These results indicated that both precuneus and dACC may play an important role in eating behavior. While precuneus rather seemed to mediate subjective satiety, dACC levels rather reflected indirect measures of glucose utilization. PMID:26099208

  11. Understanding the Meaning African-American Men Give to Their Student Leadership Involvement and Engagement Activities in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Karl A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore and gain a deeper understanding of the lived experiences and perceptions of African-American (A-A) men who are persisting in college and who demonstrate participation in co-curricular activities defined as student leadership involvement and engagement activities (SLIEA). The…

  12. Low LBNP tolerance in men is associated with attenuated activation of the renin-angiotensin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Petersen, T. W.; Gabrielsen, A.; Pump, B.; Bie, P.; Christensen, N. J.; Warberg, J.; Videbaek, R.; Simonson, S. R.; Norsk, P.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma vasoactive hormone concentrations [epinephrine (p(Epi)), norepinephrine (p(NE)), ANG II (p(ANG II)), vasopressin (p(VP)), endothelin-1 (p(ET-1))] and plasma renin activity (p(RA)) were measured periodically and compared during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of the renin-angiotensin system, the latter being one of the most powerful vasoconstrictors in the body, is of major importance for LBNP tolerance. Healthy men on a controlled diet (2,822 cal/day, 2 mmol. kg(-1). day(-1) Na(+)) were exposed to 30 min of LBNP from -15 to -50 mmHg. LBNP was uneventful for seven men [25 +/- 2 yr, high-tolerance (HiTol) group], but eight men (26 +/- 3 yr) reached presyncope after 11 +/- 1 min [P < 0.001, low-tolerance (LoTol) group]. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) did not change measurably, but central venous pressure and left atrial diameter decreased similarly in both groups (5-6 mmHg, by approximately 30%, P < 0.05). Control (0 mmHg LBNP) hormone concentrations were similar between groups, however, p(RA) differed between them (LoTol 0.6 +/- 0.1, HiTol 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng ANG I. ml(-1). h(-1), P < 0.05). LBNP increased (P < 0. 05) p(RA) and p(ANG II), respectively, more in the HiTol group (9.9 +/- 2.2 ng ANG I. ml(-1). h(-1) and 58 +/- 12 pg/ml) than in LoTol subjects (4.3 +/- 0.9 ng ANG I. ml(-1). h(-1) and 28 +/- 6 pg/ml). In contrast, the increase in p(VP) was higher (P < 0.05) in the LoTol than in the HiTol group. The increases (P < 0.05) for p(NE) were nonsignificant between groups, and p(ET-1) remained unchanged. Thus there may be a causal relationship between attenuated activation of p(RA) and p(ANG II) and presyncope, with p(VP) being a possible cofactor. Measurement of resting p(RA) may be of predictive value for those with lower hypotensive tolerance.

  13. The Role of Maladaptive Cognitions in Hypersexuality among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive appraisals about sex may represent an important component of the maintenance and treatment of hypersexuality, but they are not currently represented in conceptual models of hypersexuality. Therefore, we validated a measure of maladaptive cognitions about sex and examined its unique ability to predict hypersexuality. Qualitative interviews with a pilot sample of 60 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men and expert review of items yielded a pool of 17 items regarding maladaptive cognitions about sex. A separate sample of 202 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men completed measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, depression and anxiety, sexual compulsivity, the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory proposed by the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders (2010). Factor analysis confirmed the presence of three subscales: perceived sexual needs, sexual costs, and sexual control efficacy. Structural equation modeling results were consistent with a cognitive model of hypersexuality whereby magnifying the necessity of sex and disqualifying the benefits of sex partially predicted minimized self-efficacy for controlling one’s sexual behavior, all of which predicted problematic hypersexuality. In multivariate logistic regression, disqualifying the benefits of sex predicted unique variance in hypersexuality, even after adjusting for the role of core constructs of existing research on hypersexuality, AOR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.02, 3.10. Results suggest the utility of a cognitive approach for better understanding hypersexuality and the importance of developing treatment approaches that encourage adaptive appraisals regarding the outcomes of sex and one’s ability to control his sexual behavior. PMID:24558123

  14. The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy.

    PubMed

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S

    2009-04-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based organizations. All participated in structured interviews and 25% participated in qualitative interviews. Almost all HY had participated in the street (81%) and formal economies (69%). Five main factors simultaneously influenced initiation into the street economy: social control/bonds, barriers to the formal economy (e.g., homelessness, educational deficits, mental health problems, incarceration, stigma), tangible and social/emotional benefits of the street economy, severe economic need, and the active recruitment of HY into the street economy by others. Qualitative and quantitative data sources were congruent. Intervention efforts are needed at multiple levels of influence to promote HY's success in the formal economy.

  15. A comparison of the activity demands of elite and sub-elite Australian men's basketball competition.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron; Dascombe, Ben; Reaburn, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the differences in the activity demands of sub-elite and elite Australian men's basketball competition. Ten elite (age 28.3 ± 4.9 years, mass 97.0 ± 13.9 kg, height 197.4 ± 8.3 cm) and 12 sub-elite (age 26.1 ± 5.3 years, mass 85.9 ± 13.2 kg, height 191.4 ± 7.6 cm) Australian basketball players participated in the study. Player activity was analysed using video-based time-motion analysis across multiple in-season matches. Customized analytical software was used to calculate player activity into frequencies, mean and total durations (s), and mean and total distances (m) for standing/walking, jogging, running, sprinting, low shuffling, high shuffling, and dribbling movements. Only movement frequency was calculated for jumping and upper body activity. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that elite players performed significantly more total movement changes (P <0.001), and experienced greater activity workloads while jogging (P <0.01) and running (P <0.002). In contrast, sub-elite players performed significantly more standing/walking (P <0.023) and sprinting (P <0.003) activities. These data suggest that elite basketball competition requires a greater intermittent workload and more sustained activity demands, whereas sub-elite competition may involve greater bursts of activity and longer recovery periods. These differences are likely to reflect variations in player skill and fitness, as well as playing structure between playing standards.

  16. What Are Men Afraid Of: The Whys and Hows of Helping Men Become Active Caretakers of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.

    Participants in the Dad's Day at the Center for Young Children program meet on Saturday mornings for a series of 12 sessions which combine play and discussion group activities. The first hour of each session is structured so that fathers and their 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children can spend time together experiencing new toys, foods, arts, and games…

  17. Willingness to Take PrEP and Potential for Risk Compensation Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Whitfield, Thomas H F; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-12-01

    Once-daily Truvada (Emtricitabine/Tenofovir) as a method of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the most promising biomedical interventions to eliminate new HIV infections; however, uptake among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men has been slow amidst growing concern in popular/social media that PrEP use will result in reduced condom use (i.e., risk compensation). We investigated demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial differences in willingness to use PrEP as well as the perceived impact of PrEP on participants' condom use in a sample of 206 highly sexually active HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Nearly half (46.1 %) said they would be willing to take PrEP if it were provided at no cost. Although men willing to take PrEP (vs. others) reported similar numbers of recent casual male partners (<6 weeks), they had higher odds of recent receptive condomless anal sex (CAS)-i.e., those already at high risk of contracting HIV were more willing to take PrEP. Neither age, race/ethnicity, nor income were associated with willingness to take PrEP, suggesting equal acceptability among subpopulations that are experiencing disparities in HIV incidence. There was limited evidence to suggest men would risk compensate. Only 10 % of men who had not engaged in recent CAS felt that PrEP would result in them starting to have CAS. Men who had not tested for HIV recently were also significantly more likely than others to indicate willingness to take PrEP. Offering PrEP to men who test infrequently may serve to engage them more in routine HIV/STI testing and create a continued dialogue around sexual health between patient and provider in order to prevent HIV infection.

  18. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    PubMed Central

    Mekary, Rania A.; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Methods Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend<0.001). Less age-associated WC increase was seen with a 20 min/day activity increase; this benefit was significantly stronger for weight training (-0.67cm, 95%CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33cm, 95%CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16cm, 95%CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08cm, 95%CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23kg, 95%CI -0.29, -0.17). Conclusions Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency /volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. PMID:25530447

  19. Health-Seeking Challenges Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Angela L.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Greengold, Barbara; Slagle, Alexandra; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Getzoff, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 to 2 million homeless young persons live on the streets in the United States. With the current economic situation, research is needed on quality of services geared toward homeless young adults. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore homeless young adults' perspectives on barriers and facilitators of health-care-seeking behavior and their perspectives on improving existing programs for homeless persons. Methods This article is a descriptive qualitative study using focus groups, with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using young adults. Results Identified themes were failing access to care based on perceived structural barriers (limited clinic sites, limited hours of operation, priority health conditions, and long wait times) and social barriers (perception of discrimination by uncaring professionals, law enforcement, and society in general). Discussion Results provide insight into programmatic and agency resources that facilitate health-seeking behaviors among homeless young adults and include implications for more research with providers of homeless health and social services. PMID:20404776

  20. Cytokine response to acute running in recreationally-active and endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan P R; Sale, Craig; Greeves, Julie P; Casey, Anna; Dutton, John; Fraser, William D

    2013-07-01

    To compare the cytokine response to exhaustive running in recreationally-active (RA) and endurance-trained (ET) men. Eleven RA men (VO2max 55 ± 7 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) and 10 ET men (VO₂max 68 ± 7 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) followed a controlled diet and refrained from volitional exercise for 8 days. On the fourth day, participants completed 60 min of treadmill running (65 % VO₂max), followed by intermittent running to exhaustion (70 % VO₂max). Fasting blood was obtained at baseline, after 20, 40 and 60 min of exercise, at the end of intermittent exercise, during 2 h of recovery and on four follow-up days (FU1-FU4). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured. Exercise increased the concentrations of all cytokines and CK, but there were no significant differences between groups. IL-1β increased (2.2-2.5-fold, P < 0.001) during exercise, while TNF-α was increased (1.6-2.0-fold, P < 0.001) during exercise and for 2 h post-exercise. IL-6 (71-84-fold, P < 0.001) and IL-1ra (52-64-fold, P < 0.001) were increased throughout exercise and up to FU1, peaking immediately after exercise and at 1.5-2 h post-exercise, respectively. CK concentrations were increased (P < 0.001) throughout exercise and up to FU4, peaking at FU1, but were not associated with changes in any cytokines. Exhaustive running resulted in modest and transient increases in TNF-α and IL-1β, and more marked and prolonged increases in IL-6 and IL-1ra, but improved training status did not affect this response. Increased CK might indicate either exercise-induced muscle cell disruption or increased cell permeability, although neither appears to have contributed to the increased cytokine concentrations. PMID:23463480

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Sexual Dysfunction in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Shane M; Wang, Chi-Hsiung E; Victorson, David E; Helfand, Brian T; Novakovic, Kristian R; Brendler, Charles B; Albaugh, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual dysfunction, repeat biopsies and other demographic and clinical factors in men on active surveillance (AS). Methods Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measures were administered at enrollment and every 6 months to assess quality of life (QOL), psychosocial and urological health outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we examined the impact of repeat biopsies, total number of cores taken, anxiety, age, and comorbidity on sexual function over the first 24 months of enrolling in AS. Main Outcome Measures PROs included the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26) Sexual Function (SF) subscale, the American Urological Association-Symptom Index (AUA-SI), and the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). Results At enrollment (n = 195), mean age was 66.5 ± 6.8 with a mean EPIC-26 SF score of 61.4 ± 30.4. EPIC-26 SF scores steadily decreased to 53.9 ± 30.7 at 24 months (P < 0.01). MAX-PC scores also progressively decreased over time (P = 0.03). Factors associated with lower EPIC-26 scores over time included age, unemployed status, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (all P < 0.05). Higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was associated with a more rapid decline in EPIC-26 SF over time (P = 0.03). In multivariable analysis, age, diabetes, and PSA × time interaction remained significant predictors of diminished sexual function. Anxiety, number of biopsies, and total cores taken did not predict sexual dysfunction or change over time in our cohort. Conclusions Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA-SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. PMID:26468379

  2. Risk factors associated with recurrent homelessness after a first homeless episode.

    PubMed

    McQuistion, Hunter L; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Hsu, Eustace; Caton, Carol L M

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol and drug use are commonly associated with the experience of homelessness. In order to better understand this, we explored the prevalence of drug and alcohol use as it related to successful re-housing within a sample of first-time single homeless adults at municipal shelters. From within this sample, we compared the features of recurrent homelessness with those of chronic homelessness and of being stably housed. We interviewed 344 subjects upon shelter entry and followed each one every six months for 18 months using standardized social and mental health measures. We analyzed baseline assessments relative to housing experiences during follow-up using Chi square and multinomial logistic regression. Eighty-one percent (N = 278) obtained housing over 18 months, of which 23.7 % (N = 66) experienced homelessness again. Recurrent homelessness was more common among those with a high school education and if initially re-housed with family. Bivariate analysis resulted in the observation of the highest rate of alcohol and other drug use among this recurrent group and multinomial logistic regression supported this only with the coupling of arrest history and diagnosed antisocial personality disorder. With relatively high rates of recurrent homelessness, there were differences between subjects who experienced recurrent homelessness compared to those who were stably housed and with chronic homelessness. That alcohol and other substance use disorders were associated with recurrent homelessness only if they were linked to other risk factors highlights the complexity of causes for homelessness and a resultant need to organize them into constellations of causal risk factors. Consistent with this, there should be initiatives that span bureaucratic boundaries so as to flexibly meet multiple complex service needs, thus improving outcomes concerning episodes of recurrent homelessness. PMID:23744291

  3. Risk factors associated with recurrent homelessness after a first homeless episode.

    PubMed

    McQuistion, Hunter L; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Hsu, Eustace; Caton, Carol L M

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol and drug use are commonly associated with the experience of homelessness. In order to better understand this, we explored the prevalence of drug and alcohol use as it related to successful re-housing within a sample of first-time single homeless adults at municipal shelters. From within this sample, we compared the features of recurrent homelessness with those of chronic homelessness and of being stably housed. We interviewed 344 subjects upon shelter entry and followed each one every six months for 18 months using standardized social and mental health measures. We analyzed baseline assessments relative to housing experiences during follow-up using Chi square and multinomial logistic regression. Eighty-one percent (N = 278) obtained housing over 18 months, of which 23.7 % (N = 66) experienced homelessness again. Recurrent homelessness was more common among those with a high school education and if initially re-housed with family. Bivariate analysis resulted in the observation of the highest rate of alcohol and other drug use among this recurrent group and multinomial logistic regression supported this only with the coupling of arrest history and diagnosed antisocial personality disorder. With relatively high rates of recurrent homelessness, there were differences between subjects who experienced recurrent homelessness compared to those who were stably housed and with chronic homelessness. That alcohol and other substance use disorders were associated with recurrent homelessness only if they were linked to other risk factors highlights the complexity of causes for homelessness and a resultant need to organize them into constellations of causal risk factors. Consistent with this, there should be initiatives that span bureaucratic boundaries so as to flexibly meet multiple complex service needs, thus improving outcomes concerning episodes of recurrent homelessness.

  4. Hurricane Sandy's impact on the predisaster homeless and homeless shelter services in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Settembrino, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is little research on how people experiencing homelessness prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Existing emergency management literature does not provide an understanding of how disasters affect homeless shelter services. The present study seeks to fill these gaps by examining how Hurricane Sandy impacted homeless shelters and their guests in New Jersey. Presenting findings from ethnographic research in Atlantic City and Hoboken, this study identifies several areas in which homeless shelters and their guests may be able to assist in emergency response and disaster recovery such as preparing meals for victims, sorting and processing donated items, and assisting victims in filing for emergency assistance. PMID:26963226

  5. Hurricane Sandy's impact on the predisaster homeless and homeless shelter services in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Settembrino, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is little research on how people experiencing homelessness prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Existing emergency management literature does not provide an understanding of how disasters affect homeless shelter services. The present study seeks to fill these gaps by examining how Hurricane Sandy impacted homeless shelters and their guests in New Jersey. Presenting findings from ethnographic research in Atlantic City and Hoboken, this study identifies several areas in which homeless shelters and their guests may be able to assist in emergency response and disaster recovery such as preparing meals for victims, sorting and processing donated items, and assisting victims in filing for emergency assistance.

  6. Homelessness and Money Mismanagement in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Connor P.; Wolfe, James; Wagner, Henry Ryan; Beckham, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the empirical link between money mismanagement and subsequent homelessness among veterans. Methods. We used a random sample of Iraq and Afghanistan War era veterans from the National Post-Deployment Adjustment Survey in 2009–2011. Results. Veterans were randomly selected from a roster of all US military service members in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom who were separated from active duty or in the Reserves/National Guard. Veterans (n = 1090) from 50 states and all military branches completed 2 waves of data collection 1 year apart (79% retention rate). Thirty percent reported money mismanagement (e.g., bouncing or forging a check, going over one’s credit limit, falling victim to a money scam in the past year). Multivariate analysis revealed money mismanagement (odds ratio [OR] = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.87, 8.94) was associated with homelessness in the next year, as were arrest history (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.29), mental health diagnosis (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.26, 5.33), and income (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.71). Conclusions. Money mismanagement, reported by a substantial number of veterans, was related to a higher rate of subsequent homelessness. The findings have implications for policymakers and clinicians, suggesting that financial education programs offered by the US Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs may be targeted to effectively address veteran homelessness. PMID:24148067

  7. Mobile phone technology: a new paradigm for the prevention, treatment, and research of the non-sheltered "street" homeless?

    PubMed

    Eyrich-Garg, Karin M

    2010-05-01

    Individuals experiencing homelessness have disproportionately high rates of health problems. Those who perceive themselves as having greater access to their social support networks have better physical and mental health outcomes as well as lower rates of victimization. Mobile phones offer a connection to others without the physical constraints of landlines and, therefore, may make communication (e.g., access to one's social support networks) more feasible for homeless individuals. This, in turn, could lead toward better health outcomes. This exploratory study examined mobile phone possession and use among a sample of 100 homeless men and women who do not use the shelter system in Philadelphia, PA. Interviews were comprised of the Homeless Supplement to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, a technology module created for this investigation, and the substance use and psychiatric sections of the Addiction Severity Index. Almost half (44%) of the sample had a mobile phone. In the past 30 days, 100% of those with mobile phones placed or received a call, over half (61%) sent or received a text message, and one fifth (20%) accessed the Internet via their mobile phone. Participants possessed and used mobile phones to increase their sense of safety, responsibility (employment, stable housing, personal business, and sobriety or "clean time"), and social connectedness. Mobile phones could potentially be used by public health/health care providers to disseminate information to the street homeless, to enhance communication between the street homeless and providers, and to increase access for the street homeless to prevention, intervention, and aftercare services. Finally, this technology could also be used by researchers to collect data with this transient population.

  8. Mobile phone technology: a new paradigm for the prevention, treatment, and research of the non-sheltered "street" homeless?

    PubMed

    Eyrich-Garg, Karin M

    2010-05-01

    Individuals experiencing homelessness have disproportionately high rates of health problems. Those who perceive themselves as having greater access to their social support networks have better physical and mental health outcomes as well as lower rates of victimization. Mobile phones offer a connection to others without the physical constraints of landlines and, therefore, may make communication (e.g., access to one's social support networks) more feasible for homeless individuals. This, in turn, could lead toward better health outcomes. This exploratory study examined mobile phone possession and use among a sample of 100 homeless men and women who do not use the shelter system in Philadelphia, PA. Interviews were comprised of the Homeless Supplement to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, a technology module created for this investigation, and the substance use and psychiatric sections of the Addiction Severity Index. Almost half (44%) of the sample had a mobile phone. In the past 30 days, 100% of those with mobile phones placed or received a call, over half (61%) sent or received a text message, and one fifth (20%) accessed the Internet via their mobile phone. Participants possessed and used mobile phones to increase their sense of safety, responsibility (employment, stable housing, personal business, and sobriety or "clean time"), and social connectedness. Mobile phones could potentially be used by public health/health care providers to disseminate information to the street homeless, to enhance communication between the street homeless and providers, and to increase access for the street homeless to prevention, intervention, and aftercare services. Finally, this technology could also be used by researchers to collect data with this transient population. PMID:20397058

  9. Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

  10. Perspectives on housing among homeless emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Tiffany N; Thompson, Sanna J

    2013-02-01

    Homeless emerging adults need the safety and stability of housing programs if they are to avoid the elements and victimization of the streets, however, barriers to obtaining housing are numerous. This study identified factors associated with perspectives of housing services among 29 homeless emerging adults (ages 18-23 years) through one-on-one interviews. Data were gathered and analyzed using grounded theory methodology for qualitative information. Major themes of peer support and positive personal and programmatic interactions in the context of emerging adult development were noted as important factors in housing service utilization. These major themes should be taken into consideration for current housing programs, due to homeless emerging adults' oscillation between their desire for formal support and personal independence. Greater emphasis on services that do not require long term commitments and are more flexible in addressing specific barriers to housing for homeless emerging adults may increase use.

  11. Homeless Women, Street Smarts, and Their Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Carole

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative study of four homeless women depicted their self-perceptions, instability of relationships, decision-making processes, and resourcefulness. Their informal learning included situational and intentional learning applied to survival. (SK)

  12. The homeless: help from hotels and restaurants.

    PubMed

    Hales, A; Eyster, J J; Ford, J L

    1993-07-01

    Specific examples and information are given to service providers to address the needs of homeless people. Together nurses and restaurant and hotel managers combined their expertise to assist local agencies in their community kitchens and shelters.

  13. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors Among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were conducted to characterize the sample as well as the relations between relevant stressors (discrimination, chronic stress, and fear and mistrust) and health risk factors. Inadequate daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber was common. High-fat diet and insufficient physical activity were also prevalent, and the majority of participants were overweight/obese. Participants commonly endorsed discrimination, fear of victimization, mistrust of others, and several other stressors. Greater endorsement of stressors was associated with a high-fat diet. Results suggest that lifestyle interventions and policy changes may be warranted in homeless shelters to attenuate the potential effects of stressors on high-fat dietary consumption among smokers.

  14. Identifying relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for homeless families in transitional housing: Using parent input to inform adaptation efforts.

    PubMed

    Holtrop, Kendal; Chaviano, Casey L; Scott, Jenna C; McNeil Smith, Shardé

    2015-11-01

    Homeless families in transitional housing face a number of distinct challenges, yet there is little research seeking to guide prevention and intervention work with homeless parents. Informed by the tenets of community-based participatory research, the purpose of this study was to identify relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for this population. Data were gathered from 40 homeless parents through semistructured individual interviews and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The resulting 15 categories suggest several topics, approach considerations, and activities that can inform parenting intervention work with homeless families in transitional housing. Study findings are discussed within the context of intervention fidelity versus adaptation, and implications for practice, research, and policy are suggested. This study provides important insights for informing parenting intervention adaptation and implementation efforts with homeless families in transitional housing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Beta-carotene-induced enhancement of natural killer cell activity in elderly men: an investigation of the role of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Santos, M S; Gaziano, J M; Leka, L S; Beharka, A A; Hennekens, C H; Meydani, S N

    1998-07-01

    We showed previously that natural killer (NK) cell activity is significantly greater in elderly men supplemented with beta-carotene than in those taking placebo. In an attempt to determine the mechanism of beta-carotene's effect, we analyzed the production of NK cell-enhancing cytokines (interferon alpha, interferon gamma, and interleukin 12). Boston-area participants in the Physicians' Health Study (men aged 65-88 y; mean age, 73 y) who had been supplemented with beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) for an average of 12 y were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Elderly subjects taking beta-carotene supplements had significantly greater plasma beta-carotene concentrations than those taking placebo. Beta-carotene-supplemented elderly men had significantly greater NK cell activity than did elderly men receiving placebo. Percentages of NK cells (CD16+CD56+) were not significantly different between the beta-carotene and placebo groups. Production of interleukin 12, interferon alpha, or concanavalin A-stimulated interferon gamma by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not significantly different between beta-carotene-supplemented elderly and those taking placebo. Our results indicate that beta-carotene-induced enhancement of NK cell activity is not mediated by changes in percentages of CD16+CD56+ NK cells nor through up-regulation of interleukin 12 or interferon alpha.

  16. Influence of recreational activity and muscle strength on ulnar bending stiffness in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myburgh, K. H.; Charette, S.; Zhou, L.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1993-01-01

    Bone bending stiffness (modulus of elasticity [E] x moment of inertia [I]), a measure of bone strength, is related to its mineral content (BMC) and geometry and may be influenced by exercise. We evaluated the relationship of habitual recreational exercise and muscle strength to ulnar EI, width, and BMC in 51 healthy men, 28-61 yr of age. BMC and width were measured by single photon absorptiometry and EI by mechanical resistance tissue analysis. Maximum biceps strength was determined dynamically (1-RM) and grip strength isometrically. Subjects were classified as sedentary (S) (N = 13), moderately (M) (N = 18), or highly active (H) (N = 20) and exercised 0.2 +/- 0.2; 2.2 +/- 1.3; and 6.8 +/- 2.3 h.wk-1 (P < 0.001). H had greater biceps (P < 0.0005) and grip strength (P < 0.05), ulnar BMC (P < 0.05), and ulnar EI (P = 0.01) than M or S, who were similar. Amount of activity correlated with grip and biceps strength (r = 0.47 and 0.49; P < 0.001), but not with bone measurements, whereas muscle strength correlated with both EI and BMC (r = 0.40-0.52, P < 0.005). EI also correlated significantly with both BMC and ulnar width (P < 0.0001). Ulnar width and biceps strength were the only independent predictors of EI (r2 = 0.67, P < 0.0001). We conclude that levels of physical activity sufficient to increase arm strength influence ulnar bending stiffness.

  17. Women, men, and rheumatoid arthritis: analyses of disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments in the QUEST-RA Study

    PubMed Central

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Toloza, Sergio; Cutolo, Maurizio; Kautiainen, Hannu; Makinen, Heidi; Gogus, Feride; Skakic, Vlado; Badsha, Humeira; Peets, Tõnu; Baranauskaite, Asta; Géher, Pál; Újfalussy, Ilona; Skopouli, Fotini N; Mavrommati, Maria; Alten, Rieke; Pohl, Christof; Sibilia, Jean; Stancati, Andrea; Salaffi, Fausto; Romanowski, Wojciech; Zarowny-Wierzbinska, Danuta; Henrohn, Dan; Bresnihan, Barry; Minnock, Patricia; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Jacobs, Johannes WG; Calvo-Alen, Jaime; Lazovskis, Juris; Pinheiro, Geraldo da Rocha Castelar; Karateev, Dmitry; Andersone, Daina; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Yazici, Yusuf; Pincus, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Gender as a predictor of outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has evoked considerable interest over the decades. Historically, there is no consensus whether RA is worse in females or males. Recent reports suggest that females are less likely than males to achieve remission. Therefore, we aimed to study possible associations of gender and disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments of RA in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with RA called Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA). Methods The cohort includes clinical and questionnaire data from patients who were seen in usual care, including 6,004 patients at 70 sites in 25 countries as of April 2008. Gender differences were analyzed for American College of Rheumatology Core Data Set measures of disease activity, DAS28 (disease activity score using 28 joint counts), fatigue, the presence of rheumatoid factor, nodules and erosions, and the current use of prednisone, methotrexate, and biologic agents. Results Women had poorer scores than men in all Core Data Set measures. The mean values for females and males were swollen joint count-28 (SJC28) of 4.5 versus 3.8, tender joint count-28 of 6.9 versus 5.4, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 30 versus 26, Health Assessment Questionnaire of 1.1 versus 0.8, visual analog scales for physician global estimate of 3.0 versus 2.5, pain of 4.3 versus 3.6, patient global status of 4.2 versus 3.7, DAS28 of 4.3 versus 3.8, and fatigue of 4.6 versus 3.7 (P < 0.001). However, effect sizes were small-medium and smallest (0.13) for SJC28. Among patients who had no or minimal disease activity (0 to 1) on SJC28, women had statistically significantly higher mean values compared with men in all other disease activity measures (P < 0.001) and met DAS28 remission less often than men. Rheumatoid factor was equally prevalent among genders. Men had nodules more often than women. Women had erosions more often than men, but

  18. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter. PMID:26837829

  19. Vitamin and mineral status in physically active men: effects of a high-potency supplement.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Moses, F M; Deuster, P A

    1992-01-01

    Changes in nutritional status during supplementation with a high-potency multivitamin-mineral supplement were examined in 22 physically active men randomly assigned to take a supplement (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) for approximately 12 wk. Four-day dietary intakes, blood concentrations, and urinary excretions of selected vitamins and minerals were measured before, during (approximately 6 and 12 wk), and after supplementation. No changes were observed in blood concentrations of vitamins A and C and measures of zinc, magnesium, and calcium status; the supplement provided less than 300% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of these nutrients. In contrast, blood concentrations of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, pantothenate, and biotin increased significantly (P less than 0.05) by 6 wk to values that were maintained until the end of the supplementation. These vitamins were provided in amounts that ranged from 396% (biotin) to 6250% (vitamin B-6) of the RDA. Urinary excretions of these vitamins also increased during supplementation and both blood and urine values returned to presupplementation concentrations at approximately 13.5 wk postsupplementation. PMID:1728807

  20. Aromatase activity after a short-course of letrozole administration in adult men at sea level and at high altitude (with or without excessive erythrocytosis).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Tapia, V; Gasco, M; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2012-02-01

    Men living at high altitudes in Peru compared to sea level counterparts have erythrocytosis (hemoglobin 16-21 g/dl) or excessive erythrocytosis (hemoglobin>21 g/dl). High testosterone (T) levels in men at high altitude (HA) were associated with excessive erythrocytosis. High androgen levels could be due to a low aromatase activity or to an elevated rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone. The aim of this study was to evaluate aromatase activity and rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone before and after administration of the aromatase enzyme inhibitor letrozole (5 mg/day) for a 5-day period to men at HA and at sea level (SL). The response to short term aromatase inhibition was assessed in 30 adult men living at sea level, 31 native men at HA with erythrocytosis (Hb 16-21 g/dl), and 35 men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis (Hb>21 g/dl). Serum hormone levels, estradiol/testosterone, testosterone/androstenedione, and testosterone/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) ratios were measured. Men with erythrocytosis had lower basal serum T/androstenedione ratios than men with excessive erythrocytosis at HA and men at sea level. Men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis had higher T/DHEAS ratios than men with erythrocytosis and than those at sea level before and after letrozole administration. After letrozole administration, both groups of men at high altitude (with erythrocytosis or with excessive erythrocytosis) showed lower aromatase activities than those at sea level. In conclusion, higher serum testosterone levels in men with excessive erythrocytosis were associated with an increased rate of conversion from DHEAS to testosterone rather than to a lower aromatase activity.

  1. Experiences of Being Homeless or at Risk of Being Homeless among Canadian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pamela; Donahue, Peter; Este, Dave; Hofer, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken with four groups -- immigrants, youths, Aboriginal people, and landlords -- in order to explore, compare, and contrast diversity issues among the homeless population and those at risk of homelessness in a larger Canadian city (Calgary, Alberta) with a smaller city (Lethbridge, Alberta), to better understand their…

  2. Educational Rights of Homeless Youth: Exploring Racial Dimensions of Homeless Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    Research that addresses educational rights of unaccompanied homeless youth in grades 9-12 is limited. The McKinney-Vento Act was created to address the many needs of homeless individuals, including children and youth's right to an education. McKinney-Vento was created over twenty-years ago, and this research sought to examine the implementation of…

  3. From Homelessness to Community: Psychological Integration of Women Who Have Experienced Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemiroff, Rebecca; Aubry, Tim; Klodawsky, Fran

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychological integration of women who were homeless at the study's outset. Participants (N = 101) were recruited at homeless shelters and participated in 2 in-person interviews, approximately 2 years apart. A predictive model identifying factors associated with having a psychological sense of community within…

  4. Homelessness Comes to School: How Homeless Children and Youths Can Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri J.

    2011-01-01

    Homelessness is a complex and layered phenomenon, but schools can be effective in reducing its educational consequences. Schools currently are not doing enough. The next step is to consider the services that are needed for students as they arrive on the school campus. Taking care of homeless children in school systems involves seven provisos:…

  5. Investigating community-based health and health promotion for homeless people: a mixed methods review.

    PubMed

    Coles, E; Themessl-Huber, M; Freeman, R

    2012-08-01

    Homeless people are susceptible to a range of health problems, yet in terms of health promotion, tend to be a hard-to-reach, marginalized group. Robust evidence regarding the ability to engage with this population via effective health promotion programmes is essential if policy and practice are to be informed to improve the health of homeless people. A structured review was conducted with the aim of examining what is known about community-based health promotion for homeless people. Six databases were searched and 8435 records screened. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. A mixed-methods 'combined separate synthesis' approach was used to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative evidence within one review. Three themes emerged: (i) incorporating homelessness, (ii) health improving and (iii) health engaging. The review has implications for health promotion design, with evidence suggesting that as part of a tailored approach, homeless people must be actively involved in intervention development, ensuring that appropriate, acceptable and potentially effective individual elements are incorporated into community-based interventions.

  6. A support intervention to promote health and coping among homeless youths.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Miriam; Reutter, Linda; Letourneau, Nicole; Makwarimba, Edward

    2009-06-01

    Homeless youths are often vulnerable to limited support resources and loneliness. Peers are a potent source of social support. A support intervention for homeless youths was designed to optimize peer influence and was pilot tested. The intervention was based on an initial assessment of support needs and intervention preferences from the perspective of 36 homeless youths and 27 service providers. Based on the results, a 20-week pilot intervention program was designed, consisting of 4 support groups, optional one-on-one support, group recreational activities, and meals. Support was provided by professional and peer mentors, including formerly homeless youths. A total of 56 homeless youths aged 16 to 24 took part. Participants completed pre-, mid-, and post-test quantitative measures and qualitative interviews. In spite of challenges due primarily to attrition, the youths reported enhanced health behaviours, improved mental well-being, decreased loneliness, expanded social network, increased coping skills, enhanced self-efficacy, and diminished use of drugs and alcohol. Further research could focus on replication at other sites with a larger sample.

  7. "Are we moving again this week?" Children's experiences of homelessness in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Maggie; Keys, Deborah; Bodzak, Daria; Turner, Alina

    2010-04-01

    This research aimed to gain insight into the homelessness experience of children accommodated in transitional support services in an urban setting in Australia. It joins a limited international literature. Interviews incorporating interactive activities were conducted with 20 children aged 6-12 from diverse ethnicities and cultural backgrounds, most of whom were living in supported accommodation. Twelve parents/guardians were also interviewed. Children had experienced between 3 and 11 changes of residence, including hotels or motels, refuges, sleeping rough or in cars, rooming or boarding houses, and caravan parks. It was evident that homelessness adversely affected children's sense of security, mood, behaviour, physical health, education, and overall experience of childhood. As families moved from one temporary accommodation to the next, they often lost touch with the extended family and their friends, became disconnected from any sense of community, and did without familiar possessions, treasures, toys, and pets. Experiencing chaotic sequences of accommodation could leave children feeling confused, insecure, sad, and angry. It could make children feel responsible for their discouraged and unwell parents and their younger siblings. Homelessness made many children expect instability as a way of life. Children continued to be affected by problems that preceded or precipitated homelessness, such as family violence, broken relationships, and parents grappling with drug and alcohol dependence. The overwhelming conclusion to be drawn from this research is that children affected by homelessness need security, stability, and the chance to become and remain part of a community. PMID:20117866

  8. An Ecological Systems Comparison Between Homeless Sexual Minority Youths and Homeless Heterosexual Youths.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N

    2013-01-01

    This study examined risk and protective outcomes by comparing homeless sexual minority youths to heterosexual homeless youths regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health (suicide risk and depression), stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews (N = 147) were conducted with individuals ages 16-24 at three drop-in programs serving homeless youths in Toronto. Bivariate analyses indicated statistically significant differences between homeless sexual minorities (n=66) and their heterosexual counterparts (n=81) regarding all variables: family, peer behaviors, stigma, discrimination, mental health, substance use and sexual risk behaviors with the exception of school belonging. Specifically, homeless sexual minority youths fared more poorly (e.g. lower satisfaction with family communication, experienced more stigma, used more drugs and alcohol) than their heterosexual counterparts. Improving family communication may be a worthwhile intervention if the youths are still in contact with their families. Future research should focus on victimization in the context of multiple systems.

  9. The margin has many sides: diversity among gay and homosexually active men in Lima.

    PubMed

    Caceres, C F; Rosasco, A M

    1999-01-01

    This study provides a perspective on the sexual culture, self-representations and behaviors of men who have sex with men. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with gay-identified men from both working class and middle-class backgrounds, non-gay-identified men who had sex with men, "fletes" (young men who sell homosexual sex), and transvestites. Ages among the study group ranged from 18 to 35. Issues explored included homosexuality and bisexuality, sexual experiences, socialization and support networks, "fleteo" and prostitution, AIDS-related concerns, emotional attachment, sexual identity and self-image. Findings suggest that a unitary homosexual culture does not exist in Lima. Ideologies structuring relationships within homoerotic culture range from more the more traditional, in which relationships are organized according to gender-transformed relationships, whereby ordinary males performed as "activos" with feminized "pasivo" males, to contemporary Western patterns involving equals who are able to exchange sexual roles. Awareness of this diversity should facilitate the identification of different sexual health needs and the protection of sexual rights, leading to the development of programs more sensitive to the cultural heterogeneity of male homosexualities in Lima.

  10. Homeless in Dhaka: Violence, Sexual Harassment, and Drug-abuse

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-01-01

    -users shared needles. The study determined that the homeless are not highly mobile but tend to congregate in clusters night after night. Income-generating activities, targeted education, gender-friendly community police programmes, shelters and crises centres, and greater community involvement are suggested as policy and programmatic interventions to raise the quality of life of this population. In addition, there is a need to reduce high rates of urban migration, a priority for Bangladesh. PMID:19761080

  11. Homeless in Dhaka: violence, sexual harassment, and drug-abuse.

    PubMed

    Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Uddin, Md Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-08-01

    -users shared needles. The study determined that the homeless are not highly mobile but tend to congregate in clusters night after night. Income-generating activities, targeted education, gender-friendly community police programmes, shelters and crises centres, and greater community involvement are suggested as policy and programmatic interventions to raise the quality of life of this population. In addition, there is a need to reduce high rates of urban migration, a priority for Bangladesh.

  12. Homeless, Mentally Ill Youth Benefit from Housing Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Housing Matters and the National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH) in the United States. Nan Roman, NAEH's ... Housing First is a proven method for ending homelessness," Roman added, "and has been shown to increase ...

  13. Social Policy and Social Science Research on Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews prior research on homelessness and describes what remains to be done. Calls for greater attention to the socioeconomic causes of homelessness, its image in the media, and public attitudes toward the problem. (DM)

  14. A pilot trial of integrated behavioral activation and sexual risk reduction counseling for HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men abusing crystal methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Pantalone, David W; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2012-11-01

    Crystal methamphetamine use is a major driver behind high-risk sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). Prior work suggests a cycle of continued crystal methamphetamine use and high-risk sex due to loss of the ability to enjoy other activities, which appears to be a side effect of this drug. Behavioral activation (BA) is a treatment for depression that involves learning to reengage in life's activities. We evaluated a novel intervention for crystal methamphetamine abuse and high-risk sex in MSM, incorporating 10 sessions of BA with integrated HIV risk reduction counseling (RR). Forty-four subjects were screened, of whom 21 met initial entry criteria. A total of 19 participants enrolled; 16 completed an open-phase study of the intervention. Behavioral assessments were conducted at baseline, 3 months postbaseline, and 6 months postbaseline. Linear mixed effects regression models were fit to assess change over time. Mean unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) episodes decreased significantly from baseline to acute postintervention (β=-4.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-7.48, -2.24; p=0.0015) and from baseline to 6 months postbaseline (β=-5.07; 95% CI=-7.85, -2.29; p=0.0017; test of fixed effects χ(2)=16.59; df=2,13; p=0.0002). On average, there was a significant decrease over time in the number of crystal methamphetamine episodes in the past 3 months (χ(2)=22.43; df=2,15; p<0.0001), and the number of days of crystal methamphetamine use in the past 30 days (χ(2)=9.21; df=2,15; p=0.010). Statistically significant reductions in depressive symptoms and poly-substance use were also maintained. Adding behavioral activation to risk reduction counseling for MSM with problematic crystal methamphetamine use may augment the potency of a risk reduction intervention for this population. Due to the small sample size and time intensive intervention, future testing in a randomized design is necessary to determine efficacy, with subsequent effectiveness testing.

  15. A case study of a Canadian homelessness intervention programme for elderly people.

    PubMed

    Ploeg, Jenny; Hayward, Lynda; Woodward, Christel; Johnston, Riley

    2008-12-01

    The aims of this study were to describe: (1) how the Homelessness Intervention Programme addressed the needs of elderly people who were homeless or at risk of homelessness; and (2) the factors that influenced the ability of the programme to address client needs. The programme was offered by a multi-service non-profit agency serving low-income families and individuals in an urban neighbourhood in Ontario, Canada. Using a case study approach, we conducted 10 individual interviews and three focus groups with programme clients, programme providers, other service providers and programme funders. Programme providers completed intake forms, monthly follow-up forms and exit/housing change forms for each of the 129 clients served by the programme over a 28-month period. Approximately equal proportions of clients were between 54 years old and 65 years old (47%) and over 65 years (53%). There were equal proportions of women and men. In addition to being homeless or marginally housed, clients lived with multiple and complex issues including chronic illness, mental illness and substance abuse. Through the facilitation of continuity of care, the programme was able to meet the needs of this vulnerable group of elderly people. Three types of continuity of care were facilitated: relational, informational and management continuity. The study confirmed the value of a continuous caring relationship with an identified provider and the delivery of a seamless service through coordination, integration and information sharing between different providers. Study findings also highlighted the broader systemic factors that acted as barriers to the programme and its ability to meet the needs of elderly people. These factors included limited housing options available; limited income supports; and lack of coordinated, accessible community health and support services. The central findings stress the importance of continuity of care as a guiding concept for intervention programmes for homeless and

  16. Homeless People’s Perceptions of Welcomeness and Unwelcomeness in Healthcare Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chuck K.; Hudak, Pamela L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Homeless people face many barriers to obtaining health care, and their attitudes toward seeking health care services may be shaped in part by previous encounters with health care providers. Objective To examine how homeless persons experienced “welcomeness” and “unwelcomeness” in past encounters with health care providers and to characterize their perceptions of these interactions. Design Qualitative content analysis of 17 in-depth interviews. Participants Seventeen homeless men and women, aged 29–62 years, residing at 5 shelters in Toronto, Canada. Approach Interpretive content analysis was performed using iterative stages of inductive coding. Interview transcripts were analyzed using Buber’s philosophical conceptualization of ways of relating as “I–It” (the way persons relate to objects) and “I–You” (the way persons relate to dynamic beings). Results Most participants perceived their experiences of unwelcomeness as acts of discrimination. Homelessness and low social class were most commonly cited as the perceived basis for discriminatory treatment. Many participants reported intense emotional responses to unwelcoming experiences, which negatively influenced their desire to seek health care in the future. Participants’ descriptions of unwelcoming health care encounters were consistent with “I–It” ways of relating in that they felt dehumanized, not listened to, or disempowered. Welcoming experiences were consistent with “I–You” ways of relating, in that patients felt valued as a person, truly listened to, or empowered. Conclusions Homeless people’s perceptions of welcomeness and unwelcomeness are an important aspect of their encounters with health care providers. Buber’s “I–It” and “I–You” concepts are potentially useful aids to health care providers who wish to understand how welcoming and unwelcoming interactions are fostered. PMID:17415619

  17. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    PubMed

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps < .05. Effects were observed for men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  18. Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  19. Homeless female U.S. veterans in a national supported housing program: comparison of individual characteristics and outcomes with male veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kane, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    As more women serve in the U.S. military, the proportion of females among homeless veterans is increasing. The current study compares the individual characteristics and 1-year outcomes of homeless female and male veterans in the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) program nationally. Administrative data on 43,853 veterans (10.69% females; 89.31% males) referred to HUD-VASH were analyzed for gender differences at baseline and over a 1-year period. Homeless female veterans were younger, had shorter homeless and incarceration histories, and were less likely to have substance use disorders than men. However, despite being less likely to report combat exposure, female veterans were more likely to have posttraumatic stress disorder. Homeless female veterans were also much more likely to have dependent children with them and to plan to live with family members in supported housing. Once admitted to HUD-VASH, there were no gender differences in attrition or main housing outcomes. Case managers were faster to admit female veterans to the program, reported better working alliances, and provided more services related to employment and income than male veterans. These findings suggest homeless female veterans may have certain strengths, including being younger, less involved in the criminal justice system, and more adept at relating to professional and natural supports; but special attention to noncombat trauma and family-oriented services may be needed. PMID:24730678

  20. Correlates of serious violent crime for recently released parolees with a history of homelessness.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Marlow, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Hall, Elizabeth; Farabee, David; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark; Leake, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study used baseline data on recently released paroled men who are homeless (N=157), residing in a residential drug treatment program, and enrolled in a longitudinal study to examine personal, developmental, and social correlates of parolees who are homeless and who have committed serious violent offenses. Having experienced childhood sexual abuse, poor parental relationships, and early-onset incarceration (prior to 21 years of age) were important correlates of serious violent crimes. These findings highlight the need for interventions that address offenders' prior adult and childhood victimization and suggest that policies for reentering violent offenders should encompass an understanding of the broader family contexts in which these patterns of maltreatment often occur. PMID:23155727

  1. Homeless Adolescents' Perceptions of Positive Development: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…

  2. The Multi-Dimensional Lives of Children Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grineski, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is widely reported that children who are homeless are victimized by overwhelming challenges like poverty and ill-advised policy decisions, such as underfunding the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. This act is the only federal legislation devoted to this marginalized group. Children who are homeless, however, should not be characterized…

  3. Education Rights of Homeless Students: A Guide for Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Law Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    There is no question that students who are homeless, like all students, are entitled to be educated. A federal law, known as the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, requires states to provide homeless children and youth with the same access to free public education as is available to other students. The Act also requires states to eliminate…

  4. Crossing the Threshhold: Successful Learning Provision for Homeless People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Helen; McKaig, Wendy; Taylor, Sue

    This guide tells the story of a successful collaboration between The City Literary Institute and homelessness agencies to create an arts-based learning program for homeless people in central London. It identifies guidelines and good practice to stimulate similar work in other locations with problems of homelessness and rough sleeping. The guide is…

  5. On the Edge of Homelessness: Rural Poverty and Housing Insecurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1992-01-01

    Uses long-term field research, interviews, questionnaires, and public records in upstate New York to link the risk of rural homelessness to poverty trends. Recommends broadened definition of rural homelessness to include those at risk. Suggests homeless programs apply themselves to rural situations. (TES)

  6. Falling through the Gaps: Homeless Children and Youth. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Phillip; DeBaun, Bill

    2012-01-01

    In each state, between 41 percent and 91 percent of the homeless students identified by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) are not considered homeless by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Nationwide, as many as 715,238 homeless students fall into a bureaucratic gap between HUD and ED. This is because ED, HUD, and other…

  7. Homelessness in the Elementary School Classroom: Social and Emotional Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Kirby A.; Mistry, Rashmita S.; Melchor, Vanessa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined elementary school teachers' experiences working with homeless students. Specifically, we focused on the psychosocial impacts of homelessness on students and their teachers. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 teachers who worked at designated public schools for family homeless shelters. A prominent…

  8. Homeless High School Students in America: Who Counts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, John M.; Gloeckner, Gene W.

    2012-01-01

    After interviewing homeless high school students, the research team in a Colorado school district discovered that many students had not revealed their true living conditions (homelessness) to anyone in the school district. This research team developed an anonymous survey written around the homeless categories identified in the McKinney-Vento…

  9. 75 FR 79323 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... renewed effort to end homelessness for veterans. For this reason, we are proposing to establish... homelessness, then that disorder is serious; therefore, it is consistent to include such veterans in a program... therapeutic housing or other VA programs designed to end homelessness. The primary purposes of this...

  10. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Homeless Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…

  11. From substance use to homelessness or vice versa?

    PubMed

    McVicar, Duncan; Moschion, Julie; van Ours, Jan C

    2015-07-01

    Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the period from October 2011 to May 2013. Our data refer to 1325 individuals who were homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. We investigate dynamics in homelessness and substance use over the survey period. We find that the two are closely related: homeless individuals are more likely to be substance users and substance users are more likely to be homeless. These relationships, however, are predominantly driven by observed and unobserved individual characteristics which cause individuals to be both more likely to be homeless and to be substance users. Once we take these personal characteristics into account it seems that homelessness does not affect substance use, although we cannot rule out that alcohol use increases the probability that an individual becomes homeless. These overall relationships also hide some interesting heterogeneity by 'type' of homelessness.

  12. Educating Homeless Children and Adolescents: Evaluating Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H., Ed.

    One of the more enigmatic issues of contemporary homelessness is that of schooling. This collection highlights issues related to the provision of an education to homeless children and youths. Background information is offered, with an analysis of educational policy relating to homeless children. Practical strategies and a review of successful…

  13. What Kind of School Board Member Would Help Homeless Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1989-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in every part of the United States. Federal legislation requires state plans for educating homeless children, but will provide less than $23 per child. Summarizes some of the state plans and suggests steps school boards can take to provide homeless children with public education. (MLF)

  14. The Changing Character of Homelessness in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelson, Leland J.; Dail, Paula W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes new form of homeless persons, a growing population of homeless individuals and families who are not mentally ill, not wanderers, and may be employed. Examines changing character of homelessness and makes recommendations for a public policy response to the problem. (Author/NB)

  15. The Cycle of Family Homelessness: A Social Policy Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    Research on homeless children and families carried out by the Institute for Children and Poverty over the last 6 years is compiled in this document. The contents range from programmatic solutions and policy recommendations to simple "snapshots" of homeless families. Much of the research is based on the experiences of Homes for the Homeless, which…

  16. Homeless Children in America: Challenges for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    The 1980s brought an unprecedented rise in the number of homeless families with children. That there may be as many as three million homeless persons in the United States, with families representing one-third of this population, indicates that homelessness is a social problem of catastrophic proportions. This paper finds that while Federal…

  17. Contribution of sympathetic activation to coronary vasodilatation during the cold pressor test in healthy men: effect of ageing.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kevin D; Feehan, Robert P; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Gao, Zhaohui

    2013-06-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is an important regulator of coronary blood flow. The cold pressor test (CPT) is a powerful sympathoexcitatory stressor. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) CPT-induced sympathetic activation elicits coronary vasodilatation in young adults that is impaired with advancing age and (2) combined α- and β-adrenergic blockade diminishes/abolishes these age-related differences. Vascular responses of the left anterior descending artery to the CPT were determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography before (pre-blockade) and during (post-blockade) systemic co-administration of α- and β-adrenergic antagonists in young (n = 9; 26 ± 1 years old, mean ± SEM) and older healthy men (n = 9; 66 ± 2 years old). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR; mean arterial pressure/coronary blood velocity) was used as an index of vascular tone. CPT decreased CVR (i.e. coronary vasodilatation occurred) in young ( -33 ± 6%), but not older men ( -3 ± 4%; P < 0.05 vs. young) pre-blockade. Adrenergic blockade abolished CPT-induced coronary vasodilatation in young men ( -33 ± 6% vs. 0 ± 6%, pre-blockade vs. post-blockade, respectively; P < 0.05) such that responses post-blockade mirrored those of older men ( -3 ± 4% vs. 8 ± 9%; both P > 0.05 compared to young pre-blockade). Impaired CPT-induced coronary vasodilatation could not be explained by a reduced stimulus for vasodilatation as group and condition effects persisted when CVR responses were expressed relative to myocardial oxygen demand (rate-pressure product). These data indicate that the normal coronary vascular response to sympathetic activation in young men is pronounced vasodilatation and this effect is lost with age as the result of an adrenergic mechanism. These findings may help explain how acute sympathoexcitation may precipitate angina and coronary ischaemic events, particularly in older adults.

  18. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass. PMID:27457914

  19. Correlates of Heroin and Methamphetamine Use among Homeless Male Ex-Jail and Prison Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Farabee, David; Hall, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Musto, Stefanie; Leake, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Homeless men exiting California State jails and prisons are a heterogeneous community with varied childhood, incarceration and drug use histories. This cross-sectional study assessed whether homeless men who were discharged from either jail or prison into a residential substance abuse treatment program, differed in terms of methamphetamine and heroin use. This study utilized baseline data collected on 540 recently paroled men randomized to one of three programs that assessed the impact of a peer coaching intervention on subsequent drug use and re-incarceration. We found that younger ex-offenders exiting prisons and jails were more likely to have used methamphetamine alone, whereas African American ex-offenders were less likely to have used methamphetamine alone when compared to other ethnic groups. Further, ex-offenders exiting jails and self-reporting use of heroin only at baseline were significantly more likely than their counterparts to have been removed from home before age 18. For men exiting jails, there was an association between lower self-esteem and having used methamphetamine but not heroin. However, having used both heroin and methamphetamine was associated with both violent crime and cognitive problems in both jail and prison samples. Our findings showcase the need to understand unique correlates of both heroin and methamphetamine as they relate to jail and prison populations. PMID:25489295

  20. Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve. Summary Report. Findings of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Martha R.; Aron, Laudan Y.; Douglas, Toby; Valente, Jesse; Lee, Edgar; Iwen, Britta

    The National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC) was conducted to provide information about the providers of homeless assistance services and the characteristics of homeless clients who use them. This survey was conducted for use by federal agencies and other interested parties responsible for administering homeless…

  1. Up the Down Staircase: A Look at Family Homelessness in New Jersey. A Report of Homes for the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    In response to the increasing numbers of homeless families, Homes for the Homeless surveyed families in emergency shelters in Newark (New Jersey) to gain some insights into the characteristics and circumstances of urban homeless families. Newark was chosen because it is a large urban center with a high concentration of welfare recipients that is…

  2. Immediate Enrollment under McKinney-Vento: How Schools Can Keep Homeless Students Safe. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in homeless situations, particularly unaccompanied youth and survivors of domestic violence, are at a high risk for experiencing violence and victimization. Frequently, unaccompanied youth become homeless after leaving abusive or destructive home environments. In turn, their homelessness, which often involves "couch surfing"…

  3. Immediate Enrollment under McKinney-Vento: How Local Liaisons Can Keep Homeless Students Safe. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in homeless situations, particularly unaccompanied youth and survivors of domestic violence, are at a high risk for experiencing violence and victimization. Frequently, unaccompanied youth become homeless after leaving abusive or destructive home environments. In turn, their homelessness, which often involves "couch surfing" or…

  4. The impact of current alcohol and drug use on outcomes among homeless veterans entering supported housing.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Maria J; Kasprow, Wesley J; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    Permanent supported housing has increasingly been identified as a central approach to helping homeless individuals with disabilities exit from homelessness. Given that one third or more of homeless individuals actively use substances, it is important to determine the extent to which individuals who report using alcohol and/or drugs at the time of housing benefit from such programs. The current study examines data from the evaluation of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs (HUD-VA) Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program to determine differences in housing and clinical outcomes among participants with two different levels of active alcohol or drug use at time of housing entry. Whereas veterans with 1-15 days of active use and 15-30 days of active use had significantly more days homeless than abstainers, albeit with small effect sizes (.06 and .19, respectively), there were no significant differences in days housed or days in institutions. Interaction analysis suggests that the highest frequency substance users who spent time in residential treatment prior to housing had the poorest housing outcomes, while those who were not in residential treatment had outcomes comparable to abstainers. Although active substance users clearly benefit from supportive housing with small differences in outcomes from abstainers, high frequency substance users who were admitted to residential treatment before housing placement, may be an especially vulnerable population. PMID:23730966

  5. Experiences of being homeless or at risk of being homeless among Canadian youths.

    PubMed

    Miller, Pamela; Donahue, Peter; Este, Dave; Hofer, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken with four groups--immigrants, youths, Aboriginal people, and landlords--in order to explore, compare, and contrast diversity issues among the homeless population and those at risk of homelessness in a larger Canadian city (Calgary, Alberta) with a smaller city (Lethbridge, Alberta), to better understand their and to needs make recommendations for improvement in service delivery and policy formation. This paper focuses on the findings from our sample of youths who shared information on a range of factors that contributed to their being homeless or at risk of being homeless. The youths in this study also shared their positive as well as negative experiences with educators, peers, family members, and social service providers. Canada's homeless include growing numbers of young people, families, women, and members of various ethnic communities, including Aboriginal people and immigrants. Today it is no longer possible to articulate a single silhouette of the homeless, but rather a diversity of profiles is needed. It was in the light of this reality that a study, "Diversity Among the Homeless and Those At Risk," was carried out. It was undertaken with four groups--immigrants, youths, Aboriginal people, and landlords. PMID:15727411

  6. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men.

    PubMed

    Zembron-Lacny, A; Dziubek, W; Rynkiewicz, M; Morawin, B; Woźniewski, M

    2016-06-20

    Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years) and 17 young males (20-24 years) participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL), hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men. PMID:27332774

  7. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Zembron-Lacny, A.; Dziubek, W.; Rynkiewicz, M.; Morawin, B.; Woźniewski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years) and 17 young males (20-24 years) participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL), hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men. PMID:27332774

  8. Aerobic and anaerobic changes with high-intensity interval training in active college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Łuszczyk, Marcin; Laskowski, Radoslaw; Olek, Robert A; Gibson, Ann L

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic benefits of high-intensity interval training performed at a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 because little performance enhancement data exist based on this ratio. Recreationally active male volunteers (21 years, 184 cm, 81.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a training (interval training [IT] n = 10) or control group (n = 11). Baseline assessments were repeated after the last training session. Each participant underwent basic anthropometric assessment and performed a VO2max test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer and a 30-second Wingate test. Venous samples were acquired at the antecubital vein and subsequently processed for lactate (LA); samples were obtained at rest, and 5 and 15-minute post-Wingate test. The interval training used a cycling power output equivalent to 80% of VO2max (80% p VO2max) applied for 6 90-second bouts (each followed by 180-second rest) per session, 3 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The control group maintained their normal routine for the 6-week period. Group × time repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that IT improved VO2max (5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min), anaerobic threshold (3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min), work output (12.5 J · kg(-1)), glycolytic work (11.5 J · kg(-1)), mean power (0.3 W · kg), peak power (0.4 W · kg(-1)), and max power (0.4 W · kg(-1)); p < 0.05. Posttesting LA was lower on average for IT at the 5-minute mark but significantly so at the 15-minute mark. Twenty-seven minutes of cycling at 80% p VO2max applied with a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 and spread over 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks provided sufficient stimulus to significantly improve markers of anaerobic and aerobic performance in recreationally active college-aged men. Inclusion of such a protocol into a training program may rapidly restore or improve a client's or athlete's maximal functional capacity.

  9. African American Men With Very Low–Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Ross, Ashley E.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low–risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low–risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low–risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low–risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features. Results AA men with very low–risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). Conclusion AA men with very low–risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low–risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options. PMID:23775960

  10. Death, drugs, and disaster: mortality among New Orleans' homeless.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, Rachel L; Pals, Heili; Wright, James D

    2012-01-01

    Tracking homeless individuals over time has proved to be extremely difficult; thus, only limited longitudinal data on the homeless exist. We analyze longitudinal data originally collected from the New Orleans Homeless Substance Abusers Program in 1991-1993, supplemented with mortality data for the same sample by year 2010. We use social bonding theory to examine the effect of conventional social ties on mortality among a sample of substance abusing homeless people. This is of special concern when researching the older homeless persons. We find that social bonding theory does not help to understand mortality among this population. However, alcohol abuse, as compared to crack cocaine, does increase the likelihood of early mortality.

  11. The impact of economic downturns and budget cuts on homelessness claim rates across 323 local authorities in England, 2004–12

    PubMed Central

    Loopstra, Rachel; Reeves, Aaron; Barr, Ben; Taylor-Robinson, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear why rates of homelessness claims in England have risen since 2010. We used variations in rates across local authorities to test the impact of economic downturns and budget cuts. Methods Using cross-area fixed effects models of data from 323 UK local authorities between 2004 and 2012, we evaluated associations of changes in statutory homelessness rates with economic activity (Gross Value Added per capita), unemployment, and local and central government expenditure. Results Each 10% fall in economic activity was associated with an increase of 0.45 homelessness claims per 1000 households (95% CI: 0.10–0.80). Increasing rates of homelessness were also strongly linked with government reductions in welfare spending. Disaggregating types of welfare expenditure, we found that strongest associations with reduced homelessness claims were spending on social care, housing services, discretionary housing payments and income support for older persons. Conclusions Recession and austerity measures are associated with significant increases in rates of homelessness assistance. These findings likely understate the full burden of homelessness as they only capture those who seek aid. Future research is needed to investigate what is happening to vulnerable groups who may not obtain assistance, including those with mental health problems and rough sleepers. PMID:26364320

  12. Development of an Occupational Therapy Practice Perspective in a Homeless Shelter: A Fieldwork Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heubner, Joanne; Tryssenaar, Joyce

    1996-01-01

    An occupational therapy student's journal describes a clinical experience in a homeless shelter. Key themes were residents' search for meaning in life and the student's search for meaning in the therapist role; the importance of rapport; and residents' innate drive toward purposeful activity, which the student was able to address. (SK)

  13. A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…

  14. A Comprehensive Assessment of Health Care Utilization Among Homeless Adults Under a System of Universal Health Insurance

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Catharine; Chiu, Shirley; Katic, Marko; Kiss, Alex; Redelmeier, Donald A.; Levinson, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We comprehensively assessed health care utilization in a population-based sample of homeless adults and matched controls under a universal health insurance system. Methods. We assessed health care utilization by 1165 homeless single men and women and adults in families and their age- and gender-matched low-income controls in Toronto, Ontario, from 2005 to 2009, using repeated-measures general linear models to calculate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. Homeless participants had mean rates of 9.1 ambulatory care encounters (maximum = 141.1), 2.0 emergency department (ED) encounters (maximum = 104.9), 0.2 medical–surgical hospitalizations (maximum = 14.9), and 0.1 psychiatric hospitalizations per person-year (maximum = 4.8). Rate ratios for homeless participants compared with matched controls were 1.76 (95% CI = 1.58, 1.96) for ambulatory care encounters, 8.48 (95% CI = 6.72, 10.70) for ED encounters, 4.22 (95% CI = 2.99, 5.94) for medical–surgical hospitalizations, and 9.27 (95% CI = 4.42, 19.43) for psychiatric hospitalizations. Conclusions. In a universal health insurance system, homeless people had substantially higher rates of ED and hospital use than general population controls; these rates were largely driven by a subset of homeless persons with extremely high-intensity usage of health services. PMID:24148051

  15. College Access and Success for Students Experiencing Homelessness: A Toolkit for Educators and Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This toolkit serves as a comprehensive resource on the issue of higher education access and success for homeless students, including information on understanding homeless students, assisting homeless students in choosing a school, helping homeless students pay for application-related expenses, assisting homeless students in finding financial aid…

  16. The hunger-obesity paradox: obesity in the homeless.

    PubMed

    Koh, Katherine A; Hoy, Jessica S; O'Connell, James J; Montgomery, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Despite stereotypes of the homeless population as underweight, the literature lacks a rigorous analysis of weight status in homeless adults. The purpose of this study is to present the body mass index (BMI) distribution in a large adult homeless population and to compare this distribution to the non-homeless population in the United States. Demographic, BMI, and socioeconomic variables from patients seen in 2007-2008 were collected from the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP). This population was compared to non-homeless adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Among 5,632 homeless adults, the mean BMI was 28.4 kg/m(2) and the prevalence of obesity was 32.3 %. Only 1.6 % of homeless adults were underweight. Compared to mean BMI in NHANES (28.6 kg/m(2)), the difference was not significant in unadjusted analysis (p = 0.14). Adjusted analyses predicting BMI or likelihood of obesity also showed that the homeless had a weight distribution not statistically different from the general population. Although underweight has been traditionally associated with homelessness, this study suggests that obesity may be the new malnutrition of the homeless in the United States.

  17. Youth Homelessness: Prevalence and Associations with Weight in Three Regions.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, J J; Steinway, Caren; Perlman, Staci; Herbers, Janette E; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Willard, Joe

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the utility of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to document associations between homeless status and weight while estimating the prevalence of youth homelessness in three regions. A school-based survey, the YRBS includes youths who have been difficult to involve in past research. Analysis of 2011 YRBS data produced population-weighted estimates of youth homelessness prevalence separately for Connecticut, Delaware, and Philadelphia. Public high school students anonymously reported their housing status, height, and weight on the YRBS. Height and weight were converted to body mass index (BMI) percentile-for-age scores. Homelessness was associated with higher BMI percentile scores for youths compared with nonhomeless peers. Associations between BMI percentile and different forms of homelessness (homeless with family, unaccompanied homeless without family) were explored at each site. Estimates of one-month homelessness prevalence ranged from 3.9 percent to 5.9 percent at each site. Homelessness, especially family homelessness, is associated with risk for higher BMI. The YRBS is an informative tool for estimating the prevalence of youth homelessness, expanding on what is known through other, more commonly used methods.

  18. Youth Homelessness: Prevalence and Associations with Weight in Three Regions.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, J J; Steinway, Caren; Perlman, Staci; Herbers, Janette E; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Willard, Joe

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the utility of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to document associations between homeless status and weight while estimating the prevalence of youth homelessness in three regions. A school-based survey, the YRBS includes youths who have been difficult to involve in past research. Analysis of 2011 YRBS data produced population-weighted estimates of youth homelessness prevalence separately for Connecticut, Delaware, and Philadelphia. Public high school students anonymously reported their housing status, height, and weight on the YRBS. Height and weight were converted to body mass index (BMI) percentile-for-age scores. Homelessness was associated with higher BMI percentile scores for youths compared with nonhomeless peers. Associations between BMI percentile and different forms of homelessness (homeless with family, unaccompanied homeless without family) were explored at each site. Estimates of one-month homelessness prevalence ranged from 3.9 percent to 5.9 percent at each site. Homelessness, especially family homelessness, is associated with risk for higher BMI. The YRBS is an informative tool for estimating the prevalence of youth homelessness, expanding on what is known through other, more commonly used methods. PMID:26638508

  19. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA. PMID:25992659

  20. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA.

  1. Down and out: social marginality and homelessness.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, P

    1992-01-01

    In the last ten years the problem of homelessness has been on the increase. Compared to the situation about sixty years ago the homeless of today congregate more in the centres of the big cities, adhere to a different lifestyle and are socially, culturally and ethnically more diverse. Some indications of the scale of the problem in the Netherlands are given, but the focus of the paper is on the role of psychiatry: on the one hand, in providing services to the mentally ill among the homeless and, on the other hand, in protecting communities against people who are considered bothersome or unfit for civil life. The development of systems of comprehensive care for different categories of socially marginal people is discussed.

  2. Substance dependency among homeless American Indians.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Susan; Vaughan, Margaret Mortensen

    2003-01-01

    Extensive qualitative research in the San Francisco Bay Area in California and in Tucson, Arizona, indicates strong associations between substance abuse and homelessness among American Indians. This article takes a comparative approach to describe and analyze precipitating factors and survival patterns of those who are both homeless and who suffer from substance dependency. Possible precipitating factors presented through case studies consider the complex interaction of childhood fostering or adoption into non-Native families, different types of involuntary institutionalization during youth, and the personal impact of accident, trauma and loss. Coping strategies and keys to survival are examined, including the role of the extended family and close friendships, American Indian and mainstream organizations that offer formal and informal services, the existence of anchor or key households, the helping relationships and sobriety groups among homeless individuals, spirituality, and cultural resiliency.

  3. Associations of disordered sleep with body fat distribution, physical activity and diet among overweight middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Shu Mei; Mikkola, Tuija M; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Wiklund, Petri; Cong, Fengyu; Saarinen, Antti; Tarkka, Ina; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether body fat distribution, physical activity levels and dietary intakes are associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea among overweight middle-aged men. Participants were 211 Finnish men aged 30-65 years. Among the 163 overweight or obese participants, 40 had insomnia only, 23 had obstructive sleep apnea only, 24 had comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea and 76 were without sleep disorder. The remaining 48 participants had normal weight without sleep disorder. Fat mass, levels of physical activity and diet were assessed by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, physical activity questionnaire and 3-day food diary, respectively. Among the overweight participants, we found that: (i) groups with sleep disorders had higher fat mass in trunk and android regions than the group without sleep disorder (P = 0.048-0.004); (ii) the insomnia-only group showed a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (436.9 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.009) and higher intake of saturated fatty acids (14.8 versus 12.7 E%, P = 0.011) than the group without sleep disorder; and (iii) the comorbid group had a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (344.4 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.007) and lower folate intake (118.9 versus 152.1 μg, P = 0.002) than the group without sleep disorder, which were independent of body mass index. The results suggest that central obesity is associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, low levels of leisure-time physical activity and poor dietary intakes are related to insomnia or comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea among overweight men.

  4. Low dietary copper increases fecal free radical production, fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity and cytotoxicity in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cindy D

    2003-02-01

    One possible dietary factor that may increase susceptibility to colon cancer is inadequate copper intake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low and adequate copper intakes on copper nutriture and putative risk factors for colon cancer susceptibility in healthy men. Seventeen healthy free-living nonsmoking men aged 21-52 y completed a 13-wk controlled feeding study in a randomized crossover design. The basal diet contained 0.59 mg Cu/13.65 MJ. After a 1-wk equilibration period in which the men consumed the basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cu/d, they were randomly assigned to receive either the basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg Cu/d for 6 wk. After the first dietary period, the men immediately began to consume the other level of Cu for the last 6 wk. They collected their feces during the equilibration period and during the last 2 wk of the two dietary periods for free radical and fecal water analysis. Low dietary copper significantly (P < 0.01) increased fecal free radical production and fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity. Low dietary copper significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased fecal water copper concentrations but did not affect fecal water volume, pH, iron or zinc concentrations. In contrast to the fecal analysis, hematological indicators of copper status were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. These results suggest that low dietary copper adversely affects fecal free radical production and fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity, which are putative risk factors for colon cancer.

  5. Homelessness and the mentally ill offender.

    PubMed

    Richman, B J; Convit, A; Martell, D

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a retrospective analysis of the discharge summaries of 69 mentally ill offenders. The subjects were patients in a New York State Psychiatric Hospital for a two-year period between January 1988 and December 1989 who were referred by the courts under New York State Criminal Procedure Law (CPL). The subjects were further compared as to homelessness at the time of the instant offense to study the association of this variable and criminal behavior among the mentally ill. Statistical analyses demonstrated significant relationships between variables of homelessness, prior offense history, and substance abuse.

  6. Homeless women's experiences of service provider encounters.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Donna J; Nichols, Tracy R

    2014-01-01

    Service providers are gatekeepers to health-sustaining services and resources, although little is known about service encounters from the perspective of homeless women. We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 15 homeless women to better understand their experiences of service encounters. Using a phenomenological method, 160 significant statements were extracted from participant transcripts; more positive than negative interactions were reported. The 10 themes that emerged fall along a dehumanizing/humanizing continuum primarily separated by the power participants experienced in the interaction and the trust they felt in the service provider. Implications for nursing practice and research are offered. PMID:24528122

  7. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  8. 77 FR 44653 - Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application-Technical Submission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application-- Technical Submission AGENCY... the original Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application. DATES: Comments Due Date: August... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance...

  9. 76 FR 81959 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention Study Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention... following information: Title of Proposal: Homelessness Prevention Study Site Visits. OMB Control Number, if... requirements associated with HUD's Homelessness Prevention Study Site Visits. This information...

  10. 76 FR 64368 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Homelessness Prevention Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Homelessness Prevention... site visits that are part of HUD's Homelessness Prevention Study. The proposed information collection... collection for the Homelessness Prevention study that was already approved under emergency review...

  11. Lung Cancer in Homeless People: Clinical Outcomes and Cost Analysis in a Single Institute

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Koung Jin; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lim, Jin; Park, Jin Hyun; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To characterize the demographic and clinical features, outcomes, and treatment costs of lung cancer in homeless people. Methods. Medical records of 22 homeless patients with lung cancer at Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center in Seoul, South Korea, were retrospectively analyzed. Results. All patients were men (median age, 62 years). Most patients (78%) had advanced disease (stage IIIB, n = 2; stage IV, n = 15). Seven died during initial hospitalization (median survival, 1.5 months). Six were lost to follow-up after initial outpatient visits or discharges from initial admission (median follow-up, 13 days). Only 4 received appropriate treatment for their disease and survived for 1, 15, 19, and 28 months, respectively. Conversely, 4 of 5 patients with early stage disease (stage I, n = 4; stage IIA, n = 1) received curative surgery (median follow-up 25.5 months). The median treatment cost based on 29 days of hospitalization and 2 outpatient visits was $12,513, constituting 47.3% of the 2013 per capita income. Inpatient treatment accounted for 90% of the total costs. The National Health Insurance Service paid 82% of the costs. Conclusion. Among the homeless, lung cancer seems to be associated with poor prognosis and substantial costs during a relatively short follow-up and survival period. PMID:27445531

  12. Physical activity advertisements that feature daily well-being improve autonomy and body image in overweight women but not men.

    PubMed

    Segar, Michelle L; Updegraff, John A; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Richardson, Caroline R

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40-60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.

  13. Physical Activity Advertisements That Feature Daily Well-Being Improve Autonomy and Body Image in Overweight Women but Not Men

    PubMed Central

    Segar, Michelle L.; Updegraff, John A.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40–60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife. PMID:22701782

  14. Tuberculosis among the homeless, United States, 1994–2010

    PubMed Central

    Bamrah, S.; Yelk Woodruff, R. S.; Powell, K.; Ghosh, S.; Kammerer, J. S.; Haddad, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES 1) To describe homeless persons diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) during the period 1994–2010, and 2) to estimate a TB incidence rate among homeless persons in the United States. METHODS TB cases reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System were analyzed by origin of birth. Incidence rates were calculated using the US Department of Housing and Urban Development homeless population estimates. Analysis of genotyping results identified clustering as a marker for transmission among homeless TB patients. RESULTS Of 270 948 reported TB cases, 16 527 (6%) were homeless. The TB incidence rate among homeless persons ranged from 36 to 47 cases per 100 000 population in 2006–2010. Homeless TB patients had over twice the odds of not completing treatment and of belonging to a genotype cluster. US- and foreign-born homeless TB patients had respectively 8 and 12 times the odds of substance abuse. CONCLUSIONS Compared to the general population, homeless persons had an approximately 10-fold increase in TB incidence, were less likely to complete treatment and more likely to abuse substances. Public health outreach should target homeless populations to reduce the excess burden of TB in this population. PMID:24125444

  15. Neighbourhood green space, physical function and participation in physical activities among elderly men: the Caerphilly Prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The built environment in which older people live plays an important role in promoting or inhibiting physical activity. Most work on this complex relationship between physical activity and the environment has excluded people with reduced physical function or ignored the difference between groups with different levels of physical function. This study aims to explore the role of neighbourhood green space in determining levels of participation in physical activity among elderly men with different levels of lower extremity physical function. Method Using data collected from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) and green space data collected from high resolution Landmap true colour aerial photography, we first investigated the effect of the quantity of neighbourhood green space and the variation in neighbourhood vegetation on participation in physical activity for 1,010 men aged 66 and over in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. Second, we explored whether neighbourhood green space affects groups with different levels of lower extremity physical function in different ways. Results Increasing percentage of green space within a 400 meters radius buffer around the home was significantly associated with more participation in physical activity after adjusting for lower extremity physical function, psychological distress, general health, car ownership, age group, marital status, social class, education level and other environmental factors (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.41). A statistically significant interaction between the variation in neighbourhood vegetation and lower extremity physical function was observed (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.12, 3.28). Conclusion Elderly men living in neighbourhoods with more green space have higher levels of participation in regular physical activity. The association between variation in neighbourhood vegetation and regular physical activity varied according to lower extremity physical function. Subjects reporting poor lower extremity

  16. Coping and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Carroll, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of coping strategies employed by homeless youth upon suicidal ideation, suicide attempts on the streets, and feeling trapped/helpless. Coping strategies examined in the analysis included problem-focused and avoidant coping, along with several coping strategies identified in previous exploratory qualitative studies.…

  17. Homeless Houston Youth Find Refuge in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1989-01-01

    To attack their community's homeless student problem, the Houston Board of Education last February opened a "lighted schoolhouse" as a temporary shelter. Houston's superintendent, Joan Raymond, is convinced that more school districts will need to provide residential care. The 20 children using the shelter were turned over to Children's Protective…

  18. Foreclosed: Two Million Homeless Students and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibben, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that according to First Focus, a bipartisan advocacy organization for children and families, a predicted two million children will lose their homes over the next two years because of the foreclosure crisis. From an economy deep in recession, an entirely new population of homeless students has emerged. And with job losses at…

  19. Transitional Living Programs for Homeless Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Sara V.; Robertson, Robert M., Jr.

    This report presents a conceptual framework for developing, reviewing, and evaluating transitional living programs (TLPs) for homeless adolescents. It is designed to be used by those in the field who are or will be developing such programs. All TLPs share basic elements and each of these is described so that TLP providers can understand what their…

  20. 77 FR 20849 - Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Veterans' Reintegration Program AGENCY: Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS), Department of...: Section 2021 of Title 38 of the United States Code (U.S.C.) reauthorizes the Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program (HVRP) through fiscal year (FY) 2012 and indicates: ``the Secretary of Labor shall...

  1. The New Vagabonds? Homelessness Outside the Megalopolis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Dan; Johnson, David

    This paper reports results of a survey of 47 homeless adults, interviewed in Ada County, Idaho. Most respondents were male, white, currently single, with no religious preference. The mean number of years of formal education was 11.6. Seventeen percent of the sample were American Indians. Ninety-three percent were unemployed. Twenty-five percent of…

  2. Education and Homeless Youth: Policy Implementations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis, University of Southern California, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "The Navigator" is a free newsletter published by the Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA) focusing on directions and trends in higher education policy. The theme of this issue is: "Education and Homeless Youth: Policy Implementations." The lead article, authored by CHEPA director William G. Tierney, describes CHEPA's study of the…

  3. Deinstitutionalisation does not increase imprisonment or homelessness.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Tatiana Taylor; Thornicroft, Graham

    2016-05-01

    Closing long-stay psychiatric beds remains contentious. The review by Winkler et al in this issue examines 23 studies of deinstitutionalisation for the outcomes of people discharged from psychiatric hospitals after an admission of 1 year or longer. The majority of these studies identified no cases of homelessness, incarceration or suicide after discharge from hospital. PMID:27143004

  4. Resilience and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleverley, Kristin; Kidd, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    Homeless and street-involved youth are considered an extremely high risk group, with many studies highlighting trajectories characterized by abusive, neglectful, and unstable family histories, victimization and criminal involvement while on the streets, high rates of physical and mental illness, and extremely high rates of mortality. While there…

  5. Homeless: How Residential Instability Complicates Students' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the challenges of highly mobile students and what educators can do to retain and support them. The findings and recommendations presented here are based on two complementary research projects conducted with homeless students transitioning from high school to college. The author focuses on the residential…

  6. 75 FR 10485 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... from Homelessness (PATH) formula grant program, and to certain Substance Abuse and Mental Health... Transition from Homelessness Reporting 96.122(f)(5) Annual report 60 1 60 1 60 of activities the...

  7. Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Title VII, Subtitle B of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Report to Congress, Fiscal Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report compiles data submitted by state educational agencies in accordance with the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. States are required to provide an estimate of: total number of homeless children and youth by grade level, number of homeless children and youth enrolled in public school by grade level, number of homeless children and…

  8. Living conditions, ability to seek medical treatment, and awareness of health conditions and healthcare options among homeless persons in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Toda, Ryouhei; Shiraishi, Tomonobu; Toyoda, Hirokuni; Toyozawa, Hideyasu; Kamioka, Yasuaki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shimada, Naoki; Shirasawa, Takako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2011-12-01

    Empirical data indicative of the health conditions and medical needs of homeless persons are scarce in Japan. In this study, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of future healthcare strategies for the homeless, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey and interviews at a park in Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo, to clarify the living conditions of homeless persons and their health conditions and awareness about the availability of medical treatment. Responses from 55 homeless men were recorded (response rate: 36.7%). With the exception of one person, none of them possessed a health insurance certificate. Half of the respondents reported having a current income source, although their modal monthly income was 30,000 yen($1 was approximately 90 yen). The number of individuals who responded "yes" to the questions regarding "Consulting a doctor on the basis of someone's recommendation" and "Being aware of the location of the nearest hospital or clinic" was significantly higher among those who had someone to consult when they were ill than among those who did not (the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were 15.00 [3.05-93.57] and 11.45 [1.42-510.68], respectively). This showed that whether or not a homeless person had a person to consult might influence his healthcare-seeking behavior. When queried about the entity they consulted (multiple responses acceptable), respondents mentioned "life support organizations" (61.1%) and "public offices" (33.3%). Overall, 94.5% of the respondents were aware of swine flu (novel influenza A (H1N1)). Their main sources of information were newspapers and magazines. On the basis of these findings, with regard to the aim of formulating healthcare strategies for homeless persons, while life support organizations and public offices play significant roles as conduits to medical institutions, print media should be considered useful for communicating messages to homeless persons.

  9. Mobile Phone Technology: A New Paradigm for the Prevention, Treatment, and Research of the Non-sheltered “Street” Homeless?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Individuals experiencing homelessness have disproportionately high rates of health problems. Those who perceive themselves as having greater access to their social support networks have better physical and mental health outcomes as well as lower rates of victimization. Mobile phones offer a connection to others without the physical constraints of landlines and, therefore, may make communication (e.g., access to one’s social support networks) more feasible for homeless individuals. This, in turn, could lead toward better health outcomes. This exploratory study examined mobile phone possession and use among a sample of 100 homeless men and women who do not use the shelter system in Philadelphia, PA. Interviews were comprised of the Homeless Supplement to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, a technology module created for this investigation, and the substance use and psychiatric sections of the Addiction Severity Index. Almost half (44%) of the sample had a mobile phone. In the past 30 days, 100% of those with mobile phones placed or received a call, over half (61%) sent or received a text message, and one fifth (20%) accessed the Internet via their mobile phone. Participants possessed and used mobile phones to increase their sense of safety, responsibility (employment, stable housing, personal business, and sobriety or “clean time”), and social connectedness. Mobile phones could potentially be used by public health/health care providers to disseminate information to the street homeless, to enhance communication between the street homeless and providers, and to increase access for the street homeless to prevention, intervention, and aftercare services. Finally, this technology could also be used by researchers to collect data with this transient population. PMID:20397058

  10. Improving the quality of discharge care for the homeless: a patient-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Greysen, S Ryan; Allen, Rebecca; Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Lucas, Georgina I; Wang, Emily A

    2013-05-01

    Homeless patients are at risk for low-quality discharge care, yet there are limited patient-centered data to guide improvement. We explored relationships between assessment of housing status by hospital staff and quality of discharge care using quantitative and qualitative data from interviews and chart reviews with 98 homeless patients: 80% male, mean homelessness 2.8 years, mean age 44. Patient-reported performance of discharge care varied substantially across seven domains from 16-75% and chart review documented lower performance than patient report. Over half (56%) were not asked about their housing status and multivariable logistic regression showed assessment of housing status was independently associated with higher performance in five domains: discussions about cost of medications, physical activity levels, diet, transportation, and mental health follow-up. Qualitative data revealed patient concerns about stigmatization from disclosure of housing status. Our findings suggest that addressing housing status in acute care settings while avoiding stigmatization may improve discharge care for homeless patients.

  11. The power of the drug, nature of support, and their impact on homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L; Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Griffin, Deborah Koniak; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Gedzoff, Danny; Reid, Courtney

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore homeless youths' perspectives on the power of drugs in their lives, the preferred type of drugs used, barriers to treatment, and strategies to prevent drug initiation and abuse. This was a descriptive, qualitative study using focus groups with a purposeful sample of 24 drug-using homeless youth. The results provided insight into the lives of drug-using homeless youth. The most commonly used drugs were marijuana and alcohol. Reported reasons for drug use were parental drug use, low self-esteem, and harsh living conditions on the streets. Barriers to treatment were pleasurable enjoyment of the drug, physical dependence, and non-empathetic mental health providers. Strategies to prevent initiation and abuse of drugs were creative activities, such as art, sports, and music, and disdain for parental/family drug use and abuse. Comparative research is needed on specific personal factors that cause initiation and deterrence of drugs use/abuse among homeless youth.

  12. The Power of the Drug, Nature of Support, and their Impact on Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Angela L.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Griffin, Deborah Koniak; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Gedzoff, Danny; Reid, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore homeless youths’ perspectives on the power of drugs in their lives, the preferred type of drugs used, barriers to treatment, and strategies to prevent drug initiation and abuse. This was a descriptive, qualitative study using focus groups with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using youth. The results provided insight into the lives of drug-using homeless youth. Most commonly-used drugs were marijuana and alcohol. Reported reasons for drug use were parental drug use, low self-esteem, and harsh living conditions on the streets. Barriers to treatment were pleasurable enjoyment of the drug, physical dependence, and non-empathetic mental health providers. Strategies to prevent initiation and abuse of drugs were creative activities, such as art, sports, and music, and disdain for parental/family drug use and abuse. Comparative research is needed on specific personal factors that cause initiation and deterrence of drugs use/abuse among homeless youth. PMID:20155605

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic power in relation to age and physical activity in 354 men aged 20-88 years.

    PubMed

    Kostka, T; Drygas, W; Jegier, A; Zaniewicz, D

    2009-03-01

    We examined simultaneously the influence of age as well as both current and historical habitual physical activity (PA) on aerobic (physical working capacity - PWC) and anaerobic (Pmax) power in 354 men aged 20.2-87.6 yrs. All the participants performed the graded aerobic exercise test and 8-second explosive power tests on a bicycle ergometer. Current leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and lifetime historical LTPA were assessed. The decline in Pmax/kg (10.3% per decade) was higher than in PWC/kg (7.5% per decade). Correlation coefficients for current LTPA and aerobic indices were higher than for current LTPA and anaerobic indices. In a multiple stepwise regression, current LTPA had the main effect on PWC/kg, whereas age had the main effect on Pmax/kg. Aerobic power was related to all measures of historical PA questionnaire, while anaerobic power - only to those historical measures which pertained to adolescence and younger years of adulthood. We conclude that the age-associated decline in anaerobic power is steeper than that of aerobic power. Habitual endurance-type LTPA increases aerobic but not anaerobic fitness throughout the adult lifespan. Anaerobic fitness indices are higher in young active vs sedentary men but this difference is not discernible as early as in the middle age.

  14. A survey of Canadian urologists’ opinions and prescribing patterns of testosterone replacement therapy in men on active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Adam C.; Elterman, Dean S.; Goldenberg, Larry; Van Asseldonk, Brandon; Curtis, Ashley; Jarvi, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Attitudes regarding the safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in hypogonadal men with prostate cancer (PCa) have changed over the past few years with the emergence of case studies suggesting a low risk of cancer progression and a better understanding of the interaction of different levels of androgen with prostate cellular metabolism. This new view has the potential to change clinical practice. Methods: Active members of the Canadian Urological Association were surveyed about their opinions on the safety of TRT in men with low-risk PCa, as well as their current prescribing habits. Results: Of 57 responding urologists, 86% actively prescribe TRT in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), 93% are involved in the treatment of men with PCa, and 95% offer active surveillance as a management option for low-grade/low-stage disease. Furthermore, 65% stated that they would offer TRT to men with TDS who were on active surveillance for PCa and 63% believed that TRT did not increase the risk of progression of PCa in these men. In terms of treatment methods, 96% believed TRT was safe for men who have undergone radical prostatectomy, while a smaller number felt it was safe for patients who have undergone brachytherapy (86%) or external beam radiation (84%). Despite these figures, only 35% of the surveyed physicians had ever offered TRT for men on active surveillance and only 42% actually had men in their practice who were taking testosterone while on active surveillance. Conclusions: The discrepancy between urologists’ beliefs about the safety of TRT and their clinical practice patterns may be due to multiple factors, such as hesitation in recommending treatment in real-life practice, low numbers of eligible patients, absence of screening for testosterone deficiency in patients on active surveillance, and patient preference or fears. Furthermore, the difference in perceived safety in men treated by radical prostatectomy vs. radiation therapy

  15. Mediation of Effects of a Theory-Based Behavioral Intervention on Self-Reported Physical Activity in South African Men

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Stephens, Alisa; O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1,181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Method Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007–2010. Results Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. Conclusion The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. PMID:25565482

  16. Circadian rest-activity rhythms predict future increases in depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older men

    PubMed Central

    Smagula, Stephen F.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Boudreau, Robert; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Paudel, Misti L.; Stone, Katie L.; Cauley, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Circadian rest-activity rhythms (CARs) have been cross-sectionally associated with depressive symptoms, however no longitudinal research has examined whether CARs are a risk factor for developing depressive symptoms. Methods We examined associations of CARs (measured with actigraphy over a mean of 4.8 days) with depressive symptoms (measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale) among 2892 community-dwelling older men (mean age: 76.2 +/− 5.5) from the MrOS Sleep Study who were without cognitive impairment. Among 2124 men with minimal (0–2) symptoms at baseline, we assessed associations between CAR parameters and increases to mild (3–5) or clinically significant (≥6) symptoms after an average of 1.2 (+/− 0.32) years later. Results Cross-sectional associations between rhythm height parameters were independent of chronic diseases, lifestyle, sleep, and self-reported physical activity covariates. For example, men in the lowest mesor quartile had 2 times the adjusted odds (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.04, 95% CI 1.36–3.04, p=0.0005) of having prevalent clinically significant symptoms (compared to minimal). Longitudinally, low CAR robustness (being in the lowest quartile of the pseudo-F statistic) was independently associated with increasing odds of developing symptoms (i.e. AOR for having clinically significant depressive symptoms at follow-up=2.58, 95% CI 1.11–5.99, p=0.03). Conclusion CAR disturbances are indicative of depressive symptomology. Low CAR robustness may independently contribute to the risk of worsening depression symptomology. PMID:25066948

  17. Predictors of substance abuse treatment participation among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Ibabe, Izaskun; Stein, Judith A; Nyamathi, Adeline; Bentler, Peter M

    2014-03-01

    The current study focuses on the relationships among a trauma history, a substance use history, chronic homelessness, and the mediating role of recent emotional distress in predicting drug treatment participation among adult homeless people. We explored the predictors of participation in substance abuse treatment because enrolling and retaining clients in substance abuse treatment programs is always a challenge particularly among homeless people. Participants were 853 homeless adults from Los Angeles, California. Using structural equation models, findings indicated that trauma history, substance use history and chronicity of homelessness were associated, and were significant predictors of greater recent emotional distress. The most notable result was that recent emotional distress predicted less participation in current substance abuse treatment (both formal and self-help) whereas a substance use history alone predicted significantly more participation in treatment. Implications concerning treatment engagement and difficulties in obtaining appropriate dual-diagnosis services for homeless mentally distressed individuals are discussed. PMID:24238716

  18. Voices From the Street: Exploring the Realities of Family Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Laura; Brush, Barbara L.; Baiardi, Janet M.; Kirk, Keri; VanMaldeghem, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness threatens the health and well-being of thousands of families in the United States, yet little is known about their specific needs and how current services address them. To fill this knowledge gap, we explored the experiences of homelessness families in Detroit, Michigan. We targeted homeless mothers and their caseworkers for study to see if the perceptions of needs and services were in alignment. Using focus groups and content analysis, we identified four overarching themes that illustrate homeless mothers' experience with homelessness. We then analyzed data from caseworkers to look specifically for similarities and differences in their perceptions. Key findings included reports of family histories of violence, poverty, social isolation, and a lack of informal support as contributing to homelessness. The differing perspectives of mothers and their caseworkers regarding how best to move forward highlight how current programs and services may not be meeting the needs of this growing and vulnerable cohort. PMID:25186947

  19. Psychopathology in Young People Experiencing Homelessness: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Los, Férenc J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed. We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement. All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health. PMID:23597340

  20. [Evidence-based treatment of mentally ill homeless persons].

    PubMed

    Larsen, Maja; Nordentoft, Merete

    2010-05-31

    A systematic review of the literature shows that it is possible to reduce homelessness among mentally ill homeless persons, partly by offering access to housing and partly by providing intensive care through Assertive Community Treatment. Assertive Community Treatment can, to some extent, decrease psychiatric symptoms and increase quality of life. It is evident that by offering housing, homelessness may be reduced, but the comparison of independent housing and group living did not reveal big differences.

  1. Relationship problems and extradyadic romantic and sexual activity in a web-sample of Norwegian men and women.

    PubMed

    Træen, Bente; Thuen, Frode

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence of self-reported types of extradyadic romantic and sexual activity among adult Norwegians and to explore the role of infidelity in breaking up a permanent relationship. The results are based on 1,001 web interviews with persons ranging in age from 18 to 67 years. The majority of respondents reported having engaged in some kind of extradyadic romantic and/or sexual activity. Forty-five percent of the women and 39% of the men claimed they had experienced a previous breakup from a marriage or cohabiting relationship. Among those aged 50 years or older, the most important reasons for breaking up a previous relationship were infidelity (38%) and lost love (38%). More men (44%) than women (33%) reported infidelity. Respondents younger than 50 years were more motivated by boredom. Among respondents below the age of 50 years, the most frequently reported reasons for considering termination of a present relationship were quarreling (37%), poor sex life (29%), and "other" reasons (25%). Accordingly, infidelity was not identified as an essential factor for considering a breakup from the present relationship.

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Cardiovascular Stability in Active Men Aged 45 to 65 Years.

    PubMed

    Kasch, F W; Wallace, J P; Van Camp, S P; Verity, L

    1988-01-01

    In brief: Cross-sectional studies of physical performance generally show a linear decline in maximum aerobic power (V O2 max) with increasing age (about 1% to 2% per year). In the study described in this article, 15 men were serially followed for 20 years. They performed exercises consisting of walking, running, swimming, and cycling for an average of 3.6 days per week and requiring an energy expenditure of 2,104 kcal per week. Over the 20 years, directly measured V O2 max declined 12% (from 44.4 to 38.9 ml· kg(-1)· min(-1), or 0.27 ml· kg(-1)· min(-1) per year). Essentially no differences were seen in resting heart rate or arterial blood pressure. The authors conclude that physical training forestalls the decline in V O2 max until at least age 65. PMID:27427109

  3. Game activity and blood lactate in men's elite water-polo players.

    PubMed

    Melchiorri, Giovanni; Castagna, Carlo; Sorge, Roberto; Bonifazi, Marco

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine game demands during highly competitive men's water-polo games after the introduction of the new Federation International Natation Association (FINA) rules. Participants of this study were 77 outfield international level men's water-polo players (age 25.9 ± 4.5 years, height 188 ± 4.5 cm, body mass 93 ± 10.9 kg). Game earlobe blood lactate, speed, and distance covered (semiautomatic image recognition system) were measured during 6 highly competitive matches (FINA International Tournament). In the game, players covered 1,613 ± 150 m (n = 68). This corresponds to a mean coverage rate of 54 ± 5.8 m·min (n = 68). At speeds faster than 1.4 m·s⁻¹ (high-intensity swimming), players covered 44% of the total distance. A significant decrease in coverage rate was detected during the final stage of the game. Mean blood-lactate concentration was 7.7 ± 1.0 mmol·L⁻¹ (range 2.2-14.3). Center Defenders (1,816 ± 496 m) covered significantly (p < 0.05) more distance swimming compared to Field (1,676 ± 348 m) and Center-Forward (1,317 ± 281 m) players. Mean match blood-lactate concentrations for Center Forwards, Center Defenders, and Field Players were 11.2 ± 1.0 (3-14.3), 6.7 ± 0.9 (1.4-8), and 5.3 ± 0.9 mmol·L⁻¹ (2.2-11.9), respectively. This study confirmed the high-intensity nature of male elite level water polo showing remarkable role-dependent game demands. As a result, strength and conditioning interventions should be individualized and mainly address intermittent high-intensity endurance and anaerobic fitness.

  4. Meeting the Housing and Care Needs of Older Homeless Adults: A Permanent Supportive Housing Program Targeting Homeless Elders.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca T; Thomas, M Lori; Cutler, Deborah F; Hinderlie, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The homeless population is aging faster than the general population in the United States. As this vulnerable population continues to age, addressing complex care and housing needs will become increasingly important. This article reviews the often-overlooked issue of homelessness among older adults, including their poor health status and unique care needs, the factors that contribute to homelessness in this population, and the costs of homelessness to the U.S. health care system. Permanent supportive housing programs are presented as a potential solution to elder homelessness, and Hearth, an outreach and permanent supportive housing model in Boston, is described. Finally, specific policy changes are presented that could promote access to housing among the growing older homeless population.

  5. Voices of the Homeless: An Emic Approach to the Experiences of Health Disparities Faced by People Who Are Homeless.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Elaine

    2016-07-01

    People who are homeless are particularly vulnerable to health disparities. Rather than using population statistics to highlight the prevalence or severity of the suffering of people who are homeless, 28 undergraduate students each conducted an in-depth interview with an individual who relied on a local homeless shelter to cope with everyday life. The interview explored the participants' health concerns and strategies for health management. Due to equipment failure and incomplete recording, only 16 interviews are included in this study. The author adopted thematic analysis while focused on preserving the richness of the interactions between the participants who are homeless and the undergraduate students. The author's goal is to provide emic, intimate insights about the struggles and challenges faced by the people who are homeless. The author concluded the study by situating the findings in the larger literature of health disparities experienced by people who are homeless. PMID:27093127

  6. Physical activity benefits bone density and bone-related hormones in adult men with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chain, Amina; Koury, Josely C; Bezerra, Flávia Fioruci

    2012-09-01

    Severe bone loss is a recognized complication of chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Physical exercise contributes to bone health; however, its influence on bone mass of cervical SCI individuals has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on bone mass, bone metabolism, and vitamin D status in quadriplegics. Total, lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur and radius bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed in active (n = 15) and sedentary (n = 10) quadriplegic men by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], PTH, IGF1, osteocalcin and NTx were measured in serum. After adjustments for duration of injury, total body mass, and habitual calcium intake, bone indices were similar between groups, except for L1-L4 BMD Z score that was higher in the sedentary group (P < 0.05). Hours of physical exercise per week correlated positively with 25(OH)D (r = 0.59; P < 0.05) and negatively with PTH (r = -0.50; P < 0.05). Femur BMD was negatively associated with the number of months elapsed between the injury and the onset of physical activity (r = -0.60; P < 0.05). Moreover, in the active subjects, both L1-L4 BMD Z score (r = 0.72; P < 0.01) and radius BMD (r = 0.59; P < 0.05) were positively associated with calcium intake. In this cross-sectional study, both the onset of physical activity after injury and the number of hours dedicated to exercise were able to influence bone density and bone-related hormones in quadriplegic men. Our results also suggest a positive combined effect of exercise and calcium intake on bone health of quadriplegic individuals.

  7. Prospective study of body mass index, height, physical activity and incidence of bladder cancer in US men and women.

    PubMed

    Holick, Crystal N; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Michaud, Dominique S

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated prospectively the association between body mass index (BMI), height, recreational physical activity and the risk of bladder cancer among US adults. Data were used from 2 ongoing cohorts, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses' Health Study, with 3,542,012 years of follow-up and 866 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 507; women = 359) for the anthropometric analysis and 1,890,476 years of follow-up and 706 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 502; women = 204) for the physical activity analysis. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between BMI, height, physical activity and bladder cancer risk adjusting for age, pack-years of cigarette smoking and current smoking. Estimates from each cohort were pooled using a random-effects model. We observed no association between baseline BMI and bladder cancer risk, even when we compared a BMI of > or =30 kg/m(2) to a BMI of 18-22.9 kg/m(2) [pooled multivariate (MV) RR, 1.16; 95% CI: 0.89-1.52]. A weak, but statistically significant, association was observed for the same comparison after excluding bladder cancer cases diagnosed within the first 4 years of follow-up (pooled MV RR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.01-1.76). Height was not related to bladder cancer risk (pooled MV RR, 0.82; 95% CI: 0.65-1.03, top vs. bottom quintile). Total recreational physical activity also was not associated with the risk of bladder cancer (pooled MV RR, 0.97; 95% CI: 0.77-1.24, top vs. bottom quintile). Our findings do not support a role for BMI, height or physical activity in bladder carcinogenesis.

  8. Creating a Science of Homelessness During the Reagan Era

    PubMed Central

    JONES, MARIAN MOSER

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points: A retrospective analysis of federally funded homeless research in the 1980s serves as a case study of how politics can influence social and behavioral science research agendas today in the United States. These studies of homeless populations, the first funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, demonstrated that only about a third of the homeless population was mentally ill and that a diverse group of people experienced homelessness. This groundbreaking research program set the mold for a generation of research and policy characterizing homelessness as primarily an individual-level problem rather than a problem with the social safety net. Context A decade after the nation's Skid Rows were razed, homelessness reemerged in the early 1980s as a health policy issue in the United States. While activists advocated for government-funded programs to address homelessness, officials of the Reagan administration questioned the need for a federal response to the problem. In this climate, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) launched a seminal program to investigate mental illness and substance abuse among homeless individuals. This program serves as a key case study of the social and behavioral sciences’ role in the policy response to homelessness and how politics has shaped the federal research agenda. Methods Drawing on interviews with former government officials, researchers, social activists, and others, along with archival material, news reports, scientific literature, and government publications, this article examines the emergence and impact of social and behavioral science research on homelessness. Findings Research sponsored by the NIMH and other federal research bodies during the 1980s produced a rough picture of mental illness and substance abuse prevalence among the US homeless population, and private foundations supported projects that looked at this group's health care needs. The Reagan administration's opposition to funding

  9. How Effective Homelessness Prevention Impacts the Length of Shelter Spells

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Sarena; Messeri, Peter; O’Flaherty, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Homelessness prevention programs intervene with households apparently in imminent danger of becoming homeless, and try to keep them housed. If they are at least partially successful, how do they change the average shelter spell of households actually becoming homeless? We use data from 2003 to 2008 for Homebase, a New York City homelessness prevention program that studies have found to be effective in reducing shelter entries. Homebase made no difference in average shelter spells at the community level. This result, like many results about shelter spell length, is not easy to reconcile with the idea that shelter spell length is a reflection of the seriousness of underlying problems. PMID:24610995

  10. Osteoporosis in Men

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Sundeep; Amin, Shreyasee; Orwoll, Eric

    2008-01-01

    With the aging of the population, there is a growing recognition that osteoporosis and fractures in men are a significant public health problem, and both hip and vertebral fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in men. Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous clinical entity: whereas most men experience bone loss with aging, some men develop osteoporosis at a relatively young age, often for unexplained reasons (idiopathic osteoporosis). Declining sex steroid levels and other hormonal changes likely contribute to age-related bone loss, as do impairments in osteoblast number and/or activity. Secondary causes of osteoporosis also play a significant role in pathogenesis. Although there is ongoing controversy regarding whether osteoporosis in men should be diagnosed based on female- or male-specific reference ranges (because some evidence indicates that the risk of fracture is similar in women and men for a given level of bone mineral density), a diagnosis of osteoporosis in men is generally made based on male-specific reference ranges. Treatment consists both of nonpharmacological (lifestyle factors, calcium and vitamin D supplementation) and pharmacological (most commonly bisphosphonates or PTH) approaches, with efficacy similar to that seen in women. Increasing awareness of osteoporosis in men among physicians and the lay public is critical for the prevention of fractures in our aging male population. PMID:18451258

  11. Physical and Mental Health Issues among Homeless Youth in British Columbia, Canada: Are they Different from Older Homeless Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Linden, Isabelle; Krausz, Michael Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Youth homelessness is on the rise in North America, yet this vulnerable population is rarely studied and compared with adults. This paper aimed to study the homeless youth and identify specific vulnerabilities, which rendered them different from the adult homeless population. It also aimed to describe the youth homeless population and their significant co-morbidities. Methods: Data was derived from the BC Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada: the large urban centre Vancouver (n=250); the mid-sized city and capital of the province Victoria (n=150). Measures included socio-demographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Results: Youth constituted 16.5% (n=82) of the homeless population. Compared to the adult homeless, the homeless youth were more often female (55%), were Aboriginal (47.6%), had greater substance abuse of alcohol (70.7%), amphetamines (8.5%) and cannabis (75.6%). A lower prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (0.2%) and psychotic disorders (13.4%) was also observed. The prevalence of traumatic experiences, other psychiatric disorders and physical illnesses were similar between the adult and homeless youth. Conclusion: Homeless youth have high rates of physical and psychiatric comorbidity, similar to the adult homeless, despite being 20 years younger. An urgent need for interventions that go beyond the standardized ones being offered to homeless populations as a whole, and to derive specific strategies that target this vulnerable population is required. PMID:25320613

  12. College Students' Motivation for Physical Activity: Differentiating Men's and Women's Motives for Sport Participation and Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Marcus; Hebert, Edward; Bartholomew, John

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many clear benefits of an active lifestyle, lack of physical activity is a significant health problem in the college population. A key issue in physical activity research is developing an understanding of motivation. Although physical activity takes many forms, most research designed to enhance motivation for and adherence to physical…

  13. Latent Homeless Risk Profiles of a National Sample of Homeless Veterans and Their Relation to Program Referral and Admission Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kasprow, Wesley J.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We identified risk and need profiles of homeless veterans and examined the relation between profiles and referrals and admissions to Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) homeless service programs. Methods. We examined data from the VA’s new Homeless Operations Management and Evaluation System on 120 852 veterans from 142 sites nationally in 2011 and 2012 using latent class analyses based on 9 homeless risk factors. The final 4-class solution compared both referral and admission to VA homeless services. Results. We identified 4 latent classes: relatively few problems, dual diagnosis, poverty–substance abuse–incarceration, and disabling medical problems. Homeless veterans in the first group were more likely to be admitted to the VA’s permanent supportive housing program, whereas those in the second group were more likely to be admitted to more restrictive VA residential treatment. Homeless veterans in the third group were more likely to be admitted to the VA’s prisoner re-entry program, and those in the fourth group were more likely to be directed to VA medical services. Conclusions. The heterogeneous risk and need profiles of homeless veterans supported the diversity of VA homeless services and encouraged the development of specialized services to meet their diverse needs. PMID:24148048

  14. Healthy Eating for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... of potassium from fruits, vegetables, fish and milk. Energy Foods Since men have more muscle and are ... 000 to 2,800 calories per day. Your energy needs depend on your height, weight and activity ...

  15. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), but not Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand (RANKL), is Associated with Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in HIV-infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Ketlogetswe, Kerunne S; McKibben, Rebeccah; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xuihong; Dobs, Adrian S; Budoff, Matthew; Witt, Mallory D; Palella, Frank J; Kingsley, Lawrence; Margolick, Joseph B.; Post, Wendy S; Brown, Todd T.

    2015-01-01

    Context Abnormalities in the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) axis have been observed in HIV-infected persons and have been implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis in the general population. Objective To determine associations of serum OPG and RANKL concentrations with HIV infection and subclinical atherosclerosis. Design Cross-sectional study nested within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Setting Four US academic medical centers Participants There were 578 HIV-infected and 344 HIV-uninfected men. Main Outcome Measures Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (CT), and coronary stenosis and plaque characteristics (composition, presence and extent) were measured by coronary CT angiography. All statistical models were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Results OPG concentrations were higher and RANKL concentrations were lower among HIV-infected men compared to –uninfected men (p<0.0001 each). Among the HIV-infected men, higher OPG concentrations were associated with the presence of CAC, mixed plaque, and coronary stenosis > 50%, but not with plaque extent. In contrast, among HIV-uninfected men, higher OPG concentrations were associated with extent of both CAC and calcified plaque, but not their presence. RANKL concentrations were not associated with plaque presence or extent among HIV-infected men, but among HIV-uninfected men, lower RANKL concentrations were associated with greater extent of CAC and total plaque. Conclusions OPG and RANKL are dysregulated in HIV-infected men and their relationship to the presence and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis varies by HIV-status. The role of these biomarkers in CVD pathogenesis and risk prediction may be different in HIV-infected men. PMID:26090754

  16. Worlds apart in the same town? A qualitative comparison of pre- and post-clinical themes assessing student nurse perceptions of homeless, mentally ill clients.

    PubMed

    Kooken, Wendy C; Baylor, Julie K; Schwend, Kelly R

    2014-03-01

    Student nurses' negative attitudes towards men who are homeless and mentally ill disrupt development of therapeutic relationships. Without therapeutic relationships these men may feel stigmatized. Assessing student attitudes allows for insights to improve students' abilities to develop therapeutic relationships. The purpose of this research was to assess student nurses' pre- and post-perceptions towards homeless mentally ill clients during a mental health clinical through analysis of pictorial data. Data was analyzed through a qualitative, phenomenological method. On the first and last days of clinical experience, students were asked to draw a picture in response to the question: "How far apart are you from these men?" We analyzed pre- and post-drawings separately and changes were compared. Four pre-attitude themes and two post-attitude themes were identified. Pre-attitude themes demonstrated student drawings as geographically distanced from the clients and living in two different worlds. Post-drawings reflected themes where clients and students were under the same roof and often physically touching. We suggest using this easily reproducible, inexpensive method to gain insights into student attitudes. The difference in the drawings objectively demonstrates the effectiveness of clinical experiences in changing student nurse attitudes towards men who are homeless and mentally ill.

  17. Changing homelessness services: revanchism, 'professionalisation' and resistance.

    PubMed

    Scullion, Lisa; Somerville, Peter; Brown, Philip; Morris, Gareth

    2015-07-01

    This paper argues that the increasing international salience of homelessness can be partially explained by reference to the revanchist thesis (involving processes of coerced exclusion and abjection), but the situation on the ground is more complex. It reports on interviews with 18 representatives of 11 homelessness service providers in one city in England. As Cloke et al. found, these providers tended to be either larger, more 'professional', 'insider' services or smaller, more 'amateur', 'outsider' services. However, this does not mean that the former were necessarily more revanchist and the latter less so. Rather, the actions of both types of organisation could, in some cases, be construed as both advancing and counteracting a revanchist project.

  18. A Pilot Survey of Physical Activity in Men with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeon, Michael; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) are reported as a sedentary population with increased risks of poor health due to an inactive and sedentary lifestyle. As the benefits of physical activity are acknowledged, measuring physical activity accurately is important to help identify reasons for low and high physical activity in order to assist and…

  19. What a man wants: understanding the challenges and motivations to physical activity participation and healthy eating in middle-aged Australian men.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch; Ellison, Marcus; George, Emma; Mummery, W Kerry

    2012-11-01

    Little attention has been paid to the physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviors of middle-aged men; thus, the aim of this study was to gather information and gain insight into the PA and nutrition behaviors of these men. Six focus group sessions were undertaken with middle-aged men (N = 30) from regional Australia to explore the challenges and motivations to PA participation and healthy eating. Men had a good understanding of PA and nutrition; however, this was sometimes confounded by inconsistent media messages. Work commitments and family responsibilities were barriers to PA, while poor cooking skills and abilities were barriers to healthy eating. Disease prevention, weight management, and being a good role model were motivators for PA and healthy eating. By understanding what a man wants, PA and nutrition interventions can be designed and delivered to meet the needs of this hard-to-reach population.

  20. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour and ankle brachial index: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in older men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Tessa J.; Sartini, Claudio; Ellins, Elizabeth A.; Halcox, Julian P.J.; Smith, Kirsten E.; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H.; Jefferis, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Associations between bouts of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and cardiovascular disease, and their mutual independence are not well defined. A low ankle brachial index (ABI ≤0.9) indicates peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is predictive of cardiovascular events and functional impairment. We investigated the independence of PA and SB and the importance of bout duration in relation to ABI using objective measures. Methods 945 men from the British Regional Heart Study, mean age 78.4 y, had concurrent measurements of ABI (Vicorder) and physical activity (Actigraph GT3X accelerometer); 427 men also had accelerometer measurements one year previously and contributed data to longitudinal analyses. Results and conclusion In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for covariates each extra 10 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day was associated with an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.72, 0.91) for a low ABI, a stronger association than for light PA (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98). Each extra 30 min of SB was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.07, 1.33) for a low ABI. Associations between moderate and vigorous PA and ABI persisted after adjustment for light PA or SB. Bout lengths for PA and SB were not associated with a low ABI. One year changes in PA or SB were not associated with low ABI. All physical activity and lower levels of SB, regardless of bout duration were inversely associated with ABI; more intense PA showed a stronger association. No associations between changes in PA and ABI were observed, but power may have been limited. PMID:26854973

  1. Effects of a 12-week intervention period with football and running for habitually active men with mild hypertension.

    PubMed

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, C; Sennhauser, C; Toigo, M; Boutellier, U; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P; Junge, A; Dvorak, J

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of football (F, n=15) training on the health profile of habitually active 25-45-year-old men with mild hypertension and compared it with running (R, n=15) training and no additional activity (controls, C, n=17). The participants in F and R completed a 1-h training session 2.4 times/week for 12 weeks. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased in all groups but the decrease in diastolic blood pressure in F (-9 +/- 5 (+/- SD) mmHg) was higher than that in C (-4 +/- 6 mmHg). F was as effective as R in decreasing body mass (-1.6 +/- 1.8 vs-1.5 +/- 2.1 kg) and total fat mass (-2.0 +/- 1.5 vs -1.6 +/- 1.5 kg) and in increasing supine heart rate variability, whereas no changes were detected for C. Maximal stroke volume improved in F (+13.1%) as well as in R (+10.1%) compared with C (-4.9%). Total cholesterol decreased in F (5.8 +/- 1.2 to 5.5 +/- 0.9 mmol/L) but was not altered in R and C. We conclude that football training, consisting of high-intensity intermittent exercise, results in positive effects on blood pressure, body composition, stroke volume and supine heart rate variability, and elicits at least the same cardiovascular health benefits as continuous running exercise in habitually active men with mild hypertension.

  2. Validity of combining heart rate and uniaxial acceleration to measure free-living physical activity energy expenditure in young men.

    PubMed

    Villars, C; Bergouignan, A; Dugas, J; Antoun, E; Schoeller, D A; Roth, H; Maingon, A C; Lefai, E; Blanc, S; Simon, C

    2012-12-01

    Combining accelerometry (ACC) with heart rate (HR) monitoring is thought to improve activity energy expenditure (AEE) estimations compared with ACC alone to evaluate the validity of ACC and HR used alone or combined. The purpose of this study was to estimate AEE in free-living conditions compared with doubly labeled water (DLW). Ten-day free-living AEE was measured by a DLW protocol in 35 18- to 55-yr-old men (11 lean active; 12 lean sedentary; 12 overweight sedentary) wearing an Actiheart (combining ACC and HR) and a RT3 accelerometer. AEE was estimated using group or individual calibration of the HR/AEE relationship, based on an exercise-tolerance test. In a subset (n = 21), AEE changes (ΔAEE) were measured after 1 mo of detraining (active subjects) or an 8-wk training (sedentary subjects). Actiheart-combined ACC/HR estimates were more accurate than estimates from HR or ACC alone. Accuracy of the Actiheart group-calibrated ACC/HR estimates was modest [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.62], with no bias but high root mean square error (RMSE) and limits of agreement (LOA). The mean bias of the estimates was reduced by one-third, like RMSE and LOA, by individual calibration (ICC = 0.81). Contrasting with group-calibrated estimates, the Actiheart individual-calibrated ACC/HR estimates explained 40% of the variance of the DLW-ΔAEE (ICC = 0.63). This study supports a good level of agreement between the Actiheart ACC/HR estimates and DLW-measured AEE in lean and overweight men with varying fitness levels. Individual calibration of the HR/AEE relationship is necessary for AEE estimations at an individual level rather than at group scale and for ΔAEE evaluation.

  3. Platelet activating factor-acylhydrolase (PAF-ase) activity is higher in serum of men than women and is related to levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL)

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, R.S.; Howell, S.E.; Wardlow, M.L.

    1986-03-05

    PAF-ase is a specific serum enzyme that inactivates PAF by hydrolyzing acetate from the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. A reproducible PAF-ase activity assay was developed. A unit is based on the amount of serum required to release 3.61 +/- 0.042 pm /sup 3/H-acetate from 10 pm /sup 3/H-labeled PAF after incubation for 1 hr at 37/sup 0/C. Assays on two single reference serums repeated 7 days were 0.63 +/- 0.013 U and 1.33 +/- 0.031 U. Serum from 20 normal men and 20 normal premenopausal women had significantly different (p = <0.001) levels of 1.32 +/- 0.072 U and 0.97 +/- 0.051 U respectively. They previously reported that PAF-ase is associated with B-lipoprotein. Therefore, total cholesterol (TC), LDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were determined on these 40 serums. Regression analysis revealed PAF-ase units were correlated with LDL (r = 0.740; p = < 0.001) and, parenthetically, with the TC (r = 0.620; p = < 0.001) but not with HDL. These correlations were similar for men and women. Thus, serum PAF-ase was partially controlled by serum LDL levels and the higher PAF-ase levels in serum from men were due in part to higher (p = < 0.01) LDL levels in men (147.6 +/- 6.9 mg/dl) as contrasted to women (119.0 +/- 7.6 mg/dl). PAF is a potent inflammatory, bronchoconstrictive and hypotensive agent. These data indicate that sex and serum LDL levels of subjects must be considered during future studies of the role of PAF vs PAF-ase in different disease states.

  4. Correlates of Frailty Among Homeless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Benissa E.; Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Phillips, Linda R.; Mentes, Janet C.; Sarkisian, Catherine; Leake, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Frailty, a relatively unexplored concept among vulnerable populations, may be a significant issue for homeless adults. This cross-sectional study assessed correlates of frailty among middle age and older homeless adults (N = 150, 40–73). A Pearson (r) bivariate correlation revealed a weak relationship between frailty and being female (r = .230, p < .01). Significant moderate negative correlations were found between frailty and resilience (r = −.395, p < .01), social support (r = −.377, p < .01), and nutrition (r = −.652, p < .01). Furthermore, Spearman’s rho (rs) bivariate correlations revealed a moderate positive relationship between frailty and health care utilization (rs = .444, p < .01). A stepwise backward linear regression analysis was conducted and in the final model, age, gender, health care utilization, nutrition, and resilience were significantly related to frailty. Over the next two decades, there is an anticipated increase in the number of homeless adults which will necessitate a greater understanding of the needs of this hard-to-reach population. PMID:23676627

  5. Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    de Roos, Nicole M; Schouten, Evert G; Scheek, Leo M; van Tol, Arie; Katan, Martijn B

    2002-12-01

    A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and impaired endothelial function, suggesting that trans fats have stronger adverse effects than saturated fats. To investigate this further, we measured the activity of serum paraoxonase (PON1) in serum samples of the same volunteers after consumption of both diets. PON1 protects lipoproteins from oxidative damage, and higher PON1 activity appears to be related to lower cardiovascular disease risk. PON1 activity (mean +/- SD) was 195.9 +/- 108.9 U/L after 4 weeks of consuming a diet with 22.9% of energy (en%) from saturated fat and 184.5 +/- 99.3 U/L when 9.3 en% from saturated fat was replaced by trans fat (P =.006). Thus, replacement of dietary saturated fat by trans fat not only decreased serum HDL-cholesterol and impaired endothelial function, but also decreased the activity of serum paraoxonase. Whether the changes in serum paraoxonase activity caused the changes in endothelial function needs to be further investigated.

  6. Identifying the Precipitants of Homeless Protest across 17 U.S. Cities, 1980 to 1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David A.; Soule, Sarah A.; Cress, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    During the 1980s, homeless people formed social movement organizations and mobilized collective action events in cities across the US. From the vantage point of social movement theories and scholarship on homelessness, it is surprising that homeless protest was so prevalent in the 1980s. Yet we find evidence of homeless protest events across no…

  7. Arizona Head Start for Homeless Children and Families Project. 1995-96 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Lori

    Homeless families with children constitute the fastest growing segment of the United States homeless population. This study evaluated Year 2 of the Arizona Head Start for Homeless Children and Families Project, designed to meet educational and social needs of homeless children and families, and to assist Head Start agencies in developing effective…

  8. Factors Associated with Homelessness of Adolescents under Supervision of the Youth Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Marie; Pauze, R.; Fournier, L.

    2005-01-01

    There are two factors that limit our knowledge of the risk factors associated with homelessness among runaway adolescents, namely (1) the samples used are often composed of youth homeless service users and/or youths living on the streets (visible homelessness), whereas most adolescents in fact use ''private'' resources (hidden homelessness), and…

  9. 75 FR 29366 - ``Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program (HVRP) National Technical Assistance Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... of the Assistant Secretary for Veterans' Employment and Training ``Homeless Veterans' Reintegration... the Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program (HVRP) to include the Homeless Female Veterans and... to expedite the reintegration of homeless Veterans into the labor force. In order to assist the...

  10. Homeless Education and Social Capital: An Examination of School and Community Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: This study contributes to the literature on the schooling of homeless and highly mobile students. Although previous work has detailed the demographics of homelessness, the effects of homelessness on academic progress, and particular legal issues in homeless education, this research focused on how individual and institutional…

  11. Homelessness among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: Implications for Subsequent Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth with a history of homelessness (running away or being evicted from their homes by parents) report more psychological symptoms than homeless heterosexual peers, it is unclear whether symptoms are due to homelessness, given the absence of a non-homeless comparison group. This study longitudinally…

  12. Multilevel Considerations of Family Homelessness and Schooling in the Recession Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter; Schreiber, James

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods investigation of homeless education in a major urban region identified a number of significant developments and dilemmas amid the larger homeless crisis in the United States. We found that the wider community demographics of homelessness have shifted in recent years, resulting in a higher number of homeless families--many of…

  13. The Relationship between Literacy and Depression and Anxiety in Homeless Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Mark Edward

    2014-01-01

    Homelessness is a problem that has correlating social, psychological, and health problems. The pathways that lead to homelessness are plentiful and varied, as are the risk factors that are associated with chronic homelessness. Much of the research that has been completed with homeless individuals has focused on substance use or psychological…

  14. Learning from Families Experiencing Homelessness--How School Leaders Can Make a Difference through Transformative Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warke, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing phenomenon, especially among women and children (Hulchanski, 2009). This study was conducted because of the increase in families experiencing homelessness registering in my school. In none of the current studies about homelessness have the researchers spoken to the families and children experiencing homelessness. This…

  15. Homeless and in Need of Special Education. Exceptional Children at Risk: CEC Mini-Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heflin, L. Juane; Rudy, Kathryn

    This booklet examines the plight of homeless families who have children who need special educational services. It explores the magnitude of homelessness among families, provides empirical descriptions of homeless populations, and identifies factors contributing to the rising incidence of homelessness in the United States. Specific effects of…

  16. Hawai'i State Plan for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of the Superintendent.

    In 1987, Congress passed the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act. One of its provisions was that each child of a homeless individual and each homeless youth have access to a free, appropriate public education. As required by the Act, the state prepared a plan for indirect and direct educational services to the homeless children of Hawaii.…

  17. What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know about Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Fact Sheet: What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know About Sexually Transmitted Diseases Recommend ... an STD, sexually active gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at ...

  18. Higher skeletal muscle α2AMPK activation and lower energy charge and fat oxidation in men than in women during submaximal exercise

    PubMed Central

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Thiele, Maja; Hillig, Thore; Pilegaard, Henriette; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Kiens, Bente

    2006-01-01

    5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor activated by perturbed cellular energy status such as during muscle contraction. Activated AMPK is thought to regulate several key metabolic pathways. We used sex comparison to investigate whether AMPK signalling in skeletal muscle regulates fat oxidation during exercise. Moderately trained women and men completed 90 min bicycle exercise at 60% V̇O2peak. Both AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation and α2AMPK activity were increased by exercise in men (∼200%, P < 0.001) but not significantly in women. The sex difference in muscle AMPK activation with exercise was accompanied by an increase in muscle free AMP (∼164%, P < 0.01), free AMP/ATP ratio (159%, P < 0.05), and creatine (∼42%, P < 0.001) in men but not in women (NS), suggesting that lack of AMPK activation in women was due to better maintenance of muscle cellular energy balance compared with men. During exercise, fat oxidation per kg lean body mass was higher in women than in men (P < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed that a higher proportion of type 1 muscle fibres (∼23%, P < 0.01) and a higher capillarization (∼23%, P < 0.05) in women than in men could partly explain the sex difference in α2AMPK activity (r = −0.54, P < 0.05) and fat oxidation (r = 0.64, P < 0.05) during exercise. On the other hand, fat oxidation appeared not to be regulated via AMPK. In conclusion, during prolonged submaximal exercise at 60% V̇O2peak, higher fat oxidation in women cannot be explained by higher AMPK signalling but is accompanied by improved muscle cellular energy balance in women probably due to sex specific muscle morphology. PMID:16600998

  19. Providing Lifelines for Our Nation's Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses educational challenges for homeless children and explains how districts can and must meet their needs. According to the U.S. Department of Education Federal Data Collection, 1,065,794 homeless children and youth were enrolled in public schools for the school year 2010-2011, the highest number on record. After listing…

  20. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Risks Among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halcon, Linda L.; Lifson, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of sexual risks among homeless adolescents and described factors associated with those risks. Community-based outreach methods were used successfully to access this difficult-to-reach population. The sample included 203 homeless youth aged 15-22 recruited from community sites. Questionnaire items addressed…

  2. Summer Literacy Intervention for Homeless Children Living in Transitional Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Adrienne Lisa; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a six-week summer literacy program conducted at a transitional housing facility for homeless families in the Southwestern region of the U.S. This study is grounded on the body of knowledge on students' literacy and homelessness. The intervention included one-on-one instruction by tutors. This study examined…

  3. Idealized Visions from Outside: Homeless Perspectives on School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magolis, David; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative exploration of homeless individuals' experiences and their perspectives on ideal designs of schools. The article is part of a larger research project titled "Unheard Voices," which explores marginalized individuals' (homeless, prisoners, working poor, and migrant workers)…

  4. The Impact of Homelessness on the Health of Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rita I.; Strong, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative research using the symbolic interactionism framework and grounded theory methodology was employed to discover the perceived health problems and dangers that homeless families with children endure. Data were collected using semistructured interviews from 34 homeless volunteer participants with 87 children. An in-depth analysis of the…

  5. Bringing It Home: Understanding the Lives of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on a special issue that explores how educational institutions serve homeless and highly mobile students as well as their families. The number of homeless youth continues to rise, leading the author to question why structural constraints have not been removed. In addition to reflecting on the articles, he…

  6. The State of Homeless Children in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana

    2009-01-01

    Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…

  7. Lessons Learned: A "Homeless Shelter Intervention" by a Medical Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Yasmin; Kunik, Mark; Coverdale, John; Shah, Asim; Primm, Annelle; Harris, Toi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored the process of implementing a medical student-initiated program designed to provide computerized mental health screening, referral, and education in a homeless shelter. Method: An educational program was designed to teach homeless shelter staff about psychiatric disorders and culturally-informed treatment…

  8. Deja Vu: Family Homelessness in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    This report describes family homelessness in New York City, which has risen sharply since 1980. Currently, the City's family shelter system is at capacity. Homeless children are typically raised by single mothers who receive no child support, are 27 years old, are unemployed and receiving welfare, and have had at least one public assistance…

  9. 77 FR 1971 - Supplemental Security Income and Homeless Individuals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Supplemental Security Income and Homeless Individuals AGENCY: Social Security Administration..., including those individuals who are homeless. According to the United States Department of Housing and Urban... transitional housing program; the vast majority of these individuals (nearly 80 percent) spent time only in...

  10. Homelessness and the Fiscal Year 1993 Federal Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    This paper analyzes the Bush Administration's budget request for homelessness programs, and argues that it promised little to alleviate the suffering of homeless people. The paper asserts that the proposal is the weakest in years, with overall spending down by 7 percent when adjusted for inflation. Programs hardest hit are new funding to increase…

  11. 76 FR 33788 - Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Into Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ...' Employment and Training Service Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Into Employment AGENCY: Veterans' Employment... Veterans Reintegration Program through fiscal year (FY) 2011 and indicates: ``The Secretary of Labor shall... training) to expedite the reintegration of homeless veterans into the labor force.'' HVRP grants...

  12. Nowhere to Run: HIV Prevention for Runaway and Homeless Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Marc

    This volume is a guide to providing effective Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and substance abuse prevention services to runaway and homeless youth. The guide is based on current research and the best programs in this field. Chapters 1 and 2 summarize what is known about runaway and homeless youth, the services these youth require if they are…

  13. Visible Voices: Literacy Identity and the Invisible Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juchniewicz, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite calls for increased awareness of and sensitivity to diverse students and their in- and out-of-school literacies, the "invisible homeless"--those who often decline to self-identify--receive inadequate scholarly attention. They are often individuals who fear the stigma associated with homelessness as they navigate workplace, academic, and…

  14. The Characteristics and Needs of Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet was developed to help you understand the scope, causes, and impact of homelessness on children and families. You are encouraged to use it as well as the publications cited in its footnotes as tools more about homelessness. (Contains 78 endnotes.)

  15. Homelessness, Violence Exposure, and School Participation among Urban Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Angie C.

    2007-01-01

    Using a risk and resilience framework, this exploratory study examines the relationships between homelessness, exposure to multiple types of violence, and school participation within a survey sample of poor adolescent mothers living in an urban setting. Participants who were homeless either currently or historically were compared with participants…

  16. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  17. The Relationship between Learning Disabilities and Homelessness in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, Patricia A.; Strawser, Sherri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between learning disabilities (LD) and homelessness. Research describing the connection between disabilities and homelessness has focused on individuals presenting with disabilities such as mental illness, physical disabilities, medical disabilities, or substance abuse. At this time, the presence of LD in…

  18. Answering the Call: Facilitating Responsive Services for Students Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim; Lorelle, Sonya; Anderson, Kie; Knight, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    After a review of the literature elucidating the status quo for students experiencing homelessness, this article shares the results of a mixed methods study. With a phenomenological qualitative emphasis, the mixed methods study explored the perceptions of parents and children experiencing homelessness regarding their academic needs and the…

  19. Spaces of Trauma: Young People, Homelessness and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…

  20. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…