Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian
The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.
... Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activity Seeking OMB Approval AGENCY... our intention to request the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) extension of a current information collection. The Federal Register Notice with a 60-day comment period soliciting comments on...
Matsuda, Sandra; Donaldson, Joe F.
The information-seeking activity (ISA) of 16 rural health practitioners (occupational, physical, and respiratory therapists; radiological technologists; speech/language pathologists; and nurses) was explored using qualitative methods of participant observation, document collection, and in-depth interviews. Field notes and documents were collected…
Saito, Hitomi; Miwa, Kazuhisa
Recently, many opportunities have emerged to use the Internet in daily life and classrooms. However, with the growth of the World Wide Web (Web), it is becoming increasingly difficult to find target information on the Internet. In this study, we explore a method for developing the ability of users in information seeking on the Web and construct a search process feedback system supporting reflective activities of information seeking on the Web. Reflection is defined as a cognitive activity for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying one's thinking and process. In the field of learning science, many researchers have investigated reflective activities that facilitate learners' problem solving and deep understanding. The characteristics of this system are: (1) to show learners' search processes on the Web as described, based on a cognitive schema, and (2) to prompt learners to reflect on their search processes. We expect that users of this system can reflect on their search processes by receiving information on their own search processes provided by the system, and that these types of reflective activity helps them to deepen their understanding of information seeking activities. We have conducted an experiment to investigate the effects of our system. The experimental results confirmed that (1) the system actually facilitated the learners' reflective activities by providing process visualization and prompts, and (2) the learners who reflected on their search processes more actively understood their own search processes more deeply.
... prescribes certification standards for pilots, flight instructors, and ground instructors. The information... certification standards for pilots, flight instructors, and ground instructors. The information collected...
.... Carla Mauney, FAA Information Collection Clearance Officer, IT Enterprises Business Services Division... attention of the Desk Officer, Department of Transportation/FAA, and sent via electronic mail to...
..., 2010. Carla Mauney, FAA Information Collection Clearance Officer, IT Enterprises Business Services... attention of the Desk Officer, Department of Transportation/FAA, and sent via electronic mail to...
... our intention to request the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) revision of a current information... authorizes certification of civilian schools giving instruction in flying. Information collected is used for... Administration (FAA) Title: Pilot Schools--FAR 141. Type of Request: Extension without change of a...
... information collection is required for compliance with the final rule that codifies special flight rules and airspace and flight restrictions for certain operations in the Washington, DC Metropolitan Area. The FAA form number and time per response listed below have been corrected from those reported on the...
... is needed to meet the requirements of Title 49, Section 40117(k), Competition Plans, and to carry out... Aviation Administration (FAA) Title: Competition Plans, Passenger Facility Charges. Type of Request... information is needed to meet the requirements of Title 49, Section 40117(k), Competition Plans, and to...
... our intention to request the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) revision of a current information... obtain industry input on customer service standards which have been developed and distributed to industry... on customer service standards which have been developed and distributed to industry customers....
... addressed to the attention of the Desk Officer, Department of Transportation/FAA, and sent via electronic..., DC, on May 20, 2010. Carla Mauney, FAA Information Collection Clearance Officer, IT Enterprises Business Services Division, AES-200. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...
... information there would be no means to accurately evaluate applicants' skills, knowledge, and abilities to... Library, Room 10102, 725 17th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20503. Comments are invited on: Whether the... Officer, IT Enterprises Business Services Division, AES-200. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...
Paul, Sharoda A.
In recent years researchers have found that people often collaborate during information seeking activities. Collaborative information seeking (CIS) is composed of multiple different activities like seeking, sharing, understanding, and using information together. However, most studies of CIS have focused on how people find and retrieve information…
Peters, Martine; Weinberg, Alysse; Sarma, Nandini; Frankoff, Mary
This article presents student perceptions about different types of web-based activities used to seek information for French language learning. Group interviews were conducted with 71 students in five Canadian universities to elicit data on their use of the Internet for information-seeking activities. These students use the Web for three main…
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Frosch, Dominick L; Hornik, Robert C
The shift toward viewing patients as active consumers of health information raises questions about whether individuals respond to health news by seeking additional information. This study examines the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking using a national survey of adults aged 18 years and older. A Lexis-Nexis database search term was used to identify Associated Press (AP) news articles about cancer released between October 21, 2002, and April 13, 2003. We merged these data to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a telephone survey of 6,369 adults, by date of interview. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking. Overall, we observed a marginally significant positive relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking (p < 0.07). Interaction terms revealed that the relationship was apparent only among respondents who paid close attention to health news (p < 0.01) and among those with a family history of cancer (p < 0.05). Results suggest that a notable segment of the population actively responds to periods of elevated cancer news coverage by seeking additional information, but they raise concerns about the potential for widened gaps in cancer knowledge and behavior between large segments of the population in the future.
Marchionini, Gary; Komlodi, Anita
Examines the current state of user interface design for information seeking. Topics include technology push and interdisciplinarity; research and development; literature trends; user-centered interface design; information seeking in electronic environments; online information retrieval system interfaces; online public access catalog interfaces;…
Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon
Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…
Rupp-Serrano, Karen; Robbins, Sarah
This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic education faculty from twenty large public research universities. The investigation includes an examination of how frequently education faculty seek or access information, how they stay up-to-date on current developments in the field and identify less recent journal literature, how…
Spink, Amanda; Koricich, Andrew; Jansen, B J; Cole, Charles
Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior. Seeking sexually related information on the Internet takes many forms and channels, including chat rooms discussions, accessing Websites or searching Web search engines for sexual materials. The study of sexual Web queries provides insight into sexually-related information-seeking behavior, of value to Web users and providers alike. We qualitatively analyzed queries from logs of 1,025,910 Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com Web user queries from 2001. We compared the differences in sexually-related Web searching between Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com users. Differences were found in session duration, query outcomes, and search term choices. Implications of the findings for sexual information seeking are discussed.
Fitneva, Stanka A.; Dunfield, Kristen A.
In 3 experiments, the authors examined whether a single act of testimony can inform children's subsequent information seeking. In Experiment 1, participants saw one informant give a correct and another informant give an incorrect answer to a question, assessed who was "right" ("wrong"), and decided to whom to address a 2nd question. Adults and…
Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk; Ozmutlu, Seda
Presents findings from four studies of the prevalence of multitasking information seeking and searching by Web (via the Excite search engine), information retrieval system (mediated online database searching), and academic library users. Highlights include human information coordinating behavior (HICB); and implications for models of information…
Mahmood, Malik Tariq
The main purpose of this research study is to investigate the information-seeking behavior of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) administrators in Pakistan. Information is obtained by using a wide variety of informal and formal sources, human sources, Internet as well as print media. The present study found that AIOU administrators are more…
Kuhlthau, Carol C.
Proposes an uncertainty principle for information seeking based on the results of a series of studies that investigated the user's perspective of the information search process. Constructivist theory is discussed as a conceptual framework for studying the user's perspective, and areas for further research are suggested. (Contains 44 references.)…
Crystal, Jonathon D; Foote, Allison L
Metacognition has been divided into information monitoring and control processes. Monitoring involves knowing that you know or do not know some information without taking corrective action. Control involves taking corrective action based on the knowledge that you know or do not know some information. In comparative metacognition, considerable attention has been paid toward critically assessing putative evidence for information monitoring in non-human animals. However, less attention has been paid toward critically evaluating evidence for control processes in animals. We briefly review a critique of information-monitoring in animals. Next, we apply these concepts to a number of studies that focus on information seeking in animals. The main type of evidence for control processes in animals come from tube tipping experiments. Before having the opportunity to search for the bait in these experiments, the subject sometimes observes opaque tubes being baited but is sometimes prevented from seeing the baiting. The observations that the subjects look more if baiting was not seen and are more accurate if baiting was seen have been taken as evidence for metacognition in information-seeking experiments. We propose simple alternative hypotheses that are sufficient to explain putative evidence for information seeking in animals without positing metacognition. The alternative explanation focuses on two relatively simple principles: First, an animal has a default "look before you go" response which supersedes random searches in space. Second, spatially guided behavior follows a default rule of "go where something good is." These principles can explain the results of tube tipping experiments without proposing metacognition.
Vernon, David T. A.
Compares hospitalized tuberculosis patients with informative and uninformative physicians as to their use of library books. Finds that the two groups did not differ in general reading, but that those with uninformative physicians tended to seek out books about tuberculosis and its treatment more often. (MB)
Bennett, Nancy L.; Casebeer, Linda L.; Kristofco, Robert E.; Strasser, Sheryl M.
Introduction: Our understanding about the role of the Internet as a resource for physicians has improved in the past several years with reports of patterns for use and measures of impact on medical practice. The purpose of this study was to begin to shape a theory base for more fully describing physicians' information-seeking behaviors as they…
Limberg, Louise; Sundin, Olof
Introduction: The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL) investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method: Thirteen…
Arai, Takashi; Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio
This study explores determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention on the Internet, including how it was influenced by personal conversations with others. An analysis of a web survey of mothers (N = 1,040) of 3-12 years old children in Japan indicated that many mothers briefly saw basic information about crime on the Internet, while only a few mothers sought further details. Structural equation modeling indicated the following results. Overall, an increased frequency of conversations about children's safety with family and friends made mothers realize their own responsibility for crime prevention. It also encouraged mothers to seek more information about crime prevention by increasing their willingness to cooperate with neighbors. However, when individuals' realization of responsibility for crime prevention strengthened their attitudes toward the responsibility of the police and government for crime problems, then these attitudes decreased mothers' information-seeking. Finally, while a heightened frequency of conversations about news contents directly increased information-seeking about crime, such conversations could indirectly weaken mothers' information-seeking when mothers emphasized the responsibility of the police and government.
Introduction: The aim of this paper is to deal with the information seeking and use problem in a professional context and understand how activity can influence practices, by taking as examples, the research undertaken by economic analysts. We analyse the relationship between the situational approach, described by Cheuk, the work environment…
Chang, Leanne; Chiuan Yen, Ching; Xue, Lishan; Choo Tai, Bee; Chuan Chan, Hock; Been-Lirn Duh, Henry; Choolani, Mahesh
This study examined effects of age and social psychological factors on women's willingness to be mobile health information seekers. A national survey of 1,878 Singaporean women was conducted to obtain information on women's mobile phone usage, experiences of health information seeking, and appraisals of using mobile phones to seek health information. Results showed that young, middle-aged, and older women exhibited distinct mobile phone usage behaviors, health information-seeking patterns, and assessments of mobile health information seeking. Factors that accounted for their mobile information-seeking intention also varied. Data reported in this study provide insights into mobile health interventions in the future.
Knight, Simon; Mercer, Neil
The authors discuss the relationship between information seeking and epistemic beliefs--beliefs about the source, structure, complexity and stability of knowledge--in the context of collaborative information-seeking discourses. They further suggest that both information seeking, and epistemic cognition research agendas, have suffered from a lack…
Park, Hyejin; Park, Min Sook
Linguistically and culturally isolated Korean Americans have less access to health service and cancer screening tests than all U.S population. Lack of adequate cancer information is one of the barriers to undergoing cancer screening tests. It is necessary to understand their current cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs if we are to more effectively provide adequate cancer information. The purpose of the study was to identify cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans. Data were collected from one of the biggest websites for the Korean community in the USA. A total of 273 free-texts from January to June 2013 were reviewed and analyzed for this study. The extracted terms were categorized based on the coding system. The primary reason for asking questions was inquiry followed by sharing experiences. The main topics of the postings were categorized as medical or non-medical. In relation to types of cancer, breast cancer was the greatest concern. The findings from this study can help in establishing more effective strategies to provide better cancer information among Korean Americans by assessing their current cancer information seeking trends and information needs.
Osborne, Sandra D; Henley, Garnett L; Josey-Baker, Yolanda I; Fryer, Cheryl E S
As health care practitioners, dental hygienists need information-gathering skills and the confidence to both perform literature searches in Internet databases and assess the results in order to utilize the wealth of scientific literature that supports evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to assess the information-seeking strategies of dental hygienists. A self-administered electronic survey of thirty-eight questions was sent to 5,007 licensed dental hygienists in District III of the American Dental Hygienists' Association. The overall response rate was 7.9 percent (396/5,007). Most (90.9 percent) of the respondents were currently practicing dental hygiene, with 62.9 percent having practiced more than ten years. Approximately 56 percent had graduated from a two-year dental hygiene program and had graduated before 1998. Nearly all of the respondents who graduated in 1999 or after were confident using a computer (96.2 percent) and the Internet (95.4 percent); lower percentages of the pre-1999 graduates expressed such confidence (68.6 percent using a computer and 80.7 percent using the Internet). Most respondents (90.9 percent) who graduated in 1999 or after reported receiving evidence-based decision making (EBDM) training in their dental hygiene program- an increase over the 51.8 percent of pre-1999 graduates who reported having received it-though lower percentages (78.2 and 48.0 percent, respectively) reported thinking their EBDM training was adequate. Though the response rate was low, these results may suggest that information-gathering skills are being more effectively addressed in recent dental hygiene education than previously. Continuing education courses that teach hands-on navigation of databases and methods to search the scientific literature and analytically appraise it could increase both the skills and comfort level of dental hygienists, especially those who graduated more than a decade ago.
Alkhalaf, Ahmad Abdullah
This study explored university students' information seeking behaviors related to prescription medication (PM) information. Specifically, it examined the different sources students use for PM information, their use and perceptions of online sources, the types of PM information they seek, their concerns about, and methods they apply to verify the…
Introduction: The article contributes to conceptual studies of information behaviour research by examining the conceptualisations of information seeking and related terms such as information search and browsing. Method: The study builds on Bates' integrated model of information seeking and searching, originally presented in 2002. The model was…
Rowley, Jennifer; Johnson, Frances; Sbaffi, Laura
As one of the most active groups of Internet users, students and other young people are active users of digital health information. Yet, research into young people's evaluation of health information is limited, and no previous studies have focused on trust formation. In addition, prior studies on adults' use of digital information do not reach a consensus regarding the key factors in trust formation. This study seeks to address this gap. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data from undergraduate students studying a variety of disciplines in one UK university. The Trust in Online Health Information Scale is proposed, and it includes the following dimensions: authority, style, content, usefulness, brand, ease of use, recommendation, credibility, and verification. In addition, inspection of responses to specific items/questions provides further insights into aspects of the information that were of specific importance in influencing trust judgements.
O'Connor, Lisa G.
This exploratory study examines the information seeking and use behaviors of a group of US retired or near-retirement investors from everyday life information seeking and serious leisure perspectives. Although primarily qualitative, it also collects and analyzes quantitative data to describe retired investors' information preferences and use.…
Engel, Debra; Robbins, Sarah; Kulp, Christina
Many studies of information-seeking habits of engineers focus on understanding the similarities and differences between scientists and engineers. This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic engineering faculty from twenty public research universities. This investigation includes an examination of how frequently engineer- ing…
Pezeshki-Rad, Gholamreza; Zamani, Naser
Introduction: We report an investigation designed to explore the information-seeking behaviour of extension managers and specialists in Iran, and to identify the factors that correlate with this behaviour. Method: A questionnaire was developed to explore information-seeking behaviour of extension managers and specialists. The questionnaire was…
Chaudhuri, Shomir; Le, Thai; White, Cathy; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George
This study aims to examine which resources older adults utilize for their health information needs, how trustworthy and reliable they find these resources, and the difficulties they face in obtaining health-related information. A 41-item survey designed to understand the information-seeking characteristics of older adults was developed and distributed to retirement communities. Some items were taken from the Health Information National Trends Survey. Of 1520 surveys, 403 were returned completed (26.6%). Respondents' mean age was 77.65 years. Average scores indicated respondents trusted particular sources of health information in the following order (highest to lowest): health care providers, pharmacists, friends and relatives, retirement community staff, newspapers, the Internet, television, and the radio. In conclusion, older adults have a greater amount of trust in a person with whom they are able to actively discuss their health as opposed to a nonliving source, which they have to access or manipulate, such as the Internet. Efforts must be made to help older adults better navigate and utilize the Internet and recognize dependable online sources so that they may increase their trust in its use, thereby increasing satisfaction with their own ability to seek and use sources of health information.
Jones, Lenette M; Veinot, Tiffany C; Pressler, Susan J
Although cell phone use and Internet access via cell phone is not marked by racial disparities, little is known about how cell phone use relates to blood pressure and health information seeking behaviors. The purposes of this study were to (a) describe Internet activities, cell phone use, and information seeking; (b) determine differences in blood pressure and information seeking between cell phone information seekers and nonseekers; and (c) examine cell phone information seeking as a predictor of blood pressure in African American women. Participants ( N = 147) completed a survey and had their blood pressure measured. Independent-sample t tests showed a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in cell phone information seekers and nonseekers. Linear regression revealed cell phone information seeking as an independent predictor of systolic blood pressure, despite confounders. It is possible that cell phone information seekers were using health information to make decisions about self-management of blood pressure.
Sheng, Xiaojing; Simpson, Penny M
While seniors are the most likely population segment to have chronic diseases, they are the least likely to seek information about health and diseases on the Internet. An understanding of factors that impact seniors' usage of the Internet for health care information may provide them with tools needed to improve health. This research examined some of these factors as identified in the comprehensive model of information seeking to find that demographics, trust in health information websites, perceived usefulness of the Internet, and internal locus of control each significantly impact seniors' use of the Internet to seek health information.
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric
Research shows runaway and homeless youth are reluctant to seek help from traditional health providers. The Internet can be useful in engaging this population and meeting their needs for sexual health information, including information about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using a sample of homeless youth living in Los Angeles, California in June 2009, this study assesses the frequency with which runaway and homeless youth seek sexual health information via the Internet, and assesses which youth are more likely to engage in seeking health information from online sources. Drawing from Andersen's (1968) health behavior model and Pescosolido's (1992) network episode model, we develop and refine a model for seeking online sexual health information among homeless youth. Rather than testing the predicative strength of a given model, our aim is to identify and explore conceptually driven correlates that may shed light on the characteristics associated with these help seeking behaviors among homeless youth. Analyses using multivariate logistic regression models reveal that among the sample of youth, females and gay males most frequently seek sexual health information online. We demonstrate the structure of social network ties (e.g., connection with parents) and the content of interactions (e.g., e-mail forwards of health information) across ties are critical correlates of online sexual health information seeking. Results show a continued connection with parents via the Internet is significantly associated with youth seeking HIV or STI information. Similarly for content of interactions, more youth who were sent health information online also reported seeking HIV information and HIV-testing information. We discuss implications for intervention and practice, focusing on how the Internet may be used for dissemination of sexual health information and as a resource for social workers to link transient, runaway, and homeless youth to care.
Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David
Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…
Doctor, Ronald D.
Proposals for shaping the National Information Infrastructure (NII) lack sufficient provision for supporting locally controlled information delivery systems, which could serve all the people, regardless of class or community environment. A system of federally sponsored National and Regional Institutes for Information Democracy could help meet this…
Bates, Marcia J.
Discussion of the information needs and information-seeking behavior of interdisciplinary scholars and students focuses on kinds of research needed at both basic and applied levels. Topics include prior research; the organization, description, and indexing of information in libraries for successful information retrieval; and research techniques in…
Bennett, Nancy L.; Casebeer, Linda L.; Zheng, Shimin; Kristofco, Robert
Introduction: As they care for patients, physicians raise questions, but they pursue only a portion of them. Without the best information and evidence, care and patient safety may be compromised. Understanding when and why problems prompt physicians to look for information and integrate results into their knowledge base is critical and shapes one…
Percheski, Christine; Hargittai, Eszter
Objective: The authors examined the sources of health information among first-year university students and whether the predictors of information-seeking varied by information source. Participants: First-year students in a required course at a midwestern public university were eligible to participate, and 82% (n = 1,060) completed the study.…
Ocholla, Dennis N.
Analyzes information-seeking behavior by university academics at Moi University (Kenya). Results established that faculty depend on the library and on colleagues for information in spite of a lack of awareness of information services and nonuse of current awareness services. A copy of the questionnaire used is appended. (Author/LRW)
Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun
This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.
Laurent, Michaël R; Vickers, Tim J
OBJECTIVE To determine the significance of the English Wikipedia as a source of online health information. DESIGN The authors measured Wikipedia's ranking on general Internet search engines by entering keywords from MedlinePlus, NHS Direct Online, and the National Organization of Rare Diseases as queries into search engine optimization software. We assessed whether article quality influenced this ranking. The authors tested whether traffic to Wikipedia coincided with epidemiological trends and news of emerging health concerns, and how it compares to MedlinePlus. MEASUREMENTS Cumulative incidence and average position of Wikipedia compared to other Web sites among the first 20 results on general Internet search engines (Google, Google UK, Yahoo, and MSN, and page view statistics for selected Wikipedia articles and MedlinePlus pages. RESULTS Wikipedia ranked among the first ten results in 71-85% of search engines and keywords tested. Wikipedia surpassed MedlinePlus and NHS Direct Online (except for queries from the latter on Google UK), and ranked higher with quality articles. Wikipedia ranked highest for rare diseases, although its incidence in several categories decreased. Page views increased parallel to the occurrence of 20 seasonal disorders and news of three emerging health concerns. Wikipedia articles were viewed more often than MedlinePlus Topic (p = 0.001) but for MedlinePlus Encyclopedia pages, the trend was not significant (p = 0.07-0.10). CONCLUSIONS Based on its search engine ranking and page view statistics, the English Wikipedia is a prominent source of online health information compared to the other online health information providers studied.
Altizer, Kathryn P.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A; Arcury, Thomas A.
This study documents older adults’ sources of health information, describes the purposes for health information seeking, and delineates gender and ethnic variation in health information seeking. Sixty-two African American and white adults age 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing their use of complementary therapies. Interviews identified how individuals obtained and shared health information. Friends, not family, were the dominant source of health information. Participants ranged from active seekers to passive consumers of health information. Information seeking was common for benign symptoms. More women than men discuss health information with others. Friends are the primary source of health information for rural older adults. There is substantial passivity in the pursuit of health information. Identifying health information sources of rural older adults can support the dissemination of information to those who share it with others. PMID:24188253
George, Carole; Bright, Alice; Hurlbert, Terry; Linke, Erika C.; St. Clair, Gloriana; Stein, Joan
Introduction: This study explored graduate students' information behaviour related to their process of inquiry and scholarly activities. Method: In depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with one hundred graduate students representing all disciplines and departments from Carnegie Mellon University. Analysis: Working in pairs, we coded…
Oh, Kyeung Mi; Kreps, Gary L; Jun, Jungmi; Chong, Elizabeth; Ramsey, Lolita
Many Korean Americans suffer from high levels of cancer incidence and have low cancer screening rates. A significant number of Korean Americans lack adequate information about cancer screening tests. However, little is known about their health behaviors. This article examines exposure to mass media and health information-seeking behaviors for Korean Americans, and their associations with demographic characteristics influencing variations in exposure to the different health information and trust in health information sources. The authors gathered data for this study using a cross-sectional, community-based survey conducted in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area during 2006 and 2007. It was administered to 254 Korean Americans who were 40 years of age or older. This study is part of the first health-related program of research to study exposure to mass media, health and cancer information sources, and seeking preferences and experiences of Korean Americans. Results indicated that Korean ethnic media sources and Internet are important sources used regularly. Age, years of education completed, and English proficiency levels for Korean Americans significantly predicted the likelihood of their Internet use. Low-income Korean Americans with less education were more likely to seek health information in Korean ethnic magazines and newspapers, whereas Korean Americans with higher education and English proficiency were more likely to seek information online. The most trusted source of health information among respondents was from a doctor or other health care professional. Future research should be conducted to determine whether physicians are actually used as a primary source for health information.
Wright, Carol S.
Background/Context: A thorough understanding of the information-seeking behaviors of specific disciplines, as well as distinct user groups within a discipline, is fundamental to the process of development of disciplinary informatics. Significant research has been conducted, largely by library and information science scholars across a range of…
Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.
To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…
Lee, Chul-Joo; Ramírez, A Susana; Lewis, Nehama; Gray, Stacy W; Hornik, Robert C
The gap in cancer information seeking between high-socioeconomic-status (high-SES) cancer patients and low-SES cancer patients deserves serious attention, considering the importance of information and knowledge in cancer control. We thus explored the association of SES, as measured by education, with cancer patients' overall cancer information seeking, and with seeking from each source (i.e., the Internet, mass media, medical sources, and nonmedical interpersonal sources) and across two topic categories (i.e., treatment, quality of life). We then asked whether the effect of education on treatment information seeking is reduced among those who are particularly motivated to control treatment choices. We conducted a survey with breast, prostate, and colon cancer patients diagnosed in 2005 (n = 2,013), who were randomly drawn from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry in the fall of 2006. We found that education was more strongly associated with Internet use than with the use of other sources regardless of topics. Also, when information was sought from mass media, education had a greater association with treatment information seeking than with quality-of-life information seeking. Preference for active participation in treatment decision making, however, did not moderate the effect of education on treatment information seeking. The implications of these findings for public health research and cancer patient education were discussed.
... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent to Seek Approval To Conduct an Information... the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to seek approval to conduct a new information... to Seek Approval to Conduct a new Information Collection: The National Agricultural...
Zhao, Xiaoquan; Cai, Xiaomei
Using the risk perception attitude (RPA) framework and the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey data, this research investigated the role of perceived personal risk, perceived comparative risk, response efficacy, communication efficacy, and anxiety in smokers' active cancer information seeking. The RPA predictions on the interactions between perceived personal risk and the two efficacy measures were not supported. Perceived personal risk and response efficacy were associated with cancer information seeking both directly and through the mediation of anxiety. Optimistic comparative risk perceptions were associated with less anxiety and were found to moderate the relationship between perceived personal risk and cancer information seeking. Surprisingly, communication efficacy emerged as a negative predictor of cancer information seeking. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Tian, Yan; Robinson, James D
This investigation incorporates the Orientation1-Stimulus-Orientation2-Response model on the antecedents and outcomes of individual-level complementarity of media use in health information seeking. A secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data suggests that education and gender were positively associated with individual-level media complementarity of health information seeking, which, in turn, was positively associated with awareness of health concepts and organizations, and this awareness was positively associated with a specific health behavior: fruit and vegetable consumption. This study extends the research in media complementarity and health information use; it provides an integrative social psychological model empirically supported by the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data.
Babin, Lisa-Marie; Tricot, Andre; Marine, Claudette
Throughout their lives, people are faced with various learning situations, for example when they learn how to use new software, services or information systems. However, research in the field of Interactive Learning Environments shows that learners needing assistance do not systematically seek or use help, even when it is available. The aim of the…
Wu, Mei-Mei; Liu, Ying-Hsang
Explores how intermediaries seek information from patrons by analyzing intermediaries' elicitation utterances through three dimensions: linguistic forms, utterance purposes, and communicative functions. Reports on results of questionnaires given to patrons and intermediaries in academic and research libraries in Taiwan and investigates…
Sapa, Remigiusz; Krakowska, Monika; Janiak, Malgorzata
Introduction: The paper presents original research designed to explore and compare selected aspects of the information seeking behaviour of mathematicians (scientists and students) on the Internet. Method: The data were gathered through a questionnaire distributed at the end of 2011 and in January 2012. Twenty-nine professional mathematicians and…
Introduction: The aim of this article is to look at how attitudes towards the Internet technology differ between boys and girls, and how this affects their critical approach when seeking information. Method: The approach is ethnographic, and the material was collected by means of observations, conversations, questionnaires, interviews, computer…
Ringold, Dorman R.
This study was undertaken to identify and organize meaningful and useful basic materials on transistor principles and applications, and to explore some of the elements required for adult teaching. It was limited to the apparent needs of information-seeking adults in greater Los Angeles who desired occupational skills. A literature review…
Sitter, Stefan; Stein, Adelheit
Introduces a generic, application-independent model of human-computer information-seeking dialog, the Conversational Roles (COR) Model, and reviews the theoretical background. COR is represented as a recursive state-transition-network that determines legitimate types and possible sequences of dialog acts, and categorizes dialog acts on the basis…
Library science students in school librarianship were surveyed to determine their information seeking and avoidance behaviors in Web-based online environments. Two coping styles were identified among students. Barriers to student online collaboration, such as individual preferences, concerns on efficiency, and lack of mutual trust, were observed.…
Puustinen, Minna; Rouet, Jean-Francois
Education researchers have amply documented the beneficial effects of help seeking on learning and understanding. Requesting help from teachers (or other human sources) when faced with a difficult task is now considered a self-regulated learning strategy. In a related domain, information search refers to learner-initiated efforts to obtain further…
Introduction:The results of a study of information seeking behaviour of inter-disciplinary academic and postgraduate researchers are reported. Method. The study applied the naturalistic methods recommended by Lincoln and Guba for maximising credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in data collection and analysis. Sampling…
Sitter, Stefan; Stein, Adelheit
Discussion of discourse modeling in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics focuses on a dialog model that incorporates the illocutionary aspects of information-seeking dialogs. The relevance of a theory developed for the analysis of written texts--Rhetorical Structure Theory--is explained, and future work is discussed. (25…
Wise, Kevin; Alhabash, Saleem; Park, Hyojung
Based on existing research on social networking and information seeking, it was proposed that Facebook.com use could be conceptualized as serving two primary goals: passive social browsing (i.e., newsfeeds) and extractive social searching (i.e., friends' profiles). This study explored whether these categories adequately reflect Facebook use and whether they moderate physiological indicators of emotion. Thirty-six participants navigated Facebook.com while their on-screen activity and physiological responses associated with motivation and emotion were recorded. Results showed that the majority of screens encountered during Facebook use could be categorized as devoted to social browsing or social searching. Participants spent more time on social browsing than they spent on social searching. Skin-conductance data indicated that sympathetic activation diminished during the course of both social browsing and social searching. Facial EMG data indicated that participants experienced more pleasantness during the course of social searching than they experienced during social browsing. These results are discussed in terms of existing social-networking research and an evaluative space model of emotion.
Eynon, R.; Malmberg, L.-E.
Information seeking is one of the most popular online activities for young people and can provide an additional information channel, which may enhance learning. In this study, we propose and test a model that adds to the existing literature by examining the ways in which parents, schools, and friends (what we call networks of support) effect young…
Spence, Patricia Ruma
Collaborative information seeking (CIS) is an important aspect of work in organizational settings. Researchers are developing a more detailed understanding of CIS activities and the tools to support them; however, most studies of CIS focus on how people find and retrieve information collaboratively, while overlooking the important question of how…
Lee, Young Ji; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Quarles, Leigh; Wilcox, Adam; Bakken, Suzanne
The objective of this study was to examine factors predicting use of the Internet to seek health information among Hispanics in the Washington Heights and Inwood areas of New York City. Data were collected by community health workers through the Washington Heights/Inwood Informatics Infrastructure for Community-Centered Comparative Effectiveness Research (WICER) community survey and a random sample of 100 surveys was selected for analysis. Binary logistic regression (N=100) was used to examine predictors of online health information-seeking behaviors (HISBs) of respondent and household members (dependent variables). Younger age, better health status, and higher education level significantly predicted respondents' HISBs. Respondents' health status and education level also significantly predicted household members' HISBs.
Ruppel, Erin K
Information scanning, or attention to information via incidental or routine exposure or browsing, is relatively less understood than information seeking. To (a) provide a more theoretical understanding of information scanning and (b) extend existing information seeking theory to information scanning, the current study used data from the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey to examine cancer information scanning using the comprehensive model of information seeking (CMIS). Consistent with the CMIS, health-related factors were associated with the information-carrier factor of trust, and health-related factors and trust were associated with attention to information sources. Some of these associations differed between entertainment-oriented sources, information-oriented sources, and the Internet. The current findings provide a clearer picture of information scanning and suggest future avenues of research and practice using the CMIS.
Burton-Jeangros, C; Hammer, R
In the literature, uses of the internet by patients are interpreted either as a resource supporting their autonomy, or as a source of perturbation in the doctor-patient relationship. Analysing 50 interviews with pregnant women, this article aims at describing the different uses made during pregnancy. Some women mostly aim at sharing their experience in their use of internet. Others are looking for specialised information, by curiosity, to complement the information received in medical visits or, more rarely, as a result of a lack of information in their exchanges with professionals. Uses of internet by patients will develop in the future and it is important that professionals take into account these different forms of internet use in their practices.
Bhandari, Neeraj; Shi, Yunfeng; Jung, Kyoungrae
Consumers facing barriers to healthcare access may use online health information seeking and online communication with physicians, but the empirical relationship has not been sufficiently analyzed. Our study examines the association of barriers to healthcare access with consumers' health-related information searching on the internet, use of health chat groups, and email communication with physicians, using data from 27,210 adults from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey. Individuals with financial barriers to healthcare access, difficulty getting timely appointments with doctors, and conflicts in scheduling during clinic hours are more likely to search for general health information online than those without these access barriers. Those unable to get timely appointments with physicians are more likely to participate in health chat groups and email physicians. The internet may offer a low-cost source of health information and could help meet the heightened demand for health-related information among those facing access barriers to care.
Erlyana, Erlyana; Acosta-Deprez, Veronica; O'Lawrence, Henry; Sinay, Tony; Ramirez, Jeremy; Jacot, Emmanuel C; Shim, Kyuyoung
The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of Internet users who seek health insurance information online, as well as factors affecting their behaviors in seeking health insurance information. Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from the 2012 Pew Internet Health Tracking Survey. Of 2,305 Internet user adults, only 29% were seeking health insurance information online. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test differences in characteristics of those who seek health insurance information online and those who do not. A logistic regression model was used to determine significant predictors of health insurance information-seeking behavior online. Findings suggested that factors such as being a single parent, having a high school education or less, and being uninsured were significant and those individuals were less likely to seek health insurance information online. Being a family caregiver of an adult and those who bought private health insurance or were entitled to Medicare were more likely to seek health insurance information online than non-caregivers and the uninsured. The findings suggested the need to provide quality health insurance information online is critical for both the insured and uninsured population.
Checton, Maria G; Greene, Kathryn; Carpenter, Amanda; Catona, Danielle
This paper explores perceived active health information seeking, informal advocacy by a partner or other, cardiac efficacy, and cardiovascular health indicators for patients surveyed while visiting their cardiologist. Participants include 208 patients with a diagnosed heart condition. Variables include predisposing characteristics (e.g., illness severity, demographics), perceived active health information seeking during an office visit, informal advocacy by partner or other, cardiac efficacy, and cardiovascular health indicators (i.e., basal metabolic index (BMI), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides). Data were analyzed using correlations, t-tests, and structural equation modeling. As hypothesized, perceived active health information seeking during an office visit (positively) and informal advocacy by partner or other (negatively) predicted cardiac efficacy. One path was added from active information seeking to BMI. Cardiac efficacy, in turn, significantly predicted total cholesterol and BMI. The model was also replicated for LDLs but not for HDLs or triglycerides. We discuss implications for cardiac disease management.
Kellens, Wim; Zaalberg, Ruud; De Maeyer, Philippe
Recent flood risk management puts an increasing emphasis on the public's risk perception and its preferences. It is now widely recognized that a better knowledge of the public's awareness and concern about risks is of vital importance to outline effective risk communication strategies. Models such as Risk Information Seeking and Processing address this evolution by considering the public's needs and its information-seeking behavior with regard to risk information. This study builds upon earlier information-seeking models and focuses on the empirical relationships between information-seeking behavior and the constructs of risk perception, perceived hazard knowledge, response efficacy, and information need in the context of coastal flood risks. Specific focus is given to the mediating role of information need in the model and to the differences in information-seeking behavior between permanent and temporary residents. By means of a structured on-line questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in the city of Ostend, one of the most vulnerable places to coastal flooding on the Belgian coast. Three hundred thirteen respondents participated in the survey. Path analysis reveals that information need does not act as a mediator in contrast to risk perception and perceived knowledge. In addition, it is shown that risk perception and perceived hazard knowledge are higher for permanent than temporary residents, leading to increased information-seeking behavior among the former group. Implications for risk communication are discussed.
Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Sharmin, Tamanna
This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a "health knowledge economy", organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term "health knowledge economy" draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups.
Juthe, Robin H.; Zaharchuk, Amber; Wang, Catharine
Purpose On May 14, 2013, actress Angelina Jolie disclosed that she had a BRCA1 mutation and underwent a prophylactic bilateral mastectomy. This study documents the impact of her disclosure on information-seeking behavior, specifically regarding online genetics and risk reduction resources available from the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Methods Using Adobe Analytics, daily page views for 11 resources were tracked from April 23, 2013 through June 25, 2013. Usage data were also obtained for four resources over a 2-year period (2012–2013). Source of referral by which viewers located a specific resource was also examined. Results There was a dramatic and immediate increase in traffic to NCI’s online resources. The Preventive Mastectomy fact sheet received 69,225 page views on May 14, representing a 795-fold increase compared with the previous Tuesday. A fivefold increase in page views was observed for the PDQ® Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer summary in the same timeframe. A substantial increase from 0% to 49% was seen in referrals from news outlets to four resources from May 7 to May 14. Conclusion Celebrity disclosures can dramatically influence online information-seeking behaviors. Efforts to capitalize on these disclosures to ensure easy access to accurate information are warranted. PMID:25341112
Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Uz Zaman Khan, Nazib; Sharmin, Tamanna
This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a “health knowledge economy”, organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term “health knowledge economy” draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups. PMID:26184275
Sandefer, Ryan H; Westra, Bonnie L; Khairat, Saif S; Pieczkiewicz, David S; Speedie, Stuart M
Patients are increasingly using the Internet and other technologies to engage in their own healthcare, but little research has focused on the determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors related to Internet use. This study uses data from 115,089 respondents to four years of the National Health Interview Series to identify the associations between one consumer eHealth behavior (information seeking) and demographics, health measures, and Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) (messaging, scheduling, refills, and chat). Individuals who use PHIM are 7.5 times more likely to search the internet for health related information. Just as health has social determinants, the results of this study indicate there are potential social determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors including personal demographics, health status, and healthcare access.
Sandefer, Ryan H.; Westra, Bonnie L.; Khairat, Saif S.; Pieczkiewicz, David S.; Speedie, Stuart M
Patients are increasingly using the Internet and other technologies to engage in their own healthcare, but little research has focused on the determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors related to Internet use. This study uses data from 115,089 respondents to four years of the National Health Interview Series to identify the associations between one consumer eHealth behavior (information seeking) and demographics, health measures, and Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) (messaging, scheduling, refills, and chat). Individuals who use PHIM are 7.5 times more likely to search the internet for health related information. Just as health has social determinants, the results of this study indicate there are potential social determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors including personal demographics, health status, and healthcare access. PMID:26958251
Okoniewski, Anastasia E.; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F. H.
Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas’ Information Seeking Behavior framework to, examine the participants” report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas’ framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322
A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…
This article focuses on how electronic information resources influence the information-seeking process in the social sciences and humanities. It examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in these fields, and extends the David Ellis model of information-seeking behavior for social scientists, which includes six characteristics:…
Mills, Leila A.; Knezek, Gerald; Khaddage, Ferial
This paper reports on the development of a new information communications technology (ICT) learning preference survey, its cross-validation with attitudes towards mobile learning, and new perspectives on information seeking, information sharing, and mobile access derived from the relationships uncovered. The Information and Communications…
Zhang, Zhu; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Leischow, Scott J
This paper conducted one of the first comprehensive international Internet analyses of seasonal patterns in information seeking concerning tobacco and lung cancer. Search query data for the terms "tobacco" and "lung cancer" from January 2004 to January 2014 was collected from Google Trends. The relevant countries included the USA, Canada, the UK, Australia, and China. Two statistical approaches including periodogram and cross-correlation were applied to analyze seasonal patterns in the collected search trends and their associations. For these countries except China, four out of six cross-correlations of seasonal components of the search trends regarding tobacco were above 0.600. For these English-speaking countries, similar patterns existed in the data concerning lung cancer, and all cross-correlations between seasonal components of the search trends regarding tobacco and that regarding lung cancer were also above 0.700. Seasonal patterns widely exist in information seeking concerning tobacco and lung cancer on an international scale. The findings provide a piece of novel Internet-based evidence for the seasonality and health effects of tobacco use.
Cutrona, Sarah L; Mazor, Kathleen M; Vieux, Sana N; Luger, Tana M; Volkman, Julie E; Finney Rutten, Lila J
Understanding the behaviors of surrogate seekers (those who seek health information for others) may guide efforts to improve health information transmission. We used 2011-2012 data from the Health Information National Trends Survey to describe behaviors of online surrogate seekers. Respondents were asked about use of the Internet for surrogate-seeking over the prior 12 months. Data were weighted to calculate population estimates. Two thirds (66.6%) reported surrogate-seeking. Compared to those who sought health information online for only themselves, surrogate seekers were more likely to live in households with others (weighted percent 89.4 vs. 82.5% of self-seekers; p < 0.05); no significant differences in sex, race, income or education were observed. Surrogate seekers were more likely to report activities requiring user-generated content: email communication with healthcare providers; visits to social networking sites to read and share about medical topics and participation in online health support groups. On multivariate analysis, those who had looked online for healthcare providers were more likely to be surrogate seekers (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.08-2.59). In addition to seeking health information, surrogate seekers create and pass along communications that may influence medical care decisions. Research is needed to identify ways to facilitate transmission of accurate health information.
... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Conduct an Information... the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to seek approval to conduct a new information... Request: Intent to Seek Approval to Conduct a New Information Collection. Abstract: The primary...
... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Seek Reinstatement of an Information... the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to seek reinstatement of an information collection... Control Number: 0535-0237. Type of Request: Statement to Seek Reinstatement of an Information...
Mansourian, Yazdan; Ford, Nigel; Webber, Sheila; Madden, Andrew
Purpose: This paper aims to encapsulate the main procedure and key findings of a qualitative research on end-users' interactions with web-based search tools in order to demonstrate how the concept of "information visibility" emerged and how an integrative model of information visibility and information seeking on the web was constructed.…
Hirsh, Sandra G.
Explores the information needs, information-seeking behaviors, and work group communication patterns of 27 scientists, engineers, and managers in an industrial R&D (research and development) setting. Highlights include identifying appropriate information resources, including the World Wide Web; performing searches and retrieving relevant…
Tomita, Mika; Iwasawa, Mariko
Nurses are required to obtain highly sophisticated scholarly information to contribute to the health of medical consumers through evidence-based practice (EBP). However, it is often difficult to constantly find appropriate information resources and conduct searches to obtain desired and useful information. Therefore, a system that can be used to find reliable information to satisfy the needs of clinical nurses is required. This study aimed to support nurses seeking information to aid their practice. We propose a model to support the information seeking of nurses using 2 scholarly information maps: a "Resource Map" and an "Individual Map." The Resource Map contains comprehensive information of special fields for nurses. Meanwhile, the Individual Map contains elements of case reports that help nurses to accurately specify a patient's condition. This model can help nurses develop a habit of using these maps for advancements in nursing.
... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Reinstate an Information... the National Agricultural Statistics Service ] (NASS) to seek reinstatement of an information.... Expiration Date of Previous Approval: July 31, 2009. Type of Request: Intent to Seek Reinstatement of...
... Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection AGENCY: National Science... Number: 3145-NEW. Expiration Date of Approval: Not applicable. Type of Request: Intent to seek approval... minorities in these fields who enter the professoriate. NSF seeks information from participants--that...
... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent to Seek Reinstatement of an Information... the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to seek reinstatement of an information collection.... OMB Control Number: 0535-0234. Type of Request: Intent to Seek Approval to Reinstate and Revise...
... Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Renew an Information Collection AGENCY: National Science Foundation.... Expiration Date of Approval: June 30, 2014. Type of Request: Intent to seek approval to renew an information... program seeks to achieve this by: 1. Contributing to the nation's research enterprise by developing...
... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Conduct an Information... the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to seek approval to conduct a new information... Control Number: 0535--NEW. Type of Request: Intent to Seek Approval to Conduct a New...
Introduction: The article contributes to the conceptual studies of affective factors in information seeking by examining Kuhlthau's information search process model. Method: This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previous interview study…
Olatokun, Wole Michael; Ajagbe, Enitan
This survey-based study examined the information-seeking behaviour of traditional medical practitioners using Taylor's information use model. Respondents comprised all 160 traditional medical practitioners that treat sickle cell anaemia. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. Frequency and percentage…
Hovick, Shelly R
Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.
SMITH-McLALLEN, AARON; FISHBEIN, MARTIN; HORNIK, ROBERT C.
This study explores the utility of using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction as a framework for predicting cancer patients’ intentions to seek information about their cancer from sources other than a physician, and to examine the relation between patient’s baseline intentions to seek information and their actual seeking behavior at follow-up. Within one year of their diagnosis with colon, breast, or prostate cancer, 1641 patients responded to a mailed questionnaire assessing intentions to seek cancer-related information from a source other than their doctor, as well as their attitudes, perceived normative pressure, and perceived behavioral control with respect to this behavior. In addition, the survey assessed their cancer-related information seeking. One year later, 1049 of these patients responded to a follow-up survey assessing cancer-related information seeking during the previous year. Attitudes, perceived normative pressure, and perceived behavioral control were predictive of information seeking intentions, though attitudes emerged as the primary predictor. Intentions to seek information, perceived normative pressure regarding information seeking, baseline information seeking behavior, and being diagnosed with stage 4 cancer were predictive of actual information seeking behavior at follow-up. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:21207310
Omidian, Faranak; Seifi Maleki, A.M. Masoomeh
The Internet has increasingly influenced the information-seeking behavior of students in higher education over the past few decades. The mass availability of information on the web has seen significant changes in the electronic information needs, information retrieval, and communication patterns (information seeking behavior) of university…
Hedge, Jasmine M; Sianko, Natallia; McDonell, James R
Structural equation modeling with three waves of data was used to assess a mediation model investigating the relationship between perceived social support, informal help-seeking intentions, and professional help-seeking intentions in the context of adolescent dating violence. The sample included 589 adolescents from a rural, southern county who participated in a longitudinal study of teen dating violence victimization and perpetration. Results suggest that informal help-seeking intentions are an important link between perceived social support and professional help-seeking intentions. Findings highlight the importance of informal help-seeking and informal help-giving in fostering professional help-seeking for adolescent victims and perpetrators of dating violence.
Shin, Kong Joo; Nakakido, Ryo; Horie, Shinya; Managi, Shunsuke
This paper uses original survey data of the Great East Japan earthquake disaster victims to examine their decision to apply for the temporary housing as well as the timing of application. We assess the effects of victims’ attachment to their locality as well as variation in victims’ information seeking behavior. We additionally consider various factors such as income, age, employment and family structure that are generally considered to affect the decision to choose temporary housing as victims’ solution for their displacement. Empirical results indicate that, ceteris paribus, as the degree of attachment increases, victims are more likely to apply for the temporary housing but attachment does not affect the timing of application. On the other hand, the victims who actively seek information and are able to collect higher quality information are less likely to apply for the temporary housing and if they do apply then they apply relatively later. PMID:27007117
Shin, Kong Joo; Nakakido, Ryo; Horie, Shinya; Managi, Shunsuke
This paper uses original survey data of the Great East Japan earthquake disaster victims to examine their decision to apply for the temporary housing as well as the timing of application. We assess the effects of victims' attachment to their locality as well as variation in victims' information seeking behavior. We additionally consider various factors such as income, age, employment and family structure that are generally considered to affect the decision to choose temporary housing as victims' solution for their displacement. Empirical results indicate that, ceteris paribus, as the degree of attachment increases, victims are more likely to apply for the temporary housing but attachment does not affect the timing of application. On the other hand, the victims who actively seek information and are able to collect higher quality information are less likely to apply for the temporary housing and if they do apply then they apply relatively later.
Germeni, Evi; Bianchi, Monica; Valcarenghi, Dario; Schulz, Peter J
Introduction Α substantial corpus of literature has sought to describe the information-seeking behaviour of patients with cancer. Yet, available evidence comes mainly from cross-sectional studies, which provide ‘snapshots’ of patients’ information needs and information-seeking styles at a single time point. Only a few longitudinal studies currently exist; however, these are quantitative in nature and, despite successfully documenting changes in patients’ information needs throughout the clinical course of cancer, they have failed to provide an evidence-based interpretation of the causes and consequences of change. The goal of this study is threefold: First, we wish to provide a holistic understanding of how cancer information-seeking behaviour may evolve across different stages of the patient journey. Second, we will seek to elucidate the contextual and intervening conditions that may affect possible changes in information seeking. Third, we will attempt to identify what the consequences of these changes are, while heightening their implications for clinical practice and policy. Methods and analysis We will carry out a longitudinal qualitative study, based on face-to-face, in-depth interviews with approximately 25 individuals diagnosed with cancer. Patients will be recruited from 2 oncology hospitals located in Ticino, Switzerland, and will be interviewed at 3 different time points: (1) within 2 weeks after receiving the cancer diagnosis; (2) within 2 weeks after their initial treatment; and (3) 6 months after their initial treatment. All interviews will be recorded and transcribed verbatim. A grounded theory approach will be used for the analysis of the data. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Canton Ticino (CE 2813). Participation in the study will be voluntary, and confidentiality and anonymity ensured. Prior to study participation, patients will be asked to provide signed informed consent
Park, Hyejin; Park, Min Sook
Korean Americans tend to have less access to health service and cancer screening tests than all US population. It is necessary to understand their current cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs to more effectively provide adequate cancer information. However, there is little known about their cancer information seeking behaviors and needs. The purpose of the study was to understand cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans. Data were collected from MissyUSA, which is one of the biggest websites for the Korean community in the USA. A total of 393 free-texts from January to June 2013 were reviewed; 120 were deleted because the messages were not related to cancer health information. A total of 273 posted free-texts were analyzed for this study, using an open source text-mining software program called AntConc 3.2.4. The extracted terms were categorized based on coding systems, after linguistic variations were handled. Terms such as "surgery," "breast cancer," "examination," "cancer" (unspecified), "Korea," and "pain" were most frequently identified. Medical topics accounted for 71.4 % of the main topics of the postings. Treatment was the most frequently discussed in the medical topics while in the non-medical category, the most frequently discussed topic was recommendations for hospitals or doctors. In relation to types of cancer, breast cancer was the greatest concern, followed by cervical and liver cancer. The findings from this study can help in establishing more effective strategies to provide better cancer information among Korean Americans by assessing their cancer information seeking trends and information needs.
Brown, Cecelia M.
Assessed the information-seeking behavior of scientists at the University of Oklahoma using an electronically distributed questionnaire, a copy of which is appended. Results indicate a preference for printed peer-reviewed journal articles and the need for libraries to provide access to electronic bibliographic databases. Appendix II lists…
Grunig, James E.
The results of a case study of organizational information seeking conducted by the Seminar in Corporate Communication in the University of Maryland College of Journalism are reported in this paper. The purpose of the seminar is to give students practical experience in public relations research. The case study involved the consumer information…
Li, Shasha; Zhai, Guofang; Zhou, Shutian; Fan, Chenjing; Wu, Yunqing; Ren, Chongqiang
Efficient risk communication is a vital way to reduce the vulnerability of individuals when facing emergency risks, especially regarding earthquakes. Efficient risk communication aims at improving the supply of risk information and fulfilling the need for risk information by individuals. Therefore, an investigation into individual-level information seeking behavior within earthquake risk contexts is very important for improved earthquake risk communication. However, at present there are very few studies that have explored the behavior of individuals seeking earthquake risk information. Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants of an individual’s earthquake risk information seeking behavior, and to validate the mediator effect of information need during the seeking process. A questionnaire-based survey of 918 valid respondents in Songyuan, China, who had been hit by a small earthquake swarm, was used to provide practical evidence for this study. Results indicated that information need played a noteworthy role in the earthquake risk information seeking process, and was detected both as an immediate predictor and as a mediator. Informational subjective norms drive the seeking behavior on earthquake risk information through both direct and indirect approaches. Perceived information gathering capacity, negative affective responses and risk perception have an indirect effect on earthquake risk information seeking behavior via information need. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication are discussed and concluded. PMID:28272359
Gollop, C J
This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a highly positive perception of the public library, although only a small segment use the library regularly, and that it may be in the interest of the library to investigate the role it could play in providing health information to older adults.
Bitso, Constance; Fourie, Ina
Introduction: This study investigates the information needs and information-seeking patterns of secondary level geography teachers in Lesotho to guide the design and implementation of an information service for these teachers. Leckie, Pettigrew and Sylvain's model of professionals' information-seeking served as a theoretical framework but was…
Brown, Cecelia M.
The information seeking behavior of astronomers, chemists, mathematicians, and physicists at the University of Oklahoma was assessed using an electronically distributed questionnaire. All of the scientists surveyed relied greatly on the journal literature to support their research and creative activities. The mathematicians surveyed indicated an additional reliance on monographs, preprints, and attendance at conferences and personal communication to support their research activities. Similarly, all scientists responding scanned the latest issues of journals to keep abreast of current developments in their fields, with the mathematicians again reporting attendance at conferences and personal communication. Despite an expression by the scientists for more electronic services, the majority preferred access to journal articles in a print, rather than an electronic, form. The primary deficit in library services appeared to be in access to electronic bibliographic databases. The data suggest that a primary goal of science libraries is to obtain access to as many appropriate electronic bibliographic finding aids and databases possible. Although the results imply the ultimate demise of the printed bibliographic reference tool, they underscore the continued importance to scientists of the printed peer-reviewed journal article.
Young, Nicole; Hudry, Kristelle; Trembath, David; Vivanti, Giacomo
Information-seeking behaviours occur when children look to adults in order to gain further information about a novel stimulus/situation. The current study investigated information seeking in children with developmental delays (DD) and those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during a simulated teaching situation. Twenty preschool-aged children…
Budd, John M.; Anstaett, Ashley
Introduction: Research and theory on the topics of information seeking and retrieval have been plagued by some fundamental problems for several decades. Many of the difficulties spring from mechanistic and instrumental thinking and modelling. Method: Existing models of information retrieval and information seeking are examined for efficacy in a…
Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Smith, Samuel G.
Information seeking is an important behavior for cancer prevention and control, but inequalities in the communication of information about the disease persist. Conceptual models have suggested that low health literacy is a barrier to information seeking, and that fatalistic beliefs about cancer may be a mediator of this relationship. Cancer…
Lee, Jae-Shin; Cho, Hichang
The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the processes of seeking information online and evaluating this information. We hypothesized that individuals' social network, in-out group categorization, and cultural proclivity would influence their online information-seeking behavior. Also, we tested whether individuals differentiated…
Bitso, Constance; Fourie, Ina
Introduction: This paper reports a study on information-seeking behaviour of prospective geography teachers at the National University of Lesotho based on their experiences during teaching practice. It is part of a larger doctoral study on information needs and information-seeking patterns of secondary level geography teachers in Lesotho. Method:…
Wildemuth, Barbara M.
In conjunction with the American Society for Information Science and Technology's (ASIST) annual meeting in fall 2001, the Special Interest Group on Information Needs, Seeking, and Use (SIG USE) sponsored a research symposium on "Effective Methods for Studying Information Seeking and Use." This article briefly reviews six articles presented at the…
Ruan, Lian J.
Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which have not previously been investigated empirically. Twenty-five fire service…
Lorence, Daniel P; Park, Heeyoung; Fox, Susannah
The growing diversity of the online health information community is increasingly cited as a limiting factor related to the potential of the Internet as an effective health communication channel and information resource. Public-access Internet portals and decreasing costs of personal computers have created a consensus that unequal access to information, or a "Digital Divide," presents a like problem specific to health care consumers. Access to information, however, is an essential part of the consumer-centric framework outlined in the recently proposed U.S. National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) and Health Architecture initiatives. To date little research has been done to differentiate the types of health information sought on the Web by different subgroups, linking user characteristics and health-seeking behaviors. Data from a study of consumer Web search activity in a post-intervention era serves as a natural experiment, and can identify whether a "digitally underserved group" persists in the United States. Such an environment would serve to exclude traditionally underserved groups from the benefits of the planned national heath information infrastructure. This exploratory technology assessment study seeks to differentiate and delineate specific behaviors, or lack of desired behaviors, across targeted health care subgroups. Doing so allows the design of more effective strategies to promote the use of the Web as a health education and health promotion tool, under the envisioned shared decision-making, consumer-centric health information model.
Deutsch, F M; Ruble, D N; Fleming, A; Brooks-Gunn, J; Stangor, C
The self-definitional processes accompanying the transition to motherhood were examined in this study. A cross-sectional sample of more than 600 women who were planning to get pregnant within 2 years, pregnant, or in the postpartum stage completed extensive questionnaires pertaining to their experiences of pregnancy and motherhood. On the basis of the assumption of the "self-socialization" perspective that individuals actively construct their identities in response to life transitions, our analyses focused on the role of information-seeking in the developing self-definitions of women becoming mothers. As predicted, (a) women actively sought information in anticipation of a first birth, (b) they used this information to construct identities incorporating motherhood, and (c) after the birth the determinants of their self-definitions shifted from indirect sources of information to direct experiences with child care. Hence, consistent with the self-socialization perspective, information-seeking did play an important role in the women's developing self-conceptions during this life transition. Mechanisms by which information gathered may alter self-conception are discussed.
George, Sheba M; Kagawa Singer, Marjorie
The internet has replaced physicians as primary health information source for cancer-survivors.It is important to uncover barriers/facilitators to cancer information seeking, particularly on-line.Asian Americans are the fastest growing U.S racial/ethnic minority, 2) cancer is the leading cause of r death and 3) cancer knowledge is low among them and little research is done on their cancer information seeking strategies. This study aims to examine qualitatively cancer information-seeking patterns of the Asian American group, South Asians, using in-depth interview methods. Family members and social networks are highly engaged in providing informational support to South Asian cancer survivors. such collaborative information seeking is limited by stigma related to cancer and must be taken into consideration when developing culturally appropriate cancer health information seeking interventions in such communities.
Parents need information and skills to meet the demands of mediating connected technology in their homes. Parents' methods and motivations for learning to protect children from digital risks were reported through a survey. This study explores relationships between information seeking, parents' concerns, risks children have experienced, and access to connected devices, in addition to the use and satisfaction of various digital safety resources. Three types of information-seeking behavior were identified: (a) protective information seeking, to protect children from being confronted with harmful content; (b) problem-solving information seeking, to help children who have been negatively affected by connected technology; and (c) attentive learning, by attending to media resources passively encountered on this topic. Friends and family are the dominant source of digital safety information, followed by presentations and the Internet. Parents' top concerns for their children using connected technology were accidental exposure to pornography, and sexual content in Internet-based entertainment. Higher numbers of risks experienced by children were positively associated with parents' problem-solving information seeking and level of attentive learning. Parents who were more concerned exhibited more problem-solving information seeking; but despite the high level of concern for children's safety online, 65 percent of parents seek information on this subject less than twice per year. Children have access to a mean of five connected devices at home; a higher number of devices was correlated with increased risks experienced by children, but was not associated with increased concern or information seeking from parents.
Davis, Kevin C; Uhrig, Jennifer; Rupert, Douglas; Fraze, Jami; Goetz, Joshua; Slater, Michael
"Take Charge. Take the Test." (TCTT), a media campaign promoting HIV testing among African American women, was piloted in Cleveland and Philadelphia from October 2006 to October 2007. This study assesses TCTT's effectiveness in promoting HIV testing information seeking among target audiences in each pilot city. The authors analyzed data on telephone hotlines promoted by the campaign and the www.hivtest.org Web site to examine trends in hotline calls and testing location searches before, during, and after the campaign. Cleveland hotline data were available from October 1, 2005, through February 28, 2008, for a total of 29 months (N = 126 weeks). Philadelphia hotline data were available from May 1, 2006, through February 28, 2008, for a total of 22 months (N = 96 weeks). The authors assessed the relation between market-level measures of the campaign's advertising activities and trends in hotline call volume and testing location searches. They found a significant relation between measures of TCTT advertising and hotline calls. Specifically, they found that increases in advertising gross ratings points were associated with increases in call volume, controlling for caller demographics and geographic location. The campaign had similar effects on HIV testing location searches. Overall, it appears the campaign generated significant increases in HIV information seeking. Results are consistent with other studies that have evaluated the effects of media campaigns on similar forms of information seeking. This study illustrates useful methods for evaluating campaign effects on information seeking with data on media implementation, hotline calls, and zip code-based searches for testing locations.
Hsieh, Yichuan; Brennan, Patricia Flatley
As a result of the Human Genome Project, more genetic diagnostic tests have become available to the public and genetic-related information has also grown exponentially. Pregnant women are now routinely offered tests for chromosomal disorders and screenings for genetic conditions that are relevant to their situations. In order to facilitate the information system (IS) development to support their informed decision-making, it is imperative for the IS designer to recognize their unique information needs and patterns of information seeking behavior (ISB) first. This paper presents results of a pilot study that examined pregnant women's information needs, ISBs, and information resources used prior to their prenatal genetic counseling. Findings suggest three distinctive areas, content, format, and timing, for IS design considerations.
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Introduction: This article results from a qualitative case study focusing on the information seeking practices of environmental activists. The main attention was devoted to their perceptions of media credibility and cognitive authority in the context of seeking orienting information about environmental issues in particular. Method: The empirical…
Korobili, Stella; Malliari, Aphrodite; Zapounidou, Sofia
The purpose of this survey is to determine the information-seeking behavior of graduate students of the Faculties of Philosophy (8 Schools) and Engineering (8 Schools) at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Discipline did not seem to affect information-seeking behavior critically. The majority of the sample demonstrated a low to medium level…
Bahkali, Salwa; Alfurih, Suha; Aldremly, Maha; Alzayyat, Ma'an; Alsurimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa
The internet has become an important resource to help people search for online medication information. This study aims to report the prevalence and profile of Saudi online medication seeking behavior. Conducted via a web-based survey with Twitter participants between January-February, 2015, the primary outcome measures were the self-reported rates of using the internet to search for medication related information. A valid sample of 4847 participants was collected over the period of the study. Out of the total participants, 68.3% (n=3311) were found to seek online medication related information frequently. Most of the social media users were female 83.5% (n=2766). The majority of respondents 63.6% (n= 3081) used Google, followed by Twitter 28.7% (n= 1392), Snapchat 21%, (n=1019), WhatsApp 13.8% (n= 670), Instagram 11.4%, (n= 553), and Facebook 5.5 % (n= 267), with few searching YouTube 1.3% (n=65) to access online medication information. Findings indicate that the Saudi population actively uses the internet and social media to obtain medication information. Further studies are needed to explore the influence of the internet and social media on user perception, attitude, and behavior with the use of online medication information.
Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo
The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources.
Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh
Background: Women as active health information seekers play a key role in determining lifestyle and possible implementation of preventive measures, thereby improving the health of individuals, families and society. Although studies indicate that equipping people with adequate health information leads to optimal health outcomes, sometimes the complexity of human behavior and presence of barriers and limitations expose them to challenges. Objectives: This study was designed to explore women's experiences of health information seeking barriers. Patients and Methods: In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was conducted regarding inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was performed constantly and simultaneously with data collection. Results: Five central themes were emerged to explain women's experiences of barriers to health information seeking as inadequate support from health care system, shame and embarrassment, costs, wrong ideas and beliefs and inadequate health literacy. Conclusions: It seems the accurate and evidence-based review of the current health system is crucial to support the health informative requirements in a community-based approach, respecting the community cultural-religious beliefs and client participation in health care and according to local resources. PMID:25834743
Yan, Yuk Yee
This is an exploratory study that described the prevalence and patterns of internet health information seeking in Hong Kong. A convenient sample of 443 individuals completed the questionnaires. Only 44% (N = 195) of the respondents were identified as health surfers. Health surfers tended to be younger females (age group 20-29) and have higher education. Digital divide was evident by age and education. Professional health sites (78.0%) were the majority sites visited. Health topics searched ranged from women's/men's health to chronic diseases such as heart diseases, cancer and diabetes. Over 60% considered online health information useful, however, about 44% were uncertain about the reliability of this information. The major criteria for health websites were information from professionals and ease of understanding. The results underline the need for bridging the digital divide and the potential for pro-active use of the internet for health promotion.
Long, Casey M.; Shrikhande, Milind M.
The current generation of college students has used the Internet to access information since the early 1990s. No assessment of information use, quality, variety, and reliability of information generally occurs at both the student and faculty level. In this paper, we use a package of teaching methods targeted towards improving information-seeking…
Shipman, Todd; Bannon, Susan H.; Nunes-Bufford, Kimberly
Research on information literacy and educators has focused on preservice educators and learning information literacy skills. Little research exists on in-service educators and their information literacy skills. Purposes of this study were to identify information sources that in-service educators used; to determine relationships between information…
Argyri, Paraskevi; Kostagiolas, Petros; Diomidous, Marianna
The paper deals with the investigation of the information seeking behavior of nursing staff of a private hospital in Greece. It is assumed that the information seeking behaviour has an effect on the nursing care and practices. A survey was conducted through a specially designed questionnaire distributed within 2013 to registered nurses of a major private Hospital in Athens. Nonparametric descriptive statistics have been carried out through SPSS version 20. The information needs of nurses are related to their work role and include information for nursing interventions and hospital infections control. The online scientific content is considered as the main source of information, while lack of time is considered as the main obstacle when seeking information. Regarding the effects of information, nurses believe that information quality and availability influences nursing care as well as nursing practices. Development of appropriate information services and information literacy skills for nurses is required.
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McHugh, Elizabeth A.; Lenz, Janet G.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.
This study examined the effects of viewing a ten-minute model-reinforced video on careers information-seeking behaviour of 280 students in ten sections of a university careers course randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions. The video portrayed an undergraduate student seeking careers counselling services and a counsellor using…
Segev, Elad; Sharon, Aviv J
In response to the news coverage of scientific events and to science education, people increasingly go online to get more information. This study investigates how patterns of science and technology information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia change over time, in ways that differ between "ad hoc" terms that correspond to news coverage and "cyclic" terms that correspond to the academic period. Findings show that the science and technology activity in Google and Wikipedia was significantly associated with ad hoc and cyclic patterns. While the peak activity in Google and Wikipedia largely overlapped for ad hoc terms, it mismatched for cyclic terms. The findings indicate the importance of external cues such as news media and education, and also of the online engagement process, and particularly the crucial but different role played by Google and Wikipedia in gaining science and technology knowledge. Educators and policy makers could benefit from taking into account those different patterns.
Lu, Hung-Yi; Case, Donald O; Lustria, Mia Liza A; Kwon, Nahyun; Andrews, James E; Cavendish, Sarah E; Floyd, Brenikki R
This study explores factors influencing international students' likelihood of using the Internet to seek disaster-related information should a disaster affect their countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universities in America between August 1 and September 30, 2005. Two hundred twenty-nine (n = 229) students completed the self-administered questionnaires. ANOVA analyses found that respondents' Internet self-efficacy had no significant impact on their intentions to seek disaster-related information on the Internet. However, respondents' Internet dependency and attitude toward seeking information online were found to have a significant effect on such intentions.
Outlines the pros and cons of the National Information Utility Program, which is designed to provide current updatable courseware to schools nationwide. The information is broadcast over FM radio and television signals to facilities subscribing to the utility. (MD)
Covington, P; Craig, B J
This descriptive study explored the methods that dental hygienists in northern British Columbia have utilized to access information. A self-administered questionnaire sent to 130 dental hygienists registered in that geographic experienced a response rate of 81.5 percent. The respondents preferred and utilized traditional information sources such as discussions with colleagues, journal articles, and mailings from professional associations and licensing bodies. The least utilized information sources were the indices to the literature and electronic information sources. Geographic isolation, lack of electronic information sources, and costs were identified as the top three barriers to information access. Dental hygienists may need to acquire or improve computer literacy skills while in school and through continuing education to enable them to use the newer methods of electronic information retrieval and communications because dental hygienists need to access a variety of information sources to provide quality care.
DeAngelis, Karen J.
A variety of sources can help school business managers find the information and data they need to make informed decisions. The purpose of this article is to increase one's awareness of sources that one might use to access desired educational information. The author aims to introduce sources that can help alleviate some of the costs associated with…
Young, Nicole; Hudry, Kristelle; Trembath, David; Vivanti, Giacomo
Information-seeking behaviours occur when children look to adults in order to gain further information about a novel stimulus/situation. The current study investigated information seeking in children with developmental delays (DD) and those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during a simulated teaching situation. Twenty preschool-aged children with ASD and 15 children with DD were exposed to a series of videos where a teacher provided novel instructions and demonstrated novel actions. We found that children with DD, but not those with ASD, demonstrated information-seeking behaviours in response to instructions that exceeded their level of understanding. This suggests that children with DD may use information-seeking behaviours to compensate for their cognitive and language difficulties when novel actions are being taught, while the same is not true for children with ASD.
Marsh, Heidi L; MacDonald, Suzanne E
Recent research has examined whether animals possess metacognition, or the ability to monitor their knowledge states. However, the extent to which animals actively control their knowledge states is still not well delineated. Although organisms might be capable of seeking information when it is lacking, it does not mean that it is always adaptive to do so. In the present set of experiments, we examined the flexibility of this behavior in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii; two adults and one juvenile) in a foraging task, by varying the necessity of information-seeking, the cost associated with it, the likelihood of error, and the value of the reward. In Experiment 1, subjects searched for information most often when it was "cheapest" energetically. In Experiment 2, subjects searched for information most often when the odds of making an error were the greatest. In Experiment 3, subjects searched for information more when the reward was doubled in value. In Experiment 4, adult subjects adapted to risk/benefit trade-offs in their searching behavior. In every experiment, subjects sought information more often when they needed it than when they already knew the solution to the problem. Therefore, the current research suggests that information-seeking behavior in orangutans shows a sophisticated level of flexibility, comparable to that seen in human children, as they appear to "play the odds" when making the decision to seek information or not.
Wilkinson, A V; Gabriel, K P; Wang, J; Bondy, M L; Dong, Q; Wu, X; Shete, S; Spitz, M R
Many studies examining genetic influences on physical activity (PA) have evaluated the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the development of lifestyle-related chronic diseases, under the hypothesis that they would be associated with PA. However, PA is a multidetermined behavior and associated with a multitude of health consequences. Thus, examining a broader range of candidate genes associated with a broader range of PA correlates may provide new insights into the genetic underpinnings of PA. In this study, we focus on one such correlate - sensation-seeking behavior. Participants (N = 1130 Mexican origin youth) provided a saliva sample and data on PA and sensation-seeking tendencies in 2008-2009. Participants were genotyped for 630 functional and tagging variants in the dopamine, serotonin and cannabinoid pathways. Overall 30% of participants (males - 37.6% and females - 22.0%) reported ≥60 min of PA on 5 of 7 days. After adjusting for gender, age and population stratification, and applying the Bayesian False Discovery Probability approach for assessing noteworthiness, four gene variants were significantly associated with PA. In a multivariable model, being male, having higher sensation-seeking tendencies and at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene [ACE; rs8066276 odds ratio (OR) = 1.44; P = 0.012] and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene (TPH2; rs11615016 OR = 1.73; P = 0.021) were associated with increased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Participants with at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in synaptosomal-associated protein 25 gene (SNAP25; rs363035 OR = 0.53; P = 0.005) and cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1; rs6454672 OR = 0.62; P = 0.022) have decreased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Our findings extend current knowledge of the complex relationship between PA and possible genetic underpinnings.
Lenell, Elizabeth Ann
This paper reports the findings of a mixed methods study that examines how 9th grade science teachers engage in online searches for inquiry-based activities in two different search engines---Google and the Digital Library for Earth System Education. The goal of this dissertation was two-fold: (a) to detail science teacher search behaviors during a realistic online search task related to their teaching, and (b) the effect of search engine affordances on those search practices. At the center of the dissertation activities were an experimental task and talk-aloud protocols of the teachers engaged in the task. The task itself asked teacher participants to search for earth science activities linking the concept of volcanism to plate tectonics. In addition to the experiment and talk-aloud protocol, a demographic survey, content knowledge evaluation, inquiry-based activity evaluation, and post-task structured interview were conducted. Because substantial prior research in non-educational areas has shown that task domain influences search behaviors, it was expected that the science teaching domain would have its own particular influence on teachers' online information seeking. The concept of task domain was developed in terms of an information seeking framework developed by Marchionini (1995). The Marchionini (1995) model of information seeking was used as a guiding framework for the dissertation investigations. The objectives of this dissertation were to characterize the behaviors and products of real-world online information seeking by 9th grade science teachers, and to inform the work of educational software designers.
Taylor, Robert S.
Seekers of information in libraries either go through a librarian intermediary or they help themselves. When they go through librarians they must develop their questions through four levels of need, referred to here as the visceral, conscious, formalized, and compromised needs. In his pre-search interview with an information-seeker the reference…
Introduction: Meta-synthesis methods may help to make more sense of information behaviour research evidence. Aims and objectives: The objectives are to: 1) identify and examine the theoretical research strategies commonly used in information behaviour research; 2) discuss meta-synthesis methods that might be appropriate to the type of research…
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Powe, Barbara D
This cross-sectional study examines health information-seeking behaviors and access to and use of technology among rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. There was a low level of health information seeking across the sample. Few used smartphones or tablets and did not endorse receiving health information from their health care provider by e-mail. Printed materials remained a source of health information as did friends and family. Information should be shared using multiple platforms including more passive methods such as television and radio. More research is needed to ensure the health literacy, numeracy, and ability to navigate the online environment.
Bailey, Nikki; Hill, Alexandra; Arnold, Shannon
The purpose of the study reported here was to examine the educational resources used by Montana State University Extension county agents. An online survey was administered to evaluate agents' informational needs. Agents reported client questions (93.8%) and program/workshop planning and presentations (91.7%) as the main reasons for seeking…
Wallace, Elise D.; Jefferson, Renee N.
Critical thinking skills are required to successfully navigate the overwhelming amount of information sources available today. To address the challenge of developing critical thinking skills, this empirical study examines the effectiveness of exercises in developing thinking skills in college freshmen students. The workbook exercises were designed…
Hardt, Jeffrey H.; Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa
Due to an aging population and increases in healthcare costs, particular attention needs to be focused on developing Internet sites that provide older adults with credible and accurate healthcare information. Present research findings suggest that motivation is only one factor that influences whether or not older adults utilize the World Wide Web…
Hert, Carol A.; Marchionini, Gary
Presents results from a study of three federal government statistical Web sites. Objectives were to determine who uses these services, types of tasks brought to the sites, strategies used for finding statistical information, and to make recommendations for design improvements. (Author/AEF)
Sandstrom, Pamela Effrein
Explores optimal foraging theory, derived from evolutionary ecology, for its potential to clarify and operationalize studies of scholarly communication. Metaphorical parallels between subsistence foragers and scholarly information seekers are drawn. Hypotheses to test the models are recommended. The place of ethnographic and bibliometric…
... other forms of information technology; or (d) ways to minimize the burden of the collection of..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. FOR... Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection AGENCY: National...
Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun
Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking behaviors.…
Introduction. Failure to find information is common. An exploratory analysis of cases when family members or friends were asked for information can provide better understanding of when, how and why interpersonal information seeking within a close network of individuals fails. Method. A sample of utterances (in form of "I asked my mum, but") was…
Gupta, Naman K.; Penstein Rosé, Carolyn
As the wealth of information available on the Web increases, Web-based information seeking becomes a more and more important skill for supporting both formal education and lifelong learning. However, Web-based information access poses hurdles that must be overcome by certain student populations, such as low English competency users, low literacy…
Zanchetta, Margareth S; Moura, Shari L
When patients learn that their cancer has recurred after primary treatments or is no longer responding to therapy and no alternative treatment options exist, their motivation to carry on living may be impacted greatly. Using the Self-Determination Theory, this article's reflective analysis explores the unique situation of a woman with end-stage cancer and her continuous motivation to seek information about her illness. Information was gathered during clinical observations and informal conversations. The analysis showed how the patient sought information about her illness, how she manifested motivation, and how the hospital's social environment influenced her behavior. To understand the experience of being confronted with a terminal illness, the following issues are identified: expansion of awareness, life-facing knowledge contradictions, being open-minded and an active explorer of information sources, medical truth, and professional attitudes toward patients' informational needs. Nurses must understand patients' reasons for self-determination when facing illness uncertainty. Reflecting on such situations will strengthen nursing practice.
SHARIT, JOSEPH; HERNÁNDEZ, MARIO A.; CZAJA, SARA J.; PIROLLI, PETER
This study investigated the influences of knowledge, particularly Internet, Web browser, and search engine knowledge, as well as cognitive abilities on older adult information seeking on the Internet. The emphasis on aspects of cognition was informed by a modeling framework of search engine information-seeking behavior. Participants from two older age groups were recruited: twenty people in a younger-old group (ages 60–70) and twenty people in an older-old group (ages 71–85). Ten younger adults (ages 18–39) served as a comparison group. All participants had at least some Internet search experience. The experimental task consisted of six realistic search problems, all involving information related to health and well-being and which varied in degree of complexity. The results indicated that though necessary, Internet-related knowledge was not sufficient in explaining information-seeking performance, and suggested that a combination of both knowledge and key cognitive abilities is important for successful information seeking. In addition, the cognitive abilities that were found to be critical for task performance depended on the search problem’s complexity. Also, significant differences in task performance between the younger and the two older age groups were found on complex, but not on simple problems. Overall, the results from this study have implications for instructing older adults on Internet information seeking and for the design of Web sites. PMID:20011130
Giordano, Luz; Leafman, Joan; Citrin, Deborah; Wallace, Lisa
Hispanic people are less likely to seek cancer information and experience more health care barriers than non-Hispanic people. The purpose of this work was to identify cancer information-seeking practices among U. S. Hispanic adults and identify demographic characteristics associated with information selected. Data from 622 Hispanic participants in the Health Information National Trends Survey 2007 were analyzed. Results of this study indicated that the leading sources of cancer information came from the Internet (47%, n = 105), followed by health care providers (26%, n = 60). As educational level increased, Internet use for cancer information-seeking increased from 20.7% (n = 6) to 60.6% (n = 40). These data indicate a necessity to improve information delivery strategies tailored to this group.
Genuis, Shelagh K
In this article I use Social Positioning Theory to explore the experiences of women as they interact with and make sense of evolving health information mediated by formal and informal sources. I investigate how women position themselves within their accounts of information seeking, and the influence of positioning on interactions with health professionals (HPs). Interviewed women gathered and valued information from a range of sources, and were likely to position themselves as autonomous, rather than collaborative or dependent. Faced with evolving health information, women felt responsible not only for information seeking, but also for making sense of gathered and encountered information. Participants did, however, value information provided by HPs and were likely to view decision making as collaborative when HPs fostered information exchange, appeared to appreciate different types of knowledge and cognitive authority, and supported women in their quests for information. Implications for shared decision making are discussed.
Ohio Library Association, Columbus.
This packet of materials was developed by the members of a joint task force of librarians from school, public, and college libraries in Ohio as a means of facilitating closer cooperation in defining library instructional goals and activities. It begins with a discussion of the need for such cooperation and suggested roles for classroom teachers…
Scott, Lionel D; McMillen, J Curtis; Snowden, Lonnie R
Using the behavioral model for vulnerable populations as a framework, this study examined predisposing, enabling, and need factors related to seeking help from formal and informal sources among older Black male foster youth and alumni. Results of logistic regression analyses showed that emotional control, a predisposing variable, was related to help-seeking. Specifically, greater adherence to the norm of emotional control was related to lower likelihood of using informal or formal sources of help. These results support the literature on males, in general, and Black males, in particular, that posits that inhibitions to express emotions are a barrier to their help seeking. Implications for help seeking among vulnerable populations of adolescent and young adult Black males are discussed.
Chen, Juan; Zhu, Shizhan
In recent years, the Internet has emerged as an alternative information source on mental health problems. Yet, the profile of the typical Internet help seeker is to be determined. Based on data from a household survey of 2558 Beijing residents, the study investigates online information searches and help seeking for mental health problems. Multinomial logistic regressions are estimated for respondents' access to the Internet, and mental-health-related information searches and help seeking on the Internet for the whole community sample and the most psychologically distressed subsample. The study identifies a digital divide in online help seeking for mental health issues based on age, migration and hukou status, and socio-economic factors. Youth and high socio-economic status are significant predictors of Internet access and use. Among the whole community sample, rural-to-urban migrants are less likely to have access to the Internet and search information or seek help online. Among the most psychologically distressed subsample, urban-to-urban migrants are significantly more likely to have access to the Internet and search information or seek help online. Given the shortage of mental health professionals in China, online information dissemination and guided self-help, if properly designed, could offer a means to reach large numbers of individuals in a cost-effective manner.
Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T; Clark, Jason K; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Smith, Steven M; Durso, Geoffrey R O
To date, little research has examined the impact of attitudinal ambivalence on attitude-congruent selective exposure. Past research would suggest that strong/univalent rather than weak/ambivalent attitudes should be more predictive of proattitudinal information seeking. Although ambivalent attitude structure might weaken the attitude's effect on seeking proattitudinal information, we believe that conflicted attitudes might also motivate attitude-congruent selective exposure because proattitudinal information should be effective in reducing ambivalence. Two studies provide evidence that the effects of ambivalence on information choices depend on amount of issue knowledge. That is, ambivalence motivates attitude-consistent exposure when issue knowledge is relatively low because less familiar information is perceived to be effective at reducing ambivalence. Conversely, when knowledge is relatively high, more unambivalent (univalent) attitudes predicted attitude-consistent information seeking.
Cao, Weidan; Zhang, Xinyao; Xu, Kaibin; Wang, Yuanxin
The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 marked the explosion of health information seeking online in China and the increasing emergence of Chinese health websites. There are both benefits and potential hazards of people's online health information seeking. This article intended to test part of Wilson's second model of information behavior, including source characteristics and activating mechanisms, and to identify the relationships among perceived access, perceived expertise credibility, reward assessment, Internet self-efficacy, and online health information-seeking behavior. Data were drawn from face-to-face surveys and an online survey of health information seekers (N = 393) in China. The results showed that source characteristics predicted activating mechanisms, which in turn predicted online health information-seeking behavior. Activating mechanisms, that is, reward assessment and Internet self-efficacy, mediated the relationship between source characteristics (i.e., access and credibility) and online health information-seeking behavior. Strategies for improving information access, expertise credibility, and Internet self-efficacy are discussed in order to maximize the benefits of online health information seeking and to minimize the potential harm.
Richards, Rosalina; McNoe, Bronwen; Iosua, Ella; Reeder, Anthony; Egan, Richard; Marsh, Louise; Robertson, Lindsay; Maclennan, Brett; Dawson, Anna; Quigg, Robin; Petersen, Anne-Cathrine
Organisations seeking to establish themselves as leading cancer information sources for the public need to understand patterns and motivators for information seeking. This study describes cancer information seeking among New Zealanders through a national cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014/15 with a population-based sample of adults (18 years and over). Participants were asked if they had sought information about cancer during the past 12 months, the type of information they sought, what prompted them to look for information and ways of getting information they found helpful. Telephone interviews were completed by 1064 participants (588 females, 476 males, 64% response rate). Of these, 33.8% of females and 23.3% of males (total, 29.2%) had searched for information about cancer over the past year. A search was most frequently prompted by a cancer diagnosis of a family member or friend (43.3%), a desire to educate themselves (17.5%), experience of potential symptoms or a positive screening test (9.4%), family history of cancer (8.9%) or the respondent's own cancer diagnosis (7.7%). Across the cancer control spectrum, the information sought was most commonly about treatment and survival (20.2%), symptoms/early detection (17.2%) or risk factors (14.2%), although many were general or non-specific queries (50.0%). The internet was most commonly identified as a helpful source of information (71.7%), followed by health professionals (35.8%), and reading material (e.g. books, pamphlets) (14.7%).This study provides a snapshot of cancer information seeking in New Zealand, providing valuable knowledge to help shape resource delivery to better meet the diverse needs of information seekers and address potential unmet needs, where information seeking is less prevalent.
Ofran, Yishai; Paltiel, Ora; Pelleg, Dan; Rowe, Jacob M.; Yom-Tov, Elad
Although traditionally the primary information sources for cancer patients have been the treating medical team, patients and their relatives increasingly turn to the Internet, though this source may be misleading and confusing. We assess Internet searching patterns to understand the information needs of cancer patients and their acquaintances, as well as to discern their underlying psychological states. We screened 232,681 anonymous users who initiated cancer-specific queries on the Yahoo Web search engine over three months, and selected for study users with high levels of interest in this topic. Searches were partitioned by expected survival for the disease being searched. We compared the search patterns of anonymous users and their contacts. Users seeking information on aggressive malignancies exhibited shorter search periods, focusing on disease- and treatment-related information. Users seeking knowledge regarding more indolent tumors searched for longer periods, alternated between different subjects, and demonstrated a high interest in topics such as support groups. Acquaintances searched for longer periods than the proband user when seeking information on aggressive (compared to indolent) cancers. Information needs can be modeled as transitioning between five discrete states, each with a unique signature representing the type of information of interest to the user. Thus, early phases of information-seeking for cancer follow a specific dynamic pattern. Areas of interest are disease dependent and vary between probands and their contacts. These patterns can be used by physicians and medical Web site authors to tailor information to the needs of patients and family members. PMID:23029317
Park, Hyejin; Moon, Mikyung; Baeg, Jung Hoon
Cancer is a critical disease with a high mortality rate in the US. Although useful information exists on the Internet, many people experience difficulty finding information about cancer prevention because they have limited eHealth literacy. This study aimed to identify relationships between the level of eHealth literacy and cancer information seeking experience or prior experience with cancer screening tests. A total of 108 adults participated in this study through questionnaires. Data covering demographics, eHealth literacy, cancer information seeking experience, educational needs for cancer information searching, and previous cancer screening tests were obtained. Study findings show that the level of eHealth literacy influences cancer information seeking. Individuals with low eHealth literacy are likely to be less confident about finding cancer information. In addition, people who have a low level of eHealth literacy need more education about seeking information than do those with a higher level of eHealth literacy. However, there is no significant relationship between eHealth literacy and cancer screening tests. More people today are using the Internet for access to information to maintain good health. It is therefore critical to educate those with low eHealth literacy so they can better self-manage their health.
Demetriades, Stefanie Z; Walter, Nathan
This study explores whether self-affirmation has the capacity not merely to reduce the perceived threat associated with health-related information but also to facilitate interpersonal discussion and affect health information-seeking behavior. The context for the study is the ongoing California drought, which serves as suitable context to examine the intersection of self-affirmation and information-seeking behavior because it involves a threatening message (the destructive consequences of the drought) and highlights discrepancies between actual (water waste) and prosocial (water conservation) behavior. Results of a month-long longitudinal panel study demonstrate significant effects of self-affirmation on interpersonal discussion, information seeking, knowledge, and water-conserving behavior across time. Implications for theorizing longer term effects of self-affirmation and practical implications for promoting behavioral change through the enhancement of knowledge and self-esteem are considered.
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Seek OMB Approval To Collect... INFORMATION: The Office of Scientific Quality Review will seek approval from OMB to revise one existing form... will seek OMB approval of the revised Panelist Information Form- USDA uses this form to gather...
Stanley Milgram's 1967 "small world" social connectivity study is used to analyze information connectivity, or patron information-seeking behavior. The "small world" study, upon examination, offers a clear example of the failure of social connectivity. This failure is used to highlight the importance of the subjectivities of patron experience of…
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Cheng, Kun-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Students' online academic help seeking (OAHS) can be facilitated by the aid of technology, but improvement in OAHS may also involve personal variables such as self-regulated learning (SRL), and "information commitments" (ICs), which are evaluative standards and strategies of online information. Accordingly, three instruments--an OAHS, an…
Lee, Young Ji
Hispanics are the fastest-growing minority group in the United States, but they are the most underserved population in terms of access to online health information. The specific aims of this descriptive, correlational study were to examine factors associated with online health information seeking behaviors of Hispanics and to examine the…
Bradbard, Marilyn R.; Endsley, Richard C.
The main purpose of this study was to address this question: When preschool children are exposed to novel objects, will their tactual and verbal information-seeking about these objects and the amount of information they remember about these same objects be influenced by whether an adult labels them as things "for girls" or "for boys"? Thirty-six…
Sanchez-Cuadrado, Sonia; Morato, Jorge; Andreadakis, Yorgos; Moreiro, Jose Antonio
Introduction: The objective of this study is understand the information needs that businesses have while seeking Library and Information Science professionals and analyse how they formulate those needs. Method: The analysis is performed by examining the professional skills and capabilities demanded in job offers published. A total of 1,020 job…
Cuillier, David; Piotrowski, Suzanne J.
Public access to government records is essential for democratic self-governance, and attitudes toward that right can facilitate or hinder public policy regarding transparency. As more people use the internet for gathering information about their governments and communities, it is unknown whether such online information-seeking is related to…
Research in information-seeking behavior, motivation, critical thinking, and learning theory was explored and compared in a search for possible motivating factors behind students' dependence on television and the Internet for their information needs. The research indicates that only a very small percentage of the general population prefer to learn…
Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Pani, Alex A.; Hampton, Robert R.
Metacognition consists of monitoring and control processes. Monitoring has been inferred when nonhumans use a “decline test” response to selectively escape difficult test trials. Cognitive control has been inferred from selective information seeking behavior by nonhumans ignorant of needed knowledge. Here we describe a computerized paradigm that extends previous work and begins to assess dynamic interactions between monitoring and control. Monkeys classified images as containing birds, fish, flowers, or people. To-be-classified images were initially masked, and monkeys were trained to gradually reveal the images by touching a “reveal button.” Monkeys could choose to classify images at any time or to reveal more of the images. Thus, they had the opportunity to assess when enough of an image had been revealed to support accurate classification. In Experiment 1, monkeys made more reveal responses before classifying when smaller amounts of the image were revealed by each button touch. In Experiment 2, to-be-classified images were shrunken and covered by one critical blocker among other blockers that did not provide information when removed. Monkeys made more reveal responses as the critical blocker was removed later in the trial. In Experiment 3, monkeys were re-presented with previously classified images with either more or fewer blockers obscuring the image than was the case when they chose to classify that image previously. Monkeys made more reveal responses when information was insufficient compared to when it was excessive. These results indicate that monkeys dynamically monitor evolving decision processes and adaptively collect information as necessary to maintain accuracy. PMID:26280597
Hovick, Shelly R; Liang, Ming-Ching; Kahlor, Leeann
This study tests an expanded Structural Influence Model (SIM) to gain a greater understanding of the social and cognitive factors that contribute to disparities in cancer risk knowledge and information seeking. At the core of this expansion is the planned risk information seeking model (PRISM). This study employed an online sample (N = 1,007) of African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White adults. The addition of four cognitive predictors to the SIM substantially increased variance explained in cancer risk knowledge (R(2) = .29) and information seeking (R(2) = .56). Health literacy mediated the effects of social determinants (socioeconomic status [SES] and race/ethnicity) on cancer risk knowledge, while subjective norms mediated their effects on cancer risk information seeking. Social capital and perceived seeking control were also shown to be important mediators of the relationships between SES and cancer communication outcomes. Our results illustrate the social and cognitive mechanisms by which social determinants impact cancer communication outcomes, as well as several points of intervention to reduce communication disparities.
Lobach, David F.; Waters, Andrew; Silvey, Garry M.; Clark, Shelly J.; Kalyanaraman, Sri; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lipkus, Isaac
Millions of consumers seek health information on the Internet. Unfortunately, this searching often falls short because of design limitations of many consumer-oriented Web sites. In this paper, we describe an approach that addresses several known barriers to consumer health information seeking. This approach primarily involves maintaining the referential context throughout a consumer’s search for information. To maintain referential context, this approach uses multiple levels of hierarchical constructs to organize complex information, and data elements are toggled to minimize the need for scrolling. An information resource based on this approach was implemented for information about smoking using standard Web technologies. The resource was evaluated by 31 diverse consumers through standardized usability instruments. Consumers found the resource to be easy to navigate and to use. We conclude that the approach described in this manuscript could be applied more broadly to facilitate the organization and presentation of consumer health information. PMID:20351884
Lobach, David F; Waters, Andrew; Silvey, Garry M; Clark, Shelly J; Kalyanaraman, Sri; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lipkus, Isaac
Millions of consumers seek health information on the Internet. Unfortunately, this searching often falls short because of design limitations of many consumer-oriented Web sites. In this paper, we describe an approach that addresses several known barriers to consumer health information seeking. This approach primarily involves maintaining the referential context throughout a consumer's search for information. To maintain referential context, this approach uses multiple levels of hierarchical constructs to organize complex information, and data elements are toggled to minimize the need for scrolling. An information resource based on this approach was implemented for information about smoking using standard Web technologies. The resource was evaluated by 31 diverse consumers through standardized usability instruments. Consumers found the resource to be easy to navigate and to use. We conclude that the approach described in this manuscript could be applied more broadly to facilitate the organization and presentation of consumer health information.
Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Garivani, Asieh; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh
Introduction: Internet addiction is a typical use of the internet that causes the psychological, social, educational, or occupational problems for the people. Students need the internet more than other people due to their educational or research needs. The rate and type of the internet use may affect their information-seeking behavior too. This study aims to investigate the effect of the internet addiction on the information-seeking behavior of the postgraduate students. Methods: This applied study that uses the correlation method. The research population composed of 1149 postgraduate students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, of which 284 were selected using the stratified random sampling as the sample. Yang’s internet addiction questionnaire and the researcher-developed questionnaire of the information-seeking behavior were used as the data collection instruments. Instrument validity was confirmed by the specialists of librarianship and medical sciences and its reliability was confirmed using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.86). Research data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent-t tests, Pearson correlation coefficient, and variance analysis). Results: Based on the findings, there was no sign of internet addiction among the 86.6% of the students. However, 13% of the students were exposed to the internet addiction and only 0.4% of internet addiction was observed among the students. There was no significant difference between the information-seeking behavior of the male and female respondents. There was no sign of the internet addiction in any dimension of the information-seeking behavior of the students. Conclusion: This study showed that there is no relationship between the information-seeking behavior of the students and the age and the rate of the internet use. Promoting the network infrastructures and increasing the internet speed as well as facilitating the use of
Laz, Tabassum H; Berenson, Abbey B
To examine the influence of race/ethnicity on seeking health information from the Internet among women aged 16-24 years, the authors conducted a self-administered survey on 3,181 women regarding their Internet use and obtaining information on reproductive health (menstruation, contraception, pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections) and general health from the Internet. The authors performed multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between race/ethnicity and online health-related information seeking after adjusting for covariates. Racial/ethnic disparities were noted in overall Internet use and its use to locate health information. Overall, more White (92.7%) and Black (92.9%) women used the Internet than did Hispanics (67.5%). More White women (79.2%) used it to find health information than did Blacks and Hispanics (70.3% and 74.3%, respectively). Compared with White women, Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to seek information on contraception [(OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91) and (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.92)] and more likely to seek information on pregnancy tests [(OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28-2.18) and (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.09-1.81] and sexually transmitted infections [(OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.11-1.73) and (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.54)], respectively. With regard to general health issues-such as how to quit smoking, how to lose weight, alcohol/drug use, mood disorders, and skin disorders-Blacks, but not Hispanics, were significantly less likely to seek online information than were Whites. Disparities in the way that women from different backgrounds use the Internet for health-related information could be associated with overall health awareness.
Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert
The Internet has become an important and preferred source of health information. Although the literature has highlighted several key predictors that influence an individual's online health information seeking behavior, insufficient attention has been paid to the changes in the predictors' roles and effects over time. This study explores and compares the effects that specific predictors had on online health information seeking behavior over a period of 10 years by integrating and analyzing two Pew datasets collected in 2002 and 2012. Hierarchical regression analyses indicate that socio-demographic factors and overall health condition are significant predictors that had an increasing impact on online health information seeking behavior. However, the impact of Internet usage decreased significantly from 2002 to 2012. A comparison across time contributes to a vertical understanding of the changes in online health information seeking behavior and its predictors and helps health professionals and researchers tailor their informational interventions to meet the up-to-date needs and preferences of users.
Li, Fan; Li, Min; Guan, Peng; Ma, Shuang
Background The Internet has become an established source of health information for people seeking health information. In recent years, research on the health information seeking behavior of Internet users has become an increasingly important scholarly focus. However, there have been no long-term bibliometric studies to date on Internet health information seeking behavior. Objective The purpose of this study was to map publication trends and explore research hot spots of Internet health information seeking behavior. Methods A bibliometric analysis based on PubMed was conducted to investigate the publication trends of research on Internet health information seeking behavior. For the included publications, the annual publication number, the distribution of countries, authors, languages, journals, and annual distribution of highly frequent major MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms were determined. Furthermore, co-word biclustering analysis of highly frequent major MeSH terms was utilized to detect the hot spots in this field. Results A total of 533 publications were included. The research output was gradually increasing. There were five authors who published four or more articles individually. A total of 271 included publications (50.8%) were written by authors from the United States, and 516 of the 533 articles (96.8%) were published in English. The eight most active journals published 34.1% (182/533) of the publications on this topic. Ten research hot spots were found: (1) behavior of Internet health information seeking about HIV infection or sexually transmitted diseases, (2) Internet health information seeking behavior of students, (3) behavior of Internet health information seeking via mobile phone and its apps, (4) physicians’ utilization of Internet medical resources, (5) utilization of social media by parents, (6) Internet health information seeking behavior of patients with cancer (mainly breast cancer), (7) trust in or satisfaction with Web-based health
Bos, Mark J W; Koolstra, Cees M; Willems, Jaap T J M
This paper reports on an exploratory study among adolescents (N = 752) who were introduced to the emerging technology of ecogenomics for the first time. An online survey focused on their associations with the term ecogenomics, their planned information seeking behaviors if they were to acquire information about the new technology, and their first affective responses toward ecogenomics after having read some introductory information about it. Adolescents were found to associate ecogenomics most frequently with economy. Although the Internet was the most popular medium to be used in their planned information seeking behaviors, books and science communication professionals were judged as the most trustworthy information sources. After having read the introductory information about ecogenomics most adolescents reported positive affective responses toward the new technology.
Koo, Joung Hwa
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how isolated immigrant adolescents seek and use necessary information when they are not able to use significant information sources--their peer groups--in the period of transition before new peer groups are established. Method: To achieve the study's purpose, sixteen recently arrived (three…
Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…
Introduction: Reports findings from research in progress investigating judgment and decision making during information seeking in the workplace, in particular, the assessment of enough information. Characteristics of this judgment and the role of context in shaping it are framed against theories of human judgment and decision making. Method:…
Karas, Melissa; Green, Ravonne
This article is about the information needs and information-seeking behaviors of community college and lower division undergraduates. The students in the studies were either four year lower division or community college students. The majority of the students studied were average college age students between eighteen and twenty two-years old. A few…
Ramirez, Artemio; Sumner, Erin M; Hayes, Jameson
Social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook function as both venues for reconnecting with associates from a user's past and sources of social information about them. Yet, little is known about what factors influence the initial decision to reconnect with a past associate. This oversight is significant given that SNSs and other platforms provide an abundance of social information that may be utilized for reaching such decisions. The present study investigated the links among relational reconnection, information seeking (IS) behavior, and individual- and relationship-level factors in user decisions to reconnect on Facebook. A national survey of 244 Facebook users reported on their most recent experience of receiving a friend request from someone with whom they had been out of contact for an extended period. Results indicated that uncertainty about the potential reconnection partner and forecast about the reconnection's potential reward level significantly predicted IS behavior (passive on both target and mutual friends' SNS pages as well as active). However, the emergence of their two-way interaction revealed that the forecasts moderated the IS-uncertainty link on three of the strategies (extractive, both passive approaches). Moreover, social anxiety, sociability, uncertainty about the partner, the forecast about the reconnection's reward level, and extractive and passive (target SNS pages) strategies significantly predicted user decisions to reconnect. Future directions for research on relational reconnection on SNSs are offered.
Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon
Background Laypeople increasingly use the Internet as a source of health information, but finding and discovering the right information remains problematic. These issues are partially due to the mismatch between the design of consumer health websites and the needs of health information seekers, particularly the lack of support for “exploring” health information. Objective The aim of this research was to create a design for consumer health websites by supporting different health information–seeking behaviors. We created a website called Better Health Explorer with the new design. Through the evaluation of this new design, we derive design implications for future implementations. Methods Better Health Explorer was designed using a user-centered approach. The design was implemented and assessed through a laboratory-based observational study. Participants tried to use Better Health Explorer and another live health website. Both websites contained the same content. A mixed-method approach was adopted to analyze multiple types of data collected in the experiment, including screen recordings, activity logs, Web browsing histories, and audiotaped interviews. Results Overall, 31 participants took part in the observational study. Our new design showed a positive result for improving the experience of health information seeking, by providing a wide range of information and an engaging environment. The results showed better knowledge acquisition, a higher number of page reads, and more query reformulations in both focused and exploratory search tasks. In addition, participants spent more time to discover health information with our design in exploratory search tasks, indicating higher engagement with the website. Finally, we identify 4 design considerations for designing consumer health websites and health information–seeking apps: (1) providing a dynamic information scope; (2) supporting serendipity; (3) considering trust implications; and (4) enhancing interactivity
This study attempted to examine what factors might motivate Chinese international students, the fastest growing ethnic student group in the United States, to seek and process information about potential health risks from eating American-style food. This goal was accomplished by applying the Risk Information Seeking and Processing (RISP) model to this study. An online 2 (severity: high vs. low) × 2 (coping strategies: present vs. absent) between-subjects experiment was conducted via Qualtrics to evaluate the effects of the manipulated variables on the dependent variables of interest as well as various relationships proposed in the RISP model. A convenience sample of 635 participants was recruited online. Data were analyzed primarily using structural equation modeling (SEM) in AMOS 21.0 with maximum likelihood estimation. The final conceptual model has a good model fit to the data given the sample size. The results showed that although the experimentally manipulated variables failed to cause any significant differences in individuals' perceived severity and self-efficacy, this study largely supported the RISP model's propositions about the sociopsychological factors that explain individual variations in information seeking and processing. More specifically, the findings indicated a prominent role of informational subjective norms and affective responses (both negative and positive emotions) in predicting individuals' information seeking and processing. Future implications and limitations are also discussed.
Oh, Young Sam
The purpose of this research is to investigate various factors predicting online health information seeking for themselves (self OHIS) and online health information seeking for others (surrogate OHIS) in family caregivers to cancer survivors. To address this purpose, this study applies the comprehensive model of information seeking as a theoretical framework for explaining the relationships between various predictors and two types of OHIS. The data used in this study were taken from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4. A total of 1,113 family caregivers were included in this study. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of predictors on Internet use for health information seeking. Caregivers' self and surrogate OHIS were commonly predicted by their self-rated health and attention to the Internet. However, age, race, and education were significantly associated with self OHIS only, while gender and marital status were significantly associated with surrogate OHIS only. These results suggest that family caregivers' self and surrogate OHIS are predicted by common factors, as well as predicted by different specific factors.
Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Reem; El-Awad, Mamoun; Almohanna, Huda; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa
In the Arab world, increasing numbers of people are seeking online health related information for diagnoses, medicine, fitness, pharmaceutical drugs, and smoking cessation programs, among others. Studies exploring the impact of social media channels on health seeking behavior among Arabic users are limited. This study has two goals: (1) describe the prevalence of online health information-seeking behavior in the Arab world, and (2) study the impacts of social media based platforms in helping promote healthy living in the Arab world. In order to gather primary data, a web-based cross-sectional survey with a total of 7013 self-administered questionnaires was sent via SMS messages (n=1278), to Twitter followers of an Arab women's health social media account (n=3630 followers), and WhatsApp messages (n=2105) to participants above 16 years of age representing different socioeconomic groups and within the Arabic speaking world. The findings of this study show high interest among the participants (84.9%) in seeking online health information. Furthermore, reporting online information had an impact on participant health behaviors. Social media can play an important role in strengthening the health care system to provide valuable information, educational programs and interventions to promote healthy life styles among the Arabic people.
Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Christie, Vanessa M; Prabhakar, Annu; Harris, Asia L; Siek, Katie A
Objectives To assess low-income mothers' perceptions of their postpartum information needs; describe their information seeking behavior; explore their use of mobile technology to address those needs; and to contribute to the sparse literature on postpartum health and wellness. Methods Exploratory community-based qualitative approach. Interviewees were recruited among clients of community partners and had children aged 48 months and under. A survey assessing demographics was used to identify low-income mothers. 10 low-income mothers were recruited from survey participants to complete in-depth interviews regarding postpartum information needs, information seeking, and technology use. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded by three researchers independently. Narratives were analyzed along predetermined (etic) and emergent (emic) categories. Results Establishing breastfeeding and solving breastfeeding problems were central postpartum concerns leading to information seeking. Interviewees reported almost exclusive use of mobile phones to access the Internet. Mobile applications were widely used during pregnancy, but were not valuable postpartum. Face-to-face information from medical professionals was found to be repetitive. Online information seeking was mediated by default mobile phone search engines, and occurred over short, fragmented time periods. College graduates reported searching for authoritative knowledge sources; non-graduates preferred forums. Conclusions for Practice Low-income postpartum women rely on their smartphones to find online infant care and self-care health information. Websites replace pregnancy-related mobile applications and complement face-to-face information. Changes in searching behavior and multitasking mean information must be easily accessible and readily understood. Knowledge of page-rank systems and use of current and emergent social media will allow health-related organizations to better engage with low-income mothers online and
Nikoloudakis, Irene A; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda L; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Short, Camille E
This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic, health behavior, health status, and social media use correlates of online health-seeking behaviors among men and women. Cross-sectional self-report data were collected from 1,289 Australian adults participating in the Queensland Social Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of online health information seeking for men and women. Differences in the strength of the relation of these correlates were tested using equality of regression coefficient tests. For both genders, the two strongest correlates were social media use (men: odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.78, 3.71]; women: OR = 2.93, 95% CI [1.92, 4.45]) and having a university education (men: OR = 3.63, 95% CI [2.37, 5.56]; women: OR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.66, 4.51]). Not being a smoker and being of younger age were also associated with online health information seeking for both men and women. Reporting poor health and the presence of two chronic diseases were positively associated with online health seeking for women only. Correlates of help seeking online among men and women were generally similar, with exception of health status. Results suggest that similar groups of men and women are likely to access health information online for primary prevention purposes, and additionally that women experiencing poor health are more likely to seek health information online than women who are relatively well. These findings are useful for analyzing the potential reach of online health initiatives targeting both men and women.
Gage, Elizabeth A; Panagakis, Christina
There is a growing interest in understanding the effect that online information-seeking has on patients' experiences, empowerment and interactions with healthcare providers. This mixed-methods study combines surveys and in-depth interviews with 41 parents of paediatric cancer patients in the USA to examine how parents think about, evaluate, access and use the internet to seek information related to their child's cancer. We find that, during the acute crisis of a child being diagnosed with cancer, parents preferred to receive information related to their child's diagnosis, prognosis and treatment options from a trusted healthcare provider rather than through the internet. We find that access to medically related cancer information through the internet was deemed to be untrustworthy and frightening. Parents' reasons for avoiding online information-seeking included fear of what they might find out, uncertainty about the accuracy of information online, being overloaded by the volume of information online and having been told not to go online by oncologists. Some parents also had logistical barriers to accessing the internet. While most parents did not turn to the internet as a source of health-related information, many did use it to connect with sources of social support throughout their child's illness.
Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard
Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings.
Guillory, Jamie; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Kim, Hyekung; Pollak, J P; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri
We examine how social support (perceived support and support from a spouse, or committed partner) may influence pregnant women's information seeking behaviors on a pregnancy website. We assess information seeking behavior among participants in a trial testing the effectiveness of a web-based intervention for appropriate gestational weight gain. Participants were pregnant women (N = 1,329) recruited from clinics and private practices in one county in the Northeast United States. We used logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of viewing articles, blogs, frequently asked questions (FAQs), and resources on the website as a function of perceived social support, and support from a spouse or relationship partner. All models included socio-demographic controls (income, education, number of adults and children living at home, home Internet use, and race/ethnicity). Compared to single women, women who were married or in a committed relationship were more likely to information seek online by viewing articles (OR 1.95, 95 % CI [1.26-3.03]), FAQs (OR 1.64 [1.00-2.67]), and blogs (OR 1.88 [1.24-2.85]). Women who felt loved and valued (affective support) were more likely to seek information by viewing articles on the website (OR 1.19 [1.00-1.42]). While the Internet provides a space for people who have less social support to access health information, findings from this study suggest that for pregnant women, women who already had social support were most likely to seek information online. This finding has important implications for designing online systems and content to encourage pregnant women with fewer support resources to engage with content.
Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela
Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…
Bilal, Dania; Kirby, Joe
Investigates the success and information-seeking behavior of seventh-grade children and graduate students in using the Yahooligans! Web search engine/directory to find the correct answer for a fact-based search task. Analyzes and compares the overall patterns of children's and graduate students' Web traversal behaviors, including searching,…
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Gholami, Mohammad; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Maddah, Sadat Seyed Bagher; Mousavi Arfaa, Nazila
Background Cardiovascular patients need information to preserve and promote their health, but not all of them have the necessary motivation to seek relevant health knowledge. Objectives The present study analyzed experiences of patients, family caregivers, and healthcare providers to explore the motivating factors that cause cardiovascular patients to seek important health information. Patients and Methods This study was conducted using a qualitative approach and conventional qualitative content analysis method. Thirty-six people, including 18 cardiovascular patients, 7 family caregivers, and 11 healthcare providers (from multidisciplinary backgrounds) participated in the study. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and purposeful sampling and continued until data saturation. Data collection and analysis proceeded simultaneously and with constant comparison; this study was carried out from May 2012 to May 2013. Results During the analysis process, three main themes were extracted that characterized participants’ experiences, perceptions, and motivations to seek health information. The themes were “Optimizing quality of life, “Desire for personal rights to be respected,” and “Gaining confidence through consultation.” Conclusions Our findings showed that, through seeking information, patients try to achieve well-being and realize their personal rights as well as their right to security. They should also be encouraged to enhance their quality of life by using the Knowles’ learning theory to formulate their needs and learning priorities. PMID:27437128
Huston, Mary M.
Discussion of library instruction for teaching the use of computer-based searching techniques focuses on a study conducted at Evergreen State College to determine novice and experienced users' information seeking habits, and to create a multicultural teaching model for researchers that acknowledges the users' conceptual frameworks. (15 references)…
The 2010 earthquake in Haiti, which killed an estimated 316,000 people, offered many lessons in mass-fatality management (MFM). The dissertation defined MFM in seeking information and in recovery, preservation, identification, and disposition of human remains. Specifically, it examined how mass fatalities were managed in Haiti, how affected…
Ellis, David; Haugan, Merete
Engineers and research scientists at Statoil's Research Center in Trondheim, Norway were interviewed to determine information-seeking patterns. Eight characteristics were identified: surveying, chaining, monitoring, browsing, distinguishing, filtering, extracting, and ending. The results showed that although there were differences in the features…
Crow, Sherry R.
This study, conducted in June 2014 in Kampala, Uganda, is a follow-up to a similar study conducted in Colorado Springs, Colorado, in 2008. The basic research question addressed is: "What are the experiences in the lives of upper elementary-aged Ugandan children that foster an intrinsic motivation to seek information?" A secondary…
Choo, Chun Wei; Detlor, Brian; Turnbull, Don
This paper presents findings from a study of how knowledge workers use the Web to seek external information as a part of their daily work. Participants were mainly IT specialists, managers, and research/marketing/consulting staff working in organizations that included a large utility company, a major bank, and a consulting firm. Thirty-four…
Tyckoson, David A.
It has been almost 50 years since Robert Taylor published his classic 1968 article, "Question-Negotiation and Information Seeking in Libraries," in "College & Research Libraries"; yet much of what that article discussed is as fresh today as it was back then. It has been identified as a classic because it has enduring themes…
Scheres, L J J; Lijfering, W M; Middeldorp, S; Cannegieter, S C
Essentials In 2014, World Thrombosis Day (WTD) was initiated to increase global awareness of thrombosis. Google Trends can be used freely to monitor digital information seeking behavior. We used Google Trends data to assess the impact of WTD on internet searches on venous thrombosis. The WTD period was associated with more searches on thrombosis compared to control periods.
Myers, Scott A.
Explores the components of the assimilation stage of Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) socialization, with a specific focus on the relationship between GTA involvement in supportive communication relationships and GTA use of information-seeking strategies. Finds that a correlation exists between GTA involvement in supportive communication…
The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between self-perceived information seeking skills and self-esteem in adolescents and, further, to determine whether this correlation varied according to race and gender. Tenth-grade students from three public high schools in a Midwestern city were given two instruments. Self-perceived…
Leeder, Chris; Shah, Chirag
Introduction: While group work that takes place in education contexts has been studied by researchers, student collaborative research behaviour has received less attention. This empirical case study examined the strategies that students use and the obstacles they encounter while working in collaborative information seeking contexts on an in-class…
Caiata-Zufferey, Maria; Abraham, Andrea; Sommerhalder, Kathrin; Schulz, Peter J
A growing number of patients search for medical information on the Internet. Understanding how they use the Internet is important, as this might impact their health, patient-practitioner roles, and general health care provision. In this article, we illustrate the motives of online health information seeking in the context of the doctor-patient relationship in Switzerland. We conducted semistructured interviews with patients who searched for health information online before or after a medical consultation. Findings suggest that patients searched for health information online to achieve the goals of preparing for the consultation, complementing it, validating it, and/or challenging its outcome. The initial motivations for online health information seeking are identified in the needs for acknowledgment, reduction of uncertainty, and perspective. Searching health information online was also encouraged by personal and contextual factors, that is, a person's sense of self-responsibility and the opportunity to use the Internet. Based on these results, we argue that online health information seeking is less concerned with what happens during the consultation than with what happens before or after it, in the sociocultural context.
Davies, Karen; Harrison, Janet
This paper provides a narrative review of the available literature from the past 10 years (1996-2006) that focus on the information seeking behaviour of doctors. The review considers the literature in three sub-themes: Theme 1, the Information Needs of Doctors includes information need, frequency of doctors' questions and types of information needs; Theme 2, Information Seeking by Doctors embraces pattern of information resource use, time spent searching, barriers to information searching and information searching skills; Theme 3, Information Sources Utilized by Doctors comprises the number of sources utilized, comparison of information sources consulted, computer usage, ranking of information resources, printed resource use, personal digital assistant (PDA) use, electronic database use and the Internet. The review is wide ranging. It would seem that the traditional methods of face-to-face communication and use of hard-copy evidence still prevail amongst qualified medical staff in the clinical setting. The use of new technologies embracing the new digital age in information provision may influence this in the future. However, for now, it would seem that there is still research to be undertaken to uncover the most effective methods of encouraging clinicians to use the best evidence in everyday practice.
Research has shown that increasing numbers of teenagers are going online to find health information, but it is unclear whether there are disparities in the prevalence of online health seeking among young Internet users associated with social and economic conditions. Existing literature on Internet uses by adults indicates that low income, less educated, and minority individuals are less likely to be online health seekers. Based on the analysis of data from the Pew Internet and American Life Project for the US, this study finds that teens of low education parents are either as likely as or even more likely than teens of high education parents to seek online health information. Multiple regression analysis shows that the higher engagement in health seeking by teens of low education parents is related to a lower prevalence of parental Internet use, suggesting that some of these teens may be seeking online health information on behalf of their low education parents. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the issues of the digital divide and digital empowerment.
Sulfridge, Rocky M.
This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…
Hu, Xinyi; Bell, Robert A; Kravitz, Richard L; Orrange, Sharon
The authors examined online support group members' reliance on their Internet community and other online and offline health resources as they prepare for a scheduled medical appointment. Adult members of an online support group (N = 505) with an upcoming medical appointment completed an online questionnaire that included measures of illness perceptions, control preference, trust in the physician, and eHealth literacy; a checklist of actions one could take to acquire health information; and demographic questions. A factor analysis identified 4 types of information seeking: reliance on the online support group, use of other online health resources, use of offline health resources, and personal network contacts. Previsit information seeking on the Internet was extensive and typically augmented with offline information. Use of online health resources was highest among those who believed they had control over their illness, who attributed many symptoms and negative emotions to it, and who were more eHealth literate. Reliance on the online support group was highest among those who believed they had personal control over their illness, expected their condition to persist, and attributed negative emotions to it. Trust in the physician and preferences for involvement in decision making were unrelated to online information seeking. Most respondents intended to ask their physician questions and request clinical resources based on online information.
Kim, Hyunmin; Paige Powell, M; Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Bhuyan, Soumitra Sudip
Family caregivers play an important role to care cancer patients since they exchange medical information with health care providers. However, relatively little is known about how family caregivers seek medical information using mobile apps and the Internet. We examined factors associated with medical information seeking by using mobile apps and the Internet among family caregivers and the general public using data from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 1. The study sample consisted of 2425 family caregivers and 1252 non-family caregivers (the general public). Guided by Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking (CMIS), we examined related factors' impact on two outcome variables for medical information seeking: mobile apps use and Internet use with multivariate logistic regression analyses. We found that online medical information seeking is different between family caregivers and the general public. Overall, the use of the Internet for medical information seeking is more common among family caregivers, while the use of mobile apps is less common among family caregivers compared with the general public. Married family caregivers were less likely to use mobile apps, while family caregivers who would trust cancer information were more likely to use the Internet for medical information seeking as compared to the general public. Medical information seeking behavior among family caregivers can be an important predictor of both their health and the health of their cancer patients. Future research should explore the low usage of mobile health applications among family caregiver population.
Objectives: An observational study describes on-duty nurses' informative behaviors from the perspective of library and information science, rather than patient care,. It reveals their information sources, the kinds of information they seek, and their barriers to information acquisition. Methods: Participant observation and in-context interviews were used to record in detail fifty hours of the information behavior of a purposive sample of on-duty critical care nurses on twenty-bed critical care unit in a community hospital. The investigator used rigorous ethnographic methods—including open, in vivo, and axial coding—to analyze the resulting rich textual data. Results: The nurses' information behavior centered on the patient, seeking information from people, the patient record, and other systems. The nurses mostly used patient-specific information, but they also used some social and logistic information. They occasionally sought knowledge-based information. Barriers to information acquisition included illegible handwriting, difficult navigation of online systems, equipment failure, unavailable people, social protocols, and mistakes caused by people multitasking while working with multiple complex systems. Although the participating nurses understood and respected evidence-based practice, many believed that taking time to read published information on duty was not only difficult, but perhaps also ethically wrong. They said that a personal information service available to them at all hours of the day or night would be very useful. Conclusions: On-duty critical care nursing is a patient-centric information activity. A major implication of this study for librarians is that immediate professional reference service—including quality and quantity filtering—may be more useful to on-duty nurses than do-it-yourself searching and traditional document delivery are. PMID:16636706
Cancer can be one of the most serious diseases that can result in a costly reduction in the quality of life. Among a number of cancer risk factors, tobacco use has been identified as the leading preventable cause of deaths. Prior research has suggested that cancer information seeking may be a pre-step to adopt health protective behaviors that can…
Background With online health information becoming increasingly popular among patients, concerns have been raised about the impact of patients’ Internet health information-seeking behavior on their relationship with physicians. Therefore, it is pertinent to understand the influence of online health information on the patient-physician relationship. Objective Our objective was to systematically review existing research on patients’ Internet health information seeking and its influence on the patient-physician relationship. Methods We systematically searched PubMed and key medical informatics, information systems, and communication science journals covering the period of 2000 to 2015. Empirical articles that were in English were included. We analyzed the content covering themes in 2 broad categories: factors affecting patients’ discussion of online findings during consultations and implications for the patient-physician relationship. Results We identified 18 articles that met the inclusion criteria and the quality requirement for the review. The articles revealed barriers, facilitators, and demographic factors that influence patients’ disclosure of online health information during consultations and the different mechanisms patients use to reveal these findings. Our review also showed the mechanisms in which online information could influence patients’ relationship with their physicians. Conclusions Results of this review contribute to the understanding of the patient-physician relationship of Internet-informed patients. Our main findings show that Internet health information seeking can improve the patient-physician relationship depending on whether the patient discusses the information with the physician and on their prior relationship. As patients have better access to health information through the Internet and expect to be more engaged in health decision making, traditional models of the patient-provider relationship and communication strategies must be
Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping Pearl; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun
Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Guided by the Structural Influence Model, this study examines the influence of immigration status on KAs' trust in health information sources and health information seeking behaviors. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area as well as in the Gwangju metropolitan city in South Korea during 2006-2007. Two hundred and fifty-four KAs and 208 native Koreans who were 40 years of age or older completed the surveys. When comparing native Koreans to KAs, we found KAs were 3 times more likely to trust health information from newspapers or magazines (odds ratio [OR] = 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-6.54) and 11 times more likely to read the health sections of newspapers or magazines (OR = 11.35; 95% CI = 3.92-32.91) in multivariate adjusted models. However, they were less likely to look for health information from TV (OR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) than native Koreans. Our results indicate that immigration status has profound influences on KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Increasing the availability of reliable and valid health information from printed Korean language magazines or newspapers could have a positive influence on increasing awareness and promoting screening behaviors among KAs.
Baker, L M; Pettigrew, K E
Consumer health information studies in library and information science (LIS) are typically not grounded within a theoretical framework. This article explains the importance of theory to LIS research in general, and the specific value of using theories from other disciplines to study consumers' health information-seeking behavior. The argument is supported with two examples: Miller's psychological theory of blunting and monitoring behavior and Granovetter's sociological theory of the strength of weak ties. These theories can be applied by practitioner-researchers to investigate a variety of research problems. PMID:10550029
Baker, L M; Pettigrew, K E
Consumer health information studies in library and information science (LIS) are typically not grounded within a theoretical framework. This article explains the importance of theory to LIS research in general, and the specific value of using theories from other disciplines to study consumers' health information-seeking behavior. The argument is supported with two examples: Miller's psychological theory of blunting and monitoring behavior and Granovetter's sociological theory of the strength of weak ties. These theories can be applied by practitioner-researchers to investigate a variety of research problems.
Intas, George; Kostagiolas, Petros; Zavras, Dimitris; Chalari, Eleftheria; Stergiannis, Pantelis; Toylia, Georgia; Niakas, Dimitris
The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the use of electronic journals by nursing students through identification of information needs, information resources used, and barriers to seeking information. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a specially designed structured questionnaire. Of 600 nursing students, 505 agreed to participate, indicating a response rate of 84.2%. Participants sought out nurses and doctors, printed materials, scholarly databases/e-journals, and seminars as information resources. Participants reported that they searched for information for themselves, parents, and inpatients. Most searched for information for diet or special nutrition needs and for specific diseases. The obstacles faced included lack of time and cost. Training in information literacy is important to enhance the skills of nursing students.
Turner, Monique Mitchell; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Morrison, Daniel; Kim, Hyojin
Despite the importance of health information seeking, not all people engage in such behaviors, especially when thinking about the disease is distressing. The focus of this paper is to examine the antecedents of information seeking and retention. Based on individuals' risk perception and efficacy beliefs, the risk perception attitude framework is…
Bernardelli, Antonio; And Others
Examined the relationships between internal-external locus of control, career maturity, occupational information-seeking, and sex in 240 ninth-grade students. Analyses indicated that locus of control significantly correlated with career maturity, and career maturity was correlated significantly with occupational information-seeking behavior. (JAC)
Madle, Gemma; Berger, Anouk; Cognat, Sebastien; Menna, Sylvio; Kostkova, Patty
Evaluation on Internet portals is a key component of any online resource development. Understanding user information seeking behaviour and user perceived behaviour is essential to obtain the full picture of user needs, online activities and draw lessons to improve the design of Internet portals to better meet user expectations. This article discusses the evaluation of a WHO Internet portal: the Labresources website. The evaluation investigates user satisfaction with the resource, usability, demographic information about users and how well they could complete specific tasks using the website and compared this with the actual online behaviour revealing a number of discrepancies. An online questionnaire was advertised on the Labresources website during the period 25 November 2005 to 20 February 2006. As the site caters to English and French speakers, the questionnaire was made available in both languages. It consisted of two sections - the first section required the participant to complete three tasks using the website whereas the second section tested user satisfaction, information needs and appropriateness of the content. Weblogs data were compared with the questionnaire results to compare user perceived and actual online behaviour. Twenty one respondents completed the online questionnaire from a total of 18 countries. This was out of a potential 60 website users among whom the questionnaire was promoted. In general, respondents were satisfied with the website layout and navigation. 61.9% of respondents listed WHO among their top 5 and a third listed the Labresources website. The number of sessions where users browse (146) the information resources is almost three times more than the number of users who search (52) the resources. Weblogs revealed most interesting results with differences between what users reported doing when completing tasks and how easy they perceived the tasks and what they actually did. Twelve respondents completed at least one task. Of the
Robertson-Lang, Laura; Major, Sonya; Hemming, Heather
The Internet is an important resource for health information, among younger and older people alike. Unfortunately, there are limitations associated with online health information. Research is needed on the quality of information found online and on whether users are being critical consumers of the information they find. Also, there is a need for research investigating online use among adults aged 65 and over - a rapidly growing demographic of Internet users. The current study presents important descriptive data about the search patterns of older adults seeking online health information, the types of health topics they research, and whether they consider credibility issues when retrieving online health information. A comparison is also made between search strategies used in printed text and hypertext environments. The results, which have implications with respect to credibility issues, highlight the need to increase awareness about critical searching skills among older adult Internet users.
Fisher, Karen E.; Turner, Anne G.; Durrance, Joan C.; Turner, Tammara Combs
Objectives: This research studied motivations for, barriers to, and effects of online health information seeking and explored lay information mediary behavior (LIMB) characteristics in the consumer health information domain. Lay information mediaries (LIMs) seek information on behalf or because of others, without necessarily being asked to do so or engaging in follow up, and have represented more than 50% of health information seekers in prior studies. Methods: A web-based survey was posted on NC Health Info (NCHI) with 211 respondents, self-identified per the information need that brought them to NCHI as 20% LIMs (n = 43), 58% direct users (n = 122), and 22% health or information providers (n = 46). Follow-up telephone interviews were performed with 10% (n = 21). Interview analysis focused on lay participants (n = 15 LIMs and direct users combined). Interviewees were reclassified post-survey as 12 LIMs and 3 direct users when studied information behavior extended beyond NCHI search. Interview data were analyzed using grounded theory approach. Results: Surveyed LIMs were 77% female (n = 33) and searched on behalf or because of family members (81%, n = 35) and people they felt “extremely close” to (77%, n = 33). LIMs reported various information seeking barriers “sometimes” to “often.” LIMs searched mostly without prompting (51%, n = 22). Interview results triangulated survey findings regarding gender, tie strength, and prompting. Conclusions: LIMB may be related to gender and relationship tie strength and appears more internally than externally motivated. Further LIMB research is warranted. PMID:18974809
Patel, Chintan O; Garg, Vivek; Khan, Sharib A
The Internet has become a common source for consumers to seek health information across a wide range of topics including searching for clinical trials. However, not much is known about what consumers search for in relation to clinical trials and how they formulate their search queries. In this study, we use log file data from TrialX.com, a consumer-centric website that provides clinical trial information to ascertain patterns in consumer queries. We analyzed semantic patterns in the queries by mapping query keywords to the UMLS Semantic Types and performed a manual evaluation of user paths. We found that the queries can be grouped into combinations of information needs related to condition, location and treatment. The results also suggested that the consumers using longer search queries with multiple Semantic Types are more likely to take action to participate in clinical trials. The study provides early insights that can be used to inform changes in website content and information display to improve clinical trials information seeking.
Jensen, Jakob D; Liu, Miao; Carcioppolo, Nick; John, Kevin K; Krakow, Melinda; Sun, Ye
Past research has found that older US adults (aged 50-75 years) exhibit high levels of cancer information overload and cancer worry; however, no study to date has examined whether these perceptions are related to information seeking/scanning. To explore this relationship, older adults (N = 209, Mage = 55.56, SD = 4.24) were recruited to complete a survey measuring seeking, scanning, cancer information overload, and cancer worry. Most participants were high-scan/seekers (40.2%) followed by low-scan/seekers (21.1%), high-scan/no seekers (19.6%), and low-scan/no seekers (19.1%). Low-scan/no seekers had significantly higher cancer information overload compared to all other groups, consistent with the postulate that overload and seeking/scanning are negatively related. Low-scan/no seekers and high-scan/seekers both exhibited higher cancer worry severity, consistent with past research suggesting that cancer worry explains high levels of activity/inactivity.
Botello-Harbaum, Maria T; Demko, Catherine A; Curro, Frederick A; Rindal, D Brad; Collie, Damon; Gilbert, Gregg H; Hilton, Thomas J; Craig, Ronald G; Wu, Juliann; Funkhouser, Ellen; Lehman, Maryann; McBride, Ruth; Thompson, Van; Lindblad, Anne
Research on the information-seeking behaviors of dental practitioners is scarce. Knowledge of dentists' informationseeking behaviors should advance the translational gap between clinical dental research and dental practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the self-reported information-seeking behaviors of dentists in three dental practice-based research networks (PBRNs). A total of 950 dentists (65 percent response rate) completed the survey. Dental journals and continuing dental education (CDE) sources used and their influence on practice guidance were assessed. PBRN participation level and years since dental degree were measured. Full-participant dentists reported reading the Journal of the American Dental Association and General Dentistry more frequently than did their reference counterparts. Printed journals were preferred by most dentists. A lower proportion of full participants obtained their CDE credits at dental meetings compared to partial participants. Experienced dentists read other dental information sources more frequently than did less experienced dentists. Practitioners involved in a PBRN differed in their approaches to accessing information sources. Peer-reviewed sources were more frequently used by full participants and dentists with fifteen years of experience or more. Dental PBRNs potentially play a significant role in the dissemination of evidence-based information. This study found that specific educational sources might increase and disseminate knowledge among dentists.
Lewis, Nehama; Martinez, Lourdes S
This study addresses whether having a broad social network of close friends equips cancer patients with increased efficacy to engage in communication about their cancer, which then leads to an increased likelihood of patients actively seeking cancer-related information. Guided by the theory of motivated information management, the study also tests whether the effect of the number of close social ties on information seeking is mediated, in part, by communication efficacy. Results are based on data collected from a randomly drawn sample from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry of 2,013 cancer patients who completed mail surveys in the Fall of 2006. Results are consistent with a cross-sectional mediation effect in which the number of close social ties in one's social network is positively associated with communication efficacy (b = .17, p = .001), which, in turn, is positively associated with cancer-related information seeking (b = .13, p < .001).
Yom-Tov, Elad; Fernandez-Luque, Luis
Vaccination campaigns are one of the most important and successful public health programs ever undertaken. People who want to learn about vaccines in order to make an informed decision on whether to vaccinate are faced with a wealth of information on the Internet, both for and against vaccinations. In this paper we develop an automated way to score Internet search queries and web pages as to the likelihood that a person making these queries or reading those pages would decide to vaccinate. We apply this method to data from a major Internet search engine, while people seek information about the Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine. We show that our method is accurate, and use it to learn about the information acquisition process of people. Our results show that people who are pro-vaccination as well as people who are anti-vaccination seek similar information, but browsing this information has differing effect on their future browsing. These findings demonstrate the need for health authorities to tailor their information according to the current stance of users. PMID:25954435
Yom-Tov, Elad; Fernandez-Luque, Luis
Vaccination campaigns are one of the most important and successful public health programs ever undertaken. People who want to learn about vaccines in order to make an informed decision on whether to vaccinate are faced with a wealth of information on the Internet, both for and against vaccinations. In this paper we develop an automated way to score Internet search queries and web pages as to the likelihood that a person making these queries or reading those pages would decide to vaccinate. We apply this method to data from a major Internet search engine, while people seek information about the Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine. We show that our method is accurate, and use it to learn about the information acquisition process of people. Our results show that people who are pro-vaccination as well as people who are anti-vaccination seek similar information, but browsing this information has differing effect on their future browsing. These findings demonstrate the need for health authorities to tailor their information according to the current stance of users.
Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.
Objective: An information needs study of clinical specialists and biomedical researchers was conducted at the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) to inform library services and contribute to a broader understanding of information use in academic and research settings. Methods: A random stratified sample by job category of 500 NIH scientists was surveyed by telephone by an independent consultant using a standardized information industry instrument, augmented with locally developed questions. Results were analyzed for statistical significance using t- tests and chi square. Findings were compared with published studies and an aggregated dataset of information users in business, government, and health care from Outsell. Results: The study results highlighted similarities and differences with other studies and the industry standard, providing insights into user preferences, including new technologies. NIH scientists overwhelmingly used the NIH Library (424/500), began their searches at the library's Website rather than Google (P = < 0.001), were likely to seek information themselves (474/500), and valued desktop resources and services. Conclusion: While NIH staff work in a unique setting, they share some information characteristics with other researchers. The findings underscored the need to continue assessing specialized needs and seek innovative solutions. The study led to improvements or expansion of services such as developing a Website search engine, organizing gene sequence data, and assisting with manuscript preparation. PMID:17971890
Selsky, Claire; Luta, George; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Huerta, Elmer E; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S
Internet use is widespread, but little is known about Internet use for cancer information among Latinos, especially those who rely on safety net clinics. The authors investigated access to and intended use of the Internet for cancer information among low income, immigrant Latinos predominately from Central and South America. A cross-sectional study of 1,273 Latinos 21 years and older attending safety net clinics or health fairs was conducted from June 2007 to November 2008. The authors used logistic regression models to evaluate associations of age, acculturation, psychosocial factors and other covariates with Internet access and intended use of the Internet for cancer information among those with access. Of the sample, 44% reported Internet access. Higher information self-efficacy and greater trust in the Internet were independently associated with Internet access (p = .05 and p < .001, respectively). Among those with access, 53.8% reported they intended to seek cancer help online if they needed information. Those with younger age and higher acculturation, education and self-efficacy had higher odds of intended Internet use for cancer information, considering covariates. In addition, those with high (vs. low) perceived risk of cancer (OR = 1.76; 95% CI [1.14, 2.73]; p = .01) and higher levels of trust in online health information (OR = 1.47 per one-point increase; 95% [CI 1.19, 1.82]; p = .0004) were more likely to intend to seek cancer information online. These findings that Internet access is fairly high in the immigrant Latino population and that the Internet is a trusted source of cancer information suggest that the Internet may be a channel for cancer control interventions.
Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok
The Internet has emerged as an innovative tool that older adults can use to obtain health-related information. However, the relationships among predictors of Internet health information seeking behaviors (IHISB) in this population are not well understood. To fill this gap, this study examined the direct and indirect pathways of potential predictors of IHISB among older South Korean adults, using the modified Technology Acceptance Model 3. Participants were 300 older South Korean adults who had used the Internet to obtain health information within the past month. Data were collected via a self-report questionnaire and were analyzed through structural equation modeling. Two variables-prior experience and behavioral intention to use-had positive direct effects on IHISB. These findings imply that health care providers promoting IHISB among older adults should consider these individuals' prior experience with the Internet and their willingness to use the Internet as a source of health information.
Wessel, Charles B.; Tannery, Nancy H.; Epstein, Barbara A.
Purpose: The study sought to understand the literature searching experiences and skills of clinical research coordinators at a large academic medical center. Setting/Participants/Resources: The Health Sciences Library System, University of Pittsburgh, conducted a survey of clinical research coordinators at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center to solicit their perceived use and knowledge of the library's electronic resources. Brief Description: The University of Pittsburgh Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a “high volume IRB” that monitors human subject research at both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. More than 3,500 human research studies and clinical trials are active at any given time. Many studies entail more than minimal risk to human subjects, with the majority evaluating or including a drug or medical device. Clinical research coordinators are involved in most of these studies or trials. Their roles and responsibilities focus on managing many aspects of the study or clinical trial. As a first step in understanding the literature searching experiences and skills of these research coordinators, baseline data were gathered from this group in November 2004. Results/Outcome: The data from this survey indicate that clinical research coordinators are a population who would benefit from training by academic medical center librarians in how to use electronic library resources and services. Evaluation Method: A Web-based survey solicited participants' information (gender, education, job title) and role in the IRB process (job responsibilities, number studies they manage). The majority of the survey questions focused on the use of specific electronic library resources, the type of information wanted, and the types of problems encountered. PMID:16404469
Morrison, Katherine E; Luchok, Kathryn J; Richter, Donna L; Parra-Medina, Deborah
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the challenges African-American women in abusive relationships face when they consider seeking-help from their informal networks. Data are reported from interviews with 15 African-American women who were self-identified as having survived physical intimate partner violence. A 13-item, semi-structured interview guide was developed in order to elicit information from participants. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for analysis. This analysis revealed emergent themes from these interviews concerning the social factors and perceptions that influence help-seeking behavior. Participants perceived their informal networks as willing to offer instrumental support. However, informal networks were not emotionally supportive. Participants also noted that the African-American community at-large believes victims of violence to be "stupid" for remaining in violent relationships. Additional results are also discussed. Results may be used to help enhance efforts to reduce the rates of intimate partner violence among African-Americans.
Vining, Alexander Q; Marsh, Heidi L
In previous research, great apes and rhesus macaques have demonstrated multiple apparently metacognitive abilities, whereas capuchin monkeys have not. The present experiment investigated whether at least a rudimentary form of metacognition might be demonstrated in capuchins if a simplified metacognitive task was used. Capuchins (Cebus apella) were required to locate a food reward hidden beneath one of two inverted cups that sat on a Plexiglas tray. In some conditions, the capuchins were shown where the food was hidden, in others they could infer its location, and in yet others they were not given information about the location of the food. On all trials, capuchins could optionally seek information about the food's location by looking up through the Plexiglas beneath the cups. In general, capuchins did this less often when they were shown the food reward, but not when they could infer the reward's location. These data suggest that capuchins-if metacognitive-only metacognitively control their information seeking in some conditions, particularly those in which information is presented in the visual domain. This may represent a rudimentary version of metacognitive control, in comparison with that seen in great apes and humans.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection for the NSF Graduate Research... of Approval: Not applicable. Type of Request: Intent to seek approval to establish an...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Extend and Revise a Current Information Collection AGENCY: National... development component of the NSF statistical program that seeks to provide a ``central clearinghouse for...
Almaiman, Sarah; Bahkali, Salwa; Alabdulatif, Norah; Bahkaly, Ahlam; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa
Access to oral health care services around the world is limited by a lack of universal coverage. The internet and social media can be an important source for patients to access supplementary oral health related information (OHRI). Online OHRI presents an opportunity to enhance dental public health education about innumerable oral health issues and promote dental self-care. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of social media users among the Saudi population and identify the preferred social media platform for seeking Arabic OHRI and its impact on seekers' knowledge, attitude, and behavior. A total of 2652 Twitter followers were surveyed, using a web-based self-administered questionnaire to collect data on demographic characteristics and online OHRI seeking behavior More than two thirds, 67.7% (n= 1796), of the participants reported they were seeking Arabic online OHRI, while 41.1% of the participants reported they had no preference for using a specific social media platform. These results emphasize the need and importance of supporting the content of social media with trusted and high quality online OHRI resources to promote a high level of public awareness about oral health and dental health services. Further studies in this regard are highly recommended on a larger scale of nationalities to explore the role of social media platform preference in promoting health promotion and dental public health awareness.
Jones, Josette; Schilling, Katherine; Pesut, Daniel
The purpose of this study was to answer the following two questions: What are clinical nurses' rationales for their approaches to finding patient educational materials on the web? What are perceived barriers and benefits associated with the use of web-based information resources for patient education in the context of nursing clinical practice?Over 179 individual data units were analyzed to understand clinical nurses' rationales for their approaches to find patient educational materials on the web. Rationales were defined as those underlying catalysts or activators leading to an information need. Analyses found that the primary reasons why clinical nurses conducted web-based information searches included direct patient requests ( 9 requests), colleague requests (6 requests), building patient materials collections (4), patients' family requests (3), routine teaching (1), personal development (1), or staff development (1). From these data, four broad themes emerged: professional reasons, personal reasons, technology reasons, and organization reasons for selecting information resources. Content analysis identified 306 individual data units representing either 'benefits' (178 units) or 'barriers' (128) to the nurses' use of web resources for on-unit patient care. Inter-rater reliability was assessed and found to be excellent (r = 0.943 to 0.961). The primary themes that emerged as barriers to the used of web-based resources included: 1) time requirements to perform a search, 2) nurses' experience and knowledge about the resources or required technology, 3) specific characteristics of individuals electronic information resources, and 4) organizational procedures and policies. Three primary themes that represented the benefits of using web-based resources were also identified: 1) past experiences and knowledge of a specific resource or the required technologies, 2) availability and accessibility on the unit, and 3) specific characteristics of individual information tool
Feng, Yang; Xie, Wenjing
Adopting a longitudinal angle, this study analyzed data from the Pew Internet's Health Tracking Survey in 2006, 2008, and 2010 to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use. Results showed that with the growing role of social networking site use in predicting people's likelihood of seeking health information online, the socioeconomic and demographic factors that contributed to the disparities in social networking site use could also lead to disparities in seeking health information online. Also, results indicated that people are more likely to seek heath-related information online if they or their close family or friends have a chronic disease situation.
Te Poel, Fam; Baumgartner, Susanne E; Hartmann, Tilo; Tanis, Martin
The current study is the first to longitudinally investigate the reciprocal relationship between online health information seeking and health anxiety, i.e., cyberchondria. Expectations were that health anxious individuals who go online to find health information, experience an increase in health anxiety, which in turn will reinforce online seeking. A 4-wave longitudinal survey study among 5322 respondents aged 16-93 was conducted. Our results showed that individuals who are more health anxious than others, search online for health information more. Moreover, the results provided initial evidence for the expected reciprocal relationship between health anxiety and online health information seeking in respondents with non-clinical levels of health anxiety at the start of the study. However, this reciprocal relationship could not be found in a subsample of clinically health anxious individuals. Although for these individuals online health information seeking did not seem to exacerbate health anxiety levels, it might still serve as a maintaining factor of clinical health anxiety.
Kostagiolas, Petros; Martzoukou, Konstantina; Georgantzi, Georgia; Niakas, Dimitris
Introduction: This study investigated the information seeking behaviour and needs of parents of paediatric patients and their motives for seeking Internet-based information. Method: A questionnaire survey of 121 parents was conducted in a paediatric clinic of a Greek university hospital. Analysis: The data were analysed using SPSS; descriptive…
Freeman, Hani D; Beer, Jennifer S
Low sensation seekers are theorized to avoid risk more often because risk is emotionally more costly for them (in comparison to high sensation seekers). Therefore, individual differences in sensation seeking should predict differences in risk task-induced cortisol changes. Furthermore, the neural mediation that accounts for the relation between sensation seeking and cortisol changes has not been studied. The current study tested whether individual differences in sensation seeking predicted cortisol changes in relation to a risk task and whether this relation was mediated by frontal lobe activation. Participants (N=17) who varied in sensation seeking completed an fMRI study in which they rated the likelihood they would take various risks. Cortisol was measured from saliva samples collected prior to and after the fMRI procedure. The findings show that low sensation seekers showed the greatest rise in cortisol after the risk procedure, and this relation was partially mediated by increased orbitofrontal cortex activity.
... provide 60-days notice to the public for comment on information collection activities before seeking... FRA to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information being collected; and (iv) ways for... 2012-0006-N-7] Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request AGENCY:...
Case, Donald; And Others
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) software research and development project described explores information seeking behavior of end-user energy experts and develops software offering tutorials on front-end use of DOE/RECON databases and active help in performing online searches. Software development is described and results of prototype testing…
Head, Alison J.; Eisenberg, Michael B.
A report of findings from 2,318 respondents to a survey carried out among college students on six campuses distributed across the U.S. in the spring of 2009, as part of Project Information Literacy. Respondents, while curious in the beginning stages of research, employed a consistent and predictable research strategy for finding information,…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Revise and Extend a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Notice of Intent To Seek OMB Approval To Collect Information: On- Line Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Complaint Form AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Notice of Intent To Seek OMB Approval To Collect Information: On- Line Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Complaint Form AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Revise and Extend a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...
Duncan, Vicky; Holtslander, Lorraine
Background: The ability to find and retrieve information efficiently is an important skill for undergraduate nursing students. Yet a number of studies reveal that nursing students are not confident in their library searching skills and encounter barriers to retrieving relevant information for assignments. Objectives: This grounded theory study examined strategies used by students to locate information for class assignments and identified barriers to their success. Methods: Purposive sampling was used to recruit eleven students, who were asked to record their searching processes while completing a class assignment, and semi-structured, open-ended, audiotaped interviews took place to discuss the students' journals and solicit additional data. Methods of information seeking, strategies used to find information, and barriers to searching were identified. Results: Students' main concern was frustration caused by the challenge of choosing appropriate words or phrases to query databases. The central theme that united all categories and explained most of the variation among the data was “discovering vocabulary.” Conclusions: Teaching strategies to identify possible words and phrases to use when querying information sources should be emphasized more in the information literacy training of undergraduate nursing students. PMID:22272155
of this project, a scan would need to include research journals related to information needs and behaviors, especially of the “ Millennial ” and...Command. She is involved in a variety of tasks related to information systems - some strategic planning, contract administration, architecture and...especially of the “ Millennial ” and succeeding generations. These would include journals, conferences and workshop in the LIS field, as well as
Dee, Cheryl; Stanley, Ellen E.
Objectives: This research was conducted to provide new insights on clinical nurses' and nursing students' current use of health resources and libraries and deterrents to their retrieval of electronic clinical information, exploring implications from these findings for health sciences librarians. Methods: Questionnaires, interviews, and observations were used to collect data from twenty-five nursing students and twenty-five clinical nurses. Results: Nursing students and clinical nurses were most likely to rely on colleagues and books for medical information, while other resources they frequently cited included personal digital assistants, electronic journals and books, and drug representatives. Significantly more nursing students than clinical nurses used online databases, including CINAHL and PubMed, to locate health information, and nursing students were more likely than clinical nurses to report performing a database search at least one to five times a week. Conclusions and Recommendations: Nursing students made more use of all available resources and were better trained than clinical nurses, but both groups lacked database-searching skills. Participants were eager for more patient care information, more database training, and better computer skills; therefore, health sciences librarians have the opportunity to meet the nurses' information needs and improve nurses' clinical information-seeking behavior. PMID:15858624
Background Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? Methods 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Results Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. Conclusions The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources. PMID:24725300
Afifi, Walid A.; Weiner, Judith L.
Although considerable research attention has been devoted to studying the spread of HIV, recent attention to general sexual health has refocused attention to the far greater prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections. One way we might help control the spread of these infections is by better understanding the information management process…
Augur, Isabel F.; Wyckoff, Andrew R.; Aston-Jones, Gary; Kalivas, Peter W.
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been shown to negatively regulate cocaine-seeking behavior, but the precise conditions by which vmPFC activity can be exploited to reduce cocaine relapse are currently unknown. We used viral-mediated gene transfer of designer receptors (DREADDs) to activate vmPFC neurons and examine the consequences on cocaine seeking in a rat self-administration model of relapse. Activation of vmPFC neurons with the Gq-DREADD reduced reinstatement of cocaine seeking elicited by cocaine-associated cues, but not by cocaine itself. We used a retro-DREADD approach to confine the Gq-DREADD to vmPFC neurons that project to the medial nucleus accumbens shell, confirming that these neurons are responsible for the decreased cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. The effects of vmPFC activation on cue-induced reinstatement depended on prior extinction training, consistent with the reported role of this structure in extinction memory. These data help define the conditions under which chemogenetic activation of extinction neural circuits can be exploited to reduce relapse triggered by reminder cues. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) projection to the nucleus accumbens shell is important for extinction of cocaine seeking, but its anatomical proximity to the relapse-promoting projection from the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex to the nucleus accumbens core makes it difficult to selectively enhance neuronal activity in one pathway or the other using traditional pharmacotherapy (e.g., systemically administered drugs). Viral-mediated gene delivery of an activating Gq-DREADD to vmPFC and/or vmPFC projections to the nucleus accumbens shell allows the chemogenetic exploitation of this extinction neural circuit to reduce cocaine seeking and was particularly effective against relapse triggered by cocaine reminder cues. PMID:27683912
Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Trinka, Eugen
Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopaedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. Our aim was to evaluate information-seeking behaviour of English-speaking internet users searching Wikipedia for articles related to epilepsy and epileptic seizures. Using Wiki Trends, which provides quantitative information on daily viewing of articles, data on global search queries for Wikipedia articles related to epilepsy and seizures were analysed. The daily Wikipedia article views on syncope, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, migraine, and multiple sclerosis served as comparative data. The period of analysis covered was from January 2008 to December 2014. Overall, the Wikipedia article "epilepsy and driving" was found to be more frequently visited than the articles "epilepsy and employment" or "epilepsy in children". Since January 2008, the Wikipedia article "multiple sclerosis" was more often visited compared to the articles "epilepsy", "syncope", "psychogenic non-epileptic seizures" or "migraine"; the article "epilepsy" ranked 3,779 and was less frequently visited than "multiple sclerosis", ranked at 571, in traffic on Wikipedia. The highest peak in search volume for the article "epilepsy" coincided with the news of a celebrity having seizures. Fears and worries about epileptic seizures, their impact on driving and employment, and news about celebrities with epilepsy might be major determinants in searching Wikipedia for information.
... information necessary for consumers to make informed choices among competing broadband Internet access... necessary for consumers to make informed choices among competing broadband Internet access services. In... document seeks comment about the speed and performance required for the range of Internet...
Desrochers, Nadine; Pecoskie, Jen
Introduction: This research investigates paratextual acknowledgements in published codices in order to study how relationships inform the information-seeking habits of authors, an understudied group in library and information science. Method: A purposive sample consisting of the books from the 2010 nominations list of the Canadian Governor…
Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise; Johnson, Thomas Wade; Lim, Jonathan; Wasserman, Wyeth W
Background The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups. Objective To address this gap, we utilized social media to investigate the kind of information public users are seeking about gene therapy and the hopes, concerns, and attitudes they express. Methods We conducted a content analysis of questions containing the keywords “gene therapy” from the Q&A site “Yahoo! Answers” for the 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. From the pool of questions retrieved (N=903), we identified those containing at least one theme related to ethics, environment, economics, law, or society (n=173) and then characterized the content of relevant answers (n=399) through emergent coding. Results The results show that users seek a wide range of information regarding gene therapy, with requests for scientific information and ethical issues at the forefront of enquiry. The question sample reveals high expectations for gene therapy that range from cures for genetic and nongenetic diseases to pre- and postnatal enhancement of physiological attributes. Ethics questions are commonly expressed as fears about the impact of gene therapy on self and society. The answer sample echoes these concerns but further suggests that the acceptability of gene therapy varies depending on the specific application. Conclusions Overall, the findings highlight the powerful role of social media as a rich resource for research into attitudes toward biomedicine and as a platform for knowledge exchange and public engagement for topics relating to health and disease. PMID:23470490
Chien-Huang, Lin; Hung-Chou, Lin
College students often consume too much snacks (e.g. potato chips) and such high-fat snacks are found to be related to obesity. This paper seeks to explore the effect of health-related information on the relationship of mood states and variety seeking (VS) behavior among enjoyable snacks. Health warnings and nutritional labeling are used to examine the moderating effects on this relationship. Consistent with our hypotheses, the results indicate that the presence of health warnings attenuates the influence of mood states on VS, so that happy and sad students tend to converge to similar levels of VS. However, in the absence of health warnings, sad students tend to incorporate significantly more VS than happy students. Similarly, the presence of nutritional labeling attenuates the influence of mood states on VS, so that happy and sad students tend to converge to similar levels of VS. However, in the absence of nutritional labeling, sad students tend to incorporate significantly more VS than happy students. The results provide evidence that making health warnings and nutritional labeling more salient might be a good way to decrease students' VS tendency for high-fat snacks.
Oh, Juyeon; Kim, Jung A
A few studies have examined the specific informational needs of the population with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The aims of this study were to describe the information-seeking behavior and information needs of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their families in Korea by analyzing messages from an online patient community. A total of 1047 messages from the question and answer forum of the "Lou Gehrig's Disease Network" (http://cafe.daum.net/alsfree) from January 2010 to September 2015 were collected. The word frequency, main questions, and asker of the messages were analyzed and coded. Terms such as "hospital," "mother," "father," "gastrostomy," and "ALS" were most frequently identified. The most commonly mentioned main topic was about disease-specific information, while the most frequent subcategory was symptoms or management of symptoms. Other prominent categories concerned information about treatment, rehabilitation, and the medical system. The people who wrote the questions were mostly the son/daughter of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their family members commonly obtained information by posting their inquiries online and have a variety of questions regarding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in this study. The findings of this study can be used as a base of information for developing educational programs and resources for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their families.
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To... announces the intention of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to seek approval to conduct a... Pennsylvania Farms Survey. OMB Control Number: 0535-NEW. Type of Request: Intent to Seek Approval to Conduct...
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Seek Reinstatement of an... Service's (ARS) intent to seek reinstatement of the ARS Animal Health National Program Assessment Survey, which seeks input on the impact of the Animal Health National Research Program through the completion...
Pandey, Ambarish; Hasan, Sayeedul; Dubey, Divyanshu; Sarangi, Sasmit
There is an increased interest in smartphone applications as a tool for delivery of health-care information. There have been no studies which evaluated the availability and content of cancer-related smartphone applications. This study aims to identify and analyze cancer-related applications available on the Apple iTunes platform. The Apple iTunes store was searched for cancer-related smartphone applications on July 29, 2011. The content of the applications was analyzed for cost, type of information, validity, and involvement of health-care agencies. A total of 77 relevant applications were identified. There were 24.6 % apps uploaded by health-care agencies, and 36 % of the apps were aimed at health-care workers. Among the apps, 55.8 % provided scientifically validated data. The difference in scientific validity between the apps aimed at general population versus health-care professionals was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Seventy-nine percent of the apps uploaded by health-care agencies were found to be backed by scientific data. There is lack of cancer-related applications with scientifically backed data. There is a need to improve the accountability and reliability of cancer-related smartphone applications and encourage participation by health-care agencies to ensure patient safety.
Sharpe, Kimberly; Di Pietro, Nina; Jacob, Karen J; Illes, Judy
Parents and primary caregivers of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are faced with difficult treatment choices and management options for their children. The potential of stem cell technologies as an interventional strategy for CP and ASD has gained attention in the last decade. Information about these interventions varies in quality, resulting in a complex landscape for parent decision making for a child's care. Further complicating this landscape are clinics that advertise these interventions as a legitimate treatment for a fee. In this study, we surveyed individuals who considered taking their child with ASD or CP abroad for stem cell interventions on their use of different sources of stem cell related health information and their level of trust in these sources. Participants reported that while the Internet was their most frequent source of information, it was not well-trusted. Rather, information sources trusted most were researchers and the science journals in which they publish, other parents of children with CP and ASD, and healthcare providers. These findings highlight a dichotomy between information-seeking preferences and information-trusted sources. We discuss the challenges of health science communication and present innovative opportunities to increase communication with trusted and reliable sources as part of an integrated multi-pronged approach.
Although there has been substantial research on the avoidance of risk, much less has been completed on voluntary risk. This study examined backcountry snowmobilers' risk perceptions, avalanche related information seeking behaviours, and decision-making processes when dealing with avalanches and backcountry risk in Canada. To accomplish this, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 participants who were involved in backcountry snowmobiling. Interviews were done both in person and by telephone. The results of this study show that, unlike previous research on snowmobilers, the participants of this study were well prepared and knowledgeable about backcountry risks. All 17 participants stated that they carried a shovel, probe, and transceiver with them on each backcountry trip, and 10 participants had taken an avalanche safety course. Group dynamics and positive peer pressure were influential in promoting safe backcountry behaviour. KEYWORDS: Backcountry snowmobiling, Avalanches, Voluntary Risk, Preparedness, Decision-Making.
Wittek, Peter; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Darányi, Sándor; Gedeon, Tom; Lim, Ik Soo
Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent. Ambiguity, on the other hand, is the opportunity cost of having higher quality patches elsewhere in the search space. The aforementioned tradeoff depends on many attributes, including traits of the user: at the two extreme ends of the spectrum, analytic and wholistic searchers employ entirely different strategies. The former type focuses on exploitation first, interspersed with bouts of exploration, whereas the latter type prefers to explore the search space first and consume later. Our findings from an eye-tracking study of experts' interactions with novel search interfaces in the biomedical domain suggest that user traits of cognitive styles and perceived search task difficulty are significantly correlated with eye gaze and search behavior. We also demonstrate that perceived risk shifts the balance between exploration and exploitation in either type of users, tilting it against vs. in favor of ambiguity minimization. Since the pattern of behavior in information foraging is quintessentially sequential, risk and ambiguity minimization cannot happen simultaneously, leading to a fundamental limit on how good such a tradeoff can be. This in turn connects information seeking with the emergent field of quantum decision theory. PMID:27909418
Wittek, Peter; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Darányi, Sándor; Gedeon, Tom; Lim, Ik Soo
Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent. Ambiguity, on the other hand, is the opportunity cost of having higher quality patches elsewhere in the search space. The aforementioned tradeoff depends on many attributes, including traits of the user: at the two extreme ends of the spectrum, analytic and wholistic searchers employ entirely different strategies. The former type focuses on exploitation first, interspersed with bouts of exploration, whereas the latter type prefers to explore the search space first and consume later. Our findings from an eye-tracking study of experts' interactions with novel search interfaces in the biomedical domain suggest that user traits of cognitive styles and perceived search task difficulty are significantly correlated with eye gaze and search behavior. We also demonstrate that perceived risk shifts the balance between exploration and exploitation in either type of users, tilting it against vs. in favor of ambiguity minimization. Since the pattern of behavior in information foraging is quintessentially sequential, risk and ambiguity minimization cannot happen simultaneously, leading to a fundamental limit on how good such a tradeoff can be. This in turn connects information seeking with the emergent field of quantum decision theory.
Ekberg, Katie; McDermott, Joanne; Moynihan, Clare; Brindle, Lucy; Little, Paul; Leydon, Geraldine M
Helplines are core feature of the contemporary U.K. health care system, however little is known about callers' experiences of seeking cancer-related telephone help. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 cancer helpline callers. The findings suggest cancer helplines offer callers (1) time to discuss their issues, (2) anonymity, (3) convenience, and (4) an open outlet for anyone affected by cancer including family/friends. Further, the findings highlighted that callers' help-seeking behavior was multifaceted, with their psychosocial needs being intrinsically intertwined with their information or advice-seeking needs. The implications are discussed in relation to the role of cancer helplines in the healthcare system.
Neumark, Yehuda; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Feldman, Becca S; Hirsch Allen, A J; Shtarkshall, Ronny
This study examined patterns and determinants of seeking online health information among a nationally representative sample of 7,028 Jewish and Arab 7th- through 12th-grade students in 158 schools in Israel. Nearly all respondents (98.7%) reported Internet access, and 52.1% reported having sought online health information in the past year. Arab students (63%) were more likely than Jewish students (48%) to seek online health information. Population-group and sex differences in health topics sought online were identified, although fitness/exercise was most common across groups. Multivariate regression models revealed that having sought health information from other sources was the strongest independent correlate of online health information-seeking among Jews (adjusted odds ratio = 8.93, 95% CI [7.70, 10.36]) and Arabs (adjusted odds ratio = 9.77, 95% CI [7.27, 13.13]). Other factors associated with seeking online health information common to both groups were level of trust in online health information, Internet skill level, having discussed health/medical issues with a health care provider in the past year, and school performance. The most common reasons for not seeking online health information were a preference to receive information from a health professional and lack of interest in health/medical issues. The closing of the digital divide between Jews and Arabs represents a move toward equality. Identifying and addressing factors underpinning online health information-seeking behaviors is essential to improve the health status of Israeli youth and reduce health disparities.
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Mulcahy, Nicholas J
Nonhuman primates appear to engage in metacognition by knowing when they need to search for relevant information for solving the tubes task. The task involves presenting subjects with a number of tubes with only 1 having food hidden inside. Before choosing, subjects look inside the tubes more often when they do not know which 1 contains the food (hidden trials) compared to when they do know this information (visible trials). It is argued, however, that nonmetacognitive general food searching strategies can explain this looking behavior. To address this issue, 3 orangutans were tested with a novel tubes task in which they were only required to seek information about tool functionality. The results showed that subjects had the ability to search for tool functionality but no subject looked significantly more in hidden trials compared to visible trials. Subjects were retested with the same condition and given a second condition in which the cost of a wrong choice was increased. In both conditions, 2 subjects looked significantly more inside the hidden trials compared to the visible trials. Subjects were also tested with the traditional tubes task in which food was hidden inside 1 tube. All subjects looked inside the tubes significantly more in the hidden trials compared to the visible trials. However, subjects conducted more excessive looks compared to when looking for tool functionality. I suggest that excessive searches may be caused by food being a strong stimulus and discuss the relevance of this possibility for metacognitive research involving the tubes task. (PsycINFO Database Record
Rains, Stephen A; Tukachinsky, Riva
Uncertainty management theory (UMT; Brashers, 2001, 2007) is rooted in the assumption that, as opposed to being inherently negative, health-related uncertainty is appraised for its meaning. Appraisals influence subsequent behaviors intended to manage uncertainty, such as information seeking. This study explores the connections among uncertainty, appraisal, and information-seeking behavior proposed in UMT. A laboratory study was conducted in which participants (N = 157) were primed to feel and desire more or less uncertainty about skin cancer and were given the opportunity to search for skin cancer information using the World Wide Web. The results show that desired uncertainty level predicted appraisal intensity, and appraisal intensity predicted information-seeking depth-although the latter relationship was in the opposite direction of what was expected.
Wang, Weirui; Yu, Nan
As a culturally diverse country, the U.S. hosts over 39 million immigrants who may experience various cultural and linguistic obstacles to receiving quality health care. Considering online sources an important alternative for immigrants to access health information, this study investigates how Chinese immigrants in the U.S. seek health information online. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Chinese immigrants who currently live in the U.S. to understand how acculturation strategies they use to adapt to the host society influence their Internet-based health information seeking behaviors. Our findings revealed that the language and web sources immigrants choose to use can be predicted by the acculturation strategies they utilize to cope with the new culture. This study serves as a timely and imperative call for further consideration of the role that acculturation plays in determining how immigrants seek health information and utilize the healthcare services of their host society.
Chavarria, Enmanuel Antonio; Chaney, Elizabeth Hensleigh; Stellefson, Michael Leland; Chaney, J Don; Chavarria, Nikita; Dodd, Virginia Jones
Despite the fact that a large percentage of Americans go online to seek health information, literature pertaining to online health information (OHI) seeking among college men in Latino fraternities (CMLF) has been nonexistent. Thus, the purpose of this study was to (a) identify the types of OHI that CMLF seek and (b) to determine the factors motivating OHI seeking among CMLF. Four 1- to 1.5-hour focus groups were conducted in two public universities in Florida with 41 college-aged Latino males in an established Latino fraternity. E-mails were used to recruit fraternity members. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified that CMLF search for a variety of OHI types including searches on symptoms, diagnoses, weight loss, and treatments for conditions or diseases among other types of OHI. Factors motivating OHI seeking included informational needs of others and concerns for others, worries due to lack of health insurance, preoccupations with health condition, concerns over physical appearance, and clarification through social media. CMLF may be elicited to serve as information conduits to increase access to health information on chronic diseases for older non-English-speaking Latino adults. Lack of health insurance along with other factors in this segment of the population have led to self-diagnosis and self-treatment of illness. Thus, empirical research and health promotion on the potential risks due to self-diagnosing and self-treatment of illness is warranted among CMLF.
Tausczik, Yla; Faasse, Kate; Pennebaker, James W; Petrie, Keith J
Web-based methodologies may provide a new and unique insight into public response to an infectious disease outbreak. This naturalistic study investigates the effectiveness of new web-based methodologies in assessing anxiety and information seeking in response to the 2009 H1N1 outbreak by examining language use in weblogs ("blogs"), newspaper articles, and web-based information seeking. Language use in blogs and newspaper articles was assessed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, and information seeking was examined using the number of daily visits to H1N1-relevant Wikipedia articles. The results show that blogs mentioning "swine flu" used significantly higher levels of anxiety, health, and death words and lower levels of positive emotion words than control blogs. Change in language use on blogs was strongly related to change in language use in newspaper coverage for the same day. Both the measure of anxiety in blogs mentioning "swine flu" and the number of Wikipedia visits followed similar trajectories, peaking shortly after the announcement of H1N1 and then declining rapidly. Anxiety measured in blogs preceded information seeking on Wikipedia. These results show that the public reaction to H1N1 was rapid and short-lived. This research suggests that analysis of web behavior can provide a source of naturalistic data on the level and changing pattern of public anxiety and information seeking following the outbreak of a public health emergency.
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Bishop, Ann P.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
Engineers are an extraordinarily diverse group of professionals, but an attribute common to all engineers is their use of information. Engineering can be conceptualized as an information processing system that must deal with work-related uncertainty through patterns of technical communications. Throughout the process, data, information, and tacit knowledge are being acquired, produced, transferred, and utilized. While acknowledging that other models exist, we have chosen to view the information-seeking behavior of engineers within a conceptual framework of the engineer as an information processor. This article uses the chosen framework to discuss information-seeking behavior of engineers, reviewing selected literature and empirical studies from library and information science, management, communications, and sociology. The article concludes by proposing a research agenda designed to extend our current, limited knowledge of the way engineers process information.
Schank, J.R.; Nelson, B.S.; Damadzic, R.; Tapocik, J.D.; Yao, M.; King, C.E.; Rowe, K.E.; Cheng, K.; Rice, K.C.; Heilig, M.
Substance P (SP) and its cognate neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) are involved in alcohol-related behaviors. We have previously reported that NK1R antagonism attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking and suppresses escalated alcohol self-administration, but does not affect primary reinforcement or cue-induced reinstatement. Here, we administered an NK1R antagonist or vehicle prior to footshock-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, and mapped the resulting neuronal activation using Fos immunohistochemistry. As expected, vehicle treated animals exposed to footshock showed induction of Fos immunoreactivity in several regions of the brain stress circuitry, including the amygdala (AMG), nucleus accumbens (NAC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). NK1R antagonism selectively suppressed the stress-induced increase in Fos in the DR and NAC shell. In the DR, Fos-induction by stress largely overlapped with tryptophan hydroxylase (TrpH), indicating activation of serotonergic neurons. Of NAC shell neurons activated during stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, about 30% co-expressed dynorphin (DYN), while 70% co-expressed enkephalin (ENK). Few (<1%) activated NAC shell neurons co-expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which labels the cholinergic interneurons of this region. Infusion of the NK1R antagonist L822429 into the NAC shell blocked stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. In contrast, L822429 infusion into the DR had no effect, suggesting that the influence of NK1R signaling on neuronal activity in the DR is indirect. Taken together, our results outline a potential pathway through which endogenous NK1R activation mediates stress-induced alcohol seeking. PMID:26188146
Gray, Stacy W.; Armstrong, Katrina; DeMichele, Angela; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Hornik, Robert C.
Background Despite the rise in publicly available cancer information little is known about the association between patient information seeking and the adoption of cancer technologies. We investigated the relationship between patient information seeking and awareness about and receipt of novel targeted therapy (TT) for colon cancer among patients for whom therapy is FDA approved and for whom therapy is not FDA approved. Methods A retrospective population-based survey of 633 colon cancer patients identified through the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Outcome measures were self-reported awareness about and receipt of TT (Avastintm and Erbituxtm). Results After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, high levels of treatment information seeking were strongly associated with hearing about TT (odds ratio [OR] 2.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-5.38) and receiving TT (OR 3.22; 95% CI, 1.36-7.62). These associations were present for patients with metastatic disease where use of TT is FDA approved and for patients with localized disease where use of TT is not FDA approved (p-value for interactions 0.29). Internet and newspaper/magazine use was associated with hearing about TT (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.40-5.94; OR 3.44; 95% CI 1.34-8.84). Seeking information from non-treating doctors was associated with hearing about and receiving TT (OR 1.95; 95% CI, 1.03-3.68; OR 2.64; 95% CI, 1.16-5.97). Conclusion Patient information seeking is related to the adoption of TT for colon cancer in both appropriate and inappropriate clinical settings. These findings emphasize the importance of exploring patient influence on physician prescribing patterns and understanding the impact of information seeking on cancer outcomes. PMID:19235785
Wheeler, Daniel S; Robble, Mykel A; Hebron, Emily M; Dupont, Matthew J; Ebben, Amanda L; Wheeler, Robert A
Drug-associated cues have profound effects on an addict's emotional state and drug-seeking behavior. Although this influence must involve the motivational neural system that initiates and encodes the drug-seeking act, surprisingly little is known about the nature of such physiological events and their motivational consequences. Three experiments investigated the effect of a cocaine-predictive stimulus on dopamine signaling, neuronal activity, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking. In all experiments, rats were divided into two groups (paired and unpaired), and trained to self-administer cocaine in the presence of a tone that signaled the immediate availability of the drug. For rats in the paired group, self-administration sessions were preceded by a taste cue that signaled delayed drug availability. Assessments of hedonic responses indicated that this delay cue became aversive during training. Both the self-administration behavior and the immediate cue were subsequently extinguished in the absence of cocaine. After extinction of self-administration behavior, the presentation of the aversive delay cue reinstated drug seeking. In vivo electrophysiology and voltammetry recordings in the nucleus accumbens measured the neural responses to both the delay and immediate drug cues after extinction. Interestingly, the presentation of the delay cue simultaneously decreased dopamine signaling and increased excitatory encoding of the immediate cue. Most importantly, the delay cue selectively enhanced the baseline activity of neurons that would later encode drug seeking. Together these observations reveal how cocaine cues can modulate not only affective state, but also the neurochemical and downstream neurophysiological environment of striatal circuits in a manner that promotes drug seeking.
Wheeler, Daniel S.; Robble, Mykel A.; Hebron, Emily M.; Dupont, Matthew J.; Ebben, Amanda L.
Drug-associated cues have profound effects on an addict's emotional state and drug-seeking behavior. Although this influence must involve the motivational neural system that initiates and encodes the drug-seeking act, surprisingly little is known about the nature of such physiological events and their motivational consequences. Three experiments investigated the effect of a cocaine-predictive stimulus on dopamine signaling, neuronal activity, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking. In all experiments, rats were divided into two groups (paired and unpaired), and trained to self-administer cocaine in the presence of a tone that signaled the immediate availability of the drug. For rats in the paired group, self-administration sessions were preceded by a taste cue that signaled delayed drug availability. Assessments of hedonic responses indicated that this delay cue became aversive during training. Both the self-administration behavior and the immediate cue were subsequently extinguished in the absence of cocaine. After extinction of self-administration behavior, the presentation of the aversive delay cue reinstated drug seeking. In vivo electrophysiology and voltammetry recordings in the nucleus accumbens measured the neural responses to both the delay and immediate drug cues after extinction. Interestingly, the presentation of the delay cue simultaneously decreased dopamine signaling and increased excitatory encoding of the immediate cue. Most importantly, the delay cue selectively enhanced the baseline activity of neurons that would later encode drug seeking. Together these observations reveal how cocaine cues can modulate not only affective state, but also the neurochemical and downstream neurophysiological environment of striatal circuits in a manner that promotes drug seeking. PMID:25948270
Hamilton, Jada G; Hutson, Sadie P; Frohnmayer, Amy E; Han, Paul K J; Peters, June A; Carr, Ann G; Alter, Blanche P
Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) including Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome are rare genetic disorders characterized by hematologic complications and increased risk of cancer. Patients and their families likely experience obstacles in obtaining sufficient health information given their disorders' rarity. To investigate this possibility, we examined information-seeking behaviors and levels of general and disorder-specific genetic knowledge among 315 members of 174 families with an IBMFS, and how information-seeking behaviors and socio-demographic factors may be associated with their genetic knowledge. Cross-sectional survey data indicated that participants were most likely to have ever used the Internet or healthcare providers for genetic information. On average, participants correctly answered 57 % of items assessing general genetic knowledge and 49-59 % of disorder-specific knowledge items. Greater knowledge was associated with greater education and ever experiencing genetic counseling, attending a scientific meeting, and seeking information from the Internet and scientific literature. Among families with Fanconi anemia (whose family support organization has the longest history of providing information), greater disorder-specific genetic knowledge was also associated with seeking information from support groups and other affected families. Results suggest that families with IBMFS have uncertainty regarding genetic aspects of their disorder, and highlight potential channels for delivering educational resources.
Mead, Erin; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Flora, June A.; Maibach, Edward W.; Leiserowitz, Anthony
Global climate change is likely to have significant impacts on public health. Effective communication is critical to informing public decision making and behavior to mitigate climate change. An effective method of audience segmentation, the risk perception attitude (RPA) framework has been previously tested with other health behaviors and classifies people into 4 groups on the basis of their perceptions of risk and beliefs about personal efficacy. The 4 groups – indifference (low risk, weak efficacy), proactive (low risk, strong efficacy), avoidance (high risk, weak efficacy), and responsive (high risk, strong efficacy) – are hypothesized to differ in their self-protective behaviors and in their motivations to seek information. In this paper, we extend the RPA framework in two ways. First, we use it at the household level to determine whether parental classifications into the 4 groups are associated with their teenage children’s classification into the same 4 groups. Second, we predict adolescent information-seeking behaviors on the basis of their and their parents’ membership in the 4 RPA groups. Results (N = 523 parent-adolescent pairs) indicated that parental membership in the 4 RPA groups was significantly associated with children’s membership in the same 4 groups. Furthermore, the RPA framework was a significant predictor of adolescent information-seeking: those in the responsive and avoidance groups sought more information on climate change than the indifference group. Family communication on global warming was positively associated with adolescents’ information-seeking. Implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:22866024
Huang, Kun; Kelly, Diane
A survey was conducted at Beijing Normal University to explore subjects' motives for image seeking; the image types they need; how and where they seek images; and the difficulties they encounter. The survey also explored subjects' attitudes toward current image services and their perceptions of how university libraries might provide assistance.…
van der Rijt, Janine; Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien S. R.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the position of employees in the organizational hierarchy is important in explaining their feedback seeking behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: This study takes a social network perspective by using an ego-centric network survey to investigate employees' feedback seeking behaviour…
Hogue, Marie-Clare B.; Doran, Evan; Henry, David A.
Objective, Design, Setting and Participants The objective was to investigate media influence on consumers' health related behaviours. A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected adults (18+ years) residing in the Hunter Region of New South Wales Australia was conducted. The sample was selected using a combination of the white pages and random digit dialling. Main Outcome Measures The proportions of respondents who recalled seeing or hearing about conditions or treatments in the media over the 12 months prior to interview (August 2009–August 2010) and their subsequent health related behaviour. Results Although most survey participants reported seeking health information from their doctors, around two-thirds of survey participants (551, 68.8%) recalled hearing, seeing or reading about one or more medical conditions (total = 1097 instances) in the mainstream media over the past 12 months. Almost 40% of respondents (307, 38.4%) stated that they had looked for more information about a condition as a result of hearing about it in the media, and most used the internet (269, 87.4%). More than a quarter of respondents (215, 26.9%) indicated that they had asked their doctor about a condition they had heard about in the media. Around half of those who asked their doctor (109, 50.6%) reported that their inquiry resulted in them receiving treatment, of whom almost half (53, 48.3%) reported being prescribed a medicine. Conclusion The survey results show that consumers become aware of medicines through traditional media and then to learn more often turn to the internet where quality of information may be poor. (252 words) PMID:22509289
Choo, Chun Wei; Detlor, Brian; Turnbull, Don
This paper develops a new behavioral model of information seeking on the Web by combining theoretical elements from information science and organization science. The model was tested during the first phase of a study of how managers and information technology (IT) specialists use the Web to seek external information as part of their daily work.…
...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and its implementing regulations, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) hereby announces that it is seeking renewal of the following currently approved information collection activities. Before submitting these information collection requirements for clearance by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public......
Rains, Stephen A; Tukachinsky, Riva
Uncertainty management theory outlines the processes through which individuals cope with health-related uncertainty. Information seeking has been frequently documented as an important uncertainty management strategy. The reported study investigates exposure to specific types of medical information during a search, and one's information-processing orientation as predictors of successful uncertainty management (i.e., a reduction in the discrepancy between the level of uncertainty one feels and the level one desires). A lab study was conducted in which participants were primed to feel more or less certain about skin cancer and then were allowed to search the World Wide Web for skin cancer information. Participants' search behavior was recorded and content analyzed. The results indicate that exposure to two health communication constructs that pervade medical forms of uncertainty (i.e., severity and susceptibility) and information-processing orientation predicted uncertainty management success.
Wrobel, Gretchen Miller; Grotevant, Harold D.; Samek, Diana R.; Von Korff, Lynn
The Adoption Curiosity Pathway (ACP) model was used to test the potential mediating effect of curiosity on adoption information-seeking in a sample of 143 emerging adult adoptees (mean age = 25.0 years) who were adopted as infants within the United States by parents of the same race. Adoptees were interviewed about their intentions and actions…
Cho, Jaehee; Lee, Seungjo
Considering the continuous increase of international students, the main goal of this study was to examine how international students' proactive behaviors, particularly information seeking behaviors, would impact key emotional outcomes including communication satisfaction with instructors and school-life satisfaction. For this investigation, we…
Robbins, Sarah; Rupp-Serrano, Karen
This follow-up study examines whether or not findings of single institution studies are applicable to other institutions by performing an institution-to-institution comparison of the results obtained from an information-seeking behavior survey sent to education faculty at twenty research institutions. The results from this study corroborated what…
Zhu, Yu-Qian; Chen, Li-Yueh; Chen, Houn-Gee; Chern, Ching-Chin
Although researchers tend to agree that Internet is a good source for learning and research, little empirical data has substantiated this claim by specifically linking time and effort spent on the Internet for school related information seeking to academic performances. This research investigates the relationship between vocational high school…
Hsieh, Tsia-ying; Wu, Ko-chiu
Children conducting searches using the interfaces of library websites often encounter obstacles due to typographical errors, digital divides, or a failure to grasp keywords. Satisfaction with a given interface may also vary according to the gender of the user, making it a variable in information seeking behavior. Children benefit more from…
Crow, Sherry R.; Kastello, Lisa
This paper is based on two studies conducted in Colorado Springs, Colorado, in 2008 and in Kampala, Uganda, in 2014. The basic research question addressed in both studies was: "What are the experiences in the lives of upper elementary-aged children that foster an intrinsic motivation to seek information?" The secondary question was:…
Tse, Tony; Vegh, Sandor; Shneiderman, Ben; Marchionini, Gary
The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop research methods to compare the effectiveness of two video browsing interface designs, or surrogates--one static (storyboard) and one dynamic (slide show)--on two distinct information seeking tasks (gist determination and object recognition). (AEF)
Chia, Ho-Beng; Foo, Maw-Der; Fang, Ruolian
This article examines individuals in a community as defined by their membership in an organization. In such a setting, individuals often make use of their social contacts to make sense of events in the organization. Yet, the organizational justice literature is generally silent on how these contacts shape information seeking, volunteering, and…
Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.
The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…
Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo
The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.
Cohen, Jessica; Golub, Ginger; Kruk, Margaret E; McConnell, Margaret
Despite poverty and limited access to health care, evidence is growing that patients in low-income countries are taking a more active role in their selection of health care providers. Urban areas such as Nairobi, Kenya offer a rich context for studying these "active" patients because of the large number of heterogeneous providers available. We use a unique panel dataset from 2015 in which 402 pregnant women from peri-urban (the "slums" of) Nairobi, Kenya were interviewed three times over the course of their pregnancy and delivery, allowing us to follow women's care decisions and their perceptions of the quality of care they received. We define active antenatal care (ANC) patients as those women who switch ANC providers and explore the prevalence, characteristics and care-seeking behavior of these patients. We analyze whether active ANC patients appear to be seeking out higher quality facilities and whether they are more satisfied with their care. Women in our sample visit over 150 different public and private ANC facilities. Active patients are more educated and more likely to have high risk pregnancies, but have otherwise similar characteristics to non-active patients. We find that active patients are increasingly likely to pay for private care (despite public care being free) and to receive a higher quality of care over the course of their pregnancy. We find that active patients appear more satisfied with their care over the course of pregnancy, as they are increasingly likely to choose to deliver at the facility providing their ANC.
Pinelli, Thomas E.
It is argued that only by maximizing the research and development process can the United States maintain and possibly capture its international competitive edge. Key to this goal is the provision of information services and products which meet the information needs of engineers. Evidence exists which indicates that traditional information services and products may, in fact, not be meeting the information needs of engineers. The primary reason for this deficiency is three fold. First, the specific information needs of engineers are neither well known nor well understood. Second, what is known about the information seeking habits and practices of engineers has not been applied to existing engineering information services. Third, the information professionals continue to over-emphasize technology instead of concentrating on the quality of the information itself and the ability of the information to meet the needs of the user.
Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.
This study is based on a survey designed to determine the Information Seeking Behavior (ISB) of Astronomy and Astrophysics users in India. The main objective of the study is to determine the sources consulted and the general pattern of the information-gathering system of users and the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the Astronomy and Astrophysics user's Information Seeking Behavior. It examines various Information and Communication Technology-based resources and methods of access and use. A descriptive sample stratified method has been used and data was collected using a questionnaire as the main tool. The response rate was 72%. Descriptive statistics were also employed and data have been presented in tables and graphs. The study is supported by earlier studies. It shows that Astronomy and Astrophysics users have developed a unique Information Seeking Behavior to carry out their education and research. The vast majority of respondents reported that more information is available from a variety of e-resources. Consequently, they are able to devote more time to seek out relevant information in the current Information and Communication Technology scenario. The study also indicates that respondents use a variety of information resources including e-resources for teaching and research. Books and online databases such as the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) were considered more important as formal sources of information. E-mail and face-to-face communications are used extensively by users as informal sources of information. It also reveals that despite the presence of electronic sources, Astronomy and Astrophysics users are still using printed materials. This study should to help to improve various Information and Communication Technology-based services. It also suggests that GOI should adopt Information and Communication Technology-based Information Centers and Libraries services and recommends a network-based model for Astronomy and
Mukiira, Carol; Ibisomi, Latifat
In Kenya, as in other developing countries, diarrhea is among the leading causes of child mortality. Despite being easy to prevent and treat, care seeking for major child illnesses including diarrhea remains poor in the country. Mortality due to diarrhea is even worse in informal settlements that are characterized by poor sanitary conditions and largely unregulated health care system among other issues. The study aims to examine the health care seeking practices of caregivers of children under 5 with diarrhea in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The article used data from a maternal and child health (MCH) prospective study conducted between 2006 and 2010. Results show that more than half (55%) of the caregivers sought inappropriate health care in the treatment of diarrhea of their child. Of the 55%, about 35% sought no care at all. Use of oral rehydration solution and zinc supplements, which are widely recommended for management of diarrhea, was very low. The critical predictors of health care seeking identified in the study are duration of illness, informal settlement of residence, and the child's age. The study showed that appropriate health care seeking practices for childhood diarrhea remain a great challenge among the urban poor in Kenya.
Owen, David J.; Fang, Min-Lin E.
Background: The amount of reliable information available for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is limited, and few authoritative resources are available. Objective: The objective is to investigate the information-seeking behavior of health professionals seeking CAM information. Methods: Data were gathered using a Web-based questionnaire made available to health sciences faculty affiliated with the University of California, San Francisco. Results: The areas of greatest interest were herbal medicine (67%), relaxation exercises (53%), and acupuncture (52%). About half the respondents perceived their CAM searches as being only partially successful. Eighty-two percent rated MEDLINE as a useful resource, 46% personal contacts with colleagues, 46% the Web, 40% journals, and 20% textbooks. Books and databases most frequently cited as useful had information about herbs. The largest group of respondents was in internal medicine (26%), though 15% identified their specialties as psychiatry, psychology, behavioral medicine, or addiction medicine. There was no correlation between specialty and patterns of information-seeking behavior. Sixty-six percent expressed an interest in learning more about CAM resources. Conclusions: Health professionals are frequently unable to locate the CAM information they need, and the majority have little knowledge of existing CAM resources, relying instead on MEDLINE. Medical librarians need to educate health professionals in the identification and use of authoritative CAM resources. PMID:12883563
Baratta, Michael V.; Pomrenze, Matthew B.; Nakamura, Shinya; Dolzani, Samuel D.; Cooper, Donald C.
Extinction is a form of inhibitory learning viewed as an essential process in suppressing conditioned responses to drug cues, yet there is little information concerning experiential variables that modulate its formation. Coping factors play an instrumental role in determining how adverse life events impact the transition from casual drug use to addiction. Here we provide evidence in rat that prior exposure to controllable stress accelerates the extinction of cocaine-seeking behavior relative to uncontrollable or no stress exposure. Subsequent experimentation using high-speed optogenetic tools determined if the infralimbic region (IL) of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex mediates the impact of controllable stress on cocaine-seeking behavior. Photoinhibition of pyramidal neurons in the IL during coping behavior did not interfere with subject's ability to control the stressor, but prevented the later control-induced facilitation of extinction. These results provide strong evidence that the degree of behavioral control over adverse events, rather than adverse events per se, potently modulates the extinction of cocaine-seeking behavior, and that controllable stress engages prefrontal circuitry that primes future extinction learning. PMID:25954765
Baratta, Michael V; Pomrenze, Matthew B; Nakamura, Shinya; Dolzani, Samuel D; Cooper, Donald C
Extinction is a form of inhibitory learning viewed as an essential process in suppressing conditioned responses to drug cues, yet there is little information concerning experiential variables that modulate its formation. Coping factors play an instrumental role in determining how adverse life events impact the transition from casual drug use to addiction. Here we provide evidence in rat that prior exposure to controllable stress accelerates the extinction of cocaine-seeking behavior relative to uncontrollable or no stress exposure. Subsequent experimentation using high-speed optogenetic tools determined if the infralimbic region (IL) of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex mediates the impact of controllable stress on cocaine-seeking behavior. Photoinhibition of pyramidal neurons in the IL during coping behavior did not interfere with subject's ability to control the stressor, but prevented the later control-induced facilitation of extinction. These results provide strong evidence that the degree of behavioral control over adverse events, rather than adverse events per se, potently modulates the extinction of cocaine-seeking behavior, and that controllable stress engages prefrontal circuitry that primes future extinction learning.
Segev, Elad; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet
Which extrinsic cues motivate people to search for science-related information? For many science-related search queries, media attention and time during the academic year are highly correlated with changes in information seeking behavior (expressed by changes in the proportion of Google science-related searches). The data mining analysis presented here shows that changes in the volume of searches for general and well-established science terms are strongly linked to the education system. By contrast, ad-hoc events and current concerns were better aligned with media coverage. The interest and ability to independently seek science knowledge in response to current events or concerns is one of the fundamental goals of the science literacy movement. This method provides a mirror of extrapolated behavior and as such can assist researchers in assessing the role of the media in shaping science interests, and inform the ways in which lifelong interests in science are manifested in real world situations.
... difficult to fund through other NSF programs, such as single- investigator grants or large research centers. EFRI seeks high-risk opportunities with the potential for a large payoff where researchers are... of the program. This is very important to enable appropriate and accurate evidence-based...
... Number: 3145-0177. Expiration Date of Approval: January 31, 2011. ] Type of Request: Intent to seek... to deploying. The physical examination includes a medical history, medical examination, a dental... Foundation--Polar Physical Examination (Antarctica/Arctic/Official Visitors) Medical History, will be used...
Haluza, Daniela; Naszay, Marlene; Stockinger, Andreas; Jungwirth, David
Ubiquitous Internet access currently revolutionizes the way people acquire information by creating a complex, worldwide information network. The impact of Internet use on the doctor-patient relationship is a moving target that varies across sociodemographic strata and nations. To increase scientific knowledge on the patient-Web-physician triangle in Austria, this study reports findings regarding prevailing online health information-seeking behavior and the respective impact on doctor-patient interactions among a nonprobability convenience sample of Internet users. To investigate digital age group-specific influences, we analyzed whether digital natives and digital immigrants differed in their perspectives. The questionnaire-based online survey collected sociodemographic data and online health information-seeking behavior from a sample of 562 respondents (59% females, mean age 37 ± 15 years, 54% digital natives). Most respondents (79%) referred to the Internet to seek health information, making it the most commonly used source for health information, even more prevalent then the doctor. We found similar predictors for using the Internet as a source for health-related information across digital age groups. Thus, the overall generational gap seems to be small among regular Internet users in Austria. However, study participants expressed a rather skeptical attitude toward electronic exchange of health data between health care professionals and patients, as well as toward reliability of online health information. To improve adoption of electronic doctor-patient communication and patient empowerment, public education and awareness programs are required to promote consumer-centered health care provision and patient empowerment.
Cicekdag, Mehmet Ali
Focuses on a real world technique used to teach language proficiency in the classroom. This method involves creating deliberate information and opinion gaps by administering pop quizzes and other communicative games and filling those gaps through cooperative action. Use of this technique generated heated discussion among students. (nine…
Tang, Shangfeng; Bishwajit, Ghose; Ji, Lu; Feng, Da; Fang, Haiqing; Fu, Hang; Shao, Tian; Shao, Piaopiao; Liu, Chunyan; Feng, Zhanchun; Luba, Tegene R.
Abstract Proactive attitude of hypertensive patients seeking follow-up services (FUS) lies at the core of self-efficacy. However, few evidence have shown the activeness of seeking FUS in the context of blood pressure control among hypertensive patients. Improvements in follow-up visits may not just by services itself cause better control of blood pressure among hypertensive patients, rather due to the patient's pro-active attitude of the patient in seeking FUS. A cross-sectional study was carried out in selected rural regions of China to explore the association between blood pressure control and sociodemographic and economic variables and activeness of hypertensive patients in seeking FUS. The primary clinical outcome for this study was blood pressure control (systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) Out of the total 2321 participants with hypertension aged 35 years or older participated in this survey. Number of proactive FUS seekers were 3.17 times greater than those of passive seekers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.56–3.93, P < 0.001). In all subgroups, hypertensive patients who were seeking FUS actively were more likely to control blood pressure better than those seeking FUS passively. Proactive attitude of seeking follow-up services can improve blood pressure control among hypertensive patients. PMID:27057859
Azadeh, Fereydoon; Ghasemi, Shahrzad
The present research aims to study information seeking behavior of faculty Members of Payame Noor University (PNU) in Mazandaran province of Iran by using Wilson’s model of information seeking behavior. This is a survey study. Participants were 97 of PNU faculty Members in Mazandaran province. An information-seeking behavior inventory was employed to gather information and research data, which had 24 items based on 5-point likert scale. Collected data were analyzed in SPSS software. Results showed that the most important goal of faculty members was publishing a scientific paper, and their least important goal was updating technical information. Also we found that they mostly use internet-based resources to meet their information needs. Accordingly, 57.7% of them find information resources via online search engines (e.g. Google, Yahoo). Also we concluded that there was a significant relationship between English language proficiency, academic rank, and work experience of them and their information- seeking behavior. PMID:27157151
Holtgräfe, Catherine; Zentes, Joachim
The growing importance of the Internet as an information and purchasing channel is drawing widespread attention from marketing decision makers. Nevertheless, the relevance of the Internet to the so-called self-medication market in Germany has been paid barely enough attention. Our study aims to contribute insights concerning the penetration of the Internet in this market, as well as to give an overview of the critical determinants of Internet use for non-prescription drug information seeking, such as the accessibility of professional information, trust in health professionals' opinion and the ability to search online, as well as the perceived usefulness and credibility of online non-prescription drug information. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the preferred use of the Internet as a non-prescription drug information source positively influences the choice of unconventional purchase channels for non-prescription drugs and negatively affects the use of stationary pharmacies.
... to seek from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval of the information collections... process under Sec. 10502, before they may construct, acquire, or operate a line of railroad; abandon or... information technology, when appropriate; and (4) whether the collection of information is necessary for...
Bratucu, R; Gheorghe, IR; Purcarea, RM; Gheorghe, CM; Popa Velea, O; Purcarea, VL
Abstract Today, health care consumers are taking more control over their health care problems, investing more time in finding and getting information as well as looking for proper methods in order to investigate more closely the health care information received from their physicians. Unfortunately, in health care consumers’ views, the trustworthiness of health authorities and institutions has declined in the last years. So, consumers have found a new solution to their health problems, that is, the Internet. Recently, studies revealed that consumers seeking for health information have more options to look for data in comparison to the methods used a few years ago. Therefore, due to the available technology, consumers have more outlets to search for information. For instance, the Internet is a source that has revolutionized the way consumers seek data due its customized methods of assessing both quantitative and qualitative information which may be achieved with minimal effort and low costs, offering at the same time, several advantages such as making the decision process more efficient. PMID:25408746
Bratucu, R; Gheorghe, I R; Purcarea, R M; Gheorghe, C M; Popa Velea, O; Purcarea, V L
Today, health care consumers are taking more control over their health care problems, investing more time in finding and getting information as well as looking for proper methods in order to investigate more closely the health care information received from their physicians. Unfortunately, in health care consumers' views, the trustworthiness of health authorities and institutions has declined in the last years. So, consumers have found a new solution to their health problems, that is, the Internet. Recently, studies revealed that consumers seeking for health information have more options to look for data in comparison to the methods used a few years ago. Therefore, due to the available technology, consumers have more outlets to search for information. For instance, the Internet is a source that has revolutionized the way consumers seek data due its customized methods of assessing both quantitative and qualitative information which may be achieved with minimal effort and low costs, offering at the same time, several advantages such as making the decision process more efficient.
Robertson-Lang, Laura; Major, Sonya; Hemming, Heather
The Internet is an important resource for health information, among younger and older people alike. Unfortunately, there are limitations associated with online health information. Research is needed on the quality of information found online and on whether users are being critical consumers of the information they find. Also, there is a need for…
Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery David
identified. Results We conducted 17 interviews, with data saturation achieved by the 14th interview. While we identified a broad range of online health information-seeking behaviors, most related to information discussed during consumer-health professional consultations such as looking for information about medication side effects. The barriers we identified included intrinsic barriers, such as limited eHealth literacy, and extrinsic barriers, such as the inconsistency of information between different online sources. The navigational needs of our participants were extrinsic in nature and included health professionals directing consumers to appropriate online resources and better filtering of online health information. Our participants’ online health information-seeking behaviors, reported barriers, and navigational needs were underpinned by the themes of trust, patient activation, and relevance. Conclusions This study suggests that existing interventions aimed to assist consumers with navigating online health information may not be what consumers want or perceive they need. eHealth literacy and patient activation appear to be prevalent concepts in the context of consumers’ online health information-seeking behaviors. Furthermore, the role for health professionals in guiding consumers to quality online health information is highlighted. PMID:25470306
... 1995, this notice seeks comments concerning knowledge and skills gained through emergency management... skills gained through emergency management-related courses and the extent to which they have been... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...
Kim, Kyunghye; Kwon, Nahyun
Researchers have yet to fully understand how competent e-patients are in selecting and using health information sources, or, more importantly, who e-patients are. This study attempted to uncover how cancer e-patients differ from other cancer information seekers in terms of their sociodemographic background, social networks, information competence, and selection of cancer information sources. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, and a series of chi-square tests showed that factors that distinguished cancer e-patients from other cancer information seekers were age, gender, education, employment status, health insurance, and membership in online support groups. They were not different in the other factors measured by the survey. Our logistic regression analysis revealed that the e-patients were older and talked about their health issues with friends or family more frequently compared with online health information seekers without cancer. While preferring information from their doctors over the Internet, e-patients used the Internet as their primary source. In contrast to previous literature, we found little evidence that e-patients were savvy health information consumers who could make informed decisions on their own health. The findings of this study addressed a need for a better design and delivery of health information literacy programs for cancer e-patients.
Casebeer, Linda; Bennett, Nancy; Kristofco, Robert; Carillo, Anna; Centor, Robert
Responses from 2,200 physicians indicated that nearly all have Internet access and use it primarily for medical information and professional development, not for communicating with patients. Credibility of source, speed, accessibility, and searching ease were most important. Barriers included information overload and too little information…
Myrick, Jessica Gall
The prospect of a threat to one's health or an opportunity for improved health can spark emotional reactions--the fear of an illness or the hope of a healthier life. People are increasingly turning to the Internet to search for information related to such health issues. However, the dizzying amount of online health information--some of it of…
This publication provides background information for a hearing by the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education and Outreach on December 3, 1997. The Introduction presents the Committee announcement, press release, agenda, information about transfer efforts in California, facts and figures about the community colleges, and the text of…
Introduction: The paper presents findings from a study investigating the health and lifestyle information behaviour of different groups of Icelanders. The paper focuses on the use of social media and its role in current information behaviour. Method: Quantitative methods were used. Two random samples were used in the study and the data were…
... summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and... of STEM teaching and learning, informing program improvement, and enhancing understanding of both... the information on respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or...
Fogel, Joshua; Fajiram, Sandra; Morgan, Phyllis D
College students are often interested in information about sexual health topics. A study of 149 college students and their use of the Internet for sexual health information was conducted. The study findings indicated that African American college students, as compared to White college students, and women, as compared to men, had greater odds for searching on the Internet for birth control information. Among male college students, a higher internal locus of control was associated with lower odds for looking at birth control information on the Internet. Nurses and healthcare providers working in college settings can use these findings to develop strategies for identifying those who are more likely to reference the Internet to obtain birth control and sexual health information.
Jacobsen, Joseph J.
One focal point of concern, policy and a new research will involve identifying individual and organizational facilitative and obstructive factors within the context of energy innovation diffusion in the U.S. This interdisciplinary intersection of people, technology and change is one of serious consequence and has broad implications that span national security, energy infrastructure, the economy, organizational change, education and the environment. This study investigates facilities and plant managers' energy innovation information seeking and energy adoption evolution. The participants are managers who consume more electrical energy than all other groups in the world and are among the top users of natural gas and oil in the United States. The research calls upon the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Diffusion of Innovations and nonlinear dynamics in a study of adoption patterns for 13 energy-related innovations. Cusp catastrophe models and power laws were compared to linear multiple regression to examine and characterize data. Findings reveal that innovation adoption and information seeking differences are slight between private and public sector facilities and plant managers and that the group as a whole may resist change. Of the 13 innovations, some exhibit very strong cusp catastrophe distributions while support for multiple linear regression and the power law were found.
Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.
Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…
Anderson, Claire J; Glassman, Myron; McAfee, R. Bruce; Pinelli, Thomas
This study investigated how 872 US aerospace scientists and engineers select information carriers. When considering oral and written information carriers, the principle of least effort was supported with a strong preference for oral communication over written communication. In examining how the respondents select written carriers, the decision to use or not to use a written carrier was found to be primarily a function of the perceived importance of the carrier's information to a person's work. Task uncertainty and task complexity were found to be significant, but not the primary nor a totally consistent criteria. The perceived quality and accessibility of written carriers were not found significant. The findings reinforce the need for firms to hire knowledgeable employees, to provide them with comprehensive training programs, and to develop formal and informal communication networks.
On May 14, 2013, Angelina Jolie disclosed she carries BRCA1, which means she has an 87% risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime. Jolie decided to undergo a preventative bilateral mastectomy (PBM), reducing her risk to 5%. The purpose of this study was to analyze the type of information individuals are exposed to when using the Internet to search health information regarding Jolie's decision. Qualitative content analysis revealed four main themes--information about genetics, information about a PBM, information about health care, and information about Jolie's gender identity. Broadly, the identified websites mention Jolie's high risk for developing cancer due to the genetic mutation BRCA1, describe a PBM occasionally noting reasons why she had this surgery and providing alternatives to the surgery, discuss issues related to health care services, costs, and insurances about Jolie's health decision, and portray Jolie as a sexual icon, a partner to Brad Pitt, a mother of six children, and an inspirational humanitarian. The websites also depict Jolie's health decision in positive, negative, and/or both ways. Discussion centers on how this actress' health decision impacts the public.
Le, Jette V.; Pedersen, Line B.; Riisgaard, Helle; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Nexøe, Jørgen; Lemmergaard, Jeanette; Søndergaard, Jens
Objective To assess general practitioners’ (GPs’) information-seeking behaviour and perceived importance of sources of scientific medical information and to investigate associations with GP characteristics. Design A national cross-sectional survey was distributed electronically in December 2013. Setting Danish general practice. Subjects A population of 3440 GPs (corresponding to approximately 96% of all Danish GPs). Main outcome measures GPs’ use and perceived importance of information sources. Multilevel mixed-effects logit models were used to investigate associations with GP characteristics after adjusting for relevant covariates. Results A total of 1580 GPs (46.4%) responded to the questionnaire. GPs’ information-seeking behaviour is associated with gender, age and practice form. Single-handed GPs use their colleagues as an information source significantly less than GPs working in partnership practices and they do not use other sources more frequently. Compared with their younger colleagues, GPs aged above 44 years are less likely to seek information from colleagues, guidelines and websites, but more likely to seek information from medical journals. Male and female GPs seek information equally frequently. However, whereas male GPs are more likely than female GPs to find that pharmaceutical sales representative and non-refundable CME meetings are important, they are less likely to find that colleagues, refundable CME meetings, guidelines and websites are important. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that GP characteristics should be taken into consideration when disseminating scientific medical information, to ensure that patients receive medically updated, high-quality care. KEY POINTSResearch indicates that information-seeking behaviour is associated with GP characteristics. Further insights could provide opportunities for targeting information dissemination strategies.Single-handed GPs seek information from colleagues less frequently than GPs
Chen, Weisheng; Wang, Yiqi; Sun, Anna; Zhou, Linyi; Xu, Wenjin; Zhu, Huaqiang; Zhuang, Dingding; Lai, Miaojun; Zhang, Fuqiang; Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Huifen
Infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction, but whether the IL regulates the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior is unknown. To address this issue, the male SD rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a FR1 schedule for consecutive 14 days, then the rats underwent 7 daily 2h extinction session in the operant chamber. The activation of IL by microinjection PEPA, an allosteric AMPA receptor potentiator into IL before each of extinction session facilitated the extinction responding after heroin self-administration, but did not alter the locomotor activity in an open field testing environment. Other rats were first trained under a FR1 schedule for heroin self-administration for 14 days, followed by 14 days of extinction training, and reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues was measured for 2h. Intra-IL microinjecting of PEPA at 15min prior to test inhibited the reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues. Moreover, the expression of GluR1 in the IL and NAc remarkably increased after treatment with PEPA during the reinstatement. These finding suggested that activation of glutamatergic projection from IL to NAc shell may be involved in the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking.
Medeiros, Gustavo C; Sampaio, Daniela G; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Grant, Jon E
Background and aims Previous analyses have highlighted significant associations between gambling disorder (GD)/subsyndromal GD and increased rates of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders relative to the general population. However, less is known about how anxiety symptoms influence the clinical presentation of gambling problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between anxiety symptoms, gambling activity, and neurocognition across the spectrum of gambling behavior. Methods The sample consisted of 143 non-treatment-seeking young adults (aged 18-29 years), in which 63 individuals (44.1%) were classified as recreational gamblers, 47 (32.9%) as having subsyndromal GD, and 33 (23.1%) met criteria for GD. Results The main findings were: (a) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and gambling severity measured by the number of DSM-5 GD criteria met; (b) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and attentional impulsiveness; (c) subjects with suicidality presented higher levels of anxiety; and (d) the severity of anxiety symptoms was negatively correlated with the quality of life. Discussion and conclusions This study suggests that anxiety may be associated with relevant clinical variables in the broad spectrum of gambling activity. Therefore, proper management of anxiety symptoms might improve the clinical presentation of gamblers in different areas.
Medeiros, Gustavo C.; Sampaio, Daniela G.; Leppink, Eric W.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Grant, Jon E.
Background and aims Previous analyses have highlighted significant associations between gambling disorder (GD)/subsyndromal GD and increased rates of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders relative to the general population. However, less is known about how anxiety symptoms influence the clinical presentation of gambling problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between anxiety symptoms, gambling activity, and neurocognition across the spectrum of gambling behavior. Methods The sample consisted of 143 non-treatment-seeking young adults (aged 18–29 years), in which 63 individuals (44.1%) were classified as recreational gamblers, 47 (32.9%) as having subsyndromal GD, and 33 (23.1%) met criteria for GD. Results The main findings were: (a) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and gambling severity measured by the number of DSM-5 GD criteria met; (b) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and attentional impulsiveness; (c) subjects with suicidality presented higher levels of anxiety; and (d) the severity of anxiety symptoms was negatively correlated with the quality of life. Discussion and conclusions This study suggests that anxiety may be associated with relevant clinical variables in the broad spectrum of gambling activity. Therefore, proper management of anxiety symptoms might improve the clinical presentation of gamblers in different areas. PMID:27363461
Smith, Catherine Arnott; Hundal, Savreen; Keselman, Alla
Public libraries have been called the "first responders" to the specialized health information needs of the general public. The challenges inherent in consumer health information (CHI) service are centered around the Patron, the Librarian, the Information Resources, and the Library itself. The pilot study involved interviews with nine individual library workers in eight public libraries in four library systems: the District of Columbia, Montgomery and Prince George's Counties in Maryland, and Fairfax County in Virginia. Library workers were asked about common consumer health information requests, the nature of their collections, and the role of public libraries in meeting these information needs. The subjects were also presented with a hypothetical scenario, and their responses suggest knowledge gaps. The findings point to the increasing necessity and importance of training and support for public librarians, as well as the importance of understanding where the medical knowledge gaps exist. Public librarians need to commit to formal evaluation of their skill sets and knowledge gaps, in order to identify areas to which libraries can devote limited resources.
Smith, Catherine Arnott; Hundal, Savreen; Keselman, Alla
Public libraries have been called the “first responders” to the specialized health information needs of the general public. The challenges inherent in consumer health information (CHI) service are centered around the Patron, the Librarian, the Information Resources, and the Library itself. The pilot study involved interviews with nine individual library workers in eight public libraries in four library systems: the District of Columbia, Montgomery and Prince George’s Counties in Maryland, and Fairfax County in Virginia. Library workers were asked about common consumer health information requests, the nature of their collections, and the role of public libraries in meeting these information needs. The subjects were also presented with a hypothetical scenario, and their responses suggest knowledge gaps. The findings point to the increasing necessity and importance of training and support for public librarians, as well as the importance of understanding where the medical knowledge gaps exist. Public librarians need to commit to formal evaluation of their skill sets and knowledge gaps, in order to identify areas to which libraries can devote limited resources. PMID:26550002
... Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern time, Monday... academic, government and private sector stakeholders that advance scientific research, promote innovation... funding. To support this review and the management of an EPSCoR RII Track-1 project, project teams...
Eleven artists and sixteen art historians teaching in five liberal arts colleges and three universities were interviewed to discover their information needs and the resources they use, not only for their own work, but for teaching purposes. The participants almost all subscribe to art journals, and many read newspapers. They visit libraries…
Holley, Debbie; Santos, Patricia; Cook, John; Kerr, Micky
This paper responds to the Alpine Rendez-Vous "crisis" in technology-enhanced learning. It takes a contested area of policy as well as a rapid change in the National Health Service, and documents the responses to "information overload" by a group of general practitioners practices in the North of England. Located between the…
Access to health information appears to be a crucial piece of the racial and ethnic health disparities puzzle among immigrants. There are a growing number of scholars who are investigating the role of social networks that have shown that the number and even types of social networks among minorities and lower income groups differ (Chatman, 1991;…
Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…
Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia, is the preferred choice among resources used by college students to meet their research needs. However, Wikipedia has been criticized for its low information quality, lack of accountability, inconsistency, and vulnerability to vandalism. Despite the warnings and concerns voiced by academia, online learning…
Brigo, Francesco; Erro, Roberto
Millions of people worldwide everyday search Google or Wikipedia to look for health-related information. Aim of this study was to evaluate and interpret web search queries for terms related to movement disorders (MD) in English-speaking countries and their changes over time. We analyzed information regarding the volume of online searches in Google and Wikipedia for the most common MD and their treatments. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. The volume of searches for some queries related to MD entered in Google enormously increased over time. Most queries were related to definition, subtypes, symptoms and treatment (mostly to adverse effects, or alternatively, to possible alternative treatments). The highest peaks of MD search queries were temporally related to news about celebrities suffering from MD, to specific mass-media events or to news concerning pharmaceutic companies or scientific discoveries on MD. An increasing number of people use Google and Wikipedia to look for terms related to MD to obtain information on definitions, causes and symptoms, possibly to aid initial self-diagnosis. MD information demand and the actual prevalence of different MDs do not travel together: web search volume may mirrors patients' fears and worries about some particular disorders perceived as more serious than others, or may be driven by release of news about celebrities suffering from MD, "breaking news" or specific mass-media events regarding MD.
Corr, L.; Davis, E.; Cook, K.; Mackinnon, A.; Sims, M.; Herrman, H.
Family day-care (FDC) educators work autonomously to provide care and education for children of mixed ages, backgrounds and abilities. To meet the demands and opportunities of their work and regulatory requirements, educators need access to context-relevant and high quality information. No previous research has examined how and where these workers…
Ellis, David; Wilson, T. D.; Ford, Nigel; Foster, Allen; Lam, H. M.; Burton, R.; Spink, Amanda
Describes studies conducted at the University of Sheffield that explored the variables during mediated online search interaction. Discuses aspects of the mediated search process, including user satisfaction; relevant information sources; and interaction measures derived from search logs and tape transcripts, and related interaction measures.…
... Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern time, Monday through... Travel Award and NATO Advanced Study Institutes Travel Award Report Form. OMB Approval Number: 3145-0001... in 1959 a small program of travel grants for advanced graduate students to assist with the major...
Introduction: The Internet has radically changed the global availability of scholarly publications. Today, a substantial part of the resources accessible for researchers and university students are offered through electronic site licenses, making the supply of easily obtainable information larger than ever. This brings forth an important question:…
Tucci, Valerie K.
This study, the first phase of a multi-phase effort, was undertaken to assess and provide for the information needs of the Faculty of the Schools of Science and Engineering at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ) in the digital age. The objectives of this phase were to: 1) gain an in-depth understanding of how computer science and engineering faculty…
King, Donald W.; And Others
There have been hundreds, perhaps thousands, of studies involving scientific and technical information communication performed over the last 25 years. This review attempts to provide a window to these studies for persons interested in studying the results published in technical reports and the formal literature. This review primarily deals with…
Brahme, Maria E.
Librarians have historically been responsible for the organization and management of the stores of human knowledge, and for ensuring information literacy among researchers. In recent years, however, librarians have become disintermediated (Boyd-Byrnes & Rosenthal,2005) or, removed from, researchers and the research process for a variety of…
Kim, Kyung-Sun; Sin, Sei-Ching Joanna
Introduction: Social media are increasingly popular and emerging as important information sources. The study investigates how users' sex and problem-solving style affect their use and evaluation of social media in two contexts. Method: A Web survey including the problem solving inventory (problem solving inventory) was used to collect data. Over…
... Performance Project Reporting (RPPR) module in Research.gov . These indicators are both quantitative and... NSF Division of Materials Research. OMB Number: 3145-NEW. Expiration Date of Approval: Not applicable... Information Collection The NSF Division of Materials Research (DMR) supports a number of National...
Jackson, Adria S.
In February 2009, the United States government passed into law the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) providing incentive money for hospitals and care providers to implement a certified electronic health record (EHR) in order to promote the adoption and…
Puerta Melguizo, Mari Carmen; Vidya, Uti; van Oostendorp, Herre
We studied the effects of menu type, navigation path complexity and spatial ability on information retrieval performance and web disorientation or lostness. Two innovative aspects were included: (a) navigation path relevance and (b) information gathering tasks. As expected we found that, when measuring aspects directly related to navigation…
van Beusekom, Mara M; Grootens-Wiegers, Petronella; Bos, Mark J W; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; van den Broek, Jos M
Background Low-literate patients are at risk to misinterpret written drug information. For the (co-) design of targeted patient information, it is key to involve this group in determining their communication barriers and information needs. Objective To gain insight into how people with low literacy use and evaluate written drug information, and to identify ways in which they feel the patient leaflet can be improved, and in particular how images could be used. Setting Food banks and an education institution for Dutch language training in the Netherlands. Method Semi-structured focus groups and individual interviews were held with low-literate participants (n = 45). The thematic framework approach was used for analysis to identify themes in the data. Main outcome measure Low-literate people's experience with patient information leaflets, ideas for improvements, and perceptions on possible uses for visuals. Results Patient information leaflets were considered discouraging to use, and information difficult to find and understand. Many rely on alternative information sources. The leaflet should be shorter, and improved in terms of organisation, legibility and readability. Participants thought images could increase the leaflet's appeal, help ask questions, provide an overview, help understand textual information, aid recall, reassure, and even lead to increased confidence, empowerment and feeling of safety. Conclusion Already at the stages of paying attention to the leaflet and maintaining interest in the message, low-literate patients experience barriers in the communication process through written drug information. Short, structured, visual/textual explanations can lower the motivational threshold to use the leaflet, improve understanding, and empower the low-literate target group.
idiosyncratic and thus not repeatable—each person’s perceptions , experiences, and thought processes are different. This makes it difficult to rely on... perception management’ is central to the conduct of its war with the West.”26 It does not require dedicated information-network infrastructure or expensive...to leave a house after several failed attempts to fight flare-ups in the first floor kitchen. The chief attributed his decision to extrasensory
Bansal, Aasthaa; Koepl, Lisel M; Fedorenko, Catherine R; Li, Chunyu; Smith, Judith Lee; Hall, Ingrid J; Penson, David F; Ramsey, Scott D
Information sources about prostate cancer treatment and outcomes are typically designed for patients. Little is known about the availability and utility of information for partners. The objectives of our study were to evaluate information sources used by partners to understand prostate cancer management options, their perceived usefulness, and the relationship between sources used and satisfaction with treatment experience. A longitudinal survey of female partners of men newly diagnosed with local-stage prostate cancer was conducted in three different geographic regions. Partners and associated patients were surveyed at baseline (after patient diagnosis but prior to receiving therapy) and at 12 months following diagnosis. Information sources included provider, literature, friends or family members, Internet websites, books, traditional media, and support groups. Utility of an information source was defined as whether the partner would recommend it to caregivers of other patients with local-stage prostate cancer. Our study cohort included 179 partner-patient pairs. At diagnosis, partners consulted an average of 4.6 information sources. Non-Hispanic white partners were more likely than others to use friends and family as an information source (OR = 2.44, 95% CI (1.04, 5.56)). More educated partners were less likely to use support groups (OR = 0.31, 95% CI (0.14, 0.71)). At 12-month follow-up, partners were less likely to recommend books (OR = 0.23, 95% CI (0.11, 0.49)) compared to baseline. Partners consulted a large number of information sources in researching treatment options for local-stage prostate cancer and the types of sources accessed varied by race/ethnicity and educational attainment. Additional resources to promote selection of high-quality non-provider information sources are warranted to enable partners to better aid patients in their treatment decision-making process.
Ybarra, Michele L; Emenyonu, Nneka; Nansera, Denis; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R
To maximize scarce intervention dollars, pediatricians and other adolescent health professionals must position health promotion efforts in mediums that most effectively reach youth. This may be especially true in resource-limited settings where access to primary health care and medications is limited. To improve the efficiency and impact of disease prevention and health promotion efforts in resource-limited settings, we examine sources of health information cited by adolescents in Mbarara Uganda. Participants in the Uganda Media and You survey were students aged 12-18 (n = 500) randomly identified in five secondary schools in Mbarara municipality, Uganda. Ninety-three percent of eligible and invited youth completed the cross-sectional, pencil-and-paper survey. Four in five adolescents (81%) indicated they turned to parents, teachers, and other adults while around half read a book/went to the library (56%) or turned to siblings and friends (50%) for information about health and disease. More than one in three (38%) indicated that they used the computer and Internet to search for health information. Older versus younger respondents tended to rely upon siblings and friends for all types of health questions. On the other hand, younger versus older youth were significantly more likely to turn to parents, teachers, and other adults for their questions about sexual health. Adults may be an important component of effective disease prevention and health promotion campaigns. Multiple delivery methods may be especially effective for reaching older adolescents. Technology also may be an important health promotion tool in resource-limited settings.
Lustria, Mia Liza A; Smith, Scott Alan; Hinnant, Charles C
Recent government initiatives to deploy health information technology in the USA, coupled with a growing body of scholarly evidence linking online heath information and positive health-related behaviors, indicate a widespread belief that access to health information and health information technologies can help reduce healthcare inequalities. However, it is less clear whether the benefits of greater access to online health information and health information technologies is equitably distributed across population groups, particularly to those who are underserved. To examine this issue, this article employs the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to investigate relationships between a variety of socio-economic variables and the use of the web-based technologies for health information seeking, personal health information management and patient-provider communication within the context of the USA. This study reveals interesting patterns in technology adoption, some of which are in line with previous studies, while others are less clear. Whether these patterns indicate early evidence of a narrowing divide in eHealth technology use across population groups as a result of the narrowing divide in Internet access and computer ownership warrants further exploration. In particular, the findings emphasize the need to explore differences in the use of eHealth tools by medically underserved and disadvantaged groups. In so doing, it will be important to explore other psychosocial variables, such as health literacy, that may be better predictors of health consumers' eHealth technology adoption.
Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E
WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes.
Lialiou, Paschalina; Mantas, John
Online bibliographic databases constitute the access to information supporting evidence-based practice. The purpose of the present survey is to evaluate the awareness, the use and the impact that online evidences have in clinical practice. An online survey was conducted using a 25 item questionnaire which was completed by 263 healthcare practitioners (nurses and doctors). Chi-square analysis and t-tests were used and comparisons between both groups were made. Multiple logistic regression to predict databases use was employed. Ninety-three percent (n = 206) of participants had heard about the online bibliographic databases; 5.7% of participant sample have heard about online databases but they do not use them. 18.3% was the total sample of non-users (n = 48). The main reason of using was filling a knowledge gap (50.7%), and the main reasons of not using were both that they use another information source and they don't need them to do their job. Both nurses and doctors believe that the use of online databases improves patient care it is a part of their legitimate clinical role. They need more training to improve their searching skills, enhancing them in everyday clinical place.
De Groote, Sandra L.; Shultz, Mary; Blecic, Deborah D.
Objective: The research assesses the information-seeking behaviors of health sciences faculty, including their use of online databases, journals, and social media. Methodology: A survey was designed and distributed via email to 754 health sciences faculty at a large urban research university with 6 health sciences colleges. Results: Twenty-six percent (198) of faculty responded. MEDLINE was the primary database utilized, with 78.5% respondents indicating they use the database at least once a week. Compared to MEDLINE, Google was utilized more often on a daily basis. Other databases showed much lower usage. Conclusions: Low use of online databases other than MEDLINE, link-out tools to online journals, and online social media and collaboration tools demonstrates a need for meaningful promotion of online resources and informatics literacy instruction for faculty. Implications: Library resources are plentiful and perhaps somewhat overwhelming. Librarians need to help faculty discover and utilize the resources and tools that libraries have to offer. PMID:25031557
Tang, Shangfeng; Dong, Dong; Ji, Lu; Fu, Hang; Feng, Zhanchun; Bishwajit, Ghose; He, Zhifei; Ming, Hui; Fu, Qian; Xian, Yue
Actively seeking health services lies at the core of effective models of chronic disease self-management and contributes to promoting the utilization of allied health services (AHS). However, the use of AHS by ethnic minority Chinese, especially the elderly living in rural areas, has not received much attention. This study, therefore, aims to explore the association between personal characteristics and the activeness of ethnic minority patients with chronic diseases in rural areas of western China seeking AHS. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data on the socio-demographic and economic characteristics, health knowledge level and health communication channels of the sampled patients. A logistic regression model was used to examine the association of these predictors with the activeness of the surveyed patients in seeking AHS. A total of 1078 ethnic minorities over 45 years old who had chronic conditions were randomly selected from three western provinces in China and were interviewed in 2014. It is found that the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) is the most salient predictor affecting the activeness of Chinese ethnic minorities in seeking AHS. The probability is 8.51 times greater for those insured with NCMS to actively seek AHS than those without (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 4.76-15.21; p < 0.001). Moreover, participants between 60 and 70 years old and those who have five to six household members are more likely to seek AHS compared with other social groups (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% CI 1.28-2.97, p = 0.007; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.15-2.36, p = 0.002). However, the activeness of patients seeking AHS is lower for those who have better household economic conditions. Besides socio-demographic predictors, the Chinese ethnic minorities' activeness in seeking AHS is clearly associated with the communication channels used for receiving health information, which include direct communication with doctors (OR = 5.18, 95% CI 3.58-7.50, p < 0.001) and
pyramidal cells. Inhibitory interneurons are assigned two main tasks: controlling the dynamic range of the output units (by subtractive inhibition), and...enhanced the response to the ascending stimulation in a pronounced, non-linear man- ner. The intracellular responses ( EPSP ) were larger under these...receptors could control the responsiveness of cells is that such receptors, when activated in neocortex pyramidal cells, cause a slow, long-lasting EPSP
Tennant, Bethany; Dodd, Virginia; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don; Paige, Samantha; Alber, Julia
Background Baby boomers and older adults, a subset of the population at high risk for chronic disease, social isolation, and poor health outcomes, are increasingly utilizing the Internet and social media (Web 2.0) to locate and evaluate health information. However, among these older populations, little is known about what factors influence their eHealth literacy and use of Web 2.0 for health information. Objective The intent of the study was to explore the extent to which sociodemographic, social determinants, and electronic device use influences eHealth literacy and use of Web 2.0 for health information among baby boomers and older adults. Methods A random sample of baby boomers and older adults (n=283, mean 67.46 years, SD 9.98) participated in a cross-sectional, telephone survey that included the eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS) and items from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) assessing electronic device use and use of Web 2.0 for health information. An independent samples t test compared eHealth literacy among users and non-users of Web 2.0 for health information. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between sociodemographic, social determinants, and electronic device use on self-reported eHealth literacy and use of Web 2.0 for seeking and sharing health information. Results Almost 90% of older Web 2.0 users (90/101, 89.1%) reported using popular Web 2.0 websites, such as Facebook and Twitter, to find and share health information. Respondents reporting use of Web 2.0 reported greater eHealth literacy (mean 30.38, SD 5.45, n=101) than those who did not use Web 2.0 (mean 28.31, SD 5.79, n=182), t 217.60=−2.98, P=.003. Younger age (b=−0.10), more education (b=0.48), and use of more electronic devices (b=1.26) were significantly associated with greater eHealth literacy (R 2 =.17, R 2adj =.14, F9,229=5.277, P<.001). Women were nearly three times more likely than men to use Web 2.0 for health
Frey, Aline; Ionescu, Gelu; Lemaire, Benoit; López-Orozco, Francisco; Baccino, Thierry; Guérin-Dugué, Anne
Reading on a web page is known to be not linear and people need to make fast decisions about whether they have to stop or not reading. In such context, reading, and decision-making processes are intertwined and this experiment attempts to separate them through electrophysiological patterns provided by the Eye-Fixation-Related Potentials technique (EFRPs). We conducted an experiment in which EFRPs were recorded while participants read blocks of text that were semantically highly related, moderately related, and unrelated to a given goal. Participants had to decide as fast as possible whether the text was related or not to the semantic goal given at a prior stage. Decision making (stopping information search) may occur when the paragraph is highly related to the goal (positive decision) or when it is unrelated to the goal (negative decision). EFRPs were analyzed on and around typical eye fixations: either on words belonging to the goal (target), subjected to a high rate of positive decisions, or on low frequency unrelated words (incongruent), subjected to a high rate of negative decisions. In both cases, we found EFRPs specific patterns (amplitude peaking between 51 to 120 ms after fixation onset) spreading out on the next words following the goal word and the second fixation after an incongruent word, in parietal and occipital areas. We interpreted these results as delayed late components (P3b and N400), reflecting the decision to stop information searching. Indeed, we show a clear spill-over effect showing that the effect on word N spread out on word N + 1 and N + 2. PMID:23966913
Renahy, Emilie; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre
In the general population, social disparities in Internet practices have been less described than disparities in health information access. Aim is to determine whether there are differences in the frequency of Internet use for health information among health seekers. We conducted an Internet-based survey from November 2006 to March 2007. We considered the 3720 residents of France who had searched for health information during the previous 12 months. This study reveals different uses of the Internet for health information seeking (HIS) between men and women and between the general population and people who work in the health sector. Health status, taking care of somebody who is sick, and active Internet use were associated with higher frequencies of online HIS to varying degrees. The effects of age and level of education were not clear or were not significant. Greater health concerns and some issues in the physician-patient relationship were associated with higher frequencies of Internet use for HIS in the general population. Considering that this increasing use of online tools for HIS is consistent with current public health policies that promote the development of the 'informed patient', one should remain cautious about these social disparities in online HIS practices.
This article is an exploratory study of student behavior using online tools to do project-based work for a library science course at a mid-sized Midwestern public university. The population was 22 net generation students aged 18-24, who were enrolled in an Introduction to Information Resources course. The study was designed to better understand…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of culture and language on Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes by both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The Japanese sample consisted of 162 members of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences (JSASS). U.S. aerospace engineers served as a reference point, consisting of 213 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey method was utilized in gathering data using self-administered mail questionnaires in order to explore the following eight areas: (1) the content and use of information resources; (2) production and use of information products; (3) methods of accessing information service providers; (4) foreign language skills; (5) studying/researching/collaborating abroad as a tool in expanding information resources; (6) scientific and technical societies as networking tools; (7) alumni associations (school/class reunions) as networking tools; and (8) social, corporate, civic and health/fitness clubs as networking tools. Nine Japanese cultural factors expressed as statements about Japanese society are as follows: (1) information is neither autonomous, objective, nor independent of the subject of cognition; (2) information and knowledge are not readily accessible to the public; (3) emphasis on groups is reinforced in a hierarchical society; (4) social networks thrive as information-sharing vehicles; (5) high context is a predominant form of communication in which most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in the coded, transmitted part of the message; (6) obligations based on mutual trust dictate social behaviors instead of contractual agreements; (7) a surface message is what is presented while a bottom-line message is true feeling privately held; (8) various religious beliefs uphold a work ethic based on harmony; (9) ideas from outside are readily assimilated into its own society. The result of the
Brock, Rebecca L.; Kochanska, Grazyna
Drawing from developmental psychology and psychopathology, we propose a new, developmentally-informed approach to parenting interventions that focuses on elucidating changes in the unfolding developmental process between the parent and child. We present data from 186 low-income mothers of toddlers, randomly assigned to Child-Oriented Play group or Play-as-Usual group. We examined the maladaptive cascade from child difficulty to mother adversarial, negative parenting to child maladjustment, well documented in the literature. The measures incorporated multiple observations and reports. As expected, the sequence from child difficulty (Pretest) to mother adversarial, negative parenting (Posttest 1, after 3-month intervention) to child maladjustment (Posttest 2, 6 months later) was present in Play-as-Usual group, but absent, or defused, in Child-Oriented Play group. The findings are consistent with a view of intervention presumably enhancing the mother-child relationship, which in turn served to moderate future mother-child dynamics, altering its otherwise anticipated negative trajectory. A closer examination of the cascade revealed that, at Posttest 1, mothers in Play-as-Usual group engaged in more adversarial, negative parenting (controlling for Pretest) than mothers in Child-Oriented Play group when their children were of high difficulty. The intervention appears to exert its primary influence on the cascade by weakening the link between child difficulty and maternal adversarial, negative parenting. PMID:27063895
Brock, Rebecca L; Kochanska, Grazyna
Drawing from developmental psychology and psychopathology, we propose a new, developmentally informed approach to parenting interventions that focuses on elucidating changes in the unfolding developmental process between the parent and child. We present data from 186 low-income mothers of toddlers, randomly assigned to a child-oriented play group or a play-as-usual group. We examined the maladaptive cascade from child difficulty to mother adversarial, negative parenting to child maladjustment, well documented in the literature. The measures incorporated multiple observations and reports. As expected, the sequence from child difficulty (pretest) to mother adversarial, negative parenting (Posttest 1, after 3-month intervention) to child maladjustment (Posttest 2, 6 months later) was present in the play-as-usual group, but absent, or defused, in the child-oriented play group. The findings are consistent with a view of intervention presumably enhancing the mother-child relationship, which in turn served to moderate future mother-child dynamics, altering its otherwise anticipated negative trajectory. A closer examination of the cascade revealed that, at Posttest 1, mothers in the play-as-usual group engaged in more adversarial, negative parenting (controlling for pretest) than did mothers in the child-oriented play group when their children were of high difficulty. The intervention appears to exert its primary influence on the cascade by weakening the link between child difficulty and maternal adversarial, negative parenting.
Background The global prevalence of sedentary lifestyles is of grave concern for public health around the world. Moreover, the health risk of sedentary behaviors is of growing interest for researchers, clinicians, and the general public as evidence demonstrates that prolonged amounts of sedentary time increases risk for lifestyle-related diseases. There is a growing trend in the literature that reports how social media can facilitate knowledge sharing and collaboration. Social sites like YouTube facilitate the sharing of media content between users. Objective The purpose of this project was to identify sedentary behavior content on YouTube and describe features of this content that may impact the effectiveness of YouTube for knowledge translation. Methods YouTube was searched on a single day by 3 independent reviewers for evidence-based sedentary behavior content. Subjective data (eg, video purpose, source, and activity type portrayed) and objective data (eg, number of views, comments, shares, and length of the video) were collected from video. Results In total, 106 videos met inclusion criteria. Videos were uploaded from 13 countries around the globe (ie, Australia, Barbados, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Kenya, New Zealand, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States). The median video length was 3:00 minutes: interquartile range (IQR) 1:44-5:40. On average, videos had been on YouTube for 15.0 months (IQR 6.0-27.5) and had been viewed 239.0 times (IQR 44.5-917.5). Videos had remarkably low numbers of shares (median 0) and comments (median 1). Only 37.7% (40/106) of videos portrayed content on sedentary behaviors, while the remaining 66 videos portrayed physical activity or a mix of behaviors. Academic/health organizations (39.6%, 42/106) and individuals (38.7%, 41/106) were the most prevalent source of videos, and most videos (67.0%, 71/106) aimed to educate viewers about the topic. Conclusions This study explored sedentary behavior content
Twiss-Brooks, Andrea B.; Andrade, Ricardo; Bass, Michelle B.; Kern, Barbara; Peterson, Jonna; Werner, Debra A.
Objective The authors undertook this project to learn how third-year medical students seek and use information in the course of daily activities, especially activities conducted in clinical settings in a variety of institutions. Methods We recruited sixty-eight third-year undergraduate medical school students to create a mapping diary of a day that included clinical activities. We conducted semi-structured interviews based on the mapping diaries. Using content and thematic analyses of the resulting interview transcripts, we developed an ethnographic case study for each participant. Results In the studied sample, we identified a broad range of information resources used for personal, clinical, and educational use. Participants relied heavily on technology throughout their day, including desktop computers, smart phones, handheld tablets, and laptops. Time management was a pervasive theme in the interviews, with participants squeezing in time to study for exams wherever and whenever they could. Selection of a particular information resource or technology to use was governed largely by the convenience of using that resource or technology. When obstacles were encountered, workarounds might be sought, but in many cases, the resource or technology would be abandoned in favor of a more convenient solution. Convenience was also a consideration in choosing spaces to use for clinical duties or for study, with specific considerations of available technology, proximity to clinical areas, and security for belongings contributing to choices made. Conclusions Some of our results align with those of other recent studies of information use among medical students, residents, and practicing physicians. In particular, the fast-paced clinical setting favors use of information resources that are fast and easy to use. We demonstrated that the methods used are suitable to better understand clinicians’ discovery and use of information. PMID:28096741
Cheng, Grace Y T
A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted on a group of Hong Kong hospital clinicians. The objective was to test if a three-hour educational workshop (with supervised hands-on practice) is more effective (than no training) to improve clinical question formulation, information-seeking skills, knowledge, attitudes, and search outcomes. The design was a post-test-only control group; recruitment by stratified randomization (by profession), blocked at 800. End-user training was more effective than no training in improving clinical question formulation, in raising awareness, knowledge, confidence and use of databases, but had made no impact on preference for secondary databases. It changed the attitude of clinicians to become more positive towards the use of electronic information services (EIS). Participants had higher search performance and outcomes (satisfaction with information obtained (NNT = 3), EIS satisfaction (NNT = 3) and success in problem solving (NNT = 4)). The workshop improved knowledge and skills in evidence-based searching, but this effect gradually eroded with time. Search logs confirmed that follow-up is required if effects are to be sustained. Longer effects on search behaviours appear to be positive. A randomised controlled trial is valuable in identifying cause-and-effect relations and to quantify the magnitude of the effects for management decision-making.
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities... Medicaid Services (CMS), other payers and consumer groups seek to enable consumers to make more informed... support research on healthcare and on systems for the delivery of such care, including activities...
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities... Medicaid Services (CMS), other payers and consumer groups seek to enable consumers to make more informed... support research on healthcare and on systems for the delivery of such care, including activities...
Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima
Objectives: Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Methods: Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. Results: The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Conclusion: Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families
Oh, Young Sam; Cho, Youngmin
The Internet is increasingly used as an important source of health and medical-related information for people with chronic diseases. It is recognized that online health information seeking (OHIS) is influenced by individuals' multi-dimensional factors, such as demographics, socio-economic factors, perceptions of the Internet, and health conditions. This study applies the conservation of resource theory to examine relationships between various multi-dimensional factors, daily challenges, and OHIS depending on individuals' health conditions. The data used in this study was taken from the U.S. Health Tracking Survey (2012). In this study, Internet users aged 18 and older were classified into patients (N = 518) and healthy people (N = 677) based on their health status related to chronic diseases. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between multi-dimensional factors (resources), self-rated health, and OHIS. Patients' various resources (e.g., age, income, education, having a smartphone, and health tracking) significantly predicted their self-rated health and OHIS; in addition, self-rated health significantly mediated the relationships between focal resources and OHIS. However, the mediating effects of self-rated health were not found in healthy people.
Tao, Donghua; Demiris, George; Graves, Rebecca S; Sievert, MaryEllen
Advances in information technology have introduced both new capabilities and interesting challenges in accessing medical literature. More and more information resources exist in electronic format, such as online databases, journals, books, etc. instead of the traditional print format. In late 1998, there were thirty-five journal titles available online; in 2001, the number rose to over 4,000.1 Desk-top access to online resources is changing library use patterns, which challenges libraries to adjust to this transformed information access environment. Studies of the impact of the internet on information seeking behavior of users in medical environments could provide very valuable information for medical libraries seeking to adapt to this rapid and great evolution. This study aims to explore the impact of the Internet on information seeking behavior of medical students and faculty and their medical library use, to address the possible reasons for this change of information seeking behavior, and to identify the measures essential to the transition from traditional in-library use of resources to remote access. This study is conducted in two phases.
The focal point for all population information activities in Hungary is the Central Statistical Office which is responsible for the organization and implementation of the decennial population censuses and of the intercensal population surveys and other data collection activities. The Central Statistical Office publishes a large volume of population information. The results of the censuses are presented partly in special census volumes and partly in statistical yearbooks. The Demographic Yearbook and other publications present results of population studies and Hungarian statistics. The Demographic Research Institute, which is part of the Central Statistical Office, is primarily responsible for research activity. The main task of the Institute is to study and analyze population processes and phenomena, as well as explore main demographic trends, carried out by using Hungarian and international demographic data. Demografia and serial publications present results of research activities of the Institute. The Library and Documentation Service, also part of the Central Statistical Office, provides conventional library services. Its main activity is the collection of both Hungarian and foreign and international official statistical publications, as well as theoretical and methodological works. Of a stock of 650,000 volumes covering a wide range of social and economic sciences, in addition to data material, the library has nearly 120,000 official statistical publications consisting mainly of population statistics and demographic data. Another activity of the Library is the processing and dissemination of documentation and it acts as a 2dary source of both Hungarian and foreign publications, especially on demography. The documentation consists of translating articles, book chapters or documents of international organizations, editing annotated bibliographies and disseminating custom-made, user-oriented profiles. This computerized information retrieval system uses Text
Roach, Abbey R.; Lykins, Emily L.B.; Gochett, Celestine G.; Brechting, Emily H.; Graue, Lili O.; Andrykowski, Michael A.
Background No research has examined how cancer diagnosis and treatment might alter information source preferences or opinions. Methods Data from 719 cancer survivors (CS group) and 2012 matched healthy controls (NCC group) regarding cancer-related information seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness from the population-based 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was examined. Results The CS group reported greater consumption of cancer-related information but the CS and NCC groups did not differ in information source use or preferences. The CS group was more confident of their ability to get cancer information, reported more trust in health care professionals and television as cancer information sources, but evaluated their recent cancer information seeking experiences more negatively than the NCC group. Awareness of cancer information resources was surprisingly low in both the CS and NCC groups. Conclusions Cancer diagnosis and treatment subtly alters cancer information seeking preferences and experience. However awareness and use of cancer information resources was relatively low regardless of personal history of cancer. PMID:19259869
Delfino, Joseph J.
A survey of the available literature in water chemistry is presented. Materials surveyed include: texts, reference books, bibliographic resources, journals, American Chemical Society publications, proceedings, unpublished articles, and reports. (BT)
Steckelberg, Anke; Kasper, Jürgen; Mühlhauser, Ingrid
Background: Evidence-based patient information (EBPI) is a prerequisite for informed decision-making. However, presentation of EBPI may lead to irrational reactions causing avoidance, minimisation and devaluation of the information. Objective: To explore whether the theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making and useful to explain these phenomena. Setting and participants: 261 volunteers from Hamburg (157 women), ≥50 years old without diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Design and variables: Within an experiment we simulated information seeking on colorectal cancer screening. Consumers’ attitudes towards screening were surveyed using a rating scale from -5 (participate in no way) to +5 (participate unconditionally) (independent variable). Using a cover story, participants were asked to sort 5 article headlines according to their reading preferences. The headlines simulated the pro to contra variety of contents to be found in print media about colorectal cancer screening. The dependent variable was the sequence of article headlines. Results: Participants were very much in favour of screening with scores for faecal occult blood test of 4.0 (0.1) and for colonoscopy 3.3 (0.1). According to our hypothesis we found statistically significant positive correlations between the stimuli in favour of screening and attitudes and significant negative correlations between the stimuli against screening and attitudes. Conclusion: The theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making. It may explain some phenomena of irrational reactions to evidence-based patient information. PMID:19675713
Communication and care in an acute cancer center: the effects of patients' willingness to communicate about health, health-care environment perceptions, and health status on information seeking, participation in care practices, and satisfaction.
Wright, Kevin B; Frey, Lawrence R
This study investigated the role of willingness to communicate about health (WTCH) among older patients in a state-of-the-art cancer center. Specifically, relationships were examined between patients' WTCH and their information seeking, perceptions of coping activities the center offered, and satisfaction with the center. The study also explored how those relationships may be mediated by patients' perceptions of the health-care environment and their health status. The results indicated that WTCH may play an important role in predicting information-seeking behaviors, perceived helpfulness of center-sponsored activities, and overall satisfaction with care received at the center. Evidence also was found that perceptions of the health-care environment mediated cancer patients' WTCH. The implications of these findings for communication theory and application, as well as limitations and future directions for research, are discussed.
Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin
This article reports on the extent to which adolescents report actively seeking sexual content in media, identifies from which media they report seeking, estimates the association between seeking sexual information and romantic and sexual behavior, and shows that active seeking of sexual content in media sources is explained by an intention to seek such content using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, a reasoned action approach. The data are a national sample of 810 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Results show that 50% of adolescents reported actively seeking sexual content in their media choices, which included movies, television, music, Internet pornography sites, and magazines. Males sought sex content more than females, and gender differences were greatest for seeking from Internet pornography sites, movies, and television. Path analysis demonstrate that seeking sexual content is well-predicted by intentions to seek, and intentions are primarily driven by perceived normative pressure to seek sexual content.
Hearing, Matthew C; Schwendt, Marek; McGinty, Jacqueline F
The caudate putamen (CPu) has been implicated in habit learning and neuroadaptive changes that mediate the compulsive nature of drug-seeking following chronic cocaine self-administration. Re-exposure to an operant chamber previously associated with cocaine, but not yoked-saline, increases activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) gene mRNA expression within the dorsolateral (dl) CPu following prolonged abstinence. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that antisense gene knockdown of Arc within the dlCPu would alter cocaine-seeking. Initial studies showed that a single infusion of Arc antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) into the dlCPu significantly attenuated the induction of Arc mRNA and Arc protein by a single cocaine exposure (20 mg/kg i.p.) compared to scrambled-ODN-infused controls. In cocaine self-administering rats, infusion of Arc antisense ODN into the dlCPu 3 h prior to a test of context-driven drug-seeking significantly attenuated Arc protein induction, but failed to alter responding during testing, suggesting striatal Arc does not facilitate context-induced drug-seeking following prolonged abstinence. However, Arc antisense ODN infusion blunted the decrease in responding during subsequent 1-h extinction tests 24 and 48 h later. Following re-exposure to a cocaine-paired context, surface expression of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluR1 was significantly reduced whereas GluR2 was significantly increased in the dlCPu, independent of Arc antisense ODN infusion. Together, these findings indicate an important role for Arc in neuroadaptations within brain regions responsible for drug-seeking after abstinence and direct attention to changes occurring within striatal circuitry that are necessary to break down the habitual behaviour that leads to relapse.
Tan, Andy S L
Spillover effects of exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of cancer treatments on patients' general inquiry about their treatments and managing their illness are not well understood. This study examines the effects of cancer patients' exposure to cancer-related DTCA on subsequent health information seeking behaviors from clinician and non-clinician sources (lay media and interpersonal contacts). Using a longitudinal survey design over 3 years, data was collected from cancer survivors diagnosed with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer who were randomly sampled from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Study outcome measures include patients' information engagement with their clinicians and information seeking from non-medical sources about cancer treatment and quality of life issues, measured in the second survey. The predictor variable is the frequency of exposure to cancer-related DTCA since diagnosis, measured at the round 1 survey. The analyses utilized lagged-weighted multivariate regressions and adjusted for round 1 levels of patient-clinician engagement, information seeking from nonmedical sources, and confounders. Exposure to cancer-related DTCA is associated with increased levels of subsequent patient-clinician information engagement (B = .023, 95% CI = .005-.040, p = .012), controlling for confounders. In comparison, exposure to DTCA is marginally significant in predicting health information seeking from non-clinician sources (B = .009, 95% CI = -.001-.018, p = .067). Cancer-related DTCA has potentially beneficial spillover effects on health information seeking behaviors among cancer patients. Exposure to DTCA predicts (a little) more patient engagement with their physicians.
Ashley, Teresa; Colborn, Nancy Wootton; Crawford, Gregory; Freund, LeiLani S.; Heise, Jennifer; Hocker, Susan E.; Hoover, Danise; Jacobs, Sally J.; Kelsey, Sigrid; Lacks, Bernice; Lyon, Sally; McDonald, Brenda; McHugh, William; Popp, Mary Pagliero; Swanson, Signe; Wright, Arthuree R. M.
This bibliography on users' machine-assisted information seeking behavior was compiled by the American Library Association's Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) Machine-Assisted Reference Section (MARS). Includes adoption of technology; digital library services; hypertext; interface design; models and theory; relevance; resource…
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Curseu, Petru Lucian
In a sample of 213 students organized in 44 groups this study tests the impact of need for cognition on active information search by using a multilevel analysis. The results show that group members with high need for cognition seek more advice in task related issues than those with low need for cognition and this pattern of information exchange is…
Monzack, Elyssa Lynne; Zenner Petersen, Greta M.
Venues for informal science education are usually those sought out by people who are specifically looking for an educational experience. Whether planning a trip to a museum or choosing a television program, these individuals are actively seeking an informal educational experience; they are a self-selected group. This paper investigates whether…
Justumus, Pauline; Colby, Donn; Mai Doan Anh, Thi; Balestre, Eric
Background In Vietnam, men who have sex with men (MSM) are highly affected by HIV and need new targeted HIV prevention strategies. Objectives To assess the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care and associated factors among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012. Participants were recruited using a convenience sampling method in venues most frequented by MSM and completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate factors associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Results A total of 358 MSM were approached for the survey and 222 questionnaires (62.0%) were eligible for analyses. Overall, 76.1% of the respondents reported that they were willing to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. A number of male partners in last year less than or equal to 3 (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 3.07, 95% Confidence interval: 1.40–6.73), a history of STI screening (4.10, 1.02–16.48) and HIV testing (3.23, 1.20–8.64) and having ever sought a male sexual partner through the Internet (3.56, 1.55–8.18) were significantly positively associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Conclusion The MSM interviewed in Ho Chi Minh City reported a high willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. In a context where new media are increasingly considered as promising options for reaching this HIV risk group, further research should be conducted on developing and testing tailored online tools adapted to the needs of Vietnamese MSM. PMID:23977048
The paper deals with the application of the activity theory in describing psychological determinants of the information searching activity. The notions of information behavior, information retrieval, information competence, information retrieval activity given in Russian and English scientific literature are compared. The research approach to the information retrieval activity based on the principles developed in the Russian theory of activity is described; and the fundamentals of G. Sukhodolsky's generalized conception of activity are presented for the first time. Analysis of empirical researches showed that specific features of information search depend on how the user evaluates information resources, information, conditions and results of search. Psychological determiners of information search may be detected as the system of evaluative alternatives, which is generated by the user during the process of his experience growth. We discovered that user's evaluation system is also related to his individual typological and personal regulative features and determines the choice of the search strategy.
Fanelli, Rebecca R; Robinson, Donita L
Introduction Alcohol-associated cues activate both ventral and dorsal striatum in functional brain imaging studies of heavy drinkers. In rodents, alcohol-associated cues induce changes in neuronal firing frequencies and increase dopamine release in ventral striatum, but the impact of alcohol-associated cues on neuronal activity in dorsal striatum is unclear. We previously reported phasic changes in action potential frequency in the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum after cues that signaled alcohol availability, prompting approach behavior. Methods We investigated the hypothesis that dopamine transmission modulates these phasic firing changes. Rats were trained to self-administer alcohol, and neuronal activity was monitored with extracellular electrophysiology during “anticipatory” cues that signaled the start of the operant session. Sessions were preceded by systemic administration of the D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0, 10, and 20 μg/kg). Results SCH23390 significantly decreased firing rates during the 60 s prior to cue onset without reducing phasic excitations immediately following the cues. While neuronal activation to cues might be expected to initiate behavioral responses, in this study alcohol seeking was reduced despite the presence of dorsal striatal excitations to alcohol cues. Conclusions These data suggest that D1 receptor antagonism reduces basal firing rates in the dorsal striatum and modulates the ability of neuronal activation to “anticipatory” cues to initiate alcohol seeking in rats with an extensive history of alcohol self-administration. PMID:25642390
... (ETA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Attestation by Employers Using Crewmembers for Longshore Activities at Locations in the State of Alaska,'' (Form ETA- 933A) to the Office of... provided on Form ETA-933A by employers seeking to use alien crewmembers to perform longshore activities...
This study provides an overview of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Library and Information Studies (LIS) education in Thailand, focusing on challenges and pressures in the information environment of Thai LIS faculty members. This study employed a qualitative research approach, naturalistic inquiry, and inductive data analysis.…
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Hartel, Jenna; Cox, Andrew M.; Griffin, Brian L.
Background: In the past decade, scholars of information science have started to conduct research on information behaviour in serious leisure. Presently, these studies lack common concepts and terms and empirical discoveries are not easy to assemble into theory. Aim: This conceptual and methodological paper surveys the aforementioned research area…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Seek Approval to Revise and Extend a Currently.... OMB Number: 0535-0004. Expiration Date of Approval: October 31, 2012. Type of Request: Intent to...
Maneze, D.; DiGiacomo, M.; Salamonson, Y.; Descallar, J.; Davidson, P. M.
Understanding factors that influence health-seeking behaviour of migrants is necessary to intervene for behaviour change. This paper explores Filipino migrants' perceptions of facilitators and barriers to maintaining health in Australia. Open-ended survey item responses reflecting factors that assisted and hindered health following migration to Australia were inductively analysed. Three hundred and thirty-seven of the 552 survey respondents (61%) provided open-ended responses. Responses were grouped into two major categories: individual factors, including personal resources and cultural influences, and environmental factors encompassing both the physical conditions in the host country and health service access. Awareness of practices that enhance health was a major personal facilitator of health-seeking behaviour; however, competing priorities of daily living were perceived as barriers. Cultural beliefs and practices influenced health-seeking behaviour. Despite high self-rated English language skills in this population, new migrants and the elderly cited communication difficulties as barriers to accessing health services. Insight into facilitators and barriers to health-seeking behaviour in this less researched migrant population revealed tools for enhancing engagement in health promotion programs addressing healthy lifestyle. PMID:26380277
Valera, Pamela; Lian, Zi; Brotzman, Laura; Reid, Andrea
African-American and Hispanic men are disproportionately affected by cancer experiencing higher rates of cancer-related morbidity and mortality for many cancers (but not all). These challenges may be magnified for a subpopulation of African-American and Hispanic men who have been incarcerated. A survey assessing demographics, incarceration experience, psychosocial, behavioral, and cancer health information seeking was administered to 230 previously incarcerated men aged 35 years and older. Data analysis was performed to assess the association between fatalism, perceived susceptibility, and health information seeking in this population. This study revealed the following: the majority of the participants (68.7%) held the fatalistic belief: "When I think of cancer, I automatically think of death." Second, the fatalistic belief, "There's not much you can do to lower your chances of getting cancer," is more prevalent among those who perceived a higher risk of developing cancer. Third, older participants (those between 55 and 70 years old) and widowed are less likely to think of death when they think of cancer. In addition, those who use the Internet to look for health or medical information (i.e., engaging in health information seeking) are less likely to agree with the fatalistic belief: "It seems like everything causes cancer." Given the high incidence of certain cancers among African-American and Hispanic men and the vulnerability of those involved in the criminal justice system, our findings highlight the importance of understanding perceived susceptibility to cancer, fatalistic beliefs about cancer, and information seeking in formerly incarcerated men.
Authenticity in Obesity Public Service Announcements: Influence of Spokesperson Type, Viewer Weight, and Source Credibility on Diet, Exercise, Information Seeking, and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Intentions.
Phua, Joe; Tinkham, Spencer
This study examined the joint influence of spokesperson type in obesity public service announcements (PSAs) and viewer weight on diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) intention. Results of a 2 (spokesperson type: real person vs. actor) × 2 (viewer weight: overweight vs. non-overweight) between-subjects experiment indicated that overweight viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person had the highest diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and eWoM intention. Parasocial interaction was also found to mediate the relationships between spokesperson type/viewer weight and two of the dependent variables: diet intention and exercise intention. In addition, viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person rated the spokesperson as significantly higher on source credibility (trustworthiness, competence, and goodwill) than those who saw the PSA featuring the actor.
Renahy, Emilie; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre
Background The Internet is a major source of information for professionals and the general public, especially in the field of health. However, despite ever-increasing connection rates, a digital divide persists in the industrialised countries. The objective of this study was to assess the determinants involved in: 1) having or not having Internet access; and 2) using or not using the Internet to obtain health information. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative random sample was conducted in the Paris metropolitan area, France, in the fall of 2005 (n = 3023). Results Close to 70% of the adult population had Internet access, and 49% of Internet users had previously searched for medical information. Economic and social disparities observed in online health information seeking are reinforced by the economic and social disparities in Internet access, hence a double divide. While individuals who reported having a recent health problem were less likely to have Internet access (odds ratio (OR): 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53–0.98), it is they who, when they have Internet access, are the most likely to search for health information (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.11–1.87). Conclusion In the French context of universal health insurance, access to the Internet varies according to social and socioeconomic status and health status, and its use for health information seeking varies also with health beliefs, but not to health insurance coverage or health-care utilisation. Certain economic and social inequalities seem to impact cumulatively on Internet access and on the use of the Internet for health information seeking. It is not obvious that the Internet is a special information tool for primary prevention in people who are the furthest removed from health concerns. However, the Internet appears to be a useful complement for secondary prevention, especially for better understanding health problems or enhancing therapeutic compliance. PMID:18291024
Gao, Fuping; Li, Linlin; Liu, Tianlong; Hao, Nanjing; Liu, Huiyu; Tan, Longfei; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Xinglu; Peng, Bo; Yan, Chuanmiao; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiaoli; Chen, Dong; Tang, Fangqiong
Silica nanorattles (SNs) have proven to be promising vehicles for drug delivery. In order to further enhance efficacy and minimize adverse effects, active targeted delivery to tumors is necessary. In this work, SNs modified with a tumor specific targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), was used as carrier of doxorubicin (DOX) (DOX-FA-SNs). Drug loading, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of DOX-FA-SNs in vitro in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were evaluated. DOX-FA-SNs showed a higher cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) than DOX loaded carboxyl (-COOH) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified SNs (DOX-COOH-SNs and DOX-PEG-SNs, respectively). However, DOX-FA-SNs showed lower cytotoxicity in folate receptor negative normal mouse fibroblast cells (L929 cells) compared with free DOX. In vivo tumor-targeted fluorescence imaging indicated specific tumor targeting and uptake of FA-SNs in nude mice bearing subcutaneous HeLa cell-derived xenograft tumors. In vivo anti-tumor experiments demonstrated that DOX-FA-SNs (10 mg kg-1 of DOX) significantly regressed the tumor growth and reduced toxicity compared with free DOX. These results have great significance in developing and optimizing SNs as effective intracellular delivery and specific tumor targeting vehicles.Silica nanorattles (SNs) have proven to be promising vehicles for drug delivery. In order to further enhance efficacy and minimize adverse effects, active targeted delivery to tumors is necessary. In this work, SNs modified with a tumor specific targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), was used as carrier of doxorubicin (DOX) (DOX-FA-SNs). Drug loading, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of DOX-FA-SNs in vitro in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were evaluated. DOX-FA-SNs showed a higher cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) than DOX loaded carboxyl (-COOH) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified SNs (DOX-COOH-SNs and DOX-PEG-SNs, respectively). However, DOX
Jin, Wyju; Kim, Min Sun; Jang, Eun Young; Lee, Jun Yeon; Lee, Jin Gyeom; Kim, Hong Yu; Yoon, Seong Shoon; Lee, Bong Hyo; Chang, Suchan; Kim, Jae Hyo; Choi, Kwang H; Koo, Ho; Gwak, Young Seob; Steffensen, Scott C; Ryu, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Hee Young; Yang, Chae Ha
There is growing public interest in alternative approaches to addiction treatment and scientific interest in elucidating the neurobiological underpinnings of acupuncture. Our previous studies showed that acupuncture at a specific Shenmen (HT7) points reduced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) induced by drugs of abuse. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of HT7 acupuncture on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuronal activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Using microdialysis and in vivo single-unit electrophysiology, we evaluated the effects of HT7 acupuncture on VTA GABA and NAc DA release and VTA GABA neuronal activity in rats. Using a within-session reinstatement paradigm in rats self-administering cocaine, we evaluated the effects of HT7 stimulation on cocaine-primed reinstatement. Acupuncture at HT7 significantly reduced cocaine suppression of GABA release and GABA neuron firing rates in the VTA. HT7 acupuncture attenuated cocaine-primed reinstatement, which was blocked by VTA infusions of the selective GABAB receptor antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen. HT7 stimulation significantly decreased acute cocaine-induced DA release in the NAc, which was also blocked by 2-hydroxysaclofen. HT7 acupuncture also attenuated cocaine-induced sensitization of extracellular DA levels in the NAc. Moreover, HT7 acupuncture reduced both locomotor activity and neuronal activation in the NAc induced by acute cocaine in a needle-penetration depth-dependent fashion. These results suggest that acupuncture may suppress cocaine-induced DA release in the NAc and cocaine-seeking behavior through activation of VTA GABA neurons. Acupuncture may be an effective therapy to reduce cocaine relapse by enhancing GABAergic inhibition in the VTA.
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Hiranita, Takato; Nawata, Yoko; Sakimura, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki
We previously reported the involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the reinstatement of methamphetamine (MAP)-seeking behavior (lever-pressing response for MAP reinforcement under saline infusion). The present study examined whether the reinstatement involves interactions between these receptors. Rats were trained to self-administer MAP with a light and tone (MAP-associated cues). Then, extinction sessions under saline infusion without cues were conducted. After that, a reinstatement tests were conducted by either presenting the cues or a MAP-priming injection. Systemic and intracranial administration of HU210, a cannabinoid CB1R agonist, into the nucleus accumbens core (NAC) and prelimbic cortex (PrC) reinstated MAP-seeking behavior. The reinstatement caused by the systemic HU210 treatment was attenuated by intracranial administration of AM251, a cannabinoid CB1R antagonist, into each region mentioned above. Meanwhile, reinstatement induced by the MAP-associated cues and MAP-priming injection was also attenuated by intracranial administration of AM251 in each region. In these regions, the attenuating effects of AM251 on the reinstatement induced by each stimulus were blocked by the intracranial administration of mecamylamine, a non-selective nAChR antagonist, but not by scopolamine, a muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR) antagonist. Furthermore, the intracranial administration of DHbetaE, an alpha4beta2 nAChR antagonist, but not MLA, an alpha7 nAChR antagonist, into each region blocked the AM251-induced attenuation of the reinstatement. These findings suggest that relapses to MAP-seeking behavior may be due to two steps, first inhibition of ACh transmission by the activation of cannabinoid CB1Rs and then the inactivation of alpha4beta2 nAChRs.
Johnson, Sophia Alice
This paper seeks to contribute to an understanding of the changing nature of support and information-seeking practices for women in the transition to first-time motherhood. In the context of increasing digitalisation, the significance of new virtual spaces for parenting is discussed. The paper demonstrates how women seek out alternative forms of expertise (specifically, non-medical expertise) and social support. The author argues for the importance of 'intimate mothering publics' through which women gather experiential information and practical support. These publics can act as a space for women to 'test' or legitimise their new identity as a mother. Intimate mothering publics are particularly useful for thinking about the meaning-making practices and learning experiences that occur during intimate online and face-to-face interactions. A variety of types of online support may be used during pregnancy. Surreptitious support in particular involves users invisibly receiving advice, information and reassurance that might otherwise be lacking. Access to intimate mothering publics is motivated by a number of factors, including feelings of community or acceptance, the desire to be a good mother or parent, emotional support and the need for practical and experiential advice.
Host-seeking heights, host-seeking activity patterns, and West Nile virus infection rates for members of the Culex pipiens complex at different habitat types within the hybrid zone, Shelby County, TN, 2002 (Diptera: Culicidae).
Savage, Harry M; Anderson, Michael; Gordon, Emily; McMillen, Larry; Colton, Leah; Delorey, Mark; Sutherland, Genevieve; Aspen, Stephen; Charnetzky, Dawn; Burkhalter, Kristen; Godsey, Marvin
Host-seeking heights, host-seeking activity patterns, and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) infection rates were assessed for members of the Culex pipiens complex from July to December 2002, by using chicken-baited can traps (CT) at four ecologically different sites in Shelby County, TN. Host-seeking height was assessed by CT placed at elevations of 3.1, 4.6, and 7.6 m during one 24-h period per month. Host-seeking activity was assessed by paired CT placed at an elevation of 4.6 m. Can traps were sampled at one 10-h daytime interval and at seven 2-h intervals during the evening, night, and morning. Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes accounted for 87.1% of collected mosquitoes. Culex (Melanoconion) erraticus (Dyar & Knab) accounted for 11.9% of specimens. The average number of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes collected per 24-h CT period from July to September was lowest at a rural middle income site (1.7), intermediate at an urban middle income site (11.3), and highest at an urban low income site (47.4). Can traps at the forested site failed to collect Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. From July to September at urban sites, Culex pipiens pipiens L. was the rarest of the three complex members accounting for 11.1-25.6% of specimens. At the rural site, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say was the rarest member of the complex. Cx. p. pipiens was not collected after September. Mean abundance of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes was higher in traps at 7.6 m than in traps at 4.6 m. Abundances at 3.1 m were intermediate and not significantly different from abundances at the other heights. Initiation of host-seeking activity was associated with the end of civil twilight and activity occurred over an extended nighttime period lasting 8-10 h. All 11 WNV-positive mosquitoes were Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes collected from urban sites in traps placed at elevations of 4.6 and 7.6 m. Infection rates were marginally nonsignificant by height. Infection rates, host-seeking
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Fanous, Sanya; Guez-Barber, Danielle H; Goldart, Evan M; Schrama, Regina; Theberge, Florence R M; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T
Cue-induced heroin seeking after prolonged withdrawal is associated with neuronal activation and altered gene expression in prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, these previous studies assessed gene expression in all neurons regardless of their activity state during heroin seeking. Using Fos as a marker of neural activity, we describe distinct molecular alterations induced in activated versus non-activated neurons during cue-induced heroin seeking after prolonged withdrawal. We trained rats to self-administer heroin for 10 days (6 h/day) and assessed cue-induced heroin seeking in extinction tests after 14 or 30 days. We used fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) to purify Fos-positive and Fos-negative neurons from PFC 90 min after extinction testing. Flow cytometry showed that Fos-immunoreactivity was increased in less than 10% of sparsely distributed PFC neurons. mRNA levels of the immediate early genes fosB, arc, egr1, and egr2, as well as npy and map2k6, were increased in Fos-positive, but not Fos-negative, neurons. In support of these findings, double-label immunohistochemistry indicated substantial coexpression of neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and Arc-immunoreactivity in Fos-positive neurons. Our data indicate that cue-induced relapse to heroin seeking after prolonged withdrawal induces unique molecular alterations within activated PFC neurons that are distinct from those observed in the surrounding majority of non-activated neurons.
Sedki, Firas; Eigenmann, Karine; Gelinas, Jessica; Schouela, Nicholas; Courchesne, Shannon; Shalev, Uri
Stress is considered to be one of the major triggers to drug relapse, even after prolonged periods of abstinence. In rats, the activation of stress-related brain systems, including corticotropin-releasing factor and norepinephrine, is critical for stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished drug seeking, an animal model for drug relapse. In addition, there are strong indications that activation of the endogenous opioid system is important for the effects of stress on drug seeking. More specifically, activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is critically involved in the reinstatement of cocaine seeking following exposure to stressors, such as footshock, forced swimming or social stress. However, studies on the role of the dynorphin/KOR system in stress-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking are scarce. Here, rats were trained to self-administer heroin (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) for 10 days. Drug seeking was then extinguished and the rats were tested for acute (21 hours) food deprivation-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. In two separate experiments, rats were injected with the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist, naltrexone (0.0, 1.0, 10.0 mg/kg; s.c.) or the KOR antagonist, norBNI (0.0, 1.0, 10.0 mg/kg; i.p.) before the reinstatement test. Naltrexone treatment did not affect stress-induced reinstatement. In contrast, treatment with norBNI dose-dependently attenuated food deprivation-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. These results support the hypothesis that activation of KOR, but not MOR, is critically involved in stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking.
Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A
The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices.
... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline... Information Collection Requests (ICR) abstracted below will be forwarded to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comments. The ICRs describe the nature of the information collections...
Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang; Sun, Haichun; Zhu, Xihe
Motivation to learn is a disposition developed through exposure to learning opportunities. Guided by the expectancy-value theory of Eccles and Wigfield (1995), this study examined the extent to which expectancy belief and task value influenced elementary school students' physical activity and knowledge learning in physical education (PE).…
Shemwell, Jonathan T.; Chase, Catherine C.; Schwartz, Daniel L.
Evaluating the relation between evidence and theory should be a central activity for science learners. Evaluation comprises both hypothetico-deductive analysis, where theory precedes evidence, and inductive synthesis, where theory emerges from evidence. There is mounting evidence that induction is an especially good way to help learners grasp the…
The ultimate obstacle to determining the masses of small, rocky exoplanets through radial-velocity (RV) monitoring is the intrinsic variability of the host stars themselves. For my PhD, I developed an intuitive and robust data analysis framework in which the activity-induced variations are modelled with a Gaussian process that has the frequency structure of the stellar magnetic activity. This allowed me to determine precise and accurate masses of the planets in the CoRoT-7, Kepler-78 and Kepler-10 systems. In parallel, I explored the physical origin of activity-induced RV variations of our best-known star: the Sun. I conducted the first systematic RV campaign of the Sun seen as an exoplanet host star using the 3.6m/HARPS spectrograph, by observing sunlight reflected off the bright asteroid 4/Vesta. I used images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory to reconstruct the RV signals incurred by individual surface features such as sunspots, faculae and granulation. I found that the activity-induced RV variations are driven by the suppression of convective blueshift arising dominantly from the presence of faculae. I also identified the full-disc magnetic flux as an excellent proxy for activity-induced RV variations.I am now pursuing my solar investigations using Sun-as-a-star RV observations acquired with the new solar telescope feed at HARPS-N. In particular, I am investigating the impact of magnetic surface features on the shapes of the spectral line profiles, rather than on the RVs themselves (which are a single moment of these lines). This work is key to developing physically-driven, better-tailored models for activity-induced RV variations, in preparation for the potentially habitable, Earth-like planets to be discovered and characterised in the coming years with TESS and GMT/G-CLEF.This work was funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council in the United Kingdom and the John Templeton Foundation.
Sparta, Dennis R; Hovelsø, Nanna; Mason, Alex O; Kantak, Pranish A; Ung, Randall L; Decot, Heather K; Stuber, Garret D
Forming and breaking associations between emotionally salient environmental stimuli and rewarding or aversive outcomes is an essential component of learned adaptive behavior. Importantly, when cue-reward contingencies degrade, animals must exhibit behavioral flexibility to extinguish prior learned associations. Understanding the specific neural circuit mechanisms that operate during the formation and extinction of conditioned behaviors is critical because dysregulation of these neural processes is hypothesized to underlie many of the maladaptive and pathological behaviors observed in various neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) participates in the behavioral adaptations seen in both appetitive and aversive-cue-mediated responding, but the precise cell types and circuit mechanisms sufficient for driving these complex behavioral states remain largely unspecified. Here, we recorded and manipulated the activity of parvalbumin-positive fast spiking interneurons (PV+ FSIs) in the prelimbic area (PrL) of the mPFC in mice. In vivo photostimulation of PV+ FSIs resulted in a net inhibition of PrL neurons, providing a circuit blueprint for behavioral manipulations. Photostimulation of mPFC PV+ cells did not alter anticipatory or consummatory licking behavior during reinforced training sessions. However, optical activation of these inhibitory interneurons to cues associated with reward significantly accelerated the extinction of behavior during non-reinforced test sessions. These data suggest that suppression of excitatory mPFC networks via increased activity of PV+ FSIs may enhance reward-related behavioral flexibility.
Haywood, Raphaëlle Dawn
The detection of low-mass extra-solar planets through radial-velocity searches is currently limited by the intrinsic magnetic activity of the host stars. The correlated noise that arises from their natural radial-velocity variability can easily mimic or conceal the orbital signals of super-Earth and Earth-mass extra-solar planets. I developed an intuitive and robust data analysis framework in which the activity-induced variations are modelled with a Gaussian process that has the frequency structure of the photometric variations of the star, thus allowing me to determine precise and reliable planetary masses. I applied this technique to three recently discovered planetary systems: CoRoT-7, Kepler-78 and Kepler-10. I determined the masses of the transiting super-Earth CoRoT-7b and the small Neptune CoRoT-7c to be 4.73 ± 0.95 M⊕ and 13.56 ± 1.08 M⊕, respectively. The density of CoRoT-7b is 6.61 ± 1.72 g.cm-3, which is compatible with a rocky composition. I carried out Bayesian model selection to assess the nature of a previously identified signal at 9 days, and found that it is best interpreted as stellar activity. Despite the high levels of activity of its host star, I determined the mass of the Earth-sized planet Kepler-78b to be 1.76 ± 0.18 M⊕. With a density of 6.2(+1.8:-1.4) g.cm-3, it is also a rocky planet. I found the masses of Kepler-10b and Kepler-10c to be 3.31 ± 0.32 M⊕ and 16.25 ± 3.66 M⊕, respectively. Their densities, of 6.4(+1.1:-0.7) g.cm-3 and 8.1 ± 1.8 g.cm-3, imply that they are both of rocky composition - even the 2 Earth-radius planet Kepler-10c! In parallel, I deepened our understanding of the physical origin of stellar radial-velocity variability through the study of the Sun, which is the only star whose surface can be imaged at high resolution. I found that the full-disc magnetic flux is an excellent proxy for activity-induced radial-velocity variations; this result may become key to breaking the activity barrier in coming
Haywood, R. D.; Cameron, A. C.; Queloz, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Deleuil, M.; Fares, R.; Gillon, M.; Hatzes, A.; Lanza, A. F.; Lovis, C.; Moutou, C.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Santerne, A.; Ségransan, D.; Unruh, Y.
Since the discovery of the transiting Super-Earth CoRoT-7b, several investigations have been made of the number and precise masses of planets present in the system, but they all yield different results, owing to the star's high level of activity. Radial velocity (RV) variations induced by stellar activity therefore need to be modelled and removed to allow a reliable detection of all planets in the system. We re-observed CoRoT-7 in January 2012 with both HARPS and the CoRoT satellite, so that we now have the benefit of simultaneous RV and photometric data. We fitted the off-transit variations in the CoRoT lightcurve using a harmonic decomposition similar to that implemented in Queloz et al. (2009). This fit was then used to model the stellar RV contribution, according to the methods described by Aigrain et al. (2011). This model was incorporated into a Monte Carlo Markov Chain in order to make a precise determination of the orbits of CoRoT-7b and CoRoT-7c. We also assess the evidence for the presence of one or two additional planetary companions.
Carroll, J F; Kramer, M
The relative potential for a person accidentally acquiring host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), while wearing either of two types of footwear, walking, crawling on hands and knees, and sitting on large fallen logs in deciduous woods, was evaluated. Although flag samples indicated substantial populations of I. scapularis nymphs and low to moderate numbers of A. americanum at the study sites, relatively few I. scapularis and fewer still A. americanum nymphs were acquired during 30-s and 5-min walks. Significantly fewer I. scapularis were picked up when boots were, worn with ankles taped (an anti-tick precaution) than when sneakers were worn with socks exposed during 5-min walks, but when thus attired, there was no significant difference between the number of nymphs acquired during 30-s walks. Nymphs of I. scapularis did not appear to accumulate incrementally on footwear or clothing during walks when boots were worn and ankles taped. Crawling for 30 s (approximately 3 m distance) yielded significantly more I. scapularis nymphs than walking for 30 s. During crawling, I. scapularis nymphs were picked up on 58% of the 30-s samples. Most ticks picked up during crawls were on pant legs. When a flannel flag cloth (0.5 by 0.5 m) was appressed to the upper surface of logs suitable to be sat upon by tired hikers, I. scapularis nymphs were found on 87% of the logs and in 36% of the samples. These data indicate that the potential for contact with host-seeking nymphs of I. scapularis occurring at these densities is greatly elevated by engaging in activities that involve contact with fallen logs and close contact of hands and knees with leaf litter.
Wang, Ying; Liu, Ying; Yang, Lizhuang; Gu, Feng; Li, Xiaoming; Zha, Rujing; Wei, Zhengde; Pei, Yakun; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Xiaochu
Novelty seeking (NS) is a personality trait reflecting excitement in response to novel stimuli. High NS is usually a predictor of risky behaviour such as drug abuse. However, the relationships between NS and risk-related cognitive processes, including individual risk preference and the brain activation associated with risk prediction, remain elusive. In this fMRI study, participants completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire to measure NS and performed a probabilistic decision making task. Using a mathematical model, we estimated individual risk preference. Brain regions associated with risk prediction were determined via fMRI. The NS score showed a positive correlation with risk preference and a negative correlation with the activation elicited by risk prediction in the right posterior insula (r-PI), left anterior insula (l-AI), right striatum (r-striatum) and supplementary motor area (SMA). Within these brain regions, only the activation associated with risk prediction in the r-PI showed a correlation with NS after controlling for the effect of risk preference. Resting-state functional connectivity between the r-PI and r-striatum/l-AI was negatively correlated with NS. Our results suggest that high NS may be associated with less aversion to risk and that the r-PI plays an important role in relating risk prediction to NS. PMID:26065910
Fogel, Joshua; Teichman, Chaim
This study examines variables associated with seeking information from doctors, the Internet, and a combination of both doctors and Internet after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisements. Data were analyzed from 462 college students. Younger age, women, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for doctor; women, subjective norms, intentions, and greater time since seen doctor were associated with greater odds for Internet; and African American, Hispanic, subjective norms, intentions, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for both doctor and Internet. Marketers of direct-to-consumer advertisements can use these findings for tailoring and targeting direct-to-consumer advertisements.
Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.
One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking.…
Weisskirch, Robert S; Murphy, Laurel C
One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking. Individuals who reported using the Internet to get sex-oriented material, download or play music, play games, and chat/instant message with friends in the previous 24 hours had higher levels of sensation seeking. Liking punk, heavy metal, and reggae music were related to higher levels of sensation seeking. Higher sensation seeking was also associated with spending more time listening to punk music.
.... Frequency of collection: On occasion. Title: Hazardous Materials Security Plans. OMB Control Number: 2137... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for...
... NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In December 2011, the ODNI accepted responsibility from the... Intelligence (DNI) as Security Executive Agent. Accordingly, ODNI is giving public notice regarding...
Chou, Pak Hei Benedito; Wister, Andrew V.
Drawing from the health belief model, cues to action have been theorized to influence health behaviours; however, few studies have examined these constructs explicitly. This study investigated the relationship between information cues to action and exercise self-care. It was hypothesized that reading about illness information, knowing about…
... information about the reviewer as well as information relevant to the paying of an honorarium and for travel... contains the reviewing criteria and space for the reviewer's narrative comments and evaluation. 4. Ad Hoc... uses this form to document a panel reviewer's expense incurred traveling to and attending a peer...
Dillman Carpentier, Francesca R; Parrott, M Scott
Young adults (N = 357) were surveyed following the suicide of celebrity Robin Williams to better understand how involvement with the actor and emotional responses to his death influenced searches for information concerning depression, suicide, and mental health. Emotional distress following the actor's death mediated the relationship between involvement and certain types of information searches. Most respondents sought information about the celebrity's career, suicide, and depression using portable devices such as smartphones and laptop computers to access news websites for information. Those respondents who sought information about the suicide reported changes in their thoughts about suicide, most often dealing with the difficulty in spotting warning signs and the idea that "it can happen to anyone." Findings suggest placement of health messages within existing material about celebrity announcements on online websites and social media to drive more traffic toward general informational outlets. Messages that acknowledge emotional distress might be best placed within content specific to the celebrity's tragedy, rather than specific to the celebrity's career or performances.
Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.
To understand the transfer of scientific and technical information (STI) in aerospace, it is necessary to understand the characteristics and behaviors of those who create and use STI. In this paper, we analyze the similarities and differences in the scientific and technical information-seeking behaviors of three groups of US aerospace engineers and scientists. We describe some of their demographic characteristics and their duties and responsibilities as a method of understanding their STI use patterns. There is considerable diversity among aerospace engineers in their use of STI. In general, engineers engaged in research use more STI than those who are in design/development and manufacturing/production. Research engineers also use different standards to determine the STI sources and products that they will use.
Feinberg, Iris; Frijters, Jan; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Greenberg, Daphne; Nightingale, Elena; Moodie, Chelsea
This paper presents data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies with a focus on the interrelationships among health information seeking behavior (HISB), and health status or use of preventive health measures for U.S. adults both with and without a high school diploma. Key results of ordinal and binary logistic regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for demographic factors, (1) adults with a high school diploma use more text-based health information sources while adults without a high school diploma use more oral sources, (2) using the Internet as a source of health information is more strongly related to reporting excellent/very good health status than having a high school diploma, (3) those without a high school diploma who use the Internet report the largest increase in health status over any other health information source, and (4) for those with learning disability or vision problem, a high facility in reading English is an important predictor of whether the Internet is used as a health information source. The Internet appears to play a key role in both enhancing health status and enabling use of preventive measures for those with and without a high school diploma; although, individuals without a high school diploma who use the Internet for health information derive substantial benefit in health status.
Greenberg, Daphne; Nightingale, Elena; Moodie, Chelsea
This paper presents data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies with a focus on the interrelationships among health information seeking behavior (HISB), and health status or use of preventive health measures for U.S. adults both with and without a high school diploma. Key results of ordinal and binary logistic regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for demographic factors, (1) adults with a high school diploma use more text-based health information sources while adults without a high school diploma use more oral sources, (2) using the Internet as a source of health information is more strongly related to reporting excellent/very good health status than having a high school diploma, (3) those without a high school diploma who use the Internet report the largest increase in health status over any other health information source, and (4) for those with learning disability or vision problem, a high facility in reading English is an important predictor of whether the Internet is used as a health information source. The Internet appears to play a key role in both enhancing health status and enabling use of preventive measures for those with and without a high school diploma; although, individuals without a high school diploma who use the Internet for health information derive substantial benefit in health status. PMID:26882339
Baptista, M. S.; Kurths, J.
Shannon’s capacity theorem is the main concept behind the theory of communication. It says that if the amount of information contained in a signal is smaller than the channel capacity of a physical media of communication, it can be transmitted with arbitrarily small probability of error. This theorem is usually applicable to ideal channels of communication in which the information to be transmitted does not alter the passive characteristics of the channel that basically tries to reproduce the source of information. For an active channel, a network formed by elements that are dynamical systems (such as neurons, chaotic or periodic oscillators), it is unclear if such theorem is applicable, once an active channel can adapt to the input of a signal, altering its capacity. To shed light into this matter, we show, among other results, how to calculate the information capacity of an active channel of communication. Then, we show that the channel capacity depends on whether the active channel is self-excitable or not and that, contrary to a current belief, desynchronization can provide an environment in which large amounts of information can be transmitted in a channel that is self-excitable. An interesting case of a self-excitable active channel is a network of electrically connected Hindmarsh-Rose chaotic neurons.
Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen
Background Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. Methods An online survey of 17 522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Fixed effects logit models were applied to analyse relationships between exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information and demographic characteristics, e-cigarette and tobacco use, and media behaviours. Results High levels of awareness about e-cigarettes were indicated (86% aware; 47% heard through media channels). Exposure to e-cigarette-related information was associated with tobacco use, age, gender, more education, social media use and time spent online. Although relatively small proportions of the sample had searched for (∼5%) or shared (∼2%) e-cigarette information, our analyses indicated demographic patterns to those behaviours. Gender, high income and using social media were associated with searching for e-cigarette information; lesbian, gay and bisexual and less education were associated with sharing. Current tobacco use, age, being Hispanic and time spent online were associated with both searching and sharing. Conclusions US adults are widely exposed to e-cigarette marketing through the media; such marketing may differentially target specific demographic groups. Further research should longitudinally examine how exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette information relate to subsequent use of e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco. PMID:24935893
Magee, Joshua C.; Bigelow, Louisa; DeHaan, Samantha; Mustanski, Brian S.
The current study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the positive and negative aspects of Internet use for sexual health information among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young people. A diverse community sample of 32 LGBT young people (aged 16-24 years) completed qualitative interviews focusing on how, where, and when…
... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This is a summary of the Commission's Public Notice in WT Docket No. 10-254, DA 12... appropriate FCC document number, for example, DA 12-1745. The Comment Deadline Extended for Updated... ongoing review of the wireless hearing aid compatibility rules (WT Docket No. 10-254, DA 12-1745)....
Shevlin, Mark; Millar, Rob
Background: This study applied the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in an attempt to predict longitudinal growth of career exploratory behaviour in school pupils. The importance of information for making considered career decisions is indicated in theories of career development and choice, career education programmes, and concepts of career…
Silvester, Jocelyn A; Kalkat, Harmandeep; Graff, Lesley A; Walker, John R; Singh, Harminder; Duerksen, Donald R
AIM To investigate the effects of direct to colonoscopy pathways on information seeking behaviors and anxiety among colonoscopy-naïve patients. METHODS Colonoscopy-naïve patients at two tertiary care hospitals completed a survey immediately prior to their scheduled outpatient procedure and before receiving sedation. Survey items included clinical pathway (direct or consult), procedure indication (cancer screening or symptom investigation), telephone and written contact from the physician endoscopist office, information sources, and pre-procedure anxiety. Participants reported pre-procedure anxiety using a 10 point scale anchored by “very relaxed” (1) and “very nervous” (10). At least three months following the procedure, patient medical records were reviewed to determine sedative dose, procedure indications and any adverse events. The primary comparison was between the direct and consult pathways. Given the very different implications, a secondary analysis considering the patient-reported indication for the procedure (symptoms or screening). Effects of pathway (direct vs consult) were compared both within and between the screening and symptom subgroups. RESULTS Of 409 patients who completed the survey, 34% followed a direct pathway. Indications for colonoscopy were similar in each group. The majority of the participants were women (58%), married (61%), and internet users (81%). The most important information source was family physicians (Direct) and specialist physicians (Consult). Use of other information sources, including the internet (20% vs 18%) and Direct family and friends (64% vs 53%), was similar in the Direct and Consult groups, respectively. Only 31% of the 81% who were internet users accessed internet health information. Most sought fundamental information such as what a colonoscopy is or why it is done. Pre-procedure anxiety did not differ between care pathways. Those undergoing colonoscopy for symptoms reported greater anxiety [mean 5.3, 95
McMillan, Sally J; Macias, Wendy
Earlier studies clearly have shown that older adults are going online and accessing health information, but they are not a monolithic group. The goal of this study is to identify different types of older online Americans and to examine their online health information attitudes and behaviors. A total of 424 individuals age 55+ responded to an online survey. Three types of users were found based on demographic and computer-use factors: power users, well-to-do, and older men. Two types were found based on health attitudes and behaviors: health traditionalists and health technologists. The study found interesting relationships among these groups and also explored their use and evaluation of specific types of health-related websites and their motivations for going online. Suggestions are made for extending this research to other populations and further exploring the theoretical model of senior's online health interactions (SOHI) that drives the study.
Ben Jacob, Eshel; Shapira, Yoash; Tauber, Alfred I.
We reexamine Schrödinger's reflections on the fundamental requirements for life in view of new observations about bacterial self-organization and the emerging understanding of gene-network regulation mechanisms and dynamics. Focusing on the energy, matter and thermodynamic imbalances provided by the environment, Schrödinger proposed his consumption of negative entropy requirement for life. We take the criteria further and propose that, besides “negative entropy”, organisms extract latent information embedded in the complexity of their environment. By latent information we refer to the non-arbitrary spatio-temporal patterns of regularities and variations that characterize the environmental dynamics. Hence it can be used to generate an internal condensed description (model or usable information) of the environment which guides the organisms functioning. Accordingly, we propose that Schrödinger's criterion of “consumption of negative entropy” is not sufficient and “consumption of latent information” is an additional fundamental requirement of Life. In other words, all organisms, including bacteria, the most primitive (fundamental) ones, must be able to sense the environment and perform internal information processing for thriving on latent information embedded in the complexity of their environment. We then propose that by acting together, bacteria can perform this most elementary cognitive function more efficiently as can be illustrated by their cooperative behavior (colonial or inter-cellular self-organization). As a member of a complex superorganism-the colony-each unit (bacteria) must possess the ability to sense and communicate with the other units comprising the collective and perform its task within a distribution of tasks. Bacterial communication thus entails collective sensing and cooperativity. The fundamental (primitive) elements of cognition in such systems include interpretation of (chemical) messages, distinction between internal and
Asunka, Stephen; Chae, Hui Soo; Hughes, Brian; Natriello, Gary
Transaction logs of user activity on an academic library website were analyzed to determine general usage patterns on the website. This paper reports on insights gained from the analysis, and identifies and discusses issues relating to content access, interface design and general functionality of the website. (Contains 13 figures and 8 tables.)
Troelstra, Sigrid A.; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Kunst, Anton E.
Background The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the rate of searching for information on smoking cessation, using Google Trends search query data. Methods An interrupted time series analysis was used to examine the effect of two types of policies (smoke-free legislation and reimbursement of smoking cessation support (SCS)) on Google searches for ‘quit smoking’. Google Trends data were seasonally adjusted and analysed using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling. Multiple effect periods were modelled as dummy variables and analysed simultaneously to examine the magnitude and duration of the effect of each intervention. The same analysis was repeated with Belgian search query data as a control group, since Belgium is the country most comparable to the Netherlands in terms of geography, language, history and culture. Results A significant increase in relative search volume (RSV) was found from one to four weeks (21–41%) after the introduction of the smoking ban in restaurants and bars in the Netherlands in 2008. The introduction of SCS reimbursement in 2011 was associated with a significant increase of RSV (16–22%) in the Netherlands after 3 to 52 weeks. The reintroduction of SCS in 2013 was associated with a significant increase of RSV (9–21%) in the Netherlands from 3 to 32 weeks after the intervention. No effects were found in the Belgian control group for the smoking ban and the reintroduction of SCS in 2013, but there was a significant increase in RSV shortly before and after the introduction of SCS in 2011. Conclusions These findings suggest that these tobacco control policies have short-term or medium-term effects on the rate of searching for information on smoking cessation, and therefore
Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un
College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed.
Cifani, Carlo; Koya, Eisuke; Navarre, Brittany M; Calu, Donna J; Baumann, Michael H; Marchant, Nathan J; Liu, Qing-Rong; Khuc, Thi; Pickel, James; Lupica, Carl R; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T
Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress and there is evidence for a role of ovarian hormones in stress responses and feeding. We studied the role of these hormones in stress-induced reinstatement of food seeking and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activation in c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats, which express GFP in strongly activated neurons. Food-restricted ovariectomized or sham-operated c-fos-GFP rats were trained to lever-press for palatable food pellets. Subsequently, lever-pressing was extinguished and reinstatement of food seeking and mPFC neuronal activation was assessed after injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (0.5-2 mg/kg) or pellet priming (1-4 noncontingent pellets). Estrous cycle effects on reinstatement were also assessed in wild-type rats. Yohimbine- and pellet-priming-induced reinstatement was associated with Fos and GFP induction in mPFC; both reinstatement and neuronal activation were minimally affected by ovarian hormones in both c-fos-GFP and wild-type rats. c-fos-GFP transgenic rats were then used to assess glutamatergic synaptic alterations within activated GFP-positive and nonactivated GFP-negative mPFC neurons following yohimbine-induced reinstatement of food seeking. This reinstatement was associated with reduced AMPA receptor/NMDA receptor current ratios and increased paired-pulse facilitation in activated GFP-positive but not GFP-negative neurons. While ovarian hormones do not appear to play a role in stress-induced relapse of food seeking in our rat model, this reinstatement was associated with unique synaptic alterations in strongly activated mPFC neurons. Our paper introduces the c-fos-GFP transgenic rat as a new tool to study unique synaptic changes in activated neurons during behavior.
... Surface Transportation Board Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT... U.S.C. 3501-3519 (PRA), the Surface Transportation Board (STB or Board) gives notice of its intent... by April 10, 2012. ADDRESSES: Direct all comments to Marilyn Levitt, Surface Transportation...
Cilenti, Dorothy; Brownson, Ross C; Umble, Karl; Erwin, Paul Campbell; Summers, Rosemary
The objective of this article was to describe factors that contribute to successful translation of science into evidence-based practices and their implementation in public health practice agencies, based on a review of the literature and evidence from a series of case studies. The case studies involved structured interviews with key informants in 4 health departments and with 4 corresponding partners from academic institutions. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, coded by 2 independent, trained coders, using a standard codebook. A thematic analysis of codes was conducted. Coding was entered into Atlas TI software for further analysis. Results from the literature review indicated that only approximately half of programs implemented in state and local health departments were evidence based. Lack of time, inadequate funding, and absence of cultural and managerial support-including incentives-are among the most commonly cited barriers to implementing evidence-based practices. Findings from the case studies suggest that these health departments, successful in implementing evidence-based practices, have strong relationships and good communication channels established with their academic partner(s). There is strong leadership engagement from within the health department and in the academic institution. Implementation of evidence-based programs was most often related to high priority community needs and the availability of resources to address these needs. The practice agencies operate with a culture of quality improvement throughout the agency. Information technology, training, how the interventions are bundled, including their complexity and ability to be customized and resource requirements are all fruitful avenues for further research.
... of the HPOG evaluation are to establish a performance management reporting process for HPOG, and... Grants (HPOG). Through this information collection, ACF seeks to develop comprehensive management and performance reports on the HPOG initiative and design a feasible and reliable evaluation design to...