Science.gov

Sample records for active internal rotation

  1. Solar Internal Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, J.; SOE Internal Rotation Team

    With the flood of high quality helioseismic data from the instruments on the SOHO spacecraft (MDI/VIRGO/GOLF) and ground based instruments (eg. GONG and LOWL) we have been able to get increasingly detailed information on the rotation and other large scale flows in the solar interior. In this talk I will discuss some of the highlights of what we have learned so far and what we may expect to learn in the near future. Among the recent advances have been tighter constraints on the tachocline at the bottom of the convection zone, detection of details in the surface rotation rate similar to the torsional oscillations found in the surface Doppler shift and helioseismic evidence for meridional flows. The MDI project is supported by NASA contract NAG5-3077 at Stanford University.

  2. The Supine Internal Rotation Test

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Samuel G.; Cram, Tyler R.; James, Evan W.; Dornan, Grant J.; Kennedy, Nicholas I.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biomechanical studies have reported that the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) functions as a restraint against excessive tibial internal rotation at higher degrees of knee flexion. Purpose: To investigate the use of a supine internal rotation (IR) test for the diagnosis of grade III PCL injuries. The hypothesis was that internal rotation would be greater in patients with grade III PCL injuries compared with other knee injuries and that the supine IR test would demonstrate excellent diagnostic accuracy. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A consecutive series of 309 patients underwent arthroscopic and/or open knee ligament reconstruction surgery. Seven patients were excluded based on the inability to perform a side-to-side comparison of internal rotation. Tibial internal rotation was assessed bilaterally on 302 patients during examination under anesthesia by a single orthopaedic surgeon measuring tibial tubercle excursion (mm) while applying internal rotation torque. Internal rotation was graded from 0 to 4 at 60°, 75°, 90°, 105°, and 120° of knee flexion. Data were collected and stored prospectively. The optimal threshold for the supine IR test was chosen based on maximization of the Youden index. Diagnostic accuracy parameters were calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to assess the influence of other knee pathologies on diagnostic accuracy. Results: Examination of the 22 PCL-deficient knees demonstrated an increase in tibial internal rotation at 60°, 75°, 90°, 105°, and 120° of knee flexion. The supine IR test had a sensitivity of 95.5%, a specificity of 97.1%, a positive predictive value of 72.4%, and a negative predictive value of 99.6% for the diagnosis of grade III PCL injuries. Posterolateral corner injury had a significant interaction with the supine IR test, increasing its sensitivity and decreasing its specificity. Conclusion: PCL-deficient knees demonstrated an increase

  3. Spatiotemporal differences of brain activation between internal and external strategies in mental rotation: A behavioral and ERD/ERS study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Xiaoli; Lyu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Hongzhou; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-06-01

    Subjects may voluntarily implement an internal or external strategy during mental rotation (MR) task. However, few studies have reported the spatiotemporal differences of brain activation between the two MR strategies. This study aims to compare the two strategies from the perspective of behavioral performance and spatiotemporal brain activations in each cognitive sub-stage using EEG measurements. Both the internal (IN) and external (EX) groups showed a significant 'angle effect' on reaction time (RT) and accuracy (ACC). However, a smaller increase of RT with rotation angle was observed in the EX group. Event-related (de)synchronization in the beta band revealed similar temporal patterns of brain activation in the two groups, but with a stronger activation in the MR sub-stage in the EX group. We speculate that MR of 3D abstract objects is easier when an external strategy is used, and would be promoted by an additional visual-spatial process involving the parietal-occipital areas. Our results suggested that the differences between the two strategies were mainly induced by main MR rather than other cognitive processes. PMID:27132083

  4. Multicylinder internal combustion engine with rotation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, S.; Otsuka, K.

    1988-01-12

    In a rotation sensor for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft, a camshaft, a drive pulley on the crankshaft, a driven pulley on the camshaft, and an endless belt trained around the driver and driven pulleys, an improvement is described comprising, rotation sensing means on the driven pulley and engine for sensing the rotational position of the driven pulley relative to the engine during rotation of the driven pulley.

  5. Internal rotation of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Dziembowski, W. A.; Goode, P. R.; Gough, D. O.; Harvey, J. W.; Leibacher, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The frequency difference between prograde and retrograde sectoral solar oscillations is analyzed to determine the rotation rate of the solar interior, assuming no latitudinal dependence. Much of the solar interior rotates slightly less rapidly than the surface, while the innermost part apparently rotates more rapidly. The resulting solar gravitational quadrupole moment is J2 = (1.7 + or - 0.4) x 10 to the -7th and provides a negligible contribution to current planetary tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity.

  6. Internal-cycle Variation of Solar Differential Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. J.; Xie, J. L.; Shi, X. J.

    2013-06-01

    The latitudinal distributions of the yearly mean rotation rates measured by Suzuki in 1998 and 2012 and Pulkkinen & Tuominen in 1998 are utilized to investigate internal-cycle variation of solar differential rotation. The rotation rate at the solar equator seems to have decreased since cycle 10 onward. The coefficient B of solar differential rotation, which represents the latitudinal gradient of rotation, is found to be smaller in the several years after the minimum of a solar cycle than in the several years after the maximum time of the cycle, and it peaks several years after the maximum time of the solar cycle. The internal-cycle variation of the solar rotation rates looks similar in profile to that of the coefficient B. A new explanation is proposed to address such a solar-cycle-related variation of the solar rotation rates. Weak magnetic fields may more effectively reflect differentiation at low latitudes with high rotation rates than at high latitudes with low rotation rates, and strong magnetic fields may more effectively repress differentiation at relatively low latitudes than at high latitudes. The internal-cycle variation is inferred as the result of both the latitudinal migration of the surface torsional pattern and the repression of strong magnetic activity in differentiation.

  7. INTERNAL-CYCLE VARIATION OF SOLAR DIFFERENTIAL ROTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K. J.; Xie, J. L.; Shi, X. J.

    2013-06-01

    The latitudinal distributions of the yearly mean rotation rates measured by Suzuki in 1998 and 2012 and Pulkkinen and Tuominen in 1998 are utilized to investigate internal-cycle variation of solar differential rotation. The rotation rate at the solar equator seems to have decreased since cycle 10 onward. The coefficient B of solar differential rotation, which represents the latitudinal gradient of rotation, is found to be smaller in the several years after the minimum of a solar cycle than in the several years after the maximum time of the cycle, and it peaks several years after the maximum time of the solar cycle. The internal-cycle variation of the solar rotation rates looks similar in profile to that of the coefficient B. A new explanation is proposed to address such a solar-cycle-related variation of the solar rotation rates. Weak magnetic fields may more effectively reflect differentiation at low latitudes with high rotation rates than at high latitudes with low rotation rates, and strong magnetic fields may more effectively repress differentiation at relatively low latitudes than at high latitudes. The internal-cycle variation is inferred as the result of both the latitudinal migration of the surface torsional pattern and the repression of strong magnetic activity in differentiation.

  8. Structural Information from Methyl Internal Rotation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Lee H.

    1997-10-01

    The fundamental quantum mechanics, group theory, and spectroscopy of methyl torsional structure accompanying electronic transitions is presented. The origin of barriers to internal rotation and the interaction of the methyl with the pi system via hyperconjugation are discussed. Because of the relationship between the methyl barrier and the pi system, measurement of the CH3 properties provides structural information about the molecule. In para'-substituted p-methyl-t-stilbenes, barriers in the S1 state show a strong dependence on the substituent, substituent conformation, and involvement of the substituent in hydrogen bonding interaction. The methyl torsional barrier reflects these changes despite the distance of the substitution site, 10 atoms away.

  9. Structural information from methyl internal rotation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spangler, L H

    1997-01-01

    The fundamental quantum mechanics, group theory, and spectroscopy of methyl torsional structure accompanying electronic transitions is presented. The origin of barriers to internal rotation and the interaction of the methyl with the pi system via hyperconjugation are discussed. Because of the relationship between the methyl barrier and the pi system, measurement of the CH3 properties provides structural information about the molecule. In para'-substituted p-methyl-t-stilbenes, barriers in the S1 state show a strong dependence on the substituent, substituent conformation, and involvement of the substituent in hydrogen bonding interaction. The methyl torsional barrier reflects these changes despite the distance of the substitution site, 10 atoms away. PMID:15012450

  10. Concentric Internal and Eccentric External Fatigue Resistanc of the Shoulder Rotator Muscles in Female Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Niederbracht, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Background Shoulder muscle imbalance is a potential shoulder injury risk factor in athletes performing overhead sports. While normative functional peak strength of concentric external to concentric internal shoulder muscle fatigue data is available, comparisons of functional eccentric external to concentric internal shoulder rotator muscle fatigue resistance, which impacts muscle imbalance throughout the duration of play, have not been studied in this population. Objectives To assess fatigue resistance of the internal and external shoulder rotator muscles in female tennis players. Methods Fifteen female collegiate tennis players were tested bilaterally for shoulder concentric internal and eccentric external peak torque production throughout 20 maximal repetitions on a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer. Twelve t - tests were conducted to evaluate for differences in peak torque, relative fatigue ratios, and functional peak torque ratios between extremities and mode of activation during the first, as well as, last five repetitions that were conducted. Results Non-dominant concentric internal and eccentric external peak torque production significantly decreased throughout the twenty repetitions. Neither dominant concentric internal peak torque decrements and eccentric peak torque decrements were not significantly different across the twenty contractions. These changes in peak torque upon subsequent repetitions resulted in relative fatigue ratios of dominant eccentric external rotation that were significantly greater than non-dominant eccentric external rotation. Relative fatigue ratios of dominant concentric internal rotation did not differ from non-dominant concentric internal rotation. Conclusions The data suggest that eccentrically activated external shoulder rotator muscles could possibly adapt to overhead activities by becoming more fatigue resistant. PMID:21509131

  11. Rotation, differential rotation, and gyrochronology of active Kepler stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, Timo; Gizon, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Context. In addition to the discovery of hundreds of exoplanets, the high-precision photometry from the CoRoT and Kepler satellites has led to measurements of surface rotation periods for tens of thousands of stars, which can potentially be used to infer stellar ages via gyrochronology. Aims: Our main goal is to derive ages of thousands of field stars using consistent rotation period measurements derived by different methods. Multiple rotation periods are interpreted as surface differential rotation (DR). We study the dependence of DR with rotation period and effective temperature. Methods: We reanalyze a previously studied sample of 24 124 Kepler stars using different approaches based on the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. Each quarter (Q1-Q14) is treated individually using a prewhitening approach. Additionally, the full time series and their different segments are analyzed. Results: For more than 18 500 stars our results are consistent with the rotation periods from McQuillan et al. (2014, ApJS, 211, 24). Of these, more than 12 300 stars show multiple significant peaks, which we interpret as DR. Dependencies of the DR with rotation period and effective temperature could be confirmed, e.g., the relative DR increases with rotation period. Gyrochronology ages between 100 Myr and 10 Gyr were derived for more than 17 000 stars using different gyrochronology relations, most of them with uncertainties dominated by period variations. We find a bimodal age distribution for Teff between 3200-4700 K. The derived ages reveal an empirical activity-age relation using photometric variability as stellar activity proxy. Additionally, we found 1079 stars with extremely stable (mostly short) periods. Half of these periods may be associated with rotation stabilized by non-eclipsing companions, the other half might be due to pulsations. Conclusions: The derived gyrochronology ages are well constrained since more than ~93.0% of the stars seem to be younger than the Sun where calibration is

  12. Ideal internal kink modes in a differentially rotating cylindrical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Lominadze, J. G.; Galvao, R. M. O.; Churikov, A. P.; Erokhin, N. N.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Konovalov, S. V.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Tsypin, V. S.

    2008-07-15

    The Velikhov effect leading to magnetorotational instability (MRI) is incorporated into the theory of ideal internal kink modes in a differentially rotating cylindrical plasma column. It is shown that this effect can play a stabilizing role for suitably organized plasma rotation profiles, leading to suppression of MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) instabilities in magnetic confinement systems. The role of this effect in the problem of the Suydam and the m = 1 internal kink modes is elucidated, where m is the poloidal mode number.

  13. The internal barriers of rotation for the 209 polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Andersson, P L; Haglund, P; Tysklind, M

    1997-01-01

    The internal barrier of rotation (Erot) was calculated for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by using a semi-empirical method, viz. the Austin Model 1 (AMI) Hamiltonian. The difference in total energy between a forced planar state and an optimised twisted structure was defined as Erot. The Erot values were in the range of 8.33 to 483 kJ/mol, and were significantly influenced by the number of chlorine atoms in ortho position. An additional structural characteristic of the PCBs influencing Erot of ortho substituted congeners was substitution by chlorine atoms in vicinal meta positions, which is assumed to prevent outward bending of ortho substituents. This so-called buttressing effect contributed with 4 to 31 kJ/mol per added chlorine atom. In conclusion, the internal barrier of rotation, calculated for all 209 PCBs, provides an important structure dependent physico-chemical parameter for multivariate modelling of future quantitative structure-activity and structure-property relationships (QSARs/QSPRs). PMID:19005788

  14. Active media under rotational forcing.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Villar, Vicente; Porteiro, Jose L F; Muñuzuri, Alberto P

    2006-10-01

    The bubble-free Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction has been used to study the effects of centrifugal forces on autowave propagation. The reaction parameters were chosen such that the system oscillates naturally creating target waves. In the present study, the system was forced to rotate with a constant velocity around a central axis. In studying the effects of such a forcing on the system, we focused on target dynamics. The system reacts to this forcing in different ways, the most spectacular being a dramatic increase in the period of the target, the effect growing stronger as we move away from the center of rotation. A numerical study was carried out using the two-variable Oregonator model, modified to include convective effects through the diffusion coefficient. The numerical results showed a good qualitative agreement with those of the experiments. PMID:17155149

  15. Modulational instability of co-propagating internal wavetrains under rotation.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, A J; Johnson, E R

    2015-02-01

    Weakly-nonlinear unidirectional long internal waves in a non-rotating frame are well described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV). Within the KdV framework, all isolated monochromatic wavetrains are stable to modulational instability. However, analysis of a coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation system (CNLS) has shown that all systems of two co-propagating monochromatic wavetrains in the KdV are modulationally unstable. To take into account the effect of the background rotation of the Earth on long internal waves, this analysis is extended here to derive the CNLS for the rotation-modified KdV, or Ostrovsky, equation. Rotation stabilises wavetrain pairs when the wavelengths of both waves comprising the wavetrains are longer than the linear wave with maximum group velocity. The particular case when the wavetrains have different wavenumbers but the same linear group speed is emphasised. PMID:25725645

  16. Internal rotation of the methyl group in the radical cation of dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Michio; Momose, Takamasa; Shida, Tadamasa

    1990-04-01

    The radical cation of dimethyl ether has been studied by ESR in the temperature region of 6-140 K for focusing on the internal rotation of the methyl groups. The methyl groups rotate almost freely at above 70 K to give a septet ESR spectrum. At temperatures below 40 K there emerge extra lines due to the tunneling rotation of the methyl groups. From the analysis of the line shape, the interaction potential for the rotation of the two methyl groups, if any, should be approximated as proportional to cos 3theta1 cos 3theta2, where theta1 and theta2 denote the rotational angles of the methyl groups measured from the potential minima of the internal rotation of the methyl groups. The activation energy for the thermally induced internal rotation is determined to be about 100 cal/mol at temperatures above 25 K, whereas at lower temperatures the apparent activation energy drops sharply, which is consistent with the quantum tunneling of the methyl protons. The small activation energy of 100 cal/mol for the radical cation is compatible with the result of ab initio MO calculation for the potential barrier.

  17. Active Vibration Dampers For Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascack, Albert F.; Ropchock, John J.; Lakatos, Tomas F.; Montague, Gerald T.; Palazzolo, Alan; Lin, Reng Rong

    1994-01-01

    Active dampers developed to suppress vibrations in rotating machinery. Essentially feedback control systems and reciprocating piezoelectric actuators. Similar active damper containing different actuators described in LEW-14488. Concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations in stationary structures subject to winds and earthquakes. Active damper offers adjustable suppression of vibrations. Small and lightweight and responds faster to transients.

  18. Methyl Group Internal Rotation in the Pure Rotational Spectrum of 1,1-DIFLUOROACETONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubbs, G. S. Grubbs, II; Cooke, S. A.; Groner, P.

    2011-06-01

    We have used chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy to record the pure rotational spectrum of the title molecule. The spectrum was doubled owing to the internal rotation of the methyl group. The spectrum has been assigned and two approaches to the spectral analysis have been performed. In the first case, the A and E components were fit separately using a principal axis method with the SPFIT code of Pickett. In the second case, the A and E states were fit simultaneously using the ERHAM code. For a satisfactory analysis of the spectral data it has been found that the choice of Hamiltonian reduction, i.e. Watson A or S, is very important. The barrier to the internal rotation has been determined to be 261.1(8) Cm-1 and it will be compared to that of acetone and other halogenated acetone species recently studied in our laboratory.

  19. Active longitudes: Structure, dynamics, and rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, E. V.

    Greenwich data for 1879-2005 (cycles 12-23) are used to study the longitude distribution of sunspot group areas summed over a Carrington rotation s(CR) separately in the southern and northern hemispheres. The zones of active longitudes (AL) are identified, and their behaviour (location, shift, and intensity variations) is analyzed over the time interval under consideration. In particular, we have studied the active longitudes in two reference frames corresponding to the rotation periods T = 27.2753 and T = 27.00 days. The AL zones are shown to consist of a set of individual narrow sunspot formation zones rotating rigidly with the Carrington period T ˜ 27.2753 days. The lifetime of the sunspot formation zones exceeds significantly that of individual sunspots and may reach 15-20 rotations. Besides the rigidly rotating active longitudes we have revealed the active longitudes that migrate in the Carrington reference frame at different (greater and smaller than Carrington) angular velocities. Quasi-biennial oscillations (QBO) of the total sunspot areas in the northern and southern longitudinal sectors corresponding to AL zones are studied for the period 1879-2004 using the spectral and correlation analysis methods. The relationships between the antipodal, symmetric about the equator, and adjoining AL zones are analyzed.

  20. Rotation-induced nonlinear wavepackets in internal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, A. J. Johnson, E. R.

    2014-05-15

    The long time effect of weak rotation on an internal solitary wave is the decay into inertia-gravity waves and the eventual formation of a localised wavepacket. Here this initial value problem is considered within the context of the Ostrovsky, or the rotation-modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), equation and a numerical method for obtaining accurate wavepacket solutions is presented. The flow evolutions are described in the regimes of relatively-strong and relatively-weak rotational effects. When rotational effects are relatively strong a second-order soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation accurately predicts the shape, and phase and group velocities of the numerically determined wavepackets. It is suggested that these solitons may form from a local Benjamin-Feir instability in the inertia-gravity wave-train radiated when a KdV solitary wave rapidly adjusts to the presence of strong rotation. When rotational effects are relatively weak the initial KdV solitary wave remains coherent longer, decaying only slowly due to weak radiation and modulational instability is no longer relevant. Wavepacket solutions in this regime appear to consist of a modulated KdV soliton wavetrain propagating on a slowly varying background of finite extent.

  1. Rotating speed control apparatus for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Umehara, K.

    1987-10-06

    A rotating speed control apparatus is described for controlling the rotating speed of an internal combustion engine, comprising: a capacitive discharge ignition circuit; rotating speed detecting circuit means for monitoring the rotating speed for the engine; overspeed preventing circuit means cooperable with the capacitive discharge ignition circuit and responsive to the rotating speed detecting circuit means; and independently manually actuable cut-off circuit means for disabling the overspeed preventing circuit means so as to prevent the overspeed preventing circuit means from limiting the rotating speed of the engine; wherein the cut-off circuit means includes a reset switch and is actuated in response to manual actuation of the reset switch; wherein the reset switch is a momentary push button switch; wherein following manual actuation of the momentary push button switch the cut-off circuit means remains continuously actuated until the engine is stopped, and wherein at a subsequent restart of the engine the cut-off circuit means is deactuated; wherein the ignition circuit includes a capacitive charging coil, wherein the push button switch has first and second terminals; and wherein the cut-off circuit means includes: a thyristor; a first resistor; a second resistor; a third resistor; a capacitor; first means electrically coupling the capacitive charging coil of the ignition circuit to the first terminal of the push button switch; and second means electrically coupling the anode of the thyristor to the overspeed preventing circuit means.

  2. Vibrational spectrum and internal rotation in 2,3-dimethylpyrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, J. F.; Lòpez-Navarrete, J. T.; Marcos, J. I.; Otero, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra of 2,3-dimethylpyrazine have been recorded and assigned on the basis of a C2v molecular geometry previously determined by MINDO/3. The potential energy function corresponding to the internal rotation of both methyl groups has been used to solve the Schrödinger equation and to obtain the energy levels of that motion on the basis of a molecular geometry G36. The rotation of the substituents is not independent and they behave as two geared rotors.

  3. Vibrational spectrum and internal rotation in 2,6-dimethylpyrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, J. F.; Lopez-Navarrete, J. T.; Marcos, J. I.; Otero, J. C.

    1989-06-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine have been recorded and assigned on the basis of a C2v molecular geometry previously determined by MINDO/3. The potential energy function corresponding to the internal rotation of both methyl groups has been used to solve the Schrödinger equation, and to obtain the energy levels of that motion on the basis of a molecular symmetry G36. The rotation of each methyl group is found to be independent of the other.

  4. Vibrational spectrum and internal rotation in 2,5-dimethylpyrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, J. F.; López-Navarrete, J. T.; Marcos, J. I.; Otero, J. C.

    1987-11-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine have been recorded and assigned on the basis of a C2h molecular geometry previously determined by MINDO/3. The potential energy function corresponding to the internal rotation of both methyl groups has been used to solve the Schrödinger equation, and to obtain the energy levels of that motion on the basis of a molecular symmetry G36. The rotation of each substituent is found to be almost independent of the other.

  5. Exploring the origin of the internal rotational barrier for molecules with one rotatable dihedral angle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shubin; Govind, Niranjan; Pedersen, Lee G.

    2008-01-01

    Continuing our recent endeavor, we systematically investigate in this work the origin of internal rotational barriers for small molecules using the new energy partition scheme proposed recently by one of the authors [S. B. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 244103 (2007)], where the total electronic energy is decomposed into three independent components, steric, electrostatic, and fermionic quantum. Specifically, we focus in this work on six carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen containing hydrides, CH3CH3, CH3NH2, CH3OH, NH2NH2, NH2OH, and H2O2, with only one rotatable dihedral angle ∠H–X–Y–H (X,Y=C,N,O). The relative contributions of the different energy components to the total energy difference as a function of the internal dihedral rotation will be considered. Both optimized-geometry (adiabatic) and fixed-geometry (vertical) differences are examined, as are the results from the conventional energy partition and natural bond orbital analysis. A wealth of strong linear relationships among the total energy difference and energy component differences for different systems have been observed but no universal relationship applicable to all systems for both cases has been discovered, indicating that even for simple systems such as these, there exists no omnipresent, unique interpretation on the nature and origin of the internal rotation barrier. Different energy components can be employed for different systems in the rationalization of the barrier height. Confirming that the two differences, adiabatic and vertical, are disparate in nature, we find that for the vertical case there is a unique linear relationship applicable to all the six molecules between the total energy difference and the sum of the kinetic and electrostatic energy differences. For the adiabatic case, it is the total potential energy difference that has been found to correlate well with the total energy difference except for ethane whose rotation barrier is dominated by the quantum effect. PMID:19044862

  6. Anatomical glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and symmetric rotational strength in male and female young beach volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Saccol, Michele Forgiarini; Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; de Souza, Vivian Lima

    2016-08-01

    Beach volleyball is a sport with a high demand of shoulder structures that may lead to adaptations in range of motion (ROM) and strength like in other overhead sports. Despite of these possible alterations, no study evaluated the shoulder adaptations in young beach volleyball athletes. The aim of this study was to compare the bilateral ROM and rotation strength in the shoulders of young beach volleyball players. Goniometric passive shoulder ROM of motion and isometric rotational strength were evaluated in 19 male and 14 female asymptomatic athletes. External and internal ROM, total rotation motion, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD), external rotation and internal rotation strength, bilateral deficits and external rotation to internal rotation ratio were measured. The statistical analysis included paired Student's t-test and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Significantly lower dominant GIRD was found in both groups (p<0.05), but only 6 athletes presented pathological GIRD. For strength variables, no significant differences for external or internal rotation were evident. Young beach volleyball athletes present symmetric rotational strength and shoulder ROM rotational adaptations that can be considered as anatomical. These results indicate that young practitioners of beach volleyball are subject to moderate adaptations compared to those reported for other overhead sports. PMID:26360827

  7. On the stellar rotation-activity connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between rotation rates and surface activity in late-type dwarf stars is explored in a survey of recent theoretical and observational studies. Current theoretical models of stellar-magnetic-field production and coronal activity are examined, including linear kinematic dynamo theory, nonlinear dynamos using approximations, and full numerical simulations of the MHD equations; and some typical results are presented graphically. The limitations of the modeling procedures and the constraints imposed by the physics are indicated. The statistical techniques used in establishing correlations between various observational parameters are analyzed critically, and the methods developed for quasar luminosity functions by Avni et al. (1980) are used to evaluate the effects of upper detection bounds, incomplete samples, and missing data for the case of rotation and X-ray flux data.

  8. Unusual Internal Rotation Coupling in the Microwave Spectrum of Pinacolone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, YueYue; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Stahl, Wolfgang; Hougen, Jon T.

    2015-06-01

    The molecular-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrum of pinacolone (methyl tert-butyl ketone) has been measured in several regions between 2 and 40 GHz. Assignments of a large number of A and E transitions were confirmed by combination differences, but fits of the assigned spectrum using several torsion-rotation computer programs based on different models led to the unexpected conclusion that no existing program correctly captures the internal dynamics of this molecule. A second puzzle arose when it became clear that roughly half of the spectrum remained unassigned even after all predicted transitions were added to the assignment list. Quantum chemical calculations carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level indicate that this molecule does not have a plane of symmetry at equilibrium, and that internal rotation of the light methyl group induces a large oscillatory motion of the heavy tert-butyl group from one side of the C_s saddle point to the other. The effect of this non-C_s equilibrium structure was modeled for J = 0 levels by a simple two-top torsional Hamiltonian, where magnitudes of the strong top-top coupling terms were determined directly from the ab initio two-dimensional potential surface. A plot of the resultant torsional levels on the same scale as a one-dimensional potential curve along the zig-zag path connecting the six (unequally spaced) minima bears a striking resemblance to the 1:2:1 splitting pattern of levels in an internal rotation problem with a six-fold barrier. A plot of the six minima closely resembles the potential surface for methylamine. This talk will focus on implications of these resemblances for future work.

  9. Actively suspended counter-rotating machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A counter-rotating machine, such as a positive displacement pump having a pair of meshed, non-contacting helical screws (10,12), subjects its rotating members to axial and radial thrust forces when used for such purposes as compression of liquid or gaseous phase fluids while transporting them through a pump cavity (11,13). Each helical screw (10,12) has a shaft (17,17') which is actively suspended at opposite ends (11a,11b) of the pump cavity by a servo-controlled magnetic bearing assembly (19) and a servo-controlled rotary drive motor (20). Both bearing assemblies and drive motors are mounted on the outside of the pump cavity (11,13). Opto-electric angular position sensors (250) provide synchronization between radial orientation of the drive motors. The bearing assemblies and drive motors conjugately provide axial stabilization and radial centering of the helical screws during volumetric compression of aspirated liquid or gaseous phase fluids.

  10. Effects of electron-cyclotron-resonance-heating-induced internal kink mode on the toroidal rotation in the KSTAR Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Seol, J; Lee, S G; Park, B H; Lee, H H; Terzolo, L; Shaing, K C; You, K I; Yun, G S; Kim, C C; Lee, K D; Ko, W H; Kwak, J G; Kim, W C; Oh, Y K; Kim, J Y; Kim, S S; Ida, K

    2012-11-01

    It is observed that the magnitude of the toroidal rotation speed is reduced by the central electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) regardless of the direction of the toroidal rotation. The magnetohydrodynamics activities generally appear with the rotation change due to ECRH. It is shown that the internal kink mode is induced by the central ECRH and breaks the toroidal symmetry. When the magnetohydrodynamics activities are present, the toroidal plasma viscosity is not negligible. The observed effects of ECRH on the toroidal plasma rotation are explained by the neoclassical toroidal viscosity in this Letter. It is found that the neoclassical toroidal viscosity torque caused by the internal kink mode damps the toroidal rotation. PMID:23215391

  11. Relationship between spinal range of motion and trunk muscle activity during trunk rotation

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Rie; Wada, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between spinal range of motion and trunk muscle activity during trunk rotation using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and surface electromyography. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects comprised 11 healthy men. A three-dimensional motion analysis system measured the trunk rotational angle of 4 segments of the thoracic vertebrae and 2 segments of the lumbar vertebrae. Surface electromyography measured the activities of the unilateral latissimus dorsi, lumbar multifidus, rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles. [Results] During ipsilateral rotation at thoracic vertebral levels, the muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi and external oblique was significantly increased compared with the activity in the 0–10% range of trunk rotation. During early ipsilateral rotation at lumbar vertebral levels, the muscle activity of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis was significantly increased compared with that in the 0–10% range of trunk rotation. During contralateral rotation at both thoracic and lumbar vertebral levels, the muscle activity of the external oblique was significantly increased compared with that in the 0–10% range of trunk rotation. [Conclusion] This study indicates that it is important to consider vertebral segments and spinal range of motion during trunk rotation. PMID:27065549

  12. Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fatigue Failure Is Increased by Limited Internal Femoral Rotation During In Vitro Repeated Pivot Landings

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L.; Wojtys, Edward M.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A reduced range of hip internal rotation is associated with increased peak anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and risk for injury. It is unknown, however, whether limiting the available range of internal femoral rotation increases the susceptibility of the ACL to fatigue failure. Hypothesis Risk of ACL failure is significantly greater in female knee specimens with a limited range of internal femoral rotation, smaller femoral-ACL attachment angle, and smaller tibial eminence volume during repeated in vitro simulated single-leg pivot landings. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods A custom-built testing apparatus was used to simulate repeated single-leg pivot landings with a 4×-body weight impulsive load that induces knee compression, knee flexion, and internal tibial torque in 32 paired human knee specimens from 8 male and 8 female donors. These test loads were applied to each pair of specimens, in one knee with limited internal femoral rotation and in the contralateral knee with femoral rotation resisted by 2 springs to simulate the active hip rotator muscles’ resistance to stretch. The landings were repeated until ACL failure occurred or until a minimum of 100 trials were executed. The angle at which the ACL originates from the femur and the tibial eminence volume were measured on magnetic resonance images. Results The final Cox regression model (P = .024) revealed that range of internal femoral rotation and sex of donor were significant factors in determining risk of ACL fatigue failure. The specimens with limited range of internal femoral rotation had a failure risk 17.1 times higher than did the specimens with free rotation (P = .016). The female knee specimens had a risk of ACL failure 26.9 times higher than the male specimens (P = .055). Conclusion Limiting the range of internal femoral rotation during repetitive pivot landings increases the risk of an ACL fatigue failure in comparison with free rotation in a cadaveric model

  13. Rotational signal detecting apparatus for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Koshida, R.

    1988-09-27

    This patent describes a rotational signal detecting apparatus comprising: a housing; a rotor shaft attached to the housing so as to be freely rotatable, the rotor shaft rotating in synchronism with a crankshaft or a cam shaft of an engine; a photoelectric pickup comprising a first rotating portion fixed to the rotor shaft so as to rotate with the rotor shaft as one body, a first fixed portion attached to the housing, the fixed portion having photoelectronic conversion means for outputting a signal varying according to the quantity of incident light varied in synchronism with the rotation of the rotating portion, the first rotating portion and the photoelectric conversion means comprising a first reference signal detecting means for generating a first reference signal each time the crankshaft rotates by a first predetermined angle and a position signal detecting means for generating q position signal each time the crankshaft rotates by a second predetermined angle which is smaller than the first predetermined angle; and an electromagnetic pickup comprising a second rotating portion fixed to the rotor shaft so as to rotate with the rotor shaft as one body and a second fixed portion integrally attached to the housing.

  14. International Activities of ASE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Lynne; Jackson, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The Association for Science Education (ASE) has been involved in exchanges with various countries in a number of ways. Teachers from all over the world visit the Annual Conference and their own associations have often used ASE methods in developing their own programmes. The responsibilities of the International Committee of ASE range from…

  15. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation.

  16. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1994-02-15

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation. 4 figures.

  17. Reliability of Measurement of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation, External Rotation, and Total Arc of Motion in 3 Test Positions

    PubMed Central

    Kevern, Mark A.; Beecher, Michael; Rao, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Context: Athletes who participate in throwing and racket sports consistently demonstrate adaptive changes in glenohumeral-joint internal and external rotation in the dominant arm. Measurements of these motions have demonstrated excellent intrarater and poor interrater reliability. Objective: To determine intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and standard error of measurement for shoulder internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion using an inclinometer in 3 testing procedures in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I baseball and softball athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic department. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight players participated in the study. Shoulder internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion were measured by 2 investigators in 3 test positions. The standard supine position was compared with a side-lying test position, as well as a supine test position without examiner overpressure. Results: Excellent intrarater reliability was noted for all 3 test positions and ranges of motion, with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.93 to 0.99. Results for interrater reliability were less favorable. Reliability for internal rotation was highest in the side-lying position (0.68) and reliability for external rotation and total arc was highest in the supine-without-overpressure position (0.774 and 0.713, respectively). The supine-with-overpressure position yielded the lowest interrater reliability results in all positions. The side-lying position had the most consistent results, with very little variation among intraclass correlation coefficient values for the various test positions. Conclusions: The results of our study clearly indicate that the side-lying test procedure is of equal or greater value than the traditional supine-with-overpressure method. PMID:25188316

  18. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  19. Coarsening dynamics of binary liquids with active rotation.

    PubMed

    Sabrina, Syeda; Spellings, Matthew; Glotzer, Sharon C; Bishop, Kyle J M

    2015-11-21

    Active matter comprised of many self-driven units can exhibit emergent collective behaviors such as pattern formation and phase separation in both biological (e.g., mussel beds) and synthetic (e.g., colloidal swimmers) systems. While these behaviors are increasingly well understood for ensembles of linearly self-propelled "particles", less is known about the collective behaviors of active rotating particles where energy input at the particle level gives rise to rotational particle motion. A recent simulation study revealed that active rotation can induce phase separation in mixtures of counter-rotating particles in 2D. In contrast to that of linearly self-propelled particles, the phase separation of counter-rotating fluids is accompanied by steady convective flows that originate at the fluid-fluid interface. Here, we investigate the influence of these flows on the coarsening dynamics of actively rotating binary liquids using a phenomenological, hydrodynamic model that combines a Cahn-Hilliard equation for the fluid composition with a Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid velocity. The effect of active rotation is introduced though an additional force within the Navier-Stokes equations that arises due to gradients in the concentrations of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating particles. Depending on the strength of active rotation and that of frictional interactions with the stationary surroundings, we observe and explain new dynamical behaviors such as "active coarsening" via self-generated flows as well as the emergence of self-propelled "vortex doublets". We confirm that many of the qualitative behaviors identified by the continuum model can also be found in discrete, particle-based simulations of actively rotating liquids. Our results highlight further opportunities for achieving complex dissipative structures in active materials subject to distributed actuation. PMID:26345231

  20. Reliability of a New Clinical Instrument for Measuring Internal and External Glenohumeral Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Lindenfeld, Thomas N.; Fleckenstein, Cassie M.; Levy, Martin S.; Grood, Edward S.; Frush, Todd J.; Parameswaran, A. Dushi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The shoulder plays a critical role in many overhead athletic activities. Several studies have shown alterations in shoulder range of motion (ROM) in the dominant shoulder of overhead athletes and correlation with significantly increased risk of injury to the shoulder and elbow. The purpose of this study was to measure isolated glenohumeral joint internal/external rotation (IR/ER) to determine inter- and intraobserver reliability of a new clinical device. Hypothesis: (1) Inter- and intraobserver reliability would exceed 90% for measures of glenohumeral joint IR, ER, and total arc of motion; (2) the dominant arm would exhibit significantly increased ER, significantly decreased IR, and no difference in total arc of motion compared with the nondominant shoulder; and (3) a significant difference exists in total arc between male and female patients. Study Design: Case series. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Thirty-seven subjects (mean age, 23 years; range, 13-54 years) were tested by 2 orthopaedic surgeons. A single test consisted of 1 arc of motion from neutral to external rotation to internal rotation and back to neutral within preset torque limits. Each examiner performed 3 tests on the dominant and nondominant shoulders. Each examiner completed 2 installations. Results: Testing reliability demonstrated that neither trial, installation, nor observer were significant sources of variation. The maximum standard deviation was 1.3° for total arc of motion and less than 2° for most other measurements. Dominant arm ER was significantly greater than nondominant arm ER (P = 0.02), and dominant arm IR was significantly less than nondominant arm IR (P = 0.00). Mean total rotation was 162°, with no significant differences in total rotation between dominant and nondominant arms (P = 0.34). Mean total arc of motion was 45° greater in female subjects. Differences in total arc of motion between male and female subjects was statistically significant (P < 0

  1. The research rotation: competency-based structured and novel approach to research training of internal medicine residents

    PubMed Central

    Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Deng, Changchun; Erickson, Savil N; Valerio, Jose A; Dimitrov, Vihren; Soni, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Background In the United States, the Accreditation Council of graduate medical education (ACGME) requires all accredited Internal medicine residency training programs to facilitate resident scholarly activities. However, clinical experience and medical education still remain the main focus of graduate medical education in many Internal Medicine (IM) residency-training programs. Left to design the structure, process and outcome evaluation of the ACGME research requirement, residency-training programs are faced with numerous barriers. Many residency programs report having been cited by the ACGME residency review committee in IM for lack of scholarly activity by residents. Methods We would like to share our experience at Lincoln Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College Cornell University New York, in designing and implementing a successful structured research curriculum based on ACGME competencies taught during a dedicated "research rotation". Results Since the inception of the research rotation in 2004, participation of our residents among scholarly activities has substantially increased. Our residents increasingly believe and appreciate that research is an integral component of residency training and essential for practice of medicine. Conclusion Internal medicine residents' outlook in research can be significantly improved using a research curriculum offered through a structured and dedicated research rotation. This is exemplified by the improvement noted in resident satisfaction, their participation in scholarly activities and resident research outcomes since the inception of the research rotation in our internal medicine training program. PMID:17044924

  2. Video- Demonstrations of Stable and Unstable Solid Body Rotation on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video clip, Pettit demonstrates stable and unstable modes for solid body rotation on the ISS. Using a hard cover textbook, he demonstrates that it will rotate stably about the longest and shortest axis, which represent the maximum and minimum movements of Inertia. Trying to rotate the book around an intermediate axis results in an unstable rotation in which the book appears to flip-flop while it rotates.

  3. Roles of Shape and Internal Structure in Rotational Disruption of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Scheeres, Daniel Jay

    2015-08-01

    An active research area over the last decade has been to explore configuration changes of rubble pile asteroids due to rotationally induced disruption, initially driven by the remarkable fact that there is a spin period threshold of 2 hr for asteroids larger than a few hundred meters in size. Several different disruption modes due to rapid rotation can be identified, as surface shedding, fission and failure of the internal structure. Relevant to these discussions are many observations of asteroid shapes that have revealed a diversity of forms such as oblate spheroids with equatorial ridges, strongly elongated shapes and contact binaries, to say nothing of multi-body systems. With consideration that rotationally induced deformation is one of the primary drivers of asteroid evolution, we have been developing two techniques for investigating the structure of asteroids, while accounting for their internal mechanical properties through plastic theory. The first technique developed is an analytical model based on limit analysis, which provides rigorous bounds on the asteroid mechanical properties for their shapes to remain stable. The second technique applies finite element model analysis that accounts for plastic deformation. Combining these models, we have explored the correlation between unique shape features and failure modes. First, we have been able to show that contact binary asteroids preferentially fail at their narrow necks at a relatively slow spin period, due to stress concentration. Second, applying these techniques to the breakup event of active asteroid P/2013 R3, we have been able to develop explicit constraints on the cohesion within rubble pile asteroids. Third, by probing the effect of inhomogeneous material properties, we have been able to develop conditions for whether an oblate body will fail internally or through surface shedding. These different failure modes can be tested by measuring the density distribution within a rubble pile body through

  4. Anatomical relationship between the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein during head rotation

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Satoru; Nakazawa, Ken; Onozawa, Shiro; Mine, Takahiko; Ueda, Tatsuo; Yamaguchi, Hidenori; Yasui, Daisuke; Takeda, Minako; Kumita, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the anatomical relationship between the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein during head rotation for the effective performance of percutaneous transjugular procedures. The subjects included 30 volunteers who had never undergone internal jugular vein cannulation. In the supine position, two-dimensional ultrasonographic images of the right internal jugular vein and common carotid artery were obtained, 2 and 4 cm above the clavicle, along the lateral border of the sternal head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Ultrasonographic images were examined for head rotation at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° from the midline to the left. The percentage of overlap of the common carotid artery by the internal jugular vein and the flattening of the internal jugular vein at each head rotation position were measured and evaluated. The overlap of the common carotid artery by the internal jugular vein significantly increased at ≥45° of head rotation 2 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01) and at ≥30° of head rotation 4 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01), compared with that observed in the neutral position. The flattening of the internal jugular vein significantly decreased at ≥45° of head rotation 2 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01) and at ≥30° of head rotation 4 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01). Head rotation should be kept to <45° at 2 cm above the clavicle and <30° at 4 cm above the clavicle to decrease the risk of accidental puncture of the common carotid artery during internal jugular vein puncture. Moreover, flattening of the internal jugular vein gradually decreases during head rotation to the side.

  5. Starspots and Stellar Rotation: Stellar Activity with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkowicz, L. M.; Basri, G. S.

    2011-12-01

    While the telescopic study of starspots dates back to Galileos observations of our own Sun, recent space-borne photometric missions (such as MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler) are opening a new window into understanding these ubiquitous manifestations of stellar activity. Because of the intimate link between stellar rotation and the generation of the magnetic field, starspots cause a modulation in the lightcurve at the rate of stellar rotation. To complicate matters, stars rotate differentially, so the stellar rotation rate is not really best characterized by a single value but rather by a range of rotation rates. Through high-precision, long-term photometric monitoring of stars of different spectral types and activity strengths, it is possible to determine stellar rotation rates and differential rotation measures. In addition, modeling these lightcurves can tell us about the properties of stellar spots, such as location, areal coverage, and lifetime. New observations provide precision photometry for a large cohort of stars, ranging from Sun-like to rather different stellar properties, at a spread of ages, making these lightcurves a powerful tool for understanding magnetic activity for stars of all activity levels. Here, I will discuss how Kepler can provide new insight into the continuum of stellar activity and our own Suns place amongst the stars.

  6. a Microwave Spectroscopic Study of Methylated Indoles: Internal Rotation and Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurusinghe, Ranil; Tubergen, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The barrier to methyl internal rotation of an asymmetric two ring system depends on the position of the methyl substitution. A cavity based Fourier transform microwave spectrometer was used to record rotational spectra of different methyl substituted indoles in the range of 10.5 - 20 GHz. About 160 hyperfine components arising from about 30 rotational transitions were assigned for each 1- and 3-methylindole. The program XIAMa was used to fit the rotational constants, distortion constants, nuclear quadrupole coupling constants and barrier to internal rotation to the measured transition frequencies of the A and E internal rotation states. The best fit values for the rotational constants are A = 2651.12(2) MHz, B = 1305.266(2) MHz, C = 879.800(2) MHz for 1-methylindole and A = 2603.7224(5) MHz, B = 1268.7886(1) MHz, C = 857.8091(1) MHz for 3-methylindole. The different values observed for the barrier to internal rotation, 279.8(3) wn for 1-methylindole and 433(1) wn for 3-methylindole, may be due to the different rotor axis lengths and differences in local π-electron density. Progress on the assignment of additional methylated indoles will also be presented. aH. Hartwig and H. Dreizler, Z. Naturforsch, 51a, 923 - 932.

  7. Differential activity of regions of transversus abdominis during trunk rotation.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Donna M; Hodges, Paul W

    2005-05-01

    The role of the abdominal muscles in trunk rotation is not comprehensively understood. This study investigated the electromyographic (EMG) activity of anatomically distinct regions of the abdominal muscles during trunk rotation in six subjects with no history of spinal pain. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted into the right abdominal wall; upper region of transversus abdominis (TrA), middle region of TrA, obliquus internus abdominis (OI) and obliquus externus abdominis (OE), and lower region of TrA and OI. Surface electrodes were placed over right rectus abdominis (RA). Subjects performed trunk rotation to the left and right in sitting by rotating their pelvis relative to a fixed thorax. EMG activity was recorded in relaxed supine and sitting, and during an isometric hold at end range. TrA was consistently active during trunk rotation, with the recruitment patterns of the upper fascicles opposite to that of the middle and lower fascicles. During left rotation, there was greater activity of the lower and middle regions of contralateral TrA and the lower region of contralateral OI. The upper region of ipsilateral TrA and OE were predominately active during right rotation. In contrast, there was no difference in activity of RA and middle OI between directions (although middle OI was different between directions for all but one subject). This study indicates that TrA is active during trunk rotation, but this activity varies between muscle regions. These normative data will assist in understanding the role of TrA in lumbopelvic control and movement, and the effect of spinal pain on abdominal muscle recruitment. PMID:15940481

  8. Near-uniform internal rotation of the main-sequence γ Doradus pulsator KIC 7661054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Simon J.; Fossati, Luca; Bedding, Timothy R.; Saio, Hideyuki; Kurtz, Donald W.; Grassitelli, Luca; Wang, Edric S.

    2016-06-01

    We used Kepler photometry to determine the internal rotation rate of KIC 7661054, a chemically normal γ Dor star on the main sequence at spectral type F2.5 V. The core rotation period of 27.25 ± 0.06 d is obtained from the rotational splittings of a series of dipole g modes. The surface rotation period is calculated from a spectroscopic projected rotation velocity and a stellar radius computed from models. Literature data, obtained without inclusion of macroturbulence as a line-broadening mechanism, imply that the surface rotates much more quickly than the core, while our detailed analysis suggests that the surface may rotate slightly more quickly than the core and that the rotation profile is uniform within the 1σ uncertainties. We discuss the pitfalls associated with the determination of surface rotation rates of slow rotators from spectroscopy in the absence of asteroseismic constraints. A broad signal is observed at low frequency, which we show cannot be attributed to rotation, contrary to previous suggestions concerning the origin of such signals.

  9. Comparison of humeral rotation co-activation of breast cancer population and healthy shoulders.

    PubMed

    Brookham, Rebecca L; Dickerson, Clark R

    2016-08-01

    Upper limb morbidities are common amongst the breast cancer population (BCP) and have a direct impact on independence. Comparing muscle co-activation strategies between BCP and healthy populations may assist in identifying muscle dysfunction and promote clinical interpretation of dysfunction, which could direct preventative and therapeutic interventions. The purposes of this study were to define humeral rotation muscle co-activation of a BCP and to compare it with a previously defined co-activation relationship of a healthy population. Fifty BCP survivors performed 18 isometric internal and external rotation exertions at various postures and intensities. Surface and intramuscular electrodes recorded shoulder muscle activity. BCP co-activation was predicted at r(2)=0.77 during both exertion types. Humeral abduction angle and task intensity were important factors in the prediction of co-activation in both populations. Comparisons made between populations identified differing muscle strategies used by BCP to maintain postural control. Compared to healthy co-activation, the BCP demonstrated greater activation of internal (IR) and external rotator (ER) type muscles during their respective rotation type. The BCP demonstrated increased (⩾8.7%) activation of pectoralis major. This study has provided insight into how BCP muscles compensate during dysfunction. Continued advancement of this knowledge can provide more understanding of dysfunction, promote generation of evidence-based therapies, and can be useful in biomechanical modeling. PMID:26296634

  10. Generalized Investigation of the Rotation-Activity Relation: Favoring Rotation Period instead of Rossby Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiners, A.; Schüssler, M.; Passegger, V. M.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic activity in Sun-like and low-mass stars causes X-ray coronal emission which is stronger for more rapidly rotating stars. This relation is often interpreted in terms of the Rossby number, i.e., the ratio of rotation period to convective overturn time. We reconsider this interpretation on the basis of the observed X-ray emission and rotation periods of 821 stars with masses below 1.4 M ⊙. A generalized analysis of the relation between X-ray luminosity normalized by bolometric luminosity, L X/L bol, and combinations of rotational period, P, and stellar radius, R, shows that the Rossby formulation does not provide the solution with minimal scatter. Instead, we find that the relation L X/L bolvpropP -2 R -4 optimally describes the non-saturated fraction of the stars. This relation is equivalent to L XvpropP -2, indicating that the rotation period alone determines the total X-ray emission. Since L X is directly related to the magnetic flux at the stellar surface, this means that the surface flux is determined solely by the star's rotation and is independent of other stellar parameters. While a formulation in terms of a Rossby number would be consistent with these results if the convective overturn time scales exactly as L_bol-1/2, our generalized approach emphasizes the need to test a broader range of mechanisms for dynamo action in cool stars.

  11. On the internal rotations in p-cresol in its ground and first electronically excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, Arnim; Hättig, Christof

    2007-07-01

    The overall rotation and internal rotation of p-cresol (4-methyl-phenol) has been studied by comparison of the microwave spectrum with accurate ab initio calculations using the principal axis method in the electronic ground state. Both internal rotations, the torsions of the methyl and the hydroxyl groups relative to the aromatic ring, have been investigated. The internal rotation of the hydroxyl group can be approximately described as the motion of a symmetrical rotor on an asymmetric frame. For the methyl group it has been found that the potential barrier hindering its internal rotation is very small with the first two nonvanishing Fourier coefficients of the potential V3 and V6 in the same order of magnitude. Different splittings of b-type transitions for the A and E species of the methyl torsion indicate a top-top interaction between both internal rotors through the benzene ring. An effective coupling potential for the top-top interaction could be estimated. The hindering barriers of the hydroxyl and methyl rotation have been calculated using second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory and the approximate coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles model (CC2) in the ground state and using CC2 and the algebraic diagrammatic construction through second order in the first electronically excited state. The results are in excellent agreement with the experimental values.

  12. EM international activities. February 1997 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

  13. Rotational spectroscopy of antipyretics: Conformation, structure, and internal dynamics of phenazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Écija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Lesarri, Alberto; Fernández, José A.; Caminati, Walther; Castaño, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    The conformational and structural preferences of phenazone (antipyrine), the prototype of non-opioid pyrazolone antipyretics, have been probed in a supersonic jet expansion using rotational spectroscopy. The conformational landscape of the two-ring assembly was first explored computationally, but only a single conformer was predicted, with the N-phenyl and N-methyl groups on opposite sides of the pyrazolone ring. Consistently, the microwave spectrum evidenced a rotational signature arising from a single molecular structure. The spectrum exhibited very complicated fine and hyperfine patterns (not resolvable with any other spectroscopic technique) originated by the simultaneous coupling of the methyl group internal rotation and the spins of the two 14N nuclei with the overall rotation. The internal rotation tunnelling was ascribed to the C-CH3 group and the barrier height established experimentally (7.13(10) kJ mol-1). The internal rotation of the N-CH3 group has a lower limit of 9.4 kJ mol-1. The structure of the molecule was determined from the rotational parameters, with the phenyl group elevated ca. 25° with respect to the average plane of the pyrazolic moiety and a phenyl torsion of ca. 52°. The origin of the conformational preferences is discussed in terms of the competition between intramolecular C-H⋯N and C-H⋯O weak hydrogen bonds.

  14. International Heliophysical Year: European Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, C.

    2007-08-01

    The First European General Assembly of the "International Heliophysical Year" (IHY) took place at the headquarters of the Centre Nationial de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, 10-13 January 2006. There were 113 participants representing 27 nations. The science concerned with the International Heliophysical Year programme was first illustrated. Then, the status of current instruments as well as practical information on the campaign management policy was given. Twenty European National Coordinators described the progress of their IHY activities. Representatives from Egypt, Angola and the coordinator of the Balkan, Black and Caspian Sea Region also reported on the progress of IHY activities in their respective regions. People from the IHY Secretariat provided a summary of the global IHY efforts including the United Nations Basic Space Sciences Program. In the education and public outreach front, a variety of activities have been planned: TV and radio shows, board games on space weather, specific programmes for schools and universities, workshops for teachers are some of the actions that were presented by the delegates. Beyond of these national and individual initiatives, specific activities requiring European coordination were discussed. This paper provides an extended summary of the main talks and discussions that held during the meeting.

  15. Polarization rotator-splitters in standard active silicon photonics platforms.

    PubMed

    Sacher, Wesley D; Barwicz, Tymon; Taylor, Benjamin J F; Poon, Joyce K S

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate various silicon-on-insulator polarization management structures based on a polarization rotator-splitter that uses a bi-level taper TM0-TE1 mode converter. The designs are fully compatible with standard active silicon photonics platforms with no new levels required and were implemented in the IME baseline and IME-OpSIS silicon photonics processes. We demonstrate a polarization rotator-splitter with polarization crosstalk < -13 dB over a bandwidth of 50 nm. Then, we improve the crosstalk to < -22 dB over a bandwidth of 80 nm by integrating the polarization rotator-splitter with directional coupler polarization filters. Finally, we demonstrate a polarization controller by integrating the polarization rotator-splitters with directional couplers, thermal tuners, and PIN diode phase shifters. PMID:24663698

  16. Rotation in a reversed field pinch with active feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconello, M.; Menmuir, S.; Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.

    2006-09-01

    Active feedback stabilization of multiple resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been successfully proven in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. One of the features of plasma discharges operated with active feedback stabilization, in addition to the prolongation of the plasma discharge, is the sustainment of the plasma rotation. Sustained rotation is observed both for the internally resonant tearing modes (TMs) and the intrinsic impurity oxygen ions. Good quantitative agreement between the toroidal rotation velocities of both is found: the toroidal rotation is characterized by an acceleration phase followed, after one wall time, by a deceleration phase that is slower than in standard discharges. The TMs and the impurity ions rotate in the same poloidal direction with also similar velocities. Poloidal and toroidal velocities have comparable amplitudes and a simple model of their radial profile reproduces the main features of the helical angular phase velocity. RWMs feedback does not qualitatively change the TMs behaviour and typical phenomena such as the dynamo and the 'slinky' are still observed. The improved sustainment of the plasma and TMs rotation occurs also when feedback only acts on internally non-resonant RWMs. This may be due to an indirect positive effect, through non-linear coupling between TMs and RWMs, of feedback on the TMs or to a reduced plasma-wall interaction affecting the plasma flow rotation. Electromagnetic torque calculations show that with active feedback stabilization the TMs amplitude remains well below the locking threshold condition for a thick shell. Finally, it is suggested that active feedback stabilization of RWMs and current profile control techniques can be employed simultaneously thus improving both the plasma duration and its confinement properties.

  17. Internal rotation and toroidal part of the magnetic field of AB Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiremath, K. M.

    2000-06-01

    We solve analytically Chandrasekhar's (1956) MHD equations for the steady parts of internal rotation and toroidal component of the magnetic field of the AB Doradus. By taking observed (Donati and Cameron 1997) surface rotation as the boundary condition and assuming that the base of the convection zone rotates rigidly, we estimate the size of the convective envelope to be 40% of the radius and the rotation velocity at the base to be not less than 1.42 x 10-4 rad/sec. We deduce that the toroidal magnetic field is distributed throughout the convective envelope. By taking the average density of 1.78gm cm-3 and radius 5.95 x 1010 cms (Allen 1972), we obtain a Mega gauss field near base of the convective envelope. We present rotational and toroidal magnetic field profiles in the interior, and conjecture on the time dependent part of the magnetic field.

  18. Development of a neurology rotation for internal medicine residents in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Aaron L; Martineau, Louine; Morse, Michelle E; Israel, Kerling

    2016-01-15

    In many low-income countries where there are few or no neurologists, patients with neurologic diseases are cared for by primary care physicians who receive no formal training in neurology. Here, we report our experience creating a neurology rotation for internal medicine residents in rural Haiti through a collaboration between a public academic medical center in Haiti and a visiting neurologist. We describe the structure of the rotation and the factors that led to its development. PMID:26723993

  19. Rotation and internal dynamics of Mars from future geodesy experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, V.; Folkner, W.; Chicarro, A.

    2009-09-01

    The LaRa (Lander Radioscience) experiment on the lander platform of the ExoMars mission (the Humboldt Payload) on the surface of Mars is designed to obtain coherent two-way Doppler measurements from the radio link between the ExoMars lander and the Earth over at least one third of a Martian year. We have set up a design for LaRa and realized a breadboard. Complementary to LaRa, in the future network-science Mars-NEXT mission, there will be radio links between other landers at the surface of Mars and the orbiter and a radio link between the orbiter and the Earth. The Mars-NEXT mission to Mars addresses different fields of investigation, of which an important part is related to planetary rotation and interior structure as for LaRa. With the objectives to determine interior properties of Mars as well as angular momentum changes induced by CO2 sublimation/condensation process, we have simulated these Doppler measurements and developed a strategy for reaching these goals.

  20. Generalized investigation of the rotation-activity relation: favoring rotation period instead of Rossby number

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, A.; Passegger, V. M.; Schüssler, M.

    2014-10-20

    Magnetic activity in Sun-like and low-mass stars causes X-ray coronal emission which is stronger for more rapidly rotating stars. This relation is often interpreted in terms of the Rossby number, i.e., the ratio of rotation period to convective overturn time. We reconsider this interpretation on the basis of the observed X-ray emission and rotation periods of 821 stars with masses below 1.4 M {sub ☉}. A generalized analysis of the relation between X-ray luminosity normalized by bolometric luminosity, L {sub X}/L {sub bol}, and combinations of rotational period, P, and stellar radius, R, shows that the Rossby formulation does not provide the solution with minimal scatter. Instead, we find that the relation L {sub X}/L {sub bol}∝P {sup –2} R {sup –4} optimally describes the non-saturated fraction of the stars. This relation is equivalent to L {sub X}∝P {sup –2}, indicating that the rotation period alone determines the total X-ray emission. Since L {sub X} is directly related to the magnetic flux at the stellar surface, this means that the surface flux is determined solely by the star's rotation and is independent of other stellar parameters. While a formulation in terms of a Rossby number would be consistent with these results if the convective overturn time scales exactly as L{sub bol}{sup −1/2}, our generalized approach emphasizes the need to test a broader range of mechanisms for dynamo action in cool stars.

  1. Attempts at Using Iamcalc to Analyze Low Frequency Rotational Spectra of Molecules with Internal Rotation and Nuclear Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewberry, Christopher T.; Cooke, Stephen A.

    2010-06-01

    Recent progress in the fitting and analyses of simple methyl rotors to simultaneously account for internal rotation and nuclear hyperfine terms will be presented. The analyses have been attempted using Herb Pickett's IAMCALC program which acts as a ``front end" for the powerful SPFIT/SPCAT software. Progress has been made by simply appending hyperfine parameters to an IAMCALC-prepared SPFIT input file. This work has been prompted by our recent high resolution spectral measurements in the 1 - 21 GHz region on species such as methanol and methyl nitrite. Data will be presented together with comments on the validity of the fitting approach.

  2. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Xia; Ni, Guo-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and latissimus dorsi (LD) bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque decreased, whereas peak power increased. During isokinetic axial rotation, contralateral EO as well as ipsilateral IO and LD acted as primary agonists, whereas, ipsilateral EO as well as contralateral IO and LD acted as primary antagonistic muscles. For each primary agonist, the root mean square values decreased with the increase of angular velocity. Antagonist coactiviation was observed at each velocity; however, it appears to be higher with the increase of angular velocity. Conclusion. Our results suggest that velocity of rotation has great impact on the axial rotation torque and EMG activity. An inverse relationship of angular velocity was suggested with the axial rotation torque as well as root mean square value of individual trunk muscle. In addition, higher velocity is associated with higher coactivation of antagonist, leading to a decrease in torque with the increase of velocity. PMID:24804227

  3. Simulation of Non-resonant Internal Kink Mode with Toroidal Rotation in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Guoyong

    2013-07-16

    Plasmas in spherical and conventional tokamaks, with weakly reversed shear q pro le and minimum q above but close to unity, are susceptible to an non-resonant (m, n ) = (1, 1) internal kink mode. This mode can saturate and persist and can induce a (2; 1) seed island for Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTMs)1 . The mode can also lead to large energetic particle transport and signi cant broadening of beam-driven current. Motivated by these important e ects, we have carried out extensive nonlinear simulations of the mode with nite toroidal rotation using parameters and pro les of an NTSX plasma with a weakly reversed shear pro le. The numerical results show that, at the experimental level, plasma rotation has little e ect on either equilibrium or linear stability. However, rotation can signi cantly inuence the nonlinear dynamics of the (1, 1) mode and the the induced (2, 1) magnetic island. The simulation results show that a rotating helical equilibrium is formed and maintained in the nonlinear phase at nite plasma rotation. In contrast, for non-rotating cases, the nonlinear evolution exhibits dynamic oscillations between a quasi-2D state and a helical state. Furthermore, the e ects of rotation are found to greatly suppress the (2, 1) magnetic island even at a low level.

  4. Rotation and activity at 3 Gyr with Ruprecht 147

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jason L.; Wright, J.

    2014-01-01

    Stellar rotation slows and magnetic activity wanes over time, making these properties useful diagnostics to determine the ages of stars. While gyrochronology and Skumanich-type activity relations have been empirically calibrated for younger stars using nearby open clusters, few benchmark clusters older than 1 Gyr exist that are close enough to have activity levels measured for their main sequence stars. Pace (2013) claims that magnetic activity can no longer be used as an age indicator after ~1 Gyr (from NGC 752), but no open cluster has been available to substantiate this claim until now. We have recently demonstrated that Ruprecht 147 is the oldest nearby open cluster, with an age of 3 Gyr and a distance of ~300 pc, which bridges the age gap between NGC 752 at 1 Gyr and M67 and the Sun at 4 Gyr (Curtis et al. 2013). We have measured projected rotational velocities (vsini) and magnetic activity indices (Calcium H&K) for >50 FGK dwarfs with high signal-to-noise spectra taken with the MMT Hectochelle, Magellan MIKE, Keck HIRES, and Tillinghast 1.5-m FAST spectrographs. We will discuss how our rotation and activity measurements for this 3 Gyr open cluster shed light on the rotation- and activity- age relations for old and late-type stars. We will also present new cluster members from our ongoing M dwarf survey with SALT RSS, discuss stellar multiplicity in light of our recently acquired Robo-AO imaging, and review our efforts to locate and characterize the white dwarf population.

  5. Learning Activities for International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  6. The Internal Rotation Profile of the B-type Star KIC 10526294 from Frequency Inversion of its Dipole Gravity Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triana, S. A.; Moravveji, E.; Pápics, P. I.; Aerts, C.; Kawaler, S. D.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2015-09-01

    The internal angular momentum distribution of a star is the key to determining its evolution. Fortunately, stellar internal rotation can be probed through studies of rotationally split nonradial oscillation modes. In particular, the detection of nonradial gravity modes (g modes) in massive young stars has recently become feasible thanks to the Kepler space mission. Our goal is to derive the internal rotation profile of the Kepler B8V star KIC 10526294 through asteroseismology. We interpret the observed rotational splittings of its dipole g modes using four different approaches based on the best seismic models of the star and their rotational kernels. We show that these kernels can resolve differential rotation within the radiative envelope if a smooth rotational profile is assumed and if the observational errors are small. Based on Kepler data, we find that the rotation rate near the core-envelope boundary is well constrained to 163 ± 89 nHz. The seismic data are consistent with rigid rotation but a profile with counter-rotation within the envelope has a statistical advantage over constant rotation. Our study should be repeated for other massive stars with a variety of stellar parameters in order to determine the physical conditions that control the internal rotation profile of young massive stars, with the aim of improving the input physics of their models.

  7. Elements of active vibration control for rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    The success or failure of active vibration control is determined by the availability of suitable actuators, modeling of the entire system including all active elements, positioning of the actuators and sensors, and implementation of problem-adapted control concepts. All of these topics are outlined and their special problems are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to efficient modeling of systems, especially for considering the active elements. Finally, design methods for and the application of active vibration control on rotating machinery are demonstrated by several real applications.

  8. Deriving Stellar Inclination of Slow Rotators Using Stellar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumusque, X.

    2014-12-01

    Stellar inclination is an important parameter for many astrophysical studies. Although different techniques allow us to estimate stellar inclination for fast rotators, it becomes much more difficult when stars are rotating slower than ~2-2.5 km s-1. By using the new activity simulation SOAP 2.0 which can reproduce the photometric and spectroscopic variations induced by stellar activity, we are able to fit observations of solar-type stars and derive their inclination. For HD 189733, we estimate the stellar inclination to be i=84+6-20 deg, which implies a star-planet obliquity of \\psi =4+18-4 considering previous measurements of the spin-orbit angle. For α Cen B, we derive an inclination of i=45+9-19, which implies that the rotational spin of the star is not aligned with the orbital spin of the α Cen binary system. In addition, assuming that α Cen Bb is aligned with its host star, no transit would occur. The inclination of α Cen B can be measured using 40 radial-velocity measurements, which is remarkable given that the projected rotational velocity of the star is smaller than 1.15 km s-1. Based on observations made with the MOST satellite, the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla Observatory (Chile), and the SOPHIE instrument at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (France).

  9. Deriving stellar inclination of slow rotators using stellar activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dumusque, X.

    2014-12-01

    Stellar inclination is an important parameter for many astrophysical studies. Although different techniques allow us to estimate stellar inclination for fast rotators, it becomes much more difficult when stars are rotating slower than ∼2-2.5 km s{sup –1}. By using the new activity simulation SOAP 2.0 which can reproduce the photometric and spectroscopic variations induced by stellar activity, we are able to fit observations of solar-type stars and derive their inclination. For HD 189733, we estimate the stellar inclination to be i=84{sub −20}{sup +6} deg, which implies a star-planet obliquity of ψ=4{sub −4}{sup +18} considering previous measurements of the spin-orbit angle. For α Cen B, we derive an inclination of i=45{sub −19}{sup +9}, which implies that the rotational spin of the star is not aligned with the orbital spin of the α Cen binary system. In addition, assuming that α Cen Bb is aligned with its host star, no transit would occur. The inclination of α Cen B can be measured using 40 radial-velocity measurements, which is remarkable given that the projected rotational velocity of the star is smaller than 1.15 km s{sup –1}.

  10. Internal rotation and equilibrium structure of 2-nitropropane from gas electron diffraction and quantum chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Yu. I.; Kochikov, I. V.; Kovtun, D. M.; Ivanov, A. A.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, the equilibrium structural parameters of the 2-nitropropane molecule and the barrier of internal rotation of the nitrogroup are determined from the gas electron diffraction data, with the use of quantum chemistry calculations and experimental vibrational frequencies, in the framework of the large-amplitude motion model for internal rotation. Quantum chemistry calculations at the MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory with various Pople and Dunning basis sets unambiguously predict the same minimum energy molecular conformation, with relatively close values of internal rotation barrier (375-525 cm -1). The results of present analysis show that the minimum of the potential function of the nitrogroup internal rotation is located in syn-H position when one of the oxygen atoms eclipses hydrogen atom that does not belong to any of CH 3 groups (dihedral angle H-C-N-O is zero). It has also been found that internal rotation is hindered, with the barrier height in the range of 220-560 cm -1 (0.6-1.6 kcal/mol) with the most probable value near 380 cm -1 (1.1 kcal/mol). The main equilibrium structure parameters in syn-H configuration are as follows (values in parentheses correspond to 3 times standard deviations): re(C-C) = 1.516(5) Å, re(C-N) = 1.501(5) Å, re (N dbnd O) = 1.225(4) Å, ∠C-C-N=108.7(1.0)°,∠O dbnd N dbnd O =124.8(0.4)°. We also provide thermally averaged parameters for comparison with the results of previous studies.

  11. Towards age/rotation/magnetic activity relation with seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Savita

    2015-09-01

    The knowledge of stellar ages directly impacts the characterization of a planetary system as it puts strong constraints on the moment when the system was born. Unfortunately, the determination of precise stellar ages is a very difficult task. Different methods can be used to do so (based on isochrones or chemical element abundances) but they usually provide large uncertainties. During its evolution a star goes through processes leading to loss of angular momentum but also changes in its magnetic activity. Building rotation, magnetic, age relations would be an asset to infer stellar ages model independently. Several attempts to build empirical relations between rotation and age (namely gyrochronology) were made with a focus on cluster stars where the age determination is easier and for young stars on the main sequence. For field stars, we can now take advantage of high-precision photometric observations where we can perform asteroseismic analyses to improve the accuracy of stellar ages. Furthermore, the variability in the light curves allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar rotation and magnetic activity. By combining these precise measurements, we are on the way of understanding and improving relations between magnetic activity, rotation, and age, in particular at different stages of stellar evolution. I will review the status on gyrochronology relationships based on observations of young cluster stars. Then I will focus on solar-like stars and describe the inferences on stellar ages, rotation, and magnetism that can be provided by high-quality photometric observations such as the ones of the Kepler mission, in particular through asteroseismic analyses.

  12. IMPLICATIONS OF RAPID CORE ROTATION IN RED GIANTS FOR INTERNAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT IN STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2013-09-20

    Core rotation rates have been measured for red giant stars using asteroseismology. These data, along with helioseismic measurements and open cluster spin-down studies, provide powerful clues about the nature and timescale for internal angular momentum transport in stars. We focus on two cases: the metal-poor red giant KIC 7341231 ({sup O}tto{sup )} and intermediate-mass core helium burning stars. For both, we examine limiting case studies for angular momentum coupling between cores and envelopes under the assumption of rigid rotation on the main sequence. We discuss the expected pattern of core rotation as a function of mass and radius. In the case of Otto, strong post-main-sequence coupling is ruled out and the measured core rotation rate is in the range of 23-33 times the surface value expected from standard spin-down models. The minimum coupling timescale (0.17-0.45 Gyr) is significantly longer than that inferred for young open cluster stars. This implies ineffective internal angular momentum transport in early first ascent giants. By contrast, the core rotation rates of evolved secondary clump stars are found to be consistent with strong coupling given their rapid main-sequence rotation. An extrapolation to the white dwarf regime predicts rotation periods between 330 and 0.0052 days, depending on mass and decoupling time. We identify two key ingredients that explain these features: the presence of a convective core and inefficient angular momentum transport in the presence of larger mean molecular weight gradients. Observational tests that can disentangle these effects are discussed.

  13. Implications of Rapid Core Rotation in Red Giants for Internal Angular Momentum Transport in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2013-09-01

    Core rotation rates have been measured for red giant stars using asteroseismology. These data, along with helioseismic measurements and open cluster spin-down studies, provide powerful clues about the nature and timescale for internal angular momentum transport in stars. We focus on two cases: the metal-poor red giant KIC 7341231 ("Otto") and intermediate-mass core helium burning stars. For both, we examine limiting case studies for angular momentum coupling between cores and envelopes under the assumption of rigid rotation on the main sequence. We discuss the expected pattern of core rotation as a function of mass and radius. In the case of Otto, strong post-main-sequence coupling is ruled out and the measured core rotation rate is in the range of 23-33 times the surface value expected from standard spin-down models. The minimum coupling timescale (0.17-0.45 Gyr) is significantly longer than that inferred for young open cluster stars. This implies ineffective internal angular momentum transport in early first ascent giants. By contrast, the core rotation rates of evolved secondary clump stars are found to be consistent with strong coupling given their rapid main-sequence rotation. An extrapolation to the white dwarf regime predicts rotation periods between 330 and 0.0052 days, depending on mass and decoupling time. We identify two key ingredients that explain these features: the presence of a convective core and inefficient angular momentum transport in the presence of larger mean molecular weight gradients. Observational tests that can disentangle these effects are discussed.

  14. Internal wave breather propagation under the influence of the Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipova, Tatiana; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Kurkina, Oxana

    2015-04-01

    The internal wave breather propagation under the influence of the Earth rotation is studied in the frames of the asymptotic model based on the Gardner equation as well as the fully nonlinear Euler equations. It is obtained that the amplitude and shape of short breathers depend on the Earth rotation very weakly but the wide breathers change the amplitude and shape sufficiently. This effect is studied in the model situation adapted to the Baltic Sea hydrological conditions. The rate of the breather amplitude damping upon the even bottom is shown.

  15. The Effects of Internal Rotation and 14N Quadrupole Coupling in N-Methyldiacetamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannengießer, Raphaela; Eibl, Konrad; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Acetyl- and nitrogen containing substances play an important role in chemical, physical, and especially biological systems. This applies in particular for acetamides, which are structurally related to peptide bonds. In this work, N-methyldiacetamide, CH_3N(COCH_3)_2, was investigated by a combination of molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. In N-methyldiacetamide, at least three large amplitude motions are possible: (1) the internal rotation of the methyl group attached to the nitrogen atom and (2, 3) the internal rotations of both acetyl methyl groups. This leads to a rather complicated torsional fine structure of all rotational transitions with additional quadrupole hyperfine splittings caused by the 14N nucleus. Quantum chemical calculations were carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory to support the spectral assignment. Conformational analysis was performed by calculating a full potential energy surface depending on the orientation of the two acetyl groups. This yielded three stable conformers with a maximum energy difference of 35.2 kJ/mol. The spectrum of the lowest energy conformer was identified in the molecular beam. The quadrupole hyperfine structure as well as the internal rotation of two methyl groups could be assigned. For the N-methyl group and for one of the two acetyl methyl groups, barriers to internal rotation of 147 cm-1 and of 680 cm-1, respectively, were determined. The barrier of the last methyl group seems to be so high that no additional splittings could be resolved. Using the XIAM program, a global fit with a standard deviation on the order of our experimental accuracy could be achieved.

  16. THE RADIO ACTIVITY-ROTATION RELATION OF ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, M.; Berger, E.; Reiners, A.

    2012-02-10

    We present a new radio survey of about 100 late-M and L dwarfs undertaken with the Very Large Array. The sample was chosen to explore the role of rotation in the radio activity of ultracool dwarfs. As part of the survey we discovered radio emission from three new objects, 2MASS J 0518113 - 310153 (M6.5), 2MASS J 0952219 - 192431 (M7), and 2MASS J 1314203 + 132001 (M7), and made an additional detection of LP 349-25 (M8). Combining the new sample with results from our previous studies and from the literature, we compile the largest sample to date of ultracool dwarfs with radio observations and measured rotation velocities (167 objects). In the spectral type range M0-M6 we find a radio activity-rotation relation, with saturation at L{sub rad}/L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -7.5} above vsin i Almost-Equal-To 5 km s{sup -1}, similar to the relation in H{alpha} and X-rays. However, at spectral types {approx}> M7 the ratio of radio to bolometric luminosity increases significantly regardless of rotation velocity, and the scatter in radio luminosity increases. In particular, while the most rapid rotators (vsin i {approx}> 20 km s{sup -1}) exhibit 'super-saturation' in X-rays and H{alpha}, this effect is not seen in the radio. We also find that ultracool dwarfs with vsin i {approx}> 20 km s{sup -1} have a higher radio detection fraction by about a factor of three compared to objects with vsin i {approx}< 10 km s{sup -1}. When measured in terms of the Rossby number (Ro), the radio activity-rotation relation follows a single trend and with no apparent saturation from G to L dwarfs and down to Ro {approx} 10{sup -3}; in X-rays and H{alpha} there is clear saturation at Ro {approx}< 0.1, with super-saturation beyond M7. A similar trend is observed for the radio surface flux (L{sub rad}/R{sup 2}{sub *}) as a function of Ro. The continued role of rotation in the overall level of radio activity and in the fraction of active sources, and the single trend of L{sub rad}/L{sub bol

  17. What we know about the sun's internal rotation from solar oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goode, Philip R.; Dziembowski, W. A.; Korzennik, S. G.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a uniform approach of inversion was used to determine the internal rotation rate of the sun from each of the six available sets of solar oscillation data, which included the data of Duvall et al. (1986), Rhodes et al. (1987, 1990), Tomczyk (1988), Brown and Morrow (1987), and Libbrecht (1989). The technique chosen for inverting the solar oscillation data was the discretized least-squares technique. The results indicate that the rotation rate of the sun in the equatorial plane declines going inward between the surface and 0.6 of the radius and that the polar rate increases going inward (i.e., the surfacelike differential rotation decreases with depth).

  18. Spin-symmetry conversion and internal rotation in high J molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Justin; Harter, William

    2006-05-01

    Dynamics and spectra of molecules with internal rotation or rovibrational coupling is approximately modeled by rigid or semi-rigid rotors with attached gyroscopes. Using Rotational Energy (RE)^1 surfaces, high resolution molecular spectra for high angular momentum show two distinct but related phenomena; spin-symmetry conversion and internal rotation. For both cases the high total angular momentum allows for transitions that would otherwise be forbidden. Molecular body-frame J-localization effects associated with tight energy level-clusters dominate the rovibronic spectra of high symmetry molecules, particularly spherical tops at J>10. ^2 The effects include large and widespread spin-symmetry mixing contrary to conventional wisdom^3 about weak nuclear moments. Such effects are discussed showing how RE surface plots may predict them even at low J. Classical dynamics of axially constrained rotors are approximated by intersecting rotational-energy-surfaces (RES) that have (J-S).B.(J-S) forms in the limit of constraints that do no work. Semi-classical eigensolutions are compared to those found by direct diagonalization. ^1 W.G Hater, in Handbook of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, edited by G.W.F Drake (Springer, Germany 2006) ^2 W. G. Harter, Phys. Rev. A24,192-262(1981). ^3 G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra (VanNostrand 1945) pp. 458,463.

  19. Communication through the phenyl ring: internal rotation and nuclear quadrupole splitting in p-halotoluenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubert, V. Alvin; Schmitz, David; Schnell, Melanie

    2013-08-01

    The rotational spectra of three p-halotoluenes (chloro-, bromo- and iodo-) are reported in the frequency range 2-8.5 GHz, obtained with broadband Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. The recorded spectra are highly complicated due to low-barrier V 6 internal rotation of the methyl group as well as strong nuclear quadrupole coupling of the halogen atoms. However, these additional effects allow us, in a comparative manner, to study potential crosstalk of the two substituents via the phenyl ring. The rotational constants and other molecular parameters are reported and compared with quantum chemical calculations. The V 6 internal rotation barrier of the methyl group was found to be 145 GHz for both p-chlorotoluene species. We found that the magnitudes of the quadrupole coupling constants are increased in the halotoluenes compared to the halobenzenes. This increase is due to the +I inductive effect of the methyl group that injects additional electron density into the phenyl π-cloud, thus giving more electron density for the halogen atom to extract. This additional extraction makes the halogen-carbon bond more ionic than in the halobenzenes.

  20. Microwave spectrum and internal rotations of ethylene glycol. I. Glycol-O-d2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walder, E.; Bauder, A.; Günthard, Hs. H.

    1980-09-01

    The microwave spectrum of a dideuterated form of ethylene glycol (glycol-O-d2, CH2ODCH2OD) has been investigated in the frequency range from 18 to 50 GHz. Among the many transitions observed, 64 rotational transitions could be assigned with the help of microwave—microwave double resonance experiments. All transitions occurred as doublets due to large amplitude motions in the molecule. A semirigid molecular model which features a collective concerted internal rotation of the two OD groups on the Born—Oppenheimer surface has been used for the assignment and analysis. This model allowed a satisfactory interpretation of the assigned transitions. From the centers of the doublets the following rotational constants and the dipole moment of a hypothetical rigid rotor could be determined: A = 14394.63(17) MHz, B = 5276.27(24) MHz, C = 4323.53(20) MHz, μa = 2.166(37)D, μb = 0.74(18)D, and μc = 0.75(21)D. An empirical potential function for the concerted internal rotation of the OD groups has been derived from the measured doublet splittings.

  1. Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group

    SciTech Connect

    Hougen, J.T.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this project is to use spectroscopic techniques to investigate in detail phenomena involving the vibrational quasi-continuum in a simple physical system. Acetaldehyde was chosen for the study because: (i) methyl groups have been suggested to be important promotors of intramolecular vibrational relaxation, (ii) the internal rotation of a methyl group is an easily describle large-amplitude motion, which should retain its simple character even at high levels of excitation, and (iii) the aldehyde carbonyl group offers the possibility of both vibrational and electronic probing. The present investigation of the ground electronic state has three parts: (1) understanding the {open_quotes}isolated{close_quotes} internal-rotation motion below, at, and above the top of the torsional barrier, (2) understanding in detail traditional (bond stretching and bending) vibrational fundamental and overtone states, and (3) understanding interactions involving states with multiquantum excitations of at least one of these two kinds of motion.

  2. Coupled nuclear spin relaxation and internal rotations in magnesium fluosilicate hexahydrate.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utton, D. B.; Tsang, T.

    1972-01-01

    Both proton and fluorine nuclear spin-lattice relaxations have been studied by the 180- to 90-deg pulse method in magnesium fluosilicate hexahydrate at 25 and 13 MHz over the temperature range from 170 to 350 K. Observed nonexponential behavior of the nuclear magnetic relaxation is explained by internal rotations of the doubly charged negative fluosilicate ions and doubly charged positive magnesium hexahydrate ions.

  3. Microwave spectrum, internal rotation, structure and dipole moment of trifluoromethyl mercaptan, CF 3SH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. P.; Rego, C. A.; Stevens, R.

    1990-06-01

    The microwave spectra of CF 3SH and CF 3SD have been studied in the frequency range 12-40 GHz in the ground vibrational state. the spectra are heavily complicated by internal-rotation splittings which have been analysed using an IAM treatment of Valenzuela and Woods. The torsional parameters determined for CF 3SH are s=22.7454(3), F=293,364(15) MHz, ϱ=0.980674(3) and β=0.025472(14); and for CF 3SD, s=41.724(2), F=156,314(65) MHz, ϱ=0.96343(2) and β=0.00651(17). The ground-state torsional splitting for CF 3SH, Δ 0=-3021.1(2) MHz, has been combined with early infrared data for tosionally excited states to obtain V3=448(4) cm -1. Stark effects in the microwave spectrum are significantly affected by internal rotation enabling the orientation of the dipole moment to be determined. The total dipole moment is found to be 1.52(2) D making an angle of 36.0° with respect to the CS bond direction. The zero-point average structure of CF 3SH has been estimated from isotopic data for CF 3SD and CF 343SH plus internal-rotation information. The parameters for an assumed staggered conformation are: r(CF)=1.337(5), r(CS)=1.801(10), r(SH)=1.347(4) Å, ∠ CHS=92.0(1)°, ∠ SCF 1=108.4(8)° and ∠ SCF 2,3=112.9(4)°. The CF 3 top is determined to be asymmetric and titled 3.0° away from the SH bond, in keeping with Cs overall symmetry of the molecule but in contrast to the C3v behaviour of the top indicated by the internal rotation.

  4. Deriving stellar inclination of slow rotators using stellar activity signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumusque, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Stellar inclination is an important parameter for many astrophysical studies. In the context of exoplanets, this allows us to derive the true obliquity of a system if the projected stellar spin-planetary orbit angle can measured via the Rossiter-Mclaughlin effect. Although different techniques allow us to estimate stellar inclination for fast rotators, it becomes much more difficult when stars are rotating slower than 2-2.5 km.s-1. By using the new activity simulation SOAP 2.0 that can reproduce the photometric and spectroscopic variations induced by stellar activity, we are able to fit the activity variation of solar-type stars and derive their inclination. The case of the equator-on star HD189733 will be presented, as well as the case of Alpha Centauri B, which present an inclination of 45+9-19 degrees, implying that the earth-mass orbiting planet is not transiting if aligned with its host star. Other exemples will also demonstrate the power of the technique, that can infer a stellar inclination, even for slow rotators like Alpha Centauri B, that present a projected rotational velocity smaller than 1.15 km.s-1. In addition, the SOAP 2.0 simulation can be used to correct for the effect of activity when one major active region is dominating the RV signal. This could enhance the detection of small mass exoplanets orbiting slightly active stars.This project is funded by ETAEARTH (European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement n. 313014), a transnational collaboration between European countries and the US (the Swiss Space Office, the Harvard Origin of Life Initiative, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the University of Geneva, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Italian National Astrophysical Institute, the University of St. Andrews, Queens University Belfast, and the University of Edinburgh) setup to optimize the synergy between space-and ground-based data whose scientific potential for the characterization of

  5. Internal Structure of Asteroids Having Surface Shedding Due to Rotational Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Sánchez, Diego Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2015-07-01

    Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode.

  6. Challenging the wall of fast rotating asteroids - constraining internal cohesive strength for MBAs and NEAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishook, David; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Aharonson, Oded; Thomas, Cristina; Lockhart, Matthew; Thirouin, Audrey; Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Burt, Brian

    2015-11-01

    We report an observation of a 2 km size main belt asteroid (MBA), (60716) 2000 GD65, with a lightcurve indicating a rotation period of 1.9529±0.0002 hours, i.e. challenging the ‘rubble pile spin barrier’. This adds to a handful of MBAs, recently observed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) survey (Chang et al. 2014, 2015), with diameters between 0.5-1.5 km and lightcurves indicating rotation periods of 1.2-1.9 hours. These asteroids are relatively large compared to the population of small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs; D<300 m) that can reach rotation periods as fast as 15.797 seconds as is the case of NEA 2014 RC (Moskovitz and MANOS team).We apply the Holsapple (2007) model to these two distinct populations in order to constrain the cohesion within these objects and to search for monolithic asteroids. We use the lightcurve’s amplitude as indication of the triaxial shape ratio a/b, and assume b/c=1 (i.e. a>b=c). While the density is a free parameter, the given cohesion is the average of values for density ranges between 1.5 to 2.5 gr cm^-3, which are measured density values for asteroids (Carry 2012).We find that the fast rotating MBAs must have internal cohesive strength of at least ~25 to ~250 Pa in order to prevent disruption against centrifugal acceleration. Similar cohesion values have been found within lunar soils (100-1000 Pa; Mitchell et al. 1974). However, since only a few MBAs rotate so quickly, such internal cohesive strength might be rare within the population of km-size MBAs. Among NEAs, about 25% have minimal constrained cohesion values similar to those found for the fast rotating MBAs. Approximately 65% have no need for substantial cohesion values >25 Pa. Only ~10% of NEAs must have substantial internal cohesion of over 1000 Pa to prevent disruption, however none of them are rotating fast enough to require a fully monolithic body, i.e. cohesion >10 kPa.

  7. SOLAR ROTATION RATE DURING THE CYCLE 24 MINIMUM IN ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Antia, H. M.; Basu, Sarbani E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.ed

    2010-09-01

    The minimum of solar cycle 24 is significantly different from most other minima in terms of its duration as well as its abnormally low levels of activity. Using available helioseismic data that cover epochs from the minimum of cycle 23 to now, we study the differences in the nature of the solar rotation between the minima of cycles 23 and 24. We find that there are significant differences between the rotation rates during the two minima. There are differences in the zonal-flow pattern too. We find that the band of fast rotating region close to the equator bifurcated around 2005 and recombined by 2008. This behavior is different from that during the cycle 23 minimum. By autocorrelating the zonal-flow pattern with a time shift, we find that in terms of solar dynamics, solar cycle 23 lasted for a period of 11.7 years, consistent with the result of Howe et al. (2009). The autocorrelation coefficient also confirms that the zonal-flow pattern penetrates through the convection zone.

  8. Zeno inhibition of polarization rotation in an optically active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalo, Isabel; Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experiment in which the rotation of the polarization of light propagating in an optically active water solution of D-fructose tends to be inhibited by frequent monitoring whether the polarization remains unchanged. This is an example of the Zeno effect that has remarkable pedagogical interest because of its conceptual simplicity, easy implementation, low cost, and because the same the Zeno effect holds at classical and quantum levels. An added value is the demonstration of the Zeno effect beyond typical idealized assumptions in a practical setting with real polarizers.

  9. A Thickened Coracohumeral Ligament and Superomedial Capsule Limit Internal Rotation of the Shoulder Joint: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Masashi; Hamada, Junichiro; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Kanazawa, Kenji; Suzuki, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (also known as frozen shoulder) is a painful and disabling disorder with an estimated prevalence ranging from 2% to 5% in the general population. Although the precise pathogenesis of frozen shoulder is unclear, thickened capsule and coracohumeral ligament (CHL) have been documented to be one of the most specific manifestations. The thickened CHL has been understood to limit external rotation of the shoulder, and restriction of internal rotation of the shoulder has been believed to be related to posterior capsular tightness. In this paper, three cases of refractory frozen shoulder treated through arthroscopic release of a contracted capsule including CHL were reported. Two cases in which there is recalcitrant severe restriction of internal rotation after manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) were finally treated with arthroscopic surgery. Although MUA could release the posterior capsule, internal rotation did not improve in our cases. After release of the thickened CHL, range of motion of internal rotation was significantly improved. This report demonstrates the role of the thickened CHL in limiting the internal rotation of the shoulder. We highlight the importance of release of thickened CHL in addition to the pancapsular release, in case of severe limitation of internal rotation of shoulder. PMID:27123353

  10. Computer calculation of the Van Vleck second moment for materials with internal rotation of spin groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goc, Roman

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes m2rc3, a program that calculates Van Vleck second moments for solids with internal rotation of molecules, ions or their structural parts. Only rotations about C 3 axes of symmetry are allowed, but up to 15 axes of rotation per crystallographic unit cell are permitted. The program is very useful in interpreting NMR measurements in solids. Program summaryTitle of the program: m2rc3 Catalogue number: ADUC Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUC Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland License provisions: none Computers: Cray SV1, Cray T3E-900, PCs Installation: Poznań Supercomputing and Networking Center ( http://www.man.poznan.pl/pcss/public/main/index.html) and Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland ( http://www.amu.edu.pl/welcome.html.en) Operating system under which program has been tested: UNICOS ver. 10.0.0.6 on Cray SV1; UNICOS/mk on Cray T3E-900; Windows98 and Windows XP on PCs. Programming language: FORTRAN 90 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 757 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9730 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: The NMR second moment reflects the strength of the nuclear magnetic dipole-dipole interaction in solids. This value can be extracted from the appropriate experiment and can be calculated on the basis of Van Vleck formula. The internal rotation of molecules or their parts averages this interaction decreasing the measured value of the NMR second moment. The analysis of the internal dynamics based on the NMR second moment measurements is as follows. The second moment is measured at different temperatures. On the other hand it is also calculated for different models and frequencies of this motion. Comparison of experimental and calculated values permits the building of the most probable model of internal dynamics in the studied material. The program described

  11. Various shrug exercises can change scapular kinematics and scapular rotator muscle activities in subjects with scapular downward rotation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Choi, Woo-Jeong; Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Yoon, Tae-Lim

    2016-02-01

    Scapular dyskinesis, characterized by scapular downward rotation syndrome (SDRS) affects scapula-humeral rhythm and results in shoulder dysfunction. Previous study has led to the recommendation of standard shrug exercise to contend with SDRS and strengthen the upper trapezius (UT) muscle. However, few researchers have examined which shrug exercise is most effective. The aim of this research was to compare scapular kinematic changes and scapular rotator muscles activity across three different shrug exercises in SDRS. The amounts of scapular downward rotation were measured by a caliper and the scapular upward rotation angle was measured using two digital inclinometers. Surface electromyography was used to measure EMG amplitude from the UT, lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and levator scapula (LS). Seventeen subjects with SDRS were recruited for this study. The subjects performed three shrug exercises with 30° shoulder abduction (preferred shrug, frontal shrug, and stabilization shrug). The stabilization shrug showed a significantly greater scapular upward rotation angle compared with the preferred shrug (P=0.004) and frontal shrug (P=0.006). The UT activity was significantly greater in the frontal shrug than in the preferred shrug (P=0.002). The UT/LS muscle activity ratio was also significantly greater in the frontal shrug than in the preferred shrug (P=0.004). The stabilization shrug should be preferred to enhance the upward rotation angle. In addition, the frontal shrug can be used as an effective method to increase UT activity and to decrease LS activity in SDRS. PMID:26625348

  12. Microwave Study of a Hydrogen-Transfer Methyl-Group Internal Rotation in 5-METHYLTROPOLONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushin, Vadim V.; Cloessner, Emily A.; Chou, Yung-Ching; Picraux, Laura B.; Hougen, Jon T.; Lavrich, Richard

    2010-06-01

    We present here the first experimental and theoretical study of the microwave spectrum of 5-methyltropolone, which can be visualized as a 7-membered "aromatic" carbon ring with a five-membered hydrogen-bonded cyclic structure at the top and a methyl group at the bottom. The molecule exhibits two large-amplitude motions, an intramolecular hydrogen transfer and a methyl torsion. The former motion is particularly interesting because transfer of the hydrogen atom from the hydroxyl to the carbonyl group induces a tautomerization in the molecule, which then triggers a 60° internal rotation of the methyl group. Measurements were carried out by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy in the 8 to 24 GHz frequency range. Theoretical analysis was carried out using a tunneling-rotational Hamiltonian based on a G12^m extended-group-theory formalism. Our global fit of 1015 transitions to 20 molecular parameters gave a root-mean-square deviation of 1.5 kHz. The tunneling splitting of the two J = 0 levels arising from a hypothetical pure hydrogen transfer motion is calculated to be 1310 MHz. The tunneling splitting of the two J = 0 levels arising from a hypothetical pure methyl-top internal rotation motion is calculated to be 885 MHz. Some theoretical difficulties in interpreting the low-order tunneling parameters in this and the related molecule 2-methylmalonaldehyde will be discussed.

  13. Internal and external components of the bacterial flagellar motor rotate as a unit.

    PubMed

    Hosu, Basarab G; Nathan, Vedavalli S J; Berg, Howard C

    2016-04-26

    Most bacteria that swim, including Escherichia coli, are propelled by helical filaments, each driven at its base by a rotary motor powered by a proton or a sodium ion electrochemical gradient. Each motor contains a number of stator complexes, comprising 4MotA 2MotB or 4PomA 2PomB, proteins anchored to the rigid peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall. These proteins exert torque on a rotor that spans the inner membrane. A shaft connected to the rotor passes through the peptidoglycan and the outer membrane through bushings, the P and L rings, connecting to the filament by a flexible coupling known as the hook. Although the external components, the hook and the filament, are known to rotate, having been tethered to glass or marked by latex beads, the rotation of the internal components has remained only a reasonable assumption. Here, by using polarized light to bleach and probe an internal YFP-FliN fusion, we show that the innermost components of the cytoplasmic ring rotate at a rate similar to that of the hook. PMID:27071081

  14. Probing the Electronic Environment of Methylindoles using Internal Rotation and (14)N Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling.

    PubMed

    Gurusinghe, Ranil M; Tubergen, Michael J

    2016-05-26

    High-resolution rotational spectra were recorded in the 10.5-21.0 GHz frequency range for seven singly methylated indoles. (14)N nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure and spectral splittings arising from tunneling along the internal rotation of the methyl group were resolved for all indole species. The nuclear quadrupole coupling constants were used to characterize the electronic environment of the nitrogen atom, and the program XIAM was used to fit the barrier to internal rotation to the measured transition frequencies. The best fit barriers were found to be 277.1(2), 374.32(4), 414.(5), 331.6(2), 126.8675(15), 121.413(4), and 426(3) cm(-1) for 1-methylindole through 7-methylindole, respectively. The fitted barriers were found to be in good agreement with barriers calculated at the ωB97XD/6-311++G(d,p) level. The complete set of experimental barriers is compared to theoretical investigations of the origins of methyl torsional barriers and confirms that the magnitude of these barriers is an overall effect of individual hyperconjugative and structural interactions of many bonding/antibonding orbitals. PMID:27128828

  15. Developing Internal Controls through Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, F. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Life events can include the Tuesday afternoon cooking class with the group worker or the Saturday afternoon football game, but in the sense that Fritz Redl thought of them, these activities are only threads in a fabric of living that includes all the elements of daily life: playing, working, school-based learning, learning through activities,…

  16. EM international activities: May 1998 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This publication is produced twice a year by the International Technology Systems Application staff. This issue is divided into the following sections: (1) Global Issues Facing Environmental Management; (2) Activities in Western Europe; (3) Activities in Central and Eastern Europe; (4) Activities in Russia; (5) Activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim; (6) Activities in South America; (7) Activities in North America; (8) Country studies; and (9) International Organizations. Some topics discussed are nuclear materials management, radioactive waste and hazardous waste management, and remedial action programs.

  17. Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group. Final report, 1990 - 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hougen, J.T.

    1993-12-31

    Spectroscopy was used to study the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of the methyl group in acetaldehyde. We now understand the torsion-rotation levels from all 3 torsional states below the top of the torsional barrier. Investigations of four ordinary vibrational states in acetaldehyde are in progress.

  18. Evaluating foot kinematics using magnetic resonance imaging: from maximum plantar flexion, inversion, and internal rotation to maximum dorsiflexion, eversion, and external rotation.

    PubMed

    Fassbind, Michael J; Rohr, Eric S; Hu, Yangqiu; Haynor, David R; Siegler, Sorin; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Ledoux, William R

    2011-10-01

    The foot consists of many small bones with complicated joints that guide and limit motion. A variety of invasive and noninvasive means [mechanical, X-ray stereophotogrammetry, electromagnetic sensors, retro-reflective motion analysis, computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] have been used to quantify foot bone motion. In the current study we used a foot plate with an electromagnetic sensor to determine an individual subject's foot end range of motion (ROM) from maximum plantar flexion, internal rotation, and inversion to maximum plantar flexion, inversion, and internal rotation to maximum dorsiflexion, eversion, and external rotation. We then used a custom built MRI-compatible device to hold each subject's foot during scanning in eight unique positions determined from the end ROM data. The scan data were processed using software that allowed the bones to be segmented with the foot in the neutral position and the bones in the other seven positions to be registered to their base positions with minimal user intervention. Bone to bone motion was quantified using finite helical axes (FHA). FHA for the talocrural, talocalcaneal, and talonavicular joints compared well to published studies, which used a variety of technologies and input motions. This study describes a method for quantifying foot bone motion from maximum plantar flexion, inversion, and internal rotation to maximum dorsiflexion, eversion, and external rotation with relatively little user processing time. PMID:22070336

  19. Rotation and the internal structures of the major planets and their inner satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, S. F.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of the rotational periods coupled with those of the masses, the mean radii, and the shapes or the gravitational moments (J2 and J4) enable important constraints to be placed on the internal structures of some remote bodies. Values of J2 for Uranus and Neptune have been calculated from the observed precession rates of the narrow eccentric and inclined Uranian rings and of the orbit of Triton, Neptune's massive satellite. Recent observations of the motions of spots have yielded reliable rotational periods for these planets. These observations are used to show that Uranus and Neptune may have quite different internal structures. The shapes of satellites that are close to their primaries may yield information on the degree of internal differentiation of these bodies. Io, Mimas, Enceladus, and Miranda are of interest in this respect. Residuals in the observed precession rates of the Uranian rings, about 0.005 deg/day, that cannot be accounted for by the best-fit model of J2 and J4 may be related directly to observed irregular variations in ring width of magnitude over 2 km and may indicate the existence of shepherding satellites with mass ratios of over 10 to the -10th. If this is the case, then the effects of these satellites on the precession rates of the rings will result in an appreciable uncertainty in the value of J4 for Uranus.

  20. Importance of centrifugal effects for the internal kink mode stability in toroidally rotating tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlberg, C.

    2009-11-15

    Analytical theory and two different magnetohydrodynamical stability codes are used in a study of the effects of toroidal plasma rotation on the stability of the ideal, internal kink mode in tokamaks. The focus of the paper is on the role that the centrifugal effects on the plasma equilibrium play for the stability of this mode, and results from one code where centrifugal effects are self-consistently included (CASTOR-FLOW) [E. Strumberger et al., Nucl. Fusion 45, 1156 (2005)] are compared with the results from another code where such effects are not taken into account (MISHKA-F) [I. T. Chapman et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 062511 (2006)]. It is found that, even at rather modest flow speeds, the centrifugal effects are very important for the stability of the internal kink mode. While the results from the two codes can be quite similar for certain profiles in the plasma, completely opposite results are obtained for other profiles. A very good agreement between analytical theory and the numerical results are, both for inconsistent and consistent equilibria, found for plasmas with large aspect ratio. From the analytical theory, the distinctly different stability properties of equilibria with and without centrifugal effects included can be traced to the stabilizing effect of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) induced by the plasma rotation. This GAM exists solely as a consequence of the nonuniform plasma density and pressure created by the centrifugal force on the flux surfaces, and a stabilizing coupling of the internal kink instability to this mode cannot therefore take place if the centrifugal effects are not included in the equilibrium. In addition to the GAM stabilization, the effects of the radial profiles of the plasma density and rotation velocity are also found to be significant, and the importance of these effects increases with decreasing aspect ratio.

  1. Developing a 6-DOF robot to investigate multi-axis ACL injuries under valgus loading coupled with tibia internal rotation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yupeng; Jacobs, Benjamin J; Nuber, Gordon W; Koh, Jason L; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have become more common in recent years as more young people participate in risky sporting activities [1]. Most ACL injuries occur as a result of noncontact mechanisms. Previous in vitro studies of ACL strain have found significant increases in ACL strain primarily with anterior directed force on the tibia relative to the femur and with internal rotation and often with valgus torque [2,3]. However, there remains significant controversy over the mechanisms of ACL failure and the forces on the knee that lead to injury. Some studies have also shown that isolated valgus loading may not load the ACL strongly. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying valgus-related ACL injuries. An improved understanding of ACL failure may lead to improved ACL injury prevention programs. A novel 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) knee driving robot was developed in this study with a unique multi-axis simultaneous torque/position control. It was found that pure valgus torque caused a torque that internally rotated the tibia and thus increased ACL strain markedly, which may be an important mechanism underlying the rather common seemingly valgus-related ACL injuries. PMID:21097089

  2. Wave generation by fracture initiation and propagation in geomaterials with internal rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esin, Maxim; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Xu, Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Crack or fracture initiation and propagation in geomaterials are sources of waves and is important in both stability and fracture (e.g. hydraulic fracture) monitoring. Many geomaterials consist of particles or other constituents capable of rotating with respect to each other, either due to the absence of the binder phase (fragmented materials) or due to extensive damage of the cement between the constituents inflicted by previous loading. In investigating the wave generated in fracturing it is important to distinguish between the cases when the fracture is instantaneously initiated to its full length or propagates from a smaller initial crack. We show by direct physical experiments and discrete element modelling of 2D arrangements of unbonded disks that under compressive load fractures are initiated instantaneously as a result of the material instability and localisation. Such fractures generate waves as a single impulse impact. When the fractures propagate, they produce a sequence of impulses associated with the propagation steps. This manifests itself as acoustic (microseismic) emission whose temporal pattern contains the information of the fracture geometry, such as fractal dimension of the fracture. The description of this process requires formulating criteria of crack growth capable of taking into account the internal rotations. We developed an analytical solution based on the Cosserat continuum where each point of body has three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom. When the Cosserat characteristic lengths are comparable with the grain sizes, the simplified equations of small-scale Cosserat continuum can be used. We established that the order of singularity of the main asymptotic term for moment stress is higher than the order of singularity for conventional stress. Therefore, the mutual rotation of particles and related bending and/or twisting of the bonds between the particles represent an unconventional mechanism of crack propagation.

  3. Intricate internal rotation surface and fundamental infrared transitions of the n-propyl radical.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenyang; Agarwal, Jay; Wu, Chia-Hua; Allen, Wesley D; Schaefer, Henry F

    2015-01-22

    The potential energy surface for methylene hindered internal rotation is examined for the n-propyl radical, a molecule fundamental to combustion chemistry. Six stationary points are identified, and four of them are unique: 1, 2, TS1, and TS2. The remaining two structures 1' and TS1' are mirror images with respect to 1 and TS1. Focal point analysis, converged to the complete basis set limit of coupled-cluster theory with single, double, triple, and perturbative quadruple excitations [CCSDT(Q)], is employed to obtain the relative energies of these structures. A one-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) is constructed by explicitly mapping out a distinguished reaction path via constrained geometry optimizations. A "double-well" feature is observed on the electronic PES, but under the adiabatic approximation, the enthalpic (0 K) PES becomes a regular single-well potential with the expected 180° periodicity. The corresponding one-dimensional vibrational Schrödinger equation is solved using the Cooley-Numerov approach to obtain vibrational states of the methylene torsional motion. The predicted barrier for internal rotation is 105.5 and 137.2 cm(-1) for the electronic and enthalpic surfaces, respectively. Anharmonic (fundamental) vibrational frequencies are predicted for structure 1 using second-order vibrational perturbation theory, and the band origins for 11 modes are reported. Comparison with previous electron spin resonance and infrared spectroscopic work, in addition to other theoretical investigations, is made where possible. PMID:25007004

  4. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  5. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  6. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  7. A rigorous description of the energy spectrum of the isopropanol molecule taking into account the internal rotation of hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenin, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Using the methods of a group chain, a rigorous algebraic model is constructed to describe the energy spectrum of the isopropanol molecule (CH3)2CHOH with an allowance for the internal rotation of hydroxyl. The model is rigorous in the sense that its correctness is limited only by the correctness of a chosen symmetry of internal dynamics of the molecule.

  8. A CATALOG OF ROTATION AND ACTIVITY IN EARLY-M STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, Ansgar; Joshi, Nandan; Goldman, Bertrand

    2012-04-15

    We present a catalog of rotation and chromospheric activity in a sample of 334 M dwarfs of spectral types M0-M4.5 populating the parameter space around the boundary to full convection. We obtain high-resolution optical spectra for 206 targets and determine projected rotational velocity, vsin i, and H{alpha} emission. The data are combined with measurements of vsin i in field stars of the same spectral type from the literature. Our sample adds 157 new rotation measurements to the existing literature and almost doubles the sample of available vsin i. The final sample provides a statistically meaningful picture of rotation and activity at the transition to full convection in the solar neighborhood. We confirm a steep rise in the fraction of active stars at the transition to full convection known from earlier work. In addition, we see a clear rise in rotational velocity in the same stars. In very few stars, no chromospheric activity but a detection of rotational broadening is reported. We argue that all of them are probably spurious detections; we conclude that in our sample all significantly rotating stars are active, and all active stars are significantly rotating. The rotation-activity relation is valid in partially and in fully convective stars. Thus, we do not observe any evidence for a transition from a rotationally dominated dynamo in partially convective stars to a rotation-independent turbulent dynamo in fully convective stars; turbulent dynamos in fully convective stars of spectral types around M4 are still driven by rotation. Finally, we compare projected rotational velocities of 33 stars to rotational periods derived from photometry in the literature and determine inclinations for a few of them.

  9. ROTATION AND MAGNETIC ACTIVITY IN A SAMPLE OF M-DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, Matthew K.; Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Zhang Jiahao West, Andrew A

    2010-02-15

    We have analyzed the rotational broadening and chromospheric activity in a sample of 123 M-dwarfs, using spectra taken at the W.M. Keck Observatory as part of the California Planet Search program. We find that only seven of these stars are rotating more rapidly than our detection threshold of v sin i {approx} 2.5 km s{sup -1}. Rotation appears to be more common in stars later than M3 than in the M0-M2.5 mass range: we estimate that less than 10% of early-M stars are detectably rotating, whereas roughly a third of those later than M4 show signs of rotation. These findings lend support to the view that rotational braking becomes less effective in fully convective stars. By measuring the equivalent widths of the Ca II H and K lines for the stars in our sample, and converting these to approximate L {sub Ca}/L {sub bol} measurements, we also provide constraints on the connection between rotation and magnetic activity. Measurable rotation is a sufficient, but not necessary condition for activity in our sample: all the detectable rotators show strong Ca II emission, but so too do a small number of non-rotating stars, which we presume may lie at high inclination angles relative to our line of sight. Our data are consistent with a 'saturation-type' rotation-activity relationship, with activity roughly independent of rotation above a threshold velocity of less than 6 km s{sup -1}. We also find weak evidence for a 'gap' in L {sub Ca}/L {sub bol} between a highly active population of stars, which typically are detected as rotators, and another much less active group.

  10. Internal rapid rotation and its implications for stellar structure and pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Daniel R.

    2015-09-01

    Massive and intermediate mass stars play a crucial role in astrophysics. Indeed, massive stars are the main producers of heavy elements, explode in supernovae at the end of their short lifetimes, and may be the progenitors of gamma ray bursts. Intermediate mass stars, although not destined to explode in supernovae, display similar phenomena, are much more numerous, and have some of the richest pulsation spectra. A key to understanding these stars is understanding the effects of rapid rotation on their structure and evolution. These effects include centrifugal deformation and gravity darkening which can be observed immediately, and long terms effects such as rotational mixing due to shear turbulence, which prolong stellar lifetime, modify chemical yields, and impact the stellar remnant at the end of their lifetime. In order to understand these effects, a number of models have been and are being developed over the past few years. These models lead to increasingly sophisticated predictions which need to be tested through observations. A particularly promising source of constraints is seismic observations as these may potentially lead to detailed information on their internal structure. However, before extracting such information, a number of theoretical and observational hurdles need to be overcome, not least of which is mode identification. The present proceedings describe recent progress in modelling these stars and show how an improved understanding of their pulsations, namely frequency patterns, mode visibilities, line profile variations, and mode excitation, may help with deciphering seismic observations.

  11. Multi-rotor internal rotations and conformational equilibria in oxiraneethanol and assignment of its vibrational spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Ali, Shaikh A.

    2009-09-01

    The complex internal rotations and conformational equilibria in oxiraneethanol were investigated at the DFT-B3LYP/6-311G** level of theory. Four minima were predicted in the CCOH potential energy scans of the molecule to have relative energies of about 2 kcal/mol or less and all were calculated to have real frequencies upon full optimization of structural parameters and the calculation of the Gibb's free-energies at the DFT level of calculation. At the DFT-B3LYP, the MP2 and the MP4(SDQ) levels of theory, the G1gg1 conformation, predicted to be the lowest energy conformation for oxiraneethanol, was in excellent agreement with the rotational microwave study. The equilibrium mixture was calculated to be about 47% G1gg1, 32% Cg1g, 15% Gg1t and 6% G1g1g at the B3LYP/6-311G** level of theory at 298.15 K. Solvent study corroborated the presence of the high energy Cg1g form in the liquid phase of oxiraneethanol. The vibrational frequencies of oxiraneethanol in its two stable forms were computed at the B3LYP level and vibrational assignments were made for the two lowest energy G1gg1 and Cg1g forms on the basis of calculated and experimental data of the molecule.

  12. On strongly interacting internal waves in a rotating ocean and coupled Ostrovsky equations.

    PubMed

    Alias, A; Grimshaw, R H J; Khusnutdinova, K R

    2013-06-01

    In the weakly nonlinear limit, oceanic internal solitary waves for a single linear long wave mode are described by the KdV equation, extended to the Ostrovsky equation in the presence of background rotation. In this paper we consider the scenario when two different linear long wave modes have nearly coincident phase speeds and show that the appropriate model is a system of two coupled Ostrovsky equations. These are systematically derived for a density-stratified ocean. Some preliminary numerical simulations are reported which show that, in the generic case, initial solitary-like waves are destroyed and replaced by two coupled nonlinear wave packets, being the counterpart of the same phenomenon in the single Ostrovsky equation. PMID:23822486

  13. Internal rotation for predicting conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venâncio, Mateus F.; Dos Santos, Hélio F.; De Almeida, Wagner B.

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of internal rotation to the thermal correction of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is estimated using the quantum pendulum model (QPM) to solve the characteristic Schrödinger equation. The procedure is applied to theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane (1,2-DFE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) molecules. The predicted population for the anti form was 37% and 75%, for 1,2-DFE and 1,2-DCE respectively, in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available, 37 ± 5% and 78 ± 5%. These results provide great support to the use of the QPM model to account for the low vibrational frequency modes effect on the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

  14. ON THE ROLE OF ROTATING SUNSPOTS IN THE ACTIVITY OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Vemareddy, P.; Ambastha, A.; Maurya, R. A. E-mail: ambastha@prl.res.in

    2012-12-10

    We study the role of rotating sunspots in relation to the evolution of various physical parameters characterizing the non-potentiality of the active region (AR) NOAA 11158 and its eruptive events using the magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and multi-wavelength observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. From the evolutionary study of HMI intensity and AIA channels, it is observed that the AR consists of two major rotating sunspots, one connected to a flare-prone region and another with coronal mass ejection (CME). The constructed space-time intensity maps reveal that the sunspots exhibited peak rotation rates coinciding with the occurrence of major eruptive events. Further, temporal profiles of twist parameters, namely, average shear angle, {alpha}{sub av}, {alpha}{sub best}, derived from HMI vector magnetograms, and the rate of helicity injection, obtained from the horizontal flux motions of HMI line-of-sight magnetograms, correspond well with the rotational profile of the sunspot in the CME-prone region, giving predominant evidence of rotational motion causing magnetic non-potentiality. Moreover, the mean value of free energy from the virial theorem calculated at the photospheric level shows a clear step-down decrease at the onset time of the flares revealing unambiguous evidence of energy release intermittently that is stored by flux emergence and/or motions in pre-flare phases. Additionally, distribution of helicity injection is homogeneous in the CME-prone region while in the flare-prone region it is not and often changes sign. This study provides a clear picture that both proper and rotational motions of the observed fluxes played significant roles in enhancing the magnetic non-potentiality of the AR by injecting helicity, twisting the magnetic fields and thereby increasing the free energy, leading to favorable conditions for the observed transient activity.

  15. Equilibrium structure in the presence of internal rotation: A case study of cis-methyl formate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, J.; Margulès, L.; Kleiner, I.; Császár, A. G.

    2010-02-01

    The Born-Oppenheimer (BO) equilibrium molecular structure ( reBO) of cis-methyl formate has been determined at the CCSD(T) level of electronic structure theory using Gaussian basis sets of at least quadruple-ζ quality and a core correlation correction. The quadratic, cubic and semi-diagonal quartic force field in normal coordinates has also been computed at the MP2 level employing a basis set of triple-ζ quality. A semi-experimental equilibrium structure ( reSE) has been derived from experimental ground-state rotational constants and the lowest-order rovibrational interaction parameters calculated from the ab initio cubic force field. To determine reSE structures, it is important to start from accurate ground-state rotational constants. Different spectroscopic methods, applicable in the presence of internal rotation and used in the literature to obtain "unperturbed" rotational constants from the analysis and fitting of the spectrum, are reviewed and compared. They are shown to be compatible though their precision may be different. The reBO and reSE structures are in good agreement showing that, in the particular case of cis-methyl formate, the methyl torsion can still be treated as a small-amplitude vibration. The best equilibrium structure obtained for cis-methyl formate is: r(C m-O) = 1.434 Å, r(O-C c) = 1.335 Å, r(C m-H s) = 1.083 Å, r(C m-H a) = 1.087 Å, r(C c-H) = 1.093 Å, r(C dbnd O) = 1.201 Å, ∠(COC) = 114.4°, ∠(CCH s) = 105.6°, ∠(CCH a) = 110.2°, ∠(OCH) = 109.6°, ∠(OCO) = 125.5°, and τ(H aCOC) = 60.3°. The accuracy is believed to be about 0.001 Å for the bond lengths and 0.1° for the angles.

  16. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (μSR2014) organized by the Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute in collaboration with the University of Zurich and the University of Fribourg, was held in Grindelwald, Switzerland from 1st to 6th June 2014. The conference provided a forum for researchers from around the world with interests in the applications of μSR to study a wide range of topics including condensed matter physics, materials and molecular sciences, chemistry and biology. Polarized muons provide a unique and versatile probe of matter, enabling studies at the atomic level of electronic structure and dynamics in a wide range of systems. The conference was the thirteenth in a series, which began in Rorschach in 1978 and it took place for the third time in Switzerland. The previous conferences were held in Cancun, Mexico (2011), Tsukuba, Japan (2008), Oxford, UK (2005), Williamsburg, USA (2002), Les Diablerets, Switzerland (1999), Nikko, Japan (1996), Maui, USA (1993), Oxford, UK (1990), Uppsala, Sweden (1986), Shimoda, Japan (1983), Vancouver, Canada (1980), and Rorschach, Switzerland (1978). These conference proceedings contain 67 refereed publications from presentations covering magnetism, superconductivity, chemistry, semiconductors, biophysics and techniques. The conference logo, displayed in the front pages of these proceedings, represents both the location of μSR2014 in the Alps and the muon-spin rotation technique. The silhouette represents the famous local mountains Eiger, Mönch and Jungfrau as drawn by the Swiss painter Ferdinand Hodler and the apple with arrow is at the same time a citation of the Wilhelm Tell legend and a remembrance of the key role played by the muon spin and the asymmetric muon decay (which for the highest positron energy has an apple like shape). More than 160 participants (including 32 registered as students and 13 as accompanying persons) from 19 countries

  17. An Activity-Rotation Relationship and Kinematic Analysis of Nearby M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenburger, Kolby; West, A. A.; Irwin, J.; Charbonneau, D.; Berta, Z. K.; Dittmann, J.; Newton, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Using spectroscopic observations and photometric light curves of 298 nearby M dwarfs from the MEarth transit survey, we examine the relationships between magnetic activity (quantified by H-alpha emission), rotation period, and stellar age (derived from three-dimensional space velocities). Although we have known for decades that a large fraction of mid-late-type M dwarfs are magnetically active, it was not clear what role rotation played in the magnetic field generation (and subsequent chromospheric heating). Previous attempts to investigate the relationship between magnetic activity and rotation in mid-late-type M dwarfs were hampered by the limited number of M dwarfs with measured rotation periods (and the fact that vsini measurements only probe rapid rotation). However, the photometric data from the MEarth survey allows us to probe a wide range of rotation periods for M dwarf stars (<1-150 days). Over all M spectral types we find that magnetic activity decreases with longer rotation periods. We note the most magnetically active (and hence, most rapidly rotating) stars to be consistent with a kinematically young population, while slow-rotators are less active or inactive and appear to belong to an older, dynamically heated stellar population. We acknowledge MEarth funding from the Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering, the NSF (AST-0807690 and AST-1109273) and the Boston University UROP Program.

  18. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  19. Rotating machinery - Dynamics; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Yang, W.-J.

    Topics addressed include rotordynamic software, blade loss dynamics of a magnetically supported rotor, flow visualization in a single simulated brush seal, an analytical investigation of a cryogenic journal bearing, vibration protection of aeration turbine gear motor, a simple procedure for assessing rotor stability, and stability of rotating cylindrical shells including nonlinear stiffening. Attention is also given to aeroelastic analysis of vertical axis wind turbines, an active chamber system for vibration control of rotating machinery, a computer system for multibearing rotor design, equations of motion of a flexible rotor with axially loose disc, and simulation research on the dynamic characteristics of a steam-injected gas turbine.

  20. Conformations and Barriers to Methyl Group Internal Rotation in Two Asymmetric Ethers: Propyl Methyl Ether and Butyl Methyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B. E.; Dechirico, F.; Cooke, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    The conformational preferences of the O-C-C-C unit are important in many biological systems with the unit generally preferring a gauche configuration compared to an anti configuration. Butyl methyl ether and propyl methyl ether provide very simple systems for this phenomenom to manifest. Pure rotational spectra of the title molecules have been recorded using chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). In the case of butyl methyl ether, only one conformer has been observed. This conformer has torsional angles of COCC = 180°, OCCC = 62° and CCCC = 180° (anti-gauche-anti) and rotational constants of A = 10259.4591(33) MHz, B = 1445.6470(13) MHz, and C = 1356.2944(14) MHz. The rotational spectrum was doubled and has been analyzed to produce an effective barrier to methyl group internal rotation of 780(35) cm-1. A prior rotational spectroscopic study on propyl methyl ether had focused only on the high energy anti-anti conformer. We have analyzed spectra from the lowest energy anti-gauche conformer and the spectroscopic constants will be presented. A summary of the differences in conformational energies and methyl group internal rotation barriers for the class of aliphatic asymmetric ethers will be presented. K. N. Houk, J. E. Eksterowicz, Y.-D. Wu, C. D. Fuglesang, D. B. Mitchell. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (4170), 1993. Hiroshi Kato, Jun Nakagawa, Michiro Hayashi. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 80 (272), 1980.

  1. Experimental study on active structural acoustic control of rotating machinery using rotating piezo-based inertial actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Alujević, N.; Depraetere, B.; Pinte, G.; Swevers, J.; Sas, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, two Piezo-Based Rotating Inertial Actuators (PBRIAs) are considered for the suppression of the structure-borne noise radiated from rotating machinery. As add-on devices, they can be directly mounted on a rotational shaft, in order to intervene as early as possible in the transfer path between disturbance and the noise radiating surfaces. A MIMO (Multi-Input-Multi-Output) form of the FxLMS control algorithm is employed to generate the appropriate actuation signals, relying on a linear interpolation scheme to approximate time varying secondary plants. The proposed active vibration control approach is tested on an experimental test bed comprising a rotating shaft mounted in a frame to which a noise-radiating plate is attached. The disturbance force is introduced by an electro-dynamic shaker. The experimental results show that when the shaft spins below 180 rpm, more than a 7 dB reduction can be achieved in terms of plate vibrations, along with a reduction in the same order of magnitude in terms of noise radiation.

  2. Simulation of non-resonant internal kink mode with toroidal rotation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Fu, G. Y.; Breslau, J. A.; Tritz, Kevin; Liu, J. Y.

    2013-07-01

    Plasmas in spherical and conventional tokamaks, with weakly reversed shear q profile and minimum q above but close to unity, are susceptible to an non-resonant (m,n) = (1,1) internal kink mode. This mode can saturate and persist and can induce a (2,1) seed island for Neoclassical Tearing Mode. [Breslau et al. Nucl. Fusion 51, 063027 (2011)]. The mode can also lead to large energetic particle transport and significant broadening of beam-driven current. Motivated by these important effects, we have carried out extensive nonlinear simulations of the mode with finite toroidal rotation using parameters and profiles of an NTSX plasma with a weakly reversed shear profile. The numerical results show that, at the experimental level, plasma rotation has little effect on either equilibrium or linear stability. However, rotation can significantly influence the nonlinear dynamics of the (1,1) mode and the induced (2,1) magnetic island. The simulation results show that a rotating helical equilibrium is formed and maintained in the nonlinear phase at finite plasma rotation. In contrast, for non-rotating cases, the nonlinear evolution exhibits dynamic oscillations between a quasi-2D state and a helical state. Furthermore, the effects of rotation are found to greatly suppress the (2,1) magnetic island even at a low level.

  3. Simulation of non-resonant internal kink mode with toroidal rotation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Liu, J. Y.; Fu, G. Y.; Breslau, J. A.; Tritz, Kevin

    2013-07-15

    Plasmas in spherical and conventional tokamaks, with weakly reversed shear q profile and minimum q above but close to unity, are susceptible to an non-resonant (m,n) = (1,1) internal kink mode. This mode can saturate and persist and can induce a (2,1) seed island for Neoclassical Tearing Mode. [Breslau et al. Nucl. Fusion 51, 063027 (2011)]. The mode can also lead to large energetic particle transport and significant broadening of beam-driven current. Motivated by these important effects, we have carried out extensive nonlinear simulations of the mode with finite toroidal rotation using parameters and profiles of an NTSX plasma with a weakly reversed shear profile. The numerical results show that, at the experimental level, plasma rotation has little effect on either equilibrium or linear stability. However, rotation can significantly influence the nonlinear dynamics of the (1,1) mode and the induced (2,1) magnetic island. The simulation results show that a rotating helical equilibrium is formed and maintained in the nonlinear phase at finite plasma rotation. In contrast, for non-rotating cases, the nonlinear evolution exhibits dynamic oscillations between a quasi-2D state and a helical state. Furthermore, the effects of rotation are found to greatly suppress the (2,1) magnetic island even at a low level.

  4. Development of the vibration-torsion-rotation Hamiltonian for symmetric-top molecules with large amplitude internal rotation from their high resolution infrared bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borvayeh, Leila

    Internal rotation in C2H6, CH3SiH 3, and similar symmetric top molecules offers an excellent opportunity to investigate large amplitude motion in relatively simple molecules. Due to specific symmetry characteristics of symmetric top molecules, the large amplitude torsional motion is separable from the small amplitude vibrations and the overall rotation, therefore provides a relatively simple vibrational-torsional-rotational Hamiltonian. The results from studying torsional motion in symmetric top molecules may be applied to more complex systems, such as asymmetric internal rotors. This thesis deals with the internal rotation in two types of symmetric top molecules. The first group (X2Y6 type molecules) includes CH3CH3, SiH3SiH3, and CD3CD3. For ethane, we have presented the most complete vibrational-torsional-rotational Hamiltonian model for four lowest vibrational states, to date. For disilane, we have studied the nu9 vibrational fundamentals and nu9 + nu4 - nu4 hot band. In the case of CD3CD3, we have investigated the analysis of nu3 - nu9 difference band. This work demonstrates that observation of weak difference bands in ethane-like molecules might be a way to access vibrational states whose fundamentals are both infrared inactive and very difficult to observe using Raman spectroscopy. The second group (XY3AB3 type molecules) includes CH3SiH3, 12CH3 13CH 3, and CH3CD3. For CH3SiH3 and CH3CD3, we have presented an analysis that includes the nu12 + nu6 - nu6 hot band. In all cases, the torsional dependency of several purely-vibrational terms was found to be important. For CH3SiH3, a coupling between the nu12 + nu6 and nu5 fundamentals has been observed and treated properly. In the case of 12CH 313CH3, we have analyzed nu 6 and 2nu6 - nu6 torsional bands in combination with nu12 band. The torsion mediated Coriolis interactions were found between the torsional stacks of nu12 and ground vibrational state. The analysis of the hot band of CH3CD3 shows a local coupling

  5. The RACE-OC project: Rotation and Activity Evolution in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, S.; Distefano, E.; Parihar, Padmakar; Busà, I.; Cutispoto, G.; Lanza, A. F.; Lanzafame, A.; Pagano, I.; Biazzo, K.; Leto, G.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Kim, S.-L.; Koo, J.-R.; Kang, Y. B.

    2009-02-01

    The RACE-OC project, standing for Rotation and Activity Evolution in Open Clusters, is a long-term project aimed at studying the evolution of rotation and magnetic activity of late-type members of stellar open clusters. Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in altering the rotational properties of late-type stars. They are responsible, e.g., for angular momentum loss in the wind or its redistribution in the stellar interior. Magnetic fields in late-type stars and their related phenomena, such as photospheric cool spots and bright faculae, chromospheric plages, and X-ray emission, in turn depend on the stellar rotation which controls the efficiency of the hydromagnetic dynamo. Thus, the evolution of angular momentum and magnetic activity offer complementary approaches to understanding the mechanisms by which rotation and magnetic fields influence each other in late-type stars.

  6. Educing the emission mechanism of internal gravity waves in the differentially heat rotating annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Joran; Hien, Steffen; Achatz, Ulrich; Borchert, Sebastian; Fruman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the lifecycle of gravity waves is fundamental to a good comprehension of the dynamics of the atmosphere. In this lifecycle, the emission mechanisms may be the most elusive. Indeed, while the emission of gravity waves by orography or convection is well understood, the so-called spontaneous emission is still a quite open topic of investigation [1]. This type of emission usually occur very near jet-front systems in the troposphere. In this abstract, we announce our numerical study of the question. Model systems of the atmosphere which can be easily simulated or built in a laboratory have always been an important part of the study of atmospheric dynamics, alongside global simulations, in situ measurements and theory. In the case of the study of the spontaneous emission of gravity waves near jet-front systems, the differentially heated rotating annulus set up has been proposed and extensively used. It comprises of an annular tank containing water: the inner cylinder is kept at a cold temperature while the outer cylinder is kept at a warm temperature. The whole system is rotating. Provided the values of the control parameters (temperature, rotation rate, gap between the cylinders, height of water) are well chosen, the resulting flow mimics the troposphere at midlatitudes: it has a jet stream, and a baroclinic lifecycle develops on top of it. A very reasonable ratio of Brunt-Väisälä frequency over rotation rate of the system can be obtained, so as to be as close to the atmosphere as possible. Recent experiments as well as earlier numerical simulations in our research group have shown that gravity waves are indeed emitted in this set up, in particular near the jet front system of the baroclinic wave [2]. After a first experimental stage of characterising the emitted wavepacket, we focused our work on testing hypotheses on the gravity wave emission mechanism: we have tested and validated the hypothesis of spontaneous imbalance generated by the flow in

  7. Cat vestibular neurons that exhibit different responses to active and passive yaw head rotations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, F. R.; Tomko, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    Neurons in the vestibular nuclei were recorded in alert cats during voluntary yaw rotations of the head and during the same rotations delivered with a turntable driven from a record of previous voluntary movements. During both voluntary and passive rotations, 35 percent (6/17) of neurons tested responded at higher rates or for a larger part of the movement during voluntary movements than during the same rotations delivered with the turntable. Neck sensory input was evaluated separately in many of these cells and can account qualitatively for the extra firing present during active movement.

  8. Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and Cortical Activation Patterns: Can Training Change Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments the neuronal mechanisms of sex differences in mental rotation were investigated. In Experiment 1 cortical activation was studied in women and men with similar levels of mental rotation ability (high, and average to low), who were equalized with respect to general intelligence. Sex difference in neuroelectric patterns of brain…

  9. 3D Structure and Internal Circulation of Pancake Vortices in Rotating Stratified Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Marcus, Philip; Aubert, Oriane; Le Bars, Michael; Le Gal, Patrice

    2011-11-01

    Jovian vortices, Atlantic meddies, and vortices of the protoplanetrary disks are examples of weakly-forced or unforced long-lived vortices in rotating stratified flows. Knowing the 3D structure and internal circulation of these vortices is essential in understanding their physics, which is not well-understood. For example, the aspect ratio of these vortices has been long thought to be f / N where f is the Coriolis parameter and N is the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. However, our recent theoretical and experimental study has shown that the aspect ratio in fact depends not only on f and N but also on the Rossby number and density mixing inside the vortex. The new scaling law also agrees with the available measurements of the meddies and Jupiter's Great Red Spot. High resolution 3D numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equation are carried out to confirm this new scaling law for a slowly (viscously) decaying anticyclonic vortex in which the Rossby number and stratification inside the vortex evolve in time. For a wide range of parameters and different distributions of density anomaly, the secondary circulations within the vortices are studied. The effect of a non-uniform background stratification is investigated, and the small cyclonic vortices that form above and below the anticyclone are studied.

  10. A study of internal rotations and vibrational spectra of oxiranemethanol ( glycidol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Ali, Shaikh A.

    2009-10-01

    The conformational stability and the C-O and O-H internal rotations in oxiranemethanol were investigated at the DFT-B3LYP/6-311G**, MP2/6-311G** and MP4(SDQ)/6-311G** levels of theory. Three minima were predicted in the CCOH potential energy scans of the molecule to have relative energies of about 2 kcal/mol or less and all were calculated to have real frequencies upon full optimization of structural parameters at the DFT and the MP2 levels of calculations. The Cg1 ( H bond inner) conformation was predicted to be the lowest energy conformation for oxiranemethanol in excellent agreement with an earlier microwave study. The equilibrium mixture was calculated from Gibb's free-energy changes to be about 79% Cg1, 17 % G1g and 3% Gg1 at the B3LYP/6-311G** level and about 87% Cg1, 11 % G1g and 2% Gg1 at the MP2/6-311G** level for oxiranemethanol at 298.15 K. No conclusive evidence was obtained for the presence of high-energy form in the liquid phase of oxiranemethanol. The vibrational frequencies of oxiranemethanol in its three stable forms were computed at the B3LYP level and complete vibrational assignments were made for the lowest energy Cg1 form on basis of calculated and experimental data of the molecule.

  11. Titan’s internal structure inferred from its gravity field, shape, and rotation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baland, Rose-Marie; Tobie, Gabriel; Lefèvre, Axel; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2014-07-01

    Several quantities measured by the Cassini-Huygens mission provide insight into the interior of Titan: the second-degree gravity field coefficients, the shape, the tidal Love number, the electric field, and the orientation of its rotation axis. The measured obliquity and tides, as well as the electric field, are evidence for the presence of an internal global ocean beneath the icy shell of Titan. Here we use these different observations together to constrain the density profile assuming a four-layer interior model (ice I shell, liquid water ocean, high pressure ice mantle, and rock core). Even though the observed second degree gravity field is consistent with the hydrostatic relation J2=10C22/3, which is a necessary but not sufficient condition for a synchronous satellite to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, the observed shape of the surface as well as the non-zero degree-three gravity signal indicate some departure from hydrostaticity. Therefore, we do not restrain our range of assumed density profiles to those corresponding to the hydrostatic value of the moment of inertia (0.34). From a range of density profiles consistent with the radius and mass of the satellite, we compute the obliquity of the Cassini state and the tidal Love number k2. The obliquity is computed from a Cassini state model for a satellite with an internal liquid layer, each layer having an ellipsoidal shape consistent with the measured surface shape and gravity field. The observed (nearly hydrostatic) gravity field is obtained by an additional deflection of the ocean-ice I shell interface, assuming that the layers have uniform densities. We show that the measured obliquity can be reproduced only for internal models with a dense ocean (between 1275 and 1350 kg m-3) above a differentiated interior with a full separation of rock and ice. We obtain normalized moments of inertia between 0.31 and 0.33, significantly lower than the expected hydrostatic value (0.34). Evolutionary mechanisms leading to a

  12. SEASONAL EFFECTS ON COMET NUCLEI EVOLUTION: ACTIVITY, INTERNAL STRUCTURE, AND DUST MANTLE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Capria, M. T.; Lasue, J.

    2010-07-15

    Rotational properties can strongly influence a comet's evolution in terms of activity, dust mantling, and internal structure. In this paper, we investigate the effects of various rotation axis directions on the activity, internal structure, and dust mantling of cometary nuclei. The numerical code developed is able to reproduce different shapes and spin axis inclinations, taking into account both the latitudinal and the longitudinal variations of illumination, using a quasi-three-dimensional approach. The results obtained show that local variations in the dust and gas fluxes can be induced by the different spin axis directions and completely different behaviors of the comet evolution can result in the same cometary shape by using different obliquities of the models. The internal structures of cometary nuclei are also influenced by comet obliquity, as well as dust mantling. Gas and dust production rates show diversities related to the comet seasons.

  13. a Geometrically Non-Linear Model of Rotating Shafts with Internal Resonance and Self-Excited Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuczko, J.

    2002-08-01

    A geometrically non-linear model of the rotating shaft is introduced, which includes Kárman non-linearity, non-linear curvature effects, large displacements and rotations as well as gyroscopic effects. Through applying Timoshenko-type assumptions, the shear effects are also included in the model. Convenient matrix descriptions are used in order to facilitate the analysis based on Galerkin and continuation methods. The model is used to analyze the phenomenon of internal resonance. The influence of some of the system's parameters on the amplitude and frequency of self-excited vibration is investigated.

  14. Neck kinematics and sternocleidomastoid muscle activation during neck rotation in subjects with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Man-Sig

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated differences in the kinematics of the neck and activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle during neck rotation between subjects with and without forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects participated in the study (14 with FHP, 14 without FHP). Subjects performed neck rotation in two directions, left and right. The kinematics of rotation-lateral flexion movement patterns were recorded using motion analysis. Activity in the bilateral SCM muscles was measured using surface electromyography. Differences in neck kinematics and activation of SCM between the groups were analyzed by independent t-tests. [Results] Maintaining FHP increased the rotation-lateral flexion ratio significantly in both directions. The FHP group had significantly faster onset time for lateral flexion movement in both directions during neck rotation. Regarding the electromyography of the SCM muscles during neck rotation in both directions, the activity values of subjects with FHP were greater than those of subjects without FHP for the contralateral SCM muscles. [Conclusion] FHP can induce changes in movement in the frontal plane and SCM muscle activation during neck rotation. Thus, clinicians should consider movement in the frontal plane as well as in the sagittal plane when assessing and treating patients with forward head posture. PMID:26696712

  15. Low-frequency internal waves in magnetized rotating stellar radiation zones. II. Angular momentum transport with a toroidal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, S.; de Brye, N.

    2012-04-01

    Context. With the progress of observational constraints on dynamical processes in stars, it becomes necessary to understand the angular momentum and the rotation profile history. In this context, internal waves constitute an efficient transport mechanism over long distances in stellar radiation zones. Indeed, they could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the quasi-flat rotation profile of the solar radiative region up to 0.2 R⊙. Aims: Angular momentum transport induced by internal waves depends on the properties of their excitation regions and of their dissipation during propagation. Then, the bottom of convective envelopes (the top of convective cores, respectively) are differentially rotating magnetic layers while radiation zones may host fossil magnetic fields. It is therefore necessary to understand the modification of internal wave mechanisms by both rotation and magnetic fields. Methods: We continue our previous work by proceeding step by step. We analytically built a complete formalism that treats the angular momentum transport by internal waves while taking into account both the Coriolis acceleration and the Lorentz force in a non-perturbative way for an axisymmetric toroidal field. We assumed a uniform Alfvén frequency and a weak differential rotation to isolate the transport properties as a function of the Rossby and Elsasser numbers. Results: We examined the different possible approximations to describe low-frequency internal waves modified by the Coriolis acceleration and the Lorentz force in a deep spherical shell. The complete structure of these waves, which become magneto-gravito-inertial waves, is given assuming the quasi-linear approximation first in the adiabatic case and then in the dissipative one. Vertical and equatorial trapping phenomena appear that favor retrograde waves. The efficiency of the induced transport as a function of the Rossby and Elsasser numbers is then obtained. Conclusions: A complete study of the transport of

  16. Electromechanical simulation and test of rotating systems with magnetic bearing or piezoelectric actuator active vibration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Tang, Punan; Kim, Chaesil; Manchala, Daniel; Barrett, Tim; Kascak, Albert F.; Brown, Gerald; Montague, Gerald; Dirusso, Eliseo; Klusman, Steve

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains a summary of the experience of the authors in the field of electromechanical modeling for rotating machinery - active vibration control. Piezoelectric and magnetic bearing actuator based control are discussed.

  17. Indicators of international remote sensing activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The extent of worldwide remote sensing activities, including the use of satellite and high/medium altitude aircraft data was studied. Data were obtained from numerous individuals and organizations with international remote sensing responsibilities. Indicators were selected to evaluate the nature and scope of remote sensing activities in each country. These indicators ranged from attendance at remote sensing workshops and training courses to the establishment of earth resources satellite ground stations and plans for the launch of earth resources satellites. Results indicate that this technology constitutes a rapidly increasing component of environmental, land use, and natural resources investigations in many countries, and most of these countries rely on the LANDSAT satellites for a major portion of their data.

  18. Prior Clues of Internal Activity on Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    New Horizons scientists Kelsi Singer and Alan Stern predicted that Pluto may have subsurface activity, in this study published even before New Horizon's recent observations of Pluto's strangely uncratered surface areas. Where Does the Nitrogen Come From? Pluto's surface and atmosphere contain a significant amount of nitrogen, but the gas leaks out of Pluto's atmosphere at an tremendous rate -- estimated at about 1.5 × 1012-13 grams per year (roughly 200-2000 tons/hr!). But if the nitrogen has been escaping at this rate since the solar system was formed, the entire atmospheric reservoir of would have been lost long before now. So what is resupplying Pluto's nitrogen? Singer and Stern explore several possible sources: Delivery by comet impact: The authors calculate that over the 4-billion-year span since Pluto's formation, it has been impacted by a total of 600 million comets of varying sizes, all likely containing nitrogen. But their estimates show that the amount of nitrogen this would supply falls several orders of magnitude shy of explaining the escape rate. Excavation by cratering: Could comet impacts simply expose nitrogen buried in reservoirs just beneath Pluto's surface? That method, too, falls short of resupplying atmospheric nitrogen escape by at least an order of magnitude, even using the most generous estimates. Internal activity: Unless the believed atmospheric loss rate of Pluto is overestimated, the authors conclude that Pluto must experience some sort of internal activity such as cryovolcanism that brings nitrogen from below its surface up and into the atmosphere. The Study in Context of Current Events. Singer and Stern wrote and submitted this paper before the New Horizons spacecraft's recent flyby of Pluto. Data from this mission has recently provided surprise after surprise -- from images of smooth, crater-free regions on Pluto's surface to evidence of sheets of carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrogen ices flowing like glaciers. These clues support

  19. Activity of Lipase and Chitinase Immobilized on Superparamagnetic Particles in a Rotational Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Mizuki, Toru; Sawai, Miyuki; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Morimoto, Hisao; Maekawa, Toru

    2013-01-01

    We immobilize hydrolases such as lipase and chitinase on superparamagnetic particles, which are subjected to a rotational magnetic field, and measure the activities of the enzymes. We find that the activities of lipase and chitinase increase in the rotational magnetic field compared to those in the absence of a magnetic field and reach maximum at certain frequencies. The present methodology may well be utilized for the design and development of efficient micro reactors and micro total analysis systems (μ-TASs). PMID:23799111

  20. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (μSR2014) organized by the Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute in collaboration with the University of Zurich and the University of Fribourg, was held in Grindelwald, Switzerland from 1st to 6th June 2014. The conference provided a forum for researchers from around the world with interests in the applications of μSR to study a wide range of topics including condensed matter physics, materials and molecular sciences, chemistry and biology. Polarized muons provide a unique and versatile probe of matter, enabling studies at the atomic level of electronic structure and dynamics in a wide range of systems. The conference was the thirteenth in a series, which began in Rorschach in 1978 and it took place for the third time in Switzerland. The previous conferences were held in Cancun, Mexico (2011), Tsukuba, Japan (2008), Oxford, UK (2005), Williamsburg, USA (2002), Les Diablerets, Switzerland (1999), Nikko, Japan (1996), Maui, USA (1993), Oxford, UK (1990), Uppsala, Sweden (1986), Shimoda, Japan (1983), Vancouver, Canada (1980), and Rorschach, Switzerland (1978). These conference proceedings contain 67 refereed publications from presentations covering magnetism, superconductivity, chemistry, semiconductors, biophysics and techniques. The conference logo, displayed in the front pages of these proceedings, represents both the location of μSR2014 in the Alps and the muon-spin rotation technique. The silhouette represents the famous local mountains Eiger, Mönch and Jungfrau as drawn by the Swiss painter Ferdinand Hodler and the apple with arrow is at the same time a citation of the Wilhelm Tell legend and a remembrance of the key role played by the muon spin and the asymmetric muon decay (which for the highest positron energy has an apple like shape). More than 160 participants (including 32 registered as students and 13 as accompanying persons) from 19 countries

  1. Two-dimensional character of internal rotation of furfural and other five-member heterocyclic aromatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Bataev, Vadim A; Pupyshev, Vladimir I; Godunov, Igor A

    2016-05-15

    The features of nuclear motion corresponding to the rotation of the formyl group (CHO) are studied for the molecules of furfural and some other five-member heterocyclic aromatic aldehydes by the use of MP2/6-311G** quantum chemical approximation. It is demonstrated that the traditional one-dimensional models of internal rotation for the molecules studied have only limited applicability. The reason is the strong kinematic interaction of the rotation of the CHO group and out-of-plane CHO deformation that is realized for the molecules under consideration. The computational procedure based on the two-dimensional approximation is considered for low lying vibrational states as more adequate to the problem. PMID:26971025

  2. Two-dimensional character of internal rotation of furfural and other five-member heterocyclic aromatic aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataev, Vadim A.; Pupyshev, Vladimir I.; Godunov, Igor A.

    2016-05-01

    The features of nuclear motion corresponding to the rotation of the formyl group (CHO) are studied for the molecules of furfural and some other five-member heterocyclic aromatic aldehydes by the use of MP2/6-311G** quantum chemical approximation. It is demonstrated that the traditional one-dimensional models of internal rotation for the molecules studied have only limited applicability. The reason is the strong kinematic interaction of the rotation of the CHO group and out-of-plane CHO deformation that is realized for the molecules under consideration. The computational procedure based on the two-dimensional approximation is considered for low lying vibrational states as more adequate to the problem.

  3. IUE observations of rapidly rotating low-mass stars in young clusters - The relation between chromospheric activity and rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Theodore

    1990-01-01

    If the rapid spindown of low-mass stars immediately following their arrival on the ZAMS results from magnetic braking by coronal winds, an equally sharp decline in their chromospheric emission may be expected. To search for evidence of this effect, the IUE spacecraft was used to observe the chromospheric Mg II emission lines of G-M dwarfs in the nearby IC 2391, Alpha Persei, Pleiades, and Hyades clusters. Similar observations were made of a group of X-ray-selected 'naked' T Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga. The existence of a decline in activity cannot be confirmed from the resulting data. However, the strength of the chromospheric emission in the Mg II lines of the cluster stars is found to be correlated with rotation rate, being strongest for the stars with the shortest rotation periods and weakest for those with the longest periods. This provides indirect support for such an evolutionary change in activity. Chromospheric activity may thus be only an implicit function of age.

  4. Prediction of active control of subsonic centrifugal compressor rotating stall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, Patrick B.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict the suppression of rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser. This model is based on the employment of a control vortical waveform generated upstream of the impeller inlet to damp weak potential disturbances that are the early stages of rotating stall. The control system is analyzed by matching the perturbation pressure in the compressor inlet and exit flow fields with a model for the unsteady behavior of the compressor. The model was effective at predicting the stalling behavior of the Purdue Low Speed Centrifugal Compressor for two distinctly different stall patterns. Predictions made for the effect of a controlled inlet vorticity wave on the stability of the compressor show that for minimum control wave magnitudes, on the order of the total inlet disturbance magnitude, significant damping of the instability can be achieved. For control waves of sufficient amplitude, the control phase angle appears to be the most important factor in maintaining a stable condition in the compressor.

  5. Internal rotation potential and relaxation of structure in nitrobenzene studied by microwave spectroscopy supported by quantum chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Niels Wessel

    2010-01-01

    Rotational constants for the vibrational ground state and three torsionally excited states of nine nitrobenzene isotopologues were used to investigate the internal rotation potential and the structure of nitrobenzene. Relaxation parameters were calculated by the B3LYP and MP2(full) methods with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. The four sets of relaxation parameters all led to a clear improvement in the fit to rotational constants as compared with fits without relaxation of structure. The improvement was different from set to set, with B3LYP/aug-cc-PVDZ as a surprising winner. However, letting three of the relaxation parameters vary freely, gave virtually identical results for the molecular structure and potential function in all cases. Assuming higher order potential coefficient to vanish, the resultant potential parameters were, with 1 σ uncertainties, V2 = 1678 ± 19 cm -1 and V4 = -207 ± 6 cm -1. The barrier to internal rotation was estimated to 1575 ± 150 cm -1. A small change in structure upon ortho deuteration was found.

  6. PEA chloroplasts under clino-rotation: lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranenko, V. V.

    The lipid peroxidation (LP) intensity and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in chloroplasts of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants grown for 7 and 14 days under clino-rotation. An increase in LP levels in chloroplasts during both terms of clinorotation in comparison with stationary controls was documented. SOD activity increased in chloroplasts of plants that were clino-rotated for seven days. SOD has a significant protective effect by diminishing the availability of O2-. However, under more prolonged clino-rotation (14 days), SOD activity decreased but was still higher than in the control samples. In accordance with Selye's oxidative stress theory (Selye, 1956; modified by Leshem et al., 1998), plants that were clino-rotated for seven days are presumed to be in a stage of resistance while 14-day plants reached a stage of exhaustion.

  7. Potential function of the internal rotation of a methacrolein molecule in the ground ( S 0) electronic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroleva, L. A.; Krasnoshchekov, S. V.; Matveev, V. K.; Pentin, Yu. A.

    2016-08-01

    The structural parameters of s- trans- and s- cis-isomers of a methacrolein molecule in the ground ( S 0) electronic state are determined by means of MP2 method with the cc-pVTZ basis set. Kinematic factor F(φ) is expanded in a Fourier series. The potential function of internal rotation (PFIR) of methacrolein in this state is built using experimental frequencies of transitions of the torsional vibration of both isomers, obtained from an analysis of the vibrational structure of the high-resolution UV spectrum with allowance for the geometry and difference between the energy (Δ H) of the isomers. It is shown that the V n parameters of the potential function of internal rotation of the molecule, built using the frequencies of the transition of the torsional vibrations of s- trans- and s- cis-isomers of the methacrolein molecule, determined from vibrational structure of the high-resolution UV spectrum and the FTIR spectrum, are close.

  8. Periods of the Earth's seismicity activation and their relationship to variations in the Earth's rotation velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasorova, Elena; Levin, Boris

    2015-04-01

    It is known that Earth's seismic activity (SA) demonstrates distinct roughness (nonuniformity) in time. Periods of intensification of the SA followed by periods of its decaying. For strong earthquakes these periods are continued several decades. It was also noted that there is a pronounced periodic amplification and attenuation of the SA with a period of about 30 years, which is manifested mainly in two latitudinal belts 50°N-30°N and 0°-30°S [Levin, Sasorova, 2014, 2015]. This work deals with the hypothesis that it is the properties of rotating non-uniform rate of the planet may be the cause of the periodicity of manifestations SA. The objective of this work is the searching of the spatial-temporal interconnection between the Earth rotation irregularity and the observed cyclic increasing and decreasing of the Earth's SA. This requires preparation a long series of observations of seismic events with representative data sets (EQ selected from 1895 up to date with a magnitude M> = 7.5, based on the catalog NEIC). Two sources of data on the angular velocity of the Earth's rotation of (length of day, LOD) were adapted: the world-known database IERS (Annual Report, International Earth Rotation Service) and the data, which were presented in the work (McCarthy, D.D., and Babcock A.K., 1986). The first one contains daily observations from 1962 to 2013, the second one was identified semi-annual observations from 1720 to 1984. It was prepared concatenated data set (CLOD) for the period from 1720 to 2013. Characteristic periods in the time series CLOD: 62, 32, and 23 years have been isolated by the use of spectral analysis. Next, it were used a band-pass filters for the four frequency bands from 124 to 45 years, from 37 do 25 years, from 25 to 19 years, and in the range of less than 19 years. In the frequency bands 37-25 years and 25-19 years marked clear periodic oscillations close to a sine wave. The amplitude of the oscillations with the 1720 to 1790 gradually

  9. Supersaturation and activity-rotation relation in PMS stars: the young cluster h Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argiroffi, C.; Caramazza, M.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Flaccomio, E.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Several studies showed that the magnetic activity of late-type main-sequence (MS) stars is characterized by different regimes and that their activity levels are well described by the Rossby number, Ro, defined as the ratio between the rotational period Prot and the convective turnover time. Very young pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars show, similarly to MS stars, intense magnetic activity. However, they do not show clear activity-rotation trends, and it still debated which stellar parameters determine their magnetic activity levels. Aims: To bridge the gap between MS and PMS stars, we studied the activity-rotation relation in the young cluster h Persei, a ~13 Myr old cluster, that contains both fast and slow rotators. The cluster members have ended their accretion phase and have developed a radiative core. It therefore offers us the opportunity of studying the activity level of intermediate-age PMS stars with different rotational velocities, excluding any interactions with the circumstellar environment. Methods: We constrained the magnetic activity levels of h Per members by measuring their X-ray emission from a Chandra observation, while rotational periods were obtained previously in the framework of the MONITOR project. By cross-correlating these data, we collected a final catalog of 414 h Per members with known rotational period, effective temperature, and mass. In 169 of these, X-ray emission has also been detected. Results: We found that h Per members with 1.0 M⊙activity regimes: fast rotators clearly show supersaturation, while slower rotators have activity levels compatible to the non-saturated regime. At 13 Myr, h Per is therefore the youngest cluster showing activity-rotation regimes analogous to those of MS stars, indicating that at this age, magnetic field production is most likely regulated by the αΩ type dynamo. Moreover, we observed that supersaturation is better described by Prot than Ro, and that the

  10. Supersaturation and activity-rotation relation in PMS stars: the young cluster h Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argiroffi, C.; Caramazza, M.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Flaccomio, E.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Several studies showed that the magnetic activity of late-type main-sequence (MS) stars is characterized by different regimes and that their activity levels are well described by the Rossby number, Ro, defined as the ratio between the rotational period Prot and the convective turnover time. Very young pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars show, similarly to MS stars, intense magnetic activity. However, they do not show clear activity-rotation trends, and it still debated which stellar parameters determine their magnetic activity levels. Aims: To bridge the gap between MS and PMS stars, we studied the activity-rotation relation in the young cluster h Persei, a ~13 Myr old cluster, that contains both fast and slow rotators. The cluster members have ended their accretion phase and have developed a radiative core. It therefore offers us the opportunity of studying the activity level of intermediate-age PMS stars with different rotational velocities, excluding any interactions with the circumstellar environment. Methods: We constrained the magnetic activity levels of h Per members by measuring their X-ray emission from a Chandra observation, while rotational periods were obtained previously in the framework of the MONITOR project. By cross-correlating these data, we collected a final catalog of 414 h Per members with known rotational period, effective temperature, and mass. In 169 of these, X-ray emission has also been detected. Results: We found that h Per members with 1.0 M⊙activity regimes: fast rotators clearly show supersaturation, while slower rotators have activity levels compatible to the non-saturated regime. At 13 Myr, h Per is therefore the youngest cluster showing activity-rotation regimes analogous to those of MS stars, indicating that at this age, magnetic field production is most likely regulated by the αΩ type dynamo. Moreover, we observed that supersaturation is better described by Prot than Ro, and that the

  11. Effects of internal viscous damping on the stability of a rotating shaft driven through a universal joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzei, A. J.; Scott, R. A.

    2003-08-01

    A rotating flexible shaft, with both external and internal viscous damping, driven through a universal joint is considered. The mathematical model consists of a set of coupled, linear partial differential equations with time-dependent coefficients. Use of Galerkin's technique leads to a set of coupled linear differential equations with time-dependent coefficients. Using these differential equations some effects of internal viscous damping on parametric and flutter instability zones are investigated by the monodromy matrix technique. The flutter zones are also obtained on discarding the time-dependent coefficients in the differential equations which leads to an eigenvalue analysis. A one-term Galerkin approximation aided this analysis. Two different shafts ("automotive" and "lab") were considered. Increasing internal damping is always stabilizing as regards to parametric instabilities. For flutter type instabilities it was found that increasing internal damping is always stabilizing for rotational speeds v below the first critical speed, v1. For v> v1, there is a value of the internal viscous damping coefficient, Civ, which depends on the rotational speed and torque, above which destabilization occurs. The value of Civ ("critical value") at which the unstable zone first enters the practical range of operation was determined. The dependence of Civ critical on the external damping was investigated. It was found for the automotive case that a four-fold increase in external damping led to an increase of about 20% of the critical value. For the lab model an increase of two orders of magnitude of the external damping led to an increase of critical value of only 10%. For the automotive shaft it was found that this critical value also removed the parametric instabilities out of the practical range. For the lab model it is not always possible to completely stabilize the system by increasing the internal damping. For this model using Civ critical, parametric instabilities are

  12. The effect of deuterium substitution in the amino group on the internal-rotation barrier of acetamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Eizi; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Seto, Koichi

    2010-03-01

    Peptide molecules XCO-NYY' are characterized by low potential barrier V3 to internal rotation of a methyl group substituted for X and/or Y. A most conspicuous example is acetamide, for which V3 was previously reported to be 25.043857(19) cm -1[8]. The present study intended to clarify why V3 is so low in acetamide, by examining the effect of the out-of-plane bending or inversion of the amino group on the molecular structure through deuterium substitution for amino hydrogens. The potential barrier V3 in acetamide was found to decrease by 2.630, 2.986, and 5.532 cm -1, when H's at cis, trans, and both positions in the amino group were replaced by deuterium atoms, respectively. The reduction was proportional to the effective mass of the out-of-plane bending mode of the amino group (hereafter referred to as the amino inversion), which was in turn ascribed to the change in electronic resonance character of the peptide linkage. The amino inversion is coupled with the CH 3 internal rotation, producing an interaction term proportional to τ sin 3 α, where τ and α denote the amino inversion and methyl internal rotation angles, respectively. This coupling term, when the inversion is treated by second-order perturbation, yields a V6 term in the internal-rotation potential function of the methyl group, in agreement with the finding of Ilyushin et al. [8], who derived an unusually large V6 term of -10.044874(73) cm -1. It is quite interesting that even a small perturbation such as deuterium substitution causes a substantial change in electronic structure of the peptide linkage.

  13. VLBI observation program for the International Earth Rotation Service and necessity for a domestic committee in Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, T.; Takahashi, F.; Yokoyama, K.

    VLBI observation plan for the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) is described which aims more efficient program in Pacific area. To improve and to maintain the technical level of VLBI observation, Communications Research Laboratory (Japan) and Haystack Observatory (USA) were nominated as VLBI technical development centers in 1990 by the IERS directing board. Plan of functions and its organization are described. Finally, it is pointed out that a domestic IERS committee is necessary in Japan.

  14. A multiwavelength campaign of active stars with intermediate rotation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Robert C.; Neff, James E.; ONeal, Douglas; Olah, Katalin

    1995-01-01

    Near-to-simultaneous ultraviolet and visual spectroscopy of two moderate nu(sin i) RS CVn systems, V815 Herculis (nu(sin i) = 27 km s(exp -1)) and LM Pegasi (nu(sin i) = 24 km s(exp -1)), are presented along with contemporaneous UBV (RI)(sub c) - band photometry. These data were used to probe inhomogeneities in the chromospheres and photospheres, and the possible relationship between them. Both systems show evidence for rotationally modulated chromospheric emission, generally varying in antiphase to the photospheric brightness. A weak flare was observed at Mg II for V815 Her. In the case of IM Peg, we use photometry and spectra to estimate temperatures, sizes, and locations of photospheric spots. Further constraints on the spot temperature is provided by TiO observations. For IM Peg, the anticorrelation between chromospheric emission and brightness is discussed in the context of a possible solar-like spot cycle.

  15. Gyrochronology of Low-mass Stars - Age-Rotation-Activity Relations for Young M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, Benjamin; Shkolnik, E.; Skiff, B.

    2014-01-01

    New rotation periods for 34 young <300 Myr), early-M dwarfs within 25 parsecs were measured using photometric data collected with telescopes at Lowell Observatory during 2012 and 2013. An additional 25 rotation periods for members of the same sample were found in the literature. Ages were derived from Hα and X-ray emission, lithium absorption, surface gravity, and kinematic association of members of known young moving groups (YMGs). We compared rotation periods with the estimated ages as well as indicators of magnetic activity, with the intention of strengthening age-rotation-activity relations and assessing the possible use of gyrochronology in young, low-mass stars. We compared ages and rotation periods of our target stars to cluster members spanning 1-600 Myr. Rotation periods at every age exhibit a large scatter, with values typically ranging from 0.2 to 15 days. This suggests that gyrochronology for individual field stars will not be possible without a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern angular momentum evolution. Yet, on average, the data still support the predicted trends for spin-up during contraction and spin-down on the main sequence, with the turnover occurring at around 150 Myr for early Ms. This suggests that rotation period distributions can be helpful in evaluating the ages of coeval groups of stars. Many thanks to the National Science Foundation for their support through the Research Experience for Undergraduates Grant AST- 1004107.

  16. Rehabilitation of the Overhead Throwing Athlete: There Is More to It Than Just External Rotation/Internal Rotation Strengthening.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Arrigo, Christopher A; Hooks, Todd R; Andrews, James R

    2016-03-01

    The repetitive nature of throwing manifests characteristic adaptive changes to the shoulder, scapulothoracic, and hip/pelvis complexes that result in a set of unique physical traits in the overhead throwing athlete. An effective rehabilitation program is dependent upon an accurate evaluation and differential diagnosis to determine the causative factors for the athlete's pathologic features. The treatment program should be individualized with specific strengthening and flexibility exercises to achieve the dynamic stability that is required for overhead function. In this article we describe the characteristics of the throwing shoulder, along with a multiphased rehabilitation program that allows for the restoration of strength, mobility, endurance, and power and is aimed toward a return to unrestricted sporting activity. We also describe exercises that link the upper and lower extremities because of the importance of core control and leg strength in the development of power during the act of throwing. Additionally, proper throwing mechanics, utilization of pitch counts, appropriate rest, and proper off-season conditioning will help decrease overall injury risk in the overhead throwing athlete. PMID:26972270

  17. Rotation and activity among solar-type stars of the Ursa Major Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David R.; Mayor, Michel

    1993-01-01

    We examine rotation and chromospheric activity among G and K dwarfs recently shown to be members of the Ursa Major Group (UMaG). Rotation periods for UMaG stars are smaller than for stars of the same colors in the Hyades, and by an amount corresponding to the Skumanich relation. Most UMaG stars have about the same level of Ca II and K emission, implying that they also have nearly uniform intrinsic rotation rates. That means that the diversity of rotation rates and levels of activity seen among solar-type stars in the Alpha Persei and Pleiades clusters has largely converged by the age of UMaG (0.3 Gyr).

  18. Conformational stability, barriers to internal rotation, vibrational assignment, and ab initio calculations of chloroacetyl fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durig, J. R.; Zhao, Wenyun; Lewis, Durig; Little, T. S.

    1988-08-01

    The far infrared spectrum of gaseous chloroacetyl fluoride, CH2ClC(O)F, has been recorded at a resolution of 0.10 cm-1 in the 350 to 35 cm-1 region. The fundamental asymmetric torsional frequencies of the more stable trans (two halogen atoms oriented trans to one another) and high energy gauche (Cl-C-C=O torsional dihedral angle of 122°) have been observed at 86.5 and 48.8 cm-1, respectively, each with excited states falling to lower frequency. From these data the asymmetric torsional potential function governing internal rotation about the C-C bond has been determined. This potential function is consistent with torsional potential coefficients of: V1=350±12, V2=306±6, V3=420±1, V4=44±1, and V6=2±1 cm-1. The trans to gauche, gauche to gauche, and gauche to trans barriers have been determined to be 796, 245, and 271 cm-1, respectively, with an energy difference between the conformations of 525±24 cm-1 (1.50±0.07 kcal/mol). From studies of the Raman spectrum at variable temperatures the conformational energy difference has been determined to be 445±80 (1.27±0.2 kcal/mol) and 534±68 cm-1 (1.53±0.2 kcal/mol) for the gaseous and liquid phases, respectively. A complete assignment of the vibrational fundamentals observed from the infrared (3500 to 50 cm-1) spectra of the gaseous and solid states and Raman (3200 to 10 cm-1) spectra of the gaseous, liquid, and solid states is proposed. All of these data are compared to the corresponding quantities obtained from ab initio Hartree-Fock gradient calculations employing both the 3-21G* and 6-31G* basis sets. Additionally, complete equilibrium geometries have been determined for both rotamers. The results are discussed and compared with the corresponding quantities obtained for some similar molecules.

  19. Internal performance of a nonaxisymmetric nozzle with a rotating upper flap and a center-pivoted lower flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Leavitt, Laurence D.; Re, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at wind-off conditions in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance characteristics of a single expansion-ramp nozzle with thrust-vectoring capability to 105 degrees. Thrust vectoring was accomplished by the downward rotation of an upper flap with adaptive capability for internal contouring and a corresponding rotation of a center-pivoted lower flap. The static internal performance of configurations with pitch thrust-vector angles of 0 degrees, 60 degrees, and 105 degrees each with two throat areas, was investigated. The nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.5 to approximately 8.0 (5.0 for the maximum throat area configurations). Results of this study indicated that the nozzle configuration of the present investigation, when vectored, provided excellent flow-turning capability with relatively high levels of internal performance. In all cases, the thrust vector angle was a function of the nozzle pressure ratio. This result is expected because the flow is bounded by a single expansion surface on both vectored- and unvectored-nozzle geometries.

  20. Fast Rotation and Trailing Fragments of the Active Asteroid P/2012 F5 (Gibbs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drahus, Michał; Waniak, Wacław; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2015-03-01

    While having a comet-like appearance, P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) has an orbit native to the Main Asteroid Belt, and physically is a km-sized asteroid which recently (mid 2011) experienced an impulsive mass ejection event. Here we report new observations of this object obtained with the Keck II telescope on UT 2014 August 26. The data show previously undetected 200 m scale fragments of the main nucleus, and reveal a rapid nucleus spin with a rotation period of 3.24 ± 0.01 hr. The existence of large fragments and the fast nucleus spin are both consistent with rotational instability and partial disruption of the object. To date, many fast rotators have been identified among the minor bodies, which, however, do not eject detectable fragments at the present-day epoch, and also fragmentation events have been observed, but with no rotation period measured. P/2012 F5 is unique in that for the first time we detected fragments and quantified the rotation rate of one and the same object. The rapid spin rate of P/2012 F5 is very close to the spin rates of two other active asteroids in the Main Belt, 133P/Elst-Pizarro and (62412), confirming the existence of a population of fast rotators among these objects. But while P/2012 F5 shows impulsive ejection of dust and fragments, the mass loss from 133P is prolonged and recurrent. We believe that these two types of activity observed in the rapidly rotating active asteroids have a common origin in the rotational instability of the nucleus. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  1. The RACE-OC project: Rotation and ACtivity Evolution in Open Clusters .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, S.

    The RACE-OC (Rotation and ACtivity Evolution in Open Clusters) is a project aimed at studying the evolution of rotation and magnetic activity of the late-type members belonging to open clusters with an age in the range from about 1 to 500 Myr. In late-type stars rotation and solar-like magnetic activity are closely inter-related. In fact, presence and level of stellar magnetic activity depend on rotation. On the other hand, magnetic activity influences the evolution of the angular momentum and determines the atmospheric structure from the PMS to Post-MS evolutionary stages (Dorren & Guinan \\cite{Dorren94}; Guinan et al. \\cite{Guinan01}). Studies of the rotation and magnetic activity evolution versus time are particularly relevant to 1) determine the radiative and magnetic properties of the young Sun; 2) study its evolution history to the present; 3) construct irradiance tables to be used to model paleo-planetary atmospheres. Our aim is to describe the evolution versus time of either the stellar angular momentum and magnetic activity, by inferring from observational data accurate empirical relations between global stellar properties, rotation and activity manifestations at different atmospheric levels to be compared to current stellar evolution and hydromagnetic dynamo models. The multiband CCD photometric observations have been so far carried out with the 0.6m REM (Rapid Eye Mount) telescope (La Silla, Chile) of INAF; the 2m HCT (Himalayan Chandra Telescope) of IIA, the 1.3m Cassegrain telescope of Skinakas Observatory (University of Crete) and, finally, the 1.3m RCT (Robotic Controlled Telescope, Arizona) of Villanova University.

  2. Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.

    1988-01-01

    The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers have been discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Tests are currently being conducted with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results from tests performed on NASA test rigs as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

  3. Internal Rotation of the Red-giant Star KIC 4448777 by Means of Asteroseismic Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M. P.; Ventura, R.; Cardini, D.; Stello, D.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Dziembowski, W. A.; Paternò, L.; Beck, P. G.; Bloemen, S.; Davies, G. R.; De Smedt, K.; Elsworth, Y.; García, R. A.; Hekker, S.; Mosser, B.; Tkachenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the stellar interior of the early red-giant star KIC 4448777 by asteroseismic inversion of 14 splittings of the dipole mixed modes obtained from Kepler observations. In order to overcome the complexity of the oscillation pattern typical of red-giant stars, we present a procedure to extract the rotational splittings from the power spectrum. We find not only that the core rotates from a minimum of 8 to a maximum of 17 times faster than the surface, confirming previous inversion results generated for other red giants (Deheuvels et al.), but we also estimate the variation of the angular velocity within the helium core with a spatial resolution of 0.001R and verify the hypothesis of a sharp discontinuity in the inner stellar rotation. The results show that the entire core rotates rigidly and provide evidence for an angular velocity gradient around the base of the hydrogen-burning shell; however, we do not succeed in characterizing the rotational slope, due to the intrinsic limits of the applied techniques. The angular velocity, from the edge of the core, appears to decrease with increasing distance from the center, reaching an average value in the convective envelope of 68 ± 22 nHz. We conclude that a set of data that includes only dipolar modes is sufficient to infer quite accurately the rotation of a red giant not only in the dense core but also, with a lower level of confidence, in part of the radiative region and in the convective envelope.

  4. Rotation, locomotor activity and individual differences in voluntary ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, D M; Crosley, K J; Keller, R W; Glick, S D; Carlson, J N

    1999-03-27

    Spontaneous turning behavior and locomotor activity were evaluated for their ability to predict differences in the voluntary consumption of ethanol in male Long-Evans rats. Animals were assessed for their preferred direction of turning behavior and for high vs. low levels of spontaneous locomotor activity, as determined during nocturnal testing in a rotometer. Subsequently, preference for a 10% ethanol solution vs. water was determined in a 24-h two-bottle home-cage free-choice paradigm. Rats exhibiting a right-turning preference consumed more ethanol than rats showing a left-turning preference. While locomotor activity alone did not predict differences in drinking, turning and locomotor activity together predicted differences in ethanol consumption. Low-activity right-turning rats consumed more ethanol than all the other groups of rats. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that individual differences in turning behavior are accompanied by different asymmetries in dopamine (DA) function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Individual differences in locomotor activity are associated with differences in nucleus accumbens (NAS) DA function. The present data suggest that variations in mPFC DA asymmetry and NAS DA function may underlie differences in the voluntary consumption of ethanol. PMID:10095014

  5. A method for calculating plasma rotation velocity due to internal and external sources

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, M.

    2011-10-15

    A method for calculating the plasma rotation velocity caused by the effect of fluctuations due to instabilities and/or by externally imposed sources is presented for multiple ion species plasmas in a general toroidal magnetic field. The rotation velocity is shown to be obtained by solving generalized Spitzer equations, accompanied with the drift kinetic equations employing the pitch-angle-scattering and Krook collision terms. This method reduces to the moment equation approach in the conventional neoclassical transport theory when the source term can be approximated by a momentum source.

  6. Enhancing Potato System Sustainability: Crop Rotation Impacts on Soil Phosphatase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is a species with a low efficiency of acquiring soil P. Rotation crops may potentially influence P uptake by potato by increasing soil organic acids, phosphatase activity, and microbial biomass. However, this kind of information is very limited. We measured the activities of acid phosphatase,...

  7. Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

  8. Analysis of neck muscle activity and comparison of head movement and body movement during rotational motion.

    PubMed

    Sirikantharajah, Shahini; Valter McConville, Kristiina M; Zolfaghari, Nika

    2015-08-01

    The neck is a very delicate part of the body that is highly prone to whiplash injuries, during jerk. A lot of the research relating to whiplash injuries performed to date has been tested in environments with linear motions and have mostly applied their work to car collisions. Whiplash injuries can also affect disabled individuals during falls, bed transfers, and while travelling in wheelchairs. The primary objective of this paper was to focus on neck and body behaviour during rotational motion, rather than linear motion which has been often associated with car collisions. This paper takes the current motion signal processing technique a step further by computing the differential between head and body motion. Neck electromyogram (EMG) and angular velocity data of the head and body were acquired simultaneously from 20 subjects, as they were rotated 45 degrees in the forward pitch plane, with and without visual input, in a motion simulator. The centre of rotation (COR) on the simulator was located behind the subject Results showed that neck muscle behaviour was affected by the forward rotations, as well as visual input. Anterior neck muscles were most active during forward rotations and trials including VR. Maximum effective muscle power and activity of 10.54% and 55.72 (mV/mV)·s were reached respectively. Furthermore, during forward rotations the motion profiles started off with dominance in body motion, followed by dominance in head motion. PMID:26737049

  9. Fast-Moving Bacteria Self-Organize into Active Two-Dimensional Crystals of Rotating Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, Alexander P.; Wu, Xiao-Lun; Libchaber, Albert

    2015-04-01

    We investigate a new form of collective dynamics displayed by Thiovulum majus, one of the fastest-swimming bacteria known. Cells spontaneously organize on a surface into a visually striking two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of rotating cells. As each constituent cell rotates its flagella, it creates a tornadolike flow that pulls neighboring cells towards and around it. As cells rotate against their neighbors, they exert forces on one another, causing the crystal to rotate and cells to reorganize. We show how these dynamics arise from hydrodynamic and steric interactions between cells. We derive the equations of motion for a crystal, show that this model explains several aspects of the observed dynamics, and discuss the stability of these active crystals.

  10. International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodroci, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the ISS requirements and initial design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to reduce risk -- given the determination and commitment to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS. While decades of work went into developing the ISS requirements, there are many things in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: (1) Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) (2) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Level 4 materials, emergency hardware and procedures) (3) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of nearly a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery.

  11. Exploring the Realities of Curriculum-by-Random-Opportunity: The Case of Geriatrics on the Internal Medicine Clerkship Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Diachun, Laura; Charise, Andrea; Goldszmidt, Mark; Hui, Yin; Lingard, Lorelei

    2014-01-01

    Background While major clerkship blocks may have objectives related to specialized areas such as geriatrics, gay and lesbian bisexual transgender health, and palliative care, there is concern that teaching activities may not attend sufficiently to these objectives. Rather, these objectives are assumed to be met “by random opportunity”.(1) This study explored the case of geriatric learning opportunities on internal medicine clinical teaching units, to better understand the affordances and limitations of curriculum by random opportunity. Methods Using audio-recordings of morning case review discussions of 13 patients > 65 years old and the Canadian geriatric core competencies for medical students, we conducted a content analysis of each case for potential geriatric and non-geriatric learning opportunities. These learning opportunities were compared with attendings’ case review teaching discussions. The 13 cases contained 40 geriatric-related and 110 non-geriatric-related issues. While many of the geriatric issues (e.g., delirium, falls) were directly relevant to the presenting illness, attendings’ teaching discussions focused almost exclusively on non-geriatric medical issues, such as management of diabetes and anemia, many of which were less directly relevant to the reason for presenting to hospital. Results The authors found that the general medicine rotation provides opportunities to acquire geriatric competencies. However, the rare uptake of opportunities in this study suggests that, in curriculum-by-random-opportunity, presence of an opportunity does not justify the assumption that learning objectives will be met. Conclusions More studies are required to investigate whether these findings are transferrable to other vulnerable populations about which undergraduate students are expected to learn through curriculum by random opportunity. PMID:25452825

  12. Orientation and Rotational Motions of Single Molecules by Polarized Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (polTIRFM)

    PubMed Central

    Beausang, John F.; Sun, Yujie; Quinlan, Margot E.; Forkey, Joseph N.; Goldman, Yale E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe methods to detect the spatial orientation and rotational dynamics of single molecules using polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (polTIRFM). polTIRFM determines the three-dimensional angular orientation and the extent of wobble of a fluorescent probe bound to the macromolecule of interest. We discuss single-molecule versus ensemble measurements, as well as single-molecule techniques for orientation and rotation, and fluorescent probes for orientation studies. Using calmodulin (CaM) as an example of a target protein, we describe a method for labeling CaM with bifunctional rhodamine (BR). We also describe the physical principles and experimental setup of polTIRFM. We conclude with a brief introduction to assays using polTIRFM to assess the interaction of actin and myosin. PMID:22550303

  13. Tectonic rotations and internal structure of Eocene plutons in Chuquicamata, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somoza, R.; Tomlinson, A. J.; Zaffarana, C. B.; Singer, S. E.; Puigdomenech Negre, C. G.; Raposo, M. I. B.; Dilles, J. H.

    2015-07-01

    A paleomagnetic and AMS study on Eocene plutonic complexes in the Calama area, northern Chile, reveals high-temperature, high-coercivity magnetizations of dominantly thermoremanent origin and magnetic fabrics controlled by magnetite. The paleomagnetic results indicate that ~ 43 Ma plutons underwent clockwise tectonic rotation, whereas adjacent ~ 39 Ma plutons did not undergo discernible rotation. This points to a middle Eocene age for the younger tectonic rotations associated with the Central Andean Rotation Pattern in the Chuquicamata-Calama area. The petrofabric in these rocks formed under conditions ranging from purely magmatic (i.e. before full crystallization) to low-temperature solid-state deformation. AMS and paleomagnetism suggest that the plutonic bodies were formed by progressive amalgamation of subvertical magma sheets spanning multiple magnetic polarity chrons. The parallelism between magmatic and tectonic foliations suggests that regional tectonic stress controlled ascent, emplacement and rock deformation during cooling. In this context, we suggest that magma ascent and emplacement in the upper crust likely exploited Mesozoic structures which were locally reactivated in the Eocene.

  14. Effect of Resistance Training Maintaining the Joint Angle-torque Profile Using a Haptic-based Machine on Shoulder Internal and External Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonghun; Lee, Kunwoo; Moon, Jeheon; Koo, Dohoon; Park, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyengnam; Hong, Daehie; Shin, Inshik

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to present an individualized resistance training method to enable exercise while maintaining an exercise load that is set according to an individual’s joint angle-torque using a haptic-based resistance training machine. [Methods] Five participants (machine group) performed individualized shoulder internal and external rotation training with a haptic resistance training machine, while another five participants performed general dumbbell-based shoulder internal and external rotation training for eight weeks. Internal and external rotation powers of subjects were measured using an isokinetic machine before and after training. [Results] The average powers of both shoulder internal and external rotation has been improved after training (25.72%, 13.62%). The improvement in power of external rotation in the machine group was significantly higher than that in the control group. [Conclusion] This study proposes a haptic-based individualized rotator cuff muscle training method. The training protocol maintaining the joint angle-torque profile showed better improvement of shoulder internal/external rotation than dumbbell training. PMID:24764626

  15. Magnetic Dynamos and X-ray Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs (UCDs): Constraining the Role of Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin A.; Williams, P. K.; Berger, E.

    2014-01-01

    Although many fully-convective stars are magnetically active, the mechanisms by which they generate, sustain, and dissipate their magnetic fields are not well-understood. Observations suggest that empirical relations between X-ray activity, rotation, and radio emission evolve dramatically between the solar and ultracool dwarf (UCD; spectral types later than ~M6) regimes. The limited number of X-ray detections has prevented the drawing of firm conclusions, however. We combine new Chandra observations of seven late-M dwarfs with three previously-unpublished measurements from the Chandra archive and data from the literature to construct a database of 38 ultracool dwarfs with both X-ray and rotation measurements, the largest such catalog yet presented. We identify a substantial number of rapidly-rotating UCDs with X-ray activity as far as two orders of magnitude below the standard "saturation" level and find a significant anticorrelation between rotation and X-ray activity. We discuss several proposed "supersaturation" mechanisms that suggest a direct connection between faster rotation and suppression of X-ray activity and find many of them to be inconsistent with the data. We instead suggest the observed effect may be indirectly driven by a separate parameter correlated with both X-ray activity and rotation. The strength and topology of large-scale stellar magnetic fields have been found to vary widely within UCDs of similar stellar parameters. We speculate varying field topologies could explain the observed trends. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution. We also acknowledge support from the NSF through Grant AST-1008361 and from NASA through Chandra Award Number G02-13007A issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and NASA under contract NAS8-03060.

  16. Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Kascak, A. F.; Lin, R. R.; Montague, J.; Alexander, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers was discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Analyses are contained which extend quadratic regulator, pole placement and derivative feedback control methods to the prescribed displacement character of piezoelectric pushers. The structural stiffness of the pusher is also included in the theory. Tests are currently being conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results performed on the NASA test rig as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

  17. Evaluation of muscular activity duration in shoulders with rotator cuff tears using inertial sensors and electromyography.

    PubMed

    Duc, Cyntia; Pichonnaz, Claude; Bassin, Jean-Philippe; Farron, Alain; Jolles, Brigitte M; Aminian, Kamiar

    2014-12-01

    Shoulder disorders, including rotator cuff tears, affect the shoulder function and result in adapted muscle activation. Although these adaptations have been studied in controlled conditions, free-living activities have not been investigated. Based on the kinematics measured with inertial sensors and portable electromyography, the objectives of this study were to quantify the duration of the muscular activation in the upper trapezius (UT), medial deltoid (MD) and biceps brachii (BB) during motion and to investigate the effect of rotator cuff tear in laboratory settings and daily conditions. The duration of movements and muscular activations were analysed separately and together using the relative time of activation (T(EMG/mov)). Laboratory measurements showed the parameter's reliability through movement repetitions (ICC > 0.74) and differences in painful shoulders compared with healthy ones (p < 0.05): longer activation for UT; longer activation for MD during abduction and tendency to shorter activation in other movements; shorter activation for BB. In daily conditions, T(EMG/mov) for UT was longer, whereas it was shorter for MD and BB (p < 0.05). Moreover, significant correlations were observed between these parameters and clinical scores. This study thus provides new insights into the rotator cuff tear effect on duration of muscular activation in daily activity. PMID:25390457

  18. Space activities of the United Nations and international organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Covering the period up to mid-1985, this work provides an overview of the organizational structure, past activities, current programs, and future plans of international bodies involved in cooperative efforts in the peaceful uses of outer space. It describes the efforts of the United Nations and several of its specialized agencies, including FAO, UNESCO, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the World Meteorological Organization, and the International Telecommunication Union. Other intergovernmental organizations covered include the European Space Agency, the International Organization of Space Communications, and the Council on International Cooperation in the Study and Utilization of Space. Nongovernmental organizations discussed are the International Council of Scientific Unions and the International Astronautical Union.

  19. Heat transfer in internal channel of a blade: Effects of rotation in a trailing edge cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, Luca; Andreini, Antonio; Bonanni, Leonardo; Facchini, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    The aerothermal performance of a trailing edge (TE) internal cooling system of a high pressure gas turbine blade was evaluated under stationary and rotating conditions. The investigated geometry consists of a 30:1 scaled model reproducing a typical wedge shaped discharge duct with one row of enlarged pedestals. The airflow pattern inside the device simulates a highly loaded rotor blade cooling scheme with a 90 [deg] turning flow from the radial hub inlet to the tangential TE outlet. Two different tip configurations were tested, the first one with a completely closed section, the second one with a 5 holes outlet surfaces discharging at ambient pressure. In order to assess rotation effects, a rotating test rig, composed of a rotating arm holding both the PMMA TE model and the instrumentation, was purposely developed and manufactured. A thin Inconel heating foil and wide band Thermo-chromic Liquid Crystals are used to perform steady state heat transfer measurements on the blade pressure side. A rotary joint ensures the pneumatic connection between the blower and the rotating apparatus; moreover several slip rings are used for both instrumentation power supply and thermocouple connection. A parallel CFD analysis involving steady-state RANS modeling was conducted to allow an insight of the flow field inside the redirecting channel and the interpedestal ducts to better interpret the developing vortical structures. Low-Reynolds grid clustering permits to integrate up to the wall both the momentum and the thermal boundary layer. Calculations were performed by means of an in-house developed pressure based solver exploiting the k-ω SST turbulence model implemented in the framework of the open-source finite volume discretization toolbox OpenFOAM®. Analyzed flow conditions correspond to Reynolds number of 20000 in the hub inlet section and angular speed varies to obtain rotation numbers in the range from 0 to 0.3. The orientation of the rotation axis is orthogonal to the

  20. Spectral characterization and differential rotation study of active CoRoT stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, E.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The CoRoT space telescope observed nearly 160 000 light curves. Among the most outstanding is that of the young, active planet host star CoRoT-2A. In addition to deep planetary transits, the light curve of CoRoT-2A shows strong rotational variability and a superimposed beating pattern. To study the stars that produce such an intriguing pattern of photometric variability, we identified a sample of eight stars with rotation periods between 0.8 and 11 days and photometric variability amplitudes of up to 7.5%, showing a similar CoRoT light curve. We also obtained high-resolution follow-up spectroscopy with TNG/SARG and carried out a spectral analysis with SME and MOOG. We find that the color dependence of the light curves is consistent with rotational modulation due to starspots and that latitudinal differential rotation provides a viable explanation for the light curves, although starspot evolution is also expected to play an important role. Our MOOG and SME spectral analyses provide consistent results, showing that the targets are dwarf stars with spectral types between F and mid-K. Detectable Li i absorption in four of the targets confirms a low age of 100-400 Myr also deduced from gyrochronology. Our study indicates that the photometric beating phenomenon is likely attributable to differential rotation in fast-rotating stars with outer convection zones.

  1. Active control of counter-rotating open rotor interior noise in a Dornier 728 experimental aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Thomas; Unruh, Oliver; Algermissen, Stephan; Pohl, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The fuel consumption of future civil aircraft needs to be reduced because of the CO2 restrictions declared by the European Union. A consequent lightweight design and a new engine concept called counter-rotating open rotor are seen as key technologies in the attempt to reach this ambitious goals. Bearing in mind that counter-rotating open rotor engines emit very high sound pressures at low frequencies and that lightweight structures have a poor transmission loss in the lower frequency range, these key technologies raise new questions in regard to acoustic passenger comfort. One of the promising solutions for the reduction of sound pressure levels inside the aircraft cabin are active sound and vibration systems. So far, active concepts have rarely been investigated for a counter-rotating open rotor pressure excitation on complex airframe structures. Hence, the state of the art is augmented by the preliminary study presented in this paper. The study shows how an active vibration control system can influence the sound transmission of counter-rotating open rotor noise through a complex airframe structure into the cabin. Furthermore, open questions on the way towards the realisation of an active control system are addressed. In this phase, an active feedforward control system is investigated in a fully equipped Dornier 728 experimental prototype aircraft. In particular, the sound transmission through the airframe, the coupling of classical actuators (inertial and piezoelectric patch actuators) into the structure and the performance of the active vibration control system with different error sensors are investigated. It can be shown that the active control system achieves a reduction up to 5 dB at several counter-rotating open rotor frequencies but also that a better performance could be achieved through further optimisations.

  2. (14)N Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling and Methyl Internal Rotation in N-tert-Butylacetamide As Observed by Microwave Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kannengießer, Raphaela; Stahl, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Kleiner, Isabelle

    2016-06-16

    The rotational spectrum of N-tert-butylacetamide, CH3(C═O)(NH)C(CH3)3, was measured in the frequency range from 2 to 26.5 GHz using a molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Only one conformer with trans configuration and Cs symmetry was observed. Torsional splittings up to 4.3 GHz occurred in the spectrum due to the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group CH3(C═O) with a barrier height of approximately 65 cm(-1). Hyperfine structures arise from the quadrupole coupling of the (14)N nucleus appeared for all rotation-torsional transitions. The data set was reproduced with the programs XIAM and BELGI-C1-hyperfine, an extended version of the BELGI-C1 code that includes the effect of the (14)N quadrupole coupling, to root-mean-square deviations of 16.9 and 3.0 kHz, respectively. Quantum chemical calculations were performed to complement the experimental results. The BELGI-C1-hyperfine code was also used to refit the recently published microwave data of N-ethylacetamide to measurement accuracy. PMID:27213507

  3. Quantum dynamics of rovibrational transitions in H2-H2 collisions: internal energy and rotational angular momentum conservation effects.

    PubMed

    Fonseca dos Santos, S; Balakrishnan, N; Lepp, S; Quéméner, G; Forrey, R C; Hinde, R J; Stancil, P C

    2011-06-01

    We present a full dimensional quantum mechanical treatment of collisions between two H(2) molecules over a wide range of energies. Elastic and state-to-state inelastic cross sections for ortho-H(2) + para-H(2) and ortho-H(2) + ortho-H(2) collisions have been computed for different initial rovibrational levels of the molecules. For rovibrationally excited molecules, it has been found that state-to-state transitions are highly specific. Inelastic collisions that conserve the total rotational angular momentum of the diatoms and that involve small changes in the internal energy are found to be highly efficient. The effectiveness of these quasiresonant processes increases with decreasing collision energy and they become highly state-selective at ultracold temperatures. They are found to be more dominant for rotational energy exchange than for vibrational transitions. For non-reactive collisions between ortho- and para-H(2) molecules for which rotational energy exchange is forbidden, the quasiresonant mechanism involves a purely vibrational energy transfer albeit with less efficiency. When inelastic collisions are dominated by a quasiresonant transition calculations using a reduced basis set involving only the quasiresonant channels yield nearly identical results as the full basis set calculation leading to dramatic savings in computational cost. PMID:21663358

  4. Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard J.; Adams, Julian J.; Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Wan, Yu; McKinstry, William J.; Palethorpe, Kathryn; Seeber, Ruth M.; Monks, Thea A.; Eidne, Karin A.; Parker, Michael W.; Waters, Michael J.

    2010-07-13

    Growth hormone is believed to activate the growth hormone receptor (GHR) by dimerizing two identical receptor subunits, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase associated with the cytoplasmic domain. However, we have reported previously that dimerization alone is insufficient to activate full-length GHR. By comparing the crystal structure of the liganded and unliganded human GHR extracellular domain, we show here that there is no substantial change in its conformation on ligand binding. However, the receptor can be activated by rotation without ligand by inserting a defined number of alanine residues within the transmembrane domain. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and coimmunoprecipitation studies suggest that receptor subunits undergo specific transmembrane interactions independent of hormone binding. We propose an activation mechanism involving a relative rotation of subunits within a dimeric receptor as a result of asymmetric placement of the receptor-binding sites on the ligand.

  5. 36 CFR 73.15 - International World Heritage activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false International World Heritage... INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION § 73.15 International World Heritage activities. (a) The Assistant... Committee, the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee, or other international organizations or...

  6. 36 CFR 73.15 - International World Heritage activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International World Heritage... INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION § 73.15 International World Heritage activities. (a) The Assistant... Committee, the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee, or other international organizations or...

  7. 36 CFR 73.15 - International World Heritage activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International World Heritage... INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION § 73.15 International World Heritage activities. (a) The Assistant... Committee, the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee, or other international organizations or...

  8. 36 CFR 73.15 - International World Heritage activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false International World Heritage... INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION § 73.15 International World Heritage activities. (a) The Assistant... Committee, the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee, or other international organizations or...

  9. 36 CFR 73.15 - International World Heritage activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false International World Heritage... INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION § 73.15 International World Heritage activities. (a) The Assistant... Committee, the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee, or other international organizations or...

  10. Effect of port corner geometry on the internal performance of a rotating-vane-type thrust reverser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.; Capone, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of reverser port geometry on the internal performance of a nonaxisymmetric rotating-vane-type thrust reverser. Thrust reverser vane positions representing a spoiled-trust (partially deployed) position and a full-reverse-thrust (fully deployed) position were tested with each port geometry variable. The effects of upstream port corner radius and wall angle on internal performance were determined. In addition, the effect of the length of a simulated cooling liner (blunt-base step) near the reverser port entrance was investigated; five different lengths were tested. All tests were conducted with no external flows, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.2 to 5.0.

  11. Task Rotation: Strategies for Differentiating Activities and Assessments by Learning Style. A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harvey; Moirao, Daniel; Jackson, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    One of the hardest jobs in teaching is to differentiate learning activities and assessments to your students' learning styles. But you and your colleagues can learn how to do this together when each of you has this guide to the Task Rotation strategy from our ultimate guide to teaching strategies, "The Strategic Teacher". Use the guide in your…

  12. Structural stability, C-N internal rotations and vibrational spectral analysis of non-planar phenylurea and phenylthiourea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.

    2009-04-01

    The structural stability and C-N internal rotations of phenylurea and phenylthiourea were investigated by DFT-B3LYP and ab initio MP2 and MP4//MP2 calculations with 6-311G** and/or 6-311+G** basis sets. The complex multirotor internal rotations in phenylurea and phenylthiourea were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level of theory from which several clear minima were predicted in the calculated potential energy scans of both molecules. For phenylurea two minima that correspond to non-planar- (CNCC dihedral angle of about 45°) cis (CNCO dihedral angle is near 0°) and trans (CNCO dihedral angle is near 180°) structures were predicted to have real frequency. For phenylthiourea only the non- planar- trans structure was predicted to be the low energy minimum for the molecule. The vibrational frequencies of the lowest energy non-planar-trans conformer of each of the two molecules were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were provided on the basis of normal coordinate analysis and experimental infrared and Raman data.

  13. MOJAVE: MONITORING OF JETS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH VLBA EXPERIMENTS. VIII. FARADAY ROTATION IN PARSEC-SCALE AGN JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Hovatta, Talvikki; Lister, Matthew L.; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Homan, Daniel C.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.

    2012-10-01

    We report observations of Faraday rotation measures for a sample of 191 extragalactic radio jets observed within the MOJAVE program. Multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array observations were carried out over 12 epochs in 2006 at four frequencies between 8 and 15 GHz. We detect parsec-scale Faraday rotation measures in 149 sources and find the quasars to have larger rotation measures on average than BL Lac objects. The median core rotation measures are significantly higher than in the jet components. This is especially true for quasars where we detect a significant negative correlation between the magnitude of the rotation measure and the de-projected distance from the core. We perform detailed simulations of the observational errors of total intensity, polarization, and Faraday rotation, and concentrate on the errors of transverse Faraday rotation measure gradients in unresolved jets. Our simulations show that the finite image restoring beam size has a significant effect on the observed rotation measure gradients, and spurious gradients can occur due to noise in the data if the jet is less than two beams wide in polarization. We detect significant transverse rotation measure gradients in four sources (0923+392, 1226+023, 2230+114, and 2251+158). In 1226+023 the rotation measure is for the first time seen to change sign from positive to negative over the transverse cuts, which supports the presence of a helical magnetic field in the jet. In this source we also detect variations in the jet rotation measure over a timescale of three months, which are difficult to explain with external Faraday screens and suggest internal Faraday rotation. By comparing fractional polarization changes in jet components between the four frequency bands to depolarization models, we find that an external purely random Faraday screen viewed through only a few lines of sight can explain most of our polarization observations, but in some sources, such as 1226+023 and 2251+158, internal

  14. Effect of physiotherapy on the strength of tibial internal rotator muscles in males after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR)

    PubMed Central

    Czamara, Andrzej; Szuba, Łukasz; Krzemińska, Aleksandra; Tomaszewski, Wiesław; Wilk-Frańczuk, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of physiotherapy on the strength of muscles responsible for tibial internal rotation (IR) in male patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using autografts of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles (STGR). Material/Methods Fifty-nine males were examined. The first group consisted of 19 patients subjected to 4-stage physiotherapy following ACLR. The second group consisted of 20 males without knee injuries. The third group consisted of 20 males who had not undergone systematic physiotherapy within the last 12 months following lower limb injuries. Moments of maximal strength (MMS), isometric torque (IT), and peak torque (PT) were measured under static and isokinetic conditions using the Humac Norm System. In the first group, IT measurements were performed during the 13th and 21st week of physiotherapy, while PT measurements were performed during the 16th and 21st weeks of physiotherapy following ACLR. In the control groups (II and III) the measurements were performed once. Results In the first group, the IT (13 weeks) and PT (16 weeks) values of internal tibial rotator muscles, obtained from the operated extremities were significantly lower than the values obtained from the uninvolved knees and the control group results. During the 21st week of physiotherapy, the results obtained for IT and PT in patients after ACLR were similar to the values obtained from the uninvolved knees and the results of the second group subjects. Conclusions The 21-week physiotherapy in ACLR patients favorably affected the PT values of tibial rotator muscles of the operated knees. In the third group, the IT values did not indicate a complete improvement after 12 months without systematic physiotherapy. PMID:21873950

  15. Active site coupling in Plasmodium falciparum GMP synthetase is triggered by domain rotation

    PubMed Central

    Ballut, Lionel; Violot, Sébastien; Shivakumaraswamy, Santosh; Thota, Lakshmi Prasoona; Sathya, Manu; Kunala, Jyothirmai; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Terreux, Raphaël; Haser, Richard; Balaram, Hemalatha; Aghajari, Nushin

    2015-01-01

    GMP synthetase (GMPS), a key enzyme in the purine biosynthetic pathway performs catalysis through a coordinated process across two catalytic pockets for which the mechanism remains unclear. Crystal structures of Plasmodium falciparum GMPS in conjunction with mutational and enzyme kinetic studies reported here provide evidence that an 85° rotation of the GATase domain is required for ammonia channelling and thus for the catalytic activity of this two-domain enzyme. We suggest that conformational changes in helix 371–375 holding catalytic residues and in loop 376–401 along the rotation trajectory trigger the different steps of catalysis, and establish the central role of Glu374 in allostery and inter-domain crosstalk. These studies reveal the mechanism of domain rotation and inter-domain communication, providing a molecular framework for the function of all single polypeptide GMPSs and form a solid basis for rational drug design targeting this therapeutically important enzyme. PMID:26592566

  16. Strength and muscle activity of shoulder external rotation of subjects with and without scapular dyskinesis

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Rie; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the relationship between scapular dyskinesis and shoulder external rotation strength and muscle activity. [Subjects and Methods] Both shoulders of 20 healthy males were evaluated. They were classified into 19 normal, 8 subtly abnormal, and 13 obviously abnormal shoulders using the scapular dyskinesis test. Subtly abnormal shoulders were subsequently excluded from the analysis. Shoulder external rotation strength and muscle activity (infraspinatus, serratus anterior, upper, middle, and lower trapezius) were measured in 2 positions using a handheld dynamometer and surface electromyography while sitting in a chair with shoulder 0° abduction and flexion (1st position), and while lying prone on the elbows with the shoulders elevated in the zero position (zero position). The strength ratio was calculated to quantify the change in strength between the positions (zero position / 1st position). [Results] In the obviously abnormal shoulder group, the strength in the 1st position was significantly stronger, the strength ratio was significantly smaller, and the serratus anterior in the zero position showed significantly lower activity than the normal shoulder group. [Conclusion] In shoulder external rotation in the zero position, in obviously abnormal shoulders, the serratus anterior is poorly recruited, weakening the shoulder external rotation strength. PMID:27190434

  17. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Hari S.; Chu, Shaoping; Reimus, Paul William; Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Karra, Satish; Dittrich, Timothy M.

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  18. Gas Phase Conformations and Methyl Internal Rotation for 2-PHENYLETHYL Methyl Ether and its Argon Van Der Waals Complex from Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurusinghe, Ranil M.; Tubergen, Michael

    2015-06-01

    A mini-cavity microwave spectrometer was used to record the rotational spectra arising from 2-phenylethyl methyl ether and its weakly bonded argon complex in the frequency range of 10.5 - 22 GHz. Rotational spectra were found for two stable conformations of the monomer: anti-anti and gauche-anti, which are 1.4 kJ mol-1 apart in energy at wB97XD/6-311++G(d,p) level. Doubled rotational transitions, arising from internal motion of the methyl group, were observed for both conformers. The program XIAM was used to fit the rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and barrier to internal rotation to the measured transition frequencies of the A and E internal rotation states. The best global fit values of the rotational constants for the anti-anti conformer are A= 3799.066(3) MHz, B= 577.95180(17) MHz, C= 544.7325(3) MHz and the A state rotational constants of the gauche-anti conformer are A= 2676.1202(7) MHz, B= 760.77250(2) MHz, C= 684.78901(2) MHz. The rotational spectrum of 2-phenylethyl methyl ether - argon complex is consistent with the geometry where argon atom lies above the plane of the benzene moiety of gauche-anti conformer. Tunneling splittings were too small to resolve within experimental accuracy, likely due to an increase in three fold potential barrier when the argon complex is formed. Fitted rotational constants are A= 1061.23373(16) MHz, B= 699.81754(7) MHz, C= 518.33553(7) MHz. The lowest energy solvated ether - water complex with strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding has been identified theoretically. Progress on the assignment of the water complex will also be presented.

  19. A discrete chemo-dynamical model of the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Sculptor: mass profile, velocity anisotropy and internal rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ling; van de Ven, Glenn; Watkins, Laura L.; Posti, Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    We present a new discrete chemo-dynamical axisymmetric modeling technique, which we apply to the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Sculptor. The major improvement over previous Jeans models is that realistic chemical distributions are included directly in the dynamical modelling of the discrete data. This avoids loss of information due to spatial binning and eliminates the need for hard cuts to remove contaminants and to separate stars based on their chemical properties. Using a combined likelihood in position, metallicity and kinematics, we find that our models naturally separate Sculptor stars into a metal-rich and a metal-poor population. Allowing for non-spherical symmetry, our approach provides a central slope of the dark matter density of γ = 0.5 ± 0.3. The metal-rich population is nearly isotropic (with β _r^{red} = 0.0± 0.1) while the metal-poor population is tangentially anisotropic (with β _r^{blue} = -0.2± 0.1) around the half light radius of 0.26 kpc. A weak internal rotation of the metal-rich population is revealed with vmax/σ0 = 0.15 ± 0.15. We run tests using mock data to show that a discrete dataset with ˜6000 stars is required to distinguish between a core (γ = 0) and cusp (γ = 1), and to constrain the possible internal rotation to better than 1 σ confidence with our model. We conclude that our discrete chemo-dynamical modelling technique provides a flexible and powerful tool to robustly constrain the internal dynamics of multiple populations, and the total mass distribution in a stellar system.

  20. Evidence of internal rotation and a helical magnetic field in the jet of the quasar NRAO 150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Sol N.; Agudo, Iván; Gómez, José L.; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Roy, Alan L.

    2014-06-01

    The source NRAO 150 is a very prominent millimeter to radio emitting quasar at redshift z = 1.52 for which previous millimeter VLBI observations revealed a fast counterclockwise rotation of the innermost regions of the jet. Here we present new polarimetric multi-epoch VLBI-imaging observations of NRAO 150 performed at 8, 15, 22, 43, and 86 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), and the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) between 2006 and 2010. All new and previous observational evidence - i.e., spectral index maps, multi-epoch image cross-correlation, and low level of linear polarization degree in optically thin regions - are consistent with an interpretation of the source behavior where the jet is seen at an extremely small angle to the line of sight, and the high frequency emitting regions in NRAO 150 rotate at high speeds on the plane of the sky with respect to a reference point that does not need to be related to any particularly prominent jet feature. The observed polarization angle distribution at 22, 43, and 86 GHz during observing epochs with high polarization degree suggests that we have detected the toroidal component of the magnetic field threading the innermost jet plasma regions. This is also consistent with the lower degree of polarization detected at progressively poorer angular resolutions, where the integrated polarization intensity produced by the toroidal field is explained by polarization cancellation inside the observing beam. All this evidence is fully consistent with a kinematic scenario where the main kinematic and polarization properties of the 43 GHz emitting structure of NRAO 150 are explained by the internal rotation of such emission regions around the jet axis when the jet is seen almost face on. A simplified model developed to fit helical trajectories to the observed kinematics of the 43 GHz features fully supports this hypothesis. This explains the kinematics of the innermost regions of the jet in NRAO 150 in terms of internal

  1. A Computational Model of Dynein Activation Patterns that Can Explain Nodal Cilia Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duanduan; Zhong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Normal left-right patterning in vertebrates depends on the rotational movement of nodal cilia. In order to produce this ciliary motion, the activity of axonemal dyneins must be tightly regulated in a temporal and spatial manner; the specific activation pattern of the dynein motors in the nodal cilia has not been reported. Contemporary imaging techniques cannot directly assess dynein activity in a living cilium. In this study, we establish a three-dimensional model to mimic the ciliary ultrastructure and assume that the activation of dynein proteins is related to the interdoublet distance. By employing finite-element analysis and grid deformation techniques, we simulate the mechanical function of dyneins by pairs of point loads, investigate the time-variant interdoublet distance, and simulate the dynein-triggered ciliary motion. The computational results indicate that, to produce the rotational movement of nodal cilia, the dynein activity is transferred clockwise (looking from the tip) between the nine doublet microtubules, and along each microtubule, the dynein activation should occur faster at the basal region and slower when it is close to the ciliary tip. Moreover, the time cost by all the dyneins along one microtubule to be activated can be used to deduce the dynein activation pattern; it implies that, as an alternative method, measuring this time can indirectly reveal the dynein activity. The proposed protein-structure model can simulate the ciliary motion triggered by various dynein activation patterns explicitly and may contribute to furthering the studies on axonemal dynein activity. PMID:26153700

  2. Rotational Spectrum of Dichloromethane-Ne: Internal Dynamics and Cl Quadrupolar Hyperfine Effects.

    PubMed

    Favero, Laura B; Maris, Assimo; Paltrinieri, Laura; Caminati, Walther

    2015-12-10

    The rotational spectra of three isotopologues, CH2(35)Cl2···(20)Ne, CH2(35)Cl(37)Cl···(20)Ne, and CH2(35)Cl2···(22)Ne, of the complex dichloromethane-neon have been assigned and measured by molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The corresponding tunnelling splittings-due to the motion of Ne from above to below the ClCCl plane-have been determined as ΔE0+0- = 6.8900(5), 6.6630(4), and 6.3724(7) MHz, respectively. From these data the barrier to planarity has been obtained, B2 = 68.7 cm(-1). In addition, the structure and the (35)Cl (or (37)Cl) quadrupole coupling constants have been determined. PMID:26566085

  3. Effect of nuclear spin on chemical reactions and internal molecular rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Sterna, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    Part I of this dissertation is a study of the magnetic isotope effect, and results are presented for the separation of /sup 13/C and /sup 12/C isotopes. Two models are included in the theoretical treatment of the effect. In the first model the spin states evolve quantum mechanically, and geminate recombination is calculated by numerically integrating the collision probability times the probability the radical pair is in a singlet state. In the second model the intersystem crossing is treated via first-order rate constants which are average values of the hyperfine couplings. Using these rate constants and hydrodynamic diffusion equations, an analytical solution, which accounts for all collisions, is obtained for the geminate recombination. The two reactions studied are photolysis of benzophenone and toluene and the photolytic decomposition of dibenzylketone (1,3-diphenyl-2-propanone). No magnetic isotope effect was observed in the benzophenone reaction. /sup 13/C enrichment was observed for the dibenzylketone reaction, and this enrichment was substantially enhanced at intermediate viscosities and low temperatures. Part II of this dissertation is a presentation of theory and results for the use of Zeeman spin-lattice relaxation as a probe of methyl group rotation in the solid state. Experimental results are presented for the time and angular dependences of rotational polarization, the methyl group magnetic moment, and methyl-methyl steric interactions. The compounds studied are 2,6-dimethylphenol, methyl iodide, 1,4,5,8-tetramethylanthracene, 1,4,5,8-tetramethylnaphthalene, 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene, and 2,3-dimethylmaleicanhydride.

  4. Physical activity recognition based on rotated acceleration data using quaternion in sedentary behavior: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y E; Choi, W H; Shin, T M

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a physical activity assessment method based on quaternion. To reduce user inconvenience, we measured the activity using a mobile device which is not put on fixed position. Recognized results were verified with various machine learning algorithms, such as neural network (multilayer perceptron), decision tree (J48), SVM (support vector machine) and naive bayes classifier. All algorithms have shown over 97% accuracy including decision tree (J48), which recognized the activity with 98.35% accuracy. As a result, physical activity assessment method based on rotated acceleration using quaternion can classify sedentary behavior with more accuracy without considering devices' position and orientation. PMID:25571109

  5. Magnetic activity of six young solar analogues II. Surface Differential Rotation from long-term photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, S.; Guinan, E. F.

    2003-10-01

    The present paper is the second of a series dedicated to the study of the magnetic activity in a selected sample of young solar analogues. The sample includes five single G0-G5V stars with ages between =~ 130 Myr and 700 Myr: EK Dra, pi 1 UMa, HN Peg, k1 Cet and BE Cet. In this study we also include the Pleiades-age ( =~ 130 Myr) K0V star DX Leo. Our analysis is based on high precision photometric observations carried out as part of The Sun in Time project, aimed at a multiwavelength study of stars with solar-like global properties, but with different ages and thus at different stages of evolution. In the first paper of this series we presented the photometric observations and determined the existence of starspot cycles and their correlation with the global stellar properties. In the present paper we investigate the surface differential rotation (SDR). The periodogram analysis of the photometric data time series has allowed us to determine the rotational periods and to derive the following results: i) all the selected stars show variations of the rotational period. Such variations are definitely periodic and in phase with the starspot cycle for BE Cet and DX Leo. They are likely periodic and in phase also for pi 1 UMa, EK Dra and HN Peg, but still need confirmation. By analogy with the solar butterfly diagram, the rotational period variations are interpretable in terms of surface differential rotation, that is, they are attributable to the existence of active latitude belts migrating during the activity cycle on a differentially rotating star; ii) BE Cet, pi 1 UMa and EK Dra show a solar-like pattern of SDR, that is the rotational period steadily decreases along the activity cycle, jumping back to higher values at the beginning of the next cycle; on the contrary, DX Leo, k1 Cet and HN Peg show an antisolar pattern; iii) the amplitude of the rotational period variations shows a power law dependence on the rotational period similar to that found in previous studies

  6. Minimalist coupled evolution model for stellar X-ray activity, rotation, mass loss, and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.; Owen, James E.

    2016-05-01

    Late-type main-sequence stars exhibit an X-ray to bolometric flux ratio that depends on {tilde{R}o}, the ratio of rotation period to convective turnover time, as {tilde{R}o}^{-ζ } with 2 ≤ ζ ≤ 3 for {tilde{R}o} > 0.13, but saturates with |ζ| < 0.2 for {tilde{R}o} < 0.13. Saturated stars are younger than unsaturated stars and show a broader spread of rotation rates and X-ray activity. The unsaturated stars have magnetic fields and rotation speeds that scale roughly with the square root of their age, though possibly flattening for stars older than the Sun. The connection between faster rotators, stronger fields, and higher activity has been established observationally, but a theory for the unified time-evolution of X-ray luminosity, rotation, magnetic field and mass loss that captures the above trends has been lacking. Here we derive a minimalist holistic framework for the time evolution of these quantities built from combining a Parker wind with new ingredients: (1) explicit sourcing of both the thermal energy launching the wind and the X-ray luminosity via dynamo produced magnetic fields; (2) explicit coupling of X-ray activity and mass-loss saturation to dynamo saturation (via magnetic helicity build-up and convection eddy shredding); (3) use of coronal equilibrium to determine how magnetic energy is divided into wind and X-ray contributions. For solar-type stars younger than the Sun, we infer conduction to be a subdominant power loss compared to X-rays and wind. For older stars, conduction is more important, possibly quenching the wind and reducing angular momentum loss. We focus on the time evolution for stars younger than the Sun, highlighting what is possible for further generalizations. Overall, the approach shows promise towards a unified explanation of all of the aforementioned observational trends.

  7. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Shoulder Mri during Active Motion for Investigation of Rotator Cuff Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tempelaere, Christine; Pierrart, Jérome; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Vuillemin, Valérie; Cuénod, Charles-André; Hansen, Ulrich; Mir, Olivier; Skalli, Wafa; Gregory, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background MRI is the standard methodology in diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases. However, many patients continue to have pain despite treatment, and MRI of a static unloaded shoulder seems insufficient for best diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluated if Dynamic MRI provides novel kinematic data that can be used to improve the understanding, diagnosis and best treatment of rotator cuff diseases. Methods Dynamic MRI provided real-time 3D image series and was used to measure changes in the width of subacromial space, superior-inferior translation and anterior-posterior translation of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active abduction. These measures were investigated for consistency with the rotator cuff diseases classifications from standard MRI. Results The study included: 4 shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears, 5 shoulders with an isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tear, 5 shoulders with tendinopathy and 6 normal shoulders. A change in the width of subacromial space greater than 4mm differentiated between rotator cuff diseases with tendon tears (massive cuff tears and supraspinatus tear) and without tears (tendinopathy) (p = 0.012). The range of the superior-inferior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears group (6.4mm) than in normals (3.4mm) (p = 0.02). The range of the anterior-posterior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears (9.2 mm) and supraspinatus tear (9.3 mm) shoulders compared to normals (3.5mm) and tendinopathy (4.8mm) shoulders (p = 0.05). Conclusion The Dynamic MRI enabled a novel measure; ‘Looseness’, i.e. the translation of the humeral head on the glenoid during an abduction cycle. Looseness was better able at differentiating different forms of rotator cuff disease than a simple static measure of relative glenohumeral position. PMID:27434235

  8. International Project Management Committee: Overview and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the purpose and composition of the International Project Management Committee (IMPC). The IMPC was established by members of 15 space agencies, companies and professional organizations. The goal of the committee is to establish a means to share experiences and best practices with space project/program management practitioners at the global level. The space agencies that are involved are: AEB, DLR, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, KARI, and NASA. The industrial and professional organizational members are Comau, COSPAR, PMI, and Thales Alenia Space.

  9. Preparing active patients for international travel.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Carlos E

    2003-10-01

    The risk of acquiring an illness when traveling internationally depends mostly on the area of the world to be visited. Today, with so many transportation options, increasing numbers of athletes are traveling abroad for training and competition, and leisure travelers are enjoying physically challenging adventure vacations-thus exposing themselves to potential medical problems. Primary care, sports medicine, and team physicians must be able to provide travelers with up-to-date information on immunization and chemoprophylaxis requirements, as well as other preventive medicine recommendations. PMID:20086435

  10. Internal tibial torsion correction study. [measurements of strain for corrective rotation of stressed tibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantu, J. M.; Madigan, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A quantitative study of internal torsion in the entire tibial bone was performed by using strain gauges to measure the amount of deformation occuring at different locations. Comparison of strain measurements with physical dimensions of the bone produced the modulus of rigidity and its behavior under increased torque. Computerized analysis of the stress distribution shows that more strain occurs near the torqued ends of the bones where also most of the twisting and fracturing takes place.

  11. Video-A Bottle of Water And Bubbles Rotate on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video, Pettit performs a demonstration in which he shook up a bottle that was half full of water, half full of air, so that bubbles formed, then spun it real fast to see what would happen to the bubbles. Watch the video to see the outcome.

  12. Rotational motion and evidence for oligomeric structures of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-activated ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, W; Sarzala, M G; Chapman, D

    1979-01-01

    The rotational motion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-activated ATPase (ATP phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.3) has been investigated by measuring the decay of laser flash-induced dichroism with the covalently attached triplet probe eosin isothiocyanate. The Arrhenius plot for rotational mobility indicates two discontinuities at approximately 15 degrees C and approximately 35 degrees C. The experimental data are rationalized in terms of a sudden conformeric change in the ATPase at 15 degrees C and a temperature-dependent equilibrium existing between the conformationally altered ATPase and oligomeric forms of it in the temperature range 15-35 degrees C. The enzymatic activity, as indicated by a discontinuity in the Arrhenius plot for the rate of ATP hydrolysis, appears to be sensitive only to the change at 15 degrees C. There is a strong correlation between the activation energy below 15 degrees C for rotational motion (33.6 +/- 2.2 kcal/mol) and enzymatic activity (34 +/- 4 kcal/mol). PMID:158763

  13. Experimental and ab initio study on structures and internal barriers to rotation in α-stannyl, germanium, and silicon carbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadidi, Khosrow; Khaligh, Nader Ghaffari; Islami, Parisa; Aryan, Reza; Arvin-Nezhad, Hamid

    2009-02-01

    A detailed study of structural parameters and internal rotational barriers in α-stannyl, germanium and silicon carbamates 1 [H 3 CX-CH 2-N(Me)CO 2Me X dbnd C, Si, Ge, Sn] were calculated at HF/6-311G, HF/3-21G and B3LYP/3-21G//HF/3-21G levels and compared with DNMR data of synthesized molecules and a literature X-ray data. Two minimum-energy conformers, namely A and B, with almost similar energies were found for these molecules. Effect of heteroatom on structure and relative energies ( Erel) between the participants in the conformational equilibrium (A ↔ B) of these carbamates has been investigated.

  14. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD’s International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  15. Internal rotation barrier of the XH3sbnd YH3 (X, Y = C or Si) molecules. An energy decomposition analysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xin; Su, Peifeng; Wu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the barriers of the internal rotation in ethane, methylsilane, and disilane are investigated by the generalized Kohn-Sham based energy decomposition analysis (GKS-EDA) scheme (P. Su, et al. J. Phys. Chem A 118 (2014) 2531). The rotation barriers and the inter-conversion energies from the three geometrical variation processes are decomposed into the electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, correlation and geometrical relaxation terms. It is concluded that the rotation barriers of the three molecules are all dominated by exchange-repulsion (Pauli repulsion). The geometry relaxation does not make a difference to the origin of the barrier.

  16. Toward understanding the nature of internal rotation barriers with a new energy partition scheme: ethane and n-butane.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shubin; Govind, Niranjan

    2008-07-24

    On the basis of an alternative energy partition scheme where density-based quantification of the steric effect was proposed [Liu, S. B. J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 126, 244103], the origin of the internal rotation barrier between the eclipsed and staggered conformers of ethane and n-butane is systematically investigated in this work. Within the new scheme, the total electronic energy is decomposed into three independent components, steric, electrostatic, and fermionic quantum. The steric energy defined in this way is repulsive, exclusive, and extensive and intrinsically linked to Bader's atoms in molecules approach. Two kinds of differences, adiabatic (with optimal structure) and vertical (with fixed geometry), are considered for the molecules in this work. We find that in the adiabatic case the eclipsed conformer possesses a larger steric repulsion than the staggered conformer for both molecules, but in the vertical cases the staggered conformer retains a larger steric repulsion. For ethane, a linear relationship between the total energy difference and the fermionic quantum energy difference is discovered. This linear relationship, however, does not hold for n-butane, whose behaviors in energy component differences are found to be more complicated. The impact of basis set and density functional choices on energy components from the new energy partition scheme has been investigated, as has its comparison with another definition of the steric effect in the literature in terms of the natural bond orbital analysis through the Pauli Exclusion Principle. In addition, profiles of conceptual density functional theory reactivity indices as a function of dihedral angle changes have been examined. Put together, these results suggest that the new energy partition scheme provides insights from a different perspective of internal rotation barriers. PMID:18563887

  17. Long-term Fluctuations in The Earth's Rotation And Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banjevic, Boris

    2006-08-01

    The tidal friction is not the only cause to influence the earth's rotation in long term. There is a correlation between solar activity and long term variations of the Earth's rotation. Possible cause is an interaction between solar wind and magnetosphere of the earth. This would produce the angular deceleration of earth's rotation. Long-term fluctuation in the length of the day (LOD) with semi-amplitude of ca. 4 ms and a period of ca. 1480 years may exist. One cause is probably electromagnetic core-mantle coupling. Ice-rafting event during Holocene is found with cyclity of 1470 years. There is also possible connection between solar activity identified in delta ^14C records of 1450 year periodicity and cyclity of the Earth's rotation. Global-sea level changes associated with climatic variations may produce significant effect on long timescales. The non-tidal acceleration may be connected with the rate of change in Earth's oblateness, attributed to viscous rebound of the Earth from the decrease in load in the polar caps following last deglaciation. The average of Earth's dynamic oblateness (J2 dot) for the past 4000 years is larger than the present J2 (dot) from satellite laser ranging, - 2.8x10^-11/yr. Current increase of LOD is on the average by 1.8+/-0.1 milliseconds per century (ms/ cy). According to early Chinese and Babylonian eclipses from 2000-700 BC we obtain an average of LOD 1.67+/-0.05 ms/cy (1820 AD), which is lower than current value. This is very important for evaluating ancient eclipses before 700 BC. We have used singular spectrum analysis, Catterpilar method, to find periodicities from time series of LOD. We have also founded highly correlated relationship between the periods of low solar activity and LOD at centennial time scales. Our calculation before 700 BC implies sudden change of rotation between 850-750 BC. Major increases of ^14C in the atmosphere at ca. 750 BC (Homer minimum) and ca. 1650 AD (Maunder minimum) are caused by the reduction of

  18. Computation of instantaneous and time-averaged active acoustic intensity field around rotating source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yijun; Xu, Chen; Qi, Datong

    2015-02-01

    A vector aeroacoustics method is developed to analyze the acoustic energy flow path from the rotating source. In this method, the instantaneous and time-averaged active acoustic intensity vectors are evaluated from the time-domain and frequency-domain acoustic pressure and acoustic velocity formulations, respectively. With the above method, the acoustic intensity vectors and the acoustic energy streamlines are visualized to investigate the propagation feature of the noise radiated from the monopole and dipole point sources and the rotor in subsonic rotation. The result reveals that a portion of the acoustic energy spirals many circles before moving towards the far field, and another portion of the acoustic energy firstly flows inward along the radial direction and then propagates along the axial direction. Further, an acoustic black hole exists in the plane of source rotation, from which the acoustic energy cannot escape once the acoustic energy flows into it. Moreover, by visualizing the acoustic intensity field around the rotating sources, the acoustic-absorption performance of the acoustic liner built in the casing and centerbody is discussed.

  19. No tillage combined with crop rotation improves soil microbial community composition and metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingjie; Jia, Shuxia; Zhang, Shixiu; McLaughlin, Neil B; Liang, Aizhen; Chen, Xuewen; Liu, Siyi; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbial community can vary with different agricultural managements, which in turn can affect soil quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of long-term tillage practice (no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT)) and crop rotation (maize-soybean (MS) rotation and monoculture maize (MM)) on soil microbial community composition and metabolic capacity in different soil layers. Long-term NT increased the soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) mainly at the 0-5 cm depth which was accompanied with a greater microbial abundance. The greater fungi-to-bacteria (F/B) ratio was found in NTMS at the 0-5 cm depth. Both tillage and crop rotation had a significant effect on the metabolic activity, with the greatest average well color development (AWCD) value in NTMS soil at all three soil depths. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the shift in microbial community composition was accompanied with the changes in capacity of utilizing different carbon substrates. Therefore, no tillage combined with crop rotation could improve soil biological quality and make agricultural systems more sustainable. PMID:26631020

  20. Report of the International Bureau of Education on Its Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Conference.

    This second report by the Council of the International Bureau of Education covers the period since the close of the sixteenth session of the General Conference to 31 July 1972. It deals with the activities of the Council itself, the steps taken to develop the programme of the International Bureau of Education during the period under review, and…

  1. ETV INTERNATIONAL OUTREACH ACTIVITIES (ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's international outrearch activities have extended as far as Canada, Germany, Taiwan and the Philippines. Vendors from Canada and Germany were hosted at verification tests of turbidimeters. In May 1999, EPA's ETV Coordinator...

  2. Linking Stellar Coronal Activity and Rotation at 500 Myr: A Deep Chandra Observation of M37

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Alejandro; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Covey, Kevin R.; Hartman, Joel D.; Kraus, Adam L.; Bowsher, Emily C.; Douglas, Stephanie T.; López-Morales, Mercedes; Pooley, David A.; Posselt, Bettina; Saar, Steven H.; West, Andrew A.

    2015-08-01

    Empirical calibrations of the stellar age-rotation-activity relation (ARAR) rely on observations of the co-eval populations of stars in open clusters. We used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to study M37, a 500-Myr-old open cluster that has been extensively surveyed for rotation periods ({P}{rot}). M37 was observed almost continuously for five days, for a total of 440.5 ks, to measure stellar X-ray luminosities ({L}{{X}}), a proxy for coronal activity, across a wide range of masses. The cluster’s membership catalog was revisited to calculate updated membership probabilities from photometric data and each star’s distance to the cluster center. The result is a comprehensive sample of 1699 M37 members: 426 with {P}{rot}, 278 with X-ray detections, and 76 with both. We calculate Rossby numbers, {R}o= {P}{rot}/τ , where τ is the convective turnover time, and ratios of the X-ray-to-bolometric luminosity, {L}{{X}}/{L}{bol}, to minimize mass dependencies in our characterization of the rotation-coronal activity relation at 500 Myr. We find that fast rotators, for which {R}o\\lt 0.09+/- 0.01, show saturated levels of activity, with log({L}{{X}}/{L}{bol})=\\-3.06+/- 0.04. For {R}o≥slant 0.09+/- 0.01, activity is unsaturated and follows a power law of the form {R}oβ , where β = -{2.03}-0.14+0.17. This is the largest sample available for analyzing the dependence of coronal emission on rotation for a single-aged population, covering stellar masses in the range 0.4-1.3 {M}⊙ , {P}{rot} in the range 0.4-12.8 days, and {L}{{X}} in the range {10}28.4-30.5 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. Our results make M37 a new benchmark open cluster for calibrating the ARAR at ages of ≈ 500 Myr.

  3. Geologic Evidence of Internal Activity on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This six frame mosaic of Europa's surface shows a variety of interesting geologic features. The prominent 'X' near the center of the mosaic is the junction of two 'triplebands.' Triplebands are seen here to be made up of parallel sets of ridges, and can be traced for over 1,600 kilometers (off the image) across Europa's surface. Directly to the south of the 'X' is a 75 by 100 kilometer (km) area where the icy crust of Europa has been disrupted by activity from below. This activity could be motion in liquid water, convection in warm ice, or some other process. Many icy blocks, some as large as 10 km across, have been rafted from the edges of this zone. Also seen in this mosaic are various pits and domes that range in size from a few kilometers to nearly 20 km across. These geologic features provide evidence of thermal activity below Europa's surface at the time that the features formed.

    These images were obtained by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its sixth orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the picture, with the sun illuminating the scene from the right. The center of this mosaic is located near 10 degrees north latitude, 271 degrees west longitude. The image, which is about 300 by 300 km across, was acquired at a resolution of 180 meters per picture element.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  4. The Effect of Excessive Glenhumeral Internal Rotation Deficit on Subacromial Joint Space and Forward Scapular Posture among Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Laudner, Kevin G.; Wong, Regan; Latal, Jim; Meister, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Baseball pitchers frequently present with varying levels of glenohumeral internal rotation deficits (GIRD) in their throwing arms when compared to their non-throwing arms. However, excessive bilateral differences in internal rotation motion have been associated with several shoulder pathologies including both subacromial and internal impingement. Additionally, patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement commonly present with decreased subacromial joint space and increased forward scapular posture. These characteristics have not been, as of yet, evaluated and associated to those pitchers who present with excessive GIRD. The purpose of this study was to determine if a group of baseball pitchers with excessive GIRD have differences in subacromial joint space and forward scapular posture when compared to a control group. Methods: Twenty-five asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers with excessive GIRD were matched with 25 pitchers with acceptable levels of GIRD. Excessive GIRD was classified as an amount greater than 10% of the total arc of motion (i.e. dominant shoulder total arc=160°; 0.10x160°=16°; excessive GIRD=>16°). A digital inclinometer was used to measure glenohumeral internal and external rotation range of motion with participants in a supine position and their scapula stabilized. Diagnostic ultrasound was used to measure the distance of the subacromial joint space with the throwing arm resting at the side of the participant’s body (0° abduction). Bilateral forward scapular posture was assessed with each participant standing against a wall and then the distance between the wall and their anterior acromion was measured using the double square technique. The bilateral difference between these measurements was used to determine the amount of forward scapular posture for the throwing arm. Separate t-tests were run to determine significant differences between groups (p<0.05). Results: Results are summarized in Figure 1. The total arc of

  5. Timing Behavior of the Magnetically Active Rotation-Powered Pulsar in the Supernova Remnant Kesteven 75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingstone, Margaret A.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    We report a large spin-up glitch in PSR J1846-0258 which coincided with the onset of magnetar-like behavior on 2006 May 31. We show that the pulsar experienced an unusually large glitch recovery, with a recovery fraction of Q = 5.9+/-0.3, resulting in a net decrease of the pulse frequency. Such a glitch recovery has never before been observed in a rotation-powered pulsar, however, similar but smaller glitch over-recovery has been recently reported in the magnetar AXP 4U 0142+61 and may have occurred in the SGR 1900+14. We discuss the implications of the unusual timing behavior in PSR J1846-0258 on its status as the first identified magnetically active rotation-powered pulsar.

  6. Dependence of Stellar Magnetic Activity Cycles on Rotational Period in a Nonlinear Solar-type Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipin, V. V.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    We study the turbulent generation of large-scale magnetic fields using nonlinear dynamo models for solar-type stars in the range of rotational periods from 14 to 30 days. Our models take into account nonlinear effects of dynamical quenching of magnetic helicity, and escape of magnetic field from the dynamo region due to magnetic buoyancy. The results show that the observed correlation between the period of rotation and the duration of activity cycles can be explained in the framework of a distributed dynamo model with a dynamical magnetic feedback acting on the turbulent generation from either magnetic buoyancy or magnetic helicity. We discuss implications of our findings for the understanding of dynamo processes operating in solar-like stars.

  7. Rotating machinery - Transport phenomena; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Yang, W.-J.

    Topics discussed in these proceedings include turbine cooling heat transfer, rotating surfaces, curved ducts and rotating channels, flow in pumps, analytical and numerical methods, design and design methods, and multiphase flow and cavitation. Papers are presented on transient heat analysis of stator in air-cooled turbine generators, numerical evaluation of single central jet for turbine disk cooling, film condensation on a rotating cone, flows of a gas in an abruptly rotating cylinder, developing turbulent flow in a curved duct with strong secondary motion, effects of turn region treatments on pressure loss through sharp 180-deg bends, and examination of inlet surging in centrifugal pumps. Particular attention is given to the prediction of viscous flows in rotating machinery using Navier-Stokes techniques, two-dimensional transonic flow around VKI turbine cascade, the dynamic transfer matrix of a pump and its use in pumping system design, a fast CAE/CAD procedure for the optimum design of arbitrary impellers, particle dynamics and erosion in radial turbine guide vanes, sustained oscillations of pumped two-phase flow in a closed loop, and rotor/stator flow coupling in turbomachines.

  8. Rotating machinery - Transport phenomena; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.H.; Yang, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Topics discussed in these proceedings include turbine cooling heat transfer, rotating surfaces, curved ducts and rotating channels, flow in pumps, analytical and numerical methods, design and design methods, and multiphase flow and cavitation. Papers are presented on transient heat analysis of stator in air-cooled turbine generators, numerical evaluation of single central jet for turbine disk cooling, film condensation on a rotating cone, flows of a gas in an abruptly rotating cylinder, developing turbulent flow in a curved duct with strong secondary motion, effects of turn region treatments on pressure loss through sharp 180-deg bends, and examination of inlet surging in centrifugal pumps. Particular attention is given to the prediction of viscous flows in rotating machinery using Navier-Stokes techniques, two-dimensional transonic flow around VKI turbine cascade, the dynamic transfer matrix of a pump and its use in pumping system design, a fast CAE/CAD procedure for the optimum design of arbitrary impellers, particle dynamics and erosion in radial turbine guide vanes, sustained oscillations of pumped two-phase flow in a closed loop, and rotor/stator flow coupling in turbomachines.

  9. Temperature Dependence of the Rotation and Hydrolysis Activities of F1-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Furuike, Shou; Adachi, Kengo; Sakaki, Naoyoshi; Shimo-Kon, Rieko; Itoh, Hiroyasu; Muneyuki, Eiro; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    F1-ATPase, a water-soluble portion of the enzyme ATP synthase, is a rotary molecular motor driven by ATP hydrolysis. To learn how the kinetics of rotation are regulated, we have investigated the rotational characteristics of a thermophilic F1-ATPase over the temperature range 4–50°C by attaching a polystyrene bead (or bead duplex) to the rotor subunit and observing its rotation under a microscope. The apparent rate of ATP binding estimated at low ATP concentrations increased from 1.2 × 106 M−1 s−1 at 4°C to 4.3 × 107 M−1 s−1 at 40°C, whereas the torque estimated at 2 mM ATP remained around 40 pN·nm over 4–50°C. The rotation was stepwise at 4°C, even at the saturating ATP concentration of 2 mM, indicating the presence of a hitherto unresolved rate-limiting reaction that occurs at ATP-waiting angles. We also measured the ATP hydrolysis activity in bulk solution at 4–65°C. F1-ATPase tends to be inactivated by binding ADP tightly. Both the inactivation and reactivation rates were found to rise sharply with temperature, and above 30°C, equilibrium between the active and inactive forms was reached within 2 s, the majority being inactive. Rapid inactivation at high temperatures is consistent with the physiological role of this enzyme, ATP synthesis, in the thermophile. PMID:18375515

  10. Sunspot activity, solar wind, Earth's rotation and climate on a decadal time-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörner, N.-A.

    2003-04-01

    The Spörer, Maunder and Dalton Minima correlate reasonably well with observed periods of cold climate in the years 1440-1460, 1687-1703 and 1808-182. Therefore, a causal connection has been proposed. From the mode of changes in ocean surface circulation in the North Atlantic, two facts are established; viz. (1) that the recorded cold periods in western Europe, primarily, are driven by changes in ocean circulation (interchange of angular momentum between the solid Earth and the hydrosphere), and (2) that all the three periods of cooling represent periods when Earth’s rotation experienced a speeding-up (increased rate of rotation and decreased LOD). Sunspot activity and LOD express a good correlation when plotted against each other. This suggests (or indicates) that variations in the Solar Wind strength affect the Earth’s rate of rotation, which in its turn affects the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. The oceans being the Earth’s greatest store of heat has a vital impact on the redistribution of heat via changes in the ocean surface circulation. The Gulf Stream and the Kurishio Current, both bringing hot equatorial water to middle and high latitudes, have a central role in redistribution of heat and oceanic water masses (controlling the interchange of angular momentum). Similarly, the Humboldt Current play a central role in bringing cold low-latitude water up along the South American coast in ENSO and super-ENSO variability. In conclusion, there seems to be a strong causal chain-relation between sunspot activity, solar wind strength, Earth’s rate of rotation, oceanic surface circulation and regional climatic changes on a decadal time-scale.

  11. Human gaze stabilization during natural activities: translation, rotation, magnification, and target distance effects.

    PubMed

    Crane, B T; Demer, J L

    1997-10-01

    Stability of images on the retina was determined in 14 normal humans in response to rotational and translational perturbations during self-generated pitch and yaw, standing, walking, and running on a treadmill. The effects on image stability of target distance, vision, and spectacle magnification were examined. During locomotion the horizontal and vertical velocity of images on the retina was <4 degrees /s for a visible target located beyond 4 m. Image velocity significantly increased to >4 degrees /s during self-generated motion. For all conditions of standing and locomotion, angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR) gain was less than unity and varied significantly by activity, by target distance, and among subjects. There was no significant correlation(P > 0.05) between AVOR gain and image stability during standing and walking despite significant variation among subjects. This lack of correlation is likely due to translation of the orbit. The degree of orbital translation and rotation varied significantly with activity and viewing condition in a manner suggesting an active role in gaze stabilization. Orbital translation was consistently antiphase with rotation at predominant frequencies <4 Hz. When orbital translation was neglected in computing gaze, computed image velocities increased. The compensatory effect of orbital translation allows gaze stabilization despite subunity AVOR gain during natural activities. Orbital translation decreased during close target viewing, whereas orbital rotation decreased while wearing telescopic spectacles. As the earth fixed target was moved closer, image velocity on the retina significantly increased (P < 0.05) for all activities except standing. Latency of the AVOR increased slightly with decreasing target distance but remained <10 ms for even the closest target. This latency was similar in darkness or light, indicating that the visual pursuit tracking is probably not important in gaze stabilization. Trials with a distant target

  12. The Factory and the Beehive. II. Activity and Rotation in Praesepe and the Hyades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, S. T.; Agüeros, M. A.; Covey, K. R.; Bowsher, E. C.; Bochanski, J. J.; Cargile, P. A.; Kraus, A.; Law, N. M.; Lemonias, J. J.; Arce, H. G.; Fierroz, D. F.; Kundert, A.

    2014-11-01

    Open clusters are collections of stars with a single, well-determined age, and can be used to investigate the connections between angular-momentum evolution and magnetic activity over a star's lifetime. We present the results of a comparative study of the relationship between stellar rotation and activity in two benchmark open clusters: Praesepe and the Hyades. As they have the same age and roughly solar metallicity, these clusters serve as an ideal laboratory for testing the agreement between theoretical and empirical rotation-activity relations at ≈600 Myr. We have compiled a sample of 720 spectra—more than half of which are new observations—for 516 high-confidence members of Praesepe; we have also obtained 139 new spectra for 130 high-confidence Hyads. We have also collected rotation periods (P rot) for 135 Praesepe members and 87 Hyads. To compare Hα emission, an indicator of chromospheric activity, as a function of color, mass, and Rossby number Ro , we first calculate an expanded set of χ values, with which we can obtain the Hα to bolometric luminosity ratio, L Hα/L bol, even when spectra are not flux-calibrated and/or stars lack reliable distances. Our χ values cover a broader range of stellar masses and colors (roughly equivalent to spectral types from K0 to M9), and exhibit better agreement between independent calculations, than existing values. Unlike previous authors, we find no difference between the two clusters in their Hα equivalent width or L Hα/L bol distributions, and therefore take the merged Hα and P rot data to be representative of 600 Myr old stars. Our analysis shows that Hα activity in these stars is saturated for {R_o}≤ 0.11+0.02-0.03. Above that value activity declines as a power-law with slope β =-0.73+0.16-0.12, before dropping off rapidly at Ro ≈ 0.4. These data provide a useful anchor for calibrating the age-activity-rotation relation beyond 600 Myr.

  13. Explaining sex differences in mental rotation: role of spatial activity experience.

    PubMed

    Nazareth, Alina; Herrera, Asiel; Pruden, Shannon M

    2013-05-01

    Males consistently outperform females on mental rotation tasks, such as the Vandenberg and Kuse (1978) Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47(2), 599-604, mental rotation test (MRT; e.g. Voyer et al. 1995) in Psychological Bulletin, 117, 250-265. The present study investigates whether these sex differences in MRT scores can be explained in part by early spatial activity experience, particularly those spatial activities that have been sex-typed as masculine/male-oriented. Utilizing an online survey, 571 ethnically diverse adult university students completed a brief demographic survey, an 81-item spatial activity survey, and the MRT. Results suggest that the significant relation between sex of the participant and MRT score is partially mediated by the number of masculine spatial activities participants had engaged in as youth. Closing the gap between males and females in spatial ability, a skill linked to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics success, may be accomplished in part by encouraging female youth to engage in more particular kinds of spatial activities. PMID:23381194

  14. Scapular and rotator cuff muscle activity during arm elevation: A review of normal function and alterations with shoulder impingement

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, V; Camargo, PR; Ludewig, PM

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this manuscript is to review current knowledge of how muscle activation and force production contribute to shoulder kinematics in healthy subjects and persons with shoulder impingement. Results The middle and lower serratus anterior muscles produce scapular upward rotation, posterior tilting, and external rotation. Upper trapezius produces clavicular elevation and retraction. The middle trapezius is primarily a medial stabilizer of the scapula. The lower trapezius assists in medial stabilization and upward rotation of the scapula. The pectoralis minor is aligned to resist normal rotations of the scapula during arm elevation. The rotator cuff is critical to stabilization and prevention of excess superior translation of the humeral head, as well as production of glenohumeral external rotation during arm elevation. Alterations in activation amplitude or timing have been identified across various investigations of subjects with shoulder impingement as compared to healthy controls. These include decreased activation of the middle or lower serratus anterior and rotator cuff, delayed activation of middle and lower trapezius, and increased activation of the upper trapezius and middle deltoid in impingement subjects. In addition, subjects with a short resting length of the pectoralis minor exhibit altered scapular kinematic patterns similar to those found in persons with shoulder impingement. Conclusion These normal muscle functional capabilities and alterations in patient populations should be considered when planning exercise approaches for the rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:20411160

  15. Red Dwarf Stars: Ages, Rotation, Magnetic Dynamo Activity and the Habitability of Hosted Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, S. G.; Guinan, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    We report on our continued efforts to understand and delineate the magnetic dynamo-induced behavior/variability of red dwarf (K5 V - M6 V) stars over their long lifetimes. These properties include: rotation, light variations (from star spots), coronal-chromospheric XUV activity and flares. This study is being carried out as part of the NSF-sponsored Living with a Red Dwarf program. The Living with a Red Dwarf program's database of dM stars with photometrically determined rotation rates (from starspot modulations) continues to expand, as does the inventory of archival XUV observations. Recently, the photometric properties of several hundred dM stars from the Kepler database are being analyzed to determine the rotation rates, starspot areal coverage/distributions and stellar flare rates. When all data setsare combined with ages from cluster/population memberships and kinematics, the determination of Age-Rotation-Activity relationships is possible. Such relationships have broad impacts not only on the studies of magnetic dynamo theory and angular momentum loss of low-mass stars with deep convective zones, but also on the suitability of planets hosted by red dwarfs to support life. With intrinsically low luminosities (L< 0.02L⊙), the liquid water habitable zones (HZs) for hosted planets are very close to their host stars - typically at ˜0.1 AU < HZ < 0.4 AU. Planets located close to their host stars risk damage and atmospheric loss from coronal & chromospheric XUV radiation, flares and plasma blasts via strong winds and coronal mass ejections. In addition, our relationships permit the stellar ages to be determined through measures of either the stars' rotation periods (best way) or XUV activity levels. This also permits a determination of the ages of their hosted planets. We illustrate this with examples of age determinations of the exoplanet systems: GJ 581 and HD 85512 (both with large Earth-size planets within the host star's HZ), GJ 1214 (hot, close

  16. Anti-solar differential rotation on the active sub-giant HU Virginis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunyan, G.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Künstler, A.; Carroll, T. A.; Weber, M.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Measuring surface differential rotation (DR) on different types of stars is important when characterizing the underlying stellar dynamo. It has been suggested that anti-solar DR laws can occur when strong meridional flows exist. Aims: We aim to investigate the differential surface rotation on the primary star of the RS CVn binary, HU Vir, by tracking its starspot distribution as a function of time. We also aim to recompute and update the values for several system parameters of the triple system HU Vir (close and wide orbits). Methods: Time-series high-resolution spectroscopy for four continuous months was obtained with the 1.2-m robotic STELLA telescope. Nine consecutive Doppler images were reconstructed from these data, using our line-profile inversion code iMap. An image cross-correlation method was applied to derive the surface differential-rotation law for HU Vir. New orbital elements for the close and the wide orbits were computed using our new STELLA radial velocities (RVs) combined with the RV data available in the literature. Photometric observations were performed with the Amadeus Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT), providing contemporaneous Johnson-Cousins V and I data for approximately 20 yrs. This data was used to determine the stellar rotation period and the active longitudes. Results: We confirm anti-solar DR with a surface shear parameter α of -0.029 ± 0.005 and -0.026 ± 0.009, using single-term and double-term differential rotation laws, respectively. These values are in good agreement with previously claimed results. The best fit is achieved assuming a solar-like double-term law with a lap time of ≈400 d. Our orbital solutions result in a period of 10.387678 ± 0.000003 days for the close orbit and 2726 ± 7 d (≈7.5 yr) for the wide orbit. A Lomb-Scarge (L-S) periodogram of the pre-whitened V-band data reveals a strong single peak providing a rotation period of 10.391 ± 0.008 d, well synchronized to the short orbit. Based on

  17. Navigated Active Learning in an International Academic Virtual Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Imre; Wiersma, Meindert; Duhovnik, Joze; Stroud, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Active learning is an educational paradigm that has been reinvented and methodologically underpinned many times in order to intensify learning in various forms. This paper presents a complex approach to active learning in a design-centred academic course with international participation. Research and design were considered as vehicles of active…

  18. Asters, Vortices, and Rotating Spirals in Active Gels of Polar Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, K.; Joanny, J. F.; Jülicher, F.; Prost, J.; Sekimoto, K.

    2004-02-01

    We develop a general theory for active viscoelastic materials made of polar filaments. This theory is motivated by the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. The continuous consumption of a fuel generates a nonequilibrium state characterized by the generation of flows and stresses. Our theory applies to any polar system with internal energy consumption such as active chemical gels and cytoskeletal networks which are set in motion by active processes at work in cells.

  19. Burnout and Physical Activity in Minnesota Internal Medicine Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Shawn M.; Odo, Nnaemeka U.; Duran, Alisa M.; Pereira, Anne G.; Mandel, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity plays an important role in the amelioration of several mental health disorders; however, its relationship with burnout has not yet been clarified. Objective To determine the association between achievement of national physical activity guidelines and burnout in internal medicine resident physicians. Methods A Web-based survey of internal medicine resident physicians at the University of Minnesota and Hennepin County Medical Center was conducted from September to October 2012. Survey measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Of 149 eligible residents, 76 (51.0%) completed surveys, which were used in the analysis. Burnout prevalence, determined by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, was 53.9% (41 of 76). Prevalence of failure to achieve US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines was 40.8% (31 of 76), and 78.9% (60 of 76) of residents reported that their level of physical activity has decreased since they began medical training. Residents who were able to meet physical activity guidelines were less likely to be burned out than their fellow residents (OR, 0.38, 95% CI 0.147–0.99). Conclusions Among internal medicine resident physicians, achievement of national physical activity guidelines appears to be inversely associated with burnout. Given the high national prevalence of burnout and inactivity, additional investigation of this relationship appears warranted. PMID:26140116

  20. Test and theory for piezoelectric actuator-active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Lin, R. R.; Alexander, R. M.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of piezoelectric actuators for active vibration control (AVC) of rotating machinery is examined. Theory is derived and the resulting predictions are shown to agree closely with results of tests performed on an air turbine driven-overhung rotor. The test results show significant reduction in unbalance, transient and sub-synchronous responses. Results from a 30-hour endurance test support the AVD system reliability. Various aspects of the electro-mechanical stability of the control system are also discussed and illustrated. Finally, application of the AVC system to an actual jet engine is discussed.

  1. Heat and Mass Transfer in Unsteady Rotating Fluid Flow with Binary Chemical Reaction and Activation Energy

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Faiz G.; Motsa, Sandile; Khumalo, Melusi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM) is used to solve the coupled highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations due to an unsteady flow over a stretching surface in an incompressible rotating viscous fluid in presence of binary chemical reaction and Arrhenius activation energy. The velocity, temperature and concentration distributions as well as the skin-friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained and discussed for various physical parametric values. The numerical results obtained by (SRM) are then presented graphically and discussed to highlight the physical implications of the simulations. PMID:25250830

  2. (Pseudo-)Goldstone boson interaction in D = 2 + 1 systems with a spontaneously broken internal rotation symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Christoph P.

    2016-03-01

    The low-temperature properties of systems characterized by a spontaneously broken internal rotation symmetry, O (N) → O (N - 1), are governed by Goldstone bosons and can be derived systematically within effective Lagrangian field theory. In the present study we consider systems living in two spatial dimensions, and evaluate their partition function at low temperatures and weak external fields up to three-loop order. Although our results are valid for any such system, here we use magnetic terminology, i.e., we refer to quantum spin systems. We discuss the sign of the (pseudo-)Goldstone boson interaction in the pressure, staggered magnetization, and susceptibility as a function of an external staggered field for general N. As it turns out, the d = 2 + 1 quantum XY model (N = 2) and the d = 2 + 1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet (N = 3), are rather special, as they represent the only cases where the spin-wave interaction in the pressure is repulsive in the whole parameter regime where the effective expansion applies. Remarkably, the d = 2 + 1 XY model is the only system where the interaction contribution in the staggered magnetization (susceptibility) tends to positive (negative) values at low temperatures and weak external field.

  3. Influence of an inhomogeneous internal magnetic field on the flow dynamics of a ferrofluid between differentially rotating cylinders.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, S; Do, Younghae; Lopez, J M

    2012-06-01

    The influence of a magnetic field on the dynamics of the flow of a ferrofluid in the gap between two concentric, independently rotating cylinders is investigated numerically. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a hybrid finite difference and Galerkin method. We show that the frequently used assumption that the internal magnetic field within a ferrofluid is equal to the external applied field is only a leading-order approximation. By accounting for the ferrofluid's magnetic susceptibility, we show that a uniform externally imposed magnetic field is modified by the presence of the ferrofluid within the annulus. The modification to the magnetic field has an r(-2) radial dependence and a magnitude that scales with the susceptibility. For ferrofluids typically used in laboratory experiments of the type simulated in this paper, the modification to the imposed magnetic field can be substantial. This has significant consequences on the structure and stability of the basic states, as well as on the bifurcating solutions. PMID:23005213

  4. Shoulder External Rotation Fatigue and Scapular Muscle Activation and Kinematics in Overhead Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mithun; Thigpen, Charles A.; Bunn, Kevin; Karas, Spero G.; Padua, Darin A.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Glenohumeral external rotation (GH ER) muscle fatigue might contribute to shoulder injuries in overhead athletes. Few researchers have examined the effect of such fatigue on scapular kinematics and muscle activation during a functional movement pattern. Objective: To examine the effects of GH ER muscle fatigue on upper trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, and infraspinatus muscle activation and to examine scapular kinematics during a diagonal movement task in overhead athletes. Setting: Human performance research laboratory. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants: Our study included 25 overhead athletes (15 men, 10 women; age = 20 ± 2 years, height = 180 ± 11 cm, mass = 80 ± 11 kg) without a history of shoulder pain on the dominant side. Interventions: We tested the healthy, dominant shoulder through a diagonal movement task before and after a fatiguing exercise involving low-resistance, high-repetition, prone GH ER from 0° to 75° with the shoulder in 90° of abduction. Main Outcome Measure(s): Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity for the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, and infraspinatus. An electromyographic motion analysis system was used to assess 3-dimensional scapular kinematics. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (phase × condition) were used to test for differences. Results: We found a decrease in ascending-phase and descending-phase lower trapezius activity (F1,25 = 5.098, P = .03) and an increase in descending-phase infraspinatus activity (F1,25 = 5.534, P = .03) after the fatigue protocol. We also found an increase in scapular upward rotation (F1,24 = 3.7, P = .04) postfatigue. Conclusions: The GH ER muscle fatigue protocol used in this study caused decreased lower trapezius and increased infraspinatus activation concurrent with increased scapular upward rotation range of motion during the functional task. This highlights the interdependence of scapular

  5. A Three-dimensional Non-spherical Calculation Of The Rotationally Distorted Shape And Internal Structure Of A Model Of Jupiter With A Polytropic Index Of Unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Keke; Kong, D.; Schubert, G.; Anderson, J.

    2012-10-01

    An accurate calculation of the rotationally distorted shape and internal structure of Jupiter is required to understand the high-precision gravitational field that will be measured by the Juno spacecraft now on its way to Jupiter. We present a three-dimensional non-spherical numerical calculation of the shape and internal structure of a model of Jupiter with a polytropic index of unity. The calculation is based on a finite element method and accounts for the full effects of rotation. After validating the numerical approach against the asymptotic solution of Chandrasekhar (1933) that is valid only for a slowly rotating gaseous planet, we apply it to a model of Jupiter whose rapid rotation causes a significant departure from spherical geometry. The two-dimensional distribution of the density and the pressure within Jupiter is then determined via a hybrid inverse approach by matching the a priori unknown coefficient in the equation of state to the observed shape of Jupiter. After obtaining the two-dimensional distribution of Jupiter's density, we then compute the zonal gravity coefficients and the total mass from the non-spherical Jupiter model that takes full account of rotation-induced shape changes. Our non-spherical model with a polytrope of unit index is able to produce the known mass and zonal gravitational coefficients of Jupiter. Chandrasekhar, S. 1933, The equilibrium of distorted polytropes, MNRAS 93, 390

  6. RELATING CHANGES IN COMETARY ROTATION TO ACTIVITY: CURRENT STATUS AND APPLICATIONS TO COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    SciTech Connect

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Mueller, Béatrice E. A.

    2013-09-20

    We introduce a parameter, X, to predict the changes in the rotational period of a comet in terms of the rotational period itself, the nuclear radius, and the orbital characteristics. We show that X should be a constant if the bulk densities and shapes of nuclei are nearly identical and the activity patterns are similar for all comets. For four nuclei for which rotational changes are well documented, despite the nearly factor 30 variation observed among the effective active fractions of these comets, X is constant to within a factor two. We present an analysis for the sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) to explore what rotational changes it could undergo during the upcoming perihelion passage where its perihelion distance will be ∼2.7 solar radii. When close to the Sun, barring a catastrophic disruption of the nucleus, the activity of ISON will be sufficiently strong to put the nucleus into a non-principal-axis rotational state and observable changes to the rotational period should also occur. Additional causes for rotational state changes near perihelion for ISON are tidal torques caused by the Sun and the significant mass loss due to a number of mechanisms resulting in alterations to the moments of inertia of the nucleus.

  7. Lithium enrichment on the single active K1-giant DI Piscium. Possible joint origin of differential rotation and Li enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriskovics, L.; Kővári, Zs.; Vida, K.; Granzer, T.; Oláh, K.

    2014-11-01

    Aims: We investigate the surface spot activity of the rapidly rotating, lithium-rich active single K-giant DI Psc to measure the surface differential rotation and understand the mechanisms behind the Li-enrichment. Methods: Doppler imaging was applied to recover the surface temperature distribution of DI Psc in two subsequent rotational cycles using the individual mapping lines Ca i 6439, Fe i 6430, Fe i 6421, and Li i 6708. Surface differential rotation was derived by cross-correlation of the subsequent maps. Difference maps are produced to study the uniformity of Li-enrichment on the surface. These maps are compared with the rotational modulation of the Li i 6708 line equivalent width. Results: Doppler images obtained for the Ca and Fe mapping lines agree well and reveal strong polar spottedness, as well as cool features at lower latitudes. Cross-correlating the consecutive maps yields antisolar differential rotation with a shear coefficient α = -0.083 ± 0.021. The difference of the average and the Li maps indicates that the lithium abundance is non-activity related. There is also a significant rotational modulation of the Li equivalent width. Data were gathered via OPTICON FP7 in semester 2012B.

  8. Six-fold-symmetry internal rotation in toluenes: the low barrier challenge of 2,6- and 3,5-difluorotoluene.

    PubMed

    Nair, K P Rajappan; Jahn, Michaela K; Lesarri, Alberto; Ilyushin, Vadim V; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2015-10-21

    Pure six-fold symmetry (V6) internal rotation poses significant challenges to experimental and theoretical determination, as the very low torsional barriers result in huge tunneling splittings difficult to identify and to model. Here we resolved the methyl group internal rotation dynamics of 2,6- and 3,5-difluorotoluene using a newly developed computer code especially adapted to V6 problems. The jet-cooled rotational spectra of the title molecules in the 5-25 GHz region revealed internal rotation tunneling doublings of up to 3.6 GHz, which translated in methyl group potential barriers of V6 = 0.14872(24) and 0.0856(10) kJ mol(-1), respectively, in the vibrational ground-state. Additional information on Stark effects and carbon isotopic species in natural abundance provided structural data and the electric dipole moments for both molecules. Ab initio calculations at the MP2 level do not reproduce the tiny torsional barriers, calling for experiments on other systems and additional theoretical models. PMID:26393883

  9. THE EFFECTS OF CLOSE COMPANIONS (AND ROTATION) ON THE MAGNETIC ACTIVITY OF M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Dhital, Saurav; Fuchs, Miriam; Garces, Ane; Catalan, Silvia; Silvestri, Nicole M.

    2012-10-01

    We present a study of close white dwarf and M dwarf (WD+dM) binary systems and examine the effect that a close companion has on the magnetic field generation in M dwarfs. We use a base sample of 1602 white dwarf main-sequence binaries from Rebassa-Mansergas et al. to develop a set of color cuts in GALEX, SDSS, UKIDSS, and 2MASS color space. Then using the SDSS Data Release 8 spectroscopic database, we construct a sample of 1756 WD+dM high-quality pairs from our color cuts and previous catalogs. We separate the individual WD and dM from each spectrum using an iterative technique that compares the WD and dM components to best-fit templates. Using the absolute height above the Galactic plane as a proxy for age, and the H{alpha} emission line as an indicator for magnetic activity, we investigate the age-activity relation for our sample for spectral types {<=} M7. Our results show that early-type M dwarfs ({<=}M4) in close binary systems are more likely to be active and have longer activity lifetimes compared to their field counterparts. However, at a spectral type of M5 (just past the onset of full convection in M dwarfs), the activity fraction and lifetimes of WD+dM binary systems become more comparable to that of the field M dwarfs. One of the implications of having a close binary companion is presumed to be increased stellar rotation through disk disruption, tidal effects, or angular momentum exchange. Thus, we interpret the similarity in activity behavior between late-type dMs in WD+dM pairs and late-type field dMs to be due to a decrease in sensitivity in close binary companions (or stellar rotation), which has implications for the nature of magnetic activity in fully convective stars. Using the WD components of the pairs, we find WD cooling ages to use as an additional constraint on the age-activity relation for our sample. We find that, on average, active early-type dMs tend to be younger and that active late-type dMs span a much broader age regime making them

  10. Overview of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) engineering design activities*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Y.

    1994-05-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1988), ITER Documentation Series, No. 1] project is a multiphased project, presently proceeding under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency according to the terms of a four-party agreement among the European Atomic Energy Community (EC), the Government of Japan (JA), the Government of the Russian Federation (RF), and the Government of the United States (US), ``the Parties.'' The ITER project is based on the tokamak, a Russian invention, and has since been brought to a high level of development in all major fusion programs in the world. The objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes. The ITER design is being developed, with support from the Parties' four Home Teams and is in progress by the Joint Central Team. An overview of ITER Design activities is presented.

  11. Internal models for interpreting neural population activity during sensorimotor control

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Chase, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    To successfully guide limb movements, the brain takes in sensory information about the limb, internally tracks the state of the limb, and produces appropriate motor commands. It is widely believed that this process uses an internal model, which describes our prior beliefs about how the limb responds to motor commands. Here, we leveraged a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus monkeys and novel statistical analyses of neural population activity to gain insight into moment-by-moment internal model computations. We discovered that a mismatch between subjects’ internal models and the actual BMI explains roughly 65% of movement errors, as well as long-standing deficiencies in BMI speed control. We then used the internal models to characterize how the neural population activity changes during BMI learning. More broadly, this work provides an approach for interpreting neural population activity in the context of how prior beliefs guide the transformation of sensory input to motor output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10015.001 PMID:26646183

  12. Dynamics of an active magnetic particle in a rotating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Cēbers, A; Ozols, M

    2006-02-01

    The motion of an active (self-propelling) particle with a permanent magnetic moment under the action of a rotating magnetic field is considered. We show that below a critical frequency of the external field the trajectory of a particle is a circle. For frequencies slightly above the critical point the particle moves on an approximately circular trajectory and from time to time jumps to another region of space. Symmetry of the particle trajectory depends on the commensurability of the field period and the period of the orientational motion of the particle. We also show how our results can be used to study the properties of naturally occurring active magnetic particles, so-called magnetotactic bacteria. PMID:16605340

  13. Raman spectrum, conformational stability, barriers to internal rotations and DFT calculations of 1,1,1-trifluoro-propane-2-thione with double-internal-symmetric rotor.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Tarek A; Farag, Rabei S

    2005-12-01

    The Raman spectrum (3500-100 cm-1) of 1,1,1-trifluoro-propane-2-thione (TFPT), CF3C(S)CH3 of the solid phase has been recorded. The internal rotation of CH3 and/or CF3 moieties around CC bonds in TFPT allow five hypothetical conformers (Cs and C1 point groups). Aided by quantum chemical (QC) calculations, the Cc conformer is the only stable form (CF3 and CH3 groups are eclipsing the CS bond) which contains a planar FCC(S)CH backbone and possess intramolecular hydrogen sulfur interactions. However, other conformations (with the orientation of sulfur atom being trans to either hydrogen or fluorine atom) are either transition states or not fully converged geometry with "gauche" orientation. Moreover, the calculation were carried out at the level of Becke three Lee-Yan-Parr (B3LYP) parameters up to 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The torsional barriers are adequately described by a three-fold potential, V3 which have been determined utilizing the optimized structural parameters from the B3LYP/6-31G(d) basis set along with potential surface scan. Barriers of 1.28 kcal/mol (448 cm-1) and 1.94 kcal/mol (678 cm-1) were calculated for CH3 and CF3 symmetric rotors, respectively. Complete vibrational assignments have been reported for the stable Cc isomer which is supported by normal coordinate analysis and potential energy distributions (PEDs) for all fundamentals. Moreover, equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies are compared to the corresponding experimental values of acetone, 1,1,1-trifluoroacetone (TFA), hexafluoroacetone (HFA) and other molecules having the CF3 moiety whenever appropriate. PMID:16303627

  14. International Centre for Theoretical Physics: Scientific activities in 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-12-01

    A review of the scientific activities of the ICTP Trieste in 1987, including workshops, research and training for research is presented. The scientific program consists of eight main fields: fundamental physics, condensed matter, atomic and molecular physics, mathematics, physics and energy, physics and environment, applied physics and high technology, physics and development. In addition to a brief description of each workshop, symposium, college, meeting and activity or project sponsored by ICTP, a list of preprints and internal reports issued in 1987 is included.

  15. Rotationally induced surface slope-instabilities and the activation of CO2 activity on comet 103P/Hartley 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckloff, Jordan K.; Graves, Kevin; Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Melosh, H. Jay; Richardson, James E.

    2016-07-01

    Comet 103P/Hartley 2 has diurnally controlled, CO2-driven activity on the tip of the small lobe of its bilobate nucleus. Such activity is unique among the comet nuclei visited by spacecraft, and suggests that CO2 ice is very near the surface, which is inconsistent with our expectations of an object that thermophysically evolved for ∼45 million years prior to entering the Jupiter Family of comets. Here we explain this pattern of activity by showing that a very plausible recent episode of rapid rotation (rotation period of ∼11 [10-13] h) would have induced avalanches in Hartley 2's currently active regions that excavated down to CO2-rich ices and activated the small lobe of the nucleus. At Hartley 2's current rate of spindown about its principal axis, the nucleus would have been spinning fast enough to induce avalanches ∼3-4 orbits prior to the DIXI flyby (∼1984-1991). This coincides with Hartley 2's discovery in 1986, and implies that the initiation of CO2 activity facilitated the comet's discovery. During the avalanches, the sliding material would either be lofted off the surface by gas activity, or possibly gained enough momentum moving downhill (toward the tip of the small lobe) to slide off the tip of the small lobe. Much of this material would have failed to reach escape velocity, and would reimpact the nucleus, forming debris deposits. The similar size frequency distribution of the mounds observed on the surface of Hartley 2 and chunks of material in its inner coma suggest that the 20-40 m mounds observed by the DIXI mission on the surface of Hartley 2 are potentially these fallback debris deposits. As the nucleus spun down (rotation period increased) from a period of ∼11-18.34 h at the time of the DIXI flyby, the location of potential minima, where materials preferentially settle, migrated about the surface, allowing us to place relative ages on most of the terrains on the imaged portion of the nucleus.

  16. International Directory of IYF Research Activities [with] Supplement 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Inst. of Family Studies, Melbourne.

    This directory is aimed at increasing understanding of functions and problems of families, by providing information on research activities which fall within the goals of the International Year of the Family (IYF) initiative. Compiled through a cooperative effort of the Australian Institute of Family Studies and The United Nations Secretariat for…

  17. Launching Youth Activism with Award-Winning International Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest, Danielle E.; Kimmel, Sue C.; Garrison, Kasey L.

    2013-01-01

    Using qualitative content analysis, the authors explored depictions of activism in 35 international, translated titles receiving Mildred L. Batchelder Award and Honor commendations. Findings included identification of three social justice issues appearing in the texts: characters were challenged by poor living conditions or homelessness, labor…

  18. Intercultural Orientation Activities for International ESL Students: 50 Module Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Linda

    Fifty modules are presented for increasing the cultural and linguistic fluency of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students by integrating cultural awareness activities with language practice. The modules are intended for international students at an intermediate language level; they can, however, be used or adapted for beginning or advanced…

  19. Evaluation of Hip Internal and External Rotation Range of Motion as an Injury Risk Factor for Hip, Abdominal and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Richard; Zhou, Hanbing; Thompson, Matthew; Dawson, Courtney; Nguyen, Joseph; Coleman, Struan

    2015-01-01

    Normal hip range of motion (ROM) is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc) and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201) in one professional organization (major and minor league) during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011). Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201) with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37). Both pitchers (N=93) and catchers (N=22) had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86). Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries. PMID:26793294

  20. Evaluation of Hip Internal and External Rotation Range of Motion as an Injury Risk Factor for Hip, Abdominal and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Ma, Richard; Zhou, Hanbing; Thompson, Matthew; Dawson, Courtney; Nguyen, Joseph; Coleman, Struan

    2015-12-28

    Normal hip range of motion (ROM) is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc) and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201) in one professional organization (major and minor league) during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011). Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201) with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37). Both pitchers (N=93) and catchers (N=22) had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86). Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries. PMID:26793294

  1. The Sub-bureau for Atmospheric Angular Momentum of the International Earth Rotation Service - A meteorological data center with geodetic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, David A.; Kann, Deirdre M.; Miller, Alvin J.; Rosen, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    By exchanging angular momentum with the solid portion of the earth, the atmosphere plays a vital role in exciting small but measurable changes in the rotation of our planet. Recognizing this relationship, the International Earth Rotation Service invited the U.S. National Meteorological Center to organize a Sub-bureau for Atmospheric Angular Momentum (SBAAM) for the purpose of collecting, distributing, archiving, and analyzing atmospheric parameters relevant to earth rotation/polar motion. These functions of wind and surface pressure are being computed with data from several of the world's weather services, and they are being widely applied to the research and operations of the geodetic community. The SBAAM began operating formally in October 1989, and this article highlights its development, operations, and significance.

  2. Electronic spectra of 2- and 3-tolunitrile in the gas phase. I. A study of methyl group internal rotation via rovibronically resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Santoyo, José Arturo; Wilke, Josefin; Wilke, Martin; Yi, John T.; Pratt, David W.; Schmitt, Michael; Álvarez-Valtierra, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Rotationally resolved fluorescence excitation spectra of the origin bands in the S1←S0 transition of 2-tolunitrile (2TN) and 3-tolunitrile (3TN) have been recorded in the collision-free environment of a molecular beam. Analyses of these data provide the rotational constants of each molecule and the potential energy curves governing the internal rotation of the attached methyl groups in both electronic states. 2TN exhibits much larger barriers along this coordinate than 3TN. Interestingly, the electronic transition dipole moment in both molecules is markedly influenced by the position of the attached methyl group rather than the position of the cyano group; possible reasons for this intriguing behavior are discussed.

  3. Internal transport barrier triggered by non-linear lower hybrid wave deposition under condition of beam-driven toroidal rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Q. D.; Budny, R. V.

    2015-03-15

    By using gyro-Landau fluid transport model (GLF23), time-dependent integrated modeling is carried out using TRANSP to explore the dynamic process of internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the neutral beam heating discharges. When the current profile is controlled by LHCD (lower hybrid current drive), with appropriate neutral beam injection, the nonlinear interplay between the transport determined gradients in the plasma temperature (T{sub i,e}) and toroidal velocity (V{sub ϕ}) and the E×B flow shear (including q-profile) produces transport bifurcations, generating spontaneously a stepwise growing ITB. In the discharge, the constraints imposed by the wave propagation condition causes interplay of the LH driven current distribution with the plasma configuration modification, which constitutes non-linearity in the LH wave deposition. The non-linear effects cause bifurcation in LHCD, generating two distinct quasi-stationary reversed magnetic shear configurations. The change of current profile during the transition period between the two quasi-stationary states results in increase of the E×B shearing flow arising from toroidal rotation. The turbulence transport suppression by sheared E×B flow during the ITB development is analysed, and the temporal evolution of some parameters characterized the plasma confinement is examined. Ample evidence shows that onset of the ITB development is correlated with the enhancement of E×B shearing rate caused by the bifurcation in LHCD. It is suggested that the ITB triggering is associated with the non-linear effects of the LH power deposition.

  4. International Year of Planet Earth - Activities and Plans in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaniz-Alvarez, S.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2007-12-01

    IYPE started as a joint initiative by UNESCO and IUGS with participation of several geosciences organizations, and has developed into a major program in geosciences with inclusion of national committees. In this presentation we focus on current activities and plans in our country, and in the international activities. IYPE activities have concentrated in publications and organization of conferences and meetings. A book series on Earth Science Experiments for Children has been defined, with the first books published on "Atmospheric Pressure and Free Fall of Objects" and "Light and Colors". Following books are on "Standing on Archimedes" and "Foucault and the Climate". Books are distributed free to school children, with more than 10,000 copies given of first volume. Other publications include the special issues of El Faro science magazine edited by the National University, with last issue published and distributed electronically and in hard copies this August. Special events include Conference of IYPE Executive Director presented during the International Day of Science Museums in late May in Science Museum Universum. This was followed by a Planet Earth Week in the University. Current plans include an electronic open-access publication, additional publications of the Planet Earth series, articles and special issues in journals and magazines, and events on selected themes from the IYPE science program, particularly on Megacities, Hazards, Resources and Life. The metropolitan area of Mexico City, with around 20 million inhabitants presents special challenges, being at high altitude within an active tectonic and volcanic area requiring major efforts in water supply, water control, rains and waste disposal and management. Involvement in international activities includes translation into Spanish of IYPE publications and the participation in programs and activities. In addition to activities in the different countries, we consider that IYPE should result in initiatives for

  5. The solar differential rotation: a historical view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paternò, Lucio

    2010-07-01

    This brief historical review covers the period preceding the advent of helioseismology, when the author actively worked in the field of solar differential rotation and knowledge of the Sun’s dynamics was limited to the observations of surface phenomena, while the interpretation of the internal rotation was demanded solely to theoretical conjectures based on fluid dynamic of convective, rotating fluids. After a survey of the observations, based on both sunspot motions and spectroscopy, which led to the laws of differential rotation, the various attempts to interpret observations on theoretical grounds and to infer the internal dynamics are discussed, also within the dynamo requirements of the velocity field. We point out that the many efforts for a correct description of the Sun’s internal dynamics failed in the light of the helioseismic results. Finally, the recent theoretical efforts, essentially based on powerful computer simulations, for modeling the solar internal dynamic with the aim of reproducing the helioseismic results are outlined.

  6. Rotational modulation of the chromospheric activity in the young solar-type star, X-1 Orionis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesgaard, A. M.; Simon, T.

    1982-01-01

    The IUE satellite was used to observe one of the youngest G stars (GO V) for which Duncan (1981) derives an age of 6 x 10 to the 8th power years from the Li abundance. Rotational modulation was looked for in the emission flux in the chromospheric and transition region lines of this star. Variations in the Ca 11 K-lines profile were studied with the CHF telescope at Mauna Kea. Results show that the same modulation of the emission flux of Ca 11 due to stellar rotation is present in the transition region feature of C IV and probably of He II. For other UV lines the modulation is not apparent, due to a more complex surface distribution of the active areas or supergranulation network, or a shorter lifetime of the conditions which give rise to these features, or to the uncertainities in the measured line strengths. The Mg II emission flux is constant to within + or - 3.4% implying a rather uniform distribution of Mg II emission areas. The Ca II emission not only shows a measurable variation in intensity but also variations in detailed line profile shape when observed at high resolution.

  7. Arylsulphatase activity and sulphate content in relation to crop rotation and fertilization of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwik-Ziomek, Anetta; Lemanowicz, Joanna; Koper, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of varying rates of FYM (0, 20, 40, 60 Mg ha-1) and nitrogen N0, N1, N2, and N3 on the content of sulphate sulphur (VI) and the activity of arylsulphatase, which participates in the transformations of this element in Haplic Luvisol. The study report is based on a long-term field experiment with two different crop rotations: A - recognized as exhausting the humus from soil and B - recognized as enriching the soil with humus. During the cultivation of the plants, the soil was sampled four times from corn and a red clover cultivar and grass. The FYM fertilization rate for which the highest arylsulphatase activity and the content of sulphates were identified was 60 Mg ha-1. An inhibitory effect of high rates (90 and 135 kg N ha-1) of ammonium nitrate on the arylsulphatase activity was also observed. A significant correlation between the content of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphates and the arylsulphatase activity was recorded. The investigation on the effect of combined application of farmyard manure and mineral nitrogen fertilization on the activity of arylsulphatase participating in the sulphur cycling was launched to examine the problem in detail.

  8. RoboPol: optical polarization-plane rotations and flaring activity in blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Papadakis, I. E.; Hovatta, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Liodakis, I.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Das, H.; Khodade, P.; Kiehlmann, S.; King, O. G.; Kus, A.; Kylafis, N.; Mahabal, A.; Marecki, A.; Modi, D.; Myserlis, I.; Paleologou, E.; Papamastorakis, I.; Pazderska, B.; Pazderski, E.; Rajarshi, C.; Ramaprakash, A.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Tassis, K.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    We present measurements of rotations of the optical polarization of blazars during the second year of operation of RoboPol, a monitoring programme of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events, and we analyse the large set of rotation events discovered in two years of observation. We investigate patterns of variability in the polarization parameters and total flux density during the rotation events and compare them to the behaviour in a non-rotating state. We have searched for possible correlations between average parameters of the polarization-plane rotations and average parameters of polarization, with the following results: (1) there is no statistical association of the rotations with contemporaneous optical flares; (2) the average fractional polarization during the rotations tends to be lower than that in a non-rotating state; (3) the average fractional polarization during rotations is correlated with the rotation rate of the polarization plane in the jet rest frame; (4) it is likely that distributions of amplitudes and durations of the rotations have physical upper bounds, so arbitrarily long rotations are not realized in nature.

  9. Patch-Augmented Latissimus Dorsi Transfer and Open Reduction–Internal Fixation of Unstable Os Acromiale for Irreparable Massive Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Maximilian; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Millett, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Latissimus dorsi transfer is a reasonable treatment option for massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tears that can substantially improve chronically painful and dysfunctional shoulders. This report and accompanying video describe the treatment of an active 43-year-old man with severe pain and weakness in the right shoulder after 3 failed rotator cuff repairs. Preoperative imaging showed a massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tear retracted to the glenoid as well as a hypermobile os acromiale likely causing dynamic impingement and recurrent rotator cuff tears. After diagnostic arthroscopy, the latissimus tendon is harvested and augmented with a 3-mm human acellular dermal patch (ArthroFlex; Arthrex, Naples, FL). The native rotator cuff tissue is repaired as much as possible, and the latissimus tendon is passed underneath the deltoid and posterior to the teres minor. The patch-augmented tendon is then integrated into a double-row SpeedBridge repair of eight 4.75-mm BioComposite SwiveLock anchors (Arthrex). The bony surface of the os acromiale is prepared and then fixed to the acromion with 2 cannulated partially threaded screws and additional tension-band wiring. Postoperative rehabilitation initially focuses on early passive range of motion, followed by active and active-assisted motion and a biofeedback program starting at 6 weeks postoperatively. PMID:26697309

  10. The association between loss of ankle dorsiflexion range of movement, and hip adduction and internal rotation during a step down test.

    PubMed

    Bell-Jenje, T; Olivier, B; Wood, W; Rogers, S; Green, A; McKinon, W

    2016-02-01

    A pattern of excessive hip adduction and internal rotation with medial deviation of the knee has been associated with numerous musculo-skeletal dysfunctions. Research into the role that ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) play in lower limb kinematics is lacking. The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to investigate the relationship between ankle DF ROM, and hip adduction and hip internal rotation during a step-down test with and without heel elevation in a healthy female population. Hip and ankle ROM was measured kinematically using a ten-camera Optitrack motion analysis system. Thirty healthy female participants (mean age = 20.4 years; SD = 0.9 years) first performed a step-down test with the heel of the weight bearing foot flat on the step and then with the heel elevated on a platform. Ankle DF, hip adduction and hip internal rotation were measured kinematically for the supporting leg. Participants who had 17° or less of ankle DF ROM displayed significantly more hip adduction ROM (p = 0.001; Cohen's d effect size = 1.2) than the participants with more than 17° of DF during the step-down test. Participants with limited DF ROM showed a significant reduction in hip adduction ROM during the elevated-heel step-down test (p = 0.008). Hip internal rotation increased in both groups during the EHSD compared to the step-down test (p > 0.05) Reduced ankle DF ROM is associated with increased hip adduction utilised during the step-down test. Ankle DF should be taken into account when assessing patients with aberrant frontal plane lower limb alignment. PMID:26432547

  11. The host stars of Kepler's habitable exoplanets: superflares, rotation and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Pugh, C. E.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Brown, D. J. A.; Lund, M. N.; Osborn, H. P.; Pollacco, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    We embark on a detailed study of the light curves of Kepler's most Earth-like exoplanet host stars using the full length of Kepler data. We derive rotation periods, photometric activity indices, flaring energies, mass-loss rates, gyrochronological ages, X-ray luminosities and consider implications for the planetary magnetospheres and habitability. Furthermore, we present the detection of superflares in the light curve of Kepler-438, the exoplanet with the highest Earth Similarity Index to date. Kepler-438b orbits at a distance of 0.166 au to its host star, and hence may be susceptible to atmospheric stripping. Our sample is taken from the Habitable Exoplanet Catalogue, and consists of the stars Kepler-22, Kepler-61, Kepler-62, Kepler-174, Kepler-186, Kepler-283, Kepler-296, Kepler-298, Kepler-438, Kepler-440, Kepler-442, Kepler-443 and KOI-4427, between them hosting 15 of the most habitable transiting planets known to date from Kepler.

  12. Sub-soil microbial activity under rotational cotton crops in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polain, Katherine; Knox, Oliver; Wilson, Brian; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbial communities contribute significantly to soil organic matter formation, stabilisation and destabilisation, through nutrient cycling and biodegradation. The majority of soil microbial research examines the processes occurring in the top 0 cm to 30 cm of the soil, where organic nutrients are easily accessible. In soils such as Vertosols, the high clay content causes swelling and cracking. When soil cracking is coupled with rain or an irrigation event, a flush of organic nutrients can move down the soil profile, becoming available for subsoil microbial community use and potentially making a significant contribution to nutrient cycling and biodegradation in soils. At present, the mechanisms and rates of soil nutrient turnover (such as carbon and nitrogen) at depth under cotton rotations are mostly speculative and the process-response relationships remain unclear, although they are undoubtedly underpinned by microbial activity. Our research aims to determine the contribution and role of soil microbiota to the accumulation, cycling and mineralisation of carbon and nitrogen through the whole root profile under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and cotton-maize rotations in regional New South Wales, Australia. Through seasonal work, we have established both baseline and potential microbial activity rates from 0 cm to 100 cm down the Vertosol profile, using respiration and colourimetric methods. Further whole soil profile analyses will include determination of microbial biomass and isotopic carbon signatures using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) methodology, identification of microbial communities (sequencing) and novel experiments to investigate potential rates of nitrogen mineralisation and quantification of associated genes. Our preliminary observations and the hypotheses tested in this three-year study will be presented.

  13. On the physical interpretation of ab initio normal-mode coordinates for the three C-H stretching vibrations of methanol along the internal-rotation path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Hougen, Jon T.; Lees, R. M.

    2013-11-01

    Graphical representations are presented for variation along the steepest-descent internal-rotation path in methanol of the normal mode frequencies and their associated eigenvectors in several sets of internal coordinates and in Cartesian atomic displacement vectors di(γ), as determined for the three CH stretching vibrations (ν3, ν2, and ν9) by projected-frequency calculations from the Gaussian suite of programs. The methyl-group CH stretching modes are interesting because the symmetry environment of each C-H bond changes significantly during the internal rotation, i.e., each of the methyl bonds takes turns passing (twice for a complete torsional revolution) through the plane of symmetry of the COH frame of the molecule. No accumulation of geometric phase is observed in any of these plots, and all quantities return to their original values after the internal rotation angle γ increases by 2π. A simple two-vibrational-state, three-parameter model, closely based on earlier models from the literature, can be used to understand nearly quantitatively much of the γ-variation observed in the Gaussian plots, including a number of cusp-like features. In particular, when the three parameters in the model are determined from a fit to the Gaussian projected frequencies for ν2 and ν9 at the top and bottom of the internal rotation path, it is found that the Renner-Teller-like torsion-vibration interaction term is slightly larger in magnitude than the Jahn-Teller-like term, which is consistent with no accumulation of geometric phase in the various plots. Finally, a highly simplified computation is presented to illustrate the changes that will be necessary in order to move from the usual diabatic torsion-vibration treatments in the literature to adiabatic treatments, in which the normal-mode Cartesian displacement vectors given at each point along the internal rotation path by the Gaussian projected frequency calculation are used directly in the torsion-vibration energy

  14. Analysis of AB Initio Normal-Mode Displacement Vectors Along the Internal Rotation Path for the Three C-H Stretching Vibrations in Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Lees, Ronald M.; Hougen, Jon T.

    2012-06-01

    Stemming from the observation of inverted A/E splittings for the ν2 and ν9 asymmetric CH-stretching modes in methanol, there has been much theoretical interest in attempting to explain the nature of the inversion. We have recently examined the ab initio normal-mode vibrational displacement vectors along the internal rotation path for the three C-H stretching vibrations in methanol, both in the symmetrized and non-symmetrized PAM coordinates. Graphical representations of the Cartesian atomic normal mode displacement vectors di(γ) determined by the Gaussian suite of programs for the three CH stretching motions, ν2(A1), ν3(A1) and ν9(A2), along the steepest-descent internal rotation path γ in methanol (CH_3OH) will be presented and discussed, where A1 and A2 are notations in permutation-inversion group G6. These modes are interesting because the symmetry environment of each C-H bond changes significantly during the internal rotation, i.e., each of the methyl bonds takes turns passing (twice for a complete torsional revolution) through the plane of symmetry of the COH frame of the molecule. We present some simple theoretical models which can be used to help understand these displacement vectors. Although this is work in progress, some explanation is already possible for the rather irregular (avoided-crossing-like) behavior of these displacement vectors.

  15. The effects of methyl internal rotation and {sup 14}N quadrupole coupling in the microwave spectra of two conformers of N,N-diethylacetamide

    SciTech Connect

    Kannengießer, Raphaela; Klahm, Sebastian; Vinh Lam Nguyen, Ha Lüchow, Arne; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2014-11-28

    The gas phase structures and internal dynamics of N,N-diethylacetamide were determined with very high accuracy using a combination of molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations at high levels. Conformational studies yielded five stable conformers with C{sub 1} symmetry. The two most energetically favorable conformers, conformer I and II, could be found in the experimental spectrum. For both conformers, quadrupole hyperfine splittings of the {sup 14}N nucleus and torsional fine splittings due to the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group occurred in the same order of magnitude and were fully assigned. The rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants as well as the quadrupole coupling constants of the {sup 14}N nucleus were determined and fitted to experimental accuracy. The V{sub 3} potentials were found to be 517.04(13) cm{sup −1} and 619.48(91) cm{sup −1} for conformer I and II, respectively, and compared to the V{sub 3} potentials found in other acetamides. Highly accurate CCSD(T) and DMC calculations were carried out for calculating the barriers to internal rotation in comparison with the experimentally deduced V{sub 3} values.

  16. Behavior of Li abundances in solar-analog stars. II. Evidence of the connection with rotation and stellar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Y.; Honda, S.; Kawanomoto, S.; Ando, H.; Sakurai, T.

    2010-06-01

    Context. We previously attempted to ascertain why the Li i 6708 line-strengths of Sun-like stars differ so significantly despite the superficial similarities of stellar parameters. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of 118 solar analogs and reported that a close connection exists between the Li abundance (ALi) and the line-broadening width (vr+m; mainly contributed by rotational effect), which led us to conclude that stellar rotation may be the primary control of the surface Li content. Aims: To examine our claim in more detail, we study whether the degree of stellar activity exhibits a similar correlation with the Li abundance, which is expected because of the widely believed close connection between rotation and activity. Methods: We measured the residual flux at the line center of the strong Ca ii 8542 line, r0(8542), known to be a useful index of stellar activity, for all sample stars using newly acquired spectra in this near-IR region. The projected rotational velocity (ve sin i) was estimated by subtracting the macroturbulence contribution from vr+m that we had already established. Results: A remarkable (positive) correlation was found in the ALi versus (vs.) r0(8542) diagram as well as in both the r0(8542) vs. ve sin i and ALi vs. ve sin i diagrams, as had been expected. With the confirmation of rotation-dependent stellar activity, this clearly shows that the surface Li abundances of these solar analogs progressively decrease as the rotation rate decreases. Conclusions: Given this observational evidence, we conclude that the depletion of surface Li in solar-type stars, probably caused by effective envelope mixing, operates more efficiently as stellar rotation decelerates. It may be promising to attribute the low-Li tendency of planet-host G dwarfs to their different nature in the stellar angular momentum. Based on observations carried out at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (Okayama, Japan).

  17. Inference of other's internal neural models from active observation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Joong; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2015-02-01

    Recently, there have been several attempts to replicate theory of mind, which explains how humans infer the mental states of other people using multiple sensory input, with artificial systems. One example of this is a robot that observes the behavior of other artificial systems and infers their internal models, mapping sensory inputs to the actuator's control signals. In this paper, we present the internal model as an artificial neural network, similar to biological systems. During inference, an observer can use an active incremental learning algorithm to guess an actor's internal neural model. This could significantly reduce the effort needed to guess other people's internal models. We apply an algorithm to the actor-observer robot scenarios with/without prior knowledge of the internal models. To validate our approach, we use a physics-based simulator with virtual robots. A series of experiments reveal that the observer robot can construct an "other's self-model", validating the possibility that a neural-based approach can be used as a platform for learning cognitive functions. PMID:25617791

  18. On the coronae of rapidly rotating stars. I - The relation between rotation and coronal activity in RS CVn systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, F. M.; Bowyer, S.

    1981-01-01

    Soft X-ray observations are presented of a nearly complete sample of RS Canum Venaticorum systems taken with the Einstein X-ray Observatory. It is shown that the quiescent coronal activity, as measured by the ratio of the X-ray to bolometric flux, is directly proportional to the angular velocity of the star with the active chromosphere in these systems. This relation is found to hold over two decades in angular velocity. It is also found that the stellar surface gravity has no obvious influence on the ratio of the X-ray luminosity to the bolometric luminosity over two decades in surface gravity. It is pointed out that the linear relation between the ratio of the X-ray luminosity to the bolometric luminosity on the one hand, and the angular velocity, on the other, holds important implications for dynamo theories of the generation of stellar magnetic fields.

  19. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  20. Gamma dose from activation of internal shields in IRIS reactor.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, Stefano; Cammi, Antonio; Garlati, Luisella; Lombardi, Carlo; Padovani, Enrico

    2005-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure is a modular pressurised water reactor with an integral design. This means that all the primary system components, such as the steam generators, pumps, pressuriser and control rod drive mechanisms, are located inside the reactor vessel, which requires a large diameter. For the sake of better reliability and safety, it is desirable to achieve the reduction of vessel embrittlement as well as the lowering of the dose beyond the vessel. The former can be easily accomplished by the presence of a wide downcomer, filled with water, which surrounds the core region, while the latter needs the presence of additional internal shields. An optimal shielding configuration is under investigation, for reducing the ex-vessel dose due to activated internals and for limiting the amount of the biological shielding. MCNP 4C calculations were performed to evaluate the neutron and the gamma dose during operation and the 60Co activation of various shields configurations. The gamma dose beyond the vessel from activation of its structural components was estimated in a shutdown condition, with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2002 and the MicroShield software. The results of the two codes are in agreement and show that the dose is sufficiently low, even without an additional shield. PMID:16381688

  1. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  2. Active Control of Rotating Stall Demonstrated for a Multistage Compressor With Inlet Distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSchalkwyk, Christian; Bright, Michelle M.; Suder, Kenneth L.; Straziar, Anthony J.; Thorp, Scott A.

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft compressors can suffer debilitating consequences as a result of rotating stall and surge events caused by inlet distortions. This is particularly true of aircraft during takeoff, when the compressor is operating at peak performance close to the surge line. Significant research has been conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center in the area of compressor stability enhancement through active and passive control methods. Most recently, an experiment was conducted at the Wright Patterson Air Force Base Research Laboratory on a two-stage fan with inlet guide vanes and inlet distortion. In this joint Small Business Innovation Research effort between Scientific Systems and Glenn, control of rotating stall was demonstrated in a multistage transonic fan. This twostage fan with inlet guide vanes was tested under clean and distorted inlet conditions. The compressor was also configured with a circumferential distortion screen capable of 180 of distortion and with 14 high-velocity injectors upstream of the first rotor. Twelve of these injectors could oscillate up to frequencies of 450 Hz. The additional two injectors were located next to each other and were used in concert with each other as a single, on/off, high-authority actuator. In a first test of injection in this multistage environment, 12 of the valves were opened 50 percent of their full stroke to assess steady injection through the compressor. This baseline injection is shown in the compressor characteristic of the following figure, and stall margin improvements are tracked from this baseline condition. The compressor was then tested with clean inlet conditions using 12 injectors and active control. Pressure disturbances were tracked before rotating stall, and a constant gain control scheme reduced the stalling mass flow by 10.8 percent over the baseline. With the distortion screen present in the inlet, a pole-zero cancellation control scheme was used to achieve a 6.4-percent decrease in stalling mass flow

  3. Self-consistent internal structure of a rotating gaseous planet and its comparison with an approximation by oblate spheroidal equidensity surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    In an important paper, Roberts (1963b) studied the hydrostatic equilibrium of an isolated, self-gravitating, rapidly rotating polytropic gaseous body based on a controversial assumption/approximation that all (outer and internal) equidensity surfaces are in the shape of oblate spheroids whose eccentricities are a function of the equatorial radius and whose axes of symmetry are parallel to the rotation axis. We compute the three-dimensional, finite-element, fully self-consistent, continuous solution for a rapidly rotating polytropic gaseous body with Jupiter-like parameters without making any prior assumptions about its outer shape and internal structure. Upon partially relaxing the Roberts' approximation by assuming that only the outer equidensity surface is in the shape of an oblate spheroid, we also compute a finite-element solution with the same parameters without making any prior assumptions about its internal structure. It is found that all equidensity surfaces of the fully self-consistent solution differ only slightly from the oblate spheroidal shape. It is also found that the characteristic difference between the fully self-consistent solution and the outer-spheroidal-shape solution is insignificantly small. Our results suggest that the Roberts' assumption of spheroidal equidensity surfaces represents a reasonably accurate approximation for rotating polytropic gaseous bodies with Jupiter-like parameters. The numerical accuracy of our finite-element solution is checked by an exact analytic solution based on the Green's function using the spheroidal wave function. The three different solutions in non-spherical geometries - the fully self-consistent numerical solution, the numerical solution with the outer spheroidal shape and the exact analytical solution - can also serve as a useful benchmark for other solutions based on different numerical methods.

  4. International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG): an update on activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.geoethics.org) was founded on August 2012 to unite global geoscientists to raise the awareness of the scientific community regarding the importance of the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research, education, and practice. IAPG is an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussion on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, promoting geoethical themes through scientific publications and conferences, strengthening the research base on geoethics, and focusing on case-studies as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. IAPG is legally recognized as a not-for-profit organization. It is a non-governmental, non-political, non-party institution, at all times free from racial, gender, religious or national prejudices. Its network continues to grow with more than 900 members in 103 countries, including 20 national sections. IAPG operates exclusively through donations and personal funds of its members. The results achieved since inception have been recognized by numerous international organizations. In particular, IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), and the Geological Society of London (GSL). IAPG has enlarged its official relationships also through agreements on collaboration with other organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), European Federation of Geologists (EFG), Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG), and others. IAPG considers publications as an indispensable activity to strengthen geoethics from a scientific point of view, so members are active in the publication of articles and editing of books on

  5. Active Brownian motion of emulsion droplets: Coarsening dynamics at the interface and rotational diffusion.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, M; Stark, H

    2016-08-01

    A micron-sized droplet of bromine water immersed in a surfactant-laden oil phase can swim (S. Thutupalli, R. Seemann, S. Herminghaus, New J. Phys. 13 073021 (2011). The bromine reacts with the surfactant at the droplet interface and generates a surfactant mixture. It can spontaneously phase-separate due to solutocapillary Marangoni flow, which propels the droplet. We model the system by a diffusion-advection-reaction equation for the mixture order parameter at the interface including thermal noise and couple it to fluid flow. Going beyond previous work, we illustrate the coarsening dynamics of the surfactant mixture towards phase separation in the axisymmetric swimming state. Coarsening proceeds in two steps: an initially slow growth of domain size followed by a nearly ballistic regime. On larger time scales thermal fluctuations in the local surfactant composition initiates random changes in the swimming direction and the droplet performs a persistent random walk, as observed in experiments. Numerical solutions show that the rotational correlation time scales with the square of the inverse noise strength. We confirm this scaling by a perturbation theory for the fluctuations in the mixture order parameter and thereby identify the active emulsion droplet as an active Brownian particle. PMID:27562831

  6. Potential and matrix elements of the hamiltonian of internal rotation in molecules in the basis set of Mathieu functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turovtsev, V. V.; Orlov, Yu. D.; Tsirulev, A. N.

    2015-08-01

    The advantages of the orthonormal basis set of 2π-periodic Mathieu functions compared to the trigonometric basis set in calculations of torsional states of molecules are substantiated. Explicit expressions are derived for calculating the Hamiltonian matrix elements of a one-dimensional torsional Schrödinger equation with a periodic potential of the general form in the basis set of Mathieu functions. It is shown that variation of a parameter of Mathieu functions allows the rotation potential and the structural function to be approximated with a good accuracy by a small number of series terms. The conditions for the best choice of this parameter are specified, and approximations are obtained for torsional potentials of n-butane upon rotation about the central C-C bond and of its univalent radical n-butyl C2H5C·H2 upon rotation of the C·H2 group. All algorithms are implemented in the Maple package.

  7. The Effect of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit on the Isokinetic Strength, Pain, and Quality of Life in Male High School Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinyoung; Song, Hongsun; Kim, Sunghwan; Woo, Seungseok

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) on the isokinetic strength, body pain, and the quality of life in male high school baseball players of Korea. Methods Fifty-six male high school baseball players were divided into either group A (GIRD≥20°, n=12) or group B (GIRD<20°, n=44). The range of motion in the shoulder and the isokinetic strength were measured. Questionnaires were administered regarding the body pain location by using the visual analogue scale, and the quality of life was measured by using the SF-36 Form. Results All subjects had increased external rotation range of motion and decreased internal rotation in the throwing shoulder. The incidence of GIRD (≥20°) was 21.43% in the present study. In the isokinetic strength test, a significantly weaker muscular state at an angular velocity of 180°/s was observed in group A, compared to group B. For the comparison of the pain, the frequency of shoulder pain was higher (33.93%) than other body pain, among the study subjects. Conclusion GIRD is one of the main risk factors of glenohumeral joint damage, and it is correlated with reduced isokinetic strength and quality of life. High school baseball players will need appropriate shoulder rehabilitation programs for the improvement in their quality of life and performance. PMID:25932414

  8. NanoSPD activity in Ufa and International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikova, N.; Salakhova, M.

    2014-08-01

    This report presents main achievements of R&D activities of the Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials of Ufa State Aviation Technical University (IPAM USATU, Ufa, Russia) with a special attention to innovative potential of nanostructured metals and alloys produced by the severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques. Several examples of the first promising applications of bulk nanostructured materials (BNM) as well as potential competing technologies are considered and discussed. The authors would like to focus special emphasis on international cooperation in view of numerous emerging projects as well as different conferences and seminars that pave the way to close and fruitful cooperation, working visits and exchange of young scientists. The possibilities of international cooperation through various foundations and programs are considered.

  9. Effect of Modeling-Based Activities Developed Using Virtual Environments and Concrete Objects on Spatial Thinking and Mental Rotation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurt, Eyup; Sunbul, Ali Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of modeling based activities using virtual environments and concrete objects on spatial thinking and mental rotation skills was investigated. The study was designed as a pretest-posttest model with a control group, which is one of the experimental research models. The study was carried out on sixth grade students…

  10. Integrating Structured Learning and Scholarly Activities into Clerkship Rotations: A Win–Win for Students and Preceptors

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephannie; Fulton, Judith; Mostow, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To merge scholarly activity into the curriculum developed for medical students electing a rotation in wound care and/or dermatology. Approach: The authors adapted the unique wound care curriculum developed for medical student rotators and residents to incorporate structured scholarly projects, opportunities for mentorship, and feedback for continued improvement. Results: Benefits have been observed to both students and to the clinic, as reflected by online survey results, increased productivity in the form of posters and manuscripts, and opportunities for professional networking. Discussion: Rotations and clerkships can be transformed from haphazard, bystander observational experiences to active participation that enhances comprehension and retention, while also providing benefits to preceptors. Innovation: Integration between research, education, and clinical activities in a structured way can provide opportunity for enhanced learning experiences and promote the concept of evidence-based practice. Conclusion: With observed benefits to students, researchers, and staff in this clinical setting, other clerkship rotation settings should consider an integrated and structured approach to learning, which includes scholarly activities. Further rigorous program evaluation is necessary to further quantify preliminary positive feedback regarding this approach. PMID:24804160

  11. Integrating Structured Learning and Scholarly Activities into Clerkship Rotations: A Win-Win for Students and Preceptors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephannie; Fulton, Judith; Mostow, Eliot

    2014-05-01

    Objective: To merge scholarly activity into the curriculum developed for medical students electing a rotation in wound care and/or dermatology. Approach: The authors adapted the unique wound care curriculum developed for medical student rotators and residents to incorporate structured scholarly projects, opportunities for mentorship, and feedback for continued improvement. Results: Benefits have been observed to both students and to the clinic, as reflected by online survey results, increased productivity in the form of posters and manuscripts, and opportunities for professional networking. Discussion: Rotations and clerkships can be transformed from haphazard, bystander observational experiences to active participation that enhances comprehension and retention, while also providing benefits to preceptors. Innovation: Integration between research, education, and clinical activities in a structured way can provide opportunity for enhanced learning experiences and promote the concept of evidence-based practice. Conclusion: With observed benefits to students, researchers, and staff in this clinical setting, other clerkship rotation settings should consider an integrated and structured approach to learning, which includes scholarly activities. Further rigorous program evaluation is necessary to further quantify preliminary positive feedback regarding this approach. PMID:24804160

  12. Rotation and magnetic activity of the Hertzsprung-gap giant 31 Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Granzer, T.; Kopf, M.; Weber, M.; Küker, M.; Reegen, P.; Rice, J. B.; Matthews, J. M.; Kuschnig, R.; Rowe, J. F.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2010-09-01

    Context. The single rapidly-rotating G0 giant 31 Comae has been a puzzle because of the absence of photometric variability despite its strong chromospheric and coronal emissions. As a Hertzsprung-gap giant, it is expected to be at the stage of rearranging its moment of inertia, hence likely also its dynamo action, which could possibly be linked with its missing photospheric activity. Aims: Our aim is to detect photospheric activity, obtain the rotation period, and use it for a first Doppler image of the star's surface. Its morphology could be related to the evolutionary status. Methods: We carried out high-precision, white-light photometry with the MOST satellite, ground-based Strömgren photometry with automated telescopes, and high-resolution optical echelle spectroscopy with the new STELLA robotic facility. Results: The MOST data reveal, for the first time, light variations with a full amplitude of 5 mmag and an average photometric period of 6.80 ± 0.06 days. Radial-velocity variations with a full amplitude of 270 m s-1 and a period of 6.76 ± 0.02 days were detected from our STELLA spectra, which we also interpret as due to stellar rotation. The two-year constancy of the average radial velocity of +0.10 ± 0.33 km s-1 confirms the star's single status, as well as the membership in the cluster Melotte 111. A spectrum synthesis gives Teff = 5660 ± 42 K, log g = 3.51 ± 0.09, and [Fe/H] = -0.15 ± 0.03, which together with the revised Hipparcos distance, suggests a mass of 2.6 ± 0.1 M_⊙ and an age of ≈540 Myr. The surface lithium abundance is measured to be nearly primordial. A detection of a strong He i absorption line indicates nonradiative heating processes in the atmosphere. Our Doppler images show a large, asymmetric polar spot, cooler than Teff by ≈1600 K, and several small low-to-mid latitude features that are warmer by ≈300-400 K and are possibly of chromospheric origin. We computed the convective turnover time for 31 Com as a function of depth

  13. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. A novel rotation generator of hydrodynamic cavitation for waste-activated sludge disintegration.

    PubMed

    Petkovšek, Martin; Mlakar, Matej; Levstek, Marjetka; Stražar, Marjeta; Širok, Brane; Dular, Matevž

    2015-09-01

    The disintegration of raw sludge is very important for enhancement of the biogas production in anaerobic digestion process as it provides easily degradable substrate for microorganisms to perform maximum sludge treatment efficiency and stable digestion of sludge at lower costs. In the present study the disintegration was studied by using a novel rotation generator of hydrodynamic cavitation (RGHC). At the first stage the analysis of hydrodynamics of the RGHC were made with tap water, where the cavitation extent and aggressiveness was evaluated. At the second stage RGHC was used as a tool for pretreatment of a waste-activated sludge (WAS), collected from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In case of WAS the disintegration rate was measured, where the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and soluble Kjeldahl nitrogen were monitored and microbiological pictures were taken. The SCOD increased from initial 45 mg/L up to 602 mg/L and 12.7% more biogas has been produced by 20 passes through RGHC. The results were obtained on a pilot bioreactor plant, volume of 400 L. PMID:25596776

  15. Long-range active retroreflector to measure the rotational orientation in conjunction with a laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofherr, O.; Wachten, Christian; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-11-01

    High precision optical non-contact position measurement is a key technology in modern engineering. Laser trackers (LT) accurately determine x-y-z coordinates of passive retroreflectors. Next-generation systems answer the need to measure an object`s rotational orientation (pitch, yaw, roll). So far, these devices are based either on photogrammetry or on enhanced retroreflectors. Here we present a new method to measure all six degrees of freedom in conjunction with a LT. The basic principle is to analyze the orientation to the LT's beam path by coupling-out laser radiation. The optical design is inspired by a cat's eye retroreflector equipped with an integrated beam splitter layer. The optical spherical aberration is compensated, which reduces the divergence angle for the reflected beam by one order of magnitude compared to an uncompensated standard system of the same size. The wave front distortion is reduced to less than 0.1 λ @ 633 nm for beam diameters up to 8 mm. Our active retroreflector is suitable for long-range measurements for a distance > 10 m.

  16. A Comparison of Glenohumeral Internal and External Range of Motion and Rotation Strength in healthy and Individuals with Recurrent Anterior Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Ilka, Shahab; Dashtbani, Hasan; Sahebozamani, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background: The glenohumeral joint becomes dislocated more than any other major joint because it maintains a wide range of motion and its stability is inherently weak. The most common complication following acute initial shoulder dislocation is recurrent dislocation or chronic instability. Imbalance of strength and range of motion in individuals with anterior dislocation can be a contributing factor in recurrent dislocation as well. Methods: This case-control study consisted of 24 individuals with a mean age of 24.29±4.33 years, and a mean dislocation rate of 5.37±3.62 times. Isometric cuff strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer and for range of motion, the Leighton flexometer was used in internal and external rotational motions of both upper extremities. Independent t-test was used for data analysis. Results: The internal and external range of motion of the injured glenohumeral joint was lower than the uninjured joint (P<0.001). Similarly, the internal and external rotation strength of the injured joint was lower than the uninjured joint (P<0.001). Conclusions: According to previous data, imbalance of strength and range of motion in individuals with anterior shoulder dislocation can be a contributing factor in long-term disability and increased recurrent dislocation and our finding confirm decreased range of motion and strength in our patients. Hence, proper exercise and rehabilitation plans need to be developed for those suffering from this complication. PMID:25386585

  17. A dynamo model of magnetic activity in solar-like stars with different rotational velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai; Kitchatinov, Leonid L.

    2014-08-10

    We attempt to provide a quantitative theoretical explanation for the observations that Ca II H/K emission and X-ray emission from solar-like stars increase with decreasing Rossby number (i.e., with faster rotation). Assuming that these emissions are caused by magnetic cycles similar to the sunspot cycle, we construct flux transport dynamo models of 1 M{sub ☉} stars rotating with different rotation periods. We first compute the differential rotation and the meridional circulation inside these stars from a mean-field hydrodynamics model. Then these are substituted in our dynamo code to produce periodic solutions. We find that the dimensionless amplitude f{sub m} of the toroidal flux through the star increases with decreasing rotation period. The observational data can be matched if we assume the emissions to go as the power 3-4 of f{sub m}. Assuming that the Babcock-Leighton mechanism saturates with increasing rotation, we can provide an explanation for the observed saturation of emission at low Rossby numbers. The main failure of our model is that it predicts an increase of the magnetic cycle period with increasing rotation rate, which is the opposite of what is found observationally. Much of our calculations are based on the assumption that the magnetic buoyancy makes the magnetic flux tubes rise radially from the bottom of the convection zone. Taking into account the fact that the Coriolis force diverts the magnetic flux tubes to rise parallel to the rotation axis in rapidly rotating stars, the results do not change qualitatively.

  18. The flexion–rotation test performed actively and passively: a comparison of range of motion in patients with cervicogenic headache

    PubMed Central

    Bravo Petersen, Shannon M.; Vardaxis, Vassilios G.

    2015-01-01

    Limitation in cervical spine range of motion (ROM) is one criterion for diagnosis of cervicogenic headaches (CHs). The flexion–rotation test, when performed passively (FRT-P), has been shown to be a useful test in diagnosis of CH. Few investigations have examined the flexion-rotation test when performed actively (FRT-A) by the individual, and no studies have examined the FRT-A in a symptomatic population. The purpose of this study was to compare ROM during the FRT-A and FRT-P in patients with CH and asymptomatic individuals and to compare ROM between sides for these two versions of the test. Twelve patients with CH and 10 asymptomatic participants were included in the study. An eight-camera Motion Analysis system was used to measure head motion relative to the trunk during the FRT-P and the FRT-A. Cervical rotation ROM was measured in a position of full cervical flexion for both tests. No significant difference was observed between right and left sides for cervical rotation ROM during the FRT-P nor the FRT-A when performed by asymptomatic participants. In patients with CH, a significant difference was observed between sides for the FRT-P (P = 0.014); however, the FRT-A failed to reveal bilateral descrepancy in rotation ROM. PMID:26109826

  19. Used fuel disposition campaign international activities implementation plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, W. M.

    2011-06-29

    countries with more mature programs. The U.S. fuel cycle is a once through fuel cycle involving the direct disposal of UNF, as spent nuclear fuel, in a geologic repository (previously identified at Yucca Mountain, Nevada), following at most a few decades of storage (wet and dry). The geology at Yucca Mountain, unsaturated tuff, is unique among all countries investigating the disposal of UNF and HLW. The decision by the U.S. Department of Energy to no longer pursue the disposal of UNF at Yucca Mountain and possibly utilize very long term storage (approaching 100 years or more) while evaluating future fuel cycle alternatives for managing UNF, presents a different UNF and HLW management R&D portfolio that has been pursued in the U.S. In addition, the research and development activities managed by OCRWM have been transferred to DOE-NE. This requires a reconsideration of how the UFDC will engage in cooperative and collaborative activities with other countries. This report presents the UFDC implementation plan for international activities. The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has cooperated and collaborated with other countries in many different 'arenas' including the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and through bilateral agreements with other countries. These international activities benefited OCRWM through the acquisition and exchange of information, database development, and peer reviews by experts from other countries. DOE-NE cooperates and collaborates with other countries in similar 'arenas' with similar objectives and realizing similar benefits. However the DOE-NE focus has not typically been in the area of UNF and HLW management. This report will first summarize these recent cooperative and collaborative activities. The manner that the UFDC will cooperate and collaborate in the future is expected to change as R&D is conducted

  20. 20 MHz Forward-imaging Single-element Beam Steering with an Internal Rotating Variable-Angle Reflecting Surface: Wire phantom and Ex vivo pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, David T.; Li, Xiang; Park, Jinhyoung; Chen, Ruimin; Chabok, Hamid; Barukh, Arthur; Zhou, Qifa; Elgazery, Mahmoud; Shung, K. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Feasibility is demonstrated for a forward-imaging beam steering system involving a single-element 20 MHz angled-face acoustic transducer combined with an internal rotating variable-angle reflecting surface (VARS). Rotation of the VARS structure, for a fixed position of the transducer, generates a 2-D angular sector scan. If these VARS revolutions were to be accompanied by successive rotations of the single-element transducer, 3-D imaging would be achieved. In the design of this device, a single-element 20 MHz PMN-PT press-focused angled-face transducer is focused on the circle of midpoints of a micro-machined VARS within the distal end of an endoscope. The 2-D imaging system was tested in water bath experiments with phantom wire structures at a depth of 10 mm, and exhibited an axial resolution of 66 μm and a lateral resolution of 520 μm. Chirp coded excitation was used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and to increase the depth of penetration. Images of an ex vivo cow eye were obtained. This VARS-based approach offers a novel forward-looking beam-steering method, which could be useful in intra-cavity imaging. PMID:23122968

  1. 20 MHz forward-imaging single-element beam steering with an internal rotating variable-angle reflecting surface: Wire phantom and ex vivo pilot study.

    PubMed

    Raphael, David T; Li, Xiang; Park, Jinhyoung; Chen, Ruimin; Chabok, Hamid; Barukh, Arthur; Zhou, Qifa; Elgazery, Mahmoud; Shung, K Kirk

    2013-02-01

    Feasibility is demonstrated for a forward-imaging beam steering system involving a single-element 20MHz angled-face acoustic transducer combined with an internal rotating variable-angle reflecting surface (VARS). Rotation of the VARS structure, for a fixed position of the transducer, generates a 2-D angular sector scan. If these VARS revolutions were to be accompanied by successive rotations of the single-element transducer, 3-D imaging would be achieved. In the design of this device, a single-element 20MHz PMN-PT press-focused angled-face transducer is focused on the circle of midpoints of a micro-machined VARS within the distal end of an endoscope. The 2-D imaging system was tested in water bath experiments with phantom wire structures at a depth of 10mm, and exhibited an axial resolution of 66μm and a lateral resolution of 520μm. Chirp coded excitation was used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and to increase the depth of penetration. Images of an ex vivo cow eye were obtained. This VARS-based approach offers a novel forward-looking beam-steering method, which could be useful in intra-cavity imaging. PMID:23122968

  2. A discrete chemo-dynamical model of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5846: dark matter fraction, internal rotation and velocity anisotropy out to six effective radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ling; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; van de Ven, Glenn; Long, R. J.; Watkins, Laura L.; Pota, Vincenzo; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Brodie, Jean; Foster, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    We construct a suite of discrete chemo-dynamical models of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5846. These models are a powerful tool to constrain both the mass distribution and internal dynamics of multiple tracer populations. We use Jeans models to simultaneously fit stellar kinematics within the effective radius Re, planetary nebula (PN) radial velocities out to 3 Re, and globular cluster (GC) radial velocities and colours out to 6 Re. The best-fitting model is a cored DM halo which contributes ˜10% of the total mass within 1 Re, and 67% ± 10% within 6 Re, although a cusped DM halo is also acceptable. The red GCs exhibit mild rotation with vmax/σ0 ˜ 0.3 in the region R > Re, aligned with but counter-rotating to the stars in the inner parts, while the blue GCs and PNe kinematics are consistent with no rotation. The red GCs are tangentially anisotropic, the blue GCs are mildly radially anisotropic, and the PNe vary from radially to tangentially anisotropic from the inner to the outer region. This is confirmed by general made-to-measure models. The tangential anisotropy of the red GCs in the inner regions could stem from the preferential destruction of red GCs on more radial orbits, while their outer tangential anisotropy - similar to the PNe in this region - has no good explanation. The mild radial anisotropy of the blue GCs is consistent with an accretion scenario.

  3. Microbiological Characterization and Concerns of the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Wieland, Paul O.

    2005-01-01

    Since January 1999, the chemical the International Space Station Thermal Control System (IATCS) and microbial state of (ISS) Internal Active fluid has been monitored by analysis of samples returned to Earth. Key chemical parameters have changed over time, including a drop in pH from the specified 9.5 +/- 0.5 ta = 58.4, an increase in the level of total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved nickel (Ni) in the fluid, and a decrease in the phosphate (PO,) level. In addition, silver (AS) ion levels in the fluid decreased rapidly as Ag deposited on internal metallic surfaces of the system. The lack of available Ag ions coupled with changes in the fluid chemistry has resulted in a favorable environment for microbial growth. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria have increased from less than 10 colony-forming units (CFUs)/l00 mL to l0(exp 6) to l0(exp 7) CFUs/100 mL. The increase of the microbial population is of concern because uncontrolled microbiological growth in the IATCS can contribute to deterioration in the performance of critical components within the system and potentially impact human health if opportunistic pathogens become established and escape into the cabin atmosphere. Micro-organisms can potentially degrade the coolant chemistry; attach to surfaces and form biofilms; lead to biofouling of filters, tubing, and pumps; decrease flow rates; reduce heat transfer; initiate and accelerate corrosion; and enhance mineral scale formation. The micro- biological data from the ISS IATCS fluid, and approaches to addressing the concerns, are summarized in this paper.

  4. Solar-stellar connection : A solar analogous behaviour by an active ultra fast rotator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sairam, Lalitha; Schmitt, Juergen; Pal Singh, Kulinder

    2015-08-01

    AB Dor is an ultra-fast rotating (Prot ~ 0.51 d) active young K dwarf with an age of ~40-50 Myr. Located as a foreground star towards large magellanic cloud (LMC), AB Dor has the advantage of being observed at all times by most of the X-ray satellites making it a favourite calibration target. AB Dor has been repeatedly observed for calibration by reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) on board XMM- Newton over last decade. This gives an ideal opportunity to perform a detailed analysis of the coronal emission, and to compare the flare characteristics with the Sun, since the Sun is usually considered as a prototype of low mass stars. Flares are frequent in low mass active stars across the electromagnetic spectrum similar to the Sun. We will for the first time, present an analysis of 30 intense X-ray flares observed from AB Dor. These flares detected in XMM-Newton data show a rapid rise (500-3000 s) and a slow decay (1000-6000 s). The derived X-ray luminosity during the flares ranges between 30.20 ≤ log(Lx) ≤ 30.83 erg/s; the flare peak temperature lies between 30-80 MK and the emission measures for these flares are in the range of 52.3 ≤ log(EM) ≤ 53.5 cm^-3. Our studies suggest that the scaling law between the flare peak emission measure and the flare peak temperature for all the flares observed on AB Dor is very similar to the relationship followed by solar flares, despite the fact that the AB Dor flare emission is ~250 times higher than the solar flare emission. We also carried out a homogenous study of flare frequencies, energetics and its occurrence in AB Dor. The frequency distribution of flare energies is a crucial diagnostic to calculate the overall energy residing in a flare. Our results of this study indicate that the large flare (33 ≤ log(E) ≤ 34 erg) may not contribute to the heating of the corona. We will show the presence of a possible long-term cycle in AB Dor both from a photospheric and coronal point of view, similar to the 11-year

  5. Sagittal plane rotation center of lower lumbar spine during a dynamic weight-lifting activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhan; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Wang, Shaobai; Wu, Minfei; Zhong, Weiye; Li, Jing-Sheng; Cha, Thomas; Wood, Kirk; Li, Guoan

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the center of rotation (COR) of the intervertebral segments of the lower lumbar spine (L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments) in sagittal plane during a weight-lifting (3.6 kg in each hand) extension activity performed with the pelvis constrained. Seven healthy subjects were studied using a dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. Using the non-weightbearing, supine position during MRI scan as a reference, the average intervertebral flexion angles of the L4-L5 and L5-S1 were 6.6° and 5.3° at flexion position of the body, respectively, and were -1.8° and -3.5° at extension position of the body, respectively. The CORs of the lower lumbar spine were found segment-dependent and changed with the body postures. The CORs of the L4-L5 segment were at the location about 75% posterior from the anterior edge of the disc at flexion positions of the body, and moved to about 92% of the posterior portion of the disc at extension positions of the body. The CORs of the L5-S1 segment were at 95% posterior portion of the disc at flexion positions of the body, and moved outside of the posterior edge of the disc by about 12% of the disc length at extension positions of the body. These results could help understand the physiological motion characters of the lower lumbar spine. The data could also provide important insights for future improvement of artificial disc designs and surgical implantation of the discs that are aimed to reproduce normal spinal functions. PMID:26805460

  6. Evidence of Internal Rotation in the O-H Stretching Region of the 1:1 Methanol-Benzene Complex in AN Argon Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amicangelo, Jay; Campbell, Ian; Wilkins, Joshua

    2015-06-01

    Co-depositions of methanol (CH_3OH) and benzene (C_6H_6) in an argon matrix at 20 K result in the formation of a 1:1 methanol-benzene complex (CH_3OH-C_6H_6) as evidenced by the observation of distinct infrared bands attributable to the complex near the O-H, C-H, and C-O stretching fundamental vibrations of CH_3OH and the hydrogen out-of-plane bending fundamental vibration of C_6H_6. Co-deposition experiments were also performed using isotopically labeled methanol (CD_3OD) and benzene (C_6D_6) and the corresponding deuterated complexes were also observed. Based on ab initio and density functional theory calculations, the structure of the complex is thought to be an H-π complex in which the CH_3OH is above the C_6H_6 ring with the OH hydrogen atom interacting with the π cloud of the ring. Close inspection of the O-H and O-D stretching peaks of the complexes reveals small, distinct satellite peaks that are approximately 3 - 4 wn lower than the primary peak. A series of experiments have been performed to ascertain the nature of the satellite peaks. These consist of co-depositions in which the concentrations of both monomers were varied over a large range (1:200 to 1:1600 S/M ratios), annealing experiments (20 K to 35 K), and lower temperature cycling experiments (20 K to 8 K). Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the satellite peaks are due to rotational structure and not due to matrix site effects, higher aggregation or distinct complex geometries. Given the rigidity of a low temperature argon matrix, it is proposed that the rotational motion responsible for the satellite peaks is internal rotation within the methanol subunit of the complex rather than overall molecular rotation of the complex.

  7. The molecular structure, equilibrium conformation and barrier to internal rotation in decachloroferrocene, Fe(η-C₅Cl₅)₂, determined by gas electron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Leo; Cooper, Mervyn K; Haaland, Arne; Samdal, Svein; Giricheva, Nina I; Girichev, Georgiy V

    2010-05-21

    The molecular structure of decachloroferrocene has been determined by gas electron diffraction supported by quantum chemical calculations. The equilibrium conformation has staggered ligand rings and D(5d) symmetry. The barrier to internal rotation is, however, only 0.8(2) kJ mol⁻¹. This barrier is so low that even at room temperature the vast majority of molecules in the gas phase would have sufficient thermal energy to undergo virtually non-hindered internal rotation. While the eclipsed equilibrium conformation of unsubstituted ferrocene is determined by attractive dispersion interaction between the two cyclopentadienyl ligands, the staggered equilibrium conformation of Fe(η-C₅Cl₅)₂ is due to steric repulsion between Cl atoms at different rings. The ligands are non-planar: the C-Cl bonds are bent 3.7(3)° out of the plane of the C₅ ring away from the metal atom. The Fe-C, C-C and C-Cl bond distances (r(a)) are: 205.0(4) pm, 143.4(3) pm and 170.2(4) pm respectively. PMID:20372696

  8. Internal structure of a measure of self-efficacy in physical activity among high school students.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J J; Allison, K R; Makin, S

    1998-05-01

    The preliminary development of a measure of self-efficacy to participate in vigorous physical activity when confronted with specific perceived barriers to physical activity is described. Measures used in previous research ([Hofstetter, C.R., Hovell, M.F., Sallis, J.F., 1990a. Social learning correlates of exercise self-efficacy: Early experiences with physical activity, Social Science and Medicine, 31, 1169-1176.]; [Hofstetter, C.R., Sallis, J.F., Hovell, M.F., 1990b. Some health dimensions of self-efficacy: Analysis of theoretical specificity, Social Science and Medicine, 31, 1051-1056.]; [Reynolds, K.D., Killen, J.D., Bryson, M.S., Maron, D.J., Taylor, C.B., Maccoby, N., Farquhar, J.W., 1990. Psychosocial predictors of physical activity in adolescents, Preventive Medicine, 19, 541-551.]; [Sallis, J.F., Pinski, R.B., Grossman, R.M., Patterson, T.L., Nader, P.R., 1988. The development of self-efficacy scales for health-related diet and exercise behaviors, Health Education Research, 3, 283-292.]) were adapted and original items were developed. The 20-item measure has a 5-point Likert format ranging from not at all confident (1) to very confident (5). An earlier pilot study of 200 secondary school students showed that the measure was free of social desirability. The data were derived from a survey of 1041 secondary school students from a Metropolitan Toronto board of education. Principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation of the data yielded two factors: self-efficacy to overcome external barriers and self-efficacy to overcome internal barriers. The 12-item external barriers subscale had a coefficient alpha of 0.88 and the 8-item internal barriers subscale had a coefficient alpha of 0.87. The subscales significantly correlated with the frequency of participation in vigorous physical activity. In summary, the results provide some support for the internal consistency reliability, construct validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity of the

  9. Microwave Spectra, Molecular Structures and Internal Dynamics of H2S...ICF3 and H2O...ICF3 Revealed by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, N. R.; Stephens, S. L.; Legon, A. C.

    2012-06-01

    The rotational spectra of three isotopologues of H2S...ICF3 and four isotopologues of H2O...ICF3 have been measured between 7 and 18.5 GHz by chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The rotational constant, B0, the centrifugal distortion constants, DJ and DJK, and the nuclear quadrupole coupling constant of 127I, χaa(I), are precisely determined for H2S...ICF3 and H2O...ICF3 by fitting observed transitions to the Hamiltonians appropriate to symmetric tops. The measured rotational constants allow determination of the molecular geometries. The C2 axis of H2O / H2S intersects the C3 axis of the CF3I sub-unit at the oxygen atom. The r0 lengths of halogen bonds identified between iodine and sulphur, r{(S...I)}, and iodine and oxygen, r(O...I), are determined to be 3.5589(2) A and 3.0517(18) A respectively. The angle, φ, between the local C2 axis of the H2S / H2O sub-unit and the C3 axis of CF3I is found to be 93.7(2)° in H2S...ICF3 and 34.4(20)° in H2O...ICF3. The observed symmetric top spectra imply nearly free internal precession of the C2 axis of the hydrogen sulphide/water unit about the C3 axis of CF3I in each of these complexes. Additional transitions of H216O...ICF3, D216O...ICF3 and H218O...ICF3 can only be assigned using Hamiltonians appropriate to asymmetric tops, suggesting that the effective rigid-rotor fits employed do not completely represent the internal dynamics of H2O...ICF3.

  10. Internal dose to active marrow and endosteum from radioactive iodine.

    PubMed

    Hoseinian-Azghadi, E; Rafat-Motavalli, L; Miri-Hakimabad, H

    2015-04-01

    This study analyses the active marrow and endosteum dose differences between the new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) male and female reference computational phantoms and the stylised phantom for two thyroid agents. The active marrow and endosteum doses from (131)I and (123)I were calculated for 0-55 % maximum thyroid uptakes using the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code. The biokinetic models were taken from ICRP Publication 53. To evaluate the absorbed doses to red marrow and endosteum, the deposited energy was determined for the 19 spongiosa regions and 6 medullary cavities and was mass weighted using the mass fractions available in ICRP Publication 116. The results were then compared with the published values given in ICRP Publication 53. The poor anatomic realism of the stylised phantom used in ICRP Publication 53 leads to important dose differences between the ICRP voxel phantoms and the stylised phantom. The influence of the use of different bone material was also investigated. Underestimations of ∼60% were observed for active marrow doses of the stylised phantom compared with reference voxel phantoms. The results highlight the importance of the accuracy of the shape and inter-organ distances of the anthropomorphic model used. PMID:25157198

  11. Rigorous description of an energy spectrum of the isopropanol molecule taking into account the internal rotation of methyl tops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenin, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    By using the group chain methods, a rigorous algebraic model is constructed to describe the energy spectrum of the isopropanol molecule (CH3)2CHOH with an allowance for the internal motion of hydroxil and two identical methyl tops. The model is rigorous in the sense that its correctness is limited only by the correctness of a symmetry chosen to describe internal dynamics of the molecule.

  12. The comparative analysis of the Earth seismic activity and the variation of the Earth rotation angular velocity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasorova, Elena; Levin, Boris

    2013-04-01

    It was shown [Levin, Sasorova 2012], that a cyclic increase and decrease of the seismic activity in different time intervals was observed in spatial-temporal distributions of the earthquakes (EQ) (1900-2012) with magnitude M≥7 in northwest part of the Pacific region. The spatial-temporal analysis revealed the periodic changing of the seismic activity and the depth distributions of the strong events in different time intervals. The Earth rotation angular velocity varies with time. Increasing of the angular velocity of a celestial body rotation leads to growth of oblateness of planet, and vice versa, the oblateness is decreasing with reducing of velocity of rotation. So, well-known effect of instability leads to small pulsations of the Earth surface. The Earth crust in polar areas is compressing with increasing of angular velocity of rotating planet, and it is extensible in the equator zone. The decreasing of rotation velocity leads to opposite result. The objectives of this work is the comparative spatial-temporal analysis of the seismicity regime variation (events with M>=7.0) on the whole Earth and in the Pacific region from 1900 up to date and the Earth rotation instability. The two subsets of the worldwide NEIC (USGS) catalog were used (USGS/NEIC from 1973 up to 2012 and Significant Worldwide Earthquakes (2150 B.C. - 1994 A.D.)). The preliminary standardization of magnitudes and removal of aftershocks was fulfilled for the first mentioned above subset of events. In both cases the entire range of observations was subdivided into several 5-year intervals. The temporal EQ distributions were calculated separately for six latitudinal intervals (belts): 45°-30°N, 30°-15°N, 15°-0°N, 0°-15°S, 15°-30°S, 30°-45°S. The high latitudes do not take in consideration because of very low seismic activity in these latitudes. Separately were analyzed: the EQs with M>=8 for time interval 1900-2012, and the EQs with M>=6 for time interval 1700-1900. The data base (http

  13. Neural Activation During Mental Rotation in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: The Influence of Sex Hormones and Sex Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    van Hemmen, Judy; Veltman, Dick J; Hoekzema, Elseline; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B; Bakker, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Sex hormones, androgens in particular, are hypothesized to play a key role in the sexual differentiation of the human brain. However, possible direct effects of the sex chromosomes, that is, XX or XY, have not been well studied in humans. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who have a 46,XY karyotype but a female phenotype due to a complete androgen resistance, enable us to study the separate effects of gonadal hormones versus sex chromosomes on neural sex differences. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 46,XY men (n = 30) and 46,XX women (n = 29) to 46,XY individuals with CAIS (n = 21) on a mental rotation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Previously reported sex differences in neural activation during mental rotation were replicated in the control groups, with control men showing more activation in the inferior parietal lobe than control women. Individuals with CAIS showed a female-like neural activation pattern in the parietal lobe, indicating feminization of the brain in CAIS. Furthermore, this first neuroimaging study in individuals with CAIS provides evidence that sex differences in regional brain function during mental rotation are most likely not directly driven by genetic sex, but rather reflect gonadal hormone exposure. PMID:25452569

  14. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  15. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  16. Microwave and ab initio studies of the internal rotation of ethylene in the Ar-ethylene and Ne-ethylene van der Waals complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaqian; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2003-10-01

    Rotational spectra of the weakly bound complexes Ar-ethylene and Ne-ethylene were measured with a pulsed molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer in the range from 3.5 to 26 GHz. Spectra of five isotopomers of Ar-ethylene, namely Ar-C2H4, Ar-13C2H4, Ar-C2D4, Ar-trans-1,2-C2D2H2, and Ar-cis-1,2-C2D2H2, and of eight isotopomers of Ne-ethylene, namely 20Ne-C2H4, 20Ne-C2D4, 20Ne-trans-1,2-C2D2H2, 20Ne-cis-1,2-C2D2H2, 22Ne-C2H4, 22Ne-C2D4, 22Ne-trans-1,2-C2D2H2, and 22Ne-cis-1,2-C2D2H2, were assigned and analyzed. The spectra are in accord with T-shaped, planar structures, where the rage gas atoms are located on the b-principal inertial axis of the ethylene monomer. For isotopomers containing C2H4, 13C2H4, C2D4, and trans-1,2-C2D2H2, all observed transitions are doubled due to an internal rotation motion of the ethylene subunit within the complexes. The observed transition intensities are in agreement with nuclear spin statistical weights obtained from molecular symmetry group analyses under the assumption of an internal rotation of the ethylene unit about the C=C bond, i.e., the out-of-plane motion. The observation of Ka=1, m=0 transitions in Ne-trans-1,2-C2D2H2 provides further proof that the out-of-plane motion is responsible for the observed tunneling splittings. Information about the energy level ordering of the Ka=1, m=0 and Ka=0, m=1 states was obtained from the rotational spectra of the Ne-trans-1,2-C2D2H2 isotopomers. Electronic structure calculations of Ne-C2H4 were done at the CCSD(T) level of theory with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for all atoms, supplemented with bond functions. The global minimum is at the T-shaped, planar configuration, with a distance of R=3.55 Å between the Ne atom and the center-of-mass of ethylene and a well depth of -81.5 cm-1. One-dimensional minimum potential energy paths for possible internal rotation motions were determined. The results confirm that the out-of-plane motion is the preferred internal motion. The out

  17. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the resulting reserve additions. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). Presented is summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. A discovery, as used in this publication, is a published estimate of the ultimately recoverable reserves for either a new field, reservoir, or well. Ultimate recovery is defined in this report as cumulative production plus remaining plus reserves. Discoveries are obtained from various oil industry periodicals and company annual or quarterly reports. The discoveries are not verified by EIA but simply restated in this publication. There are four tables and six figures showing oil production, oil and gas reserve additions, active rotary rigs, and crude oil prices. The data are presented by country, geographic region, or economic sector such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the Non-OPEC Market Economics (Non-OPEC ME), and the Centrally Planned Economies (CPE). A few of the more significant discoveries are discussed in this report, and their approximate locations are shown on three continental maps. The appendices list discoveries reported in industry periodicals and company reports, Petroconsultants oil and gas reserve additions, remaining oil and gas reserves, and a glossary of abbreviations. 19 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. International Reference Ionosphere (IRI): Task Force Activity 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, D.

    2000-01-01

    The annual IRI Task Force Activity was held at the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy from July 10 to July 14. The participants included J. Adeniyi (University of Ilorin, Nigeria), D. Bilitza (NSSDC/RITSS, USA), D. Buresova (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Republic), B. Forte (ICTP, Italy), R. Leitinger (University of Graz, Austria), B. Nava (ICTP, Italy), M. Mosert (University National Tucuman, Argentina), S. Pulinets (IZMIRAN, Russia), S. Radicella (ICTP, Italy), and B. Reinisch (University of Mass. Lowell, USA). The main topic of this Task Force Activity was the modeling of the topside ionosphere and the development of strategies for modeling of ionospheric variability. Each day during the workshop week the team debated a specific modeling problem in the morning during informal presentations and round table discussions of all participants. Ways of resolving the specific modeling problem were devised and tested in the afternoon in front of the computers of the ICTP Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory using ICTP s computer networks and internet access.

  19. Canadian Network for International Surgery: development activities and strategies.

    PubMed

    Lett, R

    2000-10-01

    The Canadian Network for International Surgery (CNIS) is a surgical development and research organization, whose objective is to reduce death and disability from surgical disorders in low income countries. The organization has 4 main activities: (1) the Essential Surgical Skills (ESS) program teaches surgery to general practitioners and is predicated on the assumption that there will not be enough surgeons in Africa in the foreseeable future and therefore nonsurgeons must do surgery; (2) the injury control program, which is predicated on the conclusion that the incidence of injury in Africa is unacceptably high, therefore injury prevention is an imperative surgical strategy; (3) the library project, which sends new and recent books and journals to the surgical libraries of our African partners; and (4) the members' projects, which encourage individual or organization members to use their own creativity in meeting CNIS objectives. The CNIS has direct activity in 4 African countries and presents its project check list as a means to help others succeed. Canadian surgical and allied specialists can help in the reduction of needless suffering by supporting the CNIS. PMID:11045098

  20. Active unsteady aerodynamic suppression of rotating stall in an incompressible flow centrifugal compressor with vaned diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, Patrick B.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to analyze the suppression of rotating stall in an incompressible flow centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser, thereby addressing the important need for centrifugal compressor rotating stall and surge control. In this model, the precursor to to instability is a weak rotating potential velocity perturbation in the inlet flow field that eventually develops into a finite disturbance. To suppress the growth of this potential disturbance, a rotating control vortical velocity disturbance is introduced into the impeller inlet flow. The effectiveness of this control is analyzed by matching the perturbation pressure in the compressor inlet and exit flow fields with a model for the unsteady behavior of the compressor. To demonstrate instability control, this model is then used to predict the control effectiveness for centrifugal compressor geometries based on a low speed research centrifugal compressor. These results indicate that reductions of 10 to 15 percent in the mean inlet flow coefficient at instability are possible with control waveforms of half the magnitude of the total disturbance at the inlet.

  1. Coarse-grained modeling of vesicle responses to active rotational nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2015-08-28

    In recent years, magnetically-driven-rotating superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been emerging as a valuable component in designing targeted drug delivery carriers and cellular killers via membranes' physical rupture. The lack of an in-depth understanding of how to control the interaction of rotational nanoparticles (RNPs) with vesicles has hindered progress in the development of their relevant biomedical applications. Here we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to analyze the rotation frequencies, size, and coating patterns of the RNPs as they interact with the vesicle so as to provide novel designs of drug delivery applications. Results have revealed that the RNPs are capable of triggering local disturbance around the vesicle and therefore promoting the vesicle translocation toward the RNPs. By investigating the translocation time and driving forces required for RNPs to enter inside the vesicle at various rotation frequencies as well as the interaction energy between coated RNPs and the vesicle, we have tuned the coating pattern of the ligands on the surface of RNPs to open a specified channel in the vesicle for promoting drug delivery. Our findings can provide useful guidelines for the molecular design of patterned RNPs for controllable bio/inorganic interfaces and help establish qualitative rules for the organization and optimization of ligands on the surface of the desired drug delivery carriers. PMID:26140682

  2. Coarse-grained modeling of vesicle responses to active rotational nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, magnetically-driven-rotating superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been emerging as a valuable component in designing targeted drug delivery carriers and cellular killers via membranes' physical rupture. The lack of an in-depth understanding of how to control the interaction of rotational nanoparticles (RNPs) with vesicles has hindered progress in the development of their relevant biomedical applications. Here we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to analyze the rotation frequencies, size, and coating patterns of the RNPs as they interact with the vesicle so as to provide novel designs of drug delivery applications. Results have revealed that the RNPs are capable of triggering local disturbance around the vesicle and therefore promoting the vesicle translocation toward the RNPs. By investigating the translocation time and driving forces required for RNPs to enter inside the vesicle at various rotation frequencies as well as the interaction energy between coated RNPs and the vesicle, we have tuned the coating pattern of the ligands on the surface of RNPs to open a specified channel in the vesicle for promoting drug delivery. Our findings can provide useful guidelines for the molecular design of patterned RNPs for controllable bio/inorganic interfaces and help establish qualitative rules for the organization and optimization of ligands on the surface of the desired drug delivery carriers.

  3. Long-term variations of the coronal rotation and solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. J.; Shi, X. J.; Feng, W.; Xie, J. L.; Gao, P. X.; Zhan, L. S.; Liang, H. F.

    2012-07-01

    Recently, Chandra and Vats have obtained the yearly period length of the solar coronal rotation cycle by analysing the daily adjusted solar radio flux at the 10.7-cm wavelength for the years 1947-2009. In this paper, we use the time series (series I) of the yearly period length to investigate the long-term variation of the rotation of radio emission corona, and we find a weak decreasing trend in the time series. We use the empirical mode decomposition to decompose both the yearly mean value (series II) of the solar radio flux at the 10.7-cm wavelength and series I into different periodical components. There is a secular trend for each of the two series, and we find a negative correlation in the two trends. The decomposed 11-yr-cycle components of the two series show different and complicated periods and there is a phase relation between them. We investigate the cycle-related variation of the coronal rotation length, and we find that there is no Schwable cycle of statistical significance for the long-term variation of the rotation cycle length.

  4. A Low Noise, Microprocessor-Controlled, Internally Digitizing Rotating-Vane Electric Field Mill for Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Podgorny, s. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Daskar, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a new generation of aircraft-based rotating-vane style electric field mills designed and built at NASA's Marshall Spaceflight Center. The mills have individual microprocessors that digitize the electric field signal at the mill and respond to commands from the data system computer. The mills are very sensitive (1 V/m per bit), have a wide dynamic range (115 dB), and are very low noise (+/-1 LSB). Mounted on an aircraft, these mills can measure fields from +/-1 V/m to +/-500 kV/m. Once-per-second commanding from the data collection computer to each mill allows for precise timing and synchronization. The mills can also be commanded to execute a self-calibration in flight, which is done periodically to monitor the status and health of each mill.

  5. 14 CFR 1213.109 - News releases concerning international activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false News releases concerning international... RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.109 News releases concerning international... another country or an international organization require prior coordination and approval by...

  6. 14 CFR 1213.109 - News releases concerning international activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false News releases concerning international... RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.109 News releases concerning international... another country or an international organization require prior coordination and approval by...

  7. 14 CFR 1213.109 - News releases concerning international activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true News releases concerning international... RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.109 News releases concerning international... another country or an international organization require prior coordination and approval by...

  8. 14 CFR 1213.109 - News releases concerning international activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false News releases concerning international... RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.109 News releases concerning international... another country or an international organization require prior coordination and approval by...

  9. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  10. Payload study activities on the International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Rando, N.; Lumb, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Puig, L.; Saavedra, G.; Bavdaz, M.; Gondoin, P.

    2010-07-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is an L class mission candidate within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency, with a planned launch by 2020. IXO is an international cooperative project, pursued by ESA, JAXA and NASA. By allowing astrophysical observations between 100 eV and 40 keV using a very large effective collecting area mirror and state-of-the art instruments, IXO would represent the new generation X-ray observatory, following the XMM-Newton, Astro-H and Chandra heritage. The IXO mission concept is based on a single aperture telescope with an external diameter of about 3.5 m and a focal length of 20 m. The focal plane consists of a fixed and a moveable instrument platform (FIP and MIP respectively). The model payload consists of a suite of five instruments which can each be located at the telescope's focus by the MIP, these are: 1. a wide field imager (WFI) based on a silicon DEPFET array; 2. a Hard-X-ray Imager (HXI), which will be integrated together with the WFI; 3. an X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer (XMS); 4. an X-ray Polarimeter camera (X-POL) based on a gas cell with integrated anode array; 5. a High-Time Resolution Spectrometer (HTRS) based on a silicon drift detector array. In addition, the FIP will carry a grating spectrometer (XGS) mounted in a fixed position and which will allow simultaneous observations with the on-axis instrument. This paper provides a summary of the preliminary results achieved during the assessment activities presently ongoing at ESA. Whereas we will provide a brief overview on the overall spacecraft design, we will focus on the payload description, characteristics, the technology used and the accommodation on the instrument platform.

  11. Usefulness of a Hanging Position With Internal Rotation of Shoulder in Ultrasonography-Guided Intra-articular Steroid Injection for Adhesive Capsulitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of a new position (internal rotation in hanging) in ultrasonography, we compared the length of the glenohumeral joint space and the effectiveness of steroid injection with the hanging position and with the commonly used abdomen or cross position. Methods A prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed in 42 patients with adhesive capsulitis of shoulder. We used three arm positions for the posterior approach as follows: the patient's palm on thigh, other hand on abdomen (abdomen position); hand on patient's opposite shoulder (cross position); arm in hanging position with internal rotation of shoulder (hanging position). The order of shoulder position was randomized and blinded. Real-time ultrasonography-guided intra-articular steroid injection was performed by posterior approach at the first position in each patient. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and range of motion (ROM) were measured before steroid injection and 2 weeks after injection. Results The lengths of the joint space were 2.88±0.75, 2.93±0.89, and 2.82±0.79 mm in abdomen, cross, and hanging position respectively, with no significant difference among the three positions (p=0.429). Treatment efficacy was significantly improved in ROM, total BPI, and SPADI in all three positions (p<0.001). The changes in ROM for shoulder abduction were 23.6°±19.7°, 22.2°±20.9°, and 10.0°±7.8° in abdomen, cross, and hanging position, respectively. Changes in total BPI scores were 25.1±15.7, 23.6.±18.0, 11.6±6.1, and changes in total SPADI score were 35.0±14.2, 30.9±28.9, and 16.5±10.3 in abdomen, cross, and hanging position, respectively. There were no significant difference among the three positions for all parameters (p=0.194, p=0.121, and p=0.108, respectively. Conclusion For patients with adhesive capsulitis who cannot achieve or maintain abdomen or cross position, scanning and injection with the shoulder in

  12. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have been raised concerning the extent to which international banking facilities may purchase (or sell)...

  13. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have been raised concerning the extent to which international banking facilities may purchase (or sell)...

  14. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have been raised concerning the extent to which international banking facilities may purchase (or sell)...

  15. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have been raised concerning the extent to which international banking facilities may purchase (or sell)...

  16. 14 CFR § 1213.109 - News releases concerning international activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false News releases concerning international... international activities. (a) Releases of information involving NASA activities, views, programs, or projects involving another country or an international organization require prior coordination and approval by...

  17. The distribution of temperature in an active region for a comet with known parameters of rotation and orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A. V.; Shulman, L. M.

    2005-06-01

    We calculated the temperature regime of an active region considered as a conical hole in dust layer. All the calculations are carried out for the case when the season effects are distinctly expressed. The temperature is defined from the geometrical parameters of the active region separately for ice bottom and dust walls. It is shown that dust walls are cooled very slowly for the small vertex angles of the crater structure. The temperature of the ice bottom practically does not change over the whole period of rotation, because it is retained at an approximately constant level by concentration of reradiated energy from the dust walls heated by the Sun.

  18. Effect of fluorination on methyl internal rotation barriers: Microwave spectra of cyclopropylfluoromethyl silane (c-C3H5SiHFCH3) and cyclopropyldifluoromethyl silane (c-C3H5SiF2CH3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorris, Rachel E.; Luce, Bailey C.; Stettner, Sarah J.; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.; Bullard, John L.; Bunn, James E.; Guirgis, Gamil A.

    2015-12-01

    Rotational spectra for two conformers of c-C3H5SiHFCH3 (cyclopropylfluoromethyl silane, CFMS) and one conformer of c-C3H5SiF2CH3 (cyclopropyldifluoromethyl silane, CDFMS) have been observed by a combination of chirped-pulse and resonant cavity Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy in the 7.5-16.5 GHz range. All rotational transitions were doubled by up to several megahertz into A and E states as a result of methyl group internal rotation, and analysis of measured transitions using a combined axis method yielded internal rotation barriers of ca. 6.0 kJ mol-1 for the two conformers of CFMS and ca. 5.2 kJ mol-1 for CDFMS, revealing a systematic decrease in the barrier as fluorine atoms are added to the silicon. Dipole moment information is also available for the CDFMS species.

  19. Single-layer-coated surfaces with linearized reflectance versus angle of incidence: application to passive and active silicon rotation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, R. M. A.; Howlader, M. M. K.; Georgiou, T. Y.

    1995-08-01

    A transparent or absorbing substrate can be coated with a transparent thin film to produce a linear reflectance-versus-angle-of-incidence response over a certain range of angles. Linearization at and near normal incidence is a special case that leads to a maximally flat response for p -polarized, s -polarized, or unpolarized light. For midrange and high-range linearization with moderate and high slopes, respectively, the best results are obtained when the incident light is s polarized. Application to a Si substrate that is coated with a SiO2 film leads to novel passive and active reflection rotation sensors. Experimental results and an error analysis of this rotation sensor are presented.

  20. Rotational spectroscopy of methyl benzoylformate and methyl mandelate: structure and internal dynamics of a model reactant and product of enantioselective reduction.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Elijah G; Poopari, Mohammad Reza; Xu, Yunjie; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2015-09-14

    Pure rotational spectra of a prototypical prochiral ester, methyl benzoylformate (MBF), and the product of its enantioselective reduction, (R)-(-)-methyl mandelate (MM), were measured in the range of 5-16 GHz, using a cavity-based molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. Potential conformers were located using density functional theory calculations, and one conformer of each species was identified experimentally. The minimum energy conformer of MBF, in which the ester group is in a Z orientation, was observed for the first time. Based on an atoms-in-molecules analysis, MBF contains a weak CH···O=C hydrogen bond between the carbonyl oxygen atom of the ester group and the nearest hydrogen atom of the aromatic ring. In the minimum energy conformer of MM, the ester group is oriented to accommodate a hydrogen bond between the hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl group and the carbonyl oxygen atom (OH···O=C), rather than the sp(3) oxygen atom (OH···O-C). For both species, splittings of the rotational transitions were observed, which are attributed to methyl internal rotation, and the orientations and barrier heights of the methyl tops were determined precisely. The barrier heights for MBF and MM are 4.60(2) and 4.54(3) kJ mol(-1), respectively, which are consistent with values predicted by high-level wavefunction-based calculations. On the basis of an atoms-in-molecules analysis, we propose that destabilization of the sp(3) oxygen atom of the ester group most directly dictates the barrier height. PMID:26234934

  1. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2015-02-01

    We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected during our survey for objects beyond the Kuiper Belt using the Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO 4 m telescope. We obtained broadband colors of 62412 at the Magellan Telescope, which, along with 62412's low albedo, suggests it is a C-type asteroid. 62412's orbital dynamics and color strongly correlate with the Hygiea family in the outer main belt, making it the first active asteroid known in this heavily populated family. We also find 62412 to have a very short rotation period of 3.33 ± 0.01 hours from a double-peaked light curve with a maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.45 ± 0.01 mag. We identify 62412 as the fastest known rotator of the Hygiea family and the nearby Themis family of similar composition, which contains several known main belt comets. The activity on 62412 was seen over one year after perihelion passage in its 5.6 year orbit. 62412 has the highest perihelion and one of the most circular orbits known for any active asteroid. The observed activity is probably linked to 62412's rapid rotation, which is near the critical period for break-up. The fast spin rate may also change the shape and shift material around 62412's surface, possibly exposing buried ice. Assuming 62412 is a strengthless rubble pile, we find the density of 62412 to be around 1500 kg m{sup −3}.

  2. Discovery and Characteristics of the Rapidly Rotating Active Asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the Main Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2015-02-01

    We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected during our survey for objects beyond the Kuiper Belt using the Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO 4 m telescope. We obtained broadband colors of 62412 at the Magellan Telescope, which, along with 62412's low albedo, suggests it is a C-type asteroid. 62412's orbital dynamics and color strongly correlate with the Hygiea family in the outer main belt, making it the first active asteroid known in this heavily populated family. We also find 62412 to have a very short rotation period of 3.33 ± 0.01 hours from a double-peaked light curve with a maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.45 ± 0.01 mag. We identify 62412 as the fastest known rotator of the Hygiea family and the nearby Themis family of similar composition, which contains several known main belt comets. The activity on 62412 was seen over one year after perihelion passage in its 5.6 year orbit. 62412 has the highest perihelion and one of the most circular orbits known for any active asteroid. The observed activity is probably linked to 62412's rapid rotation, which is near the critical period for break-up. The fast spin rate may also change the shape and shift material around 62412's surface, possibly exposing buried ice. Assuming 62412 is a strengthless rubble pile, we find the density of 62412 to be around 1500 kg m-3.

  3. High-resolution infrared spectrum of jet-cooled methyl acetate in the C=O stretching region: internal rotations of two inequivalent methyl tops.

    PubMed

    Sunahori, Fumie X; Borho, Nicole; Liu, Xunchen; Xu, Yunjie

    2011-12-21

    The jet-cooled high resolution infrared (IR) spectrum of methyl acetate (MA), CH(3)-C(=O)-O-CH(3), in the C=O fundamental band region was recorded by using a rapid scan IR laser spectrometer equipped with an astigmatic multipass cell. No high resolution IR analyses of the ro-vibrational transitions between the ground and non-torsionally excited vibrational states have hitherto been reported for molecules with two inequivalent methyl rotors. Because of the two chemically different methyl tops in MA, i.e., the acetyl -CH(3) and methoxy -CH(3), each rotational energy level is split into more than two torsional sublevels by internal rotations of these methyl groups. We were able to assign ro-vibrational transitions of four torsional species by using the ground state combination differences calculated from the molecular constants of the vibrational ground state recently determined by a global fit of the microwave and millimeter wave lines [M. Tudorie, I. Kleiner, J. T. Hougen, S. Melandri, L. W. Sutikdja, and W. Stahl, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 269, 211 (2011)]. The assigned lines were successfully fitted using the BELGI-Cs-IR program to an overall standard deviation which is comparable to the measurement accuracy. This study is also of interest in understanding the role of methyl rotors in the intramolecular vibrational-energy redistribution processes in mid-size organic molecules. PMID:22191878

  4. The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ): Materials & Processes (M&P) Lessons Learned for a Large, Rotating Spacecraft Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) utilizes two large rotating mechanisms, the solar alpha rotary joints (SARJs), as part of the solar arrays' alignment system for more efficient power generation. Each SARJ is a 10.3m circumference, nitrided 15-5PH steel race ring of triangular cross-section, with 12 sets of trundle bearing assemblies transferring load across the rolling joint. The SARJ mechanism rotates continuously and slowly - once every orbit, or every 90 minutes. In 2007, the starboard SARJ suffered a lubrication failure, resulting in severe damage (spalling) to one of the race ring surfaces. Extensive effort was conducted to prevent the port SARJ from suffering the same failure, and fortunately that effort was ultimately successful in also recovering the functionality of the starboard SARJ. The M&P engineering function was key in determining the cause of failure and the means for mechanism recovery. From a M&P lessons-learned perspective, observations are made concerning the original SARJ design parameters (boundary conditions), the perceived need for nitriding the race ring, the test conditions employed during qualification, the environmental controls used for the hardware preflight, and the lubrication robustness necessary for complex kinematic mechanisms expecting high-reliability and long-life.

  5. Barriers to Internal Rotation in β-Methyl-γ-Butyrolactone, 3-Methylcyclopentanone, and γ-Valerolactone from Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charro, M. Elena; Alonso, José L.

    1996-04-01

    The microwave spectrum of β-methyl-γ-butyrolactone has been analyzed using Stark modulation microwave spectroscopy in the frequency range 26.5-40 GHz. Spectra of the ground vibrational state and the first excited states of the ring bending, ring twisting, and methyl torsion have been assigned. The rotational constants are consistent with the molecule having a conformation similar to that of γ-butyrolactone, and with the methyl group occupying an equatorial position. A reinvestigation of the microwave spectrum of 3-methylcyclopentanone has led to a reassignment of the first excited states of the ring twisting and methyl torsion vibrations. Measurements have been made in the frequency range 8-18 GHz using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy on the ground vibrational state and the first excited state of the methyl torsion for β-methyl-γ-butyrolactone, 3-methylcyclopentanone, and γ-valerolactone in order to determine the barriers to internal rotation. No A-E splittings have been observed in the ground vibrational state. Analyses of A-E splittings in the first excited state of the methyl torsion using the IAM method give the following barrier heights (in kJ mol -1): for β-methyl-γ-butyrolactone V3= 17.2, for 3-methylcyclopentanone V3= 14.76, and for γ-valerolactone V3= 14.75.

  6. High-resolution infrared spectrum of jet-cooled methyl acetate in the C=O stretching region: Internal rotations of two inequivalent methyl tops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunahori, Fumie X.; Borho, Nicole; Liu, Xunchen; Xu, Yunjie

    2011-12-01

    The jet-cooled high resolution infrared (IR) spectrum of methyl acetate (MA), CH3-C(=O)-O-CH3, in the C=O fundamental band region was recorded by using a rapid scan IR laser spectrometer equipped with an astigmatic multipass cell. No high resolution IR analyses of the ro-vibrational transitions between the ground and non-torsionally excited vibrational states have hitherto been reported for molecules with two inequivalent methyl rotors. Because of the two chemically different methyl tops in MA, i.e., the acetyl -CH3 and methoxy -CH3, each rotational energy level is split into more than two torsional sublevels by internal rotations of these methyl groups. We were able to assign ro-vibrational transitions of four torsional species by using the ground state combination differences calculated from the molecular constants of the vibrational ground state recently determined by a global fit of the microwave and millimeter wave lines [M. Tudorie, I. Kleiner, J. T. Hougen, S. Melandri, L. W. Sutikdja, and W. Stahl, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 269, 211 (2011)]. The assigned lines were successfully fitted using the BELGI-Cs-IR program to an overall standard deviation which is comparable to the measurement accuracy. This study is also of interest in understanding the role of methyl rotors in the intramolecular vibrational-energy redistribution processes in mid-size organic molecules.

  7. Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhao, Youqun; Ji, Xuewu; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-03-01

    Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle's parameters' uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H ∞, µ synthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections: a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters' uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split- µ road are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H ∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle's parameters variations, H ∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H ∞ controller.

  8. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodroci, M. P.; Gafka, G. K.; Lutomski, M. G.; Maher, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk - given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Hazard Level- 4 [THL] materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years

  9. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forroci, Michael P.; Gafka, George K.; Lutomski, Michael G.; Maher, Jacilyn S.

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity hazard level-4 materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards). Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years to come.

  10. Internal Activation of Peptidyl Prolyl Thioesters in Native Chemical Ligation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yue; Qiu, Lingqi; Li, Yaohao; Li, Hongxing; Dong, Suwei

    2016-04-13

    Prolyl thioesters have shown significantly lower reactivities in native chemical ligation (NCL) in comparison to that of the alanyl thioester. This report describes a mild and efficient internal activation protocol of peptidyl prolyl thioesters in NCL without using any thiol-based additives, where the introduction of a 4-mercaptan substituent on the C-terminal proline significantly improves the reactivity of prolyl thioesters via the formation of a bicyclic thiolactone intermediate. The kinetic data indicate that the reaction rate is comparable to that of the reported data of alanyl thioesters, and the mechanistic studies suggest that the ligation of two peptide segments proceeds through an NCL-like pathway instead of a direct aminolysis, which ensures the chemoselectivity and compatibility of various amino acid side chains. This 4-mercaptoprolyl thioester-based protocol also allows an efficient one-pot ligation-desulfurization procedure. The utility of this method has been further demonstrated in the synthesis of a proline-rich region of Wilms tumor protein 1. PMID:26982082

  11. Chromospheric activity and rotation of FGK stars in the solar vicinity. An estimation of the radial velocity jitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Arnáiz, R.; Maldonado, J.; Montes, D.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.

    2010-09-01

    Context. Chromospheric activity produces both photometric and spectroscopic variations that can be mistaken as planets. Large spots crossing the stellar disc can produce planet-like periodic variations in the light curve of a star. These spots clearly affect the spectral line profiles, and their perturbations alter the line centroids creating a radial velocity jitter that might “contaminate” the variations induced by a planet. Precise chromospheric activity measurements are needed to estimate the activity-induced noise that should be expected for a given star. Aims: We obtain precise chromospheric activity measurements and projected rotational velocities for nearby (d ≤ 25 pc) cool (spectral types F to K) stars, to estimate their expected activity-related jitter. As a complementary objective, we attempt to obtain relationships between fluxes in different activity indicator lines, that permit a transformation of traditional activity indicators, i.e., Ca ii H & K lines, to others that hold noteworthy advantages. Methods: We used high resolution (~50 000) echelle optical spectra. Standard data reduction was performed using the IRAF echelle package. To determine the chromospheric emission of the stars in the sample, we used the spectral subtraction technique. We measured the equivalent widths of the chromospheric emission lines in the subtracted spectrum and transformed them into fluxes by applying empirical equivalent width and flux relationships. Rotational velocities were determined using the cross-correlation technique. To infer activity-related radial velocity (RV) jitter, we used empirical relationships between this jitter and the R'_HK index. Results: We measured chromospheric activity, as given by different indicators throughout the optical spectra, and projected rotational velocities for 371 nearby cool stars. We have built empirical relationships among the most important chromospheric emission lines. Finally, we used the measured chromospheric activity

  12. A path towards understanding the rotation-activity relation of M dwarfs with K2 mission, X-ray and UV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, B.; Damasso, M.; Scholz, A.; Matt, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    We study the relation between stellar rotation and magnetic activity for a sample of 134 bright, nearby M dwarfs observed in the Kepler Two-Wheel (K2) mission during campaigns C0 to C4. The K2 lightcurves yield photometrically derived rotation periods for 97 stars (79 of which without previous period measurement), as well as various measures for activity related to cool spots and flares. We find a clear difference between fast and slow rotators with a dividing line at a period of ˜10 d at which the activity level changes abruptly. All photometric diagnostics of activity (spot cycle amplitude, flare peak amplitude and residual variability after subtraction of spot and flare variations) display the same dichotomy, pointing to a quick transition between a high-activity mode for fast rotators and a low-activity mode for slow rotators. This unexplained behavior is reminiscent of a dynamo mode-change seen in numerical simulations that separates a dipolar from a multipolar regime. A substantial number of the fast rotators are visual binaries. A tentative explanation is accelerated disk evolution in binaries leading to higher initial rotation rates on the main-sequence and associated longer spin-down and activity lifetimes. We combine the K2 rotation periods with archival X-ray and UV data. X-ray, FUV and NUV detections are found for 26, 41, and 11 stars from our sample, respectively. Separating the fast from the slow rotators, we determine for the first time the X-ray saturation level separately for early- and for mid-M stars.

  13. Chromospheric activity and rotational modulation of the RS Canum Venaticorum binary V711 Tauri during 1998-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dongtao; Gu, Shenghong

    2015-05-01

    We present long-term high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the very active RS Canum Venaticorum-type star V711 Tau, obtained during several observing runs from 1998 to 2004, and study its chromospheric activity. Using the spectral subtraction technique, several optical chromospheric activity indicators [including the He I D3, Na I D1, D2, Hα and Ca II infrared triplet (IRT) lines] formed at different atmospheric heights are analysed. Strong chromospheric emission supports earlier results that indicate that V711 Tau is a very active system. Two large optical flares were detected during our observations. The results suggest that the main part of chromospheric emission is attributed to the primary star of the system. The secondary also presents weak emission but is less active. The ratios of EW8542/EW8498 indicate that Ca II IRT emission arises predominantly from plage-like regions. We have found rotational modulation of chromospheric activity in the Hα and Ca II IRT lines, which suggests the presence of the chromospheric active longitudes over the surface of V711 Tau. Two active longitudes separated by about 180° were observed to dominate the activity, and the so-called flip-flop phenomenon was seen during our observations. Moreover, the chromospheric activity level shows a long-term variation that gradually increases from a deep minimum near the year 2002. A close spatial connection of photospheric spots and chromospheric active regions in both short and long timescales was found for V711 Tau.

  14. X-RAY, FUV, AND UV OBSERVATIONS OF {alpha} CENTAURI B: DETERMINATION OF LONG-TERM MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLE AND ROTATION PERIOD

    SciTech Connect

    DeWarf, L. E.; Guinan, E. F.; Datin, K. M.

    2010-10-10

    Over the last couple of decades we have been carrying out a study of stellar magnetic activity, dynamos, atmospheric physics, and spectral irradiances from a sample of solar-type G0-5 V stars with different ages. One of the major goals of this program is to study the evolution of the Sun's X-ray through NUV spectral irradiances with age. Of particular interest is the determination of the young Sun's elevated levels of high-energy fluxes because of the critical roles that X-ray (coronal) through FUV (transition region (TR), chromospheric) emissions play on the photochemical and photoionization evolution (and possible erosion) of early, young planetary atmospheres and ionospheres. Motivated by the current exoplanetary search missions (such as Kepler and CoRoT, along with the planned Space Interferometry Mission and Darwin/Terrestrial Planet Finder missions) that are hunting for Earth-size planets in the habitable zones (liquid water) of nearby main-sequence G-M stars, we are expanding our program to cooler, less luminous, but very importantly, much more numerous main-sequence K-type stars, such as {alpha} Centauri B. The long life (2-3x longer than the Sun) and slow evolution of K stars provide nearly constant energy sources for possible hosted planets. This program parallels our 'Sun in Time' program, but extends the study to stars with deeper convective zone depths. Presented here are X-ray (coronal; ROSAT, Chandra, XMM-Newton), UV (TR; International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE)), NUV (chromospheric; IUE), and recently acquired FUV (TR/chromospheric; FUSE Cycles 7/8) observations of the K1 V star {alpha} Cen B (HD 128621; V = 1.33; (B - V) = +0.88; {tau} = 5.6 {+-} 0.6 Gyr). These combined high-energy measures provide a more complete look into the nature of {alpha} Cen B's magnetic activity and X-ray-UV radiances. We find that {alpha} Cen B has exhibited significant long-term variability in X-ray through NUV emission fluxes, indicating a solar-like long-term activity

  15. Large scale displacements and internal deformations of the Outer Western Carpathians during the Cenozoic as manifested in paleomagnetic rotations and in the magnetic fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Emö; Tokarski, Antek K.

    2016-04-01

    The paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy results interpreted in this presentation in terms of tectonics were obtained on the fine grained members, mostly mudstones/claystones, of the flysch from the Magura, the Silesian and the Dukla rootless nappes. The results are the best from the Upper Oligocene Krosno beds, which were affected by compression soon after deposition. These beds were available for sampling in the Silesian and Dukla nappes, but absent in the Magura nappe. Thus, in the latter older Paleogene strata were tested. A common feature of all sampled sediments is the low susceptibility (in the range of 10‑4 SI or lower), weak remanence and the presence of pyrite. AMS measurements point to quite strong and probably repeated deformation in the Magura nappe, and the remanence is of-post-folding age. The AMS of the Silesian and Dukla nappes indicate weaker deformation, the orientations of the AMS lineations reflect compression. The remanence is of pre-folding age in the western and central segments of the Silesian nappe and is a mixture of pre and post-folding magnetization in the eastern segment. All the so far mentioned areas must have been affected by about 60° CCW rotation which followed the internal deformation. The Dukla nappe also rotated in the CCW sense, but the angle is far from well-defined. This can be attributed to the complicated internal structure of the nappe (e.g. presence of olistoliths) and non-removable overprint magnetizations. The relationship between local tectonic strikes and AMS lineations seems to imply that the ductile deformation responsible for the AMS lineations were acquired first, and the map-scale structures came into being during the CCW rotation of the studied segment of the nappe. AARM measurements documented that the fabrics of the ferrimagnetic minerals are often different from the orientation of the AMS fabrics. In such cases, they either fail to define an ellipsoid or the general orientations of the maxima are

  16. Mental Arithmetic Activates Analogic Representations of Internally Generated Sums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallai, Arava Y.; Schunn, Christian D.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    The internal representation of numbers generated during calculation has received little attention. Much of the mathematics learning literature focuses on symbolic retrieval of math facts; in contrast, we critically test the hypothesis that internally generated numbers are represented analogically, using an approximate number system. In an fMRI…

  17. Gross Domestic Pizza. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaleskiene, Irena; Venger, Anatoly; MacDonald, Rich; Davis, Debbie

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate age level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subject areas; instructional objectives; time required…

  18. [Effects of rotation and fallowing on the microbial communities and enzyme activities in a solar greenhouse soil under continuous cucumber cropping].

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng-juan; Wu, Huan-tao; Wei, Min; Wang, Xiu-feng; Shi, Qing-hua

    2009-12-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of rotation and fallowing on the microbial communities and enzyme activities in a greenhouse soil continuously cropped with cucumber and on the growth and yield of followed cucumber. Comparing with continuous cropping, rotation improved the components of soil microbial communities, which was manifested in the increase of bacteria and actinomycetes and the decrease of fungi. Rotation and fallowing enhanced the activities of soil invertase, urease, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase significantly. The quantities of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the activity of soil invertase increased at the fruiting stage of cucumber plants, being the maximum at harvest stage, but decreased thereafter. In contrast, the quantity of soil fungi had a linear increase, and the activities of soil urease, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase decreased gradually during fruit development. Welsh onion and waxy maize promoted the growth and fruiting of the followed cucumber plants significantly, being the optimal rotation crops for cucumber. PMID:20353066

  19. Rotational periodicities in sunspot relative numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthasar, H.

    2007-08-01

    Context: The search for active longitudes on the Sun has a long history, and many controversial results have been published. Recently the question became more important when active longitudes were found on other stars. Aims: The aim of this paper is to investigate an integral measure of solar activity available for a long time interval and which allows enough frequency resolution for the investigation of active longitudes. Such a measure is given by the daily sunspot relative numbers. Methods: A search for periodicities is performed with a classical Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), with a wavelet analysis and with the tool of superimposed epochs. Results: The FFT yields a hump of power peaks near the synodic rotation period of 27 days, but only a very weak and insignificant enhancement around 13.5 days, indicating that the mean rotational variation of the sunspot numbers typically has one maximum and one minimum (overlaid by minor fluctuations). The wavelet analysis shows that spectral power for single periods varies for certain time intervals. A systematic drift during the solar activity cycle is not detected. Similar results are obtained from the superimposed epochs. Periodic “flip-flops” with time scales of a few years as for some stars are not found for the Sun in this investigation. Conclusions: Sunspots are not distributed equally over the longitudes; there is a more active and a less active hemisphere. The rotation period derived from the pattern varies over long time scales. The results found in this work are not in favor of an explanation of the variations due to a differential rotation law. The rotation of the sunspot distribution pattern might reflect the internal rotation of the Sun, but it better fits the range of highest rotation rates in the upper convection zone than the rotation near the tachocline. Figure [see full text] is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. School Counseling Intern Roles: Exploration of Activities and Comparison to the ASCA National Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuwerke, Wade C.; Bruinekool, R. Matthew; Lane, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 6,556 hours of school counselor interns' activity logs provided a detailed description of roles and activities. Comparison of counselor intern activities to the ASCA (2005) National Model found consistency between responsive services at the elementary level and both responsive services and guidance curriculum at the middle school…

  1. Excitation of the surface flute waves in electron cyclotron frequency range by internal rotating electron beam in a coaxial waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blednov, O.; Girka, I.; Girka, V.; Pavlenko, I.; Sydora, R.

    2014-12-01

    The initial stage of interaction between a gyrating beam of electrons, which move along Larmor orbits in a narrow gap between a cylindrical plasma layer and an internal screen of a metal coaxial waveguide and electromagnetic eigen waves, is studied theoretically. These waves are extraordinary polarized ones; they propagate along the azimuthal angle across an axial external steady magnetic field in the electron cyclotron frequency range. The numerical analysis shows that the excitation process is stable enough in respect to changing plasma waveguide parameters. The wider the plasma layer, the broader the range of plasma waveguide parameters within which effective wave excitation takes place. The main influence on the excitation of these modes is performed by the applied axial magnetic field, namely: its increase leads to an increase of growth rate and a broadening of the range of the waveguide parameters within which wave excitation is effective.

  2. ROTATING GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchini, P.; Varri, A. L.; Bertin, G.; Zocchi, A.

    2013-07-20

    Internal rotation is thought to play a major role in the dynamics of some globular clusters. However, in only a few cases has internal rotation been studied by the quantitative application of realistic and physically justified global models. Here, we present a dynamical analysis of the photometry and three-dimensional kinematics of {omega} Cen, 47 Tuc, and M15, by means of a recently introduced family of self-consistent axisymmetric rotating models. The three clusters, characterized by different relaxation conditions, show evidence of differential rotation and deviations from sphericity. The combination of line-of-sight velocities and proper motions allows us to determine their internal dynamics, predict their morphology, and estimate their dynamical distance. The well-relaxed cluster 47 Tuc is interpreted very well by our model; internal rotation is found to explain the observed morphology. For M15, we provide a global model in good agreement with the data, including the central behavior of the rotation profile and the shape of the ellipticity profile. For the partially relaxed cluster {omega} Cen, the selected model reproduces the complex three-dimensional kinematics; in particular, the observed anisotropy profile, characterized by a transition from isotropy to weakly radial anisotropy and then to tangential anisotropy in the outer parts. The discrepancy found for the steep central gradient in the observed line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile and for the ellipticity profile is ascribed to the condition of only partial relaxation of this cluster and the interplay between rotation and radial anisotropy.

  3. Intercostal muscles are used during rotation of the thorax in humans.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, W A; Ford, G T; Rimmer, K P; De Troyer, A

    1992-05-01

    To test the idea that the lateral intercostal muscles may be more suited to aid in rotational than respiratory movements of the thorax, we inserted bipolar fine-wire electrodes in external and internal intercostal muscles in the right midaxillary line in nine sitting subjects and examined the pattern of contraction of these muscles during voluntary axial rotations of the thorax (30-35 degrees), resting breathing, and CO2-induced hyperpnea. The right external intercostal muscles were strongly recruited in rotations to the left but were not active in rotations to the right. In contrast, the right internal intercostal muscles were active in rotations to the right but not in rotations to the left. Rotations completed in 1 or 2 s were associated with an early burst of electromyographic activity, followed by a low plateau that persisted while the rotation was held. Rotations made very gradually over 5-10 s were associated with gradually rising electromyographic activity. The amplitude of activity recorded during 30-35 degrees rotations was equivalent to that measured when minute ventilation was increased by CO2 to 50 l/min. We conclude that the lateral intercostal muscles have a major role in producing axial rotations of the thorax. PMID:1601803

  4. Internationalization as Mergers and Acquisitions: Senior International Officers' Entrepreneurial Strategies and Activities in Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Eric; Lee, Jenny J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the various emerging forms of internationalization and how senior international affairs officers describe their motivations and rationales for implementing these activities. Based on interviews with senior international officers at 30 international offices in U.S. public universities, this study identified and classified…

  5. Trends in ultracool dwarf magnetism. II. The inverse correlation between X-ray activity and rotation as evidence for a bimodal dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B. A.; Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E.

    2014-04-10

    Observations of magnetic activity indicators in solar-type stars exhibit a relationship with rotation with an increase until a 'saturation' level and a moderate decrease in activity in the very fastest rotators ('supersaturation'). While X-ray data have suggested that this relationship is strongly violated in ultracool dwarfs (UCDs; spectral type ≳M7), the limited number of X-ray detections has prevented firm conclusions. In this paper, we analyze the X-ray activity-rotation relation in 38 UCDs. Our sample represents the largest catalog of X-ray active UCDs to date, including seven new and four previously unpublished Chandra observations presented in a companion paper. We identify a substantial number of rapidly rotating UCDs with X-ray activity extending two orders of magnitude below the expected saturation level and measure a 'supersaturation'-type anticorrelation between rotation and X-ray activity. The scatter in UCD X-ray activity at a fixed rotation is ∼3 times larger than that in earlier-type stars. We discuss several mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the data, including centrifugal stripping of the corona, and find them to be inconsistent with the observed trends. Instead, we suggest that an additional parameter correlated with both X-ray activity and rotation is responsible for the observed effects. Building on the results of Zeeman-Doppler imaging of UCD magnetic fields and our companion study of radio/X-ray flux ratios, we argue that this parameter is the magnetic field topology, and that the large scatter in UCD X-ray fluxes reflects the presence of two dynamo modes that produce distinct topologies.

  6. Trends in Ultracool Dwarf Magnetism. II. The Inverse Correlation Between X-Ray Activity and Rotation as Evidence for a Bimodal Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. A.; Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E.

    2014-04-01

    Observations of magnetic activity indicators in solar-type stars exhibit a relationship with rotation with an increase until a "saturation" level and a moderate decrease in activity in the very fastest rotators ("supersaturation"). While X-ray data have suggested that this relationship is strongly violated in ultracool dwarfs (UCDs; spectral type gsimM7), the limited number of X-ray detections has prevented firm conclusions. In this paper, we analyze the X-ray activity-rotation relation in 38 UCDs. Our sample represents the largest catalog of X-ray active UCDs to date, including seven new and four previously unpublished Chandra observations presented in a companion paper. We identify a substantial number of rapidly rotating UCDs with X-ray activity extending two orders of magnitude below the expected saturation level and measure a "supersaturation"-type anticorrelation between rotation and X-ray activity. The scatter in UCD X-ray activity at a fixed rotation is ~3 times larger than that in earlier-type stars. We discuss several mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the data, including centrifugal stripping of the corona, and find them to be inconsistent with the observed trends. Instead, we suggest that an additional parameter correlated with both X-ray activity and rotation is responsible for the observed effects. Building on the results of Zeeman-Doppler imaging of UCD magnetic fields and our companion study of radio/X-ray flux ratios, we argue that this parameter is the magnetic field topology, and that the large scatter in UCD X-ray fluxes reflects the presence of two dynamo modes that produce distinct topologies.

  7. Enhancing International Research and Development-Project Activity on University Campuses: Insights from U.S. Senior International Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Peter H.; Deardorff, Darla K.; Bolognese, Kerry D.

    2011-01-01

    In the interconnected world of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, the ability of higher-education institutions to contribute to and benefit from international research undertakings, sustainable-development-project activity, and capacity-building endeavors requires transnational involvement. While the potential benefits are…

  8. Conformational stability, far-infrared spectra, barriers to internal rotation, vibrational assignment and RHF/STO - 3G* calculations of 1 -bromo- 2 -fluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durig, J. R.; Liu, Jian; Little, T. S.

    1991-08-01

    The far-IR spectrum (350-35 cm -1) of gaseous 1 -bromo-2-fluoroethane, BrCH 2CH 2F, has been recorded at a resolution of 0.10 cm -1. The fundamental asymmetric torsional frequencies of the more stable trans (two halogen atoms oriented trans) and high energy gauche conformers have been observed at 125.3 cm -1 and 111.3 cm -1, respectively, and the asymmetric torsional potential function governing internal rotation about the CC bond has been determined. This potential function gives values for the torsional potential coefficients of V 1=584±6, V 2=-147±4, V 3=1217±11, V 4=138±2, and V 4= -21+4 cm -1, and a dihedral angle (∠FCCBr) of 67°0 for the gauche conformer. The trans to gauche, gauche to gauche, and gauche to trans barriers have been determined to be 1356 cm -1, 1418 cm -1 and 973 cm -1, respectively, with an energy difference between the conformations of 383±21 cm -1 (1.09±10.06 kcal mol -1). From studies of the Raman spectra at variable temperatures the conformational energy difference has been determined to be 350 ± 87 cm -1 (1.00±0.25 kcal mol -1) with the trans more stable and 300±46cm -1 (0.86±0.13 kcal mol -1) with the gauche more stable for the gas and liquid, respectively. A complete assignment of the vibrational spectra including the IR (3500-400 cm') spectra of the gas and solid and the Raman (3200-10 cm -1) spectra of the gas, liquid and solid is proposed. The structural parameters, conformational stabilities, barriers to internal rotation and fundamental vibrational frequencies which have been determined from experiment, are compared to those obtained from ab initio Hartree-Fock gradient calculations and to the corresponding quantities obtained for some similar molecules.

  9. 31 CFR 585.213 - Exemption of activities related to certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of activities related to certain international organizations. 585.213 Section 585.213 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... related to certain international organizations. Any activities related to the United Nations...

  10. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. 204.122 Section 204.122 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have...

  11. 76 FR 30743 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... January 28, 2011 (76 FR 5212). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to the OMB, Office of...; Internal Fraud Activities ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the revised..., ``Internal Fraud Activities,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for...

  12. College Professors' and Instructors' Attitudes toward International Project Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryzhkova, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna process, the most successful European project in the field of higher education, calls for colleges and universities to take joint actions to create a unified European educational space. One possible way to accomplish this task is to implement international scientific research projects. In connection with this, it becomes necessary to…

  13. Range of motion and leg rotation affect electromyography activation levels of the superficial quadriceps muscles during leg extension.

    PubMed

    Signorile, Joseph F; Lew, Karen M; Stoutenberg, Mark; Pluchino, Alessandra; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun

    2014-09-01

    Leg extension (LE) is commonly used to strengthen the quadriceps muscles during training and rehabilitation. This study examined the effects of limb position (POS) and range of motion (ROM) on quadriceps electromyography (EMG) during 8 repetitions (REP) of LE. Twenty-four participants performed 8 LE REP at their 8 repetition maximum with lower limbs medially rotated (TI), laterally rotated (TO), and neutral (NEU). Each REP EMG was averaged over the first, middle, and final 0.524 rad ROM. For vastus medialis oblique (VMO), a REP × ROM interaction was detected (p < 0.02). The middle 0.524 rad produced significantly higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 6-8 and the final 0.524 rad produced higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 (p ≤ 0.05). For rectus femoris (RF), EMG activity increased across REP with TO generating the greatest activity (p < 0.001). For vastus lateralis (VL), EMG increased across REP (p < 0.001) with NEU and TO EMG increasing linearly throughout ROM and TI activity greatest during the middle 0.524 rad. We conclude that to target the VMO, the optimal ROM is the final 1.047 rad regardless of POS, while maximum EMG for the RF is generated using TO regardless of ROM. In contrast, the VL is maximally activated using TI over the first 1.047 rad ROM or in NEU over the final 0.524 rad ROM. PMID:25148303

  14. Range of motion and leg rotation affect EMG activation levels of the superficial quadriceps muscles during leg extension.

    PubMed

    Signorile, Joseph F; Lew, Karen; Stoutenberg, Mark; Pluchino, Alessandra; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun

    2014-06-30

    The leg extension (LE) is commonly used to strengthen the quadriceps muscles during training and rehabilitation. This study examined the effects of limb position (POS) and range of motion (ROM) on quadriceps electromyography (EMG) during 8 repetitions (REP) of LE. Twenty-four participants performed eight LE REP at their 8-repetition maximum with lower limbs medially rotated (TI), laterally rotated (TO), and neutral (NEU). Each REP EMG was averaged over the first, middle, and final 0.524 rad ROM. For vastus medialis oblique (VMO), a REP x ROM interaction was detected (p<0.02). The middle 0.524 rad produced significantly higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 6-8 and the final 0.524 rad produced higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 (p<0.05). For rectus femoris (RF), EMG activity increased across REP with TO generating the greatest activity (p<0.001). For vastus lateralis (VL), EMG increased across REP (p<0.001) with NEU and TO EMG increasing linearly throughout ROM, and TI activity greatest during the middle 0.524 rad. We conclude that to target the VMO the optimal ROM is the final 1.047 rad regardless of POS, while maximum EMG for the RF is generated using TO regardless of ROM. In contrast, the VL is maximally activated using TI over the first 1.047 rad ROM or in NEU over the final 0.524 rad ROM. PMID:24983846

  15. Summary of international guidelines for physical activity after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R; Mottola, Michelle F; Owe, Katrine M; Rousham, Emily K; Brown, Wendy J

    2014-07-01

    Postpartum physical activity can improve mood, maintain cardiorespiratory fitness, improve weight control, promote weight loss, and reduce depression and anxiety. This review summarizes current guidelines for postpartum physical activity worldwide. PubMed (MEDLINE) was searched for country-specific government and clinical guidelines on physical activity after pregnancy through the year 2013. Only the most recent guideline was included in the review. An abstraction form facilitated extraction of key details and helped to summarize results. Six guidelines were identified from 5 countries (Australia, Canada, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States). All guidelines were embedded within pregnancy-related physical activity recommendations. All provided physical activity advice related to breastfeeding and 3 remarked about physical activity after cesarean delivery. Recommended physical activities mentioned in the guidelines included aerobic (3/6), pelvic floor exercise (3/6), strengthening (2/6), stretching (2/6), and walking (2/6). None of the guidelines discussed sedentary behavior. The guidelines that were identified lacked specificity for physical activity. Greater clarity in guidelines would be more useful to both practitioners and the women they serve. Postpartum physical activity guidelines have the potential to assist women to initiate or resume physical activity after childbirth so that they can transition to meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Health care providers have a critical role in encouraging women to be active at this time, and the availability of more explicit guidelines may assist them to routinely include physical activity advice in their postpartum care. PMID:25112589

  16. International Approaches to Whole-of-School Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Jaimie; Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; Tammelin, Tuija; Pogorzelska, Malgorzata; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Increasing physical activity opportunities in schools has emerged as a global priority among school-aged youth. As a result, many countries have designed and implemented whole-of-school physical activity initiatives that seek to increase physical activity opportunities that are available to school-aged children before, during, and after school.…

  17. ROTATIONAL SPLITTING OF PULSATION MODES

    SciTech Connect

    Deupree, Robert G.; Beslin, Wilfried

    2010-10-01

    Mode splittings produced by uniform rotation and a particular form of differential rotation are computed for two-dimensional rotating 10 M{sub sun} zero-age main sequence stellar models. The change in the character of the mode splitting is traced as a function of uniform rotation rate, and it is found that only relatively slow rotation rates are required before the mode splitting becomes asymmetric about the azimuthally symmetric (m = 0) mode. Increased rotation produces a progressively altered pattern of the individual modes with respect to each other. Large mode splittings begin to overlap with the mode splittings produced by different radial and latitudinal modes at relatively low rotation rates. The mode-splitting pattern for the differentially rotating stars we model is different than that for uniformly rotating stars, making the mode splitting a possible discriminant of the internal angular momentum distribution if one assumes that the formidable challenge of mode identification can be overcome.

  18. Roles of divergent and rotational winds in the kinetic energy balance during intense convective activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Browning, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    Contributions of divergent and rotational wind components to the synoptic-scale kinetic energy balance are described using rawinsonde data at 3 and 6 h intervals from NASA's fourth Atmospheric Variability experiment. Two intense thunderstorm complexes occurred during the period. Energy budgets are described for the entire computational region and for limited volumes that enclosed storm-induced, upper level wind maxima located poleward of convection. Although small in magnitude, the divergent wind component played an important role in the cross-contour generation and horizontal flux divergence of kinetic energy. The importance of V(D) appears directly related to the presence and intensity of convection. Although K(D) usually comprised less than 10 percent of the total kinetic energy content, generation of kinetic energy by V(D) was a major factor in the creation of upper-level wind maxima to the north of the storm complexes. Omission of the divergent wind apparently would lead to serious misrepresentations of the energy balance. A random error analysis is presented to assess confidence limits in the various energy parameters.

  19. Electrically tunable hole g factor of an optically active quantum dot for fast spin rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prechtel, Jonathan H.; Maier, Franziska; Houel, Julien; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Loss, Daniel; Warburton, Richard J.

    2015-04-01

    We report a large g factor tunability of a single hole spin in an InGaAs quantum dot via an electric field. The magnetic field lies in the in-plane direction x , the direction required for a coherent hole spin. The electrical field lies along the growth direction z and is changed over a large range, 100 kV/cm. Both electron and hole g factors are determined by high resolution laser spectroscopy with resonance fluorescence detection. This, along with the low electrical-noise environment, gives very high quality experimental results. The hole g factor ghx depends linearly on the electric field Fz,d ghx/d Fz=(8.3 ±1.2 ) ×10-4 cm/kV, whereas the electron g factor gex is independent of electric field d gex/d Fz=(0.1 ±0.3 ) ×10-4 cm/kV (results averaged over a number of quantum dots). The dependence of ghx on Fz is well reproduced by a 4 ×4 k .p model demonstrating that the electric field sensitivity arises from a combination of soft hole confining potential, an In concentration gradient, and a strong dependence of material parameters on In concentration. The electric field sensitivity of the hole spin can be exploited for electrically driven hole spin rotations via the g tensor modulation technique and based on these results, a hole spin coupling as large as ˜1 GHz can be envisaged.

  20. Activity characteristics and movement patterns in people with and people without low back pain who participate in rotation-related sports

    PubMed Central

    Chimenti, Ruth L.; Scholtes, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Many risk factors have been identified as contributing to the development or persistence of low back pain (LBP). However, the juxtaposition of both high and low levels of physical activity being associated with LBP reflects the complexity of the relationship between a risk factor and LBP. Moreover, not everyone with an identified risk factor, such as a movement pattern of increased lumbopelvic rotation, has LBP. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine differences in activity level and movement patterns between people with and people without chronic or recurrent LBP who participate in rotation-related sports. Design Case Case-control study. Setting University laboratory environment. Participants 52 people with chronic or recurrent LBP and 25 people without LBP who all play a rotation-related sport. Main Outcome Measures Participants completed self-report measures including the Baecke Habitual Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire on rotation-related sports. A 3-dimensional motion-capture system was used to collect movement-pattern variables during 2 lower-limb-movement tests. Results Compared with people without LBP, people with LBP reported a greater difference between the sport subscore and an average work and leisure composite subscore on the Baecke Habitual Activity Questionnaire (F = 6.55, P = .01). There were no differences between groups in either rotation-related-sport participation or movement-pattern variables demonstrated during 2 lower-limb movement tests (P > .05 for all comparisons). Conclusions People with and people without LBP who regularly play a rotation-related sport differed in the amount and nature of activity participation but not in movement pattern variables. An imbalance between level of activity during sport and daily functions may contribute to the development or persistence of LBP in people who play a rotation-related sport. PMID:23295458

  1. The 27 day solar rotational effect on mesospheric nighttime OH and O3 observations induced by geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytterer, T.; Santee, M. L.; Sinnhuber, M.; Wang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Observations performed by the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on board the Aura satellite from 2004 to 2009 (2004 to 2014) were used to investigate the 27 day solar rotational cycle in mesospheric OH (O3) and the physical connection to geomagnetic activity. Data analysis was focused on nighttime measurements at geomagnetic latitudes connected to the outer radiation belts (55°N/S-75°N/S). The applied superposed epoch analysis reveals a distinct 27 day solar rotational signal in OH and O3 during winter in both hemispheres at altitudes >70 km. The OH response is positive and in-phase with the respective geomagnetic activity signal, lasting for 1-2 days. In contrast, the O3 feedback is negative, delayed by 1 day, and is present up to 4 days afterward. Largest OH (O3) peaks are found at ~75 km, exceeding the 95% significance level and the measurement noise of <2% (<0.5%), while reaching variations of +14% (-7%) with respect to their corresponding background. OH at 75 km is observed to respond to particle precipitation only after a certain threshold of geomagnetic activity is exceeded, depending on the respective OH background. The relation between OH and O3 at 75 km in both hemispheres is found to be nonlinear. In particular, OH has a strong impact on O3 for relatively weak geomagnetic disturbances and accompanying small absolute OH variations (<0.04 ppb). In contrast, catalytic O3 depletion is seen to slow down for stronger geomagnetic variations and OH anomalies (0.04-0.13 ppb), revealing small variations around -0.11 ppm.

  2. Effect of shoulder taping on maximum shoulder external and internal rotation range in uninjured and previously injured overhead athletes during a seated throw.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Jenny; Donnelly, Cyril; Hamner, Samuel; Dunne, James; Besier, Thor

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate whether shoulder taping affects shoulder kinematics in injured and previously injured overhead athletes during a seated throw. Twenty-six overhead college athletes threw a handball three times with and without tape, while seated on a chair. An 8-camera Vicon Motion Capture system recorded markers placed on the upper limb and trunk during each of the throwing conditions. Scaled musculoskeletal models of the upper limb were created using OpenSim and inverse kinematics used to obtain relevant joint angles. Shoulder taping had no main effect on external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation range (ROM) of the shoulder, but a significant interaction effect was found (p = 0.003 and 0.02, respectively), depending on previous injury status, whereby both the ER and IR ROM of the shoulder in the group of previously injured athletes decreased when taped (143-138° and 54-51°, respectively), but increased in the group who had never been injured (131-135° and 42-44°, respectively). Maximum abduction range and ball velocity were not affected by the application of shoulder taping, regardless of previous injury status. Thus, application of shoulder taping has a differential effect on maximum shoulder ER and IR ROM during throwing depending on previous injury status. These findings have implications for returning athletes to sport after injury and for screening athletes at risk of injury. PMID:21437968

  3. Rotational moulding.

    PubMed

    Crawford, R J; Kearns, M P

    2003-10-01

    Rotational moulding promises designers attractive economics and a low-pressure process. The benefits of rotational moulding are compared here with other manufacturing methods such as injection and blow moulding. PMID:14603714

  4. Rotating Vesta

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronomers combined 146 exposures taken by NASA's Hubble SpaceTelescope to make this 73-frame movie of the asteroid Vesta's rotation.Vesta completes a rotation every 5.34 hours.› Asteroid and...

  5. 77 FR 36984 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...This notice informs the public of the sanitary and phytosanitary standard-setting activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), in accordance with section 491 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979, as amended, and the Uruguay Round Agreements Act, Public Law 103-465, 108 Stat. 4809. This notice also provides a list of other standard-setting activities of Codex, including commodity......

  6. 75 FR 31749 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...This notice informs the public of the sanitary and phytosanitary standard-setting activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), in accordance with section 491 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979, as amended, and the Uruguay Round Agreements Act, Public Law 103-465, 108 Stat. 4809. This notice also provides a list of other standard-setting activities of Codex, including commodity......

  7. Proteorhodopsin Activation Is Modulated by Dynamic Changes in Internal Hydration.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Mertz, Blake

    2015-12-01

    Proteorhodopsin, a member of the microbial rhodopsin family, is a seven-transmembrane α-helical protein that functions as a light-driven proton pump. Understanding the proton-pumping mechanism of proteorhodopsin requires intimate knowledge of the proton transfer pathway via complex hydrogen-bonding networks formed by amino acid residues and internal water molecules. Here we conducted a series of microsecond time scale molecular dynamics simulations on both the dark state and the initial photoactivated state of blue proteorhodopsin to reveal the structural basis for proton transfer with respect to protein internal hydration. A complex series of dynamic hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules exists, facilitated by water channels and hydration sites within proteorhodopsin. High levels of hydration were discovered at each proton transfer site-the retinal binding pocket and proton uptake and release sites-underscoring the critical participation of water molecules in the proton-pumping mechanism. Water-bridged interactions and local water channels were also observed and can potentially mediate long-distance proton transfer between each site. The most significant phenomenon is after isomerization of retinal, an increase in water flux occurs that connects the proton release group, a conserved arginine residue, and the retinal binding pocket. Our results provide a detailed description of the internal hydration of the early photointermediates in the proteorhodopsin photocycle under alkaline pH conditions. These results lay the fundamental groundwork for understanding the intimate role that hydration plays in the structure-function relationship underlying the proteorhodopsin proton-pumping mechanism, as well as providing context for the relationship of hydration in proteorhodopsin to other microbial retinal proteins. PMID:26562497

  8. Linear and nonlinear Faraday rotations of light polarization in a four-level active-Raman-gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate linear and nonlinear Faraday effects in a room-temperature, coherently driven four-level active-Raman-gain (ARG) medium. By using the multiple-scale method, we derive two nonlinear coupled envelope equations governing the dynamics of left- and right-polarized components of a linearly polarized probe field. Under the weak probe field approximation, we demonstrate a factor of four increase of the Faraday rotation angle by the linear and nonlinear response of the ARG scheme without probe field loss. We further compare this ARG system with an M-type five-state electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) scheme and demonstrate the superiority of the ARG scheme over the conventional EIT scheme.

  9. Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Activity on Pt/C for Nafion-free, Thin, Uniform Films in Rotating Disk Electrode Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shinozaki, Kazuma; Pivovar, Bryan S.; Kocha, Shyam S.

    2013-01-01

    Commercially available nanoparticle platinum on high surface area carbon black (Pt/HSC) electrocatalysts were characterized in rotating disk electrode (RDE) setups using varying ink formulations and film drying techniques in an attempt to obtain thin, uniform films and reproducible activity. Electrodes prepared from Nafion-free inks that were dried under an isopropyl alcohol (IPA) atmosphere produced uniform, thin films at low electrocatalyst loadings of ~4.5 mg/cm2 Pt. These Nafion-free/IPA-dried electrodes were found to exhibit oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities higher than conventional Nafion-based/Air-dried electrodes by a factor of ~2.8. The magnitude of mass and specific activities were determined to be im ~771 ±56 mA/mgPt and is~812 ±59 mA/cm2Pt respectively and appear to be the highest values reported for RDE measurements on Pt/HSC in 0.1M HClO4 at 20 mV/s and 25°C. Electrochemical diagnostics including ORR I-V profiles, cyclic voltammograms and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies were conducted to investigate the thin film Pt/HSC electrodes and correlate results to film morphology and electrochemical activity.

  10. Effects of Stimulus Type and Strategy on Mental Rotation Network: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tomasino, Barbara; Gremese, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We can predict how an object would look like if we were to see it from different viewpoints. The brain network governing mental rotation (MR) has been studied using a variety of stimuli and tasks instructions. By using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis we tested whether different MR networks can be modulated by the type of stimulus (body vs. non-body parts) or by the type of tasks instructions (motor imagery-based vs. non-motor imagery-based MR instructions). Testing for the bodily and non-bodily stimulus axis revealed a bilateral sensorimotor activation for bodily-related as compared to non-bodily-related stimuli and a posterior right lateralized activation for non-bodily-related as compared to bodily-related stimuli. A top-down modulation of the network was exerted by the MR tasks instructions with a bilateral (preferentially sensorimotor left) network for motor imagery- vs. non-motor imagery-based MR instructions and the latter activating a preferentially posterior right occipito-temporal-parietal network. The present quantitative meta-analysis summarizes and amends previous descriptions of the brain network related to MR and shows how it is modulated by top-down and bottom-up experimental factors. PMID:26779003

  11. Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Belgian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) levels in Belgian adults were provided and compared to PA scores reported in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The representative sample (N = 1,239) of the Belgian population took on average 9,655 (4,526) steps/day. According to pedometer indices 58.4% were insufficiently active.…

  12. Temporal and spatial strategies in an active place avoidance task on Carousel: a study of effects of stability of arena rotation speed in rats

    PubMed Central

    Stuchlík, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    The active place avoidance task is a dry-arena task used to assess spatial navigation and memory in rodents. In this task, a subject is put on a rotating circular arena and avoids an invisible sector that is stable in relation to the room. Rotation of the arena means that the subject’s avoidance must be active, otherwise the subject will be moved in the to-be-avoided sector by the rotation of the arena and a slight electric shock will be administered. The present experiment explored the effect of variable arena rotation speed on the ability to avoid the to-be-avoided sector. Subjects in a group with variable arena rotation speed learned to avoid the sector with the same speed and attained the same avoidance ability as rats in a group with a stable arena rotation speed. Only a slight difference in preferred position within the room was found between the two groups. No difference was found between the two groups in the dark phase, where subjects could not use orientation cues in the room. Only one rat was able to learn the avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector in this phase. The results of the experiment suggest that idiothetic orientation and interval timing are not crucial for learning avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector. However, idiothetic orientation might be sufficient for avoiding the sector in the dark. PMID:26417540

  13. Temporal and spatial strategies in an active place avoidance task on Carousel: a study of effects of stability of arena rotation speed in rats.

    PubMed

    Bahník, Štěpán; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    The active place avoidance task is a dry-arena task used to assess spatial navigation and memory in rodents. In this task, a subject is put on a rotating circular arena and avoids an invisible sector that is stable in relation to the room. Rotation of the arena means that the subject's avoidance must be active, otherwise the subject will be moved in the to-be-avoided sector by the rotation of the arena and a slight electric shock will be administered. The present experiment explored the effect of variable arena rotation speed on the ability to avoid the to-be-avoided sector. Subjects in a group with variable arena rotation speed learned to avoid the sector with the same speed and attained the same avoidance ability as rats in a group with a stable arena rotation speed. Only a slight difference in preferred position within the room was found between the two groups. No difference was found between the two groups in the dark phase, where subjects could not use orientation cues in the room. Only one rat was able to learn the avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector in this phase. The results of the experiment suggest that idiothetic orientation and interval timing are not crucial for learning avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector. However, idiothetic orientation might be sufficient for avoiding the sector in the dark. PMID:26417540

  14. An Analysis of an Automatic Coolant Bypass in the International Space Station Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clanton, Stephen E.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A challenging part of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control design is the ability to incorporate design changes into an integrated system without negatively impacting performance. The challenge presents itself in that the typical ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consists of an integrated hardware/software system that provides active coolant resources to a variety of users. Software algorithms control the IATCS to specific temperatures, flow rates, and pressure differentials in order to meet the user-defined requirements. What may seem to be small design changes imposed on the system may in fact result in system instability or the temporary inability to meet user requirements. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the solution process and analyses used to implement one such design change that required the incorporation of an automatic coolant bypass in the ISS Node 2 element.

  15. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot. PMID:27134364

  16. Influence of crop rotation, intermediate crops, and organic fertilizers on the soil enzymatic activity and humus content in organic farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcinkeviciene, A.; Boguzas, V.; Balnyte, S.; Pupaliene, R.; Velicka, R.

    2013-02-01

    The influence of crop rotation systems with different portions of nitrogen-fixing crops, intermediate crops, and organic fertilizers on the enzymatic activity and humus content of soils in organic farming was studied. The highest activity of the urease and invertase enzymes was determined in the soil under the crop rotation with 43% nitrogen-fixing crops and with perennial grasses applied twice per rotation. The application of manure and the growing of intermediate crops for green fertilizers did not provide any significant increase in the content of humus. The activity of urease slightly correlated with the humus content ( r = 0.30 at the significance level of 0.05 and r = 0.39 at the significance level of 0.01).

  17. Continued activity in P/2013 P5 PANSTARRS. Unexpected comet, rotational break-up, or rubbing binary asteroid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainaut, O. R.; Boehnhardt, H.; Snodgrass, C.; Meech, K. J.; Deller, J.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Kuehrt, E.; Lowry, S. C.; Manfroid, J.; Micheli, M.; Mottola, S.; Opitom, C.; Vincent, J.-B.; Wainscoat, R.

    2014-03-01

    The object P/2013 P5 PANSTARRS was discovered in August 2013, displaying a cometary tail, but its orbital elements indicated that it was a typical member of the inner asteroid main belt. We monitored the object from 2013 August 30 until 2013 October 05 using the CFHT 3.6 m telescope (Mauna Kea, HI), the NTT (ESO, La Silla), the CA 1.23 m telescope (Calar Alto), the Perkins 1.8m (Lowell) and the 0.6 m TRAPPIST telescope (La Silla). We measured its nuclear radius to be r ≲ 0.25-0.29 km, and its colours g' - r' = 0.58 ± 0.05 and r' - i' = 0.23 ± 0.06, typical for an S-class asteroid, as expected for an object in the inner asteroid belt and in the vicinity of the Flora collisional family. We failed to detect any rotational light curve with an amplitude <0.05 mag and a double-peaked rotation period <20 h. The evolution of the tail during the observations was as expected from a dust tail. A detailed Finson-Probstein analysis of deep images acquired with the NTT in early September and with the CFHT in late September indicated that the object was active since at least late January 2013 until the time of the latest observations in 2013 September, with at least two peaks of activity around 2013 June 14 ± 10 d and 2013 July 22 ± 3 d. The changes of activity level and the activity peaks were extremely sharp and short, shorter than the temporal resolution of our observations (~1 d). The dust distribution was similar during these two events, with dust grains covering at least the 1-1000 μm range. The total mass ejected in grains <1 mm was estimated to be 3.0 × 106 kg and 2.6 × 107 kg around the two activity peaks. Rotational disruption cannot be ruled out as the cause of the dust ejection. We also propose that the components of a contact binary might gently rub and produce the observed emission. Volatile sublimation might also explain what appears as cometary activity over a period of 8 months. However, while main belt comets best explained by ice sublimation are found

  18. 48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses incorporating cross-waivers of liability for International Space Station activities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cross-waivers of liability for International Space Station activities and Science or Space Exploration... Station activities and Science or Space Exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station. (a) In contracts covering International Space Station activities, or Science or Space...

  19. 48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses incorporating cross-waivers of liability for International Space Station activities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cross-waivers of liability for International Space Station activities and Science or Space Exploration... Station activities and Science or Space Exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station. (a) In contracts covering International Space Station activities, or Science or Space...

  20. The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA): Overview of the Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkissian, A.; Gopala Krishna, B.; Crichton, D. J.; Beebe, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Arviset, C.; Di Capria, M. T.; Mickaelian, A. M.; IPDA

    2016-06-01

    An overview of activities of the IPDA is presented in the frame of the recently growing number of successful space experiments dedicated to planetary observation, with a significantly growing number of people involved in such activity and with significantly growing numbers of web services willing to share data and services in our research domain, but also, in close by domains such as astronomy, heliophysics and atmospheric sciences for the Earth. An overview of a number of space agencies and organizations is given. In total, IPDA consists of 13 national organizations: NASA (USA), CNES (France), ESA (Europe), STFC (UK), JAXA (Japan), ASI (Italy), ISRO (India), DLR (Germany), RKA (Russia), RCSA (China), FMI (Finland), ArSA (Armenia) and United Arab Emirates. Some projects of 2015 in frame of the IPDA activities are described.

  1. Management with willow short rotation coppice increase the functional gene diversity and functional activity of a heavy metal polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Xue, K; van Nostrand, J D; Vangronsveld, J; Witters, N; Janssen, J O; Kumpiene, J; Siebielec, G; Galazka, R; Giagnoni, L; Arenella, M; Zhou, J-Z; Renella, G

    2015-11-01

    We studied the microbial functional diversity, biochemical activity, heavy metals (HM) availability and soil toxicity of Cd, Pb and Zn contaminated soils, kept under grassland or short rotation coppice (SRC) to attenuate the risks associated with HM contamination and restore the soil ecological functions. Soil microbial functional diversity was analyzed by the GeoChip, a functional gene microarray containing probes for genes involved in nutrient cycling, metal resistance and stress response. Soil under SRC showed a higher abundance of microbial genes involved in C, N, P and S cycles and resistance to various HM, higher microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activity rates, and lower HM availability than the grassland soil. The linkages between functional genes of soil microbial communities and soil chemical properties, HM availability and biochemical activity were also investigated. Soil toxicity and N, P and Pb availability were important factors in shaping the microbial functional diversity, as determined by CCA. We concluded that in HM contaminated soils the microbial functional diversity was positively influenced by SRC management through the reduction of HM availability and soil toxicity increase of nutrient cycling. The presented results can be important in predicting the long term environmental sustainability of plant-based soil remediation. PMID:26183942

  2. Minimal model for spontaneous cell polarization and edge activity in oscillating, rotating and migrating cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynaud, Franck; Ambühl, Mark E.; Gabella, Chiara; Bornert, Alicia; Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B.

    2016-04-01

    How cells break symmetry and organize activity at their edges to move directionally is a fundamental question in cell biology. Physical models of cell motility commonly incorporate gradients of regulatory proteins and/or feedback from the motion itself to describe the polarization of this edge activity. These approaches, however, fail to explain cell behaviour before the onset of polarization. We use polarizing and moving fish epidermal cells as a model system to bridge the gap between cell behaviours before and after polarization. Our analysis suggests a novel and simple principle of self-organizing cell activity, in which local cell-edge dynamics depends on the distance from the cell centre, but not on the orientation with respect to the front-back axis. We validate this principle with a stochastic model that faithfully reproduces a range of cell-migration behaviours. Our findings indicate that spontaneous polarization, persistent motion and cell shape are emergent properties of the local cell-edge dynamics controlled by the distance from the cell centre.

  3. 31 CFR 560.539 - Official activities of certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or technology listed on the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR... international organizations. 560.539 Section 560.539 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... activities of certain international organizations. (a) General license. Except as provided in paragraph...

  4. English Activities in International Understanding Lessons in a Japanese Public Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoi-Yamaga, Naoko

    2010-01-01

    This study was an investigation of public elementary school students' affective changes through English Activities of international understanding lessons at Japanese public elementary school. The learners' expected affective changes were regarded as "International Posture", "Self-esteem", "Collective Self-esteem", and "Interest in Foreign Affairs"…

  5. Promoting Physical Activity among International Students in Higher Education: A Peer-Education Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    International students have become an important and growing group in U.S. higher education. Although many universities offer various types of support to international students, little attention is given to preventive health services or health promotion efforts, such as the promotion of physical activity. This article outlines a theory-based…

  6. On the similarity of 239Pu α-activity histograms when the angular velocities of the Earth diurnal rotation, orbital movement and rotation of collimators are equalized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnoll, S. E.; Rubinstein, I. A.; Shapovalov, S. N.; Tolokonnikova, A. A.; Shlektaryov, V. A.; Kolombet, V. A.; Kondrashova, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    It was shown earlier that the persistent "scatter" of results of measurements of any nature is determined by the diurnal and orbital movement of the Earth. The movement is accompanied by "macroscopic fluctuations" (MF)—regular, periodic changes in the shape of histograms, spectra of fluctuation amplitudes of the measured parameters. There are two near-daily periods ("sidereal", 1436 min; and "solar", 1440 min) and three yearly ones ("calendar", 365 average solar days; "tropical", 365 days 5 h and 48 min; and "sidereal", 365 days 6 h and 9 min). This periodicity was explained by the objects whose parameters are measured passing through the same spatial-temporal heterogeneities as the Earth rotates and shifts along its orbit.

  7. Black Educational Activism for Community Empowerment: International Leadership Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Camille; Johnson, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses themes emerging from studies of Black educational activism conducted in London, Toronto, and Detroit. An analysis of narrative data reveals that Black educational activists resist racism and other forms of oppression; act as border crossers and/or boundary spanners as they navigate complex community-based, institutional, and…

  8. Gross Activity of Children at Play. (Internal Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuellner, Lance

    Time-lapse photography was used to record the gross play activity of preschool children, rated according to three measures of equipment use and three measures of movement. The definition and derivation of these measures was outlined, and five hypotheses were presented and tested concerning the variability and interrelation of the measures.…

  9. Sequence Dance for Lifelong Leisure Activity: An International Experience!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John P.

    This paper provides the outline of a session in dance at the annual meeting of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. The purpose of the session was to provide an opportunity to celebrate individual differences while learning new skills for lifelong leisure activity through an English dance form known as…

  10. International Perspectives on Adapted Physical Activity. Selected Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity (5th, Toronto, Canada, October 1-4, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, Mavis E., Ed.; Ward, Graham R., Ed.

    The 36 papers in this book were presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity. Presentations document some of the research findings and new ideas in physical education and recreation programs designed to improve the quality of life for special populations. The collection represents the breadth of the field, from the…

  11. The molecular structure, conformation, potential to internal rotation and force field of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide as studied by gas electron diffraction and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundersen, Snefrid; Samdal, Svein; Seip, Ragnhild; Shorokhov, Dmitry J.; Strand, Tor G.

    1998-04-01

    2,2,2-Trifluoroacetamide (TFA) has been studied by electron diffraction (ED), ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT), and MP2 calculations. The calculations give one conformation with one of the CF bonds anti to the CO bond and a planar NH 2 group, except for MP2/6-311 + + G∗∗, which predicts a slightly pyramidale NH 2 group. A molecular force field has been determined, and the fundamental frequencies have tentatively been assigned. The refined structural parameters were determined using constrained ED, i.e. ab initio results are included as constraints in the analysis. The structural parameters are: rg(N-H 4) = 1.040(4), rg(CO) = 1.211(2), rg(C-N) = 1.362(4), rg = 1.562(1), rg(C-F 7) = 1.347(1), ∠ αOCN = 126.5(2), ∠ αCCN = 116.3(4), ∠ αCCF 7 = 111.9(1), and ∠ αCNH 4 = 118.5(11). Bond distances are in Å and bond angles in degrees. Uncertainties are one standard deviation from least squares refinement using a diagonal weight matrix and inclusion of the uncertainty in the electron wavelength. The structural parameters have been compared with related amides. The Fourier coefficients V3 and V6 in the potential to internal rotation of the CF 3 group, V(α) = 1/2∗V 3∗(1 - cos(3∗α)) + 1/2∗V 6∗(1 - cos(6∗α)) , are determined to be 2.7(4) and - 0.7(3) kJ/mol, respectively. The syn barrier is experimentally determined to be 2.6(4) kJ/mol, which is in good agreeent with theoretical calculations.

  12. Non-Exercise Estimation of VO[subscript 2]max Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) as well as sub-maximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO[subscript…

  13. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-26

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from international exploration and development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy and legislation. A discovery, as used in this publication, is a published estimate of the ultimately recoverable reserves for either a new field, reservoir, or well. This ultimate recovery is defined in this report as cumulative production plus remaining reserves. These discoveries are obtainable from various oil industry periodicals and company annual or quarterly reports. The discoveries are not verified by EIA but simply restated in this publication. The reported reserves do not necessarily follow the EIA definition of proved reserves. Each reserve entry follows the defining criteria of the originator. Not all discoveries are announced and not all announced discoveries are published. Some discoveries may be exaggerated or understand for political or other reasons. Therefore, the data in this report should be used with caution. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. 78 FR 23233 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IEPS International Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IEPS International Resource Information System (IRIS) AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE), Department of Education (ED). ACTION:...

  15. Report on the Status of the UFD Campaign International Activities in Disposal Research at SNL.

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Kevin A.

    2015-08-25

    The following summaries are provided as fulfillment of milestone M4FT-15SN0811021 and represent international collaboration activities in disposal research funded by the US DOE Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign during Fiscal Year 2015.

  16. 78 FR 38957 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Trends in International Mathematics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS): 2015 Recruitment and Field Test AGENCY: National Center for Education...

  17. Overview of the PPPL International Experimental Stellarator Collaboration Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, David

    2012-03-28

    PPPL has initiated and strengthened collaborative experimental programs aimed at developing the required toolsets and scientific knowledge for advancing stellarators as a viable fusion energy source. In particular, activities at LHD and W7-X, the two large superconducting helical confinement systems in the world, have been expanded. The focus at LHD has been on diagnostic development and data analysis, since the device is a mature research facility with more than 20MW of heating power available. High beta stability experiments, ion and electron temperature measurements using a recently installed imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer, and 3D equilibrium reconstructions will be described. The focus on W7-X has been to develop hardware capabilities for divertor heat flux control, including plasma-facing components, error field correction coils, and power supplies. Progress on these and other activities will be presented.

  18. Evaluation of dentin permeability after light activated internal dental bleaching.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Laise Daniela; Zanello Guerisoli, Danilo M; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Fröner, Izabel Cristina

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess quantitatively the dentin permeability of human teeth after intracoronal bleaching therapy with 35% hydrogen peroxide activated by LEDs, halogen lamp or using the walking bleach technique. Forty human maxillary central incisors had standard access cavities performed and the cervical thirds of the canals were prepared with Gates-Glidden drills up to a size 130. Roots were resected between the coronal and middle thirds and the apical portions were discarded. A glass ionomer, 2 mm thick cervical plug was placed inside the canal, at the cement-enamel junction level. Group I received 35% hydrogen peroxide gel activated by LEDs. Group II was submitted to 35% hydrogen peroxide gel activated by halogen lamp. Group III received 35% hydrogen peroxide gel and the walking bleach technique was followed. Group IV (control) received a dry cotton pellet inside the pulp chamber with temporary restoration. Dentinal permeability was quantified by copper ion penetration. Linear measurements were obtained by analysis of digital images under x 5 magnification. Mean values and SD for the experimental groups were: I, 7.1% (+/-3.2%); II, 8.4% (+/-3.0%); III, 9.1% (+/-3.0%); IV, 1.3% (+/-2.8%). One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the results. Results showed an increase of permeability values for groups I, II and III when compared to group IV (control); however, no statistical differences were found between the three tested bleaching techniques. It can be concluded that 35% hydrogen peroxide activated by LED, halogen lamp or used following the walking bleach technique produced similar increase in dentinal permeability. PMID:17227378

  19. Revisiting a possible relationship between solar activity and Earth rotation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarca del Rio, R.; Gambis, D.

    2011-10-01

    A variety of studies have searched to establish a possible relationship between the solar activity and earth variations (Danjon, 1958-1962; Challinor, 1971; Currie, 1980, Gambis, 1990). We are revisiting previous studies (Bourget et al, 1992, Abarca del Rio et al, 2003, Marris et al, 2004) concerning the possible relationship between solar activity variability and length of day (LOD) variations at decadal time scales. Assuming that changes in AAM for the entire atmosphere are accompanied by equal, but opposite, changes in the angular momentum of the earth it is possible to infer changes in LOD from global AAM time series, through the relation : delta (LOD) (ms) = 1.68 10^29 delta(AAM) (kgm2/s) (Rosen and Salstein, 1983), where δ(LOD) is given in milliseconds. Given the close relationship at seasonal to interannual time's scales between LOD and the Atmospheric Angular Momentum (AAM) (see Abarca del Rio et al., 2003) it is possible to infer from century long atmospheric simulations what may have been the variability in the associated LOD variability throughout the last century. In the absence of a homogeneous century long LOD time series, we take advantage of the recent atmospheric reanalyzes extending since 1871 (Compo, Whitaker and Sardeshmukh, 2006). The atmospheric data (winds) of these reanalyzes allow computing AAM up to the top of the atmosphere; though here only troposphere data (up to 100 hPa) was taken into account.

  20. Internal rotation, spin-orbit coupling, and low-frequency vibrations in the ? ground state of CH3-CC-CH+3 and CD3-CC-CD+3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacovella, Ugo; Gans, Bérenger; Merkt, Frédéric

    2015-08-01

    Pulsed-field-ionisation zero-kinetic-energy (PFI-ZEKE) photoelectron spectra of 2-butyne (CH3-CC-CH3) and its fully deuterated isotopomer have been recorded in the region of the origin band of the ? ionising transition. The spectral congestion originating from the combined effects of the internal rotation of the methyl groups, the spin-orbit coupling, and the Jahn-Teller effect prevented the full resolution of the rotational structure of the photoelectron spectra. A tentative analysis of the rotational branch structure of the photoelectron spectra using rovibronic photoionisation selection rules derived in the permutation-inversion spin double group G36(M2) suggests a splitting of ∼10.5 cm-1 between the two spin-orbit components E3/2 and E1/2 of the ? 2 E1 ground state and an almost free internal rotation of the methyl groups in the cations. Assignments are proposed for several low-lying vibrational levels of the cations.

  1. Rotational Spectrum of Sarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. R. Hight; Suenram, R. D.; Samuels, Alan; Jensen, James; Ellzy, Michael W.; Lochner, J. Michael; Zeroka, Daniel

    2001-05-01

    As part of an effort to examine the possibility of using molecular-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical warfare agents, we report the first observation and assignment of the rotational spectrum of the nerve agent Sarin (GB) (Methylphosphonofluoridic acid 1-methyl-ethyl ester, CAS #107-44-8) at frequencies between 10 and 22 GHz. Only one of the two low-energy conformers of this organophosphorus compound (C4H10FO2P) was observed in the rotationally cold (Trot<2 K) molecular beam. The experimental asymmetric-rotor ground-state rotational constants of this conformer are A=2874.0710(9) MHz, B=1168.5776(4) MHz, C=1056.3363(4) MHz (Type A standard uncertainties are given, i.e., 1σ), as obtained from a least-squares analysis of 74 a-, b-, and c-type rotational transitions. Several of the transitions are split into doublets due to the internal rotation of the methyl group attached to the phosphorus. The three-fold-symmetry barrier to internal rotation estimated from these splittings is 677.0(4) cm-1. Ab initio electronic structure calculations using Hartree-Fock, density functional, and Moller-Plesset perturbation theories have also been made. The structure of the lowest-energy conformer determined from a structural optimization at the MP2/6-311G** level of theory is consistent with our experimental findings.

  2. An Analysis of the Torsion-Rotation-Vibration Rotational Spectrum of the Lowest In-Plane Bend and First Excited Torsional State of the C(3V) Internal Rotor C2H5CN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.

    2000-01-01

    C2H5CN (Propionitrile or ethyl cyanide) is a well known interstellar species abundantly observed in hot cores during the onset of star formation. The onset of star formation generally results in elevated temperature, which thermally populates may low lying vibrational states such as the 206/cm in-plane bend and the 212/cm first excited torsional state in C2H5CN. Unfortunately, these two states are strongly coupled through a complex series of torsion-vibration-rotation interactions, which dominate the spectrum. In order to understand the details of these interactions and develop models capable of predicting unmeasured transitions for astronomical observations in C2H5CN and similar molecules, several thousand rotational transitions in the lowest excited in-plane bend and first excited torsional state have been recorded, assigned and analyzed. The analysis reveals very strong a- and b-type Coriolis interactions and a number of other smaller interactions and has a number of important implications for other C3V torsion-rotation-vibration systems. The relative importance and the physical origins of the coupling among the rotational, vibrational and torsional motions will be presented along with a full spectroscopic analysis and supporting astronomical observations.

  3. Earth Rotation Parameters from DSN VLBI: 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steppe, J. A.; Oliveau, S. H.; Sovers, O. J.

    1994-01-01

    In this report, Earth Rotation Parameter (ERP) estimates ahve been obtained from an analysis of Deep Space Network (DSN) VLBI data that directly aligns its celestial and terrestrial reference frames with those of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS).

  4. Dynamic Evolution of Active Region Flux Tubes in the Turbulent Convective Envelope of a Young Sun: Solar-like Fast Rotators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Maria A.; Brown, B. P.; Fan, Y.

    2012-05-01

    Our Sun rotated much more rapidly when it was younger, as is suggested by observations of rapidly rotating solar-like stars and the influence of the solar wind, which removes angular momentum from the Sun. By studying how flux emergence may have occurred on the young Sun, we are likely to learn more about the nature of the solar dynamo early in the Sun's history, as well as other solar-like stars. To investigate this, we embed a toroidal flux tube near the base of the convection zone of a rotating spherical shell of turbulent convection performed for solar-like stars that rotate 3, 5, and 10 times the current solar rate. Our objective is to understand how the convective flows of these fast rotators can influence the emergent properties of flux tubes which would rise to create active regions, or starspots, of a variety of magnetic flux strengths, magnetic fields, and initial latitudes. Flux tube properties we will discuss include rise times, latitude of emergence, and tilt angles of the emerging flux tube limbs with respect to the east-west direction. Also of interest is identifying the regimes where dynamics of the flux tube are convection dominated or magnetic buoyancy dominated, as well as attempting to identify active longitudes.

  5. Can Organized Youth Activities Protect Against Internalizing Problems Among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?

    PubMed

    Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-12-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and white youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during adolescence. We also examined the extent to which participation in organized activities protected youth against the internalizing consequences of domestic violence. We found that intensive participation in either afterschool programs or extracurricular activities was inversely associated with youth internalizing problems. Moreover, we found that intensive participation in afterschool programs weakened the association between parents' domestic violence and youths' internalizing problems. PMID:23162370

  6. Changes in the biological activity of chestnut soils upon the long-term application of fertilizers in a rotation with oil-bearing crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleshev, R. E.; Bakenova, Z. B.

    2012-11-01

    Experimental studies showed that irrigated chestnut soils on the piedmont of the Zailiiskiy Alatau Range are characterized by the moderate activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. The use of these soils in the crop rotation system increases the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes (invertase, urease, and ATP synthase) by 30% in comparison with the monoculture; at the same time, it does not have a significant impact on the changes in the biological activity of the redox enzymes (catalase and dehydrogenase). The hydrolytic activity of the soils is activated to a greater extent in the crop rotation and in the monoculture against the background application of organic fertilizers. In this case, the recommended rates of mineral fertilizers do not inhibit the activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. An increase in the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes directly affects the yield of oilseed flax. Therefore, indices of the hydrolytic activity of soils can be used as a test for the diagnostics of the efficiency of fertilizers both in crop rotation and monoculture systems.

  7. Health benefits of physical activity during pregnancy: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Lanay M; Owe, Katrine M; Mottola, Michelle F; Pivarnik, James M

    2013-02-01

    While early studies on the effects of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy were concerned about possible harm to the mother or fetus, these fears have not been substantiated. Instead, a growing body of literature has documented several health benefits related to pregnancy LTPA. The purpose of this article was to synthesize evidence from epidemiological studies conducted in the United States, Canada, and Scandinavia on the benefits of LTPA and exercise during pregnancy with regard to maternal health, pregnancy outcomes, and child health. We focused on studies evaluating relations between pregnancy LTPA and gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, excessive gestational weight gain, birth weight, timing of delivery, and child body composition. The bulk of evidence supports beneficial effects of pregnancy LTPA on each outcome; however, most previous studies have been observational and used self-reported LTPA at only one or two time points in pregnancy. Limitations of the current knowledge base and suggestions for future research on the health benefits of LTPA during pregnancy are provided. PMID:22895379

  8. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  9. Innovative Ideas for Coordinating International Space Activities: International Center for Space Medicine, International Space Authority, and other Global Youth Space Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Generation Forum SGF, at UNISPACE-III, as one of its ten formal recommendations to the United Nations in 1999, put forward the suggestion that the an international space authority should be created. Other recommendations were the establishment of an International Center for Space Medicine, creation of a global space exploration and development program, establishment of a global space (Nobel) prize, and a global space library. These projects are being further developed at the Space Generation Summit (SGS), an event at World Space Congress (WSC) which shall unite international students and young professionals to develop a youth vision and strategy for the peaceful uses of space. SGS, endorsed by the United Nations, will take place from October 11- 13th, during which the 200 delegates will discuss ongoing youth space activities, particularly those stemming from the UNISPACE-III/SGF and taken forward by the Space Generation Advisory Council. Delegates will address a variety of topics with the goal of devising new recommendations according to the theme, 'Accelerating Our Pace in Space'. The material presented here and in other technical sessions throughout WSC includes the findings of these discussions. In this paper, we present the International Space Authority idea together with recommendations on how that might be taken forward. The purpose of such an organization would be to allow: 1. Oversight and enforcement for the balanced regulation of multiple interests in space 2. Access for all peoples to the material benefits and knowledge and understanding enabled by the exploration and 3. Pooling of national and industry resources for the creation of space infrastructure, missions and enterprises for Operating principles: 1. The ISA regulatory regime would encourage commercialization and the harnessing of competitive market 2. Consistent with its charter to ensure access to all peoples, all UN member states and appropriate NGOs would 3. Close coordination with

  10. Rotating Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  11. Single-frequency pulsed Brillouin-thulium fiber laser at 2 µm with nonlinear polarization rotation and active phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiong; Lv, Haibin; Zhou, Pu; Wu, Weijun; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Liu, Zejin

    2014-10-01

    We present a single-frequency (SF) pulsed fiber laser at 2 µm based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a thulium-doped fiber laser. The effective feedback of the fiber laser is quite weak to induce pulse operation. Nonlinear polarization rotation and active phase modulation are employed to compress the pulse width and stabilize the pulse train. This SF pulsed Brillouin-thulium fiber laser (BTFL) can generate a stable pulse train with a repetition rate of ˜310 kHz and a pulse width of ˜200 ns. The repetition rate of the pulse train can be adjusted by controlling the cavity length, and the pulse width can be tuned between 200 and 500 ns. The central wavelength locates at 1971.58 nm with an optical signal-to-noise ratio of more than 40 dB, and the linewidth is about 6 MHz. This is the first demonstration of the SF pulsed BTFL as far as we know.

  12. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  13. Eye Openers: Handbook of International Teaching Activities. Some Borrowed...Some New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluegrass International Program, Lexington, KY.

    This collection of global activities and teaching strategies, suggested and used by teachers, helps to foster international education in the classroom. There are 32 separate proposals for learning activities, covering a variety of format styles, educational levels, and classroom procedures. Some examples include: (1) "Global ABC's" is a poem…

  14. A Decade of International Activities by U.S. Nurse Faculty: A Descriptive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Brigid; Lash, Ayhan Aytekin

    2002-01-01

    A study to assess scholarly activities of U.S. nursing faculty abroad from 1985-1995 resulted in descriptions of 805 visits to 109 countries by 247 scholars. Results showed that U.S. nurse faculty were involved in diverse and widespread international nursing activities. (Contains 25 references.) (JOW)

  15. Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits. International Society of Sport Psychology Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    International Society of Sport Psychology clarifies the psychological benefits of physical activity, noting the positive relationship between physical activity level and mental health. Exercise can reduce anxiety, decrease depression levels, reduce neuroticism and anxiety, reduce stress, and have beneficial emotional effects for both sexes across…

  16. US National Committee for the International Year of the Planet Earth: Plans and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    The International Year of the Planet Earth, as proclaimed by Resolution 60/192 of the United Nations General Assembly at its 60th Session, is a 3-year event (2007-2009) aimed at promoting the contribution to sustainable development of society by using geoscience knowledge and information. It is a joint initiative by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS and UNESCO. The US National Committee (USNC) for the International Year of the Planet Earth is responsible for developing national science and outreach activities that contribute to the success of the global awareness on the use of geosociety for society. The USNC plans for a launch activity early in 2008 and a national outreach activity in the fall. Various US based geoscience societies and federal agencies will be conducting IYPE branded activities in support of the year.

  17. Antagonistic activity of bacteria isolated from crops cultivated in a rotation system and a monoculture against Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Gorlach-Lira, K; Stefaniak, O

    2009-09-01

    The effect of crop rotation and monocropping on the occurrence of bacteria with antagonistic activity toward Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum was shown. Arthrobacter spp., fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and actinomycetes were isolated from winter rape, sugar beet and winter barley rhizosphere and bulk soil from the plots of a long-term crop rotation experiment (18 years). The occurrence of mycoantagonistic isolates and their antibiosis level exhibited specificity for the site, crop and crop rotation. Mycoantagonistic activity was common among actinomycetes and fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and less frequent among Arthrobacter spp. Antibiosis of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and Arthrobacter spp. was in general stronger against P. debaryanum than F. oxysporum. The highest percentage of antagonistic Pseudomonas spp. against P. debaryanum was in the plots of barley crop, while plots of winter rape showed higher frequency of antagonists against F. oxysporum. The highest antibiosis activity of Arthrobacter spp. against both pathogens occurred in isolates from barley and winter rape monoculture, and there were no F. oxysporum antagonists among these bacteria in sugar beet monoculture. Most of actinomycete isolates strongly inhibited growth of P. debaryanum and F. oxysporum. The percentage of mycoantagonistic actinomycetes and their antibiosis level were the highest in the 6-year crop rotation system. PMID:19937218

  18. Physics of Colloids in Space: Microgravity Experiment Launched, Installed, and Activated on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment is a Microgravity Fluids Physics investigation that is presently located in an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack on the International Space Station. PCS was launched to the International Space Station on April 19, 2001, activated on May 31, 2001, and will continue to operate about 90 hr per week through May 2002.

  19. [Determining the biological activity of levorin by the international standard of candicidin].

    PubMed

    Bo'lshakova, L O; Shenin, Iu D; Fradkova, T A; Ermolova, O B; Astanina, L N; Grigo'reva, V M

    1989-10-01

    Levorin and candicidin represent close mixtures of heptaenic components. Their physicochemical and biological properties were also close. The antibiotics showed similar diffusive properties in their assay by the agar diffusion method. This made it possible to determine activity of the Soviet levorin standard by the International candicidin standard. For defining the levorin unit in the international units of candicidin, a scaling ratio of 9 was proposed. PMID:2619403

  20. Chromospherically active stars. IX - HD 33798 = V390 Auirigae - A lithium-rich rapidly rotating single giant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Marschall, Laurence A.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of spectroscopic observations of HD 33798 obtained to determine if this star is a short-period binary and to examine its evolutionary status. Analysis of 40 radial velocities indicates no periodic velocity variations, suggesting that the star is single, so its rapid rotation is highly unusual. This rotation is inconsistent with the rotational brake hypothesis advanced by Gray (1989). It is proposed that HD 33798 is in a post-main-sequence phase of evolution. Its space motion is similar to FK Com, suggesting that it is a coalesced binary in the process of spinning down. Scenarios are presented to explain its large lithium abundance. A version in which material is transferred from a rapidly rotating core is suggested as the most likely.

  1. Supergranulation rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Jesper; Beck, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Simple convection models estimate the depth of supergranulation at approximately 15,000 km which suggests that supergranules should rotate at the rate of the plasma in the outer 2% of the Sun by radius. Previous measurements (Snodgrass & Ulrich, 1990; Beck & Schou, 2000) found that supergranules rotate significantly faster than this, with a size-dependent rotation rate. We expand on previous work and show that the torsional oscillation signal seen in the supergranules tracks that obtained for normal modes. We also find that the amplitudes and lifetimes of the supergranulation are size dependent.

  2. The role of rotational excitation in the activated dissociative chemisorption of vibrationally excited methane on Ni(100).

    PubMed

    Juurlink, L B; Smith, R R; Utz, A L

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the sticking probability of methane excited to v = 1 of the v3 antisymmetric C-H stretching vibration on a clean Ni(100) surface as a function of rotational state (J = 0, 1, 2 and 3) and have investigated the effect of Coriolis-mixing on reactivity. The data span a wide range of kinetic energies (9-49 kJ mol-1) and indicate that rotational excitation does not alter reactivity by more than a factor of two, even at low molecular speeds that allow for considerable rotation of the molecule during the interaction with the surface. In addition, rotation-induced Coriolis-splitting of the v3 mode into F+, F0 and F- states does not significantly affect the reactivity for J = 1 at 49 kJ mol-1 translational energy, even though the nuclear motions of these states differ. The lack of a pronounced rotational energy effect in methane dissociation on Ni(100) suggests that our previous results for (v = 1, v3, J = 2) are representative of all rovibrational sublevels of this vibrational mode. These experiments shed light on the relative importance of rotational hindering and dynamical steering mechanisms in the dissociative chemisorption on Ni(100) and guide future attempts to accurately model methane dissociation on nickel surfaces. PMID:11271989

  3. Four-colour photometry of EY Dra: A study of an ultra-fast rotating active dM1-2e star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Kovári, Zs.; Jurcsik, J.; Sódor, Á.; Váradi, M.; Belucz, B.; Dékány, I.; Hurta, Zs.; Nagy, I.; Posztobányi, K.

    2010-03-01

    We present more than 1000-day long photometry of EY Draconis in BV(RI)_C passbands. The changes in the light curve are caused by the spottedness of the rotating surface. Modelling of the spotted surface shows that there are two large active regions present on the star on the opposite hemispheres. The evolution of the surface patterns suggests a flip-flop phenomenon. Using Fourier analysis, we detect a rotation period of P_rot=0.45875 d, and an activity cycle with P≈350 d, similar to the 11-year long cycle of the Sun. This cycle with its year-long period is the shortest one ever detected on active stars. Two bright flares are also detected and analysed.

  4. Solar rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W.

    Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.

  5. Rotational aerophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N. H.; Tarnopolsky, A. Z.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2002-03-01

    Free rotational aerophones such as the bullroarer, which consists of a wooden slat whirled around on the end of a string, and which emits a loud pulsating roar, have been used in many ancient and traditional societies for ceremonial purposes. This article presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of this instrument. The aerodynamics of rotational behavior is elucidated, and relates slat rotation frequency to slat width and velocity through the air. Analysis shows that sound production is due to generation of an oscillating-rotating dipole across the slat, the role of the vortices shed by the slat being relatively minor. Apparent discrepancies between the behavior of a bullroarer slat and a slat mounted on an axle in a wind tunnel are shown to be due to viscous friction in the bearings of the wind-tunnel experiment.

  6. A high-resolution spectroscopic survey of late-type stars: chromospheric activity, rotation, kinematics, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Santiago, J.; Montes, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Crespo-Chacón, I.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R. M.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.; de Castro, E.; Cornide, M.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: We present a compilation of spectroscopic data from a survey of 144 chromospherically active young stars in the solar neighborhood, which may be used to investigate different aspects of its formation and evolution in terms of kinematics and stellar formation history. The data have already been used by us in several studies. With this paper, we make all these data accessible to the scientific community for future studies on different topics. Methods: We performed spectroscopic observations with echelle spectrographs to cover the entirety of the optical spectral range simultaneously. Standard data reduction was performed with the IRAF echelle package. We applied the spectral subtraction technique to reveal chromospheric emission in the stars of the sample. The equivalent width of chromospheric emission lines was measured in the subtracted spectra and then converted to fluxes using equivalent width-flux relationships. Radial and rotational velocities were determined by the cross-correlation technique. Kinematics, equivalent widths of the lithium line λ6707.8 Å and spectral types were also determined. Results: A catalog of spectroscopic data is compiled: radial and rotational velocities, space motion, equivalent widths of optical chromospheric activity indicators from Ca II H & K to the calcium infrared triplet and the lithium line in λ6708 Å. Fluxes in the chromospheric emission lines and R'_HK are also determined for each observation of a star in the sample. We used these data to investigate the emission levels of our stars. The study of the Hα emission line revealed two different populations of chromospheric emitters in the sample, clearly separated in the logFHα/Fbol - (V-J) diagram. The dichotomy may be associated with the age of the stars. Based on observations made with the 2.2 m telescope of the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, and the Spanish

  7. International Year of Planet Earth - Accomplishments, Activities, Challenges and Plans in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Alaniz-Alvarez, S.

    2009-12-01

    The International Year of Planet Earth started as a joint initiative by UNESCO and IUGS with the participation of several geosciences organizations, and developed into a major international geosciences program for the triennium 2007-2009, with the inclusion and participation of national and regional committees. In this presentation we focus on current activities and plans in our country and the participation in international activities. Mexican community has been part of international programs since the International Geophysical Year, continuing through its participation in other programs, e.g., Upper Mantle, Geodynamics, Lithosphere, IHY, IPY and eGY. IYPE activities have concentrated in publications, OneGeology, radio/TV programs, organization of conferences, meetings and outreach events. A book series on Earth Science Experiments for Children has been edited, with first books published on “Atmospheric Pressure and Free Fall of Objects”, “Light and Colors”, “Standing on Archimedes”, “Foucault and Climate” and “Earth and its Waves “. Books are distributed to schools, with tens of thousand copies distributed nationwide and new editions underway. Other publications include leaflets, books and special El Faro issues (edited by the National University) and articles in other journals. In 2007 the AGU Joint Assembly with international participation from US, Canada, Europe and Latin America was held in Acapulco. Current plans include an electronic open-access journal, additional publications of the Planet Earth series, articles and special issues in journals and magazines, plus events on selected themes from the IYPE science program, particularly on Megacities, Hazards, Resources and Biodiversity. Mexico City metropolitan area, with > 22 million inhabitants presents special challenges, being at high altitude within an active tectonic and volcanic area requiring major efforts in water supply, water control, rains and waste disposal and management

  8. Rotational Velocities and Chromospheric/Coronal Activity of Low-Mass Stars in the Young Open Clusters IC 2391 and IC 2602

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, John R.; Hartmann, Lee W.; Prosser, Charles F.; Randich, Sofia; Balachandran, Suchitra; Patten, Brian M.; Simon, Theodore; Giampapa, Mark

    1997-04-01

    coronal activity as is found in several other young open clusters. That is, there is a large spread in coronal activity for stars with v sin i < 25 km s-1, where we assume there is an intrinsic link between increasing rotation and increasing activity superimposed upon which are a variety of observational and physical mechanisms that act to smear out this relation; above v sin i ~ 25 km s-1, all of the low-mass stars have log (LX/Lbol) ~ -3.0, the canonical ``saturation'' limit. Our measurements of the Hα equivalent widths are consistent with a similar relationship holding for chromospheric activity. One and possibly two of our spectra for M dwarf members of the IC clusters show broad wings for the Hα profile, which we attribute to a flare event or to microflares. Since spectra of a small sample of late-type M dwarfs in the Pleiades also showed similarly broad Hα wings, this suggests that flare frequencies for very young M dwarfs may be quite high.

  9. What Lies Beneath: Antibody Dependent Natural Killer Cell Activation by Antibodies to Internal Influenza Virus Proteins.

    PubMed

    Vanderven, Hillary A; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Rockman, Steven; Laurie, Karen; Barr, Ian; Chen, Weisan; Wines, Bruce; Hogarth, P Mark; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C; Parsons, Matthew S; Kent, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    The conserved internal influenza proteins nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 (M1) are well characterised for T cell immunity, but whether they also elicit functional antibodies capable of activating natural killer (NK) cells has not been explored. We studied NP and M1-specific ADCC activity using biochemical, NK cell activation and killing assays with plasma from healthy and influenza-infected subjects. Healthy adults had antibodies to M1 and NP capable of binding dimeric FcγRIIIa and activating NK cells. Natural symptomatic and experimental influenza infections resulted in a rise in antibody dependent NK cell activation post-infection to the hemagglutinin of the infecting strain, but changes in NK cell activation to M1 and NP were variable. Although antibody dependent killing of target cells infected with vaccinia viruses expressing internal influenza proteins was not detected, opsonising antibodies to NP and M1 likely contribute to an antiviral microenvironment by stimulating innate immune cells to secrete cytokines early in infection. We conclude that effector cell activating antibodies to conserved internal influenza proteins are common in healthy and influenza-infected adults. Given the significance of such antibodies in animal models of heterologous influenza infection, the definition of their importance and mechanism of action in human immunity to influenza is essential. PMID:27428437

  10. Rotational modulation of the photospheric and chromospheric activity in the young, single K2-dwarf PW And

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Santiago, J.; Montes, D.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.; Ramsey, L. W.

    2003-12-01

    High resolution echelle spectra of PW And (HD 1405) have been taken during eight observing runs from 1999 to 2002. The detailed analysis of the spectra allow us to determine its spectral type (K2V), mean heliocentric radial velocity (Vhel = -11.15 km s-1) rotational velocity (vsin i = 22.6 km s-1), and equivalent width of the lithium line lambda 6707.8 Å (EW(Li I) = 273 mÅ). The kinematic (Galactic Velocity (U,V,W)) confirms its membership in the Local Association moving group, in agreement with the age (30 to 80 Myrs) inferred from the color magnitude diagram and the lithium equivalent width. Photospheric activity (presence of cool spots that disturb the profiles of the photospheric lines) has been detected as changes in the bisectors of the cross correlation function (CCF) resulting of cross-correlate the spectra of PW And with the spectrum of a non-active star of similar spectral type. These variations of the CCF bisectors are related to the variations in the measured radial velocities and are modulated with a period similar to the photometric period of the star. At the same time, chromospheric activity has been analyzed, using the spectral subtraction technique and simultaneous spectroscopic observations of the Hα , Hβ , Na I D1 and D2, He I D3, Mg I b triplet, Ca II H&K, and Ca II infrared triplet lines. A flare was observed during the last observing run of 2001, showing an enhancement in the observed chromospheric lines. A less powerful flare was observed on 2002 August 23. The variations of the chromospheric activity indicators seem to be related to the photospheric activity. A correlation between radial velocity, changes in the CCF bisectors and equivalent width of different chromospheric lines is observed with a different behaviour between epochs 1999, 2001 and 2002. Based on observations made with the 2.2 m telescope of the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated by the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg

  11. Motion sickness and gastric myoelectric activity as a function of speed of rotation of a circular vection drum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Senqi; Stern, Robert M.; Vasey, Michael W.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and electrogastrograms (EGGs) were obtained from 60 healthy subjects while they viewed an optokinetic drum rotated at one of four speeds: 15, 30, 60 or 90 deg/s. All subjects experienced vection, illusory self-motion. Motion sickness symptoms increased as drums speed increased up to 60 deg/s. Power, spectral intensity, of the EGG at the tachygastria frequencies (4-9 cpm) was calculated at each drum rotation speed. The correlation between the motion sickness symptoms and the power at 4-9 cpm was significant. Thus, drum rotation speed influenced the spectral power of the EGG at 4-9 cpm, tachygastria, and the intensity of motion sickness symptoms.

  12. Surface velocity network with anti-solar differential rotation on the active K-giant σ Geminorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovári, Zs.; Bartus, J.; Švanda, M.; Vida, K.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Oláh, K.; Forgács-Dajka, E.

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate the power of the local correlation tracking technique on stellar data for the first time. We recover the spot migration pattern of the long-period RS CVn-type binary σ Gem from a set of six Doppler images from 3.6 consecutive rotation cycles. The resulting surface flow map suggests a weak anti-solar differential rotation with {α≈-0.0022±0.0016}, and a coherent poleward spot migration with an average velocity of 220±10 m s-1. This result agrees with our recent findings from another study and could also be confirmed theoretically.

  13. Technical Consultation of the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Cooling Water Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Rotter, Hank A.; Easton, Myriam; Lince, Jeffrey; Park, Woonsup; Stewart, Thomas; Speckman, Donna; Dexter, Stephen; Kelly, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) coolant exhibited unexpected chemical changes during the first year of on-orbit operation following the launch and activation in February 2001. The coolant pH dropped from 9.3 to below the minimum specification limit of 9.0, and re-equilibrated between 8.3 and 8.5. This drop in coolant pH was shown to be the result of permeation of CO2 from the cabin into the coolant via Teflon flexible hoses which created carbonic acid in the fluid. This unexpected diffusion was the result of having a cabin CO2 partial pressure higher than the ground partial pressure (average 4.0 mmHg vs. less than 0.2 mmHg). This drop in pH was followed by a concurrent increasing coolant nickel concentration. No other metal ions were observed in the coolant and based on previous tests, the source of nickel ion was thought to be the boron nickel (BNi) braze intermetallics used in the construction of HXs and cold plates. Specifically, BNi2 braze alloy was used for the IATCS IFHX and BNi3 braze alloy was used for the IATCS Airlock Servicing and Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) HX and cold plates. Given the failure criticality of the HXs, a Corrosion Team was established by the IATCS CWG to determine the impact of the nickel corrosion on hardware performance life.

  14. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  15. 42 CFR 460.136 - Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities. 460.136 Section 460.136 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE...

  16. Inventory of Federal Programs Involving Educational Activities Concerned with Improving International Understanding and Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Janice M.; Hohman, David E.

    This inventory contains the results of a survey of all Federal programs for fiscal years 1966, 1967, and 1968 that included educational activities aimed at improving international understanding and cooperation. A total of 159 such programs were reported by 31 responding Federal agencies. This inventory contains the following information for each…

  17. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (78 FR 4383, 1-22-2013). The FTZ Board has... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX On January 10, 2013, the Foreign Trade Zone of...

  18. Silent Participation: East Asian International Graduate Students' Views on Active Classroom Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soonhyang

    2008-01-01

    The author reports on perceptions of East Asian international graduate students (EAGS) regarding active classroom participation, as revealed through two focus group interviews with 15 EAGS at a large Midwestern research university in the U.S. The findings indicate that most EAGS shared similar views with their university instructors and American…

  19. Can Organized Youth Activities Protect against Internalizing Problems among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and White youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during…

  20. IN VIVO ACTIVITY OF RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI VIRUS INTERNAL RIBOSOME ENTRY SITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The RNA genome of Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV), like other members of the Dicistroviridae, contains two open reading frames that are preceded by internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs). To compare the activities of the two RhPV IRESs in insect cells, a system was established for the in vivo transc...

  1. Roots of Civic Identity: International Perspectives on Community Service and Activism in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Miranda, Ed.; Youniss, James, Ed.

    This international collection of essays describes the state of community participation among the world's youth. An array of empirical research is used to present portraits of contemporary youth constructing their civic identities through such means as community service and political activism. The collection contains the following essays:…

  2. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? 2516.820 Section 2516.820 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS...

  3. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? 2516.820 Section 2516.820 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS...

  4. Validity and Reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.; Behrens, Timothy K.; Han, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the self-administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form in college students. One hundred twenty-three undergraduate students (20.8 [plus or minus] 1.5 years of age, 76% Caucasian, 74% female) wore an accelerometer and pedometer at their waists…

  5. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? 2516.820 Section 2516.820 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS...

  6. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? 2516.820 Section 2516.820 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.228-76 - Cross-waiver of liability for international space station activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of liability provision authorized by 14 CFR 1266.102. (2) “Damage” means: (i) Bodily injury to, or... for international space station activities. 1852.228-76 Section 1852.228-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.228-76 - Cross-waiver of liability for international space station activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of liability provision authorized by 14 CFR 1266.102. (2) “Damage” means: (i) Bodily injury to, or... for international space station activities. 1852.228-76 Section 1852.228-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...

  9. International Youth Year: Activities of ECLAC in Fulfillment of the Regional Plan of Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    The report discusses the implementation by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) of the concrete program of measures and activities proposed by the Regional Plan of Action for Latin America and the Caribbean for the International Youth Year. The central objectives of the Plan are to create greater awareness concerning…

  10. Rotation of Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5, and 5 {M}⊙ , taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles {{Ω }}(r) is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter {Co}\\equiv {{Ω }}{τ }{con}≲ 1 (here {τ }{con} is the convective time), and {{Ω }}(r)\\propto {r}-1 where {Co}≳ 1. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

  11. Contribution of NADPH Oxidase to Membrane CD38 Internalization and Activation in Coronary Arterial Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Li, Xiao-Xue; Ritter, Joseph K.; Abais, Justine M.; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2013-01-01

    The CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathway importantly contributes to the vasomotor response in different arteries. Although there is evidence indicating that the activation of CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase is associated with CD38 internalization, the molecular mechanism mediating CD38 internalization and consequent activation in response to a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli remains poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that CD38 may sense redox signals and is thereby activated to produce cellular response and that the NADPH oxidase isoform, NOX1, is a major resource to produce superoxide (O2·−) in coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs) in response to muscarinic receptor agonist, which uses CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase signaling pathway to exert its action in these CAMs. These findings led us hypothesize that NOX1-derived O2·− serves in an autocrine fashion to enhance CD38 internalization, leading to redox activation of CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase activity in mouse CAMs. To test this hypothesis, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and a membrane protein biotinylation assay were used in the present study. We first demonstrated that CD38 internalization induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1) was inhibited by silencing of NOX1 gene, but not NOX4 gene. Correspondingly, NOX1 gene silencing abolished ET-1-induced O2·− production and increased CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase activity in CAMs, while activation of NOX1 by overexpression of Rac1 or Vav2 or administration of exogenous O2·− significantly increased CD38 internalization in CAMs. Lastly, ET-1 was found to markedly increase membrane raft clustering as shown by increased colocalization of cholera toxin-B with CD38 and NOX1. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence that Rac1-NOX1-dependent O2·− production mediates CD38 internalization in CAMs, which may represent an important mechanism linking receptor activation with CD38 activity in these cells. PMID:23940720

  12. TNF-alpha-dependent activation of NF-kappa B in human osteoblastic HOS-TE85 cells is repressed in vector-averaged gravity using clinostat rotation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Kambe, F; Kurokouchi, K; Sakai, T; Ishiguro, N; Iwata, H; Koga, K; Gruener, R; Seo, H

    2000-12-01

    Effects of vector-averaged gravity on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-dependent activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) in human osteoblastic HOS-TE85 cells were investigated by culturing the cells using clinostat rotation (clinorotation). Cell cultures were rotated for 72 h at 40 rpm in a clinostat. At the end of clinorotation, the cells were treated with TNF-alpha for 30 min under stationary conditions. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that TNF-alpha-dependent activation of NF-kappa B was markedly reduced in the clinorotated cells when compared with the cells in control stationary cultures or after horizontal rotation (motional controls). The NF-kappa B-dependent transactivation was also impaired in the clinorotated cells, as evidenced by a transient transfection assay with a reporter plasmid containing multimerized NF-kappa B sites. Consistent with these findings, the TNF-alpha-dependent induction of endogenous NF-kappa B-responsive genes p105, I kappa B-alpha, and IL-8, was significantly attenuate in clinorotated cells. These results demonstrate that vector-averaged gravity inhibits the responsiveness of osteoblasts to TNF-alpha by repressing NF-kappa B activation. PMID:11112449

  13. The influence of various resistance loads on the ratio of activity of the external rotator muscles of the shoulder and the anterior gliding of the humeral head during external rotation exercise.

    PubMed

    Jo, Marg-Eun; Lee, Seung-Min; Jang, Jun-Hyeok; Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] To quantify the ratio of activation of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and the anterior gliding motion of the humeral head during external rotation (ER) motions of the shoulder performed in prone position against different external resistance loads. [Subjects] Twenty healthy women between the ages of 20 and 30 years. [Methods] Activity ratio was quantified as the difference in the root mean square of the smoothed electromyography signal (EMG) of the posterior deltoid to the infraspinatus muscle, and anterior gliding pressure of the humeral head using a pressure biofeedback unit (PBU), for three resistance loads: 0, 1 and 2 kg. [Results] There was a significant correlation among all three variables (load, ratio, and pressure). Anterior gliding pressure correlated with the activity ratio, with activity of the posterior deltoid increasing with the magnitude of the resistance load. [Conclusion] There was a positive association between the magnitude of resistance load, activity of the posterior deltoid and anterior gliding pressure of the humeral head. The PBU could be used to facilitate the recruitment of the infraspinatus muscle at higher loads to improve glenohumeral joint stability during ER exercise against higher resistance. PMID:26644683

  14. Assignment of the Sub-Millimeter Wave Spectrum of Methyl Carbamate, NH_2COOCH_3, in the First Excited State of the Methyl Group Internal Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groner, P.

    2009-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of methyl carbamate in the first excited torsional state (up to 149 GHz) has been analyzed recently for rotational quantum number J up to 20 together with transitions in the ground state. An extended analysis of the rotational spectrum in the ground state between 10 and 371 GHz with over 6000 transitions with J up to 60 has also been published. In the spectra recorded at that time by the FASSST method, about 3000 transitions belonging to the first torsional excited state of the methyl group have now been assigned and analyzed, about half of them belonging to the E torsional species. Both the newly assigned and previously published transitions have been used to fit less than 45 spectroscopic parameters of an effective rotational Hamiltonian for such systems, achieving a dimensionless standard deviation of 1.33. A somewhat unexpected result was the value of the {ρ} parameter of 0.063628(20) which differed significantly from the value obtained for the ground state of 0.058791(15). The discrepancy will be investigated in the near future. Hopefully, a resolution of the problem can be achieved by a combined fit of all excited and ground state transitions using common {ρ} and {β} parameters with {β} as the angle between the {ρ}-axis and the a principal axis. V. Ilyushin, E. Alekseev, J. Demaison, I. Kleiner, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 240, 127 (2006). P. Groner, M. Winnewisser, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, E. Herbst, K. V. L. N. Sastry, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 169, 28 (2007). P. Groner, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4483 (1997).

  15. Living With A Red Dwarf: Rotation, Starspots, Activity Cycles, Coronal X-ray Activity And X-uv Irradiances Of Proxima Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jason, Merritt; Guinan, E.; Engle, S.; Pojmanski, G.

    2007-12-01

    As part of our Living with a Red Dwarf Program, we have carried out a detailed study of the radiative and plasma properties of the nearby dM5.5e star Proxima Centauri. Proxima Cen is noteworthy as the nearest star to the Sun. Because of its proximity ( 4.3 L.Y.) and membership in the α Cen system, Proxima Cen is an important star to use as a surrogate for solar-aged mid-dM stars. It is relatively bright (V = 11-mag) and has well determined observational and physical properties (MV, Teff, [Fe/H], angular diameter, mass and age). Importantly for our purposes, Proxima Cen has a reliable age of 5.5-6.0 Gyr from its association with the α Cen system in which α Cen A (G2 V) has a reliable isochronal age determination. We have analyzed 5 years of ASAS-3, V-band photometry to search for evidence of short- and long-term variations in brightness that could arise from magnetically related phenomenon (star spots, faculae, and possible UV flares). We also examine its coronal X-ray emission and variations as well as the stars chromospheric and transition regions in the UV from IUE and FUSE observations. The X-UV/optical data are combined and irradiances are calculated for use in extrasolar planet studies. From the photometry we find a rotational modulation of Prot = 83.5 days, in excellent agreement with the earlier HST/FGS study of Benedict et al. (1998). The character of its light variations indicates possible differential rotation as well as a probable long-term activity cycle of 6.9 +/- 0.5 yrs. Although Proxima Cen should be a fully convective star with a different magnetic dynamo (α2) than our Sun (αΩ), its overall magnetic behavior appears to be solar-like. This research is supported by grants from NSF/RUI AST-507536 and NASA Grants NNX06AD386 and NNG04G038G. We are grateful for this support.

  16. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy. PMID:22560564

  17. Assessment and Accommodation of Thermal Expansion of the Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant During Launch to On-Orbit Activation of International Space Station Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e., US Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accommodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e., Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system Maximum Design Pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation phase. During this time the element loop is a stand alone closed individual system. The solution approach for accommodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.

  18. Assessment and Accommodation of Thermal Expansion of the Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant During Launch to On-Orbit Activation of International Space Station Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e. U.S. Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accomodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e. Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system maximum design pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation (LTA) phase. During this time the element loops is a stand alone closed system. The solution approach for accomodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.

  19. Internal Audit Guide for Student Activity Funds. A Guide for Those Responsible for the Audit Function to Help Plan, Conduct, Prepare and Present an Effective Internal Audit Report of Student Activity Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials of the United States and Canada, Park Ridge, IL. Research Corp.

    The purposes of this handbook are to help improve internal systems for auditing funds received from student activities and to help ensure that school board policies and good business practices are being followed. After brief introductory sections, the document discusses internal auditing functions and standards and notes the internal auditing…

  20. Rotation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In aircraft turbine engine research, certain investigations require extremely precise measurement of the position of a rotating part, such as the rotor, a disc-like part of the engine's compressor which revolves around a shaft at extremely high speeds. For example, in studies of airflow velocity within a compressor, researchers need to know-for data correlation the instantaneous position of a given spot on the rotor each time a velocity measurement is made. Earlier methods of measuring rotor shaft angle required a physical connection to the shaft, which limited the velocity of the rotating object.

  1. Progress of the Living with a Red Dwarf Program: Activity-Rotation-Age Relationships for M dwarfs and the Ages of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward Francis; Harper, Graham

    2015-08-01

    Red Dwarfs (M dwarfs or dM stars) make up over 75% of the local stellar population. This is among the reasons they are being targeted by an increasing number of planet-hunting programs. As such, developing a method to accurately estimate the age of a field M dwarf is of critical importance. However, due to their long lifetimes and very slow nuclear evolution, the best method for determining ages is likely through “magnetic tracers” such as X-UV activity levels and stellar rotation rates. The Living with a Red Dwarf program’s database of M dwarfs with photometrically determined rotation periods (via starspot modulations) is becoming substantial. Its expansion to include M dwarfs with well-detached WD companions - through which reliable ages can be determined - has had significant impacts on the reliability of the relations. When combined with M dwarfs possessing cluster/population memberships, or specific kinematics, a full range of “calibrators” is being realized. We report on our continuing efforts to build reliable Activity-Rotation-Age relationships for M dwarfs, utilizing X-UV measures obtained with HST, IUE Chandra and XMM (both proposed by us, and archival). Such relationships permit the assessment of the habitability of planets hosted by red dwarfs, by delineating the X-UV radiation environments these planets are exposed to, and have been exposed to in the past. After proper calibration, the relationships can also permit the age of a field red dwarf (and any hosted planets) to be determined through measures of either the stellar rotation period or X-UV activity level.We gratefully acknowledge the support from NSF/RUI Grant AST 1009903, Chandra Grant GO-13200633, HST Grants GO-12124X and GO-13020X.

  2. Inventory of U.S.-led International Activities on Building Energy Efficiency Initial Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, Alison; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-04-01

    Several U.S. Government agencies promote energy efficiency in buildings internationally. The types and scope of activities vary by agency. Those with the largest role include the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of State and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Both USAID and the Department of State have a substantial presence overseas, which may present some complementarities with the Department of Energy’s efforts to reach out to other countries. Generally speaking, USAID focuses on capacity building and policy issues; the Department of State focuses on broad diplomatic efforts and some targeted grants in support of these efforts, and EPA has more targeted roles linked to ENERGY STAR appliances and a few other activities. Several additional agencies are also involved in trade-related efforts to promote energy efficiency in buildings. These include the Department of Commerce, the Export-Import Bank, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation and the Trade and Development Agency (TDA). This initial synthesis report is designed to summarize broad trends and activities relating to international cooperation on energy efficiency in buildings, which can help the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in developing its own strategy in this area. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will develop a more complete synthesis report later in 2010 as it populates a database on international projects on building energy efficiency.

  3. Activation of the Kexin from Schizosaccharomyces pombe Requires Internal Cleavage of Its Initially Cleaved Prosequence

    PubMed Central

    Powner, Dale; Davey, John

    1998-01-01

    Members of the kexin family of processing enzymes are responsible for the cleavage of many proproteins during their transport through the secretory pathway. The enzymes themselves are made as inactive precursors, and we investigated the activation process by studying the maturation of Krp1, a kexin from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Using a cell-free translation-translocation system prepared from Xenopus eggs, we found that Krp1 is made as a preproprotein that loses the presequence during translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum. The prosequence is also rapidly cleaved in a reaction that is autocatalytic and probably intramolecular and is inhibited by disruption of the P domain. Prosequence cleavage normally occurs at Arg-Tyr-Lys-Arg102↓ (primary cleavage site) but can occur at Lys-Arg82 (internal cleavage site) and/or Trp-Arg99 when the basic residues are removed from the primary site. Cleavage of the prosequence is necessary but not sufficient for activation, and Krp1 is initially unable to process substrates presented in trans. Full activation is achieved after further incubation in the extract and is coincident with the addition of O-linked sugars. O glycosylation is not, however, essential for activity, and the crucial event appears to be cleavage of the initially cleaved prosequence at the internal site. Our results are consistent with a model in which the cleaved prosequence remains noncovalently associated with the catalytic domain and acts as an autoinhibitor of the enzyme. Inhibition is then relieved by a second (internal) cleavage of the inhibitory prosequence. Further support for this model is provided by our finding that overexpression of a Krp1 prosequence lacking a cleavable internal site dramatically reduced the growth rate of otherwise wild-type S. pombe cells, an effect that was not seen after overexpression of the normal, internally cleavable, prosequence or prosequences that lack the Lys-Arg102 residues. PMID:9418887

  4. Humeral retroversion and shoulder rotational mobility in young handball practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Quadros, Gustavo Aguiar; Döhnert, Marcelo Baptista

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the prevalence of humeral retroversion and rotational mobility (RHH) in young handball practitioners and non-practitioners. METHODS : This is a cross-sectional study performed with two groups: the handball group, with 14 female students practicing handball and the control group, with 13 young participants non-practicing pitch sports. RESULTS : The handball group presented full rotational movement (FRM) hi-gher than the control group in both the dominant shoulder (p=0.001) and the non-dominant shoulder (p=0.0001). The mobility of active and passive internal rotation was significantly higher in handball players in both shoulders. The handball group presented lower internal rotation range of motion for the dominant shoulder as compared to the non-dominant shoul-der (p=0.001). CONCLUSION : Young handball practitioners, des-pite skeletally immature, showed a higher MRT than the control group. The handball group showed loss of internal rotation (medial) on the dominant shoulder as compared to the non--dominant shoulder. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Study. PMID:27057141

  5. Entrepreneurialism's Influence on the International Strategies and Activities of Public U.S. Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how international offices engage in entrepreneurial internationalization. Thirty Senior International Officers (SIOs) at public U.S. universities were interviewed to understand why and how their offices seek to generate revenue through their international strategies and activities. This study found that SIOs are engaging in…

  6. Comparing the Effects of Light- or Sonic-Activated Drug Delivery: Photochemical/Sonochemical Internalization.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Steen J; Gonzales, Jonathan; Zamora, Genesis; Berg, Kristian; Nair, Rohit Kumar; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a technique that uses the photochemical properties of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the enhanced delivery of endolysosomal-trapped macromolecules into the cell cytoplasm. The released agent can therefore exert its full biological activity, in contrast to being degraded by lysosomal hydrolases. Activation of photosensitizers via ultrasound (US), called sonodynamic therapy (SDT), has been proposed as an alternative to light-activated PDT for the treatment of cancerous tumors. The use of focused US (FUS) to activate photosensitizers allows treatment at tumor sites buried deep within tissues, overcoming one of the main limitations of PDT/PCI. We have examined ultrasonic activation of photosensitizers together with the anticancer agent bleomycin (BLM) using sonochemical internalization (SCI), as an alternative to light-activated PCI. Our results indicate that, compared to drug or US treatment alone, US activation of the photosensitizer AlPcS2a together with BLM significantly inhibits the ability of treated glioma cells to form clonogenic colonies. PMID:27279586

  7. The Activities of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Joseph Blair

    2001-10-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) – Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, Kazakhstan, Spain, and Israel are now participating. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled “International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments”. The 2001 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark specifications for 2642 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for use in validation efforts and for testing basic nuclear data.

  8. The activation of the sodium pump in pig red blood cells by internal and external cations.

    PubMed

    Brand, S C; Whittam, R

    1985-05-30

    A study has been made with pig red blood cells of the activation of the sodium pump by internal and external cations. Cell Na and K concentrations were altered using a PCMBS cation loading procedure. The procedure was characterised for resultant ionic conditions, maintenance of ATP levels and fragility. The activation of the sodium pump by external K was measured in cells suspended in choline (Na-free) solutions. External Cs was used as a substitute for K and elicited lower rates of pump activity. Both the Vmax and apparent Km for 42K influx and 134Cs influx increased as internal Na concentration was raised (within the non-saturating range). Vmax/apparent Km ratios for cation influx were constant. Raising external Cs concentration exerted a similar influence on pump activation by internal Na: both the maximum pump velocity and the apparent Na-site dissociation constant (K'Na) increased. The results provide evidence for a transmembrane connection between cation binding sites on opposite faces of the membrane and are consistent with a consecutive model for the sodium pump in pig red blood cells. PMID:2581622

  9. Two- vs. three-dimensional presentation of mental rotation tasks: Sex differences and effects of training on performance and brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Bergner, Sabine; Schatz, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The well-documented sex difference in mental rotation favoring males has been shown to emerge only for 2-dimensional presentations of 3-dimensional objects, but not with actual 3-dimensional objects or with virtual reality presentations of 3-dimensional objects. Training studies using computer games with mental rotation-related content have demonstrated training effects on mental rotation performance. Here, we studied the combined effect of a two-week mental rotation (MR) training on 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional presentations of a classic Shepard–Metzler task (presented in a pretest–training–posttest design) and their accompanying cortical activation patterns assessed via EEG in a sample of 38 male and 39 female adolescents of about 15 years of age. Analysis of one performance parameter (reaction times) displayed only main effects of dimensionality (with shorter RTs on the 3D vs. 2D version of the MR task) and of training (significant shortening of RTs), but no significant sex difference. Analysis of the other performance parameter (scores) in the MR task revealed a sex difference favoring males that first, appeared only in the 2D version, but not in the 3D version of the MR task and, secondly, diminished after training. Neurophysiologically we observed a complex sex × dimensionality × training × hemisphere interaction showing that the hypothesized decrease of brain activation (increase in neural efficiency) with training emerged for males in both 2D and 3D conditions, whereas for females this decrease was found only in the 3D but not with the 2D version of the MR task. PMID:20953415

  10. CHROMOSPHERIC MASS MOTIONS AND INTRINSIC SUNSPOT ROTATIONS FOR NOAA ACTIVE REGIONS 10484, 10486, AND 10488 USING ISOON DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Hardersen, Paul S.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Shkolyar, Svetlana

    2013-08-10

    This work utilizes Improved Solar Observing Optical Network continuum (630.2 nm) and H{alpha} (656.2 nm) data to: (1) detect and measure intrinsic sunspot rotations occurring in the photosphere and chromosphere, (2) identify and measure chromospheric filament mass motions, and (3) assess any large-scale photospheric and chromospheric mass couplings. Significant results from 2003 October 27-29, using the techniques of Brown et al., indicate significant counter-rotation between the two large sunspots in NOAA AR 10486 on October 29, as well as discrete filament mass motions in NOAA AR 10484 on October 27 that appear to be associated with at least one C-class solar flare.

  11. Rotational Periods and Starspot Activity of Young Solar-Type Dwarfs in the Open Cluster IC 4665

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allain, S.; Bouvier, J.; Prosser, C.; Marschall, L. A.; Laaksonen, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a V-band photometric monitoring survey of 15 late-type dwarfs in the young open cluster IC 4665. Low-amplitude periodic light variations are found for 8 stars and ascribed to the modulation by starspots that cover typically a few percent of the stellar disk. Periods range from 0.6 to 3.7 d, translating to equatorial velocities between 13 and 93 km/s. That no period longer than 4 d was detected suggests a relative paucity of extremely slow rotators (V(sub eq) much less than 10 km/s) among late-type dwarfs in IC 4665. The fractional number of slow rotators in IC 4665 is similar to that of Alpha Per cluster, suggesting that IC 4665 is close in age to Alpha Per (approx. 50 Myr).

  12. Torsion-rotation intensities in methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John

    local conditions. We propose a comprehensive study of the intensities of methanol involving both the pure rotation bands and the torsional bands to serve as a benchmark for the theory used to calculate the infrared activity of all single methyl internal rotation molecules.

  13. Glycoprotein D actively induces rapid internalization of two nectin-1 isoforms during herpes simplex virus entry

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, Katie M.; Krummenacher, Claude

    2010-03-30

    Entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) occurs either by fusion at the plasma membrane or by endocytosis and fusion with an endosome. Binding of glycoprotein D (gD) to a receptor such as nectin-1 is essential in both cases. We show that virion gD triggered the rapid down-regulation of nectin-1 with kinetics similar to those of virus entry. In contrast, nectin-1 was not constitutively recycled from the surface of uninfected cells. Both the nectin-1alpha and beta isoforms were internalized in response to gD despite having different cytoplasmic tails. However, deletion of the nectin-1 cytoplasmic tail slowed down-regulation of nectin-1 and internalization of virions. These data suggest that nectin-1 interaction with a cytoplasmic protein is not required for its down-regulation. Overall, this study shows that gD binding actively induces the rapid internalization of various forms of nectin-1. We suggest that HSV activates a nectin-1 internalization pathway to use for endocytic entry.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 2: numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Carcasci, Carlo; Facchini, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a numerical validation of the aero-thermal study of a 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative trailing edge with one row of enlarged pedestals under stationary and rotating conditions. A CFD analysis was performed by means of commercial ANSYS-Fluent modeling the isothermal air flow and using k-ω SST turbulence model and an isothermal air flow for both static and rotating conditions (Ro up to 0.23). The used numerical model is validated first by comparing the numerical velocity profiles distribution results to those obtained experimentally by means of PIV technique for Re = 20,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. The second validation is based on the comparison of the numerical results of the 2D HTC maps over the heated plate to those of TLC experimental data, for a smooth surface for a Reynolds number = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two-tip conditions were considered: open tip and closed tip conditions. Results of the average Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts region are presented too. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  15. The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ): Materials & Processes (M&P) Lessons Learned for a Large, Spacecraft Rotating Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    2016-01-01

    The ISS utilizes two large rotating mechanisms, the SARJ, as part of the solar arrays alignment system for more efficient power generation. The SARJ is a 10.3m circumference, nitrided 15-5PH steel race ring of triangular cross-section, with 12 sets of trundle bearing assemblies transferring load across the rolling joint. The SARJ mechanism rotates continuously and slowly - once every orbit, or every 90 minutes. In 2008, the starboard SARJ suffered a lubrication failure, resulting in severe damage (spalling) of one of the race ring surfaces. Extensive effort was conducted to prevent the port SARJ from suffering the same failure, and fortunately was ultimately successful in recovering the functionality of the starboard SARJ. The M&P function was key in determining the cause of failure and the means for mechanism recovery. From a M&P lessons-learned perspective, observations are made concerning the original SARJ design parameters (boundary conditions), the perceived need for nitriding the race ring, the test conditions employed during qualification, the environmental controls used for the hardware preflight, and the lubrication robustness necessary for complex kinematic mechanisms expecting high-reliability and long-life.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 1—experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Facchini, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    The aero-thermal behavior of the flow field inside 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative smooth trailing edge of shaped wedge discharge duct with one row of enlarged pedestals have been investigated in order to determine the effect of rotation, inlet velocity and blowing conditions effects, for Re = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two configurations are presented: with and without open tip configurations. Thermo-chromic liquid crystals technique is used to ensure a local measurement of the heat transfer coefficient on the blade suction side under stationary and rotation conditions. Results are reported in terms of detailed 2D HTC maps on the suction side surface as well as the averaged Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts. Two correlations are proposed, for both closed and open tip configurations, based on the Re, Pr, Ro and a new non-dimensional parameter based on the position along the radial distance, to assess a reliable estimation of the averaged Nusselt number at the inter-pedestal region. A good agreement is found between prediction and experimental data with about ±10 to ±12 % of uncertainty, for the simple form correlation, and about ±16 % using a complex form. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  17. Amphetamine activates Rho GTPase signaling to mediate dopamine transporter internalization and acute behavioral effects of amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David S; Underhill, Suzanne M; Stolz, Donna B; Murdoch, Geoffrey H; Thiels, Edda; Romero, Guillermo; Amara, Susan G

    2015-12-22

    Acute amphetamine (AMPH) exposure elevates extracellular dopamine through a variety of mechanisms that include inhibition of dopamine reuptake, depletion of vesicular stores, and facilitation of dopamine efflux across the plasma membrane. Recent work has shown that the DAT substrate AMPH, unlike cocaine and other nontransported blockers, can also stimulate endocytosis of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT). Here, we show that when AMPH enters the cytoplasm it rapidly stimulates DAT internalization through a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-independent process. This effect, which can be observed in transfected cells, cultured dopamine neurons, and midbrain slices, is mediated by activation of the small GTPase RhoA. Inhibition of RhoA activity with C3 exotoxin or a dominant-negative RhoA blocks AMPH-induced DAT internalization. These actions depend on AMPH entry into the cell and are blocked by the DAT inhibitor cocaine. AMPH also stimulates cAMP accumulation and PKA-dependent inactivation of RhoA, thus providing a mechanism whereby PKA- and RhoA-dependent signaling pathways can interact to regulate the timing and robustness of AMPH's effects on DAT internalization. Consistent with this model, the activation of D1/D5 receptors that couple to PKA in dopamine neurons antagonizes RhoA activation, DAT internalization, and hyperlocomotion observed in mice after AMPH treatment. These observations support the existence of an unanticipated intracellular target that mediates the effects of AMPH on RhoA and cAMP signaling and suggest new pathways to target to disrupt AMPH action. PMID:26553986

  18. Amphetamine activates Rho GTPase signaling to mediate dopamine transporter internalization and acute behavioral effects of amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David S.; Underhill, Suzanne M.; Stolz, Donna B.; Murdoch, Geoffrey H.; Thiels, Edda; Romero, Guillermo; Amara, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    Acute amphetamine (AMPH) exposure elevates extracellular dopamine through a variety of mechanisms that include inhibition of dopamine reuptake, depletion of vesicular stores, and facilitation of dopamine efflux across the plasma membrane. Recent work has shown that the DAT substrate AMPH, unlike cocaine and other nontransported blockers, can also stimulate endocytosis of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT). Here, we show that when AMPH enters the cytoplasm it rapidly stimulates DAT internalization through a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-independent process. This effect, which can be observed in transfected cells, cultured dopamine neurons, and midbrain slices, is mediated by activation of the small GTPase RhoA. Inhibition of RhoA activity with C3 exotoxin or a dominant-negative RhoA blocks AMPH-induced DAT internalization. These actions depend on AMPH entry into the cell and are blocked by the DAT inhibitor cocaine. AMPH also stimulates cAMP accumulation and PKA-dependent inactivation of RhoA, thus providing a mechanism whereby PKA- and RhoA-dependent signaling pathways can interact to regulate the timing and robustness of AMPH’s effects on DAT internalization. Consistent with this model, the activation of D1/D5 receptors that couple to PKA in dopamine neurons antagonizes RhoA activation, DAT internalization, and hyperlocomotion observed in mice after AMPH treatment. These observations support the existence of an unanticipated intracellular target that mediates the effects of AMPH on RhoA and cAMP signaling and suggest new pathways to target to disrupt AMPH action. PMID:26553986

  19. Validity and Reliability of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form in Chinese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The psychometric profiles of the widely used International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) in Chinese youth have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the IPAQ-SF using a sample of Chinese youth. Method: One thousand and twenty-one youth (M[subscript age] = 14.26 ±…

  20. Resident Research and Scholarly Activity in Internal Medicine Residency Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Rachel B; Hebert, Randy S; Wright, Scott M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES 1) To describe how internal medicine residency programs fulfill the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) scholarly activity training requirement including the current context of resident scholarly work, and 2) to compare findings between university and nonuniversity programs. DESIGN Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING ACGME-accredited internal medicine residency programs. PARTICIPANTS Internal medicine residency program directors. MEASUREMENTS Data were collected on 1) interpretation of the scholarly activity requirement, 2) support for resident scholarship, 3) scholarly activities of residents, 4) attitudes toward resident research, and 5) program characteristics. University and nonuniversity programs were compared. MAIN RESULTS The response rate was 78%. Most residents completed a topic review with presentation (median, 100%) to fulfill the requirement. Residents at nonuniversity programs were more likely to complete case reports (median, 40% vs 25%; P =.04) and present at local or regional meetings (median, 25% vs 20%; P =.01), and were just as likely to conduct hypothesis-driven research (median, 20% vs 20%; P =.75) and present nationally (median, 10% vs 5%; P =.10) as residents at university programs. Nonuniversity programs were more likely to report lack of faculty mentors (61% vs 31%; P <.001) and resident interest (55% vs 40%; P =.01) as major barriers to resident scholarship. Programs support resident scholarship through research curricula (47%), funding (46%), and protected time (32%). CONCLUSIONS Internal medicine residents complete a variety of projects to fulfill the scholarly activity requirement. Nonuniversity programs are doing as much as university programs in meeting the requirement and supporting resident scholarship despite reporting significant barriers. PMID:15836549