Science.gov

Sample records for active interrogation applications

  1. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chichester, D. L.; Seabury, E. H.

    2009-03-10

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  2. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury

    2008-08-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  3. Development and application of a hybrid transport methodology for active interrogation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Royston, K.; Walters, W.; Haghighat, A.; Yi, C.; Sjoden, G.

    2013-07-01

    A hybrid Monte Carlo and deterministic methodology has been developed for application to active interrogation systems. The methodology consists of four steps: i) neutron flux distribution due to neutron source transport and subcritical multiplication; ii) generation of gamma source distribution from (n, 7) interactions; iii) determination of gamma current at a detector window; iv) detection of gammas by the detector. This paper discusses the theory and results of the first three steps for the case of a cargo container with a sphere of HEU in third-density water cargo. To complete the first step, a response-function formulation has been developed to calculate the subcritical multiplication and neutron flux distribution. Response coefficients are pre-calculated using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code. The second step uses the calculated neutron flux distribution and Bugle-96 (n, 7) cross sections to find the resulting gamma source distribution. In the third step the gamma source distribution is coupled with a pre-calculated adjoint function to determine the gamma current at a detector window. The AIMS (Active Interrogation for Monitoring Special-Nuclear-Materials) software has been written to output the gamma current for a source-detector assembly scanning across a cargo container using the pre-calculated values and taking significantly less time than a reference MCNP5 calculation. (authors)

  4. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Dougan, Arden

    2015-11-05

    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  5. Active interrogation using energetic protons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher L; Chung, Kiwhan; Greene, Steven J; Hogan, Gary E; Makela, Mark; Mariam, Fesseha; Milner, Edward C; Murray, Matthew; Saunders, Alexander; Spaulding, Randy; Wang, Zhehui; Waters, Laurie; Wysocki, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Energetic proton beams provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and they can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections and neutron yields for delayed neutrons and gamma rays using 800 MeV and 4 GeV proton beams with a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Measurements of neutron energies yield suggest a signature unique to fissile material. Results are presented in this paper.

  6. Personnel Dose Assessment during Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Akkurt, Hatice; Patton, Bruce W

    2010-01-01

    A leading candidate in the detection of special nuclear material (SNM) is active interrogation (AI). Unlike passive interrogation, AI uses a source to enhance or create a detectable signal from SNM (usually fission), particularly in shielded scenarios or scenarios where the SNM has a low activity. The use of AI thus makes the detection of SNM easier or, in some scenarios, even enables previously impossible detection. During the development of AI sources, significant effort is put into determining the source strength required to detect SNM in specific scenarios. Usually during this process, but not always, an evaluation of personnel dose is also completed. In this instance personnel dose could involve any of the following: (1) personnel performing the AI; (2) unknown stowaways who are inside the object being interrogated; or (3) in clandestine interrogations, personnel who are known to be inside the object being interrogated but are unaware of the interrogation. In most instances, dose to anyone found smuggling SNM will be a secondary issue. However, for the organizations performing the AI, legal if not moral considerations should make dose to the personnel performing the AI, unknown stowaways, or innocent bystanders in clandestine interrogations a serious concern.

  7. Radiation Detection for Active Interrogation of HEU

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    2004-12-09

    This report briefly describes the neutrons and gamma rays emitted by active interrogation of HEU, briefly discusses measurement methods, briefly discusses sources and detectors relevant to detection of shielded HEU in Sealand containers, and lists the measurement possibilities for the various sources. All but one of the measurement methods detect radiation emitted by induced fission in the HEU; the exception utilizes nuclear resonance fluorescence. The brief descriptions are supplemented by references. This report presents some active interrogation possibilities but the status of understanding is not advanced enough to select particular methods. Additional research is needed to evaluate these possibilities.

  8. Photon and neutron active interrogation of highly enriched uranium.

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W. L.; Goulding, C. A.; Hollas, C. L.; Moss, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    The physics of photon and neutron active interrogation of highly enriched uranium (HEU) using the delayed neutron reinterrogation method is described in this paper. Two sets of active interrogation experiments were performed using a set of subcritical configurations of cocentric HEU metal hemishells. One set of measurements utilized a pulsed 14-MeV neutron generator as the active source. The second set of measurements utilized a linear accelerator-based bremsstrahlung photon source as an active interrogation source. The neutron responses were measured for both sets of experiments. The operational details and results for both measurement sets are described.

  9. SNM detection by active muon interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, Andrew J; Miyadera, Haruo; Turchi, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Muons are charged particles with mass between the electron and proton and can be produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged-particle beam with a target. There are several distinct features of the muon interaction with matter attractive as a probe for detection of SNM at moderate ranges. These include muon penetration of virtually any amount of material without significant nuclear interaction until stopped by ionization loss in a short distance. When stopped, high-energy penetrating x-rays (in the range of 6 MeV for uranium,) unique to isotopic composition are emitted in the capture process. The subsequent interaction with the nucleus produces additional radiation useful in assessing SNM presence. A focused muon beam can be transported through the atmosphere, at a range limited mainly by beam-size growth through scattering. A muonbeam intensity of > 10{sup 9} /second is required for efficient interrogation and, as in any other technique, dose limits are to be respected. To produce sufficient muons a high-energy (threshold {approx}140 MeV) high-intensity (<1 mA) proton or electron beam is needed implying the use of a linear accelerator to bombard a refractory target. The muon yield is fractionally small, with large angle and energy dispersion, so that efficient collection is necessary in all dimensions of phase space. To accomplish this Los Alamos has proposed a magnetic collection system followed by a unique linear accelerator that provides the requisite phase-space bunching and allows an energy sweep to successively stop muons throughout a large structure such as a sea-going vessel. A possible maritime application would entail fitting the high-gradient accelerators on a large ship with a helicopter-borne detection system. We will describe our experimental results for muon effects and particle collection along with our current design and program for a muon detection system.

  10. Innocence and resisting confession during interrogation: effects on physiologic activity.

    PubMed

    Guyll, Max; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Lannin, Daniel G; Scherr, Kyle; Greathouse, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    Innocent suspects may not adequately protect themselves during interrogation because they fail to fully appreciate the danger of the situation. This experiment tested whether innocent suspects experience less stress during interrogation than guilty suspects, and whether refusing to confess expends physiologic resources. After experimentally manipulating innocence and guilt, 132 participants were accused and interrogated for misconduct, and then pressured to confess. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period (PEP) responses quantified stress reactions. As hypothesized, the innocent evidenced smaller stress responses to interrogation for SBP, DBP, HR, and RSA than did the guilty. Furthermore, innocents who refused to confess exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system activation, as evidenced by shorter PEPs, than did innocent or guilty confessors. These findings suggest that innocent suspects underestimate the threat of interrogation and that resisting pressures to confess can diminish suspects' physiologic resources and lead to false confessions. PMID:23914920

  11. Innocence and resisting confession during interrogation: effects on physiologic activity.

    PubMed

    Guyll, Max; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Lannin, Daniel G; Scherr, Kyle; Greathouse, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    Innocent suspects may not adequately protect themselves during interrogation because they fail to fully appreciate the danger of the situation. This experiment tested whether innocent suspects experience less stress during interrogation than guilty suspects, and whether refusing to confess expends physiologic resources. After experimentally manipulating innocence and guilt, 132 participants were accused and interrogated for misconduct, and then pressured to confess. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period (PEP) responses quantified stress reactions. As hypothesized, the innocent evidenced smaller stress responses to interrogation for SBP, DBP, HR, and RSA than did the guilty. Furthermore, innocents who refused to confess exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system activation, as evidenced by shorter PEPs, than did innocent or guilty confessors. These findings suggest that innocent suspects underestimate the threat of interrogation and that resisting pressures to confess can diminish suspects' physiologic resources and lead to false confessions.

  12. Interrogation of Patient Smartphone Activity Tracker to Assist Arrhythmia Management.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Joshua; McDougall, Carol; Sailam, Vivek; Smith, Monika; Sacchetti, Alfred

    2016-09-01

    A 42-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation of unknown duration. Interrogation of the patient's wrist-worn activity tracker and smartphone application identified the onset of the arrhythmia as within the previous 3 hours, permitting electrocardioversion and discharge of the patient from the ED.

  13. The development of enabling technologies for producing active interrogation beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Morgado, Richard E.; Wang, Tai-Sen F.; Vodolaga, B.; Terekhin, V.; Onischenko, L. M.; Vorozhtsov, S. B.; Samsonov, E. V.; Vorozhtsov, A. S.; Alenitsky, Yu. G.; Perpelkin, E. E.; Glazov, A. A.; Novikov, D. L.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Reva, V.; Vostrikov, V.; Mashinin, V. A.; Fedotov, S. N.; Minayev, S. A.

    2010-10-15

    A U.S./Russian collaboration of accelerator scientists was directed to the development of high averaged-current ({approx}1 mA) and high-quality (emittance {approx}15 {pi}mm mrad; energy spread {approx}0.1%) 1.75 MeV proton beams to produce active interrogation beams that could be applied to counterterrorism. Several accelerator technologies were investigated. These included an electrostatic tandem accelerator of novel design, a compact cyclotron, and a storage ring with energy compensation and electron cooling. Production targets capable of withstanding the beam power levels were designed, fabricated, and tested. The cyclotron/storage-ring system was theoretically studied and computationally designed, and the electrostatic vacuum tandem accelerator at BINP was demonstrated for its potential in active interrogation of explosives and special nuclear materials.

  14. The development of enabling technologies for producing active interrogation beams.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Thomas J T; Morgado, Richard E; Wang, Tai-Sen F; Vodolaga, B; Terekhin, V; Onischenko, L M; Vorozhtsov, S B; Samsonov, E V; Vorozhtsov, A S; Alenitsky, Yu G; Perpelkin, E E; Glazov, A A; Novikov, D L; Parkhomchuk, V; Reva, V; Vostrikov, V; Mashinin, V A; Fedotov, S N; Minayev, S A

    2010-10-01

    A U.S./Russian collaboration of accelerator scientists was directed to the development of high averaged-current (∼1 mA) and high-quality (emittance ∼15 πmm mrad; energy spread ∼0.1%) 1.75 MeV proton beams to produce active interrogation beams that could be applied to counterterrorism. Several accelerator technologies were investigated. These included an electrostatic tandem accelerator of novel design, a compact cyclotron, and a storage ring with energy compensation and electron cooling. Production targets capable of withstanding the beam power levels were designed, fabricated, and tested. The cyclotron/storage-ring system was theoretically studied and computationally designed, and the electrostatic vacuum tandem accelerator at BINP was demonstrated for its potential in active interrogation of explosives and special nuclear materials.

  15. SIMULATIONS FOR ACTIVE INTERROGATION OF HEU IN CARGO CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    LEE, SANG Y.; BEDDINGFIELD, DAVID H.; PARK, JAEYOUNG

    2007-01-22

    We describe the results of a Monte Carlo simulation 10 investigate the feasibility of using a pulsed deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron technique for active interrogation of special nuclear material in cargo containers. Time distributions of fission neutrons from highly enriched uranium induced by a pulsed D-T neutron source were calculated for cargo containers with different hydrogen contents. A simple detector system with polyethylene and cadmium was modeled to calculate the two-group neutron flux at the detector.

  16. Layered shielding design for an active neutron interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetstone, Zachary D.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2016-08-01

    The use of source and detector shields in active neutron interrogation can improve detector signal. In simulations, a shielded detector with a source rotated π/3 rad relative to the opening decreased neutron flux roughly three orders of magnitude. Several realistic source and detector shield configurations were simulated. A layered design reduced neutron and secondary photon flux in the detector by approximately one order of magnitude for a deuterium-tritium source. The shield arrangement can be adapted for a portable, modular design.

  17. Addressing Different Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures from Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2009-10-01

    In a continuing effort to examine portable methods for implementing active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded fissionable material research is underway to investigate the utility of analyzing multiple time-correlated signatures. Time correlation refers here to the existence of unique characteristics of the fission interrogation signature related to the start and end of an irradiation, as well as signatures present in between individual pulses of an irradiating source. Traditional measurement approaches in this area have typically worked to detect die-away neutrons after the end of each pulse, neutrons in between pulses related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products, or neutrons or gamma rays related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products after the end of an irradiation exposure. In this paper we discus the potential weaknesses of assessing only one signature versus multiple signatures and make the assertion that multiple complimentary and orthogonal measurements should be used to bolster the performance of active interrogation systems, helping to minimize susceptibility to the weaknesses of individual signatures on their own. Recognizing that the problem of detection is a problem of low count rates, we are exploring methods to integrate commonly used signatures with rarely used signatures to improve detection capabilities for these measurements. In this paper we will discuss initial activity in this area with this approach together with observations of some of the strengths and weaknesses of using these different signatures.

  18. INL Active Interrogation Testing In Support of the GNEP Safeguards Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester

    2008-04-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. Work at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in the area of active interrogation, using neutron and photon sources, has been under way for many years to develop methods for detecting and quantifying nuclear material for national and homeland security research areas. This research knowledge base is now being extended to address nuclear safeguards and process monitoring issues related to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). As a first step in this area preliminary scoping studies have been performed to investigate the usefulness of using active neutron interrogation, with a low-power electronic neutron generator, to assay Department of Transportation 6M shipping drums containing uranium oxide fuel rodlets from INL’s zero power physics reactor. Using the paired-counting technique during the die-away time period of interrogation, a lower detection limit of approximately 4.2 grams of enriched uranium (40% 235U) was calculated for a 40 minute measurement using a field portable 2.5 MeV neutron source and an array of 16 moderated helium-3 neutron tubes. Future work in this area, including the use of a more powerful neutron source and a better tailored detector array, would likely improve this limit to a much lower level. Further development work at INL will explore the applicability of active interrogation in association with the nuclear safeguards and process monitoring needs of the advanced GNEP facilities under consideration. This work, which will include both analyses and field demonstrations, will be performed in collaboration with colleagues at INL and elsewhere that have expertise in nuclear fuel reprocessing as well as active interrogation and its use for nuclear material analyses.

  19. Active Neutron Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2009-05-01

    Portable electronic neutron generators (ENGs) may be used to interrogate suspicious items to detect, characterize, and quantify the presence fissionable material based upon the measurement of prompt and/or delayed emissions of neutrons and/or photons resulting from fission. The small size (<0.2 m3), light weight (<12 kg), and low power consumption (<50 W) of modern ENGs makes them ideally suited for use in field situations, incorporated into systems carried by 2-3 individuals under rugged conditions. At Idaho National Laboratory we are investigating techniques and portable equipment for performing active neutron interrogation of moderate sized objects less than ~2-4 m3 to detect shielded fissionable material. Our research in this area relies upon the use of pulsed deuterium-tritium ENGs and the measurement of die-away prompt fission neutrons and other neutron signatures in-between neutron pulses from the ENG and after the ENG is turned off.

  20. High-energy photon interrogation for nonproliferation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. L.; Blackburn, B. W.; Watson, S. M.; Norman, D. R.; Hunt, A. W.

    2007-08-01

    There is an immediate need for technologies that can successfully address homeland security challenges related to the inspection of commercial rail, air and maritime-cargo container inspections for nuclear and radiological devices. The pulsed photonuclear assessment (PPA) technology, developed through collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) has demonstrated the ability to detect shielded/unshielded nuclear material primarily through the analysis of delayed neutrons and gamma-rays produced via photonuclear reactions. Because of current food irradiation limitations, however, most active photon (i.e. bremsstrahlung) interrogation studies have been performed with electron beam energies at or below 10 MeV. While this energy limit currently applies to cargo inspections, the World Health Organization has indicated that higher energy electron beam operations could be considered for future operations. Clinical applications using photon energies well in excess of 10 MeV are already well established. Notwithstanding the current limitation of 10 MeV, there is a definite advantage in using higher photon energies for cargo inspections. At higher energies, several phenomena contribute to increased sensitivity in regards to detecting shielded nuclear material. Two of the most important are: (1) increased ability for source photons to penetrate shielding; and (2) enhanced signature production via increased (γ,n) and (γ,f) cross-sections in materials such as 235U and 239Pu directly leading to faster inspection throughput. Experimental assessments have been conducted for various electron beam energies from 8 to 25 MeV. Increases of up to three orders of magnitude in delayed signatures have been measured over these energy ranges. Through the continued investigation into PPA-based inspection applications using photon energies greater than 10 MeV, higher detection sensitivities with potentially

  1. Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Methods for Accelerating Active Interrogation Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W; Wagner, John C

    2013-01-01

    The potential for smuggling special nuclear material (SNM) into the United States is a major concern to homeland security, so federal agencies are investigating a variety of preventive measures, including detection and interdiction of SNM during transport. One approach for SNM detection, called active interrogation, uses a radiation source, such as a beam of neutrons or photons, to scan cargo containers and detect the products of induced fissions. In realistic cargo transport scenarios, the process of inducing and detecting fissions in SNM is difficult due to the presence of various and potentially thick materials between the radiation source and the SNM, and the practical limitations on radiation source strength and detection capabilities. Therefore, computer simulations are being used, along with experimental measurements, in efforts to design effective active interrogation detection systems. The computer simulations mostly consist of simulating radiation transport from the source to the detector region(s). Although the Monte Carlo method is predominantly used for these simulations, difficulties persist related to calculating statistically meaningful detector responses in practical computing times, thereby limiting their usefulness for design and evaluation of practical active interrogation systems. In previous work, the benefits of hybrid methods that use the results of approximate deterministic transport calculations to accelerate high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations have been demonstrated for source-detector type problems. In this work, the hybrid methods are applied and evaluated for three example active interrogation problems. Additionally, a new approach is presented that uses multiple goal-based importance functions depending on a particle s relevance to the ultimate goal of the simulation. Results from the examples demonstrate that the application of hybrid methods to active interrogation problems dramatically increases their calculational efficiency.

  2. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; E. H. Seabury; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; S. M. Watson; J. Wharton

    2009-08-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. 1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. 2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. 3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1 – 4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to be

  3. Improved Fission Neutron Data Base for Active Interrogation of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Sara; Czirr, J. Bart; Haight, Robert; Kovash, Michael; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2013-11-06

    This project will develop an innovative neutron detection system for active interrogation measurements. Many active interrogation methods to detect fissionable material are based on the detection of neutrons from fission induced by fast neutrons or high-energy gamma rays. The energy spectrum of the fission neutrons provides data to identify the fissionable isotopes and materials such as shielding between the fissionable material and the detector. The proposed path for the project is as follows. First, the team will develop new neutron detection systems and algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations and bench-top experiments. Next, They will characterize and calibrate detection systems both with monoenergetic and white neutron sources. Finally, high-fidelity measurements of neutron emission from fissions induced by fast neutrons will be performed. Several existing fission chambers containing U-235, Pu-239, U-238, or Th-232 will be used to measure the neutron-induced fission neutron emission spectra. The challenge for making confident measurements is the detection of neutrons in the energy ranges of 0.01 – 1 MeV and above 8 MeV, regions where the basic data on the neutron energy spectrum emitted from fission is least well known. In addition, improvements in the specificity of neutron detectors are required throughout the complete energy range: they must be able to clearly distinguish neutrons from other radiations, in particular gamma rays and cosmic rays. The team believes that all of these challenges can be addressed successfully with emerging technologies under development by this collaboration. In particular, the collaboration will address the area of fission neutron emission spectra for isotopes of interest in the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI).

  4. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Antolak, A.J.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the 11B(p,gamma)12C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the 11B(p,gamma)12C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB6 tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 mu s long pulses, and a 1percent duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  5. Thermal neutron imaging in an active interrogation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier,P.E.; Forman, L., and Norman, D.R.

    2009-03-10

    We have developed a thermal-neutron coded-aperture imager that reveals the locations of hydrogenous materials from which thermal neutrons are being emitted. This imaging detector can be combined with an accelerator to form an active interrogation system in which fast neutrons are produced in a heavy metal target by means of xcitation by high energy photons. The photo-induced neutrons can be either prompt or delayed, depending on whether neutronemitting fission products are generated. Provided that there are hydrogenous materials close to the target, some of the photo-induced neutrons slow down and emerge from the surface at thermal energies. These neutrons can be used to create images that show the location and shape of the thermalizing materials. Analysis of the temporal response of the neutron flux provides information about delayed neutrons from induced fission if there are fissionable materials in the target. The combination of imaging and time-of-flight discrimination helps to improve the signal-to-background ratio. It is also possible to interrogate the target with neutrons, for example using a D-T generator. In this case, an image can be obtained from hydrogenous material in a target without the presence of heavy metal. In addition, if fissionable material is present in the target, probing with fast neutrons can stimulate delayed neutrons from fission, and the imager can detect and locate the object of interest, using appropriate time gating. Operation of this sensitive detection equipment in the vicinity of an accelerator presents a number of challenges, because the accelerator emits electromagnetic interference as well as stray ionizing radiation, which can mask the signals of interest.

  6. Active Interrogation of Sensitive Nuclear Material Using Laser Driven Neutron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Favalli, Andrea; Roth, Markus

    2015-05-01

    An investigation of the viability of a laser-driven neutron source for active interrogation is reported. The need is for a fast, movable, operationally safe neutron source which is energy tunable and has high-intensity, directional neutron production. Reasons for the choice of neutrons and lasers are set forth. Results from the interrogation of an enriched U sample are shown.

  7. Rattling Nucleons: New Developments in Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Runkle; David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  8. Active interrogation of helicopter main rotor faults using trailing edge flap actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Patricia Lynn

    Over the past decade, the helicopter community has become increasingly interested in health monitoring. The rotor system, however, is not sufficiently covered in the current Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS). This dissertation describes the development and evaluation of a new approach for detecting helicopter rotor faults in which active trailing edge flaps are used to interrogate the system. This work is based on the presumption that trailing edge flaps would be installed for the primary purpose of vibration and/or noise control; health monitoring is a secondary use. Using this approach, the blade is excited by an interrogation signal, which is a low amplitude oscillation at a few discrete frequencies. The blade response is measured and the health of the system is determined using a frequency domain damage identification algorithm. Damage detection and location are achieved via the residual force vector. The residual force vector, coupled with an understanding of the system physics, also provides nature characterization. Quantification of damage extent is achieved via a frequency domain adaptation of the Asymmetric Minimum Rank Perturbation Theory. The active interrogation system is evaluated using an aeroelastic finite element model of the rotor system in hover, including an advanced unsteady aerodynamic model to predict the trailing edge flap loads. Realistic damage models, including distributed bending stiffness damage, torsional stiffness damage, control system stiffness damage, cracks and ballistic damage, are seeded in the rotor system model. Results demonstrate detection, location and quantification of extent of all of the faults tested. The effects of noise and modeling errors are discussed and mitigation techniques are developed. Additionally, a measurability study is included. Benefits of this work include both improved health monitoring for rotorcraft as well as insights into the application of structural damage detection algorithms to a

  9. Integrated FBG sensors interrogator in silicon photonic platform using active interferometer monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Y. E.; Nannipieri, T.; Di Pasquale, F.; Oton, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors interrogation using integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) and phase sensitive detection in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The Phase- Generated Carrier (PGC) demodulation technique is used to detect phase changes, avoiding signal fading. Signal processing allows us to extract the wavelength shift from the signal patterns, allowing accurate dynamic FBG interrogation. High resolution and low cost chips with multiple interrogators and photodetectors on board can be realized by exploiting the advantages of large scale fabrication capabilities of well-established silicon based industrial infrastructures. Simultaneous dynamic reading of a large number of FBG sensors can lead to large volume market applications of the technology in several strategic industrial fields. The performance of the proposed integrated FBG interrogator is validated by comparing with a commercial FBG readout based on a spectrometer and used as a reference.

  10. Active-Interrogation Measurements of Fast Neutrons from Induced Fission in Low-Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Dolan; M. J. Marcath; M. Flaska; S. A. Pozzi; D. L. Chichester; A. Tomanin; P. Peerani

    2014-02-01

    A detection system was designed with MCNPX-PoliMi to measure induced-fission neutrons from U-235 and U-238 using active interrogation. Measurements were then performed with this system at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy on low-enriched uranium samples. Liquid scintillators measured induced fission neutron to characterize the samples in terms of their uranium mass and enrichment. Results are presented to investigate and support the use of organic liquid scintillators with active interrogation techniques to characterize uranium containing materials.

  11. Active Neutron Interrogation of Non-Radiological Materials with NMIS

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Mark E; Mihalczo, John T

    2012-02-01

    The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), although primarily designed for analyzing special nuclear material, is capable of identifying nonradiological materials with a wide range of measurement techniques. This report demonstrates four different measurement methods, complementary to fast-neutron imaging, which can be used for material identification: DT transmission, DT scattering, californium transmission, and active time-tagged gamma spectroscopy. Each of the four techniques was used to evaluate how these methods can be used to identify four materials: aluminum, polyethylene, graphite, and G-10 epoxy. While such measurements have been performed individually in the past, in this project, all four measurements were performed on the same set of materials. The results of these measurements agree well with predicted results. In particular, the results of the active gamma spectroscopy measurements demonstrate the technique's applicability in a future version of NMIS which will incorporate passive and active gamma-ray spectroscopy. This system, designated as a fieldable NMIS (FNMIS), is under development by the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Verification.

  12. Investigation of Active Interrogation Techniques to Detect Special Nuclear Material in Maritime Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W

    2010-01-01

    The detection and interdiction of special nuclear material (SNM) is still a high-priority focus area for many organizations around the world. One method that is commonly considered a leading candidate in the detection of SNM is active interrogation (AI). AI is different from its close relative, passive interrogation, in that an active source is used to enhance or create a detectable signal (usually fission) from SNM, particularly in shielded scenarios or scenarios where the SNM has a low activity. The use of AI thus makes the detection of SNM easier or, in some scenarios, even enables previously impossible detection. In this work the signal from prompt neutrons and photons as well as delayed neutrons and photons will be combined, as is typically done in AI. In previous work AI has been evaluated experimentally and computationally. However, for the purposes of this work, past scenarios are considered lightly shielded and tightly coupled spatially. At most, the previous work interrogated the contents of one standard cargo container (2.44 x 2.60 x 6.10 m) and the source and detector were both within a few meters of the object being interrogated. A few examples of this type of previous work can be found in references 1 and 2. Obviously, more heavily shielded AI scenarios will require larger source intensities, larger detector surface areas (larger detectors or more detectors), greater detector efficiencies, longer count times, or some combination of these.

  13. Capabilities of the INL ZPPR to Support Active Interrogation Research with SNM

    SciTech Connect

    Chichester, D. L.; Seabury, E. H.; Turnage, J. A.; Brush, B. A.; Perry, E. F.

    2009-03-10

    For over 40 years Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and its predecessor organizations have maintained and operated the Zero-Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) as a test bed for studying reactor physics and nuclear reactor design. Although ZPPR is no longer operated as an active research reactor, its infrastructure (radiation shielding, safety systems, physical safeguards) and special nuclear material (SNM) inventory (variably enriched uranium and plutonium fuels available in metallic, oxide, alloy, and other forms) still make the facility a unique national resource for research and development activities involving the use of SNM. Recently INL has utilized this resource to serve as a test and evaluation facility for active interrogation research and development. This facility is currently hosting scoping experiments using neutron and x-ray radiation sources to characterize SNM active interrogation signatures and to develop tools and techniques to detect and identify shielded SNM. This paper presents an overview of the facility's infrastructure and assets and describes recent active interrogation experiments that have taken place using high-energy x-ray sources and compact electronic neutron generators.

  14. Capabilities of the INL ZPPR to Support Active Interrogation Research with SNM

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury; Jennifer A. Turnage; Bevin A. Brush; Eugene F. Perry

    2008-08-01

    For over 40 years Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and its predecessor organizations have maintained and operated the Zero-Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) as a test bed for studying reactor physics and nuclear reactor design. Although the ZPPR is no longer operated as an active research reactor, it’s infrastructure (radiation shielding, safety systems, physical safeguards) and special nuclear material (SNM) inventory (variably enriched uranium and plutonium fuels available in metallic, oxide, alloy, and other forms) still makes the facility a unique national resource for research and development activities involving the use of SNM. Recently INL has utilized this facility to serve as a test and evaluation facility for active interrogation research and development. This facility is currently hosting scoping experiments using neutron and x-ray radiation sources to characterize SNM active interrogation signatures and to develop tools and techniques to detect and identify shielded SNM. This paper presents an overview of the facility’s infrastructure and assets and describes recent active interrogation experiments that have taken place using high-energy x-ray sources and compact electronic neutron generators.

  15. A knowledge based application of the extended aircraft interrogation and display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.; Larson, Richard R.

    1991-01-01

    A family of multiple-processor ground support test equipment was used to test digital flight-control systems on high-performance research aircraft. A unit recently built for the F-18 high alpha research vehicle project is the latest model in a series called the extended aircraft interrogation and display system. The primary feature emphasized monitors the aircraft MIL-STD-1553B data buses and provides real-time engineering units displays of flight-control parameters. A customized software package was developed to provide real-time data interpretation based on rules embodied in a highly structured knowledge database. The configuration of this extended aircraft interrogation and display system is briefly described, and the evolution of the rule based package and its application to failure modes and effects testing on the F-18 high alpha research vehicle is discussed.

  16. Active Interrogation Observables for Enrichment Determination of DU Shielded HEU Metal Assemblies with Limited Geometrical Information

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, Kirsten E; McConchie, Seth M; Crye, Jason Michael; Mihalczo, John T

    2011-01-01

    Determining the enrichment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal assemblies shielded by depleted uranium (DU) proves a unique challenge to currently employed measurement techniques. Efforts to match time-correlated neutron distributions obtained through active interrogation to Monte Carlo simulations of the assemblies have shown promising results, given that the exact geometries of both the HEU metal assemblies and DU shields are known from imaging and fission site mapping. In certain situations, however, it is desirable to obtain enrichment with limited or no geometrical information of the assemblies being measured. This paper explores the possibility that the utilization of observables in the interrogation of assemblies by time-tagged D-T neutrons, including time-correlated distribution of neutrons and gammas using liquid scintillators operating on the fission chain time scale, can lead to enrichment determination without a complete set of geometrical information.

  17. Active-Interrogation Measurements of Induced-Fission Neutrons from Low-Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Dolan; M. J. Marcath; M. Flaska; S. A. Pozzi; D. L. Chichester; A. Tomanin; P. Peerani; G. Nebbia

    2012-07-01

    Protection and control of nuclear fuels is paramount for nuclear security and safeguards; therefore, it is important to develop fast and robust controlling mechanisms to ensure the safety of nuclear fuels. Through both passive- and active-interrogation methods we can use fast-neutron detection to perform real-time measurements of fission neutrons for process monitoring. Active interrogation allows us to use different ranges of incident neutron energy to probe for different isotopes of uranium. With fast-neutron detectors, such as organic liquid scintillation detectors, we can detect the induced-fission neutrons and photons and work towards quantifying a sample’s mass and enrichment. Using MCNPX-PoliMi, a system was designed to measure induced-fission neutrons from U-235 and U-238. Measurements were then performed in the summer of 2010 at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy. Fissions were induced with an associated particle D-T generator and an isotopic Am-Li source. The fission neutrons, as well as neutrons from (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) reactions, were measured with five 5” by 5” EJ-309 organic liquid scintillators. The D-T neutron generator was available as part of a measurement campaign in place by Padova University. The measurement and data-acquisition systems were developed at the University of Michigan utilizing a CAEN V1720 digitizer and pulse-shape discrimination algorithms to differentiate neutron and photon detections. Low-enriched uranium samples of varying mass and enrichment were interrogated. Acquired time-of-flight curves and cross-correlation curves are currently analyzed to draw relationships between detected neutrons and sample mass and enrichment. In the full paper, the promise of active-interrogation measurements and fast-neutron detection will be assessed through the example of this proof-of-concept measurement campaign. Additionally, MCNPX-PoliMi simulation results will be compared to the measured data to validate the MCNPX-PoliMi code

  18. Proton interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher L

    2008-01-01

    Energetic proton beams may provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because: they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and proton beams can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections for delayed neutrons and gamma-rays using the 800 MeV proton beam from the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Results will be presented.

  19. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Liew, Seth

    2015-06-01

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated.

  20. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  1. A portable active interrogation system using a switchable AmBe neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Matthew; Hertz, Kristin; Kunz, Christopher; Mascarenhas, Nicholas

    2005-09-01

    Active neutron interrogation is an effective technique used to locate fissionable material. This paper discusses a portable system that utilizes a AmBe neutron source. The AmBe source consists of an americium alpha source and a beryllium target that can be switched into alignment to turn the source on and out of alignment to turn the source off. This offers a battery operated backpack portable source. The detector system that has been fabricated for use with this source is a fifteen tube 3He neutron detector. The results of initial experiments with the detector and MCNP calculations are discussed.

  2. Interrogating discourse: the application of Foucault's methodological discussion to specific inquiry.

    PubMed

    Fadyl, Joanna K; Nicholls, David A; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2013-09-01

    Discourse analysis following the work of Michel Foucault has become a valuable methodology in the critical analysis of a broad range of topics relating to health. However, it can be a daunting task, in that there seems to be both a huge number of possible approaches to carrying out this type of project, and an abundance of different, often conflicting, opinions about what counts as 'Foucauldian'. This article takes the position that methodological design should be informed by ongoing discussion and applied as appropriate to a particular area of inquiry. The discussion given offers an interpretation and application of Foucault's methodological principles, integrating a reading of Foucault with applications of his work by other authors, showing how this is then applied to interrogate the practice of vocational rehabilitation. It is intended as a contribution to methodological discussion in this area, offering an interpretation of various methodological elements described by Foucault, alongside specific application of these aspects.

  3. A Kinematically Beamed, Low Energy Pulsed Neutron Source for Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, D; Hagmann, C; Kerr, P; Nakae, L; Rowland, M; Snyderman, N; Stoeffl, W; Hamm, R

    2004-10-07

    We are developing a new active interrogation system based on a kinematically focused low energy neutron beam. The key idea is that one of the defining characteristics of SNM (Special Nuclear Materials) is the ability for low energy or thermal neutrons to induce fission. Thus by using low energy neutrons for the interrogation source we can accomplish three goals, (1) Energy discrimination allows us to measure the prompt fast fission neutrons produced while the interrogation beam is on; (2) Neutrons with an energy of approximately 60 to 100 keV do not fission 238U and Thorium, but penetrate bulk material nearly as far as high energy neutrons do and (3) below about 100keV neutrons lose their energy by kinematical collisions rather than via the nuclear (n,2n) or (n,n') processes thus further simplifying the prompt neutron induced background. 60 keV neutrons create a low radiation dose and readily thermal capture in normal materials, thus providing a clean spectroscopic signature of the intervening materials. The kinematically beamed source also eliminates the need for heavy backward and sideway neutron shielding. We have designed and built a very compact pulsed neutron source, based on an RFQ proton accelerator and a lithium target. We are developing fast neutron detectors that are nearly insensitive to the ever-present thermal neutron and neutron capture induced gamma ray background. The detection of only a few high energy fission neutrons in time correlation with the linac pulse will be a clear indication of the presence of SNM.

  4. Estimation of the Performance of Multiple Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures for Detecting Shielded HEU

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson; Scott M. Watson; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-10-01

    A comprehensive modeling study has been carried out to evaluate the utility of multiple active neutron interrogation signatures for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). The modeling effort focused on varying HEU masses from 1 kg to 20 kg; varying types of shields including wood, steel, cement, polyethylene, and borated polyethylene; varying depths of the HEU in the shields, and varying engineered shields immediately surrounding the HEU including steel, tungsten, and cadmium. Neutron and gamma-ray signatures were the focus of the study and false negative detection probabilities versus measurement time were used as a performance metric. To facilitate comparisons among different approaches an automated method was developed to generate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for different sets of model variables for multiple background count rate conditions. This paper summarizes results or the analysis, including laboratory benchmark comparisons between simulations and experiments. The important impact engineered shields can play towards degrading detectability and methods for mitigating this will be discussed.

  5. High resolution interrogation system for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor application using radio frequency spectrum analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, F. D.; Zulkifli, M. Z.; Harun, S. W.; Ahmad, H.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system for high resolution sensor application based on radio frequency (RF) generation technique by beating a single longitudinal mode (SLM) fiber ring laser with an external tunable laser source (TLS). The external TLS provides a constant wavelength (CW), functioning as the reference signal for the frequency beating technique. The TLS used has a constant output power and wavelength over time. The sensor signal is provided by the reflected wavelength of a typical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in the SLM fiber ring laser, which consists of a 1 m long highly doped Erbium doped fiber as the gain medium. The key to ensure the SLM laser oscillation is the role of graphene as saturable absorber which is opposed to the commonly used unpumped erbiumdoped fiber and this consequently contributes to the simple and short cavity design of our proposed system. The signal from the SLM fiber ring laser, which is generated by the FBG in response to external changes, such as temperature, strain, air humidity and air movement, is heterodyned with the CW signal from the TLS at a 6 GHz photodetector using a 3-dB fused coupler to generate the frequency beating. This proposed system is experimentally demonstrated as a temperature sensor and the results shows that the frequency response of the system towards the changes in temperature is about 1.3 GHz/°C, taking into account the resolution bandwidth of 3 MHz of the radio frequency spectrum analyzer (RFSA).

  6. Interrogating Surface Functional Group Heterogeneity of Activated Thermoplastics Using Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    ONeil, Colleen E; Jackson, Joshua M; Shim, Sang-Hee; Soper, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel approach for characterizing surfaces utilizing super-resolution fluorescence microscopy with subdiffraction limit spatial resolution. Thermoplastic surfaces were activated by UV/O3 or O2 plasma treatment under various conditions to generate pendant surface-confined carboxylic acids (-COOH). These surface functional groups were then labeled with a photoswitchable dye and interrogated using single-molecule, localization-based, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to elucidate the surface heterogeneity of these functional groups across the activated surface. Data indicated nonuniform distributions of these functional groups for both COC and PMMA thermoplastics with the degree of heterogeneity being dose dependent. In addition, COC demonstrated relative higher surface density of functional groups compared to PMMA for both UV/O3 and O2 plasma treatment. The spatial distribution of -COOH groups secured from super-resolution imaging were used to simulate nonuniform patterns of electroosmotic flow in thermoplastic nanochannels. Simulations were compared to single-particle tracking of fluorescent nanoparticles within thermoplastic nanoslits to demonstrate the effects of surface functional group heterogeneity on the electrokinetic transport process.

  7. Insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity through interrogation of cis elements disrupted in human erythroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Ludwig, Leif S; Fiorini, Claudia; Yasuda, Makiko; Choudhuri, Avik; McDonel, Patrick; Zon, Leonard I; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-04-19

    Whole-exome sequencing has been incredibly successful in identifying causal genetic variants and has revealed a number of novel genes associated with blood and other diseases. One limitation of this approach is that it overlooks mutations in noncoding regulatory elements. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which mutations in transcriptionalcis-regulatory elements result in disease remain poorly understood. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to interrogate three such elements harboring mutations in human erythroid disorders, which in all cases are predicted to disrupt a canonical binding motif for the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA1. Deletions of as few as two to four nucleotides resulted in a substantial decrease (>80%) in target gene expression. Isolated deletions of the canonical GATA1 binding motif completely abrogated binding of the cofactor TAL1, which binds to a separate motif. Having verified the functionality of these three GATA1 motifs, we demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation of GATA1 motifs in regulatory elements proximal to other genes implicated in erythroid disorders, and show that targeted disruption of such elements results in altered gene expression. By modeling transcription factor binding patterns, we show that multiple transcription factors are associated with erythroid gene expression, and have created predictive maps modeling putative disruptions of their binding sites at key regulatory elements. Our study provides insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity and may prove a useful resource for investigating the pathogenicity of noncoding variants in human erythroid disorders.

  8. Using Electronic Neutron Generators in Active Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2008-10-01

    Experiments have been performed at Idaho National Laboratory to study methodology and instrumentation for performing neutron active interrogation die-away analyses for the purpose of detecting shielded fissionable material. Here we report initial work using a portable DT electronic neutron generator with a He-3 fast neutron detector to detect shielded fissionable material including >2 kg quantities of enriched uranium and plutonium. Measurements have been taken of bare material as well as of material hidden within a large plywood cube. Results from this work have demonstrated the efficacy of the die-away neutron measurement technique for quickly detecting the presence of special nuclear material hidden within plywood shields by analyzing the time dependent neutron signals in-between neutron generator pulses. Using a DT electronic neutron generator operating at 300 Hz with a yield of approximately 0.36 x 10**8 neutrons per second, 2.2 kg of enriched uranium hidden within a 0.60 m x 0.60 m x 0.70 m volume of plywood was positively detected with a measurement signal 2-sigma above the passive background within 1 second. Similarly, for a 500 second measurement period a lower detection limit of approaching the gram level could be expected with the same simple set-up.

  9. DOSE PROFILE MODELING OF IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY’S ACTIVE NEUTRON INTERROGATION TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury; J. M. Zabriskie; J. Wharton; A. J. Caffrey

    2009-06-01

    A new research and development laboratory has been commissioned at Idaho National Laboratory for performing active neutron interrogation research and development. The facility is designed to provide radiation shielding for DT fusion (14.1 MeV) neutron generators (2 x 108 neutrons per second), DD fusion (2.5 MeV) neutron generators (up to 2 x 106 neutrons per second), and 252Cf spontaneous fission neutron sources (6.7 x 107 neutrons per second, 30 micrograms). Shielding at the laboratory is comprised of modular concrete shield blocks 0.76 m thick with tongue-in-groove features to prevent radiation streaming, arranged into one small and one large test vault. The larger vault is designed to allow operation of the DT generator and has walls 3.8 m tall, an entrance maze, and a fully integrated electrical interlock system; the smaller test vault is designed for 252Cf and DD neutron sources and has walls 1.9 m tall and a simple entrance maze. Both analytical calculations and numerical simulations were used in the design process for the building to assess the performance of the shielding walls and to ensure external dose rates are within required facility limits. Dose rate contour plots have been generated for the facility to visualize the effectiveness of the shield wall and entrance maze and to illustrate the spatial profile of the radiation dose field above the facility and the effects of skyshine around the vaults.

  10. Insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity through interrogation of cis elements disrupted in human erythroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Ludwig, Leif S; Fiorini, Claudia; Yasuda, Makiko; Choudhuri, Avik; McDonel, Patrick; Zon, Leonard I; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-04-19

    Whole-exome sequencing has been incredibly successful in identifying causal genetic variants and has revealed a number of novel genes associated with blood and other diseases. One limitation of this approach is that it overlooks mutations in noncoding regulatory elements. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which mutations in transcriptionalcis-regulatory elements result in disease remain poorly understood. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to interrogate three such elements harboring mutations in human erythroid disorders, which in all cases are predicted to disrupt a canonical binding motif for the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA1. Deletions of as few as two to four nucleotides resulted in a substantial decrease (>80%) in target gene expression. Isolated deletions of the canonical GATA1 binding motif completely abrogated binding of the cofactor TAL1, which binds to a separate motif. Having verified the functionality of these three GATA1 motifs, we demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation of GATA1 motifs in regulatory elements proximal to other genes implicated in erythroid disorders, and show that targeted disruption of such elements results in altered gene expression. By modeling transcription factor binding patterns, we show that multiple transcription factors are associated with erythroid gene expression, and have created predictive maps modeling putative disruptions of their binding sites at key regulatory elements. Our study provides insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity and may prove a useful resource for investigating the pathogenicity of noncoding variants in human erythroid disorders. PMID:27044088

  11. Insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity through interrogation of cis elements disrupted in human erythroid disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ulirsch, Jacob C.; Ludwig, Leif S.; Fiorini, Claudia; Yasuda, Makiko; Choudhuri, Avik; McDonel, Patrick; Zon, Leonard I.; Sankaran, Vijay G.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing has been incredibly successful in identifying causal genetic variants and has revealed a number of novel genes associated with blood and other diseases. One limitation of this approach is that it overlooks mutations in noncoding regulatory elements. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which mutations in transcriptional cis-regulatory elements result in disease remain poorly understood. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to interrogate three such elements harboring mutations in human erythroid disorders, which in all cases are predicted to disrupt a canonical binding motif for the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA1. Deletions of as few as two to four nucleotides resulted in a substantial decrease (>80%) in target gene expression. Isolated deletions of the canonical GATA1 binding motif completely abrogated binding of the cofactor TAL1, which binds to a separate motif. Having verified the functionality of these three GATA1 motifs, we demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation of GATA1 motifs in regulatory elements proximal to other genes implicated in erythroid disorders, and show that targeted disruption of such elements results in altered gene expression. By modeling transcription factor binding patterns, we show that multiple transcription factors are associated with erythroid gene expression, and have created predictive maps modeling putative disruptions of their binding sites at key regulatory elements. Our study provides insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity and may prove a useful resource for investigating the pathogenicity of noncoding variants in human erythroid disorders. PMID:27044088

  12. Parametric Evaluation of Active Neutron Interrogation for the Detection of Shielded Highly-Enriched Uranium in the Field

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chcihester; E. H. Seabury; S. J. Thompson; R. R. C. Clement

    2011-10-01

    Parametric studies using numerical simulations are being performed to assess the performance capabilities and limits of active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). Varying the shield material, HEU mass, HEU depth inside the shield, and interrogating neutron source energy, the simulations account for both neutron and photon emission signatures from the HEU with resolution in both energy and time. The results are processed to represent different irradiation timing schemes and several different classes of radiation detectors, and evaluated using a statistical approach considering signal intensity over background. This paper describes the details of the modeling campaign and some preliminary results, weighing the strengths of alternative measurement approaches for the different irradiation scenarios.

  13. Impact of electrolyte composition on the reactivity of a redox active polymer studied through surface interrogation and ion-sensitive scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Mark; Hernández-Burgos, Kenneth; Cheng, Kevin J; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2016-06-21

    Elucidating the impact of interactions between the electrolyte and electroactive species in redox active polymers is key to designing better-performing electrodes for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Here, we present on the improvement of the electrochemical activity of poly(para-nitrostyrene) (PNS) in solution and as a film by exploiting the ionic interactions between reduced PNS and K(+), which showed increased reactivity when compared to tetrabutylammonium (TBA(+))- and Li(+)-containing electrolytes. While cyclic voltammetry enabled the study of the effects of cations on the electrochemical reversibility and the reduction potential of PNS, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) provided new tools to probe the ionic and redox reactivity of this system. Using an ion-sensitive Hg SECM tip allowed to probe the ingress of ions into PNS redox active films, while surface interrogation SECM (SI-SECM) measured the specific kinetics of PNS and a solution phase mediator in the presence of the tested electrolytes. SI-SECM measurements illustrated that the interrogation kinetics of PNS in the presence of K(+) compared to TBA(+) and Li(+) are greatly enhanced under the same surface concentration of adsorbed radical anion, exhibiting up to a 40-fold change in redox kinetics. We foresee using this new application of SECM methods for elucidating optimal interactions that enhance polymer reactivity for applications in redox flow batteries.

  14. 8 CFR 343b.3 - Interrogation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interrogation. 343b.3 Section 343b.3 Aliens... NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.3 Interrogation. When Form N-565 presents a prima facie... issuance of the certificate. Interrogation of the applicant shall be conducted before the application...

  15. Optically powered and interrogated rotary position sensor for aircraft engine control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillman, W. B.; Crowne, D. H.; Woodward, D. W.

    A throttle level angle (TLA) sensing system is described that utilizes a capacitance based rotary position transducer that is powered and interrogated via light from a single multimode optical fiber. The system incorporates a unique GaAs device that serves as both a power converter and optical data transmitter. Design considerations are discussed, and the fabrication and performance of the sensor system are detailed.

  16. Active interrogation of plasma-liquid boundary using 2D plasma-in-liquid apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Janis; Foster, John

    2015-09-01

    Plasma medicine and plasma-based water purification technologies rely on the production and transport of plasma-derived (direct or indirect) reactive species into the bulk medium. This interaction takes place at the interface between the gas phase plasma and the liquid medium. The nature of radical production and subsequent radical transport from this region or boundary layer is not well understood due to the difficulty of implementing diagnostics to interrogate this region. We present a 2-D plasma-in-liquid water apparatus that makes the interface region assessable to optical diagnostics. Using colorimetric chemical probes, acidification and oxidation fronts are tracked using high-speed imaging and spectroscopy. Additionally, observed, plasma-induced fluid dynamical effects are also discussed. Forces at the interface can play a key role in the transport of radicals into the bulk solution. The role of plasma-driven interfacial forces as well as that of the applied, local electric field on chemical front propagation velocity and induced circulation are also discussed. Supported by grants NSF CBET 1336375 and DOE DE-SC0001939.

  17. Interrogation system for a fiber-Bragg-grating strain sensor for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falciai, Riccardo; Vannini, Andrea

    2001-09-01

    In this paper a derivative spectrometer, utilizing an FFP tunable filter for the wavelength shift detection and an electronic device for the signal processing, was realized and tested for data acquisition and elaboration from a fiber-Bragg-grating strain sensor system for automotive applications. The result of measurements carried out both under static and dynamic conditions have been compared with those performed with a strain gauge.

  18. Sensitivity Measurements For Cargo Scanning Applications Using Photon Interrogation and Neutron Signature Counting Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankrah, Maxwell

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, non-destructive evaluation techniques which use either photon or neutron sources from accelerators followed by neutron counting signatures have been used in many national security and nuclear nonproliferation applications [4, 60]. Although the United States customs and border protection initiated and implemented a cargo security initiative to discover threats from others countries before they embark to the US, detectors with better sensitivities are more necessary than ever in view of the global threats faced by nations around the world. Photofission based applications which use delayed neutron signal ores as viable detection schemes for fissile material detection have been ongoing for many years. Applications of this technology to include cargo scanning applications are however lacking. This work in this dissertation used the delayed neutron signature counting technique for fissile material detection in conjunction with new formulated Curries' expressions to establish the sensitivity (minimum detectable mass) limits. The fission reactions were induced in a uranyl nitrate solution containing 94.1 g of 238U using bremsstrahlung endpoint cue pies of 9 MeV to 21 MeV in 2 MeV steps. Preliminary data on the sensitvity measurement at bremsstrahlung end point energies of 9, 14, 18 and 22 MeV are also presented. We also present the effect of borated polyethylene and lead shielding on the sensitivity at 9 and 22 N1cV. The sensitivities were calculated for 5%u false positives and 5% fake negatives as well as for 1% false positives and 0.1% false negatives. A dose of 4 Gy, 5 mGy and 1 mGy were assumed to be delivered to Mutt cargo container. For a radiator and target-to-detector distance of 150 cm and 200 cup, the delayed neutron yield from calculation and experiment was also compared. Finally, feasibility studies was conducted to determine if the linac parameters used in this research was capable of detecting 1 mg, 1 g and 1 kg of 238U. This work was funded

  19. Epithermal interrogation of fissile waste

    SciTech Connect

    Coop, K.L.; Hollas, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    Self-shielding of interrogating thermal neutrons in lumps of fissile material can be a major source of error in transuranic waste assay using the widely employed differential dieaway technique. We are developing a new instrument, the combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) interrogation instrument to detect the occurrence of self- shielding and mitigate its effects. Neutrons are moderated in the graphite walls of the CTEN instrument to provide an interrogating flux of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The induced prompt fission neutrons are detected in proportional counters. We report the results of measurements made with the CTEN instrument, using minimal and highly self-shielding plutonium and uranium sources in 55 gallon drums containing a variety of mock waste matrices. Fissile isotopes and waste forms for which the method is most applicable, and limitations associated with the hydrogen content of the waste package/matrix are described.

  20. Active neutron interrogation for verification of storage of weapons components at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.; Mattingly, J.K.; Mullens, J.A.; Hughes, S.S.

    1998-02-23

    A nuclear weapons identification system (NWIS), under development since 1984 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and presently in use there, uses active neutron interrogation with low-intensity {sup 252}Cf sources in ionization chambers to provide a timed source of fission neutrons from the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf. To date, measurements have been performed on {approximately}15 different weapons systems in a variety of configurations both in and out of containers. Those systems included pits and fully assembled systems ready for deployment at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, and weapons components at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These measurements have shown that NWIS can identify nuclear weapons and/or components; nuclear weapons/components can be distinguished from mockups where fissile material has been replaced by nonfissile material; omissions of small amounts (4%) of fissile material can be detected; changes in internal configurations can be determined; trainer parts can be identified as was demonstrated by verification of 512 containers with B33 components at the Y-12 Plant (as many as 32 in one 8-hour shift); and nonfissile components can be identified. The current NWIS activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant include: (1) further development of the system for more portability and lower power consumption, (2) collection of reference signatures for all weapons components in containers, and (3) confirmation of a particular weapons component in storage and confirmation of receipts. This paper describes the recent measurements with NWIS for a particular weapons component in storage that have resolved an Inspector General (IG`s) audit finding with regard to performance of confirmation of inventory.

  1. Implementation of advanced matrix corrections for active interrogation of waste drums using the CTEN instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, S.; Estep, R.; Hollas, C.

    1998-12-31

    The combined thermal/epithermal neutron instrument (CTEN) was designed at Los Alamos to improve measurement accuracy and mitigate self shielding effects inherent in the differential dieaway technique (DDT). A major goal in this research effort has been the development of a calibration technique that incorporates recently developed matrix and self-shielding corrections using data generated from additional detectors and new acquisition techniques. A comprehensive data set containing both active and passive measurements was generated using 26 different matrices and comprising a total of 1,400 measurements. In all, 31 flux-and-matrix-dependent parameters, 24 positional parameters, two dieaway times, and a correlated ratio were determined from each of the over 1,400 measurements. A reduced list of matrix indicators, prioritized using the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm, was used to train a neural network using a generalized regression technique (GRNN) to determine matrix- and position-corrected calibration factors. This paper describes the experimental, analytical, and empirical techniques used to determine the corrected calibration factor for an unknown waste drum. Results from a range of cases are compared with those obtained using a mobile DDT instrument and traditional DDT algorithms.

  2. Software for Manipulating and Embedding Data Interrogation Algorithms into Integrated Systems: Special Application to Structural Health Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, David W.

    2004-12-01

    In this study a software package for easily creating and embedding structural health monitoring (SHM) data interrogation processes in remote hardware is presented. The software described herein is comprised of two pieces. The first is a client to allow graphical construction of data interrogation processes. The second is node software for remote execution of processes on remote sensing and monitoring hardware. The client software is created around a catalog of data interrogation algorithms compiled over several years of research at Los Alamos National Laboratory known as DIAMOND II. This study also includes encapsulating the DIAMOND II algorithms into independent interchangeable functions and expanding the catalog with work in feature extraction and statistical discrimination. The client software also includes methods for interfacing with the node software over an Internet connection. Once connected, the client software can upload a developed process to the integrated sensing and processing node. The node software has the ability to run the processes and return results. This software creates a distributed SHM network without individual nodes relying on each other or a centralized server to monitor a structure.

  3. Interrogating personhood and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Paul; Gilleard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To interrogate the concept of personhood and its application to care practices for people with dementia. Method: We outline the work of Tom Kitwood on personhood and relate this to conceptualisations of personhood in metaphysics and in moral philosophy. Results: The philosophical concept of personhood has a long history. The metaphysical tradition examines the necessary and sufficient qualities that make up personhood such as agency, consciousness, identity, rationality and second-order reflexivity. Alternative viewpoints treat personhood as a matter of degree rather than as a superordinate category. Within moral philosophy personhood is treated as a moral status applicable to some or to all human beings. Conclusion: In the light of the multiple meanings attached to the term in both metaphysics and moral philosophy, personhood is a relatively unhelpful concept to act as the foundation for developing models and standards of care for people with dementia. Care, we suggest, should concentrate less on ambiguous and somewhat abstract terms such as personhood and focus instead on supporting people's existing capabilities, while minimising the harmful consequences of their incapacities. PMID:26708149

  4. Monolithic integrated optic fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Songjian

    2010-04-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are a mature sensing technology that has gained rapid acceptance in civil, aerospace, chemical and petrochemical, medicine, aviation and automotive industries. Fiber Bragg grating sensors can be use for a variety of measurements including strain, stress, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion distributed at multiple locations within the structure using a single fiber element. The most prominent advantages of FBGs are: small size and light weight, multiple FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. A major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems are typically bulky, heavy, and costly bench top instruments that are assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-TransceiverTM) system based on multi-channel monolithic integrated optic sensor microchip technology. The integrated optic microchip technology enables the monolithic integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogators systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation.

  5. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Tak Pui; Antolak, Arlyn

    2007-02-15

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation.

  6. Nimbus 4/IRLS Balloon Interrogation Package (BIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The balloon interrogation package (BIP), an integral part of the overall interrogation, recording, and location subsystems (IRLS) for the Nimbus 4 program, is described. The BIP is a self-contained, integrated transponder designed to be carried aloft by a constant altitude, superpressure balloon to an altitude of 67,000 or 78,000 feet. After launch the BIP senses high-altitude balloon overpressure and temperature, and upon receipt of an interrogated command from the IRLS aboard the Nimbus 4 satellite, the BIP enodes the data on a real-time basis into a pulse-code modulation (PCM) format and transmits this data to the satellite. A summary of the program activity to produce 30 BIP systems and to support balloon launches from Ascension Island is presented.

  7. Gamma/neutron analysis for SNM signatures at high-data rates(greater than 107 cps) for single-pulse active interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Forman L.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.

    2011-04-26

    We are developing a high data gamma/neutron spectrometer suitable for active interrogation of special nuclear materials (SNM) activated by a single burst from an intense source. We have tested the system at Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Mercury pulsed-power facility at distances approaching 10 meters from a depleted uranium (DU) target. We have found that the gamma-ray field in the target room 'disappears' 10 milliseconds after the x-ray flash, and that gamma ray spectroscopy will then be dominated by isomeric states/beta decay of fission products. When a polyethylene moderator is added to the DU target, a time-dependent signature of the DU is produced by thermalized neutrons. We observe this signature in gamma-spectra measured consecutively in the 0.1-1.0 ms time range. These spectra contain the Compton edge line (2.2 MeV) from capture in hydrogen, and a continuous high energy gamma-spectrum from capture or fission in minority constituents of the DU.

  8. The dynamic nature of interrogation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Christopher E; Miller, Jeaneé C; Redlich, Allison D

    2016-06-01

    Building on a substantial body of literature examining interrogation methods employed by police investigators and their relationship to suspect behaviors, we analyzed a sample of audio and video interrogation recordings of individuals suspected of serious violent crimes. Existing survey research has focused on the tactics reportedly used, at what rate, and under what conditions; observational studies detail which methods are actually employed. With a few notable exceptions, these foundational studies were static examinations of interrogation methods that documented the absence or presence of various approaches. In the present study, we cast interrogation as a dynamic phenomenon and code the recordings in 5-min intervals to examine how interrogation methods and suspect cooperation change over time. Employing the interrogation taxonomy framework, particularly 4 discrete domains-rapport and relationship building, emotion provocation, presentation of evidence, and confrontation/competition-we found that the emphasis of the domains varied across interrogations and were significantly different when suspects confessed versus when they denied involvement. In regression models, suspect cooperation was positively influenced by the rapport and relationship building domain, though it was negatively impacted by presentation of evidence and confrontation/competition. Moreover, we found that the negative effects of confrontation/competition on suspect cooperation lasted for up to 15 min. The implications of the findings for practice and future research include the benefits of a rapport-based approach, the deleterious effects of accusatorial methods, and the importance of studying when, not just if, certain interrogation techniques are employed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Applications of the associated-particle neutron-time-of-flight interrogation technique - From sheep to unexploded ordnance

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.

    2013-04-19

    The associated-particle technique (APT) will be presented for some diverse applications that include on the one hand, analyzing the body composition of live sheep and on the other, identifying the fillers of unexploded ordnance (UXO). What began with proof-of-concept studies using a large laboratory based 14 MeV neutron generator of the 'associated-particle' type, soon became possible for the first time to measure total body protein, fat and water simultaneously in live sheep using a compact field deployable associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG). This non-invasive technique offered the animal physiologist a tool to monitor the growth of an animal in response to new genetic, nutritional and pharmacologic methods for livestock improvement. While measurement of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) determined protein, fat and water because of the fixed stoichiometric proportions of these elements in these body components, the unique C/N and C/O ratios of high explosives revealed their identity in UXO. The algorithm that was developed and implemented to extract C, N and O counts from an APT generated gamma-ray spectrum will be presented together with the UXO investigations that involved preliminary proofof-concept studies and modeling with Monte Carlo produced synthetic spectra of 57-155 mm projectiles.

  10. Applications of the associated-particle neutron-time-of-flight interrogation technique - From sheep to unexploded ordnance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.

    2013-04-01

    The associated-particle technique (APT) will be presented for some diverse applications that include on the one hand, analyzing the body composition of live sheep and on the other, identifying the fillers of unexploded ordnance (UXO). What began with proof-of-concept studies using a large laboratory based 14 MeV neutron generator of the "associated-particle" type, soon became possible for the first time to measure total body protein, fat and water simultaneously in live sheep using a compact field deployable associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG). This non-invasive technique offered the animal physiologist a tool to monitor the growth of an animal in response to new genetic, nutritional and pharmacologic methods for livestock improvement. While measurement of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) determined protein, fat and water because of the fixed stoichiometric proportions of these elements in these body components, the unique C/N and C/O ratios of high explosives revealed their identity in UXO. The algorithm that was developed and implemented to extract C, N and O counts from an APT generated gamma-ray spectrum will be presented together with the UXO investigations that involved preliminary proofof-concept studies and modeling with Monte Carlo produced synthetic spectra of 57-155 mm projectiles.

  11. Adaptive interrogation for 3D-PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Matteo; Ianiro, Andrea; Scarano, Fulvio

    2013-02-01

    A method to adapt the shape and orientation of interrogation volumes for 3D-PIV motion analysis is introduced, aimed to increase the local spatial resolution. The main application of this approach is the detailed analysis of complex 3D and vortex-dominated flows that exhibit high vorticity in confined regions like shear layers and vortex filaments. The adaptive criterion is based on the analysis of the components of the local velocity gradient tensor, which returns the level of anisotropy of velocity spatial fluctuations. The principle to increase the local spatial resolution is based on the deformation of spherical isotropic interrogation regions, obtained by means of Gaussian weighting, into ellipsoids, with free choice of the principal axes and their directions. The interrogation region is contracted in the direction of the maximum velocity variation and elongated in the minimum one in order to maintain a constant interrogation volume. The adaptivity technique for three-dimensional PIV data takes advantage of the 3D topology of the flow, allowing increasing the spatial resolution not only in the case of shear layers, but also for vortex filaments, which is not possible for two-dimensional measurement in the plane normal to the vortex axis. The definition of the ellipsoidal interrogation region semi-axes is based on the singular values and singular directions of the local velocity gradient tensor as obtained by the singular values decomposition technique (SVD). The working principle is verified making use of numerical simulations of a shear layer and of a vortex filament. The application of the technique to data from a Tomo-PIV experiment conducted on a round jet, shows that the resolution of the shear layer at the jet exit can be considerably improved and an increase of about 25% in the vorticity peak is attained when the adaptive approach is applied. On the other hand, the peak vorticity description in the core of vortex rings is only slightly improved with

  12. Interrogation of Global Active Site Occupancy of a Fungal Iterative Polyketide Synthase Reveals Strategies for Maintaining Biosynthetic Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Vagstad, Anna L.; Bumpus, Stefanie B.; Belecki, Katherine; Kelleher, Neil L.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Nonreducing iterative polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) are responsible for assembling the core of fungal aromatic natural products with diverse biological properties. Despite recent advances in the field, many mechanistic details of polyketide assembly by these megasynthases remain unknown. To expand our understanding of substrate loading, polyketide elongation, cyclization, and product release, active site occupancy and product output were explored by Fourier transform mass spectrometry using the norsolorinic acid anthrone-producing polyketide synthase, PksA, from the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus parasiticus. Here we report the simultaneous observation of covalent intermediates from all catalytic domains of PksA from in vitro reconstitution reactions. The data provide snapshots of iterative catalysis and reveal an underappreciated editing function for the C-terminal thioesterase domain beyond its recently established synthetic role in Claisen/Dieckmann cyclization and product release. The specificity of thioesterase catalyzed hydrolysis was explored using biosynthetically relevant protein-bound and small molecule acyl substrates, and demonstrated activity against hexanoyl and acetyl, but not malonyl. Processivity of polyketide extension was supported by the inability of a nonhydrolyzable malonyl analog to trap products of intermediate chain lengths and by the detection of only fully extended species observed covalently bound to, and as the predominant products released by, PksA. High occupancy of the malonyl transacylase domain and fast relative rate of malonyl transfer compared to starter unit transfer indicate that rapid loading of extension units onto the carrier domain facilitates efficient chain extension in a manner kinetically favorable to ultimate product formation. PMID:22452347

  13. Gamma source for active interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Barletta, William A.

    2009-09-29

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  14. Gamma source for active interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Barletta, William A.

    2012-10-02

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  15. Determination of the plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly by passive and active interrogation using a differential die-away instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzl, V.; Croft, S.; Richard, J.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Tobin, S. J.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to estimating the total plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly (SFA) that is based on combining information from a passive measurement of the total neutron count rate (PN) of the assayed SFA and a measure of its multiplication. While PN can be measured essentially with any non-destructive assay (NDA) technique capable of neutron detection, the measure of multiplication is, in our approach, determined by means of active interrogation using an instrument based on the Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). The DDA is a NDA technique developed within the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) project focused on the utilization of NDA techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in commercial nuclear SFA's [1]. This approach was adopted since DDA also allows determination of other SFA characteristics, such as burnup, initial enrichment, and cooling time, and also allows for detection of certain types of diversion of nuclear material. The quantification of total plutonium is obtained using an analytical correlation function in terms of the observed PN and active multiplication. Although somewhat similar approaches relating Pu content with PN have been adopted in the past, we demonstrate by extensive simulation of the fuel irradiation and NDA process that our analytical method is independent of explicit knowledge of the initial enrichment, burnup, and an absolute value of the SFA's reactivity (i.e. multiplication factor). We show that when tested with MCNPX™ simulations comprising the 64 SFA NGSI Spent Fuel Library-1 we were able to determine elemental plutonium content, using just a few calibration parameters, with an average variation in the prediction of around 1-2% across the wide dynamic range of irradiation history parameters used, namely initial enrichment (IE=2-5%), burnup (BU=15-60 GWd/tU) and cooling time (CT=1-80 y). In this paper we describe the basic approach and the

  16. Multi-channel monolithic integrated optic fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Zongjian

    2011-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a mature sensing technology for the measurement of strain, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion. It has gained rapid acceptance in civil, aerospace, chemical and petrochemical, medicine, aviation and automotive industries. The most prominent advantages of FBG are: small size and light weight, distributed array of FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. However, a major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art FBG interrogation system is typically bulky, heavy, and costly bench top instruments that are typically assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the industrial need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver™) system based on multi-channel monolithic integrated optic sensor microchip technology. The integrated optic microchip technology enables monolithic integration of all functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator system, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2 cm×5 cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation.

  17. Interrogation Methods and Terror Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccara, Mariagiovanna; Bar-Isaac, Heski

    We examine how the structure of terror networks varies with legal limits on interrogation and the ability of authorities to extract information from detainees. We assume that terrorist networks are designed to respond optimally to a tradeoff caused by information exchange: Diffusing information widely leads to greater internal efficiency, but it leaves the organization more vulnerable to law enforcement. The extent of this vulnerability depends on the law enforcement authority’s resources, strategy and interrogation methods. Recognizing that the structure of a terrorist network responds to the policies of law enforcement authorities allows us to begin to explore the most effective policies from the authorities’ point of view.

  18. Towards isozyme-selective HDAC inhibitors for interrogating disease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Praveer; Reid, Robert C; Iyer, Abishek; Sweet, Matthew J; Fairlie, David P

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes have emerged as promising targets for the treatment of a wide range of human diseases, including cancers, inflammatory and metabolic disorders, immunological, cardiovascular, and infectious diseases. At present, such applications are limited by the lack of selective inhibitors available for each of the eighteen HDAC enzymes, with most currently available HDAC inhibitors having broad-spectrum activity against multiple HDAC enzymes. Such broad-spectrum activity maybe useful in treating some diseases like cancers, but can be detrimental due to cytotoxic side effects that accompany prolonged treatment of chronic diseased states. Here we summarize progress towards the design and discovery of HDAC inhibitors that are selective for some of the eleven zinc-containing classical HDAC enzymes, and identify opportunities to use such isozyme-selective inhibitors as chemical probes for interrogating the biological roles of individual HDAC enzymes in diseases.

  19. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system for use in aerospace and automotive health monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Panahi, Allan; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGs) have gained rapid acceptance in aerospace and automotive structural health monitoring applications for the measurement of strain, stress, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion distributed at multiple locations within the structure using a single fiber element. The most prominent advantages of FBGs are: small size and light weight, multiple FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. A major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems are typically bulky and heavy bench top instruments that are assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogators systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  20. Application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to interrogate alterations in the proteome of genetically modified crops. 1. Assessing analytical validation.

    PubMed

    Ruebelt, Martin C; Leimgruber, Nancy K; Lipp, Markus; Reynolds, Tracey L; Nemeth, Margaret A; Astwood, James D; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Jany, Klaus-Dieter

    2006-03-22

    Current tools used to assess the safety of food and feed derived from modern biotechnology emphasize the investigation of possible unintended effects caused directly by the expression of transgenes or indirectly by pleiotropy. These tools include extensive multisite and multiyear agronomic evaluations, compositional analyses, animal nutrition, and classical toxicology evaluations. Because analytical technologies are rapidly developing, proteome analysis based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) was investigated as a complementary tool to the existing technologies. A 2DE method was established for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the seed proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana with the following validation parameters examined: (1) source and scope of variation; (2) repeatability; (3) sensitivity; and (4) linearity of the method. The 2DE method resolves proteins with isoelectric points between 4 and 9 and molecular masses (MM) of 6-120 kDa and is sensitive enough to detect protein levels in the low nanogram range. The separation of the proteins was demonstrated to be very reliable with relative position variations of 1.7 and 1.1% for the pI and MM directions, respectively. The mean coefficient of variation of 254 matched spot qualities was found to be 24.8% for the gel-to-gel and 26% for the overall variability. A linear relationship (R2 > 0.9) between protein amount and spot volume was demonstrated over a 100-fold range for the majority of selected proteins. Therefore, this method could be used to interrogate proteome alterations such as a novel protein, fusion protein, or any other change that affects molecular mass, isoelectric point, and/or quantity of a protein.

  1. AWG Filter for Wavelength Interrogator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Richard J. (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Faridian, Fereydoun (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Sotoudeh, Vahid (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength interrogator is coupled to a circulator which couples optical energy from a broadband source to an optical fiber having a plurality of sensors, each sensor reflecting optical energy at a unique wavelength and directing the reflected optical energy to an AWG. The AWG has a detector coupled to each output, and the reflected optical energy from each grating is coupled to the skirt edge response of the AWG such that the adjacent channel responses form a complementary pair response. The complementary pair response is used to convert an AWG skirt response to a wavelength.

  2. Bright Lights and Questions: Using Mutual Interrogation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Aishikin; Alangui, Willy; Barton, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Mutual Interrogation is a research methodology for ethnomathematics proposed by Alangui in 2006 in an attempt to avoid the potential inequality set up when a restricted cultural practice is viewed through the lens of the near-universal and highly developed research domain of mathematics. Using three significant examples of mutual interrogation in…

  3. Variation in Miami Cuban Spanish Interrogative Intonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvord, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The interrogative intonation of Cubans and Cuban Americans living in Miami is investigated. Two different intonation patterns are used in this variety of Spanish to convey absolute interrogative meaning: one with a falling final contour, as has been observed in Cuban Spanish, and one with a rising final contour, as is used in American English and…

  4. 8 CFR 343b.3 - Interrogation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interrogation. 343b.3 Section 343b.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.3 Interrogation. When Form N-565 presents a prima...

  5. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    PubMed

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-09-25

    After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946-1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter.

  6. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    PubMed

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-01-01

    After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946-1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter. PMID:18817568

  7. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-01-01

    After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946–1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter. PMID:18817568

  8. Epistemic Analysis of Interrogative Domains using Cuboids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Cameron; Hughes, Tracey

    We are interested in analyzing the propositional knowledge extracted by an epistemic agent from interrogative domains. The interrogative domains that have our current focus are taken from transcripts of legal trials, congressional hearings, or law enforcement interrogations. These transcripts have be encoded in XML or HTML formats. The agent uses these transcripts as a primary knowledge source. The complexity, size, scope and potentially conflicting nature of transcripts from interrogative domains bring into question the quality of propositional knowledge that can be garnered by the agent. Epistemic Cuboids or Cubes are used as a knowledge analysis technique that helps determine the quality and quantity of the propositional knowledge extracted by an epistemic agent from an interrogative domain. In this paper we explore how 'Epistemic Cubes' can be used to evaluate the nature of the agent's propositional knowledge.

  9. Dynamic interrogation of wireless antenna sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, J.; Tjuatja, S.; Huang, H.; Sanders, J.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the dynamic interrogation of a wireless antenna sensor for mechanical vibration monitoring. In order to interrogate the antenna resonant frequency at sufficient high speeds, a wireless interrogator that consists of a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) synthesizer, a signal demodulation unit, and a real-time digital signal processing program was developed. The principle of operation of the dynamic wireless sensing system is first described, followed by the description of the design and implementation of the antenna sensor and the wireless interrogator. After calibrate the antenna sensor response using static tensile tests, dynamic interrogation of the wireless antenna sensor was carried out by subjecting the test specimen to a sinusoidal tensile load. The resonant frequency shifts of the antenna sensor were compared with the strains calculated from the applied loads. A good agreement between the antenna sensor readings and the strain values were achieved. A sampling rate of up to 50 Hz was demonstrated.

  10. Are the American Psychological Association's Detainee Interrogation Policies Ethical and Effective?: Key Claims, Documents, and Results.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    After 9-11, the United States began interrogating detainees at settings such as Abu Ghraib, Bagram, and Guantanamo. The American Psychological Association (APA) supported psychologists' involvement in interrogations, adopted formal policies, and made an array of public assurances. This article's purpose is to highlight key APA decisions, policies, procedures, documents, and public statements in urgent need of rethinking and to suggest questions that may be useful in a serious assessment, such as, "However well intended, were APA's interrogation policies ethically sound?"; "Were they valid, realistic, and able to achieve their purpose?"; "Were other approaches available that would address interrogation issues more directly, comprehensively, and actively, that were more ethically and scientifically based, and that would have had a greater likelihood of success?"; and "Should APA continue to endorse its post-9-11 detainee interrogation policies?"

  11. Are the American Psychological Association’s Detainee Interrogation Policies Ethical and Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    After 9–11, the United States began interrogating detainees at settings such as Abu Ghraib, Bagram, and Guantanamo. The American Psychological Association (APA) supported psychologists’ involvement in interrogations, adopted formal policies, and made an array of public assurances. This article’s purpose is to highlight key APA decisions, policies, procedures, documents, and public statements in urgent need of rethinking and to suggest questions that may be useful in a serious assessment, such as, “However well intended, were APA’s interrogation policies ethically sound?”; “Were they valid, realistic, and able to achieve their purpose?”; “Were other approaches available that would address interrogation issues more directly, comprehensively, and actively, that were more ethically and scientifically based, and that would have had a greater likelihood of success?”; and “Should APA continue to endorse its post-9–11 detainee interrogation policies?” PMID:22096660

  12. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive V that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries V and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. In general, RFID is a method of identifying items using radio waves to interrogate tags encoded with a unique identifier that are affixed to the items of interest. In the case of passive tags, only the interrogator, which transmits power to the tags in the form of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, requires access to a power supply. Passive RFID technologies are used today in many applications, including asset tracking and management, security and access control, and remote sensing. To date, most of the development and application in RFID technology has focused on either asset/inventory tracking and control or security and access control because these are the largest commercial application areas. Recently however, there has been growing interest in using passive RFID technology for remote sensing applications, and SAW devices are at the forefront of RFID sensing technology development. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of

  13. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  14. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  15. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  16. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  17. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  18. Illicit substance detection using fast-neutron interrogation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, T.J.; Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-06-01

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are of interest for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs because of their ability to identify light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of these materials. Two particular techniques, Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy and Pulsed Fast-Neutron Analysis, are discussed. Examples of modeling studies are provided which illustrate the applications of these two techniques.

  19. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? What are the

  20. Integrated nanoscale tools for interrogating living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgolli, Marsela

    The development of next-generation, nanoscale technologies that interface biological systems will pave the way towards new understanding of such complex systems. Nanowires -- one-dimensional nanoscale structures -- have shown unique potential as an ideal physical interface to biological systems. Herein, we focus on the development of nanowire-based devices that can enable a wide variety of biological studies. First, we built upon standard nanofabrication techniques to optimize nanowire devices, resulting in perfectly ordered arrays of both opaque (Silicon) and transparent (Silicon dioxide) nanowires with user defined structural profile, densities, and overall patterns, as well as high sample consistency and large scale production. The high-precision and well-controlled fabrication method in conjunction with additional technologies laid the foundation for the generation of highly specialized platforms for imaging, electrochemical interrogation, and molecular biology. Next, we utilized nanowires as the fundamental structure in the development of integrated nanoelectronic platforms to directly interrogate the electrical activity of biological systems. Initially, we generated a scalable intracellular electrode platform based on vertical nanowires that allows for parallel electrical interfacing to multiple mammalian neurons. Our prototype device consisted of 16 individually addressable stimulation/recording sites, each containing an array of 9 electrically active silicon nanowires. We showed that these vertical nanowire electrode arrays could intracellularly record and stimulate neuronal activity in dissociated cultures of rat cortical neurons similar to patch clamp electrodes. In addition, we used our intracellular electrode platform to measure multiple individual synaptic connections, which enables the reconstruction of the functional connectivity maps of neuronal circuits. In order to expand and improve the capability of this functional prototype device we designed

  1. Fissile mass estimation by pulsed neutron source interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelashvili, I.; Dubi, C.; Ettedgui, H.; Ocherashvili, A.; Pedersen, B.; Beck, A.; Roesgen, E.; Crochmore, J. M.; Ridnik, T.; Yaar, I.

    2015-06-01

    Passive methods for detecting correlated neutrons from spontaneous fissions (e.g. multiplicity and SVM) are widely used for fissile mass estimations. These methods can be used for fissile materials that emit a significant amount of fission neutrons (like plutonium). Active interrogation, in which fissions are induced in the tested material by an external continuous source or by a pulsed neutron source, has the potential advantages of fast measurement, alongside independence of the spontaneous fissions of the tested fissile material, thus enabling uranium measurement. Until recently, using the multiplicity method, for uranium mass estimation, was possible only for active interrogation made with continues neutron source. Pulsed active neutron interrogation measurements were analyzed with techniques, e.g. differential die away analysis (DDA), which ignore or implicitly include the multiplicity effect (self-induced fission chains). Recently, both, the multiplicity and the SVM techniques, were theoretically extended for analyzing active fissile mass measurements, made by a pulsed neutron source. In this study the SVM technique for pulsed neutron source is experimentally examined, for the first time. The measurements were conducted at the PUNITA facility of the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy. First promising results, of mass estimation by the SVM technique using a pulsed neutron source, are presented.

  2. Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1988-04-12

    A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads is disclosed. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples. 6 figs.

  3. Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, William B.; McNeilly, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples.

  4. Temperature-compensated strain measurement of full-scale small aircraft wing structure using low-cost FBG interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, Y. G.; Park, Y.; Kim, C. G.

    2013-04-01

    Recently, health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) are being studied to monitor the real-time condition of aircrafts during flight. HUMSs can prevent aircraft accidents and reduce inspection time and cost. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are widely used for aircraft HUMSs with many advantages such as light weight, small size, easy-multiplexing, and EMI immunity. However, commercial FBG interrogators are too expensive to apply for small aircrafts. Generally the cost of conventional FBG interrogators is over 20,000. Therefore, cost-effective FBG interrogation systems need to be developed for small aircraft HUMSs. In this study, cost-effective low speed FBG interrogator was applied to full-scale small aircraft wing structure to examine the operational applicability of the low speed FBG interrogator to the monitoring of small aircrafts. The cost of the developed low speed FBG interrogator was about 10,000, which is an affordable price for a small aircraft. 10 FBG strain sensors and 1 FBG temperature sensor were installed on the surface of the full-scale wing structure. Load was applied to the tip of the wing structure, and the low speed interrogator detected the change in the center wavelength of the FBG sensors at the sampling rate of 10Hz. To assess the applicability of the low-cost FBG interrogator to full-scale small aircraft wing structure, a temperature-compensated strain measurement algorithm was verified experimentally under various loading conditions of the wing structure with temperature variations.

  5. INL Neutron Interrogation R&D: FY2010 MPACT End of Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury; J. Wharton; S. M. Watson

    2010-08-01

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the feasibility and utility of using neutron interrogation and small-scale, portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) instruments for assaying uranium for safeguards applications. Prior work has shown the potential of the PGNAA technique for assaying uranium using reactor-based neutron sources and high-yield electronic neutron generators (ENGs). In this project we adapted Idaho National Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy (PINS) PGNAA system for measuring natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake and metallic depleted uranium and highly enriched uranium. This work used 252Cf as well as deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) ENGs. For PGNAA measurements a limiting factor when assaying large objects is the detector dead time due to fast-neutron scattering off of the uranium; this limits the maximum useable neutron source strength to O(107) neutrons per second. Under these conditions the low PGNAA reaction cross sections for uranium prohibited the collection of useful uranium PGNAA signatures from either the yellowcake or metallic uranium samples. Measurement of the decay product activation in these materials following irradiation in the PGNAA geometry similarly did not produce useful uranium activation product – fission product signatures. A customized irradiation geometry tailored to optimally thermalize the interrogation neutron source, intended only for generating long-lived activation products – fission products and not intended for PGNAA measurements, might be possible using small scale ENGs but an application need and a modeling and simulation exercise would be recommended before advancing to experiments. Neutron interrogation PGNAA using a DT-ENG was found to be a quick and useful qualitative method for detecting the presence of oxygen in natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake. With a low effort of development work it would be reasonable to expect this measurement

  6. Applications of active microwave imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, F. P.; Childs, L. F.; Gilbert, R.; Harlan, J. C.; Hoffer, R. M.; Miller, J. M.; Parsons, J.; Polcyn, F.; Schardt, B. B.; Smith, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics were discussed in reference to active microwave applications: (1) Use of imaging radar to improve the data collection/analysis process; (2) Data collection tasks for radar that other systems will not perform; (3) Data reduction concepts; and (4) System and vehicle parameters: aircraft and spacecraft.

  7. Explosives (and other threats) detection using pulsed neutron interrogation and optimized detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strellis, Dan A.; Elsalim, Mashal; Gozani, Tsahi

    2011-06-01

    We have previously reported results from a human-portable system using neutron interrogation to detect contraband and explosives. We summarized our methodology for distinguishing threat materials such as narcotics, C4, and mustard gas in the myriad of backgrounds present in the maritime environment. We are expanding our mission for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) to detect Special Nuclear Material (SNM) through the detection of multiple fission signatures without compromising the conventional threat detection performance. This paper covers our initial investigations into using neutrons from compact pulsed neutron generators via the d(D,n)3He or d(T,n)α reactions with energies of ~2.5 and 14 MeV, respectively, for explosives (and other threats) detection along with a variety of gamma-ray detectors. Fast neutrons and thermal neutrons (after successive collisions) can stimulate the emission of various threat detection signatures. For explosives detection, element-specific gamma-ray signatures via the (n,n'γ) inelastic scattering reaction and the (n,'γ) thermal capture reaction are detected. For SNM, delayed gamma-rays following fission can be measured with the same detector. Our initial trade-off investigations of several gamma-ray detectors types (NaI, CsI, LaBr3, HPGe) for measuring gamma-ray signatures in a pulsed neutron environment for potential application in a human-portable active interrogation system are covered in this paper.

  8. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD).

    SciTech Connect

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Buller, Daniel L.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Boye, Robert R.; Samora, Sally; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2008-09-01

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive ({approx}100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications.

  9. Interrogating Racism in Qualitative Research Methodology. Counterpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Gerardo R., Ed.; Parker, Laurence, Ed.

    This book explores the link between critical race theory and qualitative research methodology, interrogating how race connects and conflicts with other areas of difference and is never entirely absent from the research process. After an introduction, "Critical Race Theory in Education: Theory, Praxis, and Recommendations" (Sylvia R. Lazos Vargas),…

  10. Utilization of Actively-induced, Prompt Radiation Emission for Nonproliferation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    F. W. Blackburn; J. L. Jones; C. E. Moss; J. T. Mihalzco; A. W. Hunt; F. Harmon

    2006-08-01

    The pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technique, which has demonstrated the ability to detect shielded nuclear material, is based on utilizing delayed neutrons and photons between accelerator pulses. While most active interrogation systems have focused on delayed neutron and gamma-ray signatures, the current requirements of various agencies necessitate bringing faster detection and acquisition capabilities to field inspection applications. This push for decreased interrogation times, increased sensitivity and mitigation of false positives requires that detection systems take advantage of all available information. Collaborative research between Idaho National Lab (INL), Idaho State University’s Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has focused on exploiting actively-induced, prompt radiation signatures from nuclear material within a pulsed photonuclear environment. To date, these prompt emissions have not been effectively exploited due to difficulties in detection and signal processing inherent in the prompt regime as well as an overall poor understanding of the magnitude and yields of these emissions. Exploitation of prompt radiation (defined as during an accelerator pulse/(photo) fission event and/or immediately after (< l ms)) has the potential to dramatically reduce interrogation times since the yields are more than two orders of magnitude greater than delayed emissions. Recent preliminary experiments conducted at the IAC suggest that it is indeed possible to extract prompt neutron information within a pulsed photon environment. Successful exploitation of prompt emissions is critical for the development of an improved robust, high-throughput, low target dose inspection system for detection of shielded nuclear materials.

  11. A Platform for Interrogating Cancer-Associated p53 Alleles

    PubMed Central

    D’Brot, Alejandro; Kurtz, Paula; Regan, Erin; Jakubowski, Brandon; Abrams, John M

    2016-01-01

    p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. Compelling evidence argues that full transformation involves loss of growth suppression encoded by wild-type p53 together with poorly understood oncogenic activity encoded by missense mutations. Furthermore, distinguishing disease alleles from natural polymorphisms is an important clinical challenge. To interrogate the genetic activity of human p53 variants, we leveraged the Drosophila model as an in vivo platform. We engineered strains that replace the fly p53 gene with human alleles, producing a collection of stocks that are, in effect, ‘humanized’ for p53 variants. Like the fly counterpart, human p53 transcriptionally activated a biosensor and induced apoptosis after DNA damage. However, all humanized strains representing common alleles found in cancer patients failed to complement in these assays. Surprisingly, stimulus-dependent activation of hp53 occurred without stabilization, demonstrating that these two processes can be uncoupled. Like its fly counterpart, hp53 formed prominent nuclear foci in germline cells but cancer-associated p53 variants did not. Moreover, these same mutant alleles disrupted hp53 foci and inhibited biosensor activity, suggesting that these properties are functionally linked. Together these findings establish a functional platform for interrogating human p53 alleles and suggest that simple phenotypes could be used to stratify disease variants. PMID:26996664

  12. Notes on SAW Tag Interrogation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of interrogating a single SAW RFID tag with a known ID and known range in the presence of multiple interfering tags under the following assumptions: (1) The RF propagation environment is well approximated as a simple delay channel with geometric power-decay constant alpha >/= 2. (2) The interfering tag IDs are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed random samples from a probability distribution of tag ID waveforms with known second-order properties, and the tag of interest is drawn independently from the same distribution. (3) The ranges of the interfering tags are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed realizations of a random variable rho with a known probability distribution f(sub rho) , and the tag ranges are independent of the tag ID waveforms. In particular, we model the tag waveforms as random impulse responses from a wide-sense-stationary, uncorrelated-scattering (WSSUS) fading channel with known bandwidth and scattering function. A brief discussion of the properties of such channels and the notation used to describe them in this document is given in the Appendix. Under these assumptions, we derive the expression for the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for an arbitrary combination of transmitted interrogation signal and linear receiver filter. Based on this expression, we derive the optimal interrogator configuration (i.e., transmitted signal/receiver filter combination) in the two extreme noise/interference regimes, i.e., noise-limited and interference-limited, under the additional assumption that the coherence bandwidth of the tags is much smaller than the total tag bandwidth. Finally, we evaluate the performance of both optimal interrogators over a broad range of operating scenarios using both numerical simulation based on the assumed model and Monte Carlo simulation based on a small sample of measured tag waveforms. The performance evaluation results not only

  13. Programmable DNA Nanosystem for Molecular Interrogation.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Divita; Henderson, Eric R

    2016-06-07

    We describe a self-assembling DNA-based nanosystem for interrogating molecular interactions. The nanosystem contains a rigid supporting dumbbell-shaped frame, a cylindrical central core, and a mobile ring that is coaxial with the core. Motion of the ring is influenced by several control elements whose force-generating capability is based on the transition of single-stranded DNA to double-stranded DNA. These forces can be directed to act in opposition to adhesive forces between the ring and the frame thereby providing a mechanism for molecular detection and interrogation at the ring-frame interface. As proof of principle we use this system to evaluate base stacking adhesion and demonstrate detection of a soluble nucleic acid viral genome mimic.

  14. Programmable DNA Nanosystem for Molecular Interrogation

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Divita; Henderson, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a self-assembling DNA-based nanosystem for interrogating molecular interactions. The nanosystem contains a rigid supporting dumbbell-shaped frame, a cylindrical central core, and a mobile ring that is coaxial with the core. Motion of the ring is influenced by several control elements whose force-generating capability is based on the transition of single-stranded DNA to double-stranded DNA. These forces can be directed to act in opposition to adhesive forces between the ring and the frame thereby providing a mechanism for molecular detection and interrogation at the ring-frame interface. As proof of principle we use this system to evaluate base stacking adhesion and demonstrate detection of a soluble nucleic acid viral genome mimic. PMID:27270162

  15. Wirelessly Interrogated Position or Displacement Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    Two simple position or displacement sensors based on inductance-capacitance resonant circuits have been conceived. These sensors are both powered and interrogated without use of wires and without making contact with other objects. Instead, excitation and interrogation are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. Both of the present position or displacement sensors consist essentially of variable rectangular parallel-plate capacitors electrically connected in series with fixed inductors. Simple inductance-capacitance circuits of the type used in these sensors are inherently robust; their basic mode of operation does not depend on maintenance of specific environmental conditions. Hence, these sensors can be used under such harsh conditions as cryogenic temperatures, high pressures, and radioactivity.

  16. Programmable DNA Nanosystem for Molecular Interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Divita; Henderson, Eric R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe a self-assembling DNA-based nanosystem for interrogating molecular interactions. The nanosystem contains a rigid supporting dumbbell-shaped frame, a cylindrical central core, and a mobile ring that is coaxial with the core. Motion of the ring is influenced by several control elements whose force-generating capability is based on the transition of single-stranded DNA to double-stranded DNA. These forces can be directed to act in opposition to adhesive forces between the ring and the frame thereby providing a mechanism for molecular detection and interrogation at the ring-frame interface. As proof of principle we use this system to evaluate base stacking adhesion and demonstrate detection of a soluble nucleic acid viral genome mimic.

  17. Wirelessly Interrogated Wear or Temperature Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2010-01-01

    Sensors for monitoring surface wear and/or temperature without need for wire connections have been developed. Excitation and interrogation of these sensors are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. In a sensor of the present type as in the previously reported ones, the capacitance and, thus, the resonance frequency, varies as a known function of the quantity of interest that one seeks to determine. Hence, the resonance frequency is measured and used to calculate the quantity of interest.

  18. Interrogations, confessions, and adolescent offenders' perceptions of the legal system.

    PubMed

    Arndorfer, Andrea; Malloy, Lindsay C; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    The potential consequences of interrogations and false confessions have been discussed primarily in terms of the risk for wrongful conviction, especially among adolescents and other vulnerable populations. However, it is possible that such experiences influence adolescents' perceptions of the legal system more generally. In the present study, we examined whether incarcerated male juvenile offenders' (n = 193) perceptions of police and the courts were related to their confession and interrogation experiences. High-pressure interrogation experiences and self-reported false confessions to police were associated with more negative perceptions of police. However, self-reported true confessions were not significantly associated with youths' perceptions of the police. Neither interrogation nor confession experiences (true or false) were related to youths' perceptions of the courts. Results provide additional support for policy reform of interrogation practices with young suspects. A more developmentally appropriate approach to criminal interrogations with youth may simultaneously improve police-youth relations and protect vulnerable suspects in the interrogation room. PMID:26011040

  19. Medical ethics and the interrogation of Guantanamo 063.

    PubMed

    Miles, Steven H

    2007-04-01

    The controversy over abusive interrogations of prisoners during the war against terrorism spotlights the need for clear ethics norms requiring physicians and other clinicians to prevent the mistreatment of prisoners. Although policies and general descriptions pertaining to clinical oversight of interrogations in United States' war on terror prisons have come to light, there are few public records detailing the clinical oversight of an interrogation. A complaint by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) led to an Army investigation of an interrogation at the United States prison at Guantanamo Bay. The declassified Army investigation and the corresponding interrogation log show clinical supervision, monitoring and treatment during an interrogation that employed dogs, prolonged sleep deprivation, humiliation, restraint, hypothermia and compulsory intravenous infusions. The interrogation and the involvement of a psychologist, physician and medics violate international and medical norms for the treatment of prisoners.

  20. Interrogations, confessions, and adolescent offenders' perceptions of the legal system.

    PubMed

    Arndorfer, Andrea; Malloy, Lindsay C; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    The potential consequences of interrogations and false confessions have been discussed primarily in terms of the risk for wrongful conviction, especially among adolescents and other vulnerable populations. However, it is possible that such experiences influence adolescents' perceptions of the legal system more generally. In the present study, we examined whether incarcerated male juvenile offenders' (n = 193) perceptions of police and the courts were related to their confession and interrogation experiences. High-pressure interrogation experiences and self-reported false confessions to police were associated with more negative perceptions of police. However, self-reported true confessions were not significantly associated with youths' perceptions of the police. Neither interrogation nor confession experiences (true or false) were related to youths' perceptions of the courts. Results provide additional support for policy reform of interrogation practices with young suspects. A more developmentally appropriate approach to criminal interrogations with youth may simultaneously improve police-youth relations and protect vulnerable suspects in the interrogation room.

  1. Scalable interrogation: Eliciting human pheromone responses to deception in a security interview setting.

    PubMed

    Stedmon, Alex W; Eachus, Peter; Baillie, Les; Tallis, Huw; Donkor, Richard; Edlin-White, Robert; Bracewell, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Individuals trying to conceal knowledge from interrogators are likely to experience raised levels of stress that can manifest itself across biological, physiological, psychological and behavioural factors, providing an opportunity for detection. Using established research paradigms an innovative scalable interrogation was designed in which participants were given a 'token' that represented information they had to conceal from interviewers. A control group did not receive a token and therefore did not have to deceive the investigators. The aim of this investigation was to examine differences between deceivers and truth-tellers across the four factors by collecting data for cortisol levels, sweat samples, heart-rate, respiration, skin temperature, subjective stress ratings and video and audio recordings. The results provided an integrated understanding of responses to interrogation by those actively concealing information and those acting innocently. Of particular importance, the results also suggest, for the first time in an interrogation setting, that stressed individuals may secrete a volatile steroid based marker that could be used for stand-off detection. The findings are discussed in relation to developing a scalable interrogation protocol for future research in this area.

  2. Scalable interrogation: Eliciting human pheromone responses to deception in a security interview setting.

    PubMed

    Stedmon, Alex W; Eachus, Peter; Baillie, Les; Tallis, Huw; Donkor, Richard; Edlin-White, Robert; Bracewell, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Individuals trying to conceal knowledge from interrogators are likely to experience raised levels of stress that can manifest itself across biological, physiological, psychological and behavioural factors, providing an opportunity for detection. Using established research paradigms an innovative scalable interrogation was designed in which participants were given a 'token' that represented information they had to conceal from interviewers. A control group did not receive a token and therefore did not have to deceive the investigators. The aim of this investigation was to examine differences between deceivers and truth-tellers across the four factors by collecting data for cortisol levels, sweat samples, heart-rate, respiration, skin temperature, subjective stress ratings and video and audio recordings. The results provided an integrated understanding of responses to interrogation by those actively concealing information and those acting innocently. Of particular importance, the results also suggest, for the first time in an interrogation setting, that stressed individuals may secrete a volatile steroid based marker that could be used for stand-off detection. The findings are discussed in relation to developing a scalable interrogation protocol for future research in this area. PMID:25479971

  3. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  4. Ion-induced gammas for photofission interrogation of HEU.

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Barney Lee (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Antolak, Arlyn J.; Morse, Daniel H.; Provencio, Paula Polyak (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-03-01

    High-energy photons and neutrons can be used to actively interrogate for heavily shielded special nuclear material (SNM), such as HEU (highly enriched uranium), by detecting prompt and/or delayed induced fission signatures. In this work, we explore the underlying physics for a new type of photon source that generates high fluxes of mono-energetic gamma-rays from low-energy (<500 keV) proton-induced nuclear reactions. The characteristic energies (4- to 18-MeV) of the gamma-rays coincide with the peak of the photonuclear cross section. The source could be designed to produce gamma-rays of certain selected energies, thereby improving the probability of detecting shielded HEU or providing a capability to determine enrichment inside sealed containers. The fundamental physics of such an interrogation source were studied in this LDRD through scaled ion accelerator experiments and radiation transport modeling. The data were used to assess gamma and neutron yields, background, and photofission-induced signal levels from several (p,{gamma}) target materials under consideration.

  5. Simulation Of A Photofission-Based Cargo Interrogation System

    SciTech Connect

    King, Michael; Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; Shaw, Timothy

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive model has been developed to characterize and optimize the detection of Bremsstrahlung x-ray induced fission signatures from nuclear materials hidden in cargo containers. An effective active interrogation system should not only induce a large number of fission events but also efficiently detect their signatures. The proposed scanning system utilizes a 9-MV commercially available linear accelerator and the detection of strong fission signals i.e. delayed gamma rays and prompt neutrons. Because the scanning system is complex and the cargo containers are large and often highly attenuating, the simulation method segments the model into several physical steps, representing each change of radiation particle. Each approximation is carried-out separately, resulting in a major reduction in computational time and a significant improvement in tally statistics. The model investigates the effect on the fission rate and detection rate by various cargo types, densities and distributions. Hydrogenous and metallic cargos, homogeneous and heterogeneous, as well as various locations of the nuclear material inside the cargo container were studied. We will show that for the photofission-based interrogation system simulation, the final results are not only in good agreement with a full, single-step simulation but also with experimental results, further validating the full-system simulation.

  6. Hand Held Device for Wireless Powering and Interrogation of Biomems Sensors and Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix Antonio (Inventor); Simons, Rainee N (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A compact, hand-held device for wireless powering, interrogation and data retrieval from at least one implanted sensor. The hand-held device includes an antenna for powering an implanted sensor and for receiving data from the implanted sensor to the hand-held device for at least one of storage, display or analysis. The hand-held device establishes electromagnetic coupling with a low radiating radio frequency power inductor in the implanted sensor at a predefined separation and the antenna geometry allows for the antenna to power, interrogate and retrieve data from the implanted sensor without strapping the hand-held device to a human body housing the implanted sensor The hand-held device optionally allows for activation of the implanted sensor only during interrogation and data retrieval.

  7. Narcotics detection using fast-neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in luggage and cargo containers. This paper discusses two different fast-neutron techniques. The first uses a pulsed accelerator or sealed-tube source to produce monoenergetic fast neutrons. Gamma rays characteristic of carbon and oxygen are detected and the elemental densities determined. Spatial localization is accomplished by either time of flight or collimators. This technique is suitable for examination of large containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays. The second technique uses an accelerator to produce nanosecond pulsed beams of deuterons that strike a target to produce a pulsed beam of neutrons with a continuum of energies. Elemental distributions are obtained by measuring the neutron spectrum after the source neutrons pass through the items being interrogated. Spatial variation of elemental densities is obtained by tomographic reconstruction of projection data obtained for three to five angles and relatively low (2 cm) resolution. This technique is best suited for examination of luggage or small containers with average neutron transmissions greater than about 0.01. Analytic and Monte-Carlo models are being used to investigate the operational characteristics and limitations of both techniques.

  8. Laser interrogation of latent vehicle registration number

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, R.E. |; Pelkey, G.E.; Grant, P.; Whipple, R.E.; Andresen, B.D.

    1994-09-01

    A recent investigation involved automobile registration numbers as important evidentiary specimens. In California, as in most states, small, thin metallic decals are issued to owners of vehicles each year as the registration is renewed. The decals are applied directly to the license plate of the vehicle and typically on top of the previous year`s expired decal. To afford some degree of security, the individual registration decals have been designed to tear easily; they cannot be separated from each other, but can be carefully removed intact from the metal license plate by using a razor blade. In September 1993, the City of Livermore Police Department obtained a blue 1993 California decal that had been placed over an orange 1992 decal. The two decals were being investigated as possible evidence in a case involving vehicle registration fraud. To confirm the suspicion and implicate a suspect, the department needed to known the registration number on the bottom (completely covered) 1992 decal. The authors attempted to use intense and directed light to interrogate the colored stickers. Optical illumination using a filtered white-light source partially identified the latent number. However, the most successful technique used a tunable dye laser pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. By selectively tuning the wavelength and intensity of the dye laser, backlit illumination of the decals permitted visualization of the underlying registration number through the surface of the top sticker. With optimally-tuned wavelength and intensity, 100% accuracy was obtained in identifying the sequence of latent characters. The advantage of optical techniques is their completely nondestructive nature, thus preserving the evidence for further interrogation or courtroom presentation.

  9. Some Semantic Properties of Romanian Interrogatives: "Care" and "Cine."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiliu, E.

    The aim of this paper is to account for some semantic properties of Romanian interrogatives "ce" and "cine" by establishing some definite correlations between various contextual restrictions governing the use of these interrogative particles and the "meaning" which might be assigned to each of these particles in any context their occurrence is…

  10. Extracurricular activities of medical school applicants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate medical school applicants’ involvements in extracurricular activities including medical volunteering/community services, nonmedical community services, club activities, leadership role, and research. Methods: Extracurricular characteristics were compared for 448 applicants (223 males and 225 females) who applied to Kangwon Medical School in 2013 to 2014. Frequency analysis, chi-square test, and simple correlation were conducted with the collected data. Results: The 448 applicants participated in medical volunteer/community services (15.3%), nonmedical community services (39.8%), club activities (22.9%), club officials (10%), and research (13.4%). On average, applicants from foreign universities participated in 0.9 medical volunteer/community service, 0.8 nonmedical community service, 1.7 club activities, and 0.6 research work. On the other hand, applicants from domestic universities reported 0.2 medical volunteer/community service, 1.0 nonmedical community service, 0.7 club activity, and 0.3 research. Conclusion: Involvement in extracurricular activities was extensive for medical school applicants. Participation in extracurricular activities differed between applicants from foreign and domestic universities. Females consistently reported greater participation in extracurricular activities than males. The data can be helpful for admission committees to recruit well-rounded applicants and compare between applicants with similar academic backgrounds. PMID:26996435

  11. High performance multi-spectral interrogation for surface plasmon resonance imaging sensors.

    PubMed

    Sereda, A; Moreau, J; Canva, M; Maillart, E

    2014-04-15

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing has proven to be a valuable tool in the field of surface interactions characterization, especially for biomedical applications where label-free techniques are of particular interest. In order to approach the theoretical resolution limit, most SPR-based systems have turned to either angular or spectral interrogation modes, which both offer very accurate real-time measurements, but at the expense of the 2-dimensional imaging capability, therefore decreasing the data throughput. In this article, we show numerically and experimentally how to combine the multi-spectral interrogation technique with 2D-imaging, while finding an optimum in terms of resolution, accuracy, acquisition speed and reduction in data dispersion with respect to the classical reflectivity interrogation mode. This multi-spectral interrogation methodology is based on a robust five parameter fitting of the spectral reflectivity curve which enables monitoring of the reflectivity spectral shift with a resolution of the order of ten picometers, and using only five wavelength measurements per point. In fine, such multi-spectral based plasmonic imaging system allows biomolecular interaction monitoring in a linear regime independently of variations of buffer optical index, which is illustrated on a DNA-DNA model case.

  12. Single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Keech, Jr., Thomas W.

    1980-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensor circuits each monitors a specific process variable and each transmits measurement values over a single transmission line to a master interrogating station when addressed by said master interrogating station. Typically, as many as 330 remote stations may be parallel connected to the transmission line which may exceed 7,000 feet. The interrogation rate is typically 330 stations/second. The master interrogating station samples each station according to a shared, charging transmit-receive cycle. All remote station address signals, all data signals from the remote stations/sensors and all power for all of the remote station/sensors are transmitted via a single continuous terminated coaxial cable. A means is provided for periodically and remotely calibrating all remote sensors for zero and span. A provision is available to remotely disconnect any selected sensor station from the main transmission line.

  13. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Obenhaus, Horst A.; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1AG can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1AG promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1AG mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1AG is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation.

  14. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Obenhaus, Horst A; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1 (AG) can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1 (AG) promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1 (AG) mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1 (AG) is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation.

  15. An optogenetic system for interrogating the temporal dynamics of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Katsura, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Kunida, Katsuyuki; Kanno, Akira; Kuroda, Shinya; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic activity of the serine/threonine kinase Akt is crucial for the regulation of diverse cellular functions, but the precise spatiotemporal control of its activity remains a critical issue. Herein, we present a photo-activatable Akt (PA-Akt) system based on a light-inducible protein interaction module of Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome2 (CRY2) and CIB1. Akt fused to CRY2phr, which is a minimal light sensitive domain of CRY2 (CRY2-Akt), is reversibly activated by light illumination in several minutes within a physiological dynamic range and specifically regulates downstream molecules and inducible biological functions. We have generated a computational model of CRY2-Akt activation that allows us to use PA-Akt to control the activity quantitatively. The system provides evidence that the temporal patterns of Akt activity are crucial for generating one of the downstream functions of the Akt-FoxO pathway; the expression of a key gene involved in muscle atrophy (Atrogin-1). The use of an optical module with computational modeling represents a general framework for interrogating the temporal dynamics of biomolecules by predictive manipulation of optogenetic modules. PMID:26423353

  16. An Application of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marken, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Activity Theory has often been used in workplace settings to gain new theoretical understandings about work and the humans who engage in work, but rarely has there been sufficient detail in the literature to allow HPT practitioners to do their own activity analysis. The detail presented in this case is sufficient for HPT practitioners to begin to…

  17. Repetitive Interrogation of 2-Level Quantum Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Chung, Sang K.

    2010-01-01

    Trapped ion clocks derive information from a reference atomic transition by repetitive interrogations of the same quantum system, either a single ion or ionized gas of many millions of ions. Atomic beam frequency standards, by contrast, measure reference atomic transitions in a continuously replenished "flow through" configuration where initial ensemble atomic coherence is zero. We will describe some issues and problems that can arise when atomic state selection and preparation of the quantum atomic system is not completed, that is, optical pumping has not fully relaxed the coherence and also not fully transferred atoms to the initial state. We present a simple two-level density matrix analysis showing how frequency shifts during the state-selection process can cause frequency shifts of the measured clock transition. Such considerations are very important when a low intensity lamp light source is used for state selection, where there is relatively weak relaxation and re-pumping of ions to an initial state and much weaker 'environmental' relaxation of the atomic coherence set-up in the atomic sample.

  18. The role of abusive states of being in interrogation.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    Interrogation, the questioning of persons detained by police, military, or intelligence organizations, is designed to extract information that a subject may resist disclosing. Interrogation techniques are frequently predicated on inducing mental states of despair, dread, dependency, and debility that weaken an individual's resistance. Descriptions of techniques from 2 Central Intelligence Agency training manuals are illustrated by examples from interviews of and writings by Murat Kurnaz, who was held at Guantánamo Bay Detention Camp for 5 years. Interrogation techniques are designed to create a destabilizing sense of shock; undermine an individual's grasp on reality; and provoke internal psychological division, self-conflict, and confusion. The long-term effects of interrogation often include posttraumatic stress disorder as well as states of anxiety, depression, and depersonalization.

  19. Design concept for the microwave interrogation structure in PARCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Heavner, T. P.; Jefferts, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will describe key aspects of the conceptual design of the microwave interrogation structure in the laser-cooled cesium frequency standard that is part of the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) experiment.

  20. Insight into fiber Bragg sensor response at 100-MHz interrogation rates under various dynamic loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Mielke, Chuck H.; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Azad, Abul; Sandberg, Richard L.; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M.; Henson, Bryan F.; Smilowitz, Laura; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Sandoval, Tom

    2015-05-01

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain, pressure, and shock position sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber was used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor were detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersive line. Signals were recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 25 GHz bandwidth digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing of magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts were used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO3. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ΔL/L<10-4) in the material. A second application to FBG sensing of pressure dynamics to nearly 2 GPa in the thermal ignition of the high explosive PBX-9501 is also demonstrated. Then, as final demonstration, we use a chirped FBG (CFBG) to resolve shock propagation dynamics in 1-D from an explosive detonation that produces fragmentation in an inert confinement vessel. These applications demonstrate the use of this FBG interrogation system in dynamical extreme conditions that would otherwise not be possible using traditional FBG interrogation approaches that are deemed too slow to resolve such events.

  1. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel using Cf-252 interrogation with prompt neutron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianwei; Tobin, Stephen J; Menlove, Howard O; Croft, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron (CIPN) detection is proposed as one of 14 NDA techniques to determine Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies (FAs). CIPN is a low-cost and portable instrument, and it looks like a modified fork detector combined with an active interrogation source. Fission chamber (FC) is chosen as neutron detector because of its insensitivity to {gamma} radiation. The CIPN assay is comprised of two measurements, a background count and an active count, without and with the {sup 252}Cf source next to the fuel respectively. The net signal above background is primarily due to the multiplication of Cf source neutrons caused by the fissile content. The capability of CIPN to detect diversion and to determine fissile content was quantified using MCNPX simulations. New schemes were proposed (such as burnup and cooling time correction, etc.) and the results show that the fissile content of a target spent fuel assembly can be determined using CIPN signal.

  2. Interrogation of an object for dimensional and topographical information

    DOEpatents

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Hall, Thomas E.; Sheen, David M.; Kennedy, Mike O.

    2004-03-09

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to interrogate a clothed individual with electromagnetic radiation to determine one or more body measurements at least partially covered by the individual's clothing. The invention further includes techniques to interrogate an object with electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter and/or microwave range to provide a volumetric representation of the object. This representation can be used to display images and/or determine dimensional information concerning the object.

  3. Interrogation of an object for dimensional and topographical information

    DOEpatents

    McMakin, Doug L [Richland, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Richland, WA; Sheen, David M [Richland, WA

    2003-01-14

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to interrogate a clothed individual with electromagnetic radiation to determine one or more body measurements at least partially covered by the individual's clothing. The invention further includes techniques to interrogate an object with electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter and/or microwave range to provide a volumetric representation of the object. This representation can be used to display images and/or determine dimensional information concerning the object.

  4. Interrogations, confessions, and guilty pleas among serious adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we examined (a) the prevalence and characteristics of youths' true and false admissions (confessions and guilty pleas), (b) youths' interrogation experiences with police and lawyers, and (c) whether youths' interrogation experiences serve as situational risk factors for true and false admissions. We interviewed 193 14- to 17-year-old males (M = 16.4) incarcerated for serious crimes. Over 1/3 of the sample (35.2%) claimed to have made a false admission to legal authorities (17.1% false confession; 18.1% false guilty plea), and 2/3 claimed to have made a true admission (28.5% true confession; 37.3% true guilty plea). The majority of youth said that they had experienced high-pressure interrogations (e.g., threats), especially with police officers. Youth who mentioned experiencing "police refusals" (e.g., of a break to rest) were more likely to report having made both true and false confessions to police, whereas only false confessions were associated with claims of long interrogations (>2 hr) and being questioned in the presence of a friend. The number of self-reported high-pressure lawyer tactics was associated with false, but not true, guilty pleas. Results suggest the importance of conducting specialized trainings for those who interrogate youth, recording interrogations, placing limits on lengthy and manipulative techniques, and exploring alternative procedures for questioning juvenile suspects. PMID:24127891

  5. Realization of nano static strain sensing with fiber Bragg gratings interrogated by narrow linewidth tunable lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingwen; Tokunaga, Tomochika; He, Zuyuan

    2011-10-10

    Aiming at realizing a static strain sensor of nano-strain resolution, which is required in most geophysical applications, this paper presents a thorough analysis on the strain resolution of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) static strain sensor interrogated with a narrow linewidth tunable laser. The main noise sources of the sensor are discussed, and the strain resolution is deduced with a cross-correlation algorithm. The theoretical prediction agrees well with our experimental result, and the analysis is further validated by numerical simulations. Based on the analysis, the paper provides the guidelines for optimizing this type of sensor to realize ultra-high resolution. It is shown that with properly designed FBGs and interrogation systems, nano static strain resolution can be realized, as we recently demonstrated in experiment.

  6. High-resolution spectrally-resolved fiber optic sensor interrogation system based on a standard DWDM laser module.

    PubMed

    Njegovec, Matej; Donlagic, Denis

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a spectrally-resolved integration system suitable for the reading of Bragg grating, all-fiber Fabry-Perot, and similar spectrally-resolved fiber-optic sensors. This system is based on a standard telecommunication dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission module that contains a distributed feedback laser diode and a wavelength locker. Besides the transmission module, only a few additional opto-electronic components were needed to build an experimental interrogation system that demonstrated over a 2 nm wide wavelength interrogation range, and a 1 pm wavelength resolution. When the system was combined with a typical Bragg grating sensor, a strain resolution of 1 με and temperature resolution of 0.1 °C were demonstrated experimentally. The proposed interrogation system relies entirely on Telecordia standard compliant photonic components and can thus be straightforwardly qualified for use within the range of demanding applications.

  7. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Friedt, J.-M; Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S.

    2010-01-15

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  8. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement.

    PubMed

    Friedt, J-M; Droit, C; Martin, G; Ballandras, S

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  9. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by...

  10. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by...

  11. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by...

  12. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by...

  13. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by...

  14. Thermal Tests of Target Materials for Nuclear Reaction-Based Interrogation Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Provencio, P. P.; Doyle, B. L.; McDaniel, F. D.; Antolak, A. J.; Morse, D. H.

    2009-03-10

    Compact active interrogation sources are being developed that use low-energy (kilovolt) nuclear reactions to produce high-energy (megavolt) neutrons or gamma-rays. We are evaluating target materials for these interrogation sources by performing rapid thermal load and high power density tests that reach conditions expected during source operation. Following the tests, the targets are analyzed with low and high resolution microscopes to assess whether any physical or structural damage has occurred. This paper presents results of the examinations of LiF, Li{sub 2}O, LiNbO{sub 3}, CaF{sub 2}, B{sub 4}C, and LaB{sub 6} target materials following rapid thermal and electron beam heating tests.

  15. PRESTO-Tango as an open-source resource for interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome.

    PubMed

    Kroeze, Wesley K; Sassano, Maria F; Huang, Xi-Ping; Lansu, Katherine; McCorvy, John D; Giguère, Patrick M; Sciaky, Noah; Roth, Bryan L

    2015-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential mediators of cellular signaling and are important targets of drug action. Of the approximately 350 nonolfactory human GPCRs, more than 100 are still considered to be 'orphans' because their endogenous ligands remain unknown. Here, we describe a unique open-source resource that allows interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome via a G protein-independent β-arrestin-recruitment assay. We validate this unique platform at more than 120 nonorphan human GPCR targets, demonstrate its utility for discovering new ligands for orphan human GPCRs and describe a method (parallel receptorome expression and screening via transcriptional output, with transcriptional activation following arrestin translocation (PRESTO-Tango)) for the simultaneous and parallel interrogation of the entire human nonolfactory GPCRome.

  16. Application of active and passive neutron non destructive assay methods to concrete radioactive waste drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Brackx, E.

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with the application of non-destructive neutron measurement methods to control and characterize 200 l radioactive waste drums filled with a concrete matrix. Due to its composition, and particularly to hydrogen, concrete penalizes the use of such methods to quantify uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) components, which are mainly responsible of the α-activity of the waste. The determination of the alpha activity is the main objective of neutron measurements, in view to verify acceptance criteria in surface storage. Calibration experiments of the Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI) method lead to Detection Limit Masses (DLM) of about 1 mg of 239Pu eff in the total counting mode, and of about 10 mg of 239Pu eff in the coincidence counting mode, in case of a homogeneous Pu source and measurement times between one and two hours. Monte Carlo calculation results show a very satisfactory agreement between experimental values and calculated ones. Results of the application of passive and active neutron methods to control two real drums are presented in the last part of the paper. They show a good agreement between measured data and values declared by the waste producers. The main difficulties that had to be overcome are the low neutron signal in passive and active coincidence counting modes due to concrete, the analysis of the passive neutron signal in presence of 244Cm in the drum, which is a strong spontaneous fission neutron emitter, the variation of the active background with the concrete composition, and the analysis of the active prompt neutron signal due to the simultaneous presence of U and Pu in the drums.

  17. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-10

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  18. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-01

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  19. Irradiation Effects for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-02-02

    At the request of Safety and Ecology Corporation of Tennessee, radiation effects of the proposed Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System have been examined. First, fissile cargo were examined to determine if a significant neutron signal would be observable during interrogation. Results indicated that ample multiplication would be seen for near critical bare targets. The water-reflected sphere showed relatively little multiplication. By implication, a fissile target shielded by hydrogenous cargo might not be detectable by neutron interrogation, particularly if reliance is placed on the neutron signal. The cargo may be detectable if use can be made of the ample increase in the photon signal. Second, dose rates were calculated at various locations within and just outside the facility building. These results showed that some dose rates may be higher than the target dose rate of 0.05 mrem/h. However, with limited exposure time, the total dose may be well below the allowed total dose. Lastly, estimates were made of the activation of structures and typical cargo. Most cargo will not be exposed long enough to be activated to levels of concern. On the other hand, portions of the structure may experience buildup of some radionuclides to levels of concern.

  20. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) applications activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP mea...

  1. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Vyrsokinos, Konstantinos; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Hassan, Karim; Markey, Laurent; Dereux, Alain; Kumar, Ashwani; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Baus, Matthias; Tekin, Tolga; Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Pleros, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    With metal stripes being intrinsic components of plasmonic waveguides, plasmonics provides a "naturally" energy-efficient platform for merging broadband optical links with intelligent electronic processing, instigating a great promise for low-power and small-footprint active functional circuitry. The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4×10 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM-enabling characteristics of active plasmonic circuits with an ultra-low power × response time product represents a crucial milestone in the development of active plasmonics towards real telecom and datacom applications, where low-energy and fast TO operation with small-size circuitry is targeted.

  2. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Vyrsokinos, Konstantinos; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Hassan, Karim; Markey, Laurent; Dereux, Alain; Kumar, Ashwani; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Baus, Matthias; Tekin, Tolga; Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Pleros, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    With metal stripes being intrinsic components of plasmonic waveguides, plasmonics provides a “naturally” energy-efficient platform for merging broadband optical links with intelligent electronic processing, instigating a great promise for low-power and small-footprint active functional circuitry. The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4×10 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM-enabling characteristics of active plasmonic circuits with an ultra-low power × response time product represents a crucial milestone in the development of active plasmonics towards real telecom and datacom applications, where low-energy and fast TO operation with small-size circuitry is targeted. PMID:22973502

  3. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Actively controlled mechanical seals have recently been developed for industrial use. This study investigates the feasibility of using such seals for aerospace applications. In a noncontacting mechanical seal, the film thickness depends on the geometry of the seal interface. The amount of coning, which is a measure of the radial convergence or divergence of the seal interface, has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the coning with a piezoelectric material. A mathematical model has been formulated to predict the performance of an actively controlled mechanical seal.

  4. Identifying Robust and Sensitive Frequency Bands for Interrogating Neural Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Shackman, Alexander J.; McMenamin, Brenton W.; Maxwell, Jeffrey S.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in using neural oscillations to characterize the mechanisms supporting cognition and emotion. Oftentimes, oscillatory activity is indexed by mean power density in predefined frequency bands. Some investigators use broad bands originally defined by prominent surface features of the spectrum. Others rely on narrower bands originally defined by spectral factor analysis (SFA). Presently, the robustness and sensitivity of these competing band definitions remains unclear. Here, a Monte Carlo-based SFA strategy was used to decompose the tonic (“resting” or “spontaneous”) electroencephalogram (EEG) into five bands: delta (1–5Hz), alpha-low (6–9Hz), alpha-high (10–11Hz), beta (12–19Hz), and gamma (>21Hz). This pattern was consistent across SFA methods, artifact correction/rejection procedures, scalp regions, and samples. Subsequent analyses revealed that SFA failed to deliver enhanced sensitivity; narrow alpha sub-bands proved no more sensitive than the classical broadband to individual differences in temperament or mean differences in task-induced activation. Other analyses suggested that residual ocular and muscular artifact was the dominant source of activity during quiescence in the delta and gamma bands. This was observed following threshold-based artifact rejection or independent component analysis (ICA)-based artifact correction, indicating that such procedures do not necessarily confer adequate protection. Collectively, these findings highlight the limitations of several commonly used EEG procedures and underscore the necessity of routinely performing exploratory data analyses, particularly data visualization, prior to hypothesis testing. They also suggest the potential benefits of using techniques other than SFA for interrogating high-dimensional EEG datasets in the frequency or time-frequency (event-related spectral perturbation, event-related synchronization / desynchronization) domains. PMID

  5. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Moran, Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP measurements will allow global and high-resolution mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state at resolutions from 3-40 km. These measurements will have high value for a wide range of environmental applications that underpin many weather-related decisions including drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate predictions, and human health risk. In 2007, NASA was tasked by The National Academies to ensure that emerging scientific knowledge is actively applied to obtain societal benefits by broadening community participation and improving means for use of information. SMAP is one of the first missions to come out of this new charge, and its Applications Plan forms the basis for ensuring its commitment to its users. The purpose of this paper is to outline the methods and approaches of the SMAP applications activity, which is designed to increase and sustain the interaction between users and scientists involved in mission development.

  6. Subthreshold neutron interrogator for detection of radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Michael L.; Menlove, Howard O.; Baker, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    A device for detecting fissionable material such as uranium in low concentrations by interrogating with photoneutrons at energy levels below 500 keV, and typically about 26 keV. Induced fast neutrons having energies above 500 keV by the interrogated fissionable material are detected by a liquid scintillator or recoil proportional counter which is sensitive to the induced fast neutrons. Since the induced fast neutrons are proportional to the concentration of fissionable material, detection of induced fast neutrons indicate concentration of the fissionable material.

  7. Testimony and interrogation of minors: assumptions about maturity and morality.

    PubMed

    Owen-Kostelnik, Jessica; Reppucci, N Dickon; Meyer, Jessica R

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the legal histories and social contexts of testimony and interrogation involving minors, developmental research on suggestibility and judgment, interactions between development and legal/sociological contexts, and the reasoning behind how minors are treated in different legal contexts. The authors argue (a) that young witnesses, victims, and suspects alike possess youthful characteristics that influence their ability to validly inform legal processes, some of which were recently recognized by the Supreme Court as they apply to the juvenile death penalty, and (b) that consideration should be given to reforming current practices in the context of juvenile interrogation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Massively Parallel Interrogation of Aptamer Sequence, Structure and Function

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, N O; Tok, J B; Tarasow, T M

    2008-02-08

    Optimization of high affinity reagents is a significant bottleneck in medicine and the life sciences. The ability to synthetically create thousands of permutations of a lead high-affinity reagent and survey the properties of individual permutations in parallel could potentially relieve this bottleneck. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides affinity reagents isolated by in vitro selection processes and as a class have been shown to bind a wide variety of target molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings. High density DNA microarray technology was used to synthesize, in situ, arrays of approximately 3,900 aptamer sequence permutations in triplicate. These sequences were interrogated on-chip for their ability to bind the fluorescently-labeled cognate target, immunoglobulin E, resulting in the parallel execution of thousands of experiments. Fluorescence intensity at each array feature was well resolved and shown to be a function of the sequence present. The data demonstrated high intra- and interchip correlation between the same features as well as among the sequence triplicates within a single array. Consistent with aptamer mediated IgE binding, fluorescence intensity correlated strongly with specific aptamer sequences and the concentration of IgE applied to the array. The massively parallel sequence-function analyses provided by this approach confirmed the importance of a consensus sequence found in all 21 of the original IgE aptamer sequences and support a common stem:loop structure as being the secondary structure underlying IgE binding. The microarray application, data and results presented illustrate an efficient, high information content approach to optimizing aptamer function. It also provides a foundation from which to better understand and manipulate this important class of high affinity biomolecules.

  9. Testimony and Interrogation of Minors: Assumptions about Maturity and Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen-Kostelnik, Jessica; Reppucci, N. Dickon; Meyer, Jessica R.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the legal histories and social contexts of testimony and interrogation involving minors, developmental research on suggestibility and judgment, interactions between development and legal/sociological contexts, and the reasoning behind how minors are treated in different legal contexts. The authors argue (a) that young…

  10. Microwave interrogation cavity for the rubidium space cold atom clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ren; Yuan-Ci, Gao; Tang, Li; De-Sheng, Lü; Liang, Liu

    2016-06-01

    The performance of space cold atom clocks (SCACs) should be improved thanks to the microgravity environment in space. The microwave interrogation cavity is a key element in a SCAC. In this paper, we develop a microwave interrogation cavity especially for the rubidium SCAC. The interrogation cavity has two microwave interaction zones with a single feed-in source, which is located at the center of the cavity for symmetric coupling excitation and to ensure that the two interaction zones are in phase. The interrogation cavity has a measured resonance frequency of 6.835056471 GHz with a loaded quality factor of nearly 4200, which shows good agreement with simulation results. We measure the Rabi frequency of the clock transition of the rubidium atom in each microwave interaction zone, and subsequently demonstrate that the distributions of the magnetic field in the two interaction zones are the same and meet all requirements of the rubidium SCAC. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11034008), the Fund from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013YQ09094304), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Learning about Posterior Probability: Do Diagrams and Elaborative Interrogation Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    To learn from a text, students must make meaningful connections among related ideas in that text. This study examined the effectiveness of two methods of improving connections--elaborative interrogation and diagrams--in written lessons about posterior probability. Undergraduate students (N = 198) read a lesson in one of three questioning…

  12. The Development of Interrogative Structures in Children's Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellugi, Ursula

    The verbal behavior of three children was sampled. The samples were analyzed to obtain a picture of three stages of the children's language development, specifically the interrogative structures. Each stage was about 4- or 5-months long, starting at the 18th to 28th month, depending upon the child's level of linguistic ability. The interrogative…

  13. Interrogating Our Practices of Integrating Spirituality into Workplace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Leona M.; Fenwick, Tara J.; Parsons, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Workplace education's interest in spirituality is examined, with an emphasis placed on why this interest might be increasing and what challenges it presents. This article interrogates commonplace strategies to integrate spirituality in workplace education,--providing holistic education, creating sacred spaces and mentoring--questions each approach…

  14. Basic concepts underlying fast-neutron-based contraband interrogation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.L.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    All accelerator-based fast-neutron contraband interrogation systems have many closely interrelated subsystems, whose performance parameters will be critically interdependent. For optimal overall performance, a systems analysis design approach is required. This paper provides a general overview of the interrelationships and the tradeoffs to be considered for optimization of nonaccelerator subsystems.

  15. Microwave interrogation cavity for the rubidium space cold atom clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ren; Yuan-Ci, Gao; Tang, Li; De-Sheng, Lü; Liang, Liu

    2016-06-01

    The performance of space cold atom clocks (SCACs) should be improved thanks to the microgravity environment in space. The microwave interrogation cavity is a key element in a SCAC. In this paper, we develop a microwave interrogation cavity especially for the rubidium SCAC. The interrogation cavity has two microwave interaction zones with a single feed-in source, which is located at the center of the cavity for symmetric coupling excitation and to ensure that the two interaction zones are in phase. The interrogation cavity has a measured resonance frequency of 6.835056471 GHz with a loaded quality factor of nearly 4200, which shows good agreement with simulation results. We measure the Rabi frequency of the clock transition of the rubidium atom in each microwave interaction zone, and subsequently demonstrate that the distributions of the magnetic field in the two interaction zones are the same and meet all requirements of the rubidium SCAC. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11034008), the Fund from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013YQ09094304), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Ask Systems: Interrogative Access to Multiple Ways of Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize instructional designers and researchers with a useful design and research paradigm known as "Ask Systems." Ask Systems are interrogative interfaces to information and learning environments that model conversations with a skilled, reflective practitioner (Schon, The reflective practitioner, "1983") or…

  17. Absolute Interrogative Intonation Patterns in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su Ar

    2010-01-01

    In Spanish, each uttered phrase, depending on its use, has one of a variety of intonation patterns. For example, a phrase such as "Maria viene manana" "Mary is coming tomorrow" can be used as a declarative or as an absolute interrogative (a yes/no question) depending on the intonation pattern that a speaker produces. Patterns of usage also…

  18. Fiber laser source/analyzer for Bragg grating sensor array interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, G.A.; Morey, W.W.; Cheo, P.K.

    1994-04-01

    This paper reports on the application of a calibrated, narrow-linewidth, single-frequency, continuously wavelength-tunable erbium fiber laser to the interrogation of a multipoint Bragg grating temperature sensor. The fiber laser was wavelength-tuned, through an array of three fiber Bragg grating sensors, to determine the temperature of each individual grating. The temperatures of the three gratings were measured as a function of grating Bragg wavelength. The minimum wavelength resolution, due to electro-mechanical repeatability, of the fiber laser source/analyzer was determined to be approximately 2.3 picometers. This corresponds to a frequency resolution of approximately 300 MHz. 10 refs.

  19. Self-compensated high-speed FBG interrogation using closed-loop tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempen, Lothar U.; Mendoza, Edgar A.; Saxena, Indu F.

    2007-09-01

    A system for interrogation of high-frequency events with an FBG array in the presence of large quasi-static fluctuations has been developed at Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS). The system allows highly sensitive detection of periodic or transient events up to the MHz range while automatically compensating for slow changes in the FBG center frequency using a closed loop tracking system. Both the high frequency signal and the low frequency parts of the sensor spectrum are available for further processing. The system components, setup, and applications are presented and discussed.

  20. Flow cytometric assays for interrogating LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease DNA-binding and cleavage properties.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Sarah K; Lambert, Abigail R; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Jarjour, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    A fast, easy, and scalable method to assess the properties of site-specific nucleases is crucial to -understanding their in cellulo behavior in genome engineering or population-level gene drive applications. Here we describe an analytical platform that enables high-throughput, semiquantitative interrogation of the DNA-binding and catalytic properties of LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases (LHEs). Using this platform, natural or engineered LHEs are expressed on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast where they can be rapidly evaluated against synthetic DNA target sequences using flow cytometry.

  1. Methods and systems using encapsulated tracers and chemicals for reservoir interrogation and manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jeffery; Aines, Roger D; Duoss, Eric B; Spadaccini, Christopher M

    2014-11-04

    An apparatus, method, and system of reservoir interrogation. A tracer is encapsulating in a receptacle. The receptacle containing the tracer is injected into the reservoir. The tracer is analyzed for reservoir interrogation.

  2. Radiological risks of neutron interrogation of food.

    PubMed

    Albright, S; Seviour, R

    2015-09-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the use of neutron scanning techniques for security. Neutron techniques with a range of energy spectra including thermal, white and fast neutrons have been shown to work in different scenarios. As international interest in neutron scanning increases the risk of activating cargo, especially foodstuffs must be considered. There has been a limited amount of research into the activation of foods by neutron beams and we have sought to improve the amount of information available. In this paper we show that for three important metrics; activity, ingestion dose and Time to Background there is a strong dependence on the food being irradiated and a weak dependence on the energy of irradiation. Previous studies into activation used results based on irradiation of pharmaceuticals as the basis for research into activation of food. The earlier work reports that (24)Na production is the dominant threat which motivated the search for (24)Na(n,γ)(24)Na in highly salted foods. We show that (42)K can be more significant than (24)Na in low sodium foods such as Bananas and Potatoes.

  3. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Obenhaus, Horst A; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1 (AG) can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1 (AG) promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1 (AG) mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1 (AG) is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation. PMID:27625595

  4. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Obenhaus, Horst A.; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1AG can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1AG promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1AG mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1AG is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation. PMID:27625595

  5. All-Optical Interrogation of Neural Circuits

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There have been two recent revolutionary advances in neuroscience: First, genetically encoded activity sensors have brought the goal of optical detection of single action potentials in vivo within reach. Second, optogenetic actuators now allow the activity of neurons to be controlled with millisecond precision. These revolutions have now been combined, together with advanced microscopies, to allow “all-optical” readout and manipulation of activity in neural circuits with single-spike and single-neuron precision. This is a transformational advance that will open new frontiers in neuroscience research. Harnessing the power of light in the all-optical approach requires coexpression of genetically encoded activity sensors and optogenetic probes in the same neurons, as well as the ability to simultaneously target and record the light from the selected neurons. It has recently become possible to combine sensors and optical strategies that are sufficiently sensitive and cross talk free to enable single-action-potential sensitivity and precision for both readout and manipulation in the intact brain. The combination of simultaneous readout and manipulation from the same genetically defined cells will enable a wide range of new experiments as well as inspire new technologies for interacting with the brain. The advances described in this review herald a future where the traditional tools used for generations by physiologists to study and interact with the brain—stimulation and recording electrodes—can largely be replaced by light. We outline potential future developments in this field and discuss how the all-optical strategy can be applied to solve fundamental problems in neuroscience. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This review describes the nexus of dramatic recent developments in optogenetic probes, genetically encoded activity sensors, and novel microscopies, which together allow the activity of neural circuits to be recorded and manipulated entirely using light. The

  6. [Clinical application of skin sympathetic nerve activity].

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi

    2009-03-01

    Skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is microneurographically recorded from the skin nerve fascicle in the peripheral nerves. It is characterized by the following features: 1) irregular, pulse asynchronous, burst activity with respiratory variation, 2) burst activity followed by vasoconstriction and/or sweating, 3) elicited by mental stress and arousal stimuli, e.g., sound, pain, electric stimulation, 4) burst with longer duration as compared with sympathetic outflow to muscles, and 5) burst activity following sudden inspiratory action. It comprises vasoconstrictor (VC) and sudomotor(SM) activity, as well as vasodilator (VD) activity. VC and SM discharge independently, whereas VD is the same activity with different neurotransmission. The VC and SM are differentiated by effector response, e.g., laser Doppler flowmetry and skin potential changes. SSNA function in thermoregulation in the human body; however it is also elicited by mental stress. SSNA is the lowest at thermoneutral ambient temperature (approximately 27 degrees C), and is enhanced in the pressence of ambient warm and cool air. The burst amplitude is well-correlated to both skin blood flow reduction rate or sweat rate change. The clinical application of SSNA comprises the following: 1) clarification of sweating phenomenon, 2) clarification and diagnosis of anhidrosis, 3) clarification and diagnosis of hyperhidrosis, 4) clarification of thermoregulatory function and diagnosis of thermoregulatory disorder, 5) clarification of pathophysiology and diagnosis of vascular diseases, e.g., Raynaud and Buerger diseases. 6) clarification of the relation between cognitive function and SSNA and 7) determination of pharmacological effect attributable to change in neuroeffector responses. PMID:19301594

  7. Interactions among Elaborative Interrogation, Knowledge, and Interest in the Process of Constructing Knowledge from Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgungor, Sevgi; Guthrie, John T.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of elaborative interrogation on knowledge construction during expository text reading, specifically, the interactions among elaborative interrogation, knowledge, and interest. Three measures of learning were taken: recall, inference, and coherence. Elaborative interrogation affected all aspects of learning measured,…

  8. 25 CFR 11.303 - Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation. 11.303 Section 11.303 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER... to custodial interrogation. Prior to custodial interrogation, the suspect shall be advised of...

  9. 29 CFR 18.611 - Mode and order of interrogation and presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mode and order of interrogation and presentation. 18.611... of interrogation and presentation. (a) Control by judge. The judge shall exercise reasonable control... interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) Avoid needless consumption...

  10. 29 CFR 18.611 - Mode and order of interrogation and presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mode and order of interrogation and presentation. 18.611... of interrogation and presentation. (a) Control by judge. The judge shall exercise reasonable control... interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) Avoid needless consumption...

  11. 48 CFR 252.237-7010 - Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel. 252.237-7010 Section 252.237-7010 Federal Acquisition... interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel. As prescribed in 237.173-5, use the following clause: Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by Contractor Personnel ((JUN 2013)) (a) Definitions. As used...

  12. 29 CFR 18.611 - Mode and order of interrogation and presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mode and order of interrogation and presentation. 18.611... of interrogation and presentation. (a) Control by judge. The judge shall exercise reasonable control... interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) Avoid needless consumption...

  13. 25 CFR 11.303 - Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation. 11.303 Section 11.303 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER... to custodial interrogation. Prior to custodial interrogation, the suspect shall be advised of...

  14. 29 CFR 18.611 - Mode and order of interrogation and presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mode and order of interrogation and presentation. 18.611... of interrogation and presentation. (a) Control by judge. The judge shall exercise reasonable control... interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) Avoid needless consumption...

  15. 25 CFR 11.303 - Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation. 11.303 Section 11.303 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER... to custodial interrogation. Prior to custodial interrogation, the suspect shall be advised of...

  16. 48 CFR 252.237-7010 - Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel. 252.237-7010 Section 252.237-7010 Federal Acquisition... interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel. As prescribed in 237.173-5, use the following clause: Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by Contractor Personnel ((JUN 2013)) (a) Definitions. As used...

  17. 25 CFR 11.303 - Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation. 11.303 Section 11.303 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER... to custodial interrogation. Prior to custodial interrogation, the suspect shall be advised of...

  18. 48 CFR 252.237-7010 - Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel. 252.237-7010 Section 252.237-7010 Federal Acquisition... interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel. As prescribed in 237.173-5, use the following clause: PROHIBITION ON INTERROGATION OF DETAINEES BY CONTRACTOR PERSONNEL (NOV 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  19. 25 CFR 11.303 - Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation. 11.303 Section 11.303 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER... to custodial interrogation. Prior to custodial interrogation, the suspect shall be advised of...

  20. 48 CFR 252.237-7010 - Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel. 252.237-7010 Section 252.237-7010 Federal Acquisition... interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel. As prescribed in 237.173-5, use the following clause: Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by Contractor Personnel (NOV 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  1. 29 CFR 18.611 - Mode and order of interrogation and presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Mode and order of interrogation and presentation. 18.611... of interrogation and presentation. (a) Control by judge. The judge shall exercise reasonable control... interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) Avoid needless consumption...

  2. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  3. Intravital microscopic interrogation of peripheral taste sensation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-02

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  4. Electrochemical Surface Interrogation of a MoS2 Hydrogen-Evolving Catalyst: In Situ Determination of the Surface Hydride Coverage and the Hydrogen Evolution Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyun S; Bard, Allen J

    2016-07-21

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on an electrodeposited a-MoS2 electrode was investigated by a surface-selective electrochemical titration technique by application of surface interrogation scanning electrochemical microscopy. In a mildly acidic (pH 4.6) environment, the saturated surface hydride coverage of MoS2 was determined to be 31%, much higher than that expected for a crystalline nanoparticle. The HER rate constant of a surface molybdenum atom was measured for the first time in situ to be 3.8 s(-1) at a 600 mV overpotential. At high Mo-H coverages, a change in the nature of the active sites was observed upon consumption of Mo-H by HER.

  5. Electrochemical Surface Interrogation of a MoS2 Hydrogen-Evolving Catalyst: In Situ Determination of the Surface Hydride Coverage and the Hydrogen Evolution Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyun S; Bard, Allen J

    2016-07-21

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on an electrodeposited a-MoS2 electrode was investigated by a surface-selective electrochemical titration technique by application of surface interrogation scanning electrochemical microscopy. In a mildly acidic (pH 4.6) environment, the saturated surface hydride coverage of MoS2 was determined to be 31%, much higher than that expected for a crystalline nanoparticle. The HER rate constant of a surface molybdenum atom was measured for the first time in situ to be 3.8 s(-1) at a 600 mV overpotential. At high Mo-H coverages, a change in the nature of the active sites was observed upon consumption of Mo-H by HER. PMID:27383727

  6. Novel RF Interrogation of a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Using Bidirectional Modulation of a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang-Jin; Mao, Wankai; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the novel radio-frequency (RF) interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor using bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). Based on the microwave photonic technique and active detection, the transfer function of the proposed system was obtained, and the time delay was calculated from the change in the free spectral range (FSR) at different wavelengths over the optimal measuring range. The results show that the time delay and the wavelength variation have a good linear relationship, with a gradient of 9.31 ps/nm. An actual measurement taken with a sensing FBG for temperature variation shows the relationship with a gradient of 0.93 ps/10 °C. The developed system could be used for FBG temperature or strain sensing and other multiplexed sensor applications. PMID:23820744

  7. Neutron interrogation of shielded/unshielded uranium by a 4 MeV linac.

    PubMed

    Lakosi, L; Nguyen, C Tam; Serf, E

    2011-09-01

    A non-destructive active assay method was developed for revealing illicit trafficking of uranium. Photoneutrons produced in beryllium or heavy water by bremsstrahlung from a linac induced fission in the samples. Delayed fission neutrons were detected by a neutron collar built up of (3)He counters embedded in polyethylene moderator. High-enriched uranium samples shielded and unshielded by lead up to 14 mm thickness were detected, with a performance practically unaltered. 25 mg (235)U can be revealed in a 1 min interrogation time. PMID:21507663

  8. Neutron interrogation of shielded/unshielded uranium by a 4 MeV linac.

    PubMed

    Lakosi, L; Nguyen, C Tam; Serf, E

    2011-09-01

    A non-destructive active assay method was developed for revealing illicit trafficking of uranium. Photoneutrons produced in beryllium or heavy water by bremsstrahlung from a linac induced fission in the samples. Delayed fission neutrons were detected by a neutron collar built up of (3)He counters embedded in polyethylene moderator. High-enriched uranium samples shielded and unshielded by lead up to 14 mm thickness were detected, with a performance practically unaltered. 25 mg (235)U can be revealed in a 1 min interrogation time.

  9. Application of neutron interrogation techniques to corrosion detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birt, E. A.; Namkung, M.; Vulcan, W.; Welsh, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a technique which may be able to detect corrosion by determining the presence of oxygen at the corroded site via a neutron inelastic gamma reaction. Initial experiments have been performed using a Pu-239/Be neutron source and a NaI(T1) gamma-ray detector. From the results it was concluded that a 1 mm thickness of aluminum oxide would not be detected.

  10. A high repetition rate plasma focus for neutron interrogation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bures, Brian; Krishnan, Mahadevan; James, Colt; Madden, Robert; Hennig, Wolfgang; Breus, Dimitry; Asztalos, Stephen; Sabourov, Konstantin; Lane, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    A fast pulsed neutron source enables identification and ranging of contraband nuclear material using time-of-flight separation of the probe neutron pulse from the fission induced emission quanta. Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation has demonstrated a 1 Hz plasma focus neutron source that uses an impedance matching transformer to better couple the power from the driver to the dynamic pinch load. For a 24 kV primary charge, the system produces a 61 kA peak current with a neutron yield up to 5 ×105 neutrons/pulse at 1 Hz. Experiments are described in which induced 845 keV gamma emission from iron targets (by 2.45 MeV DD neutrons) was separated (by time of flight) from the 20-30 ns probe neutron pulses. Monte Carlo simulations are used to optimize the concept for a fieldable system. Work supported by US Department of Homeland Security (DNDO) and by the US Air Force (KAFB).

  11. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Barron; Moran, M. Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Brown, Molly E.

    2014-05-01

    The launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in 2014 will provide global soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements at moderate resolution (9 km) with latency as short as 24 hours. The resolution, latency and global coverage of SMAP products will enable new applications in the fields of weather, climate, drought, flood, agricultural production, human health and national security. To prepare for launch, the SMAP mission has engaged more than 25 Early Adopters. Early Adopters are users who have a need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze-thaw data, and who agreed to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. In turn, the SMAP mission agreed to provide Early Adopters with simulated SMAP data products and pre-launch calibration and validation data from SMAP field campaigns, modeling, and synergistic studies. The applied research underway by Early Adopters has provided fundamental knowledge of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into users' policy, business and management activities to improve decision-making efforts. This presentation will cover SMAP applications including weather and climate forecasting, vehicle mobility estimation, quantification of greenhouse gas emissions, management of urban potable water supply, and prediction of crop yield. The presentation will end with a discussion of potential international applications with focus on the ESA/CEOS TIGER Initiative entitled "looking for water in Africa", the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which carries a specific mandate focused on Africa, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which lists soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV), and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which reported a food and nutrition crisis in the Sahel.

  12. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    SciTech Connect

    Wight, L.H.

    1980-05-01

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue.

  13. OFDR with double interrogation for dynamic quasi-distributed sensing.

    PubMed

    Am, Adva Bar; Arbel, Dror; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-02-10

    A method for phase sensitive quasi-distributed vibration and acoustical sensing is presented. The method is based on double optical frequency domain reflectometry interrogation of a sensing fiber with an array of discrete weak reflectors. Two replicas of the interrogation signal are launched into the sensing fiber. The time delay between the replicas is equal to the roundtrip time between two consecutive reflectors. Each peak in the spectrum of the returning signal is made from a coherent addition of the reflections of two consecutive reflectors. Its magnitude is highly sensitive to the optical phase in the fiber segment between the reflectors. The system was used to detect and locate the fall of a paperclip from height of 40 cm onto a sandbox where a 15 cm segment of the fiber was buried. In a different experiment the system successfully detected and located minute vibrations at 440 Hz that were induced by touching the fiber with a tuning fork.

  14. Human activity discrimination for maritime application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Evelyn; Deaver, Dawne M.; Krapels, Keith

    2008-04-01

    The US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is investigating how motion affects the target acquisition model (NVThermIP) sensor performance estimates. This paper looks specifically at estimating sensor performance for the task of discriminating human activities on watercraft, and was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Traditionally, sensor models were calibrated using still images. While that approach is sufficient for static targets, video allows one to use motion cues to aid in discerning the type of human activity more quickly and accurately. This, in turn, will affect estimated sensor performance and these effects are measured in order to calibrate current target acquisition models for this task. The study employed an eleven alternative forced choice (11AFC) human perception experiment to measure the task difficulty of discriminating unique human activities on watercrafts. A mid-wave infrared camera was used to collect video at night. A description of the construction of this experiment is given, including: the data collection, image processing, perception testing and how contrast was defined for video. These results are applicable to evaluate sensor field performance for Anti-Terrorism and Force Protection (AT/FP) tasks for the U.S. Navy.

  15. Interrogating trees as archives of sulphur deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, P. M.; Loader, N. J.; Fairchild, I. J.

    2012-04-01

    A principal driver of climatic variability over the past 1,000 years and essential forcing mechanism for climate, are the changes in atmospheric composition resulting from sulphur aerosols. Natural and anthropogenic aerosols released into the atmosphere disrupt the radiative balance through backscattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation and increase cloud albedo by acting as condensation nuclei. Understanding the impact of sulphur emissions upon climate beyond the last few hundred years however is not straightforward and natural archives of environmental information must be explored. Tree-rings represent one such archive as they are widely distributed and preserve environmental information within a precisely dateable, annually resolved timescale. Until recently the sulphur contained within tree-rings has largely remained beyond the reach of environmental scientists and climate modelers owing to difficulties associated with the extraction of a robust signal and uncertainties regarding post-depositional mobility. Our recent work using synchrotron radiation has established that the majority of non-labile sulphur in two conifer species is preserved within the cellular structure of the woody tissue after uptake and demonstrates an increasing trend in sulphur concentration during the 20th century and during known volcanic events. Due to the clear isotopic distinction between marine (+21), geological (+10 to +30), atmospheric pollution (-3 to +9 ) and volcanic sources of sulphur (0 to +5), isotopic ratios provide a diagnostic tool with which changes in the source of atmospheric sulphur can be detected in a more reliable fashion than concentration alone. Sulphur isotopes should thereby provide a fingerprint of short lived events including volcanic activity when extracted at high resolution and in conjunction with high resolution S concentrations defining the event. Here we present methodologies associated with extracting the sulphur isotopic signal from tree

  16. Radio telemetry interrogation of multiple fiber sensors in civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhr, Peter L.; Huston, Dryver R.; Ambrose, Timothy P.

    1993-03-01

    We have examined various fiber sensor multiplexing techniques, e.g., frequency-, time-, coherence-multiplexing, in an attempt to ascertain the method best suited for interrogation of multiple sensors scattered throughout a modern civil structure. Based on our embedded fiber sensor results conducted at the Stafford Biotechnology Complex at the University of Vermont, a 65,000 square foot, multistory reinforced concrete structure, where more than fifty single- mode and multimode fiber optic sensors have been embedded into the structure, we have determined that in many instances a radio telemetry method of interrogating the sensors is optimal. Many real-world factors such as architectural details, lighting, power, and HVAC design requirements influence the overall nature of the use of multiplexed fiber sensors in civil structures. In instances where we have multiplexed intensity-modulating fiber sensors onto a single transmit/receive fiber, radio telemeterized command and data acquisition from the fiber sensor `network' may be achieved. The development of the interrogation of the multiplexed fiber optic sensors is presented, as are experimental results obtained from fiber optic vibration sensors.

  17. A Neutron Based Interrogation System For SNM In Cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Steven Z.; Koltick, David S.

    2011-06-01

    A complete system has been simulated using experimentally obtained input parameters for the detection of special nuclear materials (SNM). A variation of the associated particle imaging (API) technique, referred to as reverse associated particle imaging detection (RAPID), has been developed in the context of detecting 5-kg spherical samples of U-235 in cargo. The RAPID technique allows for the interrogation of containers at neutron production rates between {approx}1x10{sup 8} neutrons/s and {approx}3x10{sup 8} neutrons/s. The merit of performance for the system is the time to detect the threat material with 95% probability of detection and 10{sup -4} false positive rate per interrogated voxel of cargo. Detection times of 5 minutes were found for a maximally loaded cargo container uniformly filled with iron and as low as 1 second in containers loaded to 1/4 of full capacity with either iron or wood. The worse case system performance, 30 minutes interrogation time, occurs for a maximally loaded container containing wood at 0.4 g/cm{sup 3}.

  18. Neutron multiplicity measurements during LINAC interrogation of safeguards accountable material

    SciTech Connect

    Brunson, G.S.; Coop, K.L.

    1988-07-01

    The authors used a LINAC to interrogate some arbitrary sample arrays to learn if enriched uranium can be detected when it is embedded in depleted uranium and /sup 6/LiD. Whether the interrogation is by bremsstrahlung or photoneutrons, the interrogating pulse causes fission in any uranium present, leaving delayed neutron precursors embedded wherever fissions have occurred. In the interval between LINAC pulses, we detected neutron multiplicities arising from /sup 235/U fissions caused by delayed neutrons. Because almost all delayed neutrons have energies below the fission threshold of /sup 238/U, a negligible number of fissions occur if /sup 235/U is not present in quantity. We are able to detect a 1-kg cylinder of enriched uranium metal behind approx. 2.3 cm of depleted uranium metal and approx. 2.9 cm of /sup 6/LiD. For this configuration, the threshold for detecting /sup 235/U is approx. 1/3 kg. The results are sensitive to the shape of the uranium sample.

  19. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100 C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changed suddenly.

  20. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  1. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  2. Coherent pulse interrogation system for fiber Bragg grating sensing of strain and pressure in dynamic extremes of materials.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor; Mielke, Chuck H; Azad, Abul; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M; Henson, Bryan; Smilowitz, Laura

    2015-06-01

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain and pressure sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber is used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor are detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersive line. Signals are recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 50 G Samples per second, 25 GHz bandwidth, digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing in magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts are used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO3. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ΔL/L<10-4) in the material. A second application used FBG sensing of pressure dynamics to nearly 2 GPa in the thermal ignition of the high explosive PBX-9501 is also demonstrated. Both applications demonstrate the use of this FBG interrogation system in dynamical extreme conditions that would otherwise not be possible using traditional FBG interrogation approaches that are deemed too slow to resolve such events.

  3. Coherent pulse interrogation system for fiber Bragg grating sensing of strain and pressure in dynamic extremes of materials.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor; Mielke, Chuck H; Azad, Abul; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M; Henson, Bryan; Smilowitz, Laura

    2015-06-01

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain and pressure sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber is used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor are detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersive line. Signals are recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 50 G Samples per second, 25 GHz bandwidth, digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing in magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts are used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO3. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ΔL/L<10-4) in the material. A second application used FBG sensing of pressure dynamics to nearly 2 GPa in the thermal ignition of the high explosive PBX-9501 is also demonstrated. Both applications demonstrate the use of this FBG interrogation system in dynamical extreme conditions that would otherwise not be possible using traditional FBG interrogation approaches that are deemed too slow to resolve such events. PMID:26072789

  4. Photonic Interrogation and Control of Nano Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassemnejad, Baha

    2003-01-01

    My research activities for the summer of 2003 consisted of two projects: One project was concerned with determining a method for predicting the static and dynamic assembly properties of nano-structures using laser tweezers. The other project was to investigate the generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes using a spatial light modulator incorporated into an optical tweezers system. Concerning the first project, I initially pursued the approach suggested by my NASA colleague Dr. Art Decker. This approach involved mimicking the model of the structure of atomic nucleus for the assembly of 1 to 100 atoms using allowed quadruple transitions induced by orbital angular momentums of a Laguerre- Gaussian (Doughnut) laser mode. After realizing the inaptness of the nuclear model with the nanostructure model as far as the binding forces and transitions were concerned, I focused on using quantum dot modei. This model was not attuned also for the host lattice influences the electronic structure of the quantum dot. Thus one other option that I decided to pursue was the approach of molecular quantum mechanics. In this approach the nanostructure is treated as a large (10-100 nm) molecule constructed from single element or multi-elements. Subsequent to consultation with Dr. Fred Morales, a chemical engineer at NASA GRC, and Dr. David Ball, a computational chemist at Cleveland State University, I acquired a molecular-quantum computation software, Hyperchem 7.0. This software allows simulation of different molecular structures as far as their static and dynamic behaviors are concerned. The time that I spent on this project was about eight weeks. Once this suitable approach was identified, I realized the need to collaborate with a computational quantum chemist to pursue searching for stable nanostructures in the range of 10-100 nm that we can be assembled using laser tweezers. The second project was about generating laser tweezers that possess orbital angular momentum. As shown, we were

  5. Active damping application to the shuttle RMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Kenny, Sean P.

    1991-01-01

    Control Structure Interaction (CSI) is a relatively new technology developed over the last 10 to 15 years for application to large flexible space vehicles. The central issue is recognition that high performance control systems necessary for good spacecraft performance may adversely interact with the dynamics of the spacecraft structures, a problem increasingly aggravated by the large size and reduced stiffness of modern spacecraft structural designs. The CSI analysis and design methods were developed to avoid interactions while maintaining spacecraft performance without exceeding structural capabilities, but they remain largely unvalidated by hardware experiments or demonstrations, particularly in-space flight demonstrations. One recent proposal for a low cost flight validation of CSI technology is to demonstrate active damping augmentation of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS). An analytical effort to define the potential for such an active damping augmentation demonstration to improve the structural dynamic response of the RMS following payload maneuvers is described. It is hoped that this study will lead to an actual inflight CSI test with the RMS using existing shuttle hardware to the maximum extent possible. By using the existing hardware, the flight demonstration results may eventually be of direct benefit to actual Space Shuttle RMS operations, especially during the construction of the Space Station Freedom.

  6. NeuroArray: a universal interface for patterning and interrogating neural circuitry with single cell resolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xu, Zhen; Huang, Junzhe; Lin, Xudong; Luo, Rongcong; Chen, Chia-Hung; Shi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Recreation of neural network in vitro with designed topology is a valuable tool to decipher how neurons behave when interacting in hierarchical networks. In this study, we developed a simple and effective platform to pattern primary neurons in array formats for interrogation of neural circuitry with single cell resolution. Unlike many surface-chemistry-based patterning methods, our NeuroArray technique is specially designed to accommodate neuron's polarized morphologies to make regular arrays of cells without restricting their neurite outgrowth, and thus allows formation of freely designed, well-connected, and spontaneously active neural network. The NeuroArray device was based on a stencil design fabricated using a novel sacrificial-layer-protected PDMS molding method that enables production of through-structures in a thin layer of PDMS with feature sizes as small as 3 µm. Using the NeuroArray along with calcium imaging, we have successfully demonstrated large-scale tracking and recording of neuronal activities, and used such data to characterize the spiking dynamics and transmission within a diode-like neural network. Essentially, the NeuroArray is a universal patterning platform designed for, but not limited to neuron cells. With little adaption, it can be readily interfaced with other interrogation modalities for high-throughput drug testing, and for building neuron culture based live computational devices. PMID:24759264

  7. NeuroArray: A Universal Interface for Patterning and Interrogating Neural Circuitry with Single Cell Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Xu, Zhen; Huang, Junzhe; Lin, Xudong; Luo, Rongcong; Chen, Chia-Hung; Shi, Peng

    2014-04-01

    Recreation of neural network in vitro with designed topology is a valuable tool to decipher how neurons behave when interacting in hierarchical networks. In this study, we developed a simple and effective platform to pattern primary neurons in array formats for interrogation of neural circuitry with single cell resolution. Unlike many surface-chemistry-based patterning methods, our NeuroArray technique is specially designed to accommodate neuron's polarized morphologies to make regular arrays of cells without restricting their neurite outgrowth, and thus allows formation of freely designed, well-connected, and spontaneously active neural network. The NeuroArray device was based on a stencil design fabricated using a novel sacrificial-layer-protected PDMS molding method that enables production of through-structures in a thin layer of PDMS with feature sizes as small as 3 µm. Using the NeuroArray along with calcium imaging, we have successfully demonstrated large-scale tracking and recording of neuronal activities, and used such data to characterize the spiking dynamics and transmission within a diode-like neural network. Essentially, the NeuroArray is a universal patterning platform designed for, but not limited to neuron cells. With little adaption, it can be readily interfaced with other interrogation modalities for high-throughput drug testing, and for building neuron culture based live computational devices.

  8. Identifying work related injuries: comparison of methods for interrogating text fields

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Work-related injuries in Australia are estimated to cost around $57.5 billion annually, however there are currently insufficient surveillance data available to support an evidence-based public health response. Emergency departments (ED) in Australia are a potential source of information on work-related injuries though most ED's do not have an 'Activity Code' to identify work-related cases with information about the presenting problem recorded in a short free text field. This study compared methods for interrogating text fields for identifying work-related injuries presenting at emergency departments to inform approaches to surveillance of work-related injury. Methods Three approaches were used to interrogate an injury description text field to classify cases as work-related: keyword search, index search, and content analytic text mining. Sensitivity and specificity were examined by comparing cases flagged by each approach to cases coded with an Activity code during triage. Methods to improve the sensitivity and/or specificity of each approach were explored by adjusting the classification techniques within each broad approach. Results The basic keyword search detected 58% of cases (Specificity 0.99), an index search detected 62% of cases (Specificity 0.87), and the content analytic text mining (using adjusted probabilities) approach detected 77% of cases (Specificity 0.95). Conclusions The findings of this study provide strong support for continued development of text searching methods to obtain information from routine emergency department data, to improve the capacity for comprehensive injury surveillance. PMID:20374657

  9. Direct interrogation of DNA content distribution in nanoparticles by a novel microfluidics-based single-particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Beh, Cyrus W; Pan, Deng; Lee, Jason; Jiang, Xuan; Liu, Kelvin J; Mao, Hai-Quan; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2014-08-13

    Nonviral gene delivery holds great promise not just as a safer alternative to viral vectors in traditional gene therapy applications, but also for regenerative medicine, induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, and RNA interference for gene silencing. Although it continues to be an active area of research, there remain many challenges to the rational design of vectors. Among these, the inability to characterize the composition of nanoparticles and its distribution has made it difficult to probe the mechanism of gene transfection process, since differences in the nanoparticle-mediated transfection exist even when the same vector is used. There is a lack of sensitive methods that allow for full characterization of DNA content in single nanoparticles and its distribution among particles in the same preparation. Here we report a novel spectroscopic approach that is capable of interrogating nanoparticles on a particle-by-particle basis. Using PEI/DNA and PEI-g-PEG/DNA nanoparticles as examples, we have shown that the distribution of DNA content among these nanoparticles was relatively narrow, with the average numbers of DNA of 4.8 and 6.7 per particle, respectively, in PEI/DNA and PEI-g-PEG/DNA nanoparticles. This analysis enables a more accurate description of DNA content in polycation/DNA nanoparticles. It paves the way toward comparative assessments of various types of gene carriers and provides insights into bridging the efficiency gap between viral and nonviral vehicles.

  10. Actively Controlled Shaft Seals for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.; Wolff, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with a piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changes suddenly. the experimental results were compared to the predictions from the mathematical model. The model was successful in predicting the trends in leakage rate that occurred as the balance ratio and sealed pressure changed

  11. Interrogation and mitigation of polarization effects for standard and birefringent FBGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Van Roosbroeck, Jan; O'Dowd, John A.; Van Hoe, Bram; Lindner, Eric; Vlekken, Johan; Farnan, Martin; Karabacak, Devrez M.; Singer, Johannes M.

    2016-05-01

    Optical sensors based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) are used in several applications and industries. Several inscription techniques and type of fibers can be used. However, depending on the writing process, type of fiber used and the packaging of the sensor a Polarization Dependent Frequency Shift (PDFS) can often be observed with polarized tunable laser based optical interrogators. Here we study the PDFS of the FBG peak for the different FBG types. A PDFS of <1pm up to >20pm was observed across the FBGs. To mitigate and reduce this effect we propose a polarization mitigation technique which relies on a synchronous polarization switch to reduce the effect typically by a factor greater than 4. In other scenarios the sensor itself is designed to be birefringent (Bi-FBG) to allow pressure and/or simultaneous temperature and strain measurements. Using the same polarization switch we demonstrate how we can interrogate the Bi-FBGs with high accuracy to enable high performance of such sensors to be achievable.

  12. Photon and neutron interrogation techniques for chemical explosives detection in air cargo: A critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; White, Timothy A.; Miller, Erin A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Collins, Brian A.

    2009-05-21

    Scanning cargo transported via aircraft ("air cargo") for explosive threats is a problem that, at present, lacks a comprehensive technical solution. While explosives detection in the baggage-scanning domain has a rich history that sheds light on potential solutions for air cargo, baggage scanning differs in several ways and thus one cannot look to the present array of technologies. Some contemporary solutions, like trace analysis, are not readily applied to cargo due to sampling challenges while the larger geometry of air cargo makes others less effective. This review article examines an array of interrogation techniques using photons and neutrons as incident particles. We first present a summary of the signatures and observables explosives provide and review how they have been exploited in baggage scanning. Following this is a description of the challenges posed by the air cargo application space. After considering interrogation sources, methods focused on transmission imaging, sub-surface examination and elemental characterization are described. It is our goal to shed light on the technical promise of each method while largely deferring questions that revolve around footprint, safety and conduct of operations. Our overarching intent is that a comprehensive understanding of potential techniques will foster development of a comprehensive solution.

  13. Switching Transient Generation in Surface Interrogation Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy and Time-of-Flight Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyun S; Bard, Allen J

    2015-12-15

    In surface interrogation scanning electrochemical microscopy (SI-SECM), fine and accurate control of the delay time between substrate generation and tip interrogation (tdelay) is crucial because tdelay defines the decay time of the reactive intermediate. In previous applications of the SI-SECM, the resolution in the control of tdelay has been limited to several hundreds of milliseconds due to the slow switching of the bipotentiostat. In this work, we have improved the time resolution of tdelay control up to ca. 1 μs, enhancing the SI-SECM to be competitive in the time domain with the decay of many reactive intermediates. The rapid switching SI-SECM has been implemented in a substrate generation-tip collection time-of-flight (SG-TC TOF) experiment of a solution redox mediator, and the results obtained from the experiment exhibited good agreement with that obtained from digital simulation. The reaction rate constant of surface Co(IV) on oxygen-evolving catalyst film, which was inaccessible thus far due to the lack of tdelay control, has been measured by the rapid switching SI-SECM.

  14. Monitoring system including an electronic sensor platform and an interrogation transceiver

    DOEpatents

    Kinzel, Robert L.; Sheets, Larry R.

    2003-09-23

    A wireless monitoring system suitable for a wide range of remote data collection applications. The system includes at least one Electronic Sensor Platform (ESP), an Interrogator Transceiver (IT) and a general purpose host computer. The ESP functions as a remote data collector from a number of digital and analog sensors located therein. The host computer provides for data logging, testing, demonstration, installation checkout, and troubleshooting of the system. The IT transmits signals from one or more ESP's to the host computer to the ESP's. The IT host computer may be powered by a common power supply, and each ESP is individually powered by a battery. This monitoring system has an extremely low power consumption which allows remote operation of the ESP for long periods; provides authenticated message traffic over a wireless network; utilizes state-of-health and tamper sensors to ensure that the ESP is secure and undamaged; has robust housing of the ESP suitable for use in radiation environments; and is low in cost. With one base station (host computer and interrogator transceiver), multiple ESP's may be controlled at a single monitoring site.

  15. Linearity enhancement of scale factor in an optical interrogated micromechanical accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Feng, Lishuang; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Yang

    2016-08-01

    A method to reduce the residual stress of support arms in an optical interrogated micromechanical accelerometer is proposed in order to enhance the linearity of the scale factor of the accelerometer. First, the behavior of residual stress in support arms is analyzed in detail, and the simulation of shape curvature caused by residual stress in aluminum-made support arms is completed using finite element analysis. Then, by comparing two different materials of support arms (aluminum-made and silicon-made support arms), a modified fabrication is introduced in order to reduce the unexpected residual stress in support arms. Finally, based on contrast experiments, the linearity of the scale factor of accelerometers with aluminum-made and silicon-made support arms is measured using the force feedback test system, respectively. Results show that the linearity of the scale factor of the accelerometer with silicon-made support arms is 0.85%, which is reduced about an order of magnitude compared to that of the accelerometer with aluminum-made support arms with the linearity of scale factor of 7.48%; linearity enhancement of the scale factor is validated. This allows accuracy improvement of the optical interrogated micromechanical accelerometer in the application of inertial navigation and positioning. PMID:27505396

  16. Interactive slice WIM: navigating and interrogating volume data sets using a multisurface, multitouch VR interface.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Dane; Malbraaten, Nicholas; Le, Trung Bao; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Erdman, Arthur G; Keefe, Daniel F

    2012-10-01

    We present Interactive Slice World-in-Miniature (WIM), a framework for navigating and interrogating volumetric data sets using an interface enabled by a virtual reality environment made of two display surfaces: an interactive multitouch table, and a stereoscopic display wall. The framework addresses two current challenges in immersive visualization: 1) providing an appropriate overview+detail style of visualization while navigating through volume data, and 2) supporting interactive querying and data exploration, i.e., interrogating volume data. The approach extends the WIM metaphor, simultaneously displaying a large-scale detailed data visualization and an interactive miniature. Leveraging the table+wall hardware, horizontal slices are projected (like a shadow) down onto the table surface, providing a useful 2D data overview to complement the 3D views as well as a data context for interpreting 2D multitouch gestures made on the table. In addition to enabling effective navigation through complex geometries, extensions to the core Slice WIM technique support interacting with a set of multiple slices that persist on the table even as the user navigates around a scene and annotating and measuring data via points, paths, and volumes specified using interactive slices. Applications of the interface to two volume data sets are presented, and design decisions, limitations, and user feedback are discussed.

  17. High-Energy Laser-Accelerated Electron Beams for Long-Range Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Cummingham, N. J.; Banerjee, Sudeep; Ramanathan, Vidya; Powell, Nathan; Chandler-Smith, Nate; Vane, C Randy; Schultz, David Robert; Pozzi, Sara; Clarke, Shaun; Beene, James R; Umstadter, Donald

    2009-01-01

    We are studying the use of 0.1 1.0 GeV laser-accelerated electron beams as active interrogation probes for long-standoff radiography or nuclear activation of concealed special nuclear material. Use of beams in this energy range is largely unexplored, but such beams could provide notable advantages over lower-energy beams and x-rays. High-energy laser-accelerated electrons exhibit large penetration range through air and solids, and low beam divergence for both direct beams and secondary Bremsstrahlung x-rays. We present laboratory measurements of radiography and activation, using the high-power Diodes laser system at the University of Nebraska, as well as MCNP and GEANT Monte Carlo simulation results used to aid experiment design and interpretation.

  18. Graphene active plasmonics for terahertz device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, Taiichi; Dubinov, Alexander; Ryzhii, Maxim; Boubanga Tombet, Stephane; Satou, Akira; Mitin, Vladimir; Shur, Michael S.; Ryzhii, Victor

    2015-05-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the double-graphene-layer (DGL) active plasmonic heterostructures for the terahertz (THz) device applications. The DGL consists of a core shell in which a thin tunnel barrier layer is sandwiched by the two GLs being independently connected with the side contacts and outer gate stack layers at both sides. The DGL core shell works as a nano-capacitor, exhibiting inter-GL resonant tunneling (RT) when the band offset between the two GLs is aligned. The RT produces a strong nonlinearity with a negative differential conductance in the DGL current-voltage characteristics. The excitation of the graphene plasmons by the THz radiation resonantly modulates the tunneling currentvoltage characteristics. When the band offset is aligned to the THz photon energy, the DGL structure can mediate photonassisted RT, resulting in resonant emission or detection of the THz radiation. The cooperative double-resonant excitation with structure-sensitive graphene plasmons gives rise to various functionalities such as rectification (detection), photomixing, higher harmonic generation, and self-oscillation, in the THz device implementations.

  19. Azaglycomimetics: Natural Occurrence, Biological Activity, and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Naoki

    A large number of alkaloids mimicking the structures of monosaccharides or oligosaccharides have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. The sugar mimicking alkaloids with a nitrogen in the ring are called azasugars or iminosugars. Naturally occurring azasugars are classified into five structural classes: polyhydroxylated piperidines, pyrrolidines, indolizidines, pyrrolizidines, and nortropanes. They are easily soluble in water because of their polyhydroxylated structures and inhibit glycosidases because of a structural resemblance to the sugar moiety of the natural substrate. Glycosidases are involved in a wide range of anabolic and catabolic processes, such as digestion, lysosomal catabolism of glycoconjugates, biosynthesis of glycoproteins, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control and ER-associated degradation of glycoproteins. Hence, modifying or blocking these processes in vivo by inhibitors is of great interest from a therapeutic point of view. Azasugars are an important class of glycosidase inhibitors and are arousing great interest for instance as antidiabetics, antiobesity drugs, antivirals, and therapeutic agents for some genetic disorders. This review describes the recent studies on isolation, characterization, glycosidase inhibitory activity, and therapeutic application of azaglycomimetics.

  20. Duplex interrogation by a direct DNA repair protein in search of base damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Chengqi; Chen, Baoen; Qi, Bo; Zhang, Wen; Jia, Guifang; Zhang, Liang; Li, Charles J.; Dinner, Aaron R.; Yang, Cai-Guang; He, Chuan

    2012-08-31

    ALKBH2 is a direct DNA repair dioxygenase guarding the mammalian genome against N{sup 1}-methyladenine, N{sup 3}-methylcytosine and 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine damage. A prerequisite for repair is to identify these lesions in the genome. Here we present crystal structures of human ALKBH2 bound to different duplex DNAs. Together with computational and biochemical analyses, our results suggest that DNA interrogation by ALKBH2 has two previously unknown features: (i) ALKBH2 probes base-pair stability and detects base pairs with reduced stability, and (ii) ALKBH2 does not have nor need a damage-checking site, which is critical for preventing spurious base cleavage for several glycosylases. The demethylation mechanism of ALKBH2 insures that only cognate lesions are oxidized and reversed to normal bases, and that a flipped, non-substrate base remains intact in the active site. Overall, the combination of duplex interrogation and oxidation chemistry allows ALKBH2 to detect and process diverse lesions efficiently and correctly.

  1. Intraoperative Optical Imaging and Tissue Interrogation During Urologic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Mark; Gupta, Mohit; Su, Li-Ming; Liao, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To review optical imaging technologies in urologic surgery aimed to facilitate intraoperative imaging and tissue interrogation. Recent findings Emerging new optical imaging technologies can be integrated in the operating room environment during minimally invasive and open surgery. These technologies include macroscopic fluorescence imaging that provides contrast enhancement between normal and diseased tissue and microscopic imaging that provides tissue characterization. Summary Optical imaging technologies that have reached the clinical arena in urologic surgery are reviewed, including photodynamic diagnosis, near infrared fluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. PMID:24240512

  2. Effects of expert testimony and interrogation tactics on perceptions of confessions.

    PubMed

    Moffa, Morgan S; Platania, Judith

    2007-04-01

    Evidence obtained through the process of interrogation is frequently undermined by what can be perceived as overzealous interrogation tactics. Although the majority of psychologically oriented tactics are legally permissible, they nonetheless contribute to innocent suspects confessing to crimes they did not commit. The present study examined the effect of expert testimony and interrogation tactics on perceptions of a confession. 182 undergraduates read a transcript of a homicide trial that varied based on interrogation tactic: implicit threat of punishment (maximization) or leniency (minimization) and expert witness testimony (presence or absence of expert testimony). Analysis indicated that the type of interrogation tactic used in obtaining the confession affected participants' perceptions of the coerciveness of the interrogation process.

  3. Neutron Activation Analysis: Techniques and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLellan, Ryan

    2011-04-01

    The role of neutron activation analysis in low-energy low-background experimentsis discussed in terms of comparible methods. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis is introduce. The procedure of instrumental neutron activation analysis is detailed especially with respect to the measurement of trace amounts of natural radioactivity. The determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters required for neutron activation analysis is also presented.

  4. Neutron Activation Analysis: Techniques and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, Ryan

    2011-04-27

    The role of neutron activation analysis in low-energy low-background experimentsis discussed in terms of comparible methods. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis is introduce. The procedure of instrumental neutron activation analysis is detailed especially with respect to the measurement of trace amounts of natural radioactivity. The determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters required for neutron activation analysis is also presented.

  5. Real time interrogation technique for fiber Bragg grating enhanced fiber loop ringdown sensors array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlong; Li, Ruoming; Shi, Yuechun; Zhang, Jintao; Chen, Xiangfei; Liu, Shengchun

    2015-06-01

    A novel fiber Bragg grating aided fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) sensor array and the wavelength-time multiplexing based interrogation technique for the FLRD sensors array are proposed. The interrogation frequency of the system is formulated and the interrelationships among the parameters of the system are analyzed. To validate the performance of the proposed system, a five elements array is experimentally demonstrated, and the system shows the capability of real time monitoring every FLRD element with interrogation frequency of 125.5 Hz.

  6. Inside interrogation: the lie, the bluff, and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Perillo, Jennifer T; Kassin, Saul M

    2011-08-01

    Using a less deceptive variant of the false evidence ploy, interrogators often use the bluff tactic, whereby they pretend to have evidence to be tested without further claiming that it necessarily implicates the suspect. Three experiments were conducted to assess the impact of the bluff on confession rates. Using the Kassin and Kiechel (Psychol Sci 7:125-128, 1996) computer crash paradigm, Experiment 1 indicated that bluffing increases false confessions comparable to the effect produced by the presentation of false evidence. Experiment 2 replicated the bluff effect and provided self-reports indicating that innocent participants saw the bluff as a promise of future exoneration which, paradoxically, made it easier to confess. Using a variant of the Russano et al. (Psychol Sci 16:481-486, 2005) cheating paradigm, Experiment 3 replicated the bluff effect on innocent suspects once again, though a ceiling effect was obtained in the guilty condition. Results suggest that the phenomenology of innocence can lead innocents to confess even in response to relatively benign interrogation tactics. PMID:20734122

  7. Interrogating scarcity: how to think about 'resource-scarce settings'.

    PubMed

    Schrecker, Ted

    2013-07-01

    The idea of resource scarcity permeates health ethics and health policy analysis in various contexts. However, health ethics inquiry seldom asks-as it should-why some settings are 'resource-scarce' and others not. In this article I describe interrogating scarcity as a strategy for inquiry into questions of resource allocation within a single political jurisdiction and, in particular, as an approach to the issue of global health justice in an interconnected world. I demonstrate its relevance to the situation of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with brief descriptions of four elements of contemporary globalization: trade agreements; the worldwide financial marketplace and capital flight; structural adjustment; imperial geopolitics and foreign policy. This demonstration involves not only health care, but also social determinants of health. Finally, I argue that interrogating scarcity provides the basis for a new, critical approach to health policy at the interface of ethics and the social sciences, with specific reference to market fundamentalism as the value system underlying contemporary globalization. PMID:22899597

  8. An implantable pressure sensing system with electromechanical interrogation scheme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Albert; Powell, C R; Ziaie, Babak

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of an implantable pressure sensing system that is powered by mechanical vibrations in the audible acoustic frequency range. This technique significantly enhances interrogation range, alleviates the misalignment issues commonly encountered with inductive powering, and simplifies the external receiver circuitry. The interrogation scheme consists of two phases: a mechanical vibration phase and an electrical radiation phase. During the first phase, a piezoelectric cantilever acts as an acoustic receiver and charges a capacitor by converting sound vibration harmonics occurring at its resonant frequency into electrical power. In the subsequent electrical phase, when the cantilever is not vibrating, the stored electric charge is discharged across an LC tank whose inductor is pressure sensitive; hence, when the LC tank oscillates at its natural resonant frequency, it radiates a high-frequency signal that is detectable using an external receiver and its frequency corresponds to the measured pressure. The pressure sensitive inductor consists of a planar coil (single loop of wire) with a ferrite core whose distance to the coil varies with applied pressure. A prototype of the implantable pressure sensor is fabricated and tested, both in vitro and in vivo (swine bladder). A pressure sensitivity of 1 kHz/cm H2O is achieved with minimal misalignment sensitivity (26% drop at 90° misalignment between the implanted device and acoustic source; 60% drop at 90° misalignment between the implanted device and RF receiver coil).

  9. Interrogating scarcity: how to think about 'resource-scarce settings'.

    PubMed

    Schrecker, Ted

    2013-07-01

    The idea of resource scarcity permeates health ethics and health policy analysis in various contexts. However, health ethics inquiry seldom asks-as it should-why some settings are 'resource-scarce' and others not. In this article I describe interrogating scarcity as a strategy for inquiry into questions of resource allocation within a single political jurisdiction and, in particular, as an approach to the issue of global health justice in an interconnected world. I demonstrate its relevance to the situation of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with brief descriptions of four elements of contemporary globalization: trade agreements; the worldwide financial marketplace and capital flight; structural adjustment; imperial geopolitics and foreign policy. This demonstration involves not only health care, but also social determinants of health. Finally, I argue that interrogating scarcity provides the basis for a new, critical approach to health policy at the interface of ethics and the social sciences, with specific reference to market fundamentalism as the value system underlying contemporary globalization.

  10. Police interviewing and interrogation of juvenile suspects: a descriptive examination of actual cases.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Hayley M D

    2014-06-01

    Although empirical attention to police interrogation has gained traction in recent years, comparatively few studies have examined interrogation of juvenile suspects, and virtually none have examined actual interrogations. Despite a growing literature on youths' interrogation-related capacities, we still know very little about what actually transpires when police question youth. The present study examines electronically recorded police interviews with juveniles to describe the characteristics, processes, and outcomes that occur in actual juvenile interrogations, including interview duration, individuals present, and confessions. Fifty-seven electronic recordings from 17 police departments were analyzed using observational research software. The median juvenile interrogation lasted 46 min, though the range was extensive (6 min to nearly 5 hr). Youth frequently submitted to questioning without a parent or advocate present, and disruptions to the interview process were common. Interrogation outcomes varied and included full confessions, partially incriminating admissions, and denials of guilt. Results from this study provide context for interrogation research using other methods and suggest that youth may frequently consent to interrogation in the absence of important legal protections.

  11. A guide to genome-wide association analysis and post-analytic interrogation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Eric; Nunez, Sara; Kulp, David; Qian, Jing; Reilly, Muredach P; Foulkes, Andrea S

    2015-12-10

    This tutorial is a learning resource that outlines the basic process and provides specific software tools for implementing a complete genome-wide association analysis. Approaches to post-analytic visualization and interrogation of potentially novel findings are also presented. Applications are illustrated using the free and open-source R statistical computing and graphics software environment, Bioconductor software for bioinformatics and the UCSC Genome Browser. Complete genome-wide association data on 1401 individuals across 861,473 typed single nucleotide polymorphisms from the PennCATH study of coronary artery disease are used for illustration. All data and code, as well as additional instructional resources, are publicly available through the Open Resources in Statistical Genomics project: http://www.stat-gen.org.

  12. Analysis of transmission mode of a matched fiber Bragg grating interrogation scheme.

    PubMed

    Wade, Scott A; Attard, Daniel P; Stoddart, Paul R

    2010-08-20

    A detailed investigation has been undertaken into the transmission mode of the matched fiber Bragg grating interrogation scheme with respect to its use in optical fiber sensor applications. Analytical and numerical models of the scheme have been developed. Experimental studies presented include the effect of the spectral characteristics of the gratings on system performance, results of strain and compression calibrations, a scheme to correct for intensity fluctuations, and the correction of temperature-induced shifts by collocating sensor and reference gratings. The results are in good agreement with a simplified model of the transmission mode. The analysis provides quantitative relationships between key sensor design parameters, such as sensitivity and measurement range as a function of grating bandwidth. PMID:20733619

  13. Assessing the feasibility of interrogating nuclear waste storage silos using cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosino, F.; Bonechi, L.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; Ireland, D. G.; Kaiser, R.; Mahon, D. F.; Mori, N.; Noli, P.; Saracino, G.; Shearer, C.; Viliani, L.; Yang, G.

    2015-06-01

    Muon radiography is a fast growing field in applied scientific research. In recent years, many detector technologies and imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering and absorption properties of cosmic-ray muons have been developed for the non-destructive assay of various structures across a wide range of applications. This work presents the first results that assess the feasibility of using muon radiography to interrogate waste silos within the U.K. Nuclear Industry. Two such approaches, using different techniques that exploit each of these properties, have previously been published, and show promising results from both simulation and experimental data for the detection of shielded high-Z materials and density variations from volcanic assay. Both detection systems used are based on scintillator and photomultiplier technologies. Results from dedicated simulation studies using both these proven technologies and image reconstruction techniques are presented for an intermediate-sized legacy nuclear waste storage facility filled with concrete and an array of uranium samples. Both results highlight the potential to identify uranium objects of varying thicknesses greater than 5 cm within real-time durations of several weeks. Increased contributions from Coulomb scattering within the concrete matrix of the structure hinder the ability of both approaches to resolve similar objects of 2 cm dimensions even with increased statistics. These results are all dependent on both the position of the objects within the facility and the locations of the detectors. Results for differing thicknesses of concrete, which reflect the non-standard composition of these complex, legacy structures under interrogation, are also presented alongside studies performed for a series of data collection durations. It is anticipated that with further research and optimisation of detector technologies and geometries, muon radiography in one, or both of these forms, will play a key role in future

  14. Medically related activities of application team program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Application team methodology identifies and specifies problems in technology transfer programs to biomedical areas through direct contact with users of aerospace technology. The availability of reengineering sources increases impact of the program on the medical community and results in broad scale application of some bioinstrumentation systems. Examples are given that include devices adapted to the rehabilitation of neuromuscular disorders, power sources for artificial organs, and automated monitoring and detection equipment in clinical medicine.

  15. IR Activities. IR Applications, Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Stephen; Gerek, Mary Louise

    2007-01-01

    Institutional research is the sum total of all activities directed at describing the full spectrum of functions (educational, administrative, and support) occurring within a college or university. Institutional research activities examine those functions in their broadest definitions, and embrace data collection and analytical strategies in…

  16. Adaptive dynamic FBG interrogation utilising erbium-doped fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, R. N.; Read, I.; MacPherson, W. N.

    2013-04-01

    A dynamic fibre Bragg grating interrogation scheme is investigated using two-wave mixing in erbium-doped fibre, capable of adapting to quasistatic strain and temperature drifts. An interference pattern set up in the erbium-doped fibre creates, due to the photorefractive effect, a dynamic grating capable of wavelength demodulating the FBG signal. The presence of a dynamic grating was verified and then dynamic strain signals from a fibre stretcher were measured. The adaptive nature of the technique was successfully demonstrated by heating the FBG while it underwent dynamic straining leading to detection unlike an alternative arrayed waveguide grating system which simultaneously failed detection. Two gratings were then wavelength division multiplexed with the signal grating receiving approximately 30dB greater signal showing that there was little cross talk in the system.

  17. An Optical Fiber Displacement Sensor Using RF Interrogation Technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Choi, Sang-Jin; Jeon, Keum Soo; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2016-02-24

    We propose a novel non-contact optical fiber displacement sensor. It uses a radio frequency (RF) interrogation technique which is based on bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). The displacement is measured from the free spectral range (FSR) which is determined by the dip frequencies of the modulated MZ-EOM transfer function. In experiments, the proposed sensor showed a sensitivity of 456 kHz/mm or 1.043 kHz/V in a measurement range of 7 mm. The displacement resolution of the proposed sensor depends on the linewidth and the power of the optical source. Resolution better than 0.05 μm would be achieved if an optical source which has a linewidth narrower than 1.5 nm and a received power larger than -36 dBm is used. Also, the multiplexing characteristic of the proposed sensor was experimentally validated.

  18. An Optical Fiber Displacement Sensor Using RF Interrogation Technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Choi, Sang-Jin; Jeon, Keum Soo; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel non-contact optical fiber displacement sensor. It uses a radio frequency (RF) interrogation technique which is based on bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). The displacement is measured from the free spectral range (FSR) which is determined by the dip frequencies of the modulated MZ-EOM transfer function. In experiments, the proposed sensor showed a sensitivity of 456 kHz/mm or 1.043 kHz/V in a measurement range of 7 mm. The displacement resolution of the proposed sensor depends on the linewidth and the power of the optical source. Resolution better than 0.05 μm would be achieved if an optical source which has a linewidth narrower than 1.5 nm and a received power larger than -36 dBm is used. Also, the multiplexing characteristic of the proposed sensor was experimentally validated. PMID:26927098

  19. Single chip interrogation system for a smart shoe wireless transponder.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Shahrzad; Roshan, Meisam; Huang, Haiying; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Henderson, Rashaunda

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a wireless transponder for antenna-based sensors that can be used to simultaneously measure shear and pressure forces for diabetic foot diagnosis. The transponder will be placed on the top surface of a shoe and consists of sensor antennas and an identification system that transmits information to a receiver by modulating the signal reflected by the antennas sensor in the insole. The identification system includes an energy harvester, a crystal oscillator and a passive mixer. A single chip interrogation circuit has been designed in IBM130 nm CMOS technology to reduce size. The identification system including bond pads has a size of 1.2 mm × 0.8 mm.

  20. Simultaneous interrogation of interferometric and Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, G.; Kalli, K.; Webb, D. J.; Jackson, D. A.; Reekie, L.; Archambault, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    We propose a new method for the simultaneous interrogation of conventional two-beam interferometers and Bragg grating sensors. The technique employs an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer illuminated by a single low-coherence source, which acts as a wavelength-tunable source for the grating and as a path-matched filter for the Fizeau interferometer, thus providing a high phase resolution output for each sensor. The grating sensor demonstrates a dynamic strain resolution of \\similar 0.05 mu 3 / \\radical Hz \\end-radical at 20 Hz, while the interferometric phase resolution is better than 1mrad/ \\radical Hz \\end-radical at 20 Hz, corresponding to an rms mirror displacement of 0.08 nm.

  1. Scoping studies - photon and low energy neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.; Harker, Y.; Jones, J.; Harmon, F.

    1997-11-01

    High energy photon interrogation of waste containers, with the aim of producing photo nuclear reactions, in specific materials, holds the potential of good penetration and rapid analysis. Compact high energy ({le} 10 MeV) photon sources in the form of electron linacs producing bremstrahlung radiation are readily available. Work with the Varitron variable energy accelerator at ISU will be described. Advantages and limitations of the technique will be discussed. Using positive ion induced neutron producing reactions, it is possible to generate neutrons in a specific energy range. By this means, variable penetration and specific reactions can be excited in the assayed material. Examples using the {sup 3}H(p,n) and {sup 7}Li(p,n) reactions as neutron sources will be discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Single chip interrogation system for a smart shoe wireless transponder.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Shahrzad; Roshan, Meisam; Huang, Haiying; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Henderson, Rashaunda

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a wireless transponder for antenna-based sensors that can be used to simultaneously measure shear and pressure forces for diabetic foot diagnosis. The transponder will be placed on the top surface of a shoe and consists of sensor antennas and an identification system that transmits information to a receiver by modulating the signal reflected by the antennas sensor in the insole. The identification system includes an energy harvester, a crystal oscillator and a passive mixer. A single chip interrogation circuit has been designed in IBM130 nm CMOS technology to reduce size. The identification system including bond pads has a size of 1.2 mm × 0.8 mm. PMID:25570659

  3. An Optical Fiber Displacement Sensor Using RF Interrogation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Choi, Sang-Jin; Jeon, Keum Soo; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel non-contact optical fiber displacement sensor. It uses a radio frequency (RF) interrogation technique which is based on bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). The displacement is measured from the free spectral range (FSR) which is determined by the dip frequencies of the modulated MZ-EOM transfer function. In experiments, the proposed sensor showed a sensitivity of 456 kHz/mm or 1.043 kHz/V in a measurement range of 7 mm. The displacement resolution of the proposed sensor depends on the linewidth and the power of the optical source. Resolution better than 0.05 μm would be achieved if an optical source which has a linewidth narrower than 1.5 nm and a received power larger than −36 dBm is used. Also, the multiplexing characteristic of the proposed sensor was experimentally validated. PMID:26927098

  4. Deception in the Interrogation Room: Sometimes Tragic for Persons with Mental Retardation and Other Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perske, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses how commonly used police interrogation techniques may result in coerced, false confessions by individuals with mental retardation and urges human service agencies and police departments to communicate with each other. It describes a nine-step interrogation technique and the authoritative pressures to which individuals with…

  5. 48 CFR 237.173 - Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel. 237.173 Section 237.173 Federal Acquisition Regulations... SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 237.173 Prohibition on interrogation of detainees...

  6. Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and working with the…

  7. 48 CFR 237.173 - Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel. 237.173 Section 237.173 Federal Acquisition Regulations... SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 237.173 Prohibition on interrogation of detainees...

  8. 48 CFR 237.173 - Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel. 237.173 Section 237.173 Federal Acquisition Regulations... SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 237.173 Prohibition on interrogation of detainees...

  9. Using Elaborative Interrogation Enhanced Worked Examples to Improve Chemistry Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Rebecca Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Elaborative interrogation, which prompts students to answer why-questions placed strategically within informational text, has been shown to increase learning comprehension through reading. In this study, elaborative interrogation why-questions requested readers to explain why paraphrased statements taken from a reading were "true."…

  10. 48 CFR 237.173 - Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel. 237.173 Section 237.173 Federal Acquisition Regulations... SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 237.173 Prohibition on interrogation of detainees...

  11. And I Want to Thank You Barbie: Barbie as a Site for Cultural Interrogation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Claudia; Reid-Walsh, Jacqueline

    1995-01-01

    Barbie is presented as the perfect cultural site for interrogating margins, borders, and contradictions in females' lives. This article illuminates such issues by interrogating the "cumulative cultural text of Barbie." Texts criticized are: Barbie collector cards; "Barbie" and "Barbie Fashion" comic books; "Barbie, The Magazine for Girls"; and the…

  12. The Development of Interrogative Forms and Functions in Early Childhood Cantonese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui; Tse, Shek Kam; Sin Wong, Jessie Ming; Mei Wong, Eileen Chin; Leung, Shing On

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated question acquisition in Cantonese-speaking young children with a focus on the development of interrogative forms and functions. Data from a child Cantonese corpus (492 children aged 36, 48 and 60 months) were analysed. The main results were that: (1) all the interrogative forms and functions were produced by the three age…

  13. Gamete activation: basic knowledge and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Ménézo, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background The first clues to the process of gamete activation date back to nearly 60 years ago. The mutual activation of gametes is a crucial event during fertilization. In the testis and ovaries, spermatozoa and oocytes are in a state of meiotic and metabolic quiescence and require reciprocal signals in order to undergo functional changes that lead to competence for fertilization. First, the oocyte activates sperm by triggering motility, chemoattraction, binding and the acrosome reaction, culminating with the fusion of the two plasma membranes. At the end of this cascade of events, collectively known as sperm capacitation, sperm-induced oocyte activation occurs, generating electrical, morphological and metabolic modifications in the oocyte. Objective and rationale The aim of this review is to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the entire process of gamete activation in selected specific animal models that have contributed to our understanding of fertilization in mammals, including humans. Here we describe in detail the reciprocal induction of the two activation processes, the molecules involved and the mechanisms of cell interaction and signal transduction that ultimately result in successful embryo development and creation of a new individual. Search methods We carried out a literature survey with no restrictions on publication date (from the early 1950s to March 2016) using PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar and Web of Knowledge by utilizing common keywords applied in the field of fertilization and embryo development. We also screened the complete list of references published in the most recent research articles and relevant reviews published in English (both animal and human studies) on the topics investigated. Outcomes Literature on the principal animal models demonstrates that gamete activation is a pre-requisite for successful fertilization, and is a process common to all species studied to date. We provide a detailed description of the dramatic

  14. Reid training and sensitivity to developmental maturity in interrogation: results from a national survey of police.

    PubMed

    Kostelnik, Jessica O; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2009-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated that youthfulness is a risk factor for providing false confessions during criminal interrogations, it is unclear whether interrogation training programs address this issue. The goal was to analyze differences between Reid-trained (RT) and non-Reid-trained (non-RT) police in their sensitivity to the developmental maturity of young suspects. 1,828 police officers, 514 of whom were RT, completed surveys about their perceptions and practices during interrogation with children, adolescents, or adults. Results indicate that, compared with non-RT police, RT police demonstrate less sensitivity to the developmental maturity of adolescents in terms of (1) perceptions of their competencies during interrogation and (2) use of psychologically coercive questioning techniques. These findings have implications for the development of juvenile interrogation training programs.

  15. Lie-detection biases among male police interrogators, prisoners, and laypersons.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan

    2009-12-01

    Beliefs of 28 male police interrogators, 30 male prisoners, and 30 male laypersons about their skill in detecting lies and truths told by others, and in telling lies and truths convincingly themselves, were compared. As predicted, police interrogators overestimated their lie-detection skills. In fact, they were affected by stereotypical beliefs about verbal and nonverbal cues to deception. Prisoners were similarly affected by stereotypical misconceptions about deceptive behaviors but were able to identify that lying is related to pupil dilation. They assessed their lie-detection skill as similar to that of laypersons, but less than that of police interrogators. In contrast to interrogators, prisoners tended to rate lower their lie-telling skill than did the other groups. Results were explained in terms of anchoring and self-assessment bias. Practical aspects of the results for criminal interrogation were discussed.

  16. Pharmacological Activities and Applications of Spicatoside A

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Mahesh; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Liriopogons (Liriope and Opiopogon) species are used as a main medicinal ingredient in several Asian countries. The Liriopes Radix (tuber, root of Liriope platyphylla) has to be a promising candidate due to their source of phytochemicals. Steroidal saponins and their glycosides, phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites are considered of active constituents in Liriopes Radix. Spicatoside A, a steroidal saponin, could be more efficacious drug candidate in future. In this review, we summarized the available knowledge on phytochemical and pharmacological activities for spicatoside A. It significantly suppressed the level of NF-κB, NO, iNOS, Cox-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and MAPKs in LPS-stimulated inflammation. The production of MUC5AC mucin was increased. MMP-13 expression was down-regulated in IL-1β-treated cells and reduced glycosaminoglycan release from IL-1α-treated cells. The neurite outgrowth activity, PI3K, Akt, ERK1/2, TrkA and CREB phosphorylation and neurotropic factors such as NGF and BDNF were upregulated with increased latency time. It also showed cell growth inhibitory activity on various carcinoma cells. From this, spicatoside A exerts anti-inflammation, anti-asthma, anti-osteoclastogenesis, neurite outgrowth, memory consolidation and anticancer activities. Further studies are needed on spicatoside A in order to understand mechanisms of action to treat various human diseases. PMID:27169821

  17. MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, Barbara; Schůrek, Jakub; Myslík, Vladimír

    2011-11-01

    During the last decade, many groups have grown thin films of various organic materials by the cryogenic Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique with a wide range of applications. This contribution is focused on the summary of our results with deposition and characterization of thin films of fibrinogen, pullulan derivates, azo-polyurethane, cryoglobulin, polyvinyl alcohol, and bovine serum albumin dissolved in physiological serum, dimethyl sulfoxide, sanguine plasma, phosphate buffer solution, H2O, ethylene glycol, and tert-butanol. MAPLE films were characterized using FTIR, AFM, Raman scattering, and SEM. For deposition, a special hardware was developed including a unique liquid nitrogen cooled target holder. Overview of MAPLE thin film applications is given. We studied SnAcAc, InAcAc, SnO2, porphyrins, and polypyrrole MAPLE fabricated films as small resistive gas sensors. Sensors were tested with ozone, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor gases. In the last years, our focus was on the study of fibrinogen-based scaffolds for application in tissue engineering, wound healing, and also as a part of layers for medical devices.

  18. Applications of magnetically active fibre reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etches, Julie; Bond, Ian; Mellor, Philip

    2005-05-01

    As the application of fibre reinforced polymer composites (FRP) becomes more widespread there is a desire to add functionality beyond that of simple mechanical properties in order to facilitate the development of 'smart' materials. For example, the functionality being discussed in this paper is the imparting of significant magnetic properties to a FRP. This can take the form of soft magnetic performance for use in electrical machines or hard magnetic performance for novel forms of sensing or power generation. It has been demonstrated that by using hollow glass fibres as a reinforcement, magnetic material can be introduced into these fibres without significant effects on the structural behaviour of the FRP. The current studies have included the assessment of such a magnetic FRP in a variety of applications. The addition of hard magnetic materials, e.g. magnetite and barium ferrite, has been achieved through the use of nanopowders and the resulting FRP has been assessed for morphing structures applications. The magnitude of magnetic performance that can be currently achieved is controlled by the availability of suitable magnetic materials in fine powder form and the volume of magnetic material which can be incorporated within the fibres.

  19. A Practical Method for UHF RFID Interrogation Area Measurement Using Battery Assisted Passive Tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsugi, Jin; Tokumasu, Osamu

    For the success of a large deployment of UHF RFID, easyto-use and low-cost engineering tools to facilitate the performance evaluation are demanded particularly in installations and for trouble shooting. The measurement of interrogation area is one of the most typical industrial demands to establish the stable readability of UHF RFID. Exhaustive repetition of tag position change with a read operation and a usage of expensive measurement equipment or special interrogators are common practices to measure the interrogation area. In this paper, a practical method to measure the interrogation area of a UHF RFID by using a battery assisted passive tag (BAP) is presented. After introducing the fundamental design and performances of the BAP that we have developed, we introduce the measurement method. In the method, the target tag in the target installation is continuously traversed either manually or automatically while it is subjected to a repetitive read of a commercial interrogator. During the target tag traversal, the interrogator's commands are continuously monitored by a BAP. With an extensive analysis on interrogator commands, the BAP can differentiate between its own read timings and those of the target tag. The read timings of the target tag collected by the BAP are recorded synchronously with the target tag position, yielding a map of the interrogation area. The present method does not entail a measurement burden. It is also independent of the choice of interrogator and tag. The method is demonstrated in a practical UHF RFID installation to show that the method can measure a 40mm resolution interrogation area measurement just by traversing the target tag at a slow walking speed, 300mm/sec.

  20. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-01

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  1. Semi-active suspension for automotive application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venhovens, Paul J. T.; Devlugt, Alex R.

    The theoretical considerations for semi-active damping system evaluation, with respect to semi-active suspension and Kalman filtering, are discussed in terms of the software. Some prototype hardware developments are proposed. A significant improvement in ride comfort performance can be obtained, indicated by root mean square body acceleration values and frequency responses, using a switchable damper system with two settings. Nevertheless the improvement is accompanied by an increase in dynamic tire load variations. The main benefit of semi-active suspensions is the potential of changing the low frequency section of the transfer function. In practice this will support the impression of extra driving stability. It is advisable to apply an adaptive control strategy like the (extended) skyhook version switching more to the 'comfort' setting for straight (and smooth/moderate roughness) road running and switching to 'road holding' for handling maneuvers and possibly rough roads and discrete, severe events like potholes.

  2. Various applications of Active Field Control (AFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Hideo; Kishinaga, Shinji; Kawakami, Fukushi

    2003-10-01

    AFC is an electro-acoustic enhancement system, which has been under development at Yamaha Corporation. In this paper, several types of various AFC applications are discussed, while referring to representative projects for each application in Japan. (1) Realization of acoustics in a huge hall to classical music program, e.g., Tokyo International Forum. This venue is a multipurpose hall with approximately 5000 seats. AFC achieves loudness and reverberance equivalent to those of a hall with 2500 seats or fewer. (2) Optimization of acoustics for a variety of programs, e.g., Arkas Sasebo. AFC is used to create the optimum acoustics for each program, such as reverberance for classical concerts, acoustical support for opera singers, uniformity throughout the hall from the stage to under-balcony area, etc. (3) Control of room shape acoustical effect, e.g., Osaka Central Public Hall: In this renovation project, preservation of historically important architecture in the original form is required. AFC is installed to vary only the acoustical environment without architectural changes. (4) Assistance with crowd enthusiasm for sports entertainment, e.g., Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium. In this venue, which is designed as a very absorptive space for speech intelligibility, AFC is installed to enhance the atmosphere of live sports entertainment.

  3. What do potential jurors know about police interrogation techniques and false confessions?

    PubMed

    Leo, Richard A; Liu, Brittany

    2009-01-01

    Psychological police interrogation methods in America inevitably involve some level of pressure and persuasion to achieve their goal of eliciting confessions of guilt from custodial suspects. In this article, we surveyed potential jurors about their perceptions of a range of psychological interrogation techniques, the likelihood that such techniques would elicit a true confession from guilty suspects, and the likelihood that such techniques could elicit a false confession from innocent suspects. Participants recognized that these interrogation techniques may be psychologically coercive and may elicit true confessions, but believed that psychologically coercive interrogation techniques are not likely to elicit false confessions. The findings from this survey study indicate that potential jurors believe that false confessions are both counter- intuitive and unlikely, even in response to psychologically coercive interrogation techniques that have been shown to lead to false confessions from the innocent. This study provides empirical support for the idea that expert witnesses may helpfully inform jurors about the social science research on psychologically coercive interrogation methods and how and why such interrogation techniques can lead to false confessions. PMID:19405041

  4. What do potential jurors know about police interrogation techniques and false confessions?

    PubMed

    Leo, Richard A; Liu, Brittany

    2009-01-01

    Psychological police interrogation methods in America inevitably involve some level of pressure and persuasion to achieve their goal of eliciting confessions of guilt from custodial suspects. In this article, we surveyed potential jurors about their perceptions of a range of psychological interrogation techniques, the likelihood that such techniques would elicit a true confession from guilty suspects, and the likelihood that such techniques could elicit a false confession from innocent suspects. Participants recognized that these interrogation techniques may be psychologically coercive and may elicit true confessions, but believed that psychologically coercive interrogation techniques are not likely to elicit false confessions. The findings from this survey study indicate that potential jurors believe that false confessions are both counter- intuitive and unlikely, even in response to psychologically coercive interrogation techniques that have been shown to lead to false confessions from the innocent. This study provides empirical support for the idea that expert witnesses may helpfully inform jurors about the social science research on psychologically coercive interrogation methods and how and why such interrogation techniques can lead to false confessions.

  5. Simulation of path delay multiplexing-based Fourier transform spectrometer for fiber Bragg grating interrogation.

    PubMed

    Chelliah, Pandian; Sahoo, Trilochan; Singh, Sheela; Sujatha, Annie

    2015-10-20

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) used for interrogating a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) consists of a scanning-type interferometer. The FTS has a broad wavelength range of operation and good multiplexing capability. However, it has poor wavelength resolution and interrogation speed. We propose a modification to the FTS using path delay multiplexing to improve the same. Using this method, spatial resolution and interrogation time can be improved by n times by using n path delays. In this paper, simulation results for n=2, 5 are shown.

  6. A combined thermal/epithermal neutron interrogation device to assay fissle materials in large containers

    SciTech Connect

    Coop, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    We used Monte Carlo techniques to investigate the neutronic properties of a device designed to interrogate large waste containers with both thermal and epithermal neutrons. The interrogating spectrum is obtained by gradually slowing down neutrons from a pulsed source. Shortly after the pulse, the neutrons are predominantly at epithermal energies, becoming completely thermalized at later times. We calculated the effects of using different moderating materials, cavity sizes, and container matrices on the interrogating flux. Such a device could detect ''lumpy'' or cadmium-shielded uranium in non-hydrogenous matrices and could provide assays of finely divided fissile materials, regardless of hydrogen content. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Molecular techniques to interrogate and edit the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome.

    PubMed

    Jinkerson, Robert E; Jonikas, Martin C

    2015-05-01

    The success of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism is to a large extent due to the wide range of molecular techniques that are available for its characterization. Here, we review some of the techniques currently used to modify and interrogate the C. reinhardtii nuclear genome and explore several technologies under development. Nuclear mutants can be generated with ultraviolet (UV) light and chemical mutagens, or by insertional mutagenesis. Nuclear transformation methods include biolistic delivery, agitation with glass beads, and electroporation. Transforming DNA integrates into the genome at random sites, and multiple strategies exist for mapping insertion sites. A limited number of studies have demonstrated targeted modification of the nuclear genome by approaches such as zinc-finger nucleases and homologous recombination. RNA interference is widely used to knock down expression levels of nuclear genes. A wide assortment of transgenes has been successfully expressed in the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome, including transformation markers, fluorescent proteins, reporter genes, epitope tagged proteins, and even therapeutic proteins. Optimized expression constructs and strains help transgene expression. Emerging technologies such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system, high-throughput mutant identification, and a whole-genome knockout library are being developed for this organism. We discuss how these advances will propel future investigations.

  8. Implementation of interrogation systems for fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese P, Benjamin; Kumar R, Dinesh; Raju, Mittu; Madhusoodanan, K. N.

    2013-09-01

    The development of two simple methods for wavelength-optical intensity modulation techniques for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is presented. The performance is evaluated by measuring the strain and temperature. The first method consists of a narrow band source, an optical circulator, an FBG, and a power meter. The source and Bragg reflected signal from the FBG need to be matched to get linear results with good power levels. The source spectral power levels are very critical in this study. The power reflected from a matched reference FBG is fed into the measuring FBG in the second method. Since the FBGs are matched, the entire power is reflected back initially. During the measurement, the change in the measurand causes the reflected power from the sensing FBG to vary. A costly high resolution spectrum analyzer is required only during the characterization of the FBG and source. The performances of two interrogators are compared by measuring the strain and temperature. In the second method, the strain measurements can be made insensitive to the temperature variation by selecting a source with a flat spectrum at the measurement range. Highlights of these methods are the portability, cost effectiveness and better resolution.

  9. Time-Dependent Delayed Signatures From Energetic Photon Interrogations

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Norman; J. L. Jones; B. W. Blackburn; S. M. Watson; K. J. Haskell

    2006-08-01

    A pulsed photonuclear interrogation environment is rich with time-dependent, material specific, radiation signatures. Exploitation of these signatures in the delayed time regime (>1us after the photon flash) has been explored through various detection schemes to identify both shielded nuclear material and nitrogen-based explosives. Prompt emission may also be invaluable for these detection methods. Numerical and experimental results, which utilize specially modified neutron and HpGe detectors, are presented which illustrate the efficacy of utilizing these time-dependent signatures. Optimal selection of the appropriate delayed time window is essential to these pulsed inspection systems. For explosive (ANFO surrogate) detection, both numerical models and experimental results illustrate that nearly all 14N(n,y) reactions have occurred within l00 us after the flash. In contrast, however, gamma-ray and neutron signals for nuclear material detection require a delay of several milliseconds after the photon pulse. In this case, any data collected too close to the photon flash results in a spectrum dominated by high energy signals which make it difficult to discern signatures from nuclear material. Specifically, two short-lived, high-energy fission fragments (97Ag(T1/2=5.1 s) and 94Sr(T1/2=75.2 s)) were measured and identified as indicators of the presence of fissionable material. These developments demonstrate that a photon inspection environment can be exploited for time-dependent, material specific signatures through the proper operation of specially modified detectors.

  10. Active-Twist Rotor Control Applications for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    2004-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in active-twist rotor control is discussed using representative examples from analytical and experimental studies, and the application to rotary-wing UAVs is considered. Topics include vibration and noise reduction, rotor performance improvement, active blade tracking, stability augmentation, and rotor blade de-icing. A review of the current status of piezoelectric fiber composite actuator technology, the class of piezoelectric actuators implemented in active-twist rotor systems, is included.

  11. Soils Activity Mobility Study: Methodology and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, Alissa; Yucel, Vefa

    2014-09-29

    and labor- and data-intensive methods. For the watersheds analyzed in this report using the Level 1 PSIAC method, the risk of erosion is low. The field reconnaissance surveys of these watersheds confirm the conclusion that the sediment yield of undisturbed areas at the NNSS would be low. The climate, geology, soils, ground cover, land use, and runoff potential are similar among these watersheds. There are no well-defined ephemeral channels except at the Smoky and Plutonium Valley sites. Topography seems to have the strongest influence on sediment yields, as sediment yields are higher on the steeper hill slopes. Lack of measured sediment yield data at the NNSS does not allow for a direct evaluation of the yield estimates by the PSIAC method. Level 2 MUSLE estimates in all the analyzed watersheds except Shasta are a small percentage of the estimates from PSIAC because MUSLE is not inclusive of channel erosion. This indicates that channel erosion dominates the total sediment yield in these watersheds. Annual sediment yields for these watersheds are estimated using the CHAN-SEDI and CHAN-SEDII channel sediment transport models. Both transport models give similar results and exceed the estimates obtained from PSIAC and MUSLE. It is recommended that the total watershed sediment yield of watersheds at the NNSS with flow channels be obtained by adding the washload estimate (rill and inter-rill erosion) from MUSLE to that obtained from channel transport models (bed load and suspended sediment). PSIAC will give comparable results if factor scores for channel erosion are revised towards the high erosion level. Application of the Level 3 process-based models to estimate sediment yields at the NNSS cannot be recommended at this time. Increased model complexity alone will not improve the certainty of the sediment yield estimates. Models must be calibrated against measured data before model results are accepted as certain. Because no measurements of sediment yields at the NNSS are

  12. Commentary: overcoming judicial preferences for person- versus situation-based analyses of interrogation-induced confessions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah; Leo, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of false confessions occur in the context of interrogation, and in response to the sources of distress and persuasive tactics of the interrogation. However, there are widely held mistaken assumptions that a false confessor must suffer some personal defect such as a mental disorder. In this article, we explain that many normal people may give false confessions under certain social situations. We examine such situations and their effects on false confessions. We urge courts to recognize that suspect-enhanced vulnerabilities are not a necessary condition for the elicitation of false confessions, but rather that much lesser situational factors have just as much influence on the interrogated. We lay out a set of guidelines to assist expert testifiers in evaluating better an interrogation-induced confession. PMID:20542937

  13. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Bernstein, A; Candy, J; Dougan, A; Hall, J; Loshak, A; Manatt, D; Meyer, A; Pohl, B; Prussin, S; Walling, R; Weirup, D

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (E{sub {gamma}} = 3-7 MeV) fission product {gamma}-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy {gamma}-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy {gamma}-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of {approx} 0.5 gm/cm{sup 3}. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of {sup 16}O by the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction that produces a 6 MeV {gamma}-ray following a 7-sec {beta}-decay of the {sup 16}N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N is 10 MeV. The signature {gamma}-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 10{sup 4} cps. That is high

  14. Optimized performance for neutron interrogation to detect SNM

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D R; Asztalos, S J; Biltoft, P J; Church, J A; Descalle, M; Hall, J M; Luu, T C; Manatt, D R; Mauger, G J; Norman, E B; Petersen, D C; Pruet, J A; Prussin, S G

    2007-02-14

    A program of simulations and validating experiments was utilized to evaluate a concept for neutron interrogation of commercial cargo containers that would reliably detect special nuclear material (SNM). The goals were to develop an interrogation system capable of detecting a 5 kg solid sphere of high-enriched uranium (HEU) even when deeply embedded in commercial cargo. Performance goals included a minimum detection probability, P{sub d} {ge} 95%, a maximum occurrence of false positive indications, P{sub fA} {le} 0.001, and maximum scan duration of t {le} 1 min. The conditions necessary to meet these goals were demonstrated in experimental measurements even when the SNM is deeply buried in any commercial cargo, and are projected to be met successfully in the most challenging cases of steel or hydrocarbons at areal density {rho}L {le} 150 g/cm{sup 2}. Optimal performance was obtained with a collimated ({Delta}{Theta} = {+-} 15{sup o}) neutron beam at energy E{sub n} = 7 MeV produced by the D(d,n) reaction with the deuteron energy E{sub d} = 4 MeV. Two fission product signatures are utilized to uniquely identify SNM, including delayed neutrons detected in a large array of polyethylene moderated 3He proportional counters and high energy {beta}-delayed fission product {gamma}-radiation detected in a large array of 61 x 61 x 25 cm{sup 3} plastic scintillators. The latter detectors are nearly blind to normal terrestrial background radiation by setting an energy threshold on the detection at E{sub min} {ge} 3 MeV. Detection goals were attained with a low beam current (I{sub d} = 15-65 {micro}A) source up to {rho}L = 75 g/cm{sup 2} utilizing long irradiations, T = 30 sec, and long counting times, t = 30-100 sec. Projecting to a higher beam current, I{sub d} {ge} 600 {micro}A and larger detector array the detection and false alarm goals would be attained even with intervening cargo overburden as large as {rho}L {le} 150 g/cm{sup 2}. The latter cargo thickness corresponds to

  15. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    PubMed

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:8318934

  16. Caged compounds for multichromic optical interrogation of neural systems.

    PubMed

    Amatrudo, Joseph M; Olson, Jeremy P; Agarwal, Hitesh K; Ellis-Davies, Graham C R

    2015-01-01

    Caged compounds are widely used by neurophysiologists to study many aspects of cellular signaling in glia and neurons. Biologically inert before irradiation, they can be loaded into cells via patch pipette or topically applied in situ to a defined concentration; photolysis releases the caged compound in a very rapid and spatially defined way. As caged compounds are exogenous optical probes, they include not only natural products such neurotransmitters, calcium and IP3 but non-natural products such as fluorophores, drugs and antibodies. In this Technical Spotlight we provide a short introduction to the uncaging technique by discussing the nitroaromatic caging chromophores most widely used in such experiments [e.g. α-carboxy-ortho-nitrobenyl (CNB), dimethoxynitrobenzyl (DMNB), 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI) and 4-carboxymethoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (CDNI)]. We show that recently developed caging chromophores [rutheniumbipyridial (RuBi) and 7-diethylaminocoumarin (DEAC)450] that are photolyzed with blue light (~ 430-480 nm range) can be combined with traditional nitroaromatic caged compounds to enable two-color optical probing of neuronal function. For example, one-photon uncaging of either RuBi-GABA or DEAC450-GABA with a 473-nm laser is facile, and can block nonlinear currents (dendritic spikes or action potentials) evoked by two-photon uncaging of CDNI-Glu at 720 nm. We also show that two-photon uncaging of DEAC450-Glu and CDNI-GABA at 900 and 720 nm, respectively, can be used to fire and block action potentials. Our experiments illustrate that recently developed chromophores have taken uncaging out of the 'monochrome era', in which it has existed since 1978, so as to enable multichromic interrogation of neuronal function with single-synapse precision.

  17. Caged compounds for multichromic optical interrogation of neural systems

    PubMed Central

    Amatrudo, Joseph M.; Olson, Jeremy P.; Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Ellis-Davies, Graham C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Caged compounds have widely used by neurophysiologists to study many aspects of cellular signaling in glia and neurons. Biologically inert before irradiation, they can be loaded into cells via patch pipette or topically applied in situ to a defined concentration, photolysis releases the caged compound in a very rapid and spatially defined way. Since caged compounds are exogenous optical probes, they include not only natural products such neurotransmitters, calcium and IP3, but non-natural products such as fluorophores, drugs and antibodies. In this Technical Spotlight we provide a short introduction to the uncaging technique by discussing the nitroaromatic caging chromophores most widely used in such experiments (e.g. CNB1, DMNB, MNI and CDNI). We show that recently developed caging chromophores (RuBi and DEAC450) that are photolyzed with blue light (ca. 430–480 nm range) can be combined with traditional nitroaromatic caged compounds to enable two-color optical probing of neuronal function. For example, one-photon uncaging of either RuBi-GABA or DEAC450-GABA with a 473-nm laser is facile, and can block non-linear currents (dendritic spikes or action potentials) evoked by two-photon uncaging of CDNI-Glu at 720 nm. We also show that two-photon uncaging of DEAC450-Glu and CDNI-GABA at 900 and 720 nm, respectively, can be used to fire and block action potentials. Our experiments illustrate that recently developed chromophores have taken uncaging out of the “monochrome era”, in which it has existed since 1978, so as to enable multichromic interrogation of neuronal function with single synapse precision. PMID:25471355

  18. Active, Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies for Homeland Defense

    SciTech Connect

    James L. Jones

    2003-06-01

    Active, non-intrusive inspection or interrogation technologies have been used for 100 years - with the primary focus being radiographic imaging. During the last 50 years, various active interrogation systems have been investigated and most have revealed many unique and interesting capabilities and advantages that have already benefited the general public. Unfortunately, except for medical and specific industrial applications, these unique capabilities have not been widely adopted, largely due to the complexity of the technology, the overconfident reliance on passive detection systems to handle most challenges, and the unrealistic public concerns regarding radiation safety issues for a given active inspection deployment. The unique homeland security challenges facing the United States today are inviting more "out-of-the-box" solutions and are demanding the effective technological solutions that only active interrogation systems can provide. While revolutionary new solutions are always desired, these technology advancements are rare, and when found, usually take a long time to fully understand and implement for a given application. What's becoming more evident is that focusing on under-developed, but well-understood, active inspection technologies can provide many of the needed "out-of-the-box" solutions. This paper presents a brief historical overview of active interrogation. It identifies some of the major homeland defense challenges being confronted and the commercial and research technologies presently available and being pursued. Finally, the paper addresses the role of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and its partner, the Idaho Accelerator Center at Idaho State University, in promoting and developing active inspection technologies for homeland defense.

  19. Implantable fiber-optic interface for parallel multisite long-term optical dynamic brain interrogation in freely moving mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Fedotov, I. V.; Ivashkina, O. I.; Zots, M. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Seeing the big picture of functional responses within large neural networks in a freely functioning brain is crucial for understanding the cellular mechanisms behind the higher nervous activity, including the most complex brain functions, such as cognition and memory. As a breakthrough toward meeting this challenge, implantable fiber-optic interfaces integrating advanced optogenetic technologies and cutting-edge fiber-optic solutions have been demonstrated, enabling a long-term optogenetic manipulation of neural circuits in freely moving mice. Here, we show that a specifically designed implantable fiber-optic interface provides a powerful tool for parallel long-term optical interrogation of distinctly separate, functionally different sites in the brain of freely moving mice. This interface allows the same groups of neurons lying deeply in the brain of a freely behaving mouse to be reproducibly accessed and optically interrogated over many weeks, providing a long-term dynamic detection of genome activity in response to a broad variety of pharmacological and physiological stimuli.

  20. Measuring the performance of two stationary interrogation systems for detecting downstream and upstream movement of PIT-tagged salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connolly, P.J.; Jezorek, I.G.; Martens, K.D.; Prentice, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the performance of two stationary interrogation systems designed for detecting the movement of fish with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. These systems allowed us to determine the direction of fish movement with high detection efficiency and high precision in a dynamic stream environment. We describe an indirect method for deriving an estimate for detection efficiency and the associated variance that does not rely on a known number of fish passing the system. By using six antennas arranged in a longitudinal series of three arrays, we attained detection efficiencies for downstream- and upstream-moving fish exceeding 96% during high-flow periods and approached 100% during low-flow periods for the two interrogation systems we tested. Because these systems did not rely on structural components, such as bridges or culverts, they were readily adaptable to remote, natural stream sites. Because of built-in redundancy, these systems were able to perform even with a loss of one or more antennas owing to dislodgement or electrical failure. However, the reduction in redundancy resulted in decreased efficiency and precision and the potential loss of ability to determine the direction of fish movement. What we learned about these systems should be applicable to a wide variety of other antenna configurations and to other types of PIT tags and transceivers.

  1. Vernier-cascade label-free biosensor with integrated arrayed waveguide grating for wavelength interrogation with low-cost broadband source.

    PubMed

    Claes, Tom; Bogaerts, Wim; Bienstman, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Recently, cheap silicon-on-insulator label-free biosensors have been demonstrated that allow fast and accurate quantitative detection of biologically relevant molecules for applications in medical diagnostics and drug development. However, whereas the sensor chip can be made cheaply, an expensive tunable laser is typically required to accurately monitor spectral shifts in the sensor's transmission spectrum (wavelength interrogation). To address this issue, we integrated a very sensitive Vernier-cascade sensor with an arrayed waveguide grating spectral filter that divides the sensor's transmission spectrum in multiple wavelength channels and transmits them to spatially separated output ports, allowing wavelength interrogation with a much cheaper broadband light source. Experiments show that this sensor can monitor refractive index changes of watery solutions in real time with a detection limit (1.6·10(-5) RIU) competitive with more expensive interrogation schemes, indicating its applicability in low-cost label-free biosensing. The relaxation on the complexity of the source, moreover, offers the prospect to integrate the source and detectors to further reduce the device cost and to increase its portability.

  2. Assay of fissile materials using a combined thermal/epithermal neutron interrogation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Coop, K.L.; Caldwell, J.T.; Goulding, C.A. )

    1987-01-01

    The authors have developed and built a prototype device to assay fissile materials using a technique that interrogates samples with both thermal and epithermal neutrons. The technique is based on that used in the lead slowing down spectrometer. However, the device is much smaller and less expensive, with poorer energy resolution than a true lead slowing down spectrometer. It is believed that this development may be uniquely suited for the very difficult problem of determining the fissile content in nuclear waste derived from irradiated breeder reactor fuel rods. The waste is of highly variable composition, ranging from absorbed solutions to discrete Pieces several grams in size, embedded in different matrices. The nuclear material is mixed uranium/plutonium fuel of variable enrichment and burnup. While this device was developed specifically to assay remote handled waste, it may be of value for other safeguards applications. One problem in particular for which it may be useful is determining whether enriched uranium is being concealed with lead and cadmium shielding in a box or package.

  3. Passive and active structural monitoring experience: Civil engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. D.; Westermo, B. D.; Crum, D. B.; Law, W. R.; Trombi, R. G.

    2000-05-01

    State Departments of Transportation and regional city government officials are beginning to view the long-term monitoring of infrastructure as being beneficial for structural damage accumulation assessment, condition based maintenance, life extension, and post-earthquake or -hurricane (-tornado, -typhoon, etc.) damage assessment. Active and passive structural monitoring systems were installed over the last few years to monitor concerns in a wide range of civil infrastructure applications. This paper describes the monitoring technologies and systems employed for such applications. Bridge system applications were directed at monitoring corrosion damage accumulation, composite reinforcements for life extension, general service cracking damage related to fatigue and overloads, and post-earthquake damage. Residential system applications were directed primarily at identifying damage accumulation and post-earthquake damage assessment. A professional sports stadium was monitored for isolated ground instability problems and for post-earthquake damage assessment. Internet-based, remote, data acquisition system experience is discussed with examples of long-term passive and active system data collected from many of the individual sites to illustrate the potential for both passive and active structural health monitoring. A summary of system-based operating characteristics and key engineering recommendations are provided to achieve specific structural monitoring objectives for a wide range of civil infrastructure applications.

  4. Six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Leonard S.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed during the period 1 Jan. - 31 Mar. 1993 on six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application is presented. A performance and cost report is included. Topics covered include: actuator testing; mechanical amplifier design; and neural network control system development and experimental evaluation.

  5. Methods for Characterization of Batteries Using Acoustic Interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, Shoham

    Batteries are a ubiquitous form of electrochemical energy storage, but thus far the methods for measuring the mechanical properties of batteries and their component materials in operando have lagged far behind the methods for measuring the corresponding electrical properties. In this thesis, I demonstrate methods for determining the changes in materials properties of an electrochemical energy storage cell both ex situ and in operando.. I begin by establishing the impact of micro-scale morphology changes on the macro-scale dynamic mechanical response in commercial alkaline AA cells. Using a bounce test, the coefficient of restitution (COR) of the cell is shown to increase non-linearly as a function of state of charge (SOC). I show that the reason for the increase in the COR stems from the spatially-dependent oxidation of the Zn anode, with an initial increase corresponding to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO-clad Zn particles spanning the radius of the anode. The subsequent saturation of the COR is shown to result from the ultimate solidification and desiccation of the Zn anode. Building from this, I present a generalized in operando solution for materials characterization in batteries using ultrasonic interrogation. The materials properties of battery components change during charge and discharge, resulting in a change in the sound speed of the materials. By attaching transducers to a battery during cycling and sending ultrasonic pulses through each cell I observe the changes in the time of flight (ToF) of the pulses, both in reflection and transmission. I show that the changes in ToF correspond to both SOC and state of health (SOH) in a variety of battery chemistries and geometries, and detail a corresponding acoustic conservation law model framework. Finally, I perform these electrochemical acoustic time of flight (EAToF) experiments on commercial alkaline AA cells. By correlating the results with energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) data and

  6. Iaea Activities Supporting the Applications of Research Reactors in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peld, Nathan D.; Ridikas, Danas

    2014-02-01

    As the underutilization of research reactors around the world persists as a primary topic of concern among facility owners and operators, the IAEA responded in 2013 with a broad range of activities to address the planning, execution and improvement of many experimental techniques. The revision of two critical documents for planning and diversifying a facility's portfolio of applications, TECDOC 1234 “The Applications of Research Reactors” and TECDOC 1212 “Strategic Planning for Research Reactors”, is in progress in order to keep this information relevant, corresponding to the dynamism of experimental techniques and research capabilities. Related to the latter TECDOC, the IAEA convened a meeting in 2013 for the expert review of a number of strategic plans submitted by research reactor operators in developing countries. A number of activities focusing on specific applications are either continuing or beginning as well. In neutron activation analysis, a joint round of inter-comparison proficiency testing sponsored by the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department will be completed, and facility progress in measurement accuracy is described. Also, a training workshop in neutron imaging and Coordinated Research Projects in reactor benchmarks, automation of neutron activation analysis and neutron beam techniques for material testing intend to advance these activities as more beneficial services to researchers and other users.

  7. Surface interrogation of CoP(i) water oxidation catalyst by scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyun S; Bard, Allen J

    2015-01-21

    Despite exhaustive spectroscopic investigations on the CoPi oxygen-evolving catalyst over the past several years, little is known about the surface cobalt sites and intermediates in direct contact with water that are responsible for the actual catalysis. Many studies thus far have been limited to ex situ characterizations or bulk film measurements, often in the absence of solvent. Here we describe an investigation of the CoPi catalyst by surface interrogation scanning electrochemical microscopy (SI-SECM). This method should allow us to selectively study surface atoms separately from the bulk in a solvent-filled environment. By SI-SECM, independent titrations of surface Co(III) and Co(IV) were performed, yielding a direct measurement of the surface active-site density of a CoPi electrode (11 Co/nm(2)). The pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants of Co(III) and Co(IV) with water were determined to be 0.19 and >2 s(-1), respectively, through time-dependent titration measurements.

  8. Advanced ultrasonic measurement methodology for non-invasive interrogation and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-03-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  9. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-03-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9-guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9-RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9-RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9-RNA. Competition assays provide evidence that DNA strand separation and RNA-DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 uses PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate scission of double-stranded DNA.

  10. Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Gradinaru, Viviana; Adamantidis, Antoine R; Durand, Remy; Airan, Raag D; de Lecea, Luis; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of the neural substrates underlying complex animal behaviors depends on precise activity control tools, as well as compatible readout methods. Recent developments in optogenetics have addressed this need, opening up new possibilities for systems neuroscience. Interrogation of even deep neural circuits can be conducted by directly probing the necessity and sufficiency of defined circuit elements with millisecond-scale, cell type-specific optical perturbations, coupled with suitable readouts such as electrophysiology, optical circuit dynamics measures and freely moving behavior in mammals. Here we collect in detail our strategies for delivering microbial opsin genes to deep mammalian brain structures in vivo, along with protocols for integrating the resulting optical control with compatible readouts (electrophysiological, optical and behavioral). The procedures described here, from initial virus preparation to systems-level functional readout, can be completed within 4–5 weeks. Together, these methods may help in providing circuit-level insight into the dynamics underlying complex mammalian behaviors in health and disease. PMID:20203662

  11. A Catheter-Based Acoustic Interrogation Device for Monitoring Motility Dynamics of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qian; Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Sadowski, Daniel C.; Mintchev, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents novel minimally-invasive, catheter-based acoustic interrogation device for monitoring motility dynamics of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). A micro-oscillator actively emitting sound wave at 16 kHz is located at one side of the LES, and a miniature microphone is located at the other side of the sphincter to capture the sound generated from the oscillator. Thus, the dynamics of the opening and closing of the LES can be quantitatively assessed. In this paper, experiments are conducted utilizing an LES motility dynamics simulator. The sound strength is captured by the microphone and is correlated to the level of LES opening and closing controlled by the simulator. Measurements from the simulator model show statistically significant (p < 0.05) Pearson correlation coefficients (0.905 on the average in quiet environment and 0.736 on the average in noisy environment, D.O.F. = 9). Measuring the level of LES opening and closing has the potential to become a valuable diagnostic technique for understanding LES dysfunction and the disorders associated with it. PMID:25120160

  12. Advanced ultrasonic measurement methodology for non-invasive interrogation and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-05-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  13. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA:DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9:guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9:RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9:RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9:RNA. DNA strand separation and RNA:DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 employs PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate dsDNA scission. PMID:24476820

  14. Interrogation of Chesapeake Bay sediment microbial communities for intrinsic alkane-utilizing potential under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jamie M; Wawrik, Boris; Isom, Catherine; Boling, Wilford B; Callaghan, Amy V

    2015-02-01

    Based on the transient exposure of Chesapeake Bay sediments to hydrocarbons and the metabolic versatility of known anaerobic alkane-degrading microorganisms, it was hypothesized that distinct Bay sediment communities, governed by geochemical gradients, would have intrinsic alkane-utilizing potential under sulfate-reducing and/or methanogenic conditions. Sediment cores were collected along a transect of the Bay. Community DNA was interrogated via pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, PCR of anaerobic hydrocarbon activation genes, and qPCR of 16S rRNA genes and genes involved in sulfate reduction/methanogenesis. Site sediments were used to establish microcosms amended with n-hexadecane under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes indicated that sediments associated with hypoxic water columns contained significantly greater proportions of Bacteria and Archaea consistent with syntrophic degradation of organic matter and methanogenesis compared to less reduced sediments. Microbial taxa frequently associated with hydrocarbon-degrading communities were found throughout the Bay, and the genetic potential for hydrocarbon metabolism was demonstrated via the detection of benzyl-(bssA) and alkylsuccinate synthase (assA) genes. Although microcosm studies did not indicate sulfidogenic alkane degradation, the data suggested that methanogenic conversion of alkanes was occurring. These findings highlight the potential role that anaerobic microorganisms could play in the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in the Bay. PMID:25764556

  15. Interrogation of Chesapeake Bay sediment microbial communities for intrinsic alkane-utilizing potential under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jamie M; Wawrik, Boris; Isom, Catherine; Boling, Wilford B; Callaghan, Amy V

    2015-02-01

    Based on the transient exposure of Chesapeake Bay sediments to hydrocarbons and the metabolic versatility of known anaerobic alkane-degrading microorganisms, it was hypothesized that distinct Bay sediment communities, governed by geochemical gradients, would have intrinsic alkane-utilizing potential under sulfate-reducing and/or methanogenic conditions. Sediment cores were collected along a transect of the Bay. Community DNA was interrogated via pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, PCR of anaerobic hydrocarbon activation genes, and qPCR of 16S rRNA genes and genes involved in sulfate reduction/methanogenesis. Site sediments were used to establish microcosms amended with n-hexadecane under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes indicated that sediments associated with hypoxic water columns contained significantly greater proportions of Bacteria and Archaea consistent with syntrophic degradation of organic matter and methanogenesis compared to less reduced sediments. Microbial taxa frequently associated with hydrocarbon-degrading communities were found throughout the Bay, and the genetic potential for hydrocarbon metabolism was demonstrated via the detection of benzyl-(bssA) and alkylsuccinate synthase (assA) genes. Although microcosm studies did not indicate sulfidogenic alkane degradation, the data suggested that methanogenic conversion of alkanes was occurring. These findings highlight the potential role that anaerobic microorganisms could play in the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in the Bay.

  16. A Review of Smartphone Applications for Promoting Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Whitehead, Mary; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Mastromonico, Jeff; Smith, Selina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in health promotion research and practice. Although many applications (apps) relating to physical activity are available from major smartphone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their effectiveness in promoting health. Methods In this article, we summarize data on use of smartphone apps for promoting physical activity based upon bibliographic searches with relevant search terms in PubMed and CINAHL. Results After screening the abstracts or full texts of articles, 15 eligible studies of the acceptability or efficacy of smartphone apps for increasing physical activity were identified. Of the 15 included studies, 6 were qualitative research studies, 8 were randomized control trials, and one was a nonrandomized study with a pre-post design. The results indicate that smartphone apps can be efficacious in promoting physical activity although the magnitude of the intervention effect is modest. Participants of various ages and genders respond favorably to apps that automatically track physical activity (e.g., steps taken), track progress toward physical activity goals, and are user-friendly and flexible enough for use with several types of physical activity. Discussion Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to establish the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as physical activity. PMID:27034992

  17. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis. [813 references

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-12-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials.

  18. Progress in miniaturization of a multichannel optical fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatin, Craig M.; Mahmood, Shah; Mendoza, Edgar; Moslehi, Behzad; Black, Richard; Chau, Kelvin; Oblea, Levy

    2007-07-01

    An effort to develop a miniaturized multichannel optical fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator was initiated in 2006 under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The goal was to develop an interrogator that would be sufficiently small and light to be incorporated into a health monitoring system for use on tactical missiles. Two companies, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) and Redondo Optics, were funded in Phase I, and this paper describes the prototype interrogators that were developed. The two companies took very different approaches: IFOS focused on developing a unit that would have a high channel count and high resolution, using off-the-shelf components, while Redondo Optics chose to develop a unit that would be very small and lightweight, using custom designed integrated optical chips. It is believed that both approaches will result in interrogators that will be significantly small, lighter, and possibly even more precise than what is currently commercially available. This paper will also briefly describe some of the sensing concepts that may be used to interrogate the health of the solid rocket motors used in many missile systems. The sponsor of this program was NAVAIR PMA 280.

  19. Design and development of a low power, low cost, portable fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhaohui; Phua, Jiliang; Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo; Wang, Xian; Meng, Yu Song; Chiam, Tat Meng

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the design and development of a low power, low cost and portable FBG Interrogation System is presented. The FBG interrogator consists of a spectral analyzer module, a photo detection module, and an electronic processing module. By using volume holographic phase grating as the continuous dispersion spectral element, our interrogator can achieve a maximum scanning frequency as high as 5 KHz for a single channel with a total power requirement of 25 W.

  20. Design and development of a low power, low cost, portable fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhaohui; Phua, Jiliang; Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo; Wang, Xian; Meng, Yu Song; Chiam, Tat Meng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the design and development of a low power, low cost and portable FBG Interrogation System is presented. The FBG interrogator consists of a spectral analyzer module, a photo detection module, and an electronic processing module. By using volume holographic phase grating as the continuous dispersion spectral element, our interrogator can achieve a maximum scanning frequency as high as 5 KHz for a single channel with a total power requirement of 25 W.

  1. Instrumented Shoes for Real-Time Activity Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Moufawad El Achkar, Christopher; Lenoble-Hoskovec, Constanze; Major, Kristof; Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Büla, Christophe; Aminian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    Activity monitoring in daily life is gaining momentum as a health assessment tool, especially in older adults and at-risk populations. Several research-based and commercial systems have been proposed with varying performances in classification accuracy. Configurations with many sensors are generally accurate but cumbersome, whereas single sensors tend to have lower accuracies. To this end, we propose an instrumented shoes system capable of accurate activity classification and gait analysis that contains sensors located entirely at the level of the shoes. One challenge in daily activity monitoring is providing punctual and subject-tailored feedback to improve mobility. Therefore, the instrumented shoe system was equipped with a Bluetooth® module to transmit data to a smartphone and perform detailed activity profiling of the monitored subjects. The potential applications of such a system are numerous in mobility and fall risk-assessment as well as in fall prevention. PMID:27332298

  2. Iterative key-residues interrogation of a phytase with thermostability increasing substitutions identified in directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Shivange, Amol V; Roccatano, Danilo; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial phytases have attracted industrial interest as animal feed supplement due to their high activity and sufficient thermostability (required for feed pelleting). We devised an approach named KeySIDE,  an iterative Key-residues interrogation of the wild type with Substitutions Identified in Directed Evolution for improving Yersinia mollaretii phytase (Ymphytase) thermostability by combining key beneficial substitutions and elucidating their individual roles. Directed evolution yielded in a discovery of nine positions in Ymphytase and combined iteratively to identify key positions. The "best" combination (M6: T77K, Q154H, G187S, and K289Q) resulted in significantly improved thermal resistance; the residual activity improved from 35 % (wild type) to 89 % (M6) at 58 °C and 20-min incubation. Melting temperature increased by 3 °C in M6 without a loss of specific activity. Molecular dynamics simulation studies revealed reduced flexibility in the loops located next to helices (B, F, and K) which possess substitutions (Helix-B: T77K, Helix-F: G187S, and Helix-K: K289E/Q). Reduced flexibility in the loops might be caused by strengthened hydrogen bonding network (e.g., G187S and K289E/K289Q) and a salt bridge (T77K). Our results demonstrate a promising approach to design phytases in food research, and we hope that the KeySIDE might become an attractive approach for understanding of structure-function relationships of enzymes.

  3. The activity-stress paradigm: possible mechanisms and applications.

    PubMed

    Lambert, K G

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms and applications of the activity-stress (A-S) research paradigm are examined in this article. Past research has reflected the value of this paradigm in the investigation of ulcerogenesis. Evidence is offered to support a theory explaining the excessive running observed in the A-S animals, according to which, animals commence running to increase body temperature after failing to adapt to the restricted feeding regime. Further, excessive running levels are hypothesized to be sustained by reinforcement resulting from increased mesolimbic dopaminergic activity. Finally, parallels between the behavior observed in the A-S animals and some forms of maladaptive behavior observed in humans are discussed.

  4. Cellulose Electro-Active Paper: From Discovery to Technology Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2014-09-01

    Cellulose electro-active paper (EAPap) is an attractive material of electro-active polymers (EAPs) family due to its smart characteristics. EAPap is thin cellulose film coated with metal electrodes on both sides. Its large displacement output, low actuation voltage and low power consumption can be used for biomimetic sensors/actuators and electromechanical system. Because cellulose EAPap is ultra-lightweight, easy to manufacture, inexpensive, biocompatible, and biodegradable, it has been employed for many applications such as bending actuator, vibration sensor, artificial muscle, flexible speaker, and can be advantageous in areas such as micro-insect robots, micro-flying objects, microelectromechanical systems, biosensors, and flexible displays.

  5. Application considerations and compensation characteristics of shunt active and series active filters in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1996-10-01

    This paper characterizes typical nonlinear loads into two types of harmonic sources -harmonic current source and harmonic voltage source, which produce highly distorted currents and voltages, respectively. The conventional approach of active harmonic compensation has been the parallel type or `shunt active filter.` It is shown in this paper that the shunt active filter is effective only to harmonic current sources but not to harmonic voltage sources. On the other hand, the active filter connected in series with the system or `series active filter` is very effective in suppression of the harmonic voltage sources. General compensation characteristics of shunt active filters and series active filters are given analytically. The features, required operation conditions, and application considerations of both filters are described analytically and demonstrated experimentally.

  6. A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-enhanced grating-coupling phase-interrogation surface plasmon resonance (SPR) microfluidic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Sonato, A; Agostini, M; Ruffato, G; Gazzola, E; Liuni, D; Greco, G; Travagliati, M; Cecchini, M; Romanato, F

    2016-04-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-enhanced, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) microfluidic biosensor in which SAW-induced mixing and phase-interrogation grating-coupling SPR are combined in a single lithium niobate lab-on-a-chip is demonstrated. Thiol-polyethylene glycol adsorption and avidin/biotin binding kinetics were monitored by exploiting the high sensitivity of grating-coupling SPR under azimuthal control. A time saturation binding kinetics reduction of 82% and 24% for polyethylene and avidin adsorption was obtained, respectively, due to the fluid mixing enhancement by means of the SAW-generated chaotic advection. These results represent the first implementation of a nanostructured SAW-SPR microfluidic biochip capable of significantly improving the molecule binding kinetics on a single, portable device. In addition, the biochip here proposed is suitable for a great variety of biosensing applications.

  7. A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-enhanced grating-coupling phase-interrogation surface plasmon resonance (SPR) microfluidic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Sonato, A; Agostini, M; Ruffato, G; Gazzola, E; Liuni, D; Greco, G; Travagliati, M; Cecchini, M; Romanato, F

    2016-04-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-enhanced, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) microfluidic biosensor in which SAW-induced mixing and phase-interrogation grating-coupling SPR are combined in a single lithium niobate lab-on-a-chip is demonstrated. Thiol-polyethylene glycol adsorption and avidin/biotin binding kinetics were monitored by exploiting the high sensitivity of grating-coupling SPR under azimuthal control. A time saturation binding kinetics reduction of 82% and 24% for polyethylene and avidin adsorption was obtained, respectively, due to the fluid mixing enhancement by means of the SAW-generated chaotic advection. These results represent the first implementation of a nanostructured SAW-SPR microfluidic biochip capable of significantly improving the molecule binding kinetics on a single, portable device. In addition, the biochip here proposed is suitable for a great variety of biosensing applications. PMID:26932784

  8. Analytical investigation of a novel interrogation approach of fiber Bragg grating sensors using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüksel, Kivilcim; Pala, Deniz

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a novel approach in interrogating Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) of cascaded identical FBGs using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR). The fundamentals of both polarisation properties of uniform FBGs and polarisation-sensitive OFDR are explained and the benefits of this novel approach in measuring transversal load are discussed. The numerical programs computing the spectral evolution of PDL of the FBGs in the array as a function of grating parameters (grating length and birefringence) are presented. Our simulation results show an excellent agreement with the previously reported simulation (and experimental) results in the literature obtained on a single FBG by using classical state-of-the-art measurement techniques. As an envisaged application, the proposed system shows the feasibility of measuring the residual stresses during manufacturing process of composite materials which is not straightforward by amplitude spectrum measurements and/or considering only the axial strains.

  9. Active and passive multispectral scanner for earth resources applications: An advanced applications flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Peterson, L. M.; Thomson, F. J.; Work, E. A.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an experimental airborne multispectral scanner to provide both active (laser illuminated) and passive (solar illuminated) data from a commonly registered surface scene is discussed. The system was constructed according to specifications derived in an initial programs design study. The system was installed in an aircraft and test flown to produce illustrative active and passive multi-spectral imagery. However, data was not collected nor analyzed for any specific application.

  10. Wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors using tapered hollow Bragg waveguides.

    PubMed

    Potts, C; Allen, T W; Azar, A; Melnyk, A; Dennison, C R; DeCorby, R G

    2014-10-15

    We describe an integrated system for wavelength interrogation, which uses tapered hollow Bragg waveguides coupled to an image sensor. Spectral shifts are extracted from the wavelength dependence of the light radiated at mode cutoff. Wavelength shifts as small as ~10  pm were resolved by employing a simple peak detection algorithm. Si/SiO₂-based cladding mirrors enable a potential operational range of several hundred nanometers in the 1550 nm wavelength region for a taper length of ~1  mm. Interrogation of a strain-tuned grating was accomplished using a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source, and potential for single-chip interrogation of multiplexed sensor arrays is demonstrated. PMID:25361125

  11. Split Hopkinson bar measurement using high-speed full-spectrum fiber Bragg grating interrogation.

    PubMed

    Seng, Frederick; Hackney, Drew; Goode, Tyler; Shumway, LeGrand; Hammond, Alec; Shoemaker, George; Pankow, Mark; Peters, Kara; Schultz, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    The development and validation of a high-speed, full-spectrum measurement technique is described for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. A FBG is surface-mounted to a split-Hopkinson tensile bar specimen to induce high strain rates. The high strain gradients and large strains that indicate material failure are analyzed under high strain rates up to 500  s-1. The FBG is interrogated using a high-speed full-spectrum solid-state interrogator with a repetition rate of 100 kHz. The captured deformed spectra are analyzed for strain gradients using a default interior point algorithm in combination with the modified transfer matrix approach. This paper shows that by using high-speed full-spectrum interrogation of an FBG and the modified transfer matrix method, highly localized strain gradients and discontinuities can be measured without a direct line of sight.

  12. Wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors using tapered hollow Bragg waveguides.

    PubMed

    Potts, C; Allen, T W; Azar, A; Melnyk, A; Dennison, C R; DeCorby, R G

    2014-10-15

    We describe an integrated system for wavelength interrogation, which uses tapered hollow Bragg waveguides coupled to an image sensor. Spectral shifts are extracted from the wavelength dependence of the light radiated at mode cutoff. Wavelength shifts as small as ~10  pm were resolved by employing a simple peak detection algorithm. Si/SiO₂-based cladding mirrors enable a potential operational range of several hundred nanometers in the 1550 nm wavelength region for a taper length of ~1  mm. Interrogation of a strain-tuned grating was accomplished using a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source, and potential for single-chip interrogation of multiplexed sensor arrays is demonstrated.

  13. Split Hopkinson bar measurement using high-speed full-spectrum fiber Bragg grating interrogation.

    PubMed

    Seng, Frederick; Hackney, Drew; Goode, Tyler; Shumway, LeGrand; Hammond, Alec; Shoemaker, George; Pankow, Mark; Peters, Kara; Schultz, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    The development and validation of a high-speed, full-spectrum measurement technique is described for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. A FBG is surface-mounted to a split-Hopkinson tensile bar specimen to induce high strain rates. The high strain gradients and large strains that indicate material failure are analyzed under high strain rates up to 500  s-1. The FBG is interrogated using a high-speed full-spectrum solid-state interrogator with a repetition rate of 100 kHz. The captured deformed spectra are analyzed for strain gradients using a default interior point algorithm in combination with the modified transfer matrix approach. This paper shows that by using high-speed full-spectrum interrogation of an FBG and the modified transfer matrix method, highly localized strain gradients and discontinuities can be measured without a direct line of sight. PMID:27607299

  14. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  15. Double jeopardy in the interrogation room for youths with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Redlich, Allison D

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the article by J. Owen-Kostelnik, N. D. Reppucci, and J. R. Meyer which reviewed the issues surrounding the police interrogation of minors. This commentary expands on the review by addressing the mental health status of youths who come into contact with police. It stems from two immutable facts: (a) The prevalence of mental illness among justice-involved youths is alarmingly high, and (b) mental illness by itself is a risk factor for false confession. These two facts place suspected youths in double jeopardy in the interrogation room. PMID:17874911

  16. Spectral Doppler interrogation of the patent foramen ovale-a window to left heart hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Bahaa M; Husain, Aysha; Bakarman, Hatem; Dahdouh, Ziad; Salvo, Giovanni Di; Mohty, Dania

    2015-02-01

    Spectral Doppler interrogation of flow across a patent foramen ovale (PFO) allows recording of the instantaneous pressure gradient between left and right atrium (RA). The assessment of RA pressure using the size and collapsibility of the inferior vena cava would thus allow estimation of left atrial (LA) pressure. In this article, we illustrate the value of spectral Doppler interrogation of flow across the PFO by transthoracic echocardiography as a novel and simple tool for the assessment of LA pressure and left cardiac hemodynamics in addition to the conventional noninvasive parameters.

  17. Accelerator requirements for fast-neutron interrogation of luggage and cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    Several different fast-neutron based techniques are being studied for the detection of contraband substances in luggage and cargo containers. The present work discusses the accelerator requirements for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy (FNTS), pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA), and 14-MeV neutron interrogation. These requirements are based on the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of neutron or gamma detection rates. Accelerator requirements are driven by count-rate considerations, spatial resolution and acceptable uncertainties in elemental compositions. The authors have limited their analyses to luggage inspection with FNTS and to cargo inspection with PFNA or 14-MeV neutron interrogation.

  18. Compact, low-cost, and high-resolution interrogation unit for optical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kiesel, Peter; Schmidt, Oliver; Mohta, Setu; Johnson, Noble; Malzer, Stefan

    2006-11-13

    Compact wavelength detectors that resolve wavelength changes in the subpicometer range over a broad spectral range are presented. A photodiode array or position sensor device is coated with a linear variable filter that converts the wavelength of the incident light into a spatial intensity distribution. The centroid of the spatial distribution is determined by a differential readout of the two elements of the photodiode array or the position sensor device. The device can interrogate any optical sensor that produces a wavelength shift in response to a stimulus. The potential of this device was tested by interrogating fiber-Bragg-grating sensors.

  19. Double jeopardy in the interrogation room for youths with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Redlich, Allison D

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the article by J. Owen-Kostelnik, N. D. Reppucci, and J. R. Meyer which reviewed the issues surrounding the police interrogation of minors. This commentary expands on the review by addressing the mental health status of youths who come into contact with police. It stems from two immutable facts: (a) The prevalence of mental illness among justice-involved youths is alarmingly high, and (b) mental illness by itself is a risk factor for false confession. These two facts place suspected youths in double jeopardy in the interrogation room.

  20. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Frederick J.; Caldwell, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

  1. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1993-04-06

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

  2. 78 FR 17702 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Action on an Approved Application or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application... Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and... Coordination Division, Office of Policy and Strategy, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department...

  3. Modified Activated Carbon to be Used in Clinical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, M. S.; de Silva, W. R. M.; de Silva, K. M. N.

    2014-11-01

    In this study a novel nano composite of hydroxyapatite nano particles impregnated activated carbon (C-HAp), which was synthesized in our own method, was used in iron adsorption studies. The study was conducted in order to investigate the potential of using C-HAp nanocomposite to be used in clinical detoxifications such as acute iron toxicity where the use of Activated carbon (GAC) is not very effective. Adsorption studies were conducted for synthetic solutions of Fe2+, Fe3+ and iron syrup using GAC, C-HAp and neat HAp as adsorbents. According to the results C-HAp nano composite showed improved properties than GAC in adsorbing Fe2+, Fe3+ and also Fe ions in iron syrup solutions. Thus the results of the in-vitro studies of iron adsorption studies indicated the potential of using C-HAp as an alternative to activated carbon in such clinical applications.

  4. Inadvertent hypnosis during interrogation: false confession due to dissociative state; mis-identified multiple personality and the Satanic cult hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ofshe, R J

    1992-07-01

    Induction of a dissociative state followed by suggestion during interrogation caused a suspect to develop pseudo-memories of raping his daughters and of participation in a baby-murdering Satanic cult. The pseudo-memories coupled with influence from authority figures convinced him of his guilt for 6 months. During this time, the suspect, the witnesses, and all the evidence in the case were studied. No evidence supported an inference of guilt and substantial evidence supported the conclusion that no crime had been committed. An experiment demonstrated the suspect's extreme suggestibility. The conclusion reached was that the cult did not exist and the suspect's confessions were coerced-internalized false confessions. During the investigation, 2 psychologists diagnosed the suspect as suffering from a dissociative disorder similar to multiple personality. Both psychologists were predisposed to find Satanic cult activity. Each concluded that the disorder was due to "programming" by the non-existent Satanic cult. PMID:1399152

  5. Inadvertent hypnosis during interrogation: false confession due to dissociative state; mis-identified multiple personality and the Satanic cult hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ofshe, R J

    1992-07-01

    Induction of a dissociative state followed by suggestion during interrogation caused a suspect to develop pseudo-memories of raping his daughters and of participation in a baby-murdering Satanic cult. The pseudo-memories coupled with influence from authority figures convinced him of his guilt for 6 months. During this time, the suspect, the witnesses, and all the evidence in the case were studied. No evidence supported an inference of guilt and substantial evidence supported the conclusion that no crime had been committed. An experiment demonstrated the suspect's extreme suggestibility. The conclusion reached was that the cult did not exist and the suspect's confessions were coerced-internalized false confessions. During the investigation, 2 psychologists diagnosed the suspect as suffering from a dissociative disorder similar to multiple personality. Both psychologists were predisposed to find Satanic cult activity. Each concluded that the disorder was due to "programming" by the non-existent Satanic cult.

  6. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits.

  7. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits. PMID:27480693

  8. Potential Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Glen; Caggiano, Jac; Peplowski, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a photon-based active interrogation approach that provides isotope-specific signatures that can be used to detect and characterize samples. Photon energies are in the range of a few MeV, so that penetration through significant material is possible. Unlike other active interrogation techniques that are based on inducing fission, NRF is sensitive to a wide range of isotopes: for example 11B, 12C, 13C, 14N, 16O, 27Al, 208Pb, 235U, 238U and 239Pu just to name a few. NRF is most likely to outperform existing technologies for applications requiring isotopic information of sealed samples. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is conducting a review of potential applications that could be addressed by NRF techniques. These applications cover a wide range of topics, from geo-location, to material assay, to safeguarding the nuclear fuel cycle. The objective of the project is to search for potential applications, define technical requirements, identify physical limitations, conduct an initial assessment of the technique and design a research approach for developing the applications. In this report, our current progress on will be presented.

  9. Dielectric elastomer laminates for active membrane pump applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Kimberly; Tews, Alyson; Frecker, Mary I.; Mockensturm, Eric; Goulbourne, Nakhiah C.; Snyder, Alan J.

    2004-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated promise for the use of dielectric elastomer (DE) films in diaphragm pump applications. Because the films tend to be quite thin, single layers operate at very low pressures. To make this technology suitable for practical applications, the films may be organized into laminates which will operate at increased pressures. Radially stretched circular diaphragms of two materials were tested: 3M VHB 4905 polyacrylate and spin-cast Nusil CF19-2186 silicone. The diaphragms were stacked, each layer sharing an electrode with the adjacent layer. The stack was mounted on a sealed chamber and energized at varied electric fields while regulated pressure was applied to the interior chamber, displacing the diaphragm. The pressure-volume properties of the stacks were recorded for each activation state.

  10. Can You Believe It? 12-Month-Olds Use Word Order to Distinguish between Declaratives and Polar Interrogatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffen, Susan; Mintz, Toben H.

    2015-01-01

    Word order is a core mechanism for conveying syntactic structure, yet interrogatives usually disrupt canonical word orders. For example, in English, polar interrogatives typically invert the subject and auxiliary verb and insert an utterance-initial "do" if no auxiliary is present. These word order patterns result from differences in the…

  11. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  12. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  13. Interrogating Meanings of Work in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.; Bauer, Janell C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Wieland and Bauer discuss a teaching activity that helps students understand how meanings of work (MOW) are socially constructed through commonplace texts: children's books. The activity helps students consider how children's books shape future workers' understandings of what work is, what kinds of work are most…

  14. Genome-Wide Mapping and Interrogation of the Nmp4 Antianabolic Bone Axis.

    PubMed

    Childress, Paul; Stayrook, Keith R; Alvarez, Marta B; Wang, Zhiping; Shao, Yu; Hernandez-Buquer, Selene; Mack, Justin K; Grese, Zachary R; He, Yongzheng; Horan, Daniel; Pavalko, Fredrick M; Warden, Stuart J; Robling, Alexander G; Yang, Feng-Chun; Allen, Matthew R; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Liu, Yunlong; Bidwell, Joseph P

    2015-09-01

    PTH is an osteoanabolic for treating osteoporosis but its potency wanes. Disabling the transcription factor nuclear matrix protein 4 (Nmp4) in healthy, ovary-intact mice enhances bone response to PTH and bone morphogenetic protein 2 and protects from unloading-induced osteopenia. These Nmp4(-/-) mice exhibit expanded bone marrow populations of osteoprogenitors and supporting CD8(+) T cells. To determine whether the Nmp4(-/-) phenotype persists in an osteoporosis model we compared PTH response in ovariectomized (ovx) wild-type (WT) and Nmp4(-/-) mice. To identify potential Nmp4 target genes, we performed bioinformatic/pathway profiling on Nmp4 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data. Mice (12 w) were ovx or sham operated 4 weeks before the initiation of PTH therapy. Skeletal phenotype analysis included microcomputed tomography, histomorphometry, serum profiles, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and the growth/mineralization of cultured WT and Nmp4(-/-) bone marrow mesenchymal stem progenitor cells (MSPCs). ChIP-seq data were derived using MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts, murine embryonic stem cells, and 2 blood cell lines. Ovx Nmp4(-/-) mice exhibited an improved response to PTH coupled with elevated numbers of osteoprogenitors and CD8(+) T cells, but were not protected from ovx-induced bone loss. Cultured Nmp4(-/-) MSPCs displayed enhanced proliferation and accelerated mineralization. ChIP-seq/gene ontology analyses identified target genes likely under Nmp4 control as enriched for negative regulators of biosynthetic processes. Interrogation of mRNA transcripts in nondifferentiating and osteogenic differentiating WT and Nmp4(-/-) MSPCs was performed on 90 Nmp4 target genes and differentiation markers. These data suggest that Nmp4 suppresses bone anabolism, in part, by regulating IGF-binding protein expression. Changes in Nmp4 status may lead to improvements in osteoprogenitor response to therapeutic cues.

  15. Genome-Wide Mapping and Interrogation of the Nmp4 Antianabolic Bone Axis

    PubMed Central

    Childress, Paul; Stayrook, Keith R.; Alvarez, Marta B.; Wang, Zhiping; Shao, Yu; Hernandez-Buquer, Selene; Mack, Justin K.; Grese, Zachary R.; He, Yongzheng; Horan, Daniel; Pavalko, Fredrick M.; Warden, Stuart J.; Robling, Alexander G.; Yang, Feng-Chun; Allen, Matthew R.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Liu, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    PTH is an osteoanabolic for treating osteoporosis but its potency wanes. Disabling the transcription factor nuclear matrix protein 4 (Nmp4) in healthy, ovary-intact mice enhances bone response to PTH and bone morphogenetic protein 2 and protects from unloading-induced osteopenia. These Nmp4−/− mice exhibit expanded bone marrow populations of osteoprogenitors and supporting CD8+ T cells. To determine whether the Nmp4−/− phenotype persists in an osteoporosis model we compared PTH response in ovariectomized (ovx) wild-type (WT) and Nmp4−/− mice. To identify potential Nmp4 target genes, we performed bioinformatic/pathway profiling on Nmp4 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data. Mice (12 w) were ovx or sham operated 4 weeks before the initiation of PTH therapy. Skeletal phenotype analysis included microcomputed tomography, histomorphometry, serum profiles, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and the growth/mineralization of cultured WT and Nmp4−/− bone marrow mesenchymal stem progenitor cells (MSPCs). ChIP-seq data were derived using MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts, murine embryonic stem cells, and 2 blood cell lines. Ovx Nmp4−/− mice exhibited an improved response to PTH coupled with elevated numbers of osteoprogenitors and CD8+ T cells, but were not protected from ovx-induced bone loss. Cultured Nmp4−/− MSPCs displayed enhanced proliferation and accelerated mineralization. ChIP-seq/gene ontology analyses identified target genes likely under Nmp4 control as enriched for negative regulators of biosynthetic processes. Interrogation of mRNA transcripts in nondifferentiating and osteogenic differentiating WT and Nmp4−/− MSPCs was performed on 90 Nmp4 target genes and differentiation markers. These data suggest that Nmp4 suppresses bone anabolism, in part, by regulating IGF-binding protein expression. Changes in Nmp4 status may lead to improvements in osteoprogenitor response to therapeutic cues. PMID:26244796

  16. A miniature shock-activated thermal battery for munitions applications

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Kirby, D.L.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of a small, fast-rise thermal battery for non-spinning munitions applications was examined by studying the response of conventional thermal cells to impact (mechanical) energy to simulate a setback environment. This is an extension of earlier work that demonstrated that shock activation could be used to produce power from a conventional thermal-battery cell. The results of tests with both single and multiple cells are presented, along with data for a 5-cell miniature (5-mm diameter) thermal battery. The issues needing to be resolved before such a device can become a commercial reality are also discussed.

  17. Microwave noise field: active radiometry principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polivka, Jiri

    2012-06-01

    Principles of Active Radiometry are presented. Noise radiators are used to generate the low-coherence microwave noise field, and radiometers to evaluate its intensity, polarization and coherence. Several types of noise radiators are described as well as radiometers and antennas. The following applications are introduced: Material evaluation where insertion loss and reflectivity of grainy, irregular and moving objects are preferable. Microwave Coherence Tomography allowing the depth irregularity to be detected in low-loss objects. Near-Field antenna testing, field coherence evaluation, and spatial combining of noise radiators.

  18. Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martínez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons.

  19. Questioning Masculinities: Interrogating Boys' Capacities for Self-Problematization in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehler, Michael; Martino, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    In drawing on selected interviews with adolescent boys from both Australia and North America, we present an analysis of boys' own capacities for interrogating gender normalisation in their school lives. We set this analysis against a critique of the public media debates about boys' education, which continue to be fuelled by a moral panic about the…

  20. Double Jeopardy in the Interrogation Room for Youths with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redlich, Allison D.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by J. Owen-Kostelnik, N. D. Reppucci, and J. R. Meyer (see record 2006-05893-002) which reviewed the issues surrounding the police interrogation of minors. This commentary expands on the review by addressing the mental health status of youths who come into contact with police. It stems from two immutable facts: (a) The…

  1. An Evaluation of "Miranda" Rights and Interrogation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salseda, Lindsay M.; Dixon, Dennis R.; Fass, Tracy; Miora, Deborah; Leark, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary deficits present in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may lead to increased susceptibility to involvement in the criminal justice system. The same deficits may also cause individuals with ASD to be more vulnerable to interrogation techniques and other aspects of the legal system. Due to the increased level of vulnerability as well as…

  2. Radio-frequency unbalanced M-Z interferometer for wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiaao; Xia, Li; Cheng, Rui; Wen, Yongqiang; Rohollahnejad, Jalal

    2016-01-15

    The optical unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (UMZI) has attracted significant interests for interrogation of FBG sensors owing to its excellent advantages in sensitivity, resolution, and demodulation speed. But this method is still limited to dynamic measurements due to its poor stability and reliability when used for quasi-static detections. Here, we propose for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a radio-frequency unbalanced M-Z interferometer (RF-UMZI) for interrogation of FBG sensors, which, owing to its operation in an incoherent rather than a coherent regime, provides an ideal solution for the existing stability problem of the conventional UMZI, with remarkable features of adjustable resolution and potentially extremely high sensitivity. A dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) and single-mode fiber (SMF) with a small length difference are served as the two unbalanced arms of the RF interferometer. The induced differential chromatic dispersion transfers the wavelength shift of the FBG to the change of the RF phase difference between the two interferometric carriers, which ultimately leads to the variation of the RF signal intensity. An interrogation of a strain-turned FBG was accomplished and a maximum sensitivity of 0.00835  a.u./με was obtained, which can easily be further improved by more than two orders of magnitude through various fiber dispersion components. Finally, the stability of the interrogation was tested.

  3. The Impact of Caregivers' Interrogative Styles in English and Japanese on Early Bilingual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Janice; Quay, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between caregivers' conversational styles in One-Person-One-Language (OPOL) settings and early bilingual development. In particular, it attempts to demonstrate that interrogative styles may have an impact on bilingual children's responsiveness in two language contexts. It is based on longitudinal data of a…

  4. Overcoming Innocents' Naiveté: Pre-interrogation Decision-making Among Innocent Suspects.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Kyle C; Alberts, Kimberly M; Franks, Andrew S; Hawkins, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Suspects, especially innocent ones, are highly susceptible to waiving their interrogation rights. This research tested the ability of two strategies to overcome innocent suspects' willingness to waive their rights. One strategy was based on the social influence of scarcity (i.e., not constraining the pre-interrogation time limit). The other strategy focused on disrupting individuals' cognitive fluency during the decision-making process (i.e., violating their induced expectation of offering a waiver). Disrupting innocent individuals' cognitive fluency increased their willingness to invoke their rights and, notably, was not qualified by interactions with any other factors. However, scarcity did not influence individuals' pre-interrogation decision-making. Results also further established the association between innocent individuals' naïve mindset and their willingness to waive their rights - specifically, innocents' willingness to waive their rights increased with the strength of their just world beliefs. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. The importance and benefit of reforming pre-interrogation protocols using fair and feasible strategies that would disrupt suspects' cognitive fluency are emphasized. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Resolution-improved in situ DNA hybridization detection based on microwave photonic interrogation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuan; Guo, Tuan; Wang, Xudong; Sun, Dandan; Ran, Yang; Feng, Xinhuan; Guan, Bai-ou

    2015-10-19

    In situ bio-sensing system based on microwave photonics filter (MPF) interrogation method with improved resolution is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A microfiber Bragg grating (mFBG) is used as sensing probe for DNA hybridization detection. Different from the traditional wavelength monitoring technique, we use the frequency interrogation scheme for resolution-improved bio-sensing detection. Experimental results show that the frequency shift of MPF notch presents a linear response to the surrounding refractive index (SRI) change over the range of 1.33 to 1.38, with a SRI resolution up to 2.6 × 10(-5) RIU, which has been increased for almost two orders of magnitude compared with the traditional fundamental mode monitoring technique (~3.6 × 10(-3) RIU). Due to the high Q value (about 27), the whole process of DNA hybridization can be in situ monitored. The proposed MPF-based bio-sensing system provides a new interrogation method over the frequency domain with improved sensing resolution and rapid interrogation rate for biochemical and environmental measurement.

  6. Reading Resistance: The Record of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi's Interrogation by Wartime Japan's "Thought Police"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Takao

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the record of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi's interrogation as a thought criminal following his arrest in July, 1943. By comparing and contrasting his responses and statements against the official government positions, I hope to clarify the nature of his critique of the wartime fascist regime. Makiguchi himself was an educator, and…

  7. A high-temperature fiber sensor using a low cost interrogation scheme.

    PubMed

    Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador

    2013-09-04

    Regenerated Fibre Bragg Gratings have the potential for high-temperature monitoring. In this paper, the inscription of Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and the later regeneration process to obtain Regenerated Fiber Bragg Gratings (RFBGs) in high-birefringence optical fiber is reported. The obtained RFBGs show two Bragg resonances corresponding to the slow and fast axis that are characterized in temperature terms. As the temperature increases the separation between the two Bragg resonances is reduced, which can be used for low cost interrogation. The proposed interrogation setup is based in the use of optical filters in order to convert the wavelength shift of each of the Bragg resonances into optical power changes. The design of the optical filters is also studied in this article. In first place, the ideal filter is calculated using a recursive method and defining the boundary conditions. This ideal filter linearizes the output of the interrogation setup but is limited by the large wavelength shift of the RFBG with temperature and the maximum attenuation. The response of modal interferometers as optical filters is also analyzed. They can be easily tuned shifting the optical spectrum. The output of the proposed interrogation scheme is simulated in these conditions improving the sensitivity.

  8. Switching atomic fountain clock microwave interrogation signal and high-resolution phase measurements.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Giorgio; Governatori, Graziano; Chambon, Damien; Lours, Michel; Rosenbusch, Peter; Guéna, Jocelyne; Chapelet, Frédéric; Bize, Sébastien; Tobar, Michael E; Laurent, Philippe; Potier, Thierry; Clairon, Andre

    2009-07-01

    This paper focuses on the development of tools aiming to solve several problems related to the microwave interrogation signal in atomic fountains. We first consider the problem related to cycle synchronous phase transients caused by the sequential operation of the atomic fountain. To search for such systematic phase variations deeply buried in the microwave synthesizer phase noise, we have developed a novel triggered-phase transient analyzer capable of processing the microwave signal to extract the phase in a synchronous manner even in the presence of frequency modulation. With this device we check in vivo the LNE-SYRTE fountain's interrogation signals with a resolution approaching 1 microradian. In addition, using this device, we investigate an innovative approach to solve a second problem, namely, the shift caused by microwave leakage in the fountain. Our approach consists of switching off the fountain microwave interrogation signal when atoms are outside the microwave cavity. To do that, we have developed a switch that is almost free of phase transients and is thus able to eliminate the frequency shift caused by microwave leakage without inducing significant phase transients on the interrogation signal.

  9. Advice-Implicative Interrogatives: Building "Client-Centered" Support in a Children's Helpline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Carly W.; Potter, Jonathan; Danby, Susan; Emmison, Michael; Hepburn, Alexa

    2010-01-01

    Interactional research on advice giving has described advice as normative and asymmetric. In this paper we examine how these dimensions of advice are softened by counselors on a helpline for children and young people through the use of questions. Through what we term "advice-implicative interrogatives," counselors ask clients about the relevance…

  10. Examining Adolescents' and Their Parents' Conceptual and Practical Knowledge of Police Interrogation: A Family Dyad Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolard, Jennifer L.; Cleary, Hayley M. D.; Harvell, Samantha A. S.; Chen, Rusan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether parents have the prerequisite knowledge about police interrogation that would allow them to compensate for youths' knowledge deficits, protect their interests, and buffer against their vulnerability to coercion. A racially diverse urban/suburban convenience sample of 77 11- to 13-year-olds, 46 14- to 15-year-olds, and…

  11. A High-Temperature Fiber Sensor Using a Low Cost Interrogation Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Regenerated Fibre Bragg Gratings have the potential for high-temperature monitoring. In this paper, the inscription of Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and the later regeneration process to obtain Regenerated Fiber Bragg Gratings (RFBGs) in high-birefringence optical fiber is reported. The obtained RFBGs show two Bragg resonances corresponding to the slow and fast axis that are characterized in temperature terms. As the temperature increases the separation between the two Bragg resonances is reduced, which can be used for low cost interrogation. The proposed interrogation setup is based in the use of optical filters in order to convert the wavelength shift of each of the Bragg resonances into optical power changes. The design of the optical filters is also studied in this article. In first place, the ideal filter is calculated using a recursive method and defining the boundary conditions. This ideal filter linearizes the output of the interrogation setup but is limited by the large wavelength shift of the RFBG with temperature and the maximum attenuation. The response of modal interferometers as optical filters is also analyzed. They can be easily tuned shifting the optical spectrum. The output of the proposed interrogation scheme is simulated in these conditions improving the sensitivity. PMID:24008282

  12. Numerical modelling of interrogation systems for optical fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Daniel; Richardson, Steven; Wild, Graham

    2011-12-01

    There are a number of interrogation methods that can be used in optical Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing system. For very high frequency signals interrogating the sensor signal from an FBG is limited to two intensiometric methods, edge filter detection and power detection. In edge filter detection, a broadband light source illuminates an FBG, the reflected spectrum is then passed through a spectral filter. In power detection, a narrowband light source with a wavelength corresponding to the 3dB point of the FBG is filtered by the FBG itself. Both methods convert the spectral shift of the FBG into intensity signals. These two categories each have a number of variations, all with different performance characteristics. In this work we present a numerical model for all of these interrogation systems. The numerical model is based on previous analytical modelling, which could only be utilised for perfect Gaussian profiles. However, interrogation systems can make use of non Gaussian shaped filters, or sources. The numerical modelling enables the different variations to be compared using identical component performance, showing the relative strengths and weakness of the systems in terms of useful parameters, including, signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity, and dynamic resolution. The two different detection methods can also be compared side-by-side using the same FBG. Since the model is numerical, it enables real spectral data to be used for the various components (FBG, light source, filters). This has the added advantage of increasing the accuracy and usefulness of the model, over previous analytical work.

  13. Scripting, Ritualising and Performing Leadership: Interrogating Recent Policy Developments in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Savage, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue that leadership of schools is a form of performance that has become ritualised and routinised through the official scripting of policy texts that mandate how leadership of schools should occur. Our interrogation of recent policy scripts in Australia reveals that there is limited scope for leadership in schools to occur as…

  14. An Investigation of the Patterns of Learning English Interrogative Structures by EFL Learners in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jianping, Chen

    A study, investigating the patterns in which Chinese learners of English as a second language (ESL) learn English interrogative structures, focused on four major classes of English questions (yes/no, wh-, alternative, and embedded) categorized into seven structural types. Data came from a test requiring rapid translation of 55 Chinese questions.…

  15. Interrogating Institutionalized Establishments: Urban-Rural Inequalities in China's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mei; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    China's urban-rural disparities are a fundamental source of China's overall educational inequalities. This article addresses the issue with data collected through interviews with members at various Chinese higher education institutions. It interrogates China's current policies together with the socio-political institutional…

  16. Correlation between Question Intonation and Focus of Interrogation--Evidence from French Dislocated Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xiao-nan

    This study explores the relationship between question intonation patterns in French using dislocated questions and question-focus (Q- focus). A dislocated question is defined as an interrogative sentence whose sequence is interrupted by the topicalization of a constituent at the left ("Toi, tu viens?"), at the right (Tu viens, toi?"), or in the…

  17. Basic concepts underlying fast-neutron-based contraband interrogation technology. A systems viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.L.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, D.L.

    1992-12-01

    All accelerator-based fast-neutron contraband interrogation systems have many closely interrelated subsystems, whose performance parameters will be critically interdependent. For optimal overall performance, a systems analysis design approach is required. This paper provides a general overview of the interrelationships and the tradeoffs to be considered for optimization of nonaccelerator subsystems.

  18. Dynamic interrogator for elastic wave sensing using Fabry Perot filters based on fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Harish, Achar V; Varghese, Bibin; Rao, Babu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2015-07-01

    Use of in-fiber Fabry-Perot (FP) filters based on fiber Bragg gratings as both sensor as well as an interrogator for enhancing the detection limit of elastic wave sensing is investigated in this paper. The sensitivity of such a demodulation scheme depends on the spectral discrimination of the sensor and interrogator gratings. Simulations have shown that the use of in-fiber FP filters with high finesse provide better performance in terms of sensitivity compared to the demodulation using fiber Bragg gratings. Based on these results, a dynamic interrogator capable of sensing acoustic waves with amplitude of less than 1 micro-strain over frequencies of 10 kHz to several 100 kHz has been implemented. Frequency response of the fiber Bragg gratings in the given experimental setup has been compared to that of the conventional piezo sensors demonstrating that fiber Bragg gratings can be used over a relatively broad frequency range. Dynamic interrogator has been packaged in a compact box without any degradation in its performance.

  19. 76 FR 44282 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... DoD published an interim rule at 75 FR 67632 on November 3, 2010, to implement section 1038 of the..., DoD Intelligence Interrogations, Detainee Debriefings, and Tactical Questioning http://www.dtic.mil... FAR 7.503(c)(8) lists ``the direction and control of intelligence and counter-intelligence...

  20. The Influence of Gender on the Uncertainty Reduction Strategies of Disclosure, Interrogation, and Nonverbal Immediacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Judith A.; And Others

    A study examined gender differences in the uses of uncertainty reduction strategies (self-disclosure, interrogative strategies, nonverbal immediacy, and other's self-disclosure) and their interrelationships with attributional confidence (uncertainty reduction). The subjects, 853 students from three western universities, participated in a survey…

  1. Radio-frequency unbalanced M-Z interferometer for wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiaao; Xia, Li; Cheng, Rui; Wen, Yongqiang; Rohollahnejad, Jalal

    2016-01-15

    The optical unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (UMZI) has attracted significant interests for interrogation of FBG sensors owing to its excellent advantages in sensitivity, resolution, and demodulation speed. But this method is still limited to dynamic measurements due to its poor stability and reliability when used for quasi-static detections. Here, we propose for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a radio-frequency unbalanced M-Z interferometer (RF-UMZI) for interrogation of FBG sensors, which, owing to its operation in an incoherent rather than a coherent regime, provides an ideal solution for the existing stability problem of the conventional UMZI, with remarkable features of adjustable resolution and potentially extremely high sensitivity. A dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) and single-mode fiber (SMF) with a small length difference are served as the two unbalanced arms of the RF interferometer. The induced differential chromatic dispersion transfers the wavelength shift of the FBG to the change of the RF phase difference between the two interferometric carriers, which ultimately leads to the variation of the RF signal intensity. An interrogation of a strain-turned FBG was accomplished and a maximum sensitivity of 0.00835  a.u./με was obtained, which can easily be further improved by more than two orders of magnitude through various fiber dispersion components. Finally, the stability of the interrogation was tested. PMID:26766702

  2. French Interrogative Structures: A New Pedagogical Norm for the 21st-Century Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antes, Theresa A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interrogative structures most frequently used by native speakers of French, in an attempt to reconcile differences between language forms taught in the French as a foreign language classroom and those that are encountered in authentic input. Radio, television, and magazine interviews provided multiple examples of…

  3. 3 CFR 13491 - Executive Order 13491 of January 22, 2009. Ensuring Lawful Interrogations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agency (CIA) from September 11, 2001, to January 20, 2009, concerning detention or the interrogation of.... Prohibition of Certain Detention Facilities, and Red Cross Access to Detained Individuals. (a) CIA Detention. The CIA shall close as expeditiously as possible any detention facilities that it currently...

  4. Dynamic interrogator for elastic wave sensing using Fabry Perot filters based on fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Harish, Achar V; Varghese, Bibin; Rao, Babu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2015-07-01

    Use of in-fiber Fabry-Perot (FP) filters based on fiber Bragg gratings as both sensor as well as an interrogator for enhancing the detection limit of elastic wave sensing is investigated in this paper. The sensitivity of such a demodulation scheme depends on the spectral discrimination of the sensor and interrogator gratings. Simulations have shown that the use of in-fiber FP filters with high finesse provide better performance in terms of sensitivity compared to the demodulation using fiber Bragg gratings. Based on these results, a dynamic interrogator capable of sensing acoustic waves with amplitude of less than 1 micro-strain over frequencies of 10 kHz to several 100 kHz has been implemented. Frequency response of the fiber Bragg gratings in the given experimental setup has been compared to that of the conventional piezo sensors demonstrating that fiber Bragg gratings can be used over a relatively broad frequency range. Dynamic interrogator has been packaged in a compact box without any degradation in its performance. PMID:25783780

  5. Police training in interviewing and interrogation methods: A comparison of techniques used with adult and juvenile suspects.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Hayley M D; Warner, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Despite empirical progress in documenting and classifying various interrogation techniques, very little is known about how police are trained in interrogation methods, how frequently they use various techniques, and whether they employ techniques differentially with adult versus juvenile suspects. This study reports the nature and extent of formal (e.g., Reid Technique, PEACE, HUMINT) and informal interrogation training as well as self-reported technique usage in a diverse national sample (N = 340) of experienced American police officers. Officers were trained in a variety of different techniques ranging from comparatively benign pre-interrogation strategies (e.g., building rapport, observing body language or speech patterns) to more psychologically coercive techniques (e.g., blaming the victim, discouraging denials). Over half the sample reported being trained to use psychologically coercive techniques with both adults and juveniles. The majority (91%) receive informal, "on the job" interrogation training. Technique usage patterns indicate a spectrum of psychological intensity where information-gathering approaches were used most frequently and high-pressure tactics less frequently. Reid-trained officers (56%) were significantly more likely than officers without Reid training to use pre-interrogation and manipulation techniques. Across all analyses and techniques, usage patterns were identical for adult and juvenile suspects, suggesting that police interrogate youth in the same manner as adults. Overall, results suggest that training in specific interrogation methods is strongly associated with usage. Findings underscore the need for more law enforcement interrogation training in general, especially with juvenile suspects, and highlight the value of training as an avenue for reducing interrogation-induced miscarriages of justice. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Police training in interviewing and interrogation methods: A comparison of techniques used with adult and juvenile suspects.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Hayley M D; Warner, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Despite empirical progress in documenting and classifying various interrogation techniques, very little is known about how police are trained in interrogation methods, how frequently they use various techniques, and whether they employ techniques differentially with adult versus juvenile suspects. This study reports the nature and extent of formal (e.g., Reid Technique, PEACE, HUMINT) and informal interrogation training as well as self-reported technique usage in a diverse national sample (N = 340) of experienced American police officers. Officers were trained in a variety of different techniques ranging from comparatively benign pre-interrogation strategies (e.g., building rapport, observing body language or speech patterns) to more psychologically coercive techniques (e.g., blaming the victim, discouraging denials). Over half the sample reported being trained to use psychologically coercive techniques with both adults and juveniles. The majority (91%) receive informal, "on the job" interrogation training. Technique usage patterns indicate a spectrum of psychological intensity where information-gathering approaches were used most frequently and high-pressure tactics less frequently. Reid-trained officers (56%) were significantly more likely than officers without Reid training to use pre-interrogation and manipulation techniques. Across all analyses and techniques, usage patterns were identical for adult and juvenile suspects, suggesting that police interrogate youth in the same manner as adults. Overall, results suggest that training in specific interrogation methods is strongly associated with usage. Findings underscore the need for more law enforcement interrogation training in general, especially with juvenile suspects, and highlight the value of training as an avenue for reducing interrogation-induced miscarriages of justice. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651619

  7. The application of active side arm controllers in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knorr, R.; Melz, C.; Faulkner, A.; Obermayer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Eurocopter Deutschland (ECD) started simulation trials to investigate the particular problems of Side Arm Controllers (SAC) applied to helicopters. Two simulation trials have been performed. In the first trial, the handling characteristics of a 'passive' SAC and the basic requirements for the application of an 'active' SAC were evaluated in pilot-in-the-loop simulations, performing the tasks in a realistic scenario representing typical phases of a transport mission. The second simulation trial investigated the general control characteristics of the 'active' in comparison to the 'passive' control principle. A description of the SACs developed by ECD and the principle of the 'passive' and 'active' control concept is given, as well as specific ratings for the investigated dynamic and ergonomic parameters effecting SAC characteristics. The experimental arrangements, as well as the trials procedures of both simulation phases, are described and the results achieved are discussed emphasizing the advantages of the 'active' as opposed to the 'passive' SAC concept. This also includes the presentation of some critical aspects still to be improved and proposals to solve them.

  8. Applications of active adaptive noise control to jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat; Brackney, Larry

    1993-01-01

    During phase 2 research on the application of active noise control to jet engines, the development of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) active adaptive noise control algorithms and acoustic/controls models for turbofan engines were considered. Specific goals for this research phase included: (1) implementation of a MIMO adaptive minimum variance active noise controller; and (2) turbofan engine model development. A minimum variance control law for adaptive active noise control has been developed, simulated, and implemented for single-input/single-output (SISO) systems. Since acoustic systems tend to be distributed, multiple sensors, and actuators are more appropriate. As such, the SISO minimum variance controller was extended to the MIMO case. Simulation and experimental results are presented. A state-space model of a simplified gas turbine engine is developed using the bond graph technique. The model retains important system behavior, yet is of low enough order to be useful for controller design. Expansion of the model to include multiple stages and spools is also discussed.

  9. 76 FR 44090 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Individualized Tutorial Assistance) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Individualized Tutorial Assistance) Activity... solicits comments on the information needed to determine an applicant's eligibility for tutorial assistance.... Title: Application for Individualized Tutorial Assistance, VA Form 22-1990t. ] OMB Control Number:...

  10. Diffractive micro-arrays for active spectroscopy and interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castracane, James; Xu, Bai; Gutin, Olga N.; Lavrijsen, Rein; Stollenwerk, Andrew

    2002-06-01

    The use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology has opened the door for many applications. In particular, by exploiting the reconfigurability of optical surfaces fabricated with this technology, many sensor, communication and spectroscopic systems can benefit. The controlled re-direction of single or multiple optical input sources can lend itself to high throughput sample analysis or massively parallel optical connectivity. In addition, the change in a MEMS-based optical surface can result in a flexible spectral analysis of incoming radiation. We report on the recent advances in our projects which are focused on the design/simulation, materials processing and integration issues involved with the creation and optimized operation of such diffractive micro-arrays. In this presentation, the state of the art in such devices will be presented which will include the process flow associated with production, structural metrology, optical performance, and parallel switching capabilities of the systems. The use of numerous materials including polysilicon, silicon dioxide and selected polymers as structural layers has enabled the production of devices which can be tailored for specific, performance related applications. Examples to be presented include diffractive surfaces with substantial (1 cm x 1 cm) active areas as well as large arrays with sub-micron feature sizes. Functional integration of the prototype devices include optical interconnects, active spectroscopy and bio/chem diagnostic systems.

  11. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  12. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  13. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  14. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  15. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  16. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  17. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  18. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  19. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  20. Programmable multi-timer for TRU waste analysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R.S.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Tsang, F.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A programmable, multiple-function timing module has been developed for use in transuranic (TRU) waste analysis applications at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Programmable Multi-Timer (PRMT) is an expanded version of a module originally built for accelerator-based active photon interrogation experiments. During the course of the experiments, it became obvious that a more versatile timer was needed to meet several unforeseen requirements. The PRMT was designed to meet the new requirements and to serve as a general-purpose timing module for other applications.

  1. Displaying Knowledge through Interrogatives in Student-Initiated Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Marit Skarbø

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of student initiatives in whole-class interactions. While prior research on question-answer sequences in classroom interactions has shown students to be rather passive recipients of knowledge, this article focuses on aspects of classroom interaction where students take a more active role. Following a conversation…

  2. 78 FR 26334 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; 2014-2015 Federal Student Aid Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; 2014- 2015 Federal Student Aid Application... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: 2014-2015 Federal Student Aid Application... applicants for the application cycle. The total application projection for 2014-2015 is based upon...

  3. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  4. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  5. Theory and practice in health communication campaigns: a critical interrogation.

    PubMed

    Dutta-Bergman, Mohan J

    2005-01-01

    In recent reviews of the body of work on health campaigns, communication scholars discussed the importance of reflective thinking about the capacity of campaigns to effect change; this reflective thinking is especially important in the realm of the increasing gaps in society between the health rich and the health poor and the increasing marginalization of the poorer sections of society. This article critically reviews 3 central theories of health communication campaigns that represent the dominant cognitive approach: theory of reasoned action, health belief model, and the extended parallel process model. After articulating the limitations of these theoretical approaches, the article summarizes new directions in theory, methodology, and application of health communication campaigns targeting marginalized populations. PMID:16083406

  6. Theory and practice in health communication campaigns: a critical interrogation.

    PubMed

    Dutta-Bergman, Mohan J

    2005-01-01

    In recent reviews of the body of work on health campaigns, communication scholars discussed the importance of reflective thinking about the capacity of campaigns to effect change; this reflective thinking is especially important in the realm of the increasing gaps in society between the health rich and the health poor and the increasing marginalization of the poorer sections of society. This article critically reviews 3 central theories of health communication campaigns that represent the dominant cognitive approach: theory of reasoned action, health belief model, and the extended parallel process model. After articulating the limitations of these theoretical approaches, the article summarizes new directions in theory, methodology, and application of health communication campaigns targeting marginalized populations.

  7. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a set of eight Regional Application Centers (RACs) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies. By utilizing the thermal energy that is normally wasted when electricity is produced at central generating stations, Combined Heat and Power installations can save substantial amounts of energy compared to more traditional technologies. In addition, the location of CHP facilities at or near the point of consumption greatly reduces or eliminates electric transmission and distribution losses. The regional nature of the RACs allows each one to design and provide services that are most relevant to the specific economic and market conditions in its particular geographic area. Between them, the eight RACs provide services to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Through the end of the federal 2009 fiscal year (FY 2009), the primary focus of the RACs was on providing CHP-related information to targeted markets, encouraging the creation and adoption of public policies and incentives favorable to CHP, and providing CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. Beginning with the 2010 fiscal year, the focus of the regional centers broadened to include district energy and waste heat recovery and these entities became formally known as Clean Energy Application Centers, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort to establish metrics to quantify the RACs accomplishments. That effort began with the development of a detailed logic model describing RAC operations and outcomes, which provided a basis for identifying important activities and accomplishments to track. A data collection spreadsheet soliciting information on those activities for FY 2008 and all previous years of RAC operations was developed and sent to the RACs in the summer of 2008. This

  8. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  9. Application of Ice Nucleation - Active Bacteria to Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Soichi; Watanabe, Michiko

    Ice nucleation-active bacteria act as nuclei and are able to freeze water without supercooling to a great degree. They are known as a major cause of the frost damage to crops. We have been trying with success to positively apply these bacteria to freeze texturing of food materials, freeze concentration of fresh liquid foods, formation of new physical properties of foods by freezing, and so forth. The most useful species for these applications is Xanthomonas campestris which has recently been designated as a food additive by the Japan Ministry of Health and Welfare and produced on an industrial scale. This paper reviews these topics, with some practical examples quoted primarily from our studies.

  10. Structural interrogation of benzosuberene-based inhibitors of tubulin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Herdman, Christine A; Devkota, Laxman; Lin, Chen-Ming; Niu, Haichan; Strecker, Tracy E; Lopez, Ramona; Liu, Li; George, Clinton S; Tanpure, Rajendra P; Hamel, Ernest; Chaplin, David J; Mason, Ralph P; Trawick, Mary Lynn; Pinney, Kevin G

    2015-12-15

    The discovery of 3-methoxy-9-(30,40,50-trimethoxyphenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[7]annulen-4-ol (a benzosuberene-based analogue referred to as KGP18) was originally inspired by the natural products colchicine and combretastatin A-4 (CA4). The relative structural simplicity and ease of synthesis of KGP18, coupled with its potent biological activity as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization and its cytotoxicity (in vitro) against human cancer cell lines, has resulted in studies focused on new analogue design and synthesis. Our goal was to probe the relationship of structure to function in this class of anticancer agents. A series of twenty-two new benzosuberene-based analogues of KGP18 was designed and synthesized. These compounds vary in their methoxylation pattern and separately incorporate trifluoromethyl groups around the pendant aryl ring for the evaluation of the effect of functional group modifications on the fused six-membered aromatic ring. In addition, the 8,9-saturated congener of KGP18 has been synthesized to assess the necessity of unsaturation at the carbon atom bearing the pendant aryl ring. Six of the molecules from this benzosuberene-series of compounds were active (IC50 < 5 lM) as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization while four analogues were comparable (IC50 approximately 1 lM) in their tubulin inhibitory activity to CA4 and KGP18. The potency of a bis-trifluoromethyl analogue 74 and the unsaturated KGP18 derivative 73 as inhibitors of tubulin assembly along with their moderate cytotoxicity suggested the potential utility of these compounds as vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) to selectively target microvessels feeding tumors. Accordingly, water-soluble and DMSO-soluble phosphate prodrug salts of each were synthesized for preliminary in vivo studies to assess their potential efficacy as VDAs.

  11. Application of Optical Biosensors in Small-Molecule Screening Activities

    PubMed Central

    Geschwindner, Stefan; Carlsson, Johan F.; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades have seen remarkable progress and improvements in optical biosensor systems such that those are currently seen as an important and value-adding component of modern drug screening activities. In particular the introduction of microplate-based biosensor systems holds the promise to match the required throughput without compromising on data quality thus representing a sought-after complement to traditional fluidic systems. This article aims to highlight the application of the two most prominent optical biosensor technologies, namely surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and optical waveguide grating (OWG), in small-molecule screening and will present, review and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different assay formats on these platforms. A particular focus will be on the specific advantages of the inhibition in solution assay (ISA) format in contrast to traditional direct binding assays (DBA). Furthermore we will discuss different application areas for both fluidic as well as plate-based biosensor systems by considering the individual strength of the platforms. PMID:22666031

  12. High Throughput Interrogation of Behavioral Transitions in C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mochi; Shaevitz, Joshua; Leifer, Andrew

    We present a high-throughput method to probe transformations from neural activity to behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans to better understand how organisms change behavioral states. We optogenetically deliver white-noise stimuli to target sensory or inter neurons while simultaneously recording the movement of a population of worms. Using all the postural movement data collected, we computationally classify stereotyped behaviors in C. elegans by clustering based on the spectral properties of the instantaneous posture. (Berman et al., 2014) Transitions between these behavioral clusters indicate discrete behavioral changes. To study the neural correlates dictating these transitions, we perform model-driven experiments and employ Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson cascades that take the white-noise stimulus as the input. The parameters of these models are fitted by reverse-correlation from our measurements. The parameterized models of behavioral transitions predict the worm's response to novel stimuli and reveal the internal computations the animal makes before carrying out behavioral decisions. Preliminary results are shown that describe the neural-behavioral transformation between neural activity in mechanosensory neurons and reversal behavior.

  13. Chemical interrogation of malarial host and parasite kinomes

    PubMed Central

    Zuzarte-Luís, Vanessa; Magalhães, Andreia D.; Kato, Nobutaka; Sanschagrin, Paul C.; Wang, Jinhua; Zhou, Wenjun; Miduturu, Chandrasekhar V.; Mazitschek, Ralph; Sliz, Piotr; Mota, Maria M.; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria, an infectious disease caused by eukaryotic parasites from the genus Plasmodium, afflicts hundreds of millions of people every year. Both the parasite and its host utilize protein kinases to regulate essential cellular processes. Bioinformatic analyses of parasite genomes predict at least 65 protein kinases, but their biological functions and therapeutic potential are largely unknown. We profiled 1,358 small molecule kinase inhibitors to evaluate the role of both the human and malaria kinomes in Plasmodium infection of liver cells, the parasites’ obligatory but transient developmental stage that precedes the symptomatic blood stage. The screen identified several small molecules that inhibit parasite load in liver cells, some with nanomolar efficacy, and each compound was subsequently assessed for activity against blood stage malaria. Most of the screening hits inhibited both liver and blood stage malaria parasites, which have dissimilar gene expression profiles and infect different host cells. Evaluation of existing kinase activity profiling data for the library members suggests several kinases are essential to malaria parasites, including cyclin-dependent kinases, glycogen synthase kinases, and phosphoinositide-3-kinases. CDK inhibitors were found to bind to Plasmodium protein kinase 5, but it is likely that these compounds target multiple parasite kinases. The dual stage inhibition of the identified kinase inhibitors makes them useful chemical probes and promising starting points for antimalarial development. PMID:25111632

  14. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Freedman, David; Sahin, Mesut; Ünlü, M. Selim; Knepper, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC) chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μVrms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented. PMID:26861324

  15. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Freedman, David; Sahin, Mesut; Ünlü, M Selim; Knepper, Ronald

    2016-02-04

    Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC) chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μV rms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented.

  16. Interrogation system for miniature all fiber optic sensor using temperature control of DFB laser diode and reference all fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njegovec, Matej; Donlagic, Denis

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes an efficient system for the interrogation of miniature all-fiber optic sensors, such as Fabry-Perot interferometers or Bragg gratings that change their spectral characteristics within a narrow wavelength band, under the influence of the measured parameter. The signal interrogation is performed by sweeping the laser diode's wavelength over the narrow spectral band containing information about the measured parameter. The optical source consists of a standard telecommunication distributed feedback laser diode with integrated elements for thermal control. The laser diode's sensitivity to temperature is used to cyclically sweep the emitted wavelength for approximately 3 nm. This allows for integration of FBGs and all-fiber FP interferometers with resonator lengths between 0.3 and 1 mm. The interrogation system further includes a wavelength reference, which was formed by a Bragg gratings pair that was temperature stabilized by the miniature Peltier element. The responses of both the optical sensor and the reference Bragg gratings are simultaneously recorded in time during the temperature-induced wavelength sweep. These characteristics are further digitally processed to eliminate any amplitude fluctuations and noise. The peaks in both recorded spectral characteristics are then used to calculate the value of the measured parameter, like for example, strain or temperature. There is, therefore, no need for additional wavelength measurements, which simplifies the presented system. The proposed system is built from standard opto-electronic devices and is, therefore, simple, easy to manufacture and costeffective. The system was tested using a 1 mm long sensing all-fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for temperature measurements, and standard Bragg gratings for temperature and strain sensing. The achieved temperature repeatability was better than 0.5 °C, while the strain reparability proved to be about 10 μɛ . The proposed system is thus appropriate for

  17. How factors present during the immediate interrogation situation produce short-sighted confession decisions.

    PubMed

    Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Smalarz, Laura; Guyll, Max; Scherr, Kyle C

    2013-02-01

    Suspects have a preexisting vulnerability to make short-sighted confession decisions, giving disproportionate weight to proximal, rather than distal, consequences. The findings of the current research provided evidence that this preexisting vulnerability is exacerbated by factors that are associated with the immediate interrogation situation. In Experiment 1 (N = 118), a lengthy interview exacerbated participants' tendency to temporally discount a distal consequence when deciding whether or not to admit to criminal and unethical behaviors. This effect was especially pronounced among less serious behaviors. In Experiment 2 (N = 177), participants' tendency to temporally discount a distal consequence when making admission decisions was exacerbated by the expectation of a lengthy interview; an effect that became stronger the longer the interview continued. These findings suggest that conditions of the immediate interrogation situation may capitalize on an already-present vulnerability among suspects to make short-sighted confession decisions, thereby increasing the chances that even innocent suspects might confess.

  18. A BOTDA with break interrogation function over 72 km sensing length.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junhui; Zhang, Xuping; Yao, Yuguo; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2013-01-14

    A BOTDA with the capacity of break interrogation is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. In our configuration, coherent detection and double sideband probe method are employed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and to effectively reduce nonlocal effects, respectively. Without amplification, a 72 km sensing range with 5-meter resolution and an estimated temperature uncertainty of 1.8 °C are obtained. Benefiting from the flexible optical configuration, this sensor system has the capacity of break interrogation as a coherent optical time domain reflectometry (COTDR) if there is a break in the fiber under test (FUT). The sensor achieves a dynamic range of 36 dB with a 100 m spatial resolution, which offers an excellent solution for the requisite of two-end-access in BOTDA, and significantly enhances the robustness of the sensing system.

  19. Sensing self-assembled alkanethiols by differential transmission interrogation with terahertz metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojun; Quan, Baogang; Pan, Xuecong; Xu, Xinlong; Lu, Xinchao; Xia, Xiaoxiang; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Wang, Li

    2013-07-10

    Surface-enhanced electromagnetic response in the resonant regions of split-ring resonators offers a sensitive way to probe the surface dipoles formed by alkanethiol molecules with a terahertz wave by a differential transmission (DT) interrogation method. The DT signal mainly comes from the interaction between alkanethiols and metamaterials by electron transfer and/or the variation of the dielectric constant. The Lorentz model is used to demonstrate the principle of DT interrogation theoretically, which suggests the variation of both frequency and damping of resonance can be captured cooperatively. This method has been employed to experimentally demonstrate the sensing feasibility for the chain length dependence of the alkanethiol molecules. Numerical simulations confirm that the enhancement is large at the gap and corner regions of this kind of metamaterials.

  20. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, Howard O.; Stewart, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the .sup.235 U nuclide content of samples containing UF.sub.6, UF.sub.4, or UO.sub.2 utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1.sigma.) for cylinders containing UF.sub.6 with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF.sub.6 takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures.

  1. Wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors based on crossed optical Gaussian filters.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rui; Xia, Li; Zhou, Jiaao; Liu, Deming

    2015-04-15

    Conventional intensity-modulated measurements require to be operated in linear range of filter or interferometric response to ensure a linear detection. Here, we present a wavelength interrogation system for fiber Bragg grating sensors where the linear transition is achieved with crossed Gaussian transmissions. This unique filtering characteristic makes the responses of the two branch detections follow Gaussian functions with the same parameters except for a delay. The substraction of these two delayed Gaussian responses (in dB) ultimately leads to a linear behavior, which is exploited for the sensor wavelength determination. Beside its flexibility and inherently power insensitivity, the proposal also shows a potential of a much wider operational range. Interrogation of a strain-tuned grating was accomplished, with a wide sensitivity tuning range from 2.56 to 8.7 dB/nm achieved.

  2. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.

    1985-02-04

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the /sup 235/U nuclide content of samples containing UF/sub 6/, UF/sub 4/, or UO/sub 2/ utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1sigma) for cylinders containing UF/sub 6/ with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Interrogation cradle and insertable containment fixture for detecting birefringent microcrystals in bile

    DOEpatents

    Darrow, Chris; Seger, Tino

    2003-09-30

    A transparent flow channel fluidly communicates a fluid source and a collection reservoir. An interrogating light beam passes through a first polarizer having a first plane of polarization. The flow channel is orthogonal to the light beam. The light beam passes through a fluid sample as it flows through the flow channel, and is then filtered through a second polarizer having a second plane of polarization rotated 90.degree. from the first plane of polarization. An electronic photo-detector is aligned with the light beam, and signals the presence of birefringent microcrystals in the fluid sample by generating voltage pulses. A disposable containment fixture includes the flow channel and the collection reservoir. The fixture is adapted for removable insertion into an interrogation cradle that includes optical and data processing components. The cradle rigidly positions the centerline of the flow channel orthogonal to the light beam.

  4. Guidelines to indirectly measure and enhance detection efficiency of stationary PIT tag interrogation systems in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Wolf, Keith; O'Neal, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and reliance on stationary PIT tag interrogation systems to monitor fish populations, guidelines are offered to inform users how best to use limited funding and human resources to create functional systems that maximize a desired level of detection and precision. The estimators of detection efficiency and their variability as described by Connolly et al. (2008) are explored over a span of likely performance metrics. These estimators were developed to estimate detection efficiency without relying on a known number of fish passing the system. I present graphical displays of the results derived from these estimators to show the potential efficiency and precision to be gained by adding an array or by increasing the number of PIT-tagged fish expected to move past an interrogation system.

  5. Enhanced-locality fiber-optic two-photon-fluorescence live-brain interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, I. V.; Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Kilin, S. Ya.; Sakoda, K.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2014-02-24

    Two-photon excitation is shown to substantially enhance the locality of fiber-based optical interrogation of strongly scattering biotissues. In our experiments, a high-numerical-aperture, large-core-are fiber probe is used to deliver the 200-fs output of a 100-MHz mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser to samples of live mouse brain, induce two-photon fluorescence of nitrogen–vacancy centers in diamond markers in brain sample. Fiber probes with a high numerical aperture and a large core area are shown to enable locality enhancement in fiber-laser–fiber-probe two-photon brain excitation and interrogation without sacrificing the efficiency of fluorescence response collection.

  6. Resolution limits of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric displacement sensors utilizing wavelength scanning interrogation.

    PubMed

    Ushakov, Nikolai; Liokumovich, Leonid

    2014-08-10

    The factors limiting the resolution of displacement sensors based on the extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer were studied. An analytical model giving the dependency of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) resolution on the parameters of an optical setup and a sensor interrogator was developed. The proposed model enables one to either estimate the limit of possible resolution achievable with a given setup, or derive the requirements for optical elements and/or a sensor interrogator necessary for attaining the desired sensor resolution. An experiment supporting the analytical derivations was performed, demonstrating a large dynamic measurement range (with cavity length from tens of microns to 5 mm), a high baseline resolution (from 14 pm), and good agreement with the model.

  7. Interrogation of fibre Bragg gratings through a fibre optic rotary joint on a geotechnical centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Ricardo; James, Stephen W.; Marshall, Alec; Heron, Charles; Korposh, Sergiy

    2016-05-01

    The monitoring of an array of fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain sensors was performed through a single channel, single mode fibre optic rotary joint (FORJ) mounted on a geotechnical centrifuge. The array of three FBGs was attached to an aluminum plate that was anchored at the ends and placed on the model platform of the centrifuge. Acceleration forces of up to 50g were applied and the reflection signal of the monitored FBGs recorded dynamically using a 2.5kHz FBG interrogator placed outside the centrifuge. The use of a FORJ allowed the monitoring of the FBGs without submitting the FBG interrogator to the high g-forces experienced in the centrifuge.

  8. LINCS Canvas Browser: interactive web app to query, browse and interrogate LINCS L1000 gene expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiaonan; Flynn, Corey; Niepel, Mario; Hafner, Marc; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Fernandez, Nicolas F; Rouillard, Andrew D; Tan, Christopher M; Chen, Edward Y; Golub, Todd R; Sorger, Peter K; Subramanian, Aravind; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2014-07-01

    For the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) project many gene expression signatures using the L1000 technology have been produced. The L1000 technology is a cost-effective method to profile gene expression in large scale. LINCS Canvas Browser (LCB) is an interactive HTML5 web-based software application that facilitates querying, browsing and interrogating many of the currently available LINCS L1000 data. LCB implements two compacted layered canvases, one to visualize clustered L1000 expression data, and the other to display enrichment analysis results using 30 different gene set libraries. Clicking on an experimental condition highlights gene-sets enriched for the differentially expressed genes from the selected experiment. A search interface allows users to input gene lists and query them against over 100 000 conditions to find the top matching experiments. The tool integrates many resources for an unprecedented potential for new discoveries in systems biology and systems pharmacology. The LCB application is available at http://www.maayanlab.net/LINCS/LCB. Customized versions will be made part of the http://lincscloud.org and http://lincs.hms.harvard.edu websites.

  9. LINCS Canvas Browser: interactive web app to query, browse and interrogate LINCS L1000 gene expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiaonan; Flynn, Corey; Niepel, Mario; Hafner, Marc; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Fernandez, Nicolas F; Rouillard, Andrew D; Tan, Christopher M; Chen, Edward Y; Golub, Todd R; Sorger, Peter K; Subramanian, Aravind; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2014-07-01

    For the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) project many gene expression signatures using the L1000 technology have been produced. The L1000 technology is a cost-effective method to profile gene expression in large scale. LINCS Canvas Browser (LCB) is an interactive HTML5 web-based software application that facilitates querying, browsing and interrogating many of the currently available LINCS L1000 data. LCB implements two compacted layered canvases, one to visualize clustered L1000 expression data, and the other to display enrichment analysis results using 30 different gene set libraries. Clicking on an experimental condition highlights gene-sets enriched for the differentially expressed genes from the selected experiment. A search interface allows users to input gene lists and query them against over 100 000 conditions to find the top matching experiments. The tool integrates many resources for an unprecedented potential for new discoveries in systems biology and systems pharmacology. The LCB application is available at http://www.maayanlab.net/LINCS/LCB. Customized versions will be made part of the http://lincscloud.org and http://lincs.hms.harvard.edu websites. PMID:24906883

  10. Cellular Interrogation: Exploiting Cell-to-Cell Variability to Discriminate Regulatory Mechanisms in Oscillatory Signalling.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Javier; Andrew, Natalie; Gibson, Daniel; Chang, Frederick; Gnad, Florian; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-07-01

    The molecular complexity within a cell may be seen as an evolutionary response to the external complexity of the cell's environment. This suggests that the external environment may be harnessed to interrogate the cell's internal molecular architecture. Cells, however, are not only nonlinear and non-stationary, but also exhibit heterogeneous responses within a clonal, isogenic population. In effect, each cell undertakes its own experiment. Here, we develop a method of cellular interrogation using programmable microfluidic devices which exploits the additional information present in cell-to-cell variation, without requiring model parameters to be fitted to data. We focussed on Ca2+ signalling in response to hormone stimulation, which exhibits oscillatory spiking in many cell types and chose eight models of Ca2+ signalling networks which exhibit similar behaviour in simulation. We developed a nonlinear frequency analysis for non-stationary responses, which could classify models into groups under parameter variation, but found that this question alone was unable to distinguish critical feedback loops. We further developed a nonlinear amplitude analysis and found that the combination of both questions ruled out six of the models as inconsistent with the experimentally-observed dynamics and heterogeneity. The two models that survived the double interrogation were mathematically different but schematically identical and yielded the same unexpected predictions that we confirmed experimentally. Further analysis showed that subtle mathematical details can markedly influence non-stationary responses under parameter variation, emphasising the difficulty of finding a "correct" model. By developing questions for the pathway being studied, and designing more versatile microfluidics, cellular interrogation holds promise as a systematic strategy that can complement direct intervention by genetics or pharmacology.

  11. Optimized signal processing for FMCW interrogated reflective delay line-type SAW sensors.

    PubMed

    Viikari, Ville; Kokkonen, Kimmo; Meltaus, Johanna

    2008-11-01

    This correspondence presents an optimized frequency modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) interrogation procedure for reflective delay line-type SAW sensors. In this method, the time delays between reflections are obtained with Fourier transform from optimally windowed frequency response. Optimal window functions maximize the signal-tointerference ratio at chosen temporal points of interest. The method is experimentally verified and its accuracy is compared with that of a Fourier transform from Hamming-windowed frequency response. PMID:19049933

  12. Cellular Interrogation: Exploiting Cell-to-Cell Variability to Discriminate Regulatory Mechanisms in Oscillatory Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Daniel; Chang, Frederick; Gnad, Florian; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The molecular complexity within a cell may be seen as an evolutionary response to the external complexity of the cell’s environment. This suggests that the external environment may be harnessed to interrogate the cell’s internal molecular architecture. Cells, however, are not only nonlinear and non-stationary, but also exhibit heterogeneous responses within a clonal, isogenic population. In effect, each cell undertakes its own experiment. Here, we develop a method of cellular interrogation using programmable microfluidic devices which exploits the additional information present in cell-to-cell variation, without requiring model parameters to be fitted to data. We focussed on Ca2+ signalling in response to hormone stimulation, which exhibits oscillatory spiking in many cell types and chose eight models of Ca2+ signalling networks which exhibit similar behaviour in simulation. We developed a nonlinear frequency analysis for non-stationary responses, which could classify models into groups under parameter variation, but found that this question alone was unable to distinguish critical feedback loops. We further developed a nonlinear amplitude analysis and found that the combination of both questions ruled out six of the models as inconsistent with the experimentally-observed dynamics and heterogeneity. The two models that survived the double interrogation were mathematically different but schematically identical and yielded the same unexpected predictions that we confirmed experimentally. Further analysis showed that subtle mathematical details can markedly influence non-stationary responses under parameter variation, emphasising the difficulty of finding a “correct” model. By developing questions for the pathway being studied, and designing more versatile microfluidics, cellular interrogation holds promise as a systematic strategy that can complement direct intervention by genetics or pharmacology. PMID:27367445

  13. Making Bunyaviruses Talk: Interrogation Tactics to Identify Host Factors Required for Infection

    PubMed Central

    Riblett, Amber M.; Doms, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of host cellular genes that act as either proviral or antiviral factors has been aided by the development of an increasingly large number of high-throughput screening approaches. Here, we review recent advances in which these new technologies have been used to interrogate host genes for the ability to impact bunyavirus infection, both in terms of technical advances as well as a summary of biological insights gained from these studies. PMID:27187446

  14. Remotely-interrogated high data rate free space laser communications link

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2007-05-29

    A system and method of remotely extracting information from a communications station by interrogation with a low power beam. Nonlinear phase conjugation of the low power beam results in a high power encoded return beam that automatically tracks the input beam and is corrected for atmospheric distortion. Intracavity nondegenerate four wave mixing is used in a broad area semiconductor laser in the communications station to produce the return beam.

  15. Sharpening Precision Medicine by a Thorough Interrogation of Metabolic Individuality

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Kirk; Kennedy, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is an active component of medical practice today, but aspirations are to both broaden its reach to a greater diversity of individuals and improve its “precision” by enhancing the ability to define even more disease states in combination with associated treatments. Given complexity of human phenotypes, much work is required. In this review, we deconstruct this challenge at a high level to define what is needed to move closer toward these aspirations. In the context of the variables that influence the diverse array of phenotypes across human health and disease – genetics, epigenetics, environmental influences, and the microbiome – we detail the factors behind why an individual's biochemical (metabolite) composition is increasingly regarded as a key element to precisely defining phenotypes. Although an individual's biochemical (metabolite) composition is generally regarded, and frequently shown, to be a surrogate to the phenotypic state, we review how metabolites (and therefore an individual's metabolic profile) are also functionally related to the myriad of phenotypic influencers like genetics and the microbiota. We describe how using the technology to comprehensively measure an individual's biochemical profile – metabolomics – is integrative to defining individual phenotypes and how it is currently being deployed in efforts to continue to elaborate on human health and disease in large population studies. Finally, we summarize instances where metabolomics is being used to assess individual health in instances where signatures (i.e. biomarkers) have been defined. PMID:26929792

  16. Sharpening Precision Medicine by a Thorough Interrogation of Metabolic Individuality.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Kirk; Kennedy, Adam D

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is an active component of medical practice today, but aspirations are to both broaden its reach to a greater diversity of individuals and improve its "precision" by enhancing the ability to define even more disease states in combination with associated treatments. Given complexity of human phenotypes, much work is required. In this review, we deconstruct this challenge at a high level to define what is needed to move closer toward these aspirations. In the context of the variables that influence the diverse array of phenotypes across human health and disease - genetics, epigenetics, environmental influences, and the microbiome - we detail the factors behind why an individual's biochemical (metabolite) composition is increasingly regarded as a key element to precisely defining phenotypes. Although an individual's biochemical (metabolite) composition is generally regarded, and frequently shown, to be a surrogate to the phenotypic state, we review how metabolites (and therefore an individual's metabolic profile) are also functionally related to the myriad of phenotypic influencers like genetics and the microbiota. We describe how using the technology to comprehensively measure an individual's biochemical profile - metabolomics - is integrative to defining individual phenotypes and how it is currently being deployed in efforts to continue to elaborate on human health and disease in large population studies. Finally, we summarize instances where metabolomics is being used to assess individual health in instances where signatures (i.e. biomarkers) have been defined.

  17. [Research on symmetrical optical waveguide based surface plasmon resonance sensing with spectral interrogation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-long; Liu, Le; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Peng-fei; Guo, Ji-hua; Ma, Hui; He, Yong-hong

    2015-02-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors with spectral interrogation can adopt fiber to transmit light signals, thus leaving the sensing part separated, which is very convenient for miniaturization, remote-sensing and on-site analysis. Symmetrical optical waveguide (SOW) SPR has the same refractive index of the-two buffer media layers adjacent to the metal film, resulting in longer propagation distance, deeper penetration depth and better performance compared to conventional SPR In the present paper, we developed a symmetrical optical, waveguide (SOW) SPR sensor with wavelength interrogation. In the system, MgF2-Au-MgF2 film was used as SOW module for glucose sensing, and a fiber based light source and detection was used in the spectral interrogation. In the experiment, a refractive index resolution of 2.8 x 10(-7) RIU in fluid protocol was acquired. This technique provides advantages of high resolution and could have potential use in compact design, on-site analysis and remote sensing.

  18. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences.

  19. Low-cost interrogator for fiber-optic interferometers and fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jianmin; Li, Zhengying; Wang, Anbo

    2010-11-01

    We report a low-cost interrogator for fiber-optic interferometric and Bragg grating sensors. The interrogator is based on a compact optical path scanner which is made by splicing a hollow fiber to a single mode fiber and by sealing a segment of air and a segment of thermally expanded liquid inside the hollow fiber. The facets between the fiber-air interface and the air-liquid interface reflect the light from the single mode fiber back, and the optical path difference between the two facets can be controlled by changing the temperature of the liquid. When the compact optical path scanner is place inside a white light interferometer together with a sensing fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer, the optical path difference of the sensing interferometer can be decoded as the optical path difference of the scanner when the interference signal gets maximum. The decoding accuracy of such an interferometer interrogation system was measured to be 14 nm over a range of 40 μm. The compact optical path scanner can also be used to form a wavelength meter, which can be applied to decode the Bragg wavelength of a fiber Bragg grating sensor. A decoding accuracy of 3.5 pm was obtained.

  20. Verification of plutonium content in spent fuel assemblies using neutron self-interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard O; Menlove, Apencer H; Tobin, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    The large amounts of plutonium in reactor spent fuel assemblies has led to increased research directed toward the measurement of the plutonium for safeguards verification. The high levels of fission product gamma-ray activity and curium neutron backgrounds have made the plutonium measurement difficult. We have developed a new technique that can directly measure both the {sup 235}U concentration and the plutonium fissile concentration using the intrinsic neutron emission fronl the curium in the fuel assembly. The passive neutron albedo reactivity (PNAR) method has been described previously where the curium neutrons are moderated in the surrounding water and reflect back into the fuel assembly to induce fissions in the fissile material in the assembly. The cadmium (Cd) ratio is used to separate the spontaneous fission source neutrons from the reflected thermal neutron fission reactions. This method can measure the sum of the {sup 235}U and the plutonium fissile mass, but not the separate components. Our new differential die-away self-interrogation method (DDSI) can be used to separate the {sup 235}U from the {sup 239}Pu. The method has been applied to both fuel rods and full assemblies. For fuel rods the epi-thermal neutron reflection method filters the reflected neutrons through thin Cd filters so that the reflected neutrons are from the epi-cadmium energy region. The neutron fission energy response in the epi-cadmium region is distinctly different for {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. We are able to measure the difference between {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu by sampling the neutron induced fission rate as a function of time and multiplicity after the initial fission neutron is detected. We measure the neutron fission rate using list-mode data collection that stores the time correlations between all of the counts. The computer software can select from the data base the time correlations that include singles, doubles, and triples. The die-away time for the doubles

  1. Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Insurance loss modeling for earthquakes utilizes available maps of active faulting produced by geoscientists. All such maps are subject to uncertainty, arising from lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history. Field work to undertake geological fault investigations drains human and monetary resources, and this inevitably limits the resolution of fault parameters. Some areas are more accessible than others; some may be of greater social or economic importance than others; some areas may be investigated more rapidly or diligently than others; or funding restrictions may have curtailed the extent of the fault mapping program. In contrast with the aleatory uncertainty associated with the inherent variability in the dynamics of earthquake fault rupture, uncertainty associated with lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history is epistemic. The extent of this epistemic uncertainty may vary substantially from one regional or national fault map to another. However aware the local cartographer may be, this uncertainty is generally not conveyed in detail to the international map user. For example, an area may be left blank for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of sufficient investigation of a fault to lack of convincing evidence of activity. Epistemic uncertainty in fault parameters is of concern in any probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, not least in insurance earthquake risk applications. A logic-tree framework is appropriate for incorporating epistemic uncertainty. Some insurance contracts cover specific high-value properties or transport infrastructure, and therefore are extremely sensitive to the geometry of active faulting. Alternative Risk Transfer (ART) to the capital markets may also be considered. In order for such insurance or ART contracts to be properly priced, uncertainty should be taken into account. Accordingly, an estimate is needed for the likelihood of surface rupture capable of causing severe damage. Especially where a

  2. MCT SWIR modules for passive and active imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Benecke, M.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Weber, A.; Wendler, J.; Sieck, A.

    2016-05-01

    Based on AIM's state-of-the-art MCT IR technology, detector modules for the SWIR spectral range have been developed, fabricated and characterized. While LPE grown MCT FPAs with extended 2.5μm cut-off have been fabricated and integrated also MBE grown MCT on GaAs is considered for future production. Two imaging applications have been in focus operating either in passive mode by making use of e.g. the night glow, or in active mode by laser illumination for gated viewing. Dedicated readout integrated circuits (ROIC), realized in 0.18μm Si-CMOS technology providing the required functionality for passive imaging and gated imaging, have been designed and implemented. For both designs a 640x512 15μm pitch format was chosen. The FPAs are integrated in compact dewar cooler configurations using AIM's split linear coolers. A command and control electronics (CCE) provides supply voltages, biasing, clocks, control and video digitization for easy system interfacing. For imaging under low-light conditions a low-noise 640x512 15μm pitch ROIC with CTIA input stages and correlated double sampling was designed. The ROIC provides rolling shutter and snapshot integration. To reduce size, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) a 640x512 format detector in a 10μm pitch is under development. The module makes use of the extended SWIR spectral cut-off up to 2.5μm. To be used for active gated-viewing operation SWIR MCT avalanche photodiodes have been implemented and characterized on FPA level in a 640x512 15μm pitch format. The specific ROIC provides also the necessary functions for range gate control and triggering by the laser illumination. First lab and field tests of a gated viewing demonstrator have been carried out. The paper will present the development status and performance results of AIM's MCT based SWIR Modules for imaging applications.

  3. Processing Interrogative Sentence Mood at the Semantic-Syntactic Interface: An Electrophysiological Research in Chinese, German, and Polish

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chung-Shan; Dietrich, Rainer; Sommer, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Background Languages differ in the marking of the sentence mood of a polar interrogative (yes/no question). For instance, the interrogative mood is marked at the beginning of the surface structure in Polish, whereas the marker appears at the end in Chinese. In order to generate the corresponding sentence frame, the syntactic specification of the interrogative mood is early in Polish and late in Chinese. In this respect, German belongs to an interesting intermediate class. The yes/no question is expressed by a shift of the finite verb from its final position in the underlying structure into the utterance initial position, a move affecting, hence, both the sentence's final and the sentence's initial constituents. The present study aimed to investigate whether during generation of the semantic structure of a polar interrogative, i.e., the processing preceding the grammatical formulation, the interrogative mood is encoded according to its position in the syntactic structure at distinctive time points in Chinese, German, and Polish. Methodology/Principal Findings In a two-choice go/nogo experimental design, native speakers of the three languages responded to pictures by pressing buttons and producing utterances in their native language while their brain potentials were recorded. The emergence and latency of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) in nogo conditions, in which speakers asked a yes/no question, should indicate the time point of processing the interrogative mood. The results revealed that Chinese, German, and Polish native speakers did not differ from each other in the electrophysiological indicator. Conclusions/Significance The findings suggest that the semantic encoding of the interrogative mood is temporally consistent across languages despite its disparate syntactic specification. The consistent encoding may be ascribed to economic processing of interrogative moods at various sentential positions of the syntactic structures in languages or, more

  4. A small active dosimeter for applications in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Birgit; Maršálek, Karel; Berger, Thomas; Burmeister, Sönke; Reitz, Günther; Heber, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    The radiation field in low Earth orbits (LEO) differs significantly from the radiation environment on Earth's surface. Exposures are by far higher and pose an additional health risk for astronauts. Continuous monitoring is therefore a necessary task in the frame of radiation protection measures. A small battery-driven active dosimeter telescope based on silicon detectors meeting the requirements for LEO applications has been developed. The instrument, the Mobile Dosimetric Telescope (MDT), is designed to measure the absorbed dose rate and the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. From the latter the mean quality factor of the radiation field can be derived and hence an estimate of the dose equivalent as a measure of the exposure. The calibration of the device is done using radioactive isotopes and heavy ions. Fragmentation products of heavy ions are used to show the ability of the MDT to reliably detect energy depositions from high energetic nuclei. Radiation measurements inside aircraft during long distance flights, serving as field tests of the instrument, prove the good performance of the instrument.

  5. A Micro Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter for Astrobiology Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Donald W.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    A micro-scale Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (microFACS) for astrobiology applications is under development. This device is designed to have a footprint of 7 cm x 7 cm x 4 cm and allow live-dead counts and sorting of cells that have fluorescent characteristics from staining. The FACS system takes advantage of microfluidics to create a cell sorter that can fit in the palm of the hand. A micron-scale channel allows cells to pass by a blue diode which causes emission of marker-expressed cells which are detected by a filtered photodetector. A small microcontroller then counts cells and operates high speed valves to select which chamber the cell is collected in (a collection chamber or a waste chamber). Cells with the expressed characteristic will be collected in the collection chamber. This system has been built and is currently being tested. We are also designing a system with integrated MEMS-based pumps and valves for a small and compact unit to fly on small satellite-based biology experiments.

  6. First MRI application of an active breathing coordinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaza, E.; Symonds-Tayler, R.; Collins, D. J.; McDonald, F.; McNair, H. A.; Scurr, E.; Koh, D.-M.; Leach, M. O.

    2015-02-01

    A commercial active breathing coordinator (ABC) device, employed to hold respiration at a specific level for a predefined duration, was successfully adapted for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use for the first time. Potential effects of the necessary modifications were assessed and taken into account. Automatic MR acquisition during ABC breath holding was achieved. The feasibility of MR-ABC thoracic and abdominal examinations together with the advantages of imaging in repeated ABC-controlled breath holds were demonstrated on healthy volunteers. Five lung cancer patients were imaged under MR-ABC, visually confirming the very good intra-session reproducibility of organ position in images acquired with the same patient positioning as used for computed tomography (CT). Using identical ABC settings, good MR-CT inter-modality registration was achieved. This demonstrates the value of ABC, since application of T1, T2 and diffusion weighted MR sequences provides a wider range of contrast mechanisms and additional diagnostic information compared to CT, thus improving radiotherapy treatment planning and assessment.

  7. Passive and active optical fibers for space and terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mansoor; Abramczyk, Jaroslaw; Farroni, Julia; Manyam, Upendra; Guertin, Douglas

    2006-08-01

    Being the new frontier of science and technology, as the near earth space begins to attract attention, low cost and rapidly deployable earth observation satellites are becoming more important. Among other things these satellites are expected to carry out missions in the general areas of science and technology, remote sensing, national defense and telecommunications. Except for critical missions, constraints of time and money practically mandate the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components as the only viable option. The near earth space environment (~50-50000 miles) is relatively hostile and among other things components/devices/systems are exposed to ionizing radiation. Photonic devices/systems are and will continue to be an integral part of satellites and their payloads. The ability of such devices/systems to withstand ionizing radiation is of extreme importance. Qualification of such devices/systems is time consuming and very expensive. As a result, manufacturers of satellites and their payloads have started to ask for radiation performance data on components from the individual vendors. As an independent manufacturer of both passive and active specialty silica optical fibers, Nufern is beginning to address this issue. Over the years, Nufern has developed fiber designs, compositions and processes to make radiation hard fibers. Radiation performance data (both gamma and proton) of a variety of singlemode (SM), multimode (MM), polarization maintaining (PM) and rare-earth doped (RED) fibers that find applications in space environment are presented.

  8. FBG Interrogation Method with High Resolution and Response Speed Based on a Reflective-Matched FBG Scheme.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiwen; Hu, Yang; Feng, Kunpeng; Li, Junying; Tan, Jiubin

    2015-07-08

    In this paper, a high resolution and response speed interrogation method based on a reflective-matched Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) scheme is investigated in detail. The nonlinear problem of the reflective-matched FBG sensing interrogation scheme is solved by establishing and optimizing the mathematical model. A mechanical adjustment to optimize the interrogation method by tuning the central wavelength of the reference FBG to improve the stability and anti-temperature perturbation performance is investigated. To satisfy the measurement requirements of optical and electric signal processing, a well- designed acquisition circuit board is prepared, and experiments on the performance of the interrogation method are carried out. The experimental results indicate that the optical power resolution of the acquisition circuit border is better than 8 pW, and the stability of the interrogation method with the mechanical adjustment can reach 0.06%. Moreover, the nonlinearity of the interrogation method is 3.3% in the measurable range of 60 pm; the influence of temperature is significantly reduced to 9.5%; the wavelength resolution and response speed can achieve values of 0.3 pm and 500 kHz, respectively.

  9. FBG Interrogation Method with High Resolution and Response Speed Based on a Reflective-Matched FBG Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiwen; Hu, Yang; Feng, Kunpeng; Li, Junying; Tan, Jiubin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a high resolution and response speed interrogation method based on a reflective-matched Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) scheme is investigated in detail. The nonlinear problem of the reflective-matched FBG sensing interrogation scheme is solved by establishing and optimizing the mathematical model. A mechanical adjustment to optimize the interrogation method by tuning the central wavelength of the reference FBG to improve the stability and anti-temperature perturbation performance is investigated. To satisfy the measurement requirements of optical and electric signal processing, a well- designed acquisition circuit board is prepared, and experiments on the performance of the interrogation method are carried out. The experimental results indicate that the optical power resolution of the acquisition circuit border is better than 8 pW, and the stability of the interrogation method with the mechanical adjustment can reach 0.06%. Moreover, the nonlinearity of the interrogation method is 3.3% in the measurable range of 60 pm; the influence of temperature is significantly reduced to 9.5%; the wavelength resolution and response speed can achieve values of 0.3 pm and 500 kHz, respectively. PMID:26184195

  10. 77 FR 24268 - Agency Information Collection (Dependents' Application for VA Educational Benefits) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Dependents' Application for VA Educational Benefits) Activity Under... INFORMATION: Title: Dependents' Application for VA Educational Benefits (Under Provisions of Chapters 33 and... spouses and children of veterans or servicemembers to apply for Survivors' and Dependents'...

  11. 77 FR 20887 - Proposed Information Collection (Educational/Vocational Counseling Application) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Educational/Vocational Counseling Application) Activity: Comment... comments for information needed to determine an applicant's entitlement to counseling services. DATES... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Educational/Vocational...

  12. 78 FR 10167 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register...

  13. 77 FR 67804 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Application for Client Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Application for Client Assistance Program... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Application for Client Assistance Program... request funds to establish and carry out Client Assistance Programs (CAP). CAP is mandated by...

  14. 76 FR 24572 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment... Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified Life Reduced at Age 65, National Service Life Insurance, VA Form 29-8485. b. Application for Ordinary Life Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified...

  15. 77 FR 3845 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Application for Annual Clothing Allowance) Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activity (Application for Annual Clothing Allowance) Under OMB... No. 2900-0198.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Annual Clothing Allowance (Under... ] determine if a veteran is eligible for clothing allowance benefits due to a service connected...

  16. Desired features of smartphone applications promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Bock, Beth

    2011-12-01

    Approximately one-third of adults in the United States are physically inactive. This is a significant public health concern as physical activity (PA) can influence the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. To minimize these health risks, effective PA interventions must be developed and disseminated to the vast number of individuals who remain sedentary. Smartphone technology presents an exciting opportunity for delivering PA interventions remotely. Although a number of PA applications are currently available for smartphones, these "apps" are not based on established theories of health behavior change and most do not include evidence-based features (e.g., reinforcement and goal setting). Our aim was to collect formative data to develop a smartphone PA app that is empirically and theoretically-based and incorporates user preferences. We recruited 15 sedentary adults to test three currently available PA smartphone apps and provide qualitative and quantitative feedback. Findings indicate that users have a number of specific preferences with regard to PA app features, including that apps provide automatic tracking of PA (e.g., steps taken and calories burned), track progress toward PA goals, and integrate a music feature. Participants also preferred that PA apps be flexible enough to be used with several types of PA, and have well-documented features and user-friendly interfaces (e.g., a one-click main page). When queried by the researcher, most participants endorsed including goal-setting and problem-solving features. These findings provide a blue print for developing a smartphone PA app that incorporates evidence-based components and user preferences. PMID:22010977

  17. Applications of electroencephalography to characterize brain activity: perspectives in stroke.

    PubMed

    Borich, Michael R; Brown, Katlyn E; Lakhani, Bimal; Boyd, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    A wide array of neuroimaging technologies are now available that offer unprecedented opportunities to study the brain in health and disease. Each technology has associated strengths and weaknesses that need to be considered to maximize their utility, especially when used in combination. One imaging technology, electroencephalography (EEG), has been in use for more than 80 years, but as a result of recent technologic advancements EEG has received renewed interest as an inexpensive, noninvasive and versatile technique to evaluate neural activity in the brain. In part, this is due to new opportunities to combine EEG not only with other imaging modalities, but also with neurostimulation and robotics technologies. When used in combination, noninvasive brain stimulation and EEG can be used to study cause-and-effect relationships between interconnected brain regions providing new avenues to study brain function. Although many of these approaches are still in the developmental phase, there is substantial promise in their ability to deepen our understanding of brain function. The ability to capture the causal relationships between brain function and behavior in individuals with neurologic disorders or injury has important clinical implications for the development of novel biomarkers of recovery and response to therapeutic interventions. The goals of this paper are to provide an overview of the fundamental principles of EEG; discuss past, present, and future applications of EEG in the clinical management of stroke; and introduce the technique of combining EEG with a form of noninvasive brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, as a powerful synergistic research paradigm to characterize brain function in both health and disease.Video Abstract available (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A87) for more insights from the authors. PMID:25522236

  18. Desired features of smartphone applications promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Bock, Beth

    2011-12-01

    Approximately one-third of adults in the United States are physically inactive. This is a significant public health concern as physical activity (PA) can influence the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. To minimize these health risks, effective PA interventions must be developed and disseminated to the vast number of individuals who remain sedentary. Smartphone technology presents an exciting opportunity for delivering PA interventions remotely. Although a number of PA applications are currently available for smartphones, these "apps" are not based on established theories of health behavior change and most do not include evidence-based features (e.g., reinforcement and goal setting). Our aim was to collect formative data to develop a smartphone PA app that is empirically and theoretically-based and incorporates user preferences. We recruited 15 sedentary adults to test three currently available PA smartphone apps and provide qualitative and quantitative feedback. Findings indicate that users have a number of specific preferences with regard to PA app features, including that apps provide automatic tracking of PA (e.g., steps taken and calories burned), track progress toward PA goals, and integrate a music feature. Participants also preferred that PA apps be flexible enough to be used with several types of PA, and have well-documented features and user-friendly interfaces (e.g., a one-click main page). When queried by the researcher, most participants endorsed including goal-setting and problem-solving features. These findings provide a blue print for developing a smartphone PA app that incorporates evidence-based components and user preferences.

  19. A Biocompatible In Vivo Ligation Reaction and its Application for Non-Invasive Bioluminescent Imaging of Protease Activity in Living Mice

    PubMed Central

    Godinat, Aurélien; Park, Hyo Min; Miller, Stephen C.; Cheng, Ke; Hanahan, Douglas; Sanman, Laura E.; Bogyo, Matthew; Yu, Allen; Nikitin, Gennady F.; Stahl, Andreas; Dubikovskaya, Elena A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of biocompatible reactions has had a tremendous impact on chemical biology, allowing the study of numerous biological processes directly in complex systems. However, despite the fact that multiple biocompatible reactions have been developed in the past decade, very few work well in living mice. Here we report that D-cysteine and 2-cyanobenzothiazoles can selectively react with each other in vivo to generate a luciferin substrate for firefly luciferase. The success of this “split luciferin” ligation reaction has important implications for both in vivo imaging and biocompatible labeling strategies. First, the production of a luciferin substrate can be visualized in a live mouse by bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and furthermore allows interrogation of targeted tissues using a “caged” luciferin approach. We therefore applied this reaction to the real-time non-invasive imaging of apoptosis associated with caspase 3/7. Caspase-dependent release of free D-cysteine from the caspase 3/7 peptide substrate Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-D-Cys (DEVD-(D-Cys)) allowed selective reaction with 6-amino-2-cyanobenzothiazole (NH2-CBT) in vivo to form 6-amino-D-luciferin with subsequent light emission from luciferase. Importantly, this strategy was found to be superior to the commercially-available DEVD-aminoluciferin substrate for imaging of caspase 3/7 activity. Moreover, the split luciferin approach enables the modular construction of bioluminogenic sensors, where either or both reaction partners could be caged to report on multiple biological events. Lastly, the luciferin ligation reaction is three orders of magnitude faster than Staudinger ligation suggesting further applications for both bioluminescence and specific molecular targeting in vivo. PMID:23463944

  20. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical;...

  1. Modeling the Benchmark Active Control Technology Wind-Tunnel Model for Active Control Design Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the formulation of a model of the dynamic behavior of the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for active control design and analysis applications. The model is formed by combining the equations of motion for the BACT wind tunnel model with actuator models and a model of wind tunnel turbulence. The primary focus of this report is the development of the equations of motion from first principles by using Lagrange's equations and the principle of virtual work. A numerical form of the model is generated by making use of parameters obtained from both experiment and analysis. Comparisons between experimental and analytical data obtained from the numerical model show excellent agreement and suggest that simple coefficient-based aerodynamics are sufficient to accurately characterize the aeroelastic response of the BACT wind tunnel model. The equations of motion developed herein have been used to aid in the design and analysis of a number of flutter suppression controllers that have been successfully implemented.

  2. Environmental applications activity at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paludan, C. T. N.

    1972-01-01

    MSFC environmental applications demonstration projects have emphasized application of aerospace technology to community needs of southeastern U.S. Some of the typical projects underway are: hydrological parameter determination; land use surveys; agricultural stress detection; new community site surveys; pollution monitoring; urban transportation studies; and urban environmental quality.

  3. On-line interrogation of pebble bed reactor fuel using passive gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianwei

    The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is a helium-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature nuclear power reactor. In addition to its inherently safe design, a unique feature of this reactor is its multipass fuel cycle in which graphite fuel pebbles (of varying enrichment) are randomly loaded and continuously circulated through the core until they reach their prescribed end-of-life burnup limit (˜80,000--100,000 MWD/MTU). Unlike the situation with conventional light water reactors (LWRs), depending solely on computational methods to perform in-core fuel management will be highly inaccurate. As a result, an on-line measurement approach becomes the only accurate method to assess whether a particular pebble has reached its end-of-life burnup limit. In this work, an investigation was performed to assess the feasibility of passive gamma-ray spectrometry assay as an approach for on-line interrogation of PBR fuel for the simultaneous determination of burnup and enrichment on a pebble-by-pebble basis. Due to the unavailability of irradiated or fresh pebbles, Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the gamma-ray spectra of the PBR fuel at various levels of burnup. A pebble depletion calculation was performed using the ORIGEN code, which yielded the gamma-ray source term that was introduced into the input of an MCNP simulation. The MCNP simulation assumed the use of a high-purity coaxial germanium detector. Due to the lack of one-group high temperature reactor cross sections for ORIGEN, a heterogeneous MCNP model was developed to describe a typical PBR core. Subsequently, the code MONTEBURNS was used to couple the MCNP model and ORIGEN. This approach allowed the development of the burnup-dependent, one-group spectral-averaged PBR cross sections to be used in the ORIGEN pebble depletion calculation. Based on the above studies, a relative approach for performing the measurements was established. The approach is based on using the relative activities of Np-239/I-132 in combination

  4. Semantic interrogation of a multi knowledge domain ontological model of tendinopathy identifies four strong candidate risk genes.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Colleen J; Jalali Sefid Dashti, Mahjoubeh; Gamieldien, Junaid

    2016-01-25

    Tendinopathy is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by tendon pain and thickening, and impaired performance during activity. Candidate gene association studies have identified genetic factors that contribute to intrinsic risk of developing tendinopathy upon exposure to extrinsic factors. Bioinformatics approaches that data-mine existing knowledge for biological relationships may assist with the identification of candidate genes. The aim of this study was to data-mine functional annotation of human genes and identify candidate genes by ontology-seeded queries capturing the features of tendinopathy. Our BioOntological Relationship Graph database (BORG) integrates multiple sources of genomic and biomedical knowledge into an on-disk semantic network where human genes and their orthologs in mouse and rat are central concepts mapped to ontology terms. The BORG was used to screen all human genes for potential links to tendinopathy. Following further prioritisation, four strong candidate genes (COL11A2, ELN, ITGB3, LOX) were identified. These genes are differentially expressed in tendinopathy, functionally linked to features of tendinopathy and previously implicated in other connective tissue diseases. In conclusion, cross-domain semantic integration of multiple sources of biomedical knowledge, and interrogation of phenotypes and gene functions associated with disease, may significantly increase the probability of identifying strong and unobvious candidate genes in genetic association studies.

  5. Semantic interrogation of a multi knowledge domain ontological model of tendinopathy identifies four strong candidate risk genes

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Colleen J.; Jalali Sefid Dashti, Mahjoubeh; Gamieldien, Junaid

    2016-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by tendon pain and thickening, and impaired performance during activity. Candidate gene association studies have identified genetic factors that contribute to intrinsic risk of developing tendinopathy upon exposure to extrinsic factors. Bioinformatics approaches that data-mine existing knowledge for biological relationships may assist with the identification of candidate genes. The aim of this study was to data-mine functional annotation of human genes and identify candidate genes by ontology-seeded queries capturing the features of tendinopathy. Our BioOntological Relationship Graph database (BORG) integrates multiple sources of genomic and biomedical knowledge into an on-disk semantic network where human genes and their orthologs in mouse and rat are central concepts mapped to ontology terms. The BORG was used to screen all human genes for potential links to tendinopathy. Following further prioritisation, four strong candidate genes (COL11A2, ELN, ITGB3, LOX) were identified. These genes are differentially expressed in tendinopathy, functionally linked to features of tendinopathy and previously implicated in other connective tissue diseases. In conclusion, cross-domain semantic integration of multiple sources of biomedical knowledge, and interrogation of phenotypes and gene functions associated with disease, may significantly increase the probability of identifying strong and unobvious candidate genes in genetic association studies. PMID:26804977

  6. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  7. Getting trichy: tools and approaches to interrogating Trichomonas vaginalis in a post-genome world

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Melissa D.; Bradic, Martina; Warring, Sally D.; Gorman, Andrew W.; Carlton, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite of the urogenital tract in men and women, with a worldwide presence and significant implications for global public health. T. vaginalis research entered the age of genomics with the publication of the first genome sequence in 2007, yet subsequent utilization of other ‘omics’ technologies and methods has been slow. Here, we review some of the tools and approaches available to interrogate T. vaginalis biology, with an emphasis on recent advances and current limitations, and draw attention to areas where further efforts are needed to effectively examine the complex and intriguing biology of the parasite. PMID:23219217

  8. Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using oblique deposited silver nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Chia; Wu, Pin Chieh; Tseng, Ming Lun; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2014-09-01

    Sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor is demonstrated to be enhanced by oblique deposited silver nanorods. Silver nanorods are thermally deposited on silver nanothin film by oblique angle deposition (OAD). The length of the nanorods can be tuned by controlling the deposition parameters of thermal deposition. By measuring the phase difference between the p and s waves of surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometer with different wavelength of incident light, we have demonstrated that maximum sensitivity of glucose detection down to 7.1 × 10-8 refractive index units could be achieved with optimal deposition parameters of silver nanorods.

  9. A new optical pressure sensor interrogated by speckles pattern for oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperandio, Vinicius M.; Pontes, Maria J.; Neto, Anselmo F.; Webster, Lucas G.

    2015-09-01

    A new optical pressure control concept in petroleum industry based on laser speckle analysis, with inherent safety light, is investigated in this work. A plastic optical fiber (POF) utilized to instrument a conventional manometer enabled pressure monitoring of a system that is interrogated by speckle photography technique. Specklegrams were imaged on a CCD camera and then analyzed, after Mathematical Morphology Filter, regarding its movement. Tests demonstrated that the speckle pattern movement is radial towards the center of pressure and accordingly reverse during depressurization within 5% maximum error.

  10. Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using oblique deposited silver nanorods.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Chia; Wu, Pin Chieh; Tseng, Ming Lun; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor is demonstrated to be enhanced by oblique deposited silver nanorods. Silver nanorods are thermally deposited on silver nanothin film by oblique angle deposition (OAD). The length of the nanorods can be tuned by controlling the deposition parameters of thermal deposition. By measuring the phase difference between the p and s waves of surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometer with different wavelength of incident light, we have demonstrated that maximum sensitivity of glucose detection down to 7.1 × 10(-8) refractive index units could be achieved with optimal deposition parameters of silver nanorods.

  11. Fissile material measurements using the differential die-away self interrogation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Schear, Melissa A; Menlove, Howard O; Tobin, Stephen J; Evans, Louise G; Lee, S Y

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is substantial research effort focused on quantifying plutonium (Pu) mass in spent fuel using non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques. Of the several techniques being investigated for this purpose, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation (DDSI) is a recently proposed, neutron-based NDA technique capable of quantifying the total fissile content in an assembly. Unlike the conventional Differential Die-Away (DDA) technique, DOSI does not require an external neutron source for sample interrogation, but rather, uses the spontaneous fission neutrons originating from {sup 244}Cm within the spent fuel for self-interrogation. The essence of the technique lies in the time separation between the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons from {sup 244}Cm and the detection of induced fission neutrons at a later time. The DDSI detector design imposes this time separation by optimizing the die-away times ({tau}) of the detector and sample interrogation regions to obtain an early and late neutron distribution respectively. The ratio of the count rates in the late gate to the early gate for singles, doubles, and triples is directly proportional to the fissile content present in the sample, which has already been demonstrated for simplified fuel cases using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The current work applies the DDSI concept to more complex samples, specifically spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies with varying isotopics resulting from a range of initial enrichment, bumup, and cooling time. We assess the feasibility of using the late gate to early gate ratio as a reliable indicator of overall fissile mass for a range of assemblies by defining a {sup 239}Pu effective mass which indicates the mass of {sup 239}Pu that would yield the same DDSI signal as the combined mass of major fissile isotopes present in the sample. This work is important for assessing the individual capability of the DDSI instrument in quantifying fissile mass in

  12. Dispersion characterization of group birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber using a Kerr phase-interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Baker, Chams; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2015-07-01

    We present a new approach to characterize dispersion of group birefringence in a long polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF). Two sinusoidal optical signals are respectively launched into fast and slow axes of a PMF under test. Wavelength dependent group-delay difference between two sinusoidal optical signals induced by group birefringence in the PMF is measured using a Kerr phase-interrogator, and dispersion of group birefringence is characterized from the group-delay difference. Measurements of wavelength dependent group birefringence and group birefringence dispersion for a 459.4-m Panda PMF are experimentally demonstrated.

  13. Arrayed waveguide grating interrogator for fiber Bragg grating sensors: measurement and simulation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Jan; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system based on an intensity demodulation and demultiplexing of an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) module is examined in detail. The influence of the spectral line shape of the FBG on the signal obtained from the AWG device is discussed by accomplishing the measurement and simulation of the system. The simulation of the system helps to create quickly and precisely calibration functions for nonsymmetric, tilted, or nonapodized FBGs. Experiments show that even small sidebands of nonapodized FBGs have strong influences on the signal resulted by an AWG device with a Gaussian profile. PMID:23128724

  14. Linearized interrogation of FDML FBG sensor system using PMF Sagnac interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwi Don; Jung, Eun Joo; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2009-10-01

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for Fourier-domain mode locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In the ultra high-speed regime over 10 kHz modulation, only sine wave is available to scan a center wavelength of FDML wavelength-swept laser instead of conventional triangular wave. However, sine wave modulation has been suffered an exaggerated nonlinear filter response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter into the absolute wavelength. The linearized demodulation is demonstrated by the third order polynomial conversion of filter between the time-encoded parameter and wavelength-encoded parameter based on the spectral information of polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) Sagnac interferometer.

  15. Systematic Functional Interrogation of Rare Cancer Variants Identifies Oncogenic Alleles | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer genome characterization efforts now provide an initial view of the somatic alterations in primary tumors. However, most point mutations occur at low frequency, and the function of these alleles remains undefined. We have developed a scalable systematic approach to interrogate the function of cancer-associated gene variants. We subjected 474 mutant alleles curated from 5,338 tumors to pooled in vivo tumor formation assays and gene expression profiling. We identified 12 transforming alleles, including two in genes (PIK3CB, POT1) that have not been shown to be tumorigenic.

  16. High resolution and wide scale fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Youchun; Wang, Changjiang; Yang, Yuanhong; Yan, Shubin; Li, Jinming

    2013-09-01

    This paper demonstrates a high resolution and wide scale fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation system based on fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF) and Fabry-Perot ITU filter (FPIF). By automatic control of the driving voltage of the FFP-TF, the wavelength of the laser can be tracked to the -3dB reflectivity spectrum of the FBG. Using FPIF as the reference channel, the measurement resolution of the system is improved by wiping out the nonlinearity of the FFP-TF. A high resolution of better than 2pm within wide strain measurement range was verified by experiments.

  17. Methods and systems for Raman and optical cross-interrogation in flow-through silicon membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Letant, Sonia E.

    2014-09-09

    Cross-interrogating photonic detection systems and methods are shown. A flow through photonic crystal membrane with a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate is provided with pores which are distributed along multiple regions. The pores of one region have walls to which a first type of target specific anchor can be attached, while pores of another region have walls to which a second type of target specific anchor can be attached. An optical arrangement out-of-plane to the SERS substrate is also provided for enhanced sensitivity and identification of target organisms.

  18. Arrayed waveguide grating interrogator for fiber Bragg grating sensors: measurement and simulation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Jan; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system based on an intensity demodulation and demultiplexing of an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) module is examined in detail. The influence of the spectral line shape of the FBG on the signal obtained from the AWG device is discussed by accomplishing the measurement and simulation of the system. The simulation of the system helps to create quickly and precisely calibration functions for nonsymmetric, tilted, or nonapodized FBGs. Experiments show that even small sidebands of nonapodized FBGs have strong influences on the signal resulted by an AWG device with a Gaussian profile.

  19. 78 FR 72688 - Information Collection Activities: Application for Permit To Drill; Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Application for Permit To Drill... data and information that is submitted with an Application for Permit to Drill (APD), a Revised APD... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR part 250, Application for Permit to Drill and all supporting documentation....

  20. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Titles a. Application for Ordinary Life Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified Life Reduced at Age 65, National Service Life Insurance, VA Form 29-8485. b. Application for Ordinary...

  1. REVERSED ENZYME ACTIVITY INTERROGATION TEST (READIT) AS A METHOD FOR GENOTYPING NAT1 POLYMORPHISMS. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Cadmium Subtraction Method for the Active Albedo Neutron Interrogation of Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Worrall, Louise G.; Croft, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    This report describes work performed under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) Cadmium Subtraction Project. The project objective was to explore the difference between the traditional cadmium (Cd) ratio signature and a proposed alternative Cd subtraction (or Cd difference) approach. The thinking behind the project was that a Cd subtraction method would provide a more direct measure of multiplication than the existing Cd ratio method. At the same time, it would be relatively insensitive to changes in neutron detection efficiency when properly calibrated. This is the first published experimental comparison and evaluation of the Cd ratio and Cd subtraction methods.

  3. Summary of the Active Microwave Workshop, chapter 1. [utilization in applications and aerospace programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the utility, feasibility, and advantages of active microwave sensors for a broad range of applications, including aerospace. In many instances, the material provides an in-depth examination of the applicability and/or the technology of microwave remote sensing, and considerable documentation is presented in support of these techniques. An assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of active microwave sensor data indicates that satisfactory data are obtainable for several significant applications.

  4. Activation of materials proposed for use in superconducting linac applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.L.; Snead, C.L.; Greene, G.A.; Chan, K.C.D.; Safa, H.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of construction materials proposed for use in both superconducting and conventional high-power linear accelerators have been activated with 800 and 2,000 MeV protons to study the decay characteristics of these activated materials. Irradiation times ranged from 10 minutes to 18.67 hours. The decay characteristics of these activated materials were measured and compared to calculated decay curves based on simplified assumptions.

  5. Concise Review: Patient-Specific Stem Cells to Interrogate Inherited Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Giacalone, Joseph C; Wiley, Luke A; Burnight, Erin R; Songstad, Allison E; Mullins, Robert F; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A

    2016-02-01

    Whether we are driving to work or spending time with loved ones, we depend on our sense of vision to interact with the world around us. Therefore, it is understandable why blindness for many is feared above death itself. Heritable diseases of the retina, such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa, are major causes of blindness worldwide. The recent success of gene augmentation trials for the treatment of RPE65-associated Leber congenital amaurosis has underscored the need for model systems that accurately recapitulate disease. With the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), researchers are now able to obtain disease-specific cell types that would otherwise be unavailable for molecular analysis. In the present review, we discuss how the iPSC technology is being used to confirm the pathogenesis of novel genetic variants, interrogate the pathophysiology of disease, and accelerate the development of patient-centered treatments. Significance: Stem cell technology has created the opportunity to advance treatments for multiple forms of blindness. Researchers are now able to use a person's cells to generate tissues found in the eye. This technology can be used to elucidate the genetic causes of disease and develop treatment strategies. In the present review, how stem cell technology is being used to interrogate the pathophysiology of eye disease and accelerate the development of patient-centered treatments is discussed.

  6. Green laser excited surface plasmon resonance biosensor utilizing highly sensitive phase interrogation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, How-Foo; Hsu, Wei-Chen; Wang, Ya-Jung; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2010-04-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have been widely used for dynamical analysis of molecular affinity, bacterium screening, and drug discovery due to its advantages of label-free detection, dynamic interaction analysis, small sample volume, and ultra sensitivity (feasibility of single molecular detection). Recently, SPR biosensing for cell imaging known as SPR microscopy (SPRM) has attracted great attention due to the characteristics of SPR biosensors. However, it is well known that the trends of sensitivity and spatial resolution are opposite to each other: Surface plasmon waves (SPWs) with shorter wavelength which provides higher spatial resolution has less sensitivity. It is known that the spatial resolution of SPRM is limited by the propagation length of surface plasmon wave (SPW) along the metaldielectric interface. SPW excited by 632.8 nm light has the propagation length of 3 um. This length becomes longer when a longer wavelength is selected. While most of SPR biosensors are built with 632.8 nm or longer wavelength for high sensitivity, using 532nm light to excite SPWs is desired for submicron resolution since the propagation length is around 150 nm. Different from current phase interrogation methods, the proposed phase interrogation method is highly sensitive and suitable for CCD imaging. Although it is generally believed that SPWs with wavelength 532nm has poor sensitivity, the experimental result showed that the setup can reach the sensitivity lower than 2×10-6 RIU when sucrose is used as the test sample.

  7. Quantification of photoelectrogenerated hydroxyl radical on TiO2 by surface interrogation scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zigah, Dodzi; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín; Bard, Allen J

    2012-10-01

    The surface interrogation mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SI-SECM) was used for the detection and quantification of adsorbed hydroxyl radical ˙OH((ads)) generated photoelectrochemically at the surface of a nanostructured TiO(2) substrate electrode. In this transient technique, a SECM tip is used to generate in situ a titrant from a reversible redox pair that reacts with the adsorbed species at the substrate. This reaction produces an SECM feedback response from which the amount of adsorbate and its decay kinetics can be obtained. The redox pair IrCl(6)(2-/3-) offered a reactive, selective and stable surface interrogation agent under the strongly oxidizing conditions of the photoelectrochemical cell. A typical ˙OH((ads)) saturation coverage of 338 μC cm(-2) was found in our nanostructured samples by its reduction with the electrogenerated IrCl(6)(3-). The decay kinetics of ˙OH((ads)) by dimerization to produce H(2)O(2) were studied through the time dependence of the SI-SECM signal and the surface dimerization rate constant was found to be ~k(OH) = 2.2 × 10(3) mol(-1) m(2) s(-1). A radical scavenger, such as methanol, competitively consumes ˙OH((ads)) and yields a shorter SI-SECM transient, where a pseudo-first order rate analysis at 2 M methanol yields a decay constant of k'(MeOH) ~ 1 s(-1).

  8. Multifrequency interrogation of nanostructured gas sensor arrays: a tool for analyzing response kinetics.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander; Calavia, Raul; Vázquez, Rosa María; Mozalev, Alexander; Abdelghani, Adnane; Huerta, Ramón; Hines, Evor H; Llobet, Eduard

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a unique perspective on enhancing the physicochemical mechanisms of two distinct highly sensitive nanostructured metal oxide micro hot plate gas sensors by utilizing an innovative multifrequency interrogation method. The two types of sensors evaluated here employ an identical silicon transducer geometry but with a different morphological structure of the sensitive film. While the first sensing film consists of self-ordered tungsten oxide nanodots, limiting the response kinetics of the sensor-chemical species pair only to the reaction phenomena occurring at the sensitive film surface, the second modality is a three-dimensional array of tungsten oxide nanotubes, which in turn involves both the diffusion and adsorption of the gas during its reaction kinetics with the sensitive film itself. By utilizing the proposed multifrequency interrogation methodology, we demonstrate that the optimal temperature modulation frequencies employed for the nanotubes-based sensors to selectively detect hydrogen, carbon monoxide, ethanol, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) are significantly higher than those utilized for the nanodot-based sensors. This finding helps understand better the amelioration in selectivity that temperature modulation of metal oxides brings about, and, most importantly, it sets the grounds for the nanoengineering of gas-sensitive films to better exploit their practical usage.

  9. Characterization of lipid films by an angle-interrogation surface plasmon resonance imaging device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linlin; Wang, Qiong; Yang, Zhong; Wang, Wangang; Hu, Ning; Luo, Hongyan; Liao, Yanjian; Zheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Surface topographies of lipid films have an important significance in the analysis of the preparation of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). In order to achieve accurately high-throughput and rapidly analysis of surface topographies of lipid films, a homemade SPR imaging device is constructed based on the classical Kretschmann configuration and an angle interrogation manner. A mathematical model is developed to accurately describe the shift including the light path in different conditions and the change of the illumination point on the CCD camera, and thus a SPR curve for each sampling point can also be achieved, based on this calculation method. The experiment results show that the topographies of lipid films formed in distinct experimental conditions can be accurately characterized, and the measuring resolution of the thickness lipid film may reach 0.05 nm. Compared with existing SPRi devices, which realize detection by monitoring the change of the reflective-light intensity, this new SPRi system can achieve the change of the resonance angle on the entire sensing surface. Thus, it has higher detection accuracy as the traditional angle-interrogation SPR sensor, with much wider detectable range of refractive index.

  10. Assembly and interrogation of Alzheimer's disease genetic networks reveal novel regulators of progression.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Soline; Shin, William; Crary, John F; Lefort, Roger; Qureshi, Yasir H; Lefebvre, Celine; Califano, Andrea; Shelanski, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex multifactorial disorder with poorly characterized pathogenesis. Our understanding of this disease would thus benefit from an approach that addresses this complexity by elucidating the regulatory networks that are dysregulated in the neural compartment of AD patients, across distinct brain regions. Here, we use a Systems Biology (SB) approach, which has been highly successful in the dissection of cancer related phenotypes, to reverse engineer the transcriptional regulation layer of human neuronal cells and interrogate it to infer candidate Master Regulators (MRs) responsible for disease progression. Analysis of gene expression profiles from laser-captured neurons from AD and controls subjects, using the Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNe), yielded an interactome consisting of 488,353 transcription-factor/target interactions. Interrogation of this interactome, using the Master Regulator INference algorithm (MARINa), identified an unbiased set of candidate MRs causally responsible for regulating the transcriptional signature of AD progression. Experimental assays in autopsy-derived human brain tissue showed that three of the top candidate MRs (YY1, p300 and ZMYM3) are indeed biochemically and histopathologically dysregulated in AD brains compared to controls. Our results additionally implicate p53 and loss of acetylation homeostasis in the neurodegenerative process. This study suggests that an integrative, SB approach can be applied to AD and other neurodegenerative diseases, and provide significant novel insight on the disease progression.

  11. An enhanced functional interrogation/manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways with the peptide 'stapling' technology.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Chen, D; Zheng, W

    2015-11-12

    Specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute a key underlying mechanism for the presence of a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways, which are essential for the survival of normal and cancer cells. Specific molecular blockers for a crucial PPI would therefore be invaluable tools for an enhanced functional interrogation of the signaling pathway harboring this particular PPI. On the other hand, if a particular PPI is essential for the survival of cancer cells but is absent in or dispensable for the survival of normal cells, its specific molecular blockers could potentially be developed into effective anticancer therapeutics. Due to the flat and extended PPI interface, it would be conceivably difficult for small molecules to achieve an effective blockade, a problem which could be potentially circumvented with peptides or proteins. However, the well-documented proteolytic instability and cellular impermeability of peptides and proteins in general would make their developing into effective intracellular PPI blockers quite a challenge. With the advent of the peptide 'stapling' technology which was demonstrated to be able to stabilize the α-helical conformation of a peptide via bridging two neighboring amino-acid side chains with a 'molecular staple', a linear parent peptide could be transformed into a stronger PPI blocker with enhanced proteolytic stability and cellular permeability. This review will furnish an account on the peptide 'stapling' technology and its exploitation in efforts to achieve an enhanced functional interrogation or manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways especially those that are cancer relevant.

  12. Dynamic sensor interrogation using wavelength-swept laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Seok; Ko, Myeong Ock; Jung, Mi Sun; Park, Ik Gon; Kim, Namje; Han, Sang-Pil; Ryu, Han-Cheol; Park, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2013-07-29

    We report a high-speed (~2 kHz) dynamic multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation using a wavelength-swept laser (WSL) with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter. The scanning frequency of the WSL is 18 kHz, and the 10 dB scanning bandwidth is more than 90 nm around a center wavelength of 1,540 nm. The output from the WSL is coupled into the multiplexed FBG array, which consists of five FBGs. The reflected Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are 1,532.02 nm, 1,537.84 nm, 1,543.48 nm, 1,547.98 nm, and 1,553.06 nm, respectively. A dynamic periodic strain ranging from 500 Hz to 2 kHz is applied to one of the multiplexed FBGs, which is fixed on the stage of the piezoelectric transducer stack. Good dynamic performance of the FBGs and recording of their fast Fourier transform spectra have been successfully achieved with a measuring speed of 18 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio and the bandwidth over the whole frequency span are determined to be more than 30 dB and around 10 Hz, respectively. We successfully obtained a real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the periodic strain. The dynamic FBG sensor interrogation system can be read out with a WSL for high-speed and high-sensitivity real-time measurement.

  13. Concise Review: Patient-Specific Stem Cells to Interrogate Inherited Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Giacalone, Joseph C.; Wiley, Luke A.; Burnight, Erin R.; Songstad, Allison E.; Mullins, Robert F.; Stone, Edwin M.

    2016-01-01

    Whether we are driving to work or spending time with loved ones, we depend on our sense of vision to interact with the world around us. Therefore, it is understandable why blindness for many is feared above death itself. Heritable diseases of the retina, such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa, are major causes of blindness worldwide. The recent success of gene augmentation trials for the treatment of RPE65-associated Leber congenital amaurosis has underscored the need for model systems that accurately recapitulate disease. With the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), researchers are now able to obtain disease-specific cell types that would otherwise be unavailable for molecular analysis. In the present review, we discuss how the iPSC technology is being used to confirm the pathogenesis of novel genetic variants, interrogate the pathophysiology of disease, and accelerate the development of patient-centered treatments. Significance Stem cell technology has created the opportunity to advance treatments for multiple forms of blindness. Researchers are now able to use a person’s cells to generate tissues found in the eye. This technology can be used to elucidate the genetic causes of disease and develop treatment strategies. In the present review, how stem cell technology is being used to interrogate the pathophysiology of eye disease and accelerate the development of patient-centered treatments is discussed. PMID:26683869

  14. Dynamic Sensor Interrogation Using Wavelength-Swept Laser with a Polygon-Scanner-Based Wavelength Filter

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Seok; Ko, Myeong Ock; Jung, Mi Sun; Park, Ik Gon; Kim, Namje; Han, Sang-Pil; Ryu, Han-Cheol; Park, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2013-01-01

    We report a high-speed (∼2 kHz) dynamic multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation using a wavelength-swept laser (WSL) with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter. The scanning frequency of the WSL is 18 kHz, and the 10 dB scanning bandwidth is more than 90 nm around a center wavelength of 1,540 nm. The output from the WSL is coupled into the multiplexed FBG array, which consists of five FBGs. The reflected Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are 1,532.02 nm, 1,537.84 nm, 1,543.48 nm, 1,547.98 nm, and 1,553.06 nm, respectively. A dynamic periodic strain ranging from 500 Hz to 2 kHz is applied to one of the multiplexed FBGs, which is fixed on the stage of the piezoelectric transducer stack. Good dynamic performance of the FBGs and recording of their fast Fourier transform spectra have been successfully achieved with a measuring speed of 18 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio and the bandwidth over the whole frequency span are determined to be more than 30 dB and around 10 Hz, respectively. We successfully obtained a real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the periodic strain. The dynamic FBG sensor interrogation system can be read out with a WSL for high-speed and high-sensitivity real-time measurement. PMID:23899934

  15. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: a critique of policy and process.

    PubMed

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights. PMID:18230171

  16. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A critique of policy and process

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights. PMID:18230171

  17. What constitutes torture?: psychological impediments to an objective evaluation of enhanced interrogation tactics.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Loran F; McDonnell, Mary-Hunter Morris; Loewenstein, George

    2011-05-01

    Torture is prohibited by statutes worldwide, yet the legal definition of torture is almost invariably based on an inherently subjective judgment involving pain severity. In four experiments, we demonstrate that judgments of whether specific interrogation tactics constitute torture are subject to an empathy gap: People who are experiencing even a mild version of the specific pain produced by an interrogation tactic are more likely to classify that tactic as torture or as unethical than are those who are not experiencing pain. This discrepancy could result from an overestimation of the pain of torture by people in pain, an underestimation of the pain of torture by those not in pain, or both. The fourth experiment shows that the discrepancy results from an underestimation of pain by people who are not experiencing it. Given that legal standards guiding torture are typically established by people who are not in pain, this research suggests that practices that do constitute torture are likely to not be classified as such.

  18. Concept and design of an FBG emulator for a scanning laser-based fiber optic interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhenuri, Nader; Putzer, Philipp; Koch, Alexander W.; Obermaier, Johannes; Schweyer, Sebastian; Hurni, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    The Hybrid Sensor Bus is a space-borne temperature monitoring system for telecommunication satellites com­ bining electrical and fiber-optical Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. Currently, there is no method available for testing the functionality and robustness of the system without setting up an actual sensor-network implying numerous FBG sensors in which each has to be heated/cooled individually. As a verification method of the mentioned system, FBG reflection based scanning laser interrogator, an FBG­ emulator is implemented to emulate the necessary FBG sensors. It is capable of immediate emulation of any given FBG spectrum, thus, any temperature. The concept provides advantages like emulating different kinds of FBGs with any peak shape, variable Bragg-wavelength λB, maximal-reflectivity τmax, spectral-width and degradation characteristics. Further, it facilitates an efficient evaluation of different interrogator peak-finding algorithms and the capability of emulating up to 10000 sample points per second is achieved. In the present paper, different concepts will be discussed and evaluated yielding to the implementation of a Variable Optical Attenuator (VOA) as the main actuator of the emulator. The actuator choice is further restricted since the emulator has to work with light in unknown polarization state. In order to implement a fast opto-ceramic VOA, issues like temperature dependencies, up to 200 V driving input and capacitive load have to be overcome. Furthermore, a self-calibration procedure mitigates problems like attenuation losses and long-term drift.

  19. Wavelength-switched phase interrogator for extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ji; Xiong, Shuidong; Wang, Fuyin; Luo, Hong

    2016-07-01

    We report on phase interrogation of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensors through a wavelength-switched unit with a polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PMFBG). The measurements at two wavelengths are first achieved in one total-optical path. The reflected peaks of the PMFBG with two natural wavelengths are in mutually perpendicular polarization detection, and they are switched through an electro-optic modulator at a high switching speed of 10 kHz. An ellipse fitting differential cross multiplication (EF-DCM) algorithm is proposed for interrogating the variation of the gap length of the EFPI sensors. The phase demodulation system has been demonstrated to recover a minimum phase of 0.42  μrad/Hz at the test frequency of 100 Hz with a stable intensity fluctuation level of ±0.8  dB. Three EFPI sensors with different cavity lengths are tested at the test frequency of 200 Hz, and the results indicate that the system can achieve the demodulation of EFPI sensors with different cavity lengths stably.

  20. Characterization of lipid films by an angle-interrogation surface plasmon resonance imaging device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linlin; Wang, Qiong; Yang, Zhong; Wang, Wangang; Hu, Ning; Luo, Hongyan; Liao, Yanjian; Zheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Surface topographies of lipid films have an important significance in the analysis of the preparation of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). In order to achieve accurately high-throughput and rapidly analysis of surface topographies of lipid films, a homemade SPR imaging device is constructed based on the classical Kretschmann configuration and an angle interrogation manner. A mathematical model is developed to accurately describe the shift including the light path in different conditions and the change of the illumination point on the CCD camera, and thus a SPR curve for each sampling point can also be achieved, based on this calculation method. The experiment results show that the topographies of lipid films formed in distinct experimental conditions can be accurately characterized, and the measuring resolution of the thickness lipid film may reach 0.05 nm. Compared with existing SPRi devices, which realize detection by monitoring the change of the reflective-light intensity, this new SPRi system can achieve the change of the resonance angle on the entire sensing surface. Thus, it has higher detection accuracy as the traditional angle-interrogation SPR sensor, with much wider detectable range of refractive index. PMID:25697808